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1

[Hereditary optic neuropathies].  

PubMed

Hereditary optic neuropathies are a group of heterogeneous conditions affecting both optic nerves, with an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-related or mitochondrial transmission. The two most common non-syndromic hereditary optic neuropathies (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy) are very different in their clinical presentation and their genetic transmission, leading however to a common, non-specific optic nerve atrophy. Beyond the optic atrophy-related visual loss, which is the clinical hallmark of this group of diseases, other associated neurological signs are increasingly recognized. PMID:22989781

Milea, D; Verny, C

2012-10-01

2

Optic neuropathy caused by Propionibacterium acnes pachymeningitis.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with vision loss from an optic neuropathy caused by Propionibacterium acnes pachymeningitis. The patient's optic neuropathy was stabilized with appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:24614085

Adesina, Ore-Ofe O; Stagg, Brian C; Digre, Kathleen B; Katz, Bradley J; Quigley, Edward P; Palmer, Cheryl A; Warner, Judith E A

2014-09-01

3

[Differential radiodiagnosis of odontogenic mandibular osteomyelitis accompanied by trigeminal neuropathy].  

PubMed

This paper deals with the results of radiation examination in 43 patients with clinical manifestations of mandibular osteomyelitis. In 13 of them, the disease was accompanied by trigeminal neuropathy. The radiation semiotics of the changes occurring in the mandibular bone and its adjacent soft tissues in different phases of osteomyelitis is described. Comparative analysis of orthopantomograms and the images obtained by multislice spiral computed tomography has revealed the advantage of the latter in identifying insignificant changes in bone tissue and damages to the mandibular canal. Ultrasound study is of more informative value in detecting soft tissue changes in this area. High-technology radiodiagnostic techniques play a leading role in the differentiation of odontogenic and non-odontogenic trigeminal neuropathies. PMID:22288124

Solonskaia, N S; Zorina, I S

2011-01-01

4

Management of ischemic optic neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Ischemic optic neuropathies (IONs) consist primarily of two types: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION). AION comprises arteritic AION (A-AION: due to giant cell arteritis) and non-arteritic AION (NA-AION: due to other causes). PION consists of arteritic PION (A-PION: due to giant cell arteritis), non-arteritic PION (NA-PION: due to other causes), and surgical PION (a complication of several systemic surgical procedures). These five types of ION are distinct clinical entities etiologically, pathogenetically, clinically and from the management point of view. In the management of AION, the first crucial step with patients aged 50 and over is to identify immediately whether it is arteritic or not because A-AION is an ophthalmic emergency and requires urgent treatment with high-dose steroid therapy to prevent any further visual loss in one or both eyes. Patients with NA-AION, when treated with systemic corticosteroid therapy within first 2 weeks of onset, had significantly better visual outcome than untreated ones. Systemic risk factors, particularly nocturnal arterial hypotension, play major roles in the development of NA-AION; management of them is essential in its prevention and management. NA-PION patients, when treated with high-dose systemic steroid therapy during the very early stages of the disease, showed significant improvement in visual acuity and visual fields, compared to untreated eyes. A-PION, like A-AION, requires urgent treatment with high-dose steroid therapy to prevent any further visual loss in one or both eyes. There is no satisfactory treatment for surgical PION, except to take prophylactic measures to prevent its development. PMID:21350282

Hayreh, Sohan Singh

2011-01-01

5

Linezolid-induced optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Many systemic antimicrobials have been implicated to cause ocular adverse effects. This is especially relevant in multidrug therapy where more than one drug can cause a similar ocular adverse effect. We describe a case of progressive loss of vision associated with linezolid therapy. A 45-year-old male patient who was on treatment with multiple second-line anti-tuberculous drugs including linezolid and ethambutol for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) presented to us with painless progressive loss of vision in both eyes. Color vision was defective and fundus examination revealed optic disc edema in both eyes. Ethambutol-induced toxic optic neuropathy was suspected and tablet ethambutol was withdrawn. Deterioration of vision occurred despite withdrawal of ethambutol. Discontinuation of linezolid resulted in marked improvement of vision. Our report emphasizes the need for monitoring of visual function in patients on long-term linezolid treatment. PMID:24088636

Karuppannasamy, Divya; Raghuram, Andavar; Sundar, Devisundaram

2014-01-01

6

Optic disk excavation in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Most ischemic optic neuropathies are attributed to interference of blood flow originating within the posterior ciliary circulation. In patients with the most common type of ischemic optic neuropathy, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), the microvascular ischemia predominantly affects the intraocular portion of the optic nerve. NAION most commonly occurs in eyes with small, "crowded" optic disks and usually does not result in optic disk excavation. We report a patient who presented with NAION and subsequently developed optic disc excavation typical of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:20436358

Punjabi, Omar S; Tanna, Angelo P; Rosenberg, Michael A

2011-02-01

7

Genetics Home Reference: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about ...

8

Multifocal visual evoked potential in optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy and compressive optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate the effect of optic neuritis (ON), ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) and compressive optic neuropathy (CON) on multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) amplitudes and latencies, and to compare the parameters among three optic nerve disorders. Materials and Methods: mfVEP was recorded for 71 eyes of controls and 48 eyes of optic nerve disorders with subgroups of optic neuritis (ON, n = 21 eyes), ischemic optic neuropathy (ION, n = 14 eyes), and compressive optic neuropathy (CON, n = 13 eyes). The size of defect in mfVEP amplitude probability plots and relative latency plots were analyzed. The pattern of the defect in amplitude probability plot was classified according to the visual field profile of optic neuritis treatment trail (ONTT). Results: Median of mfVEP amplitude (log SNR) averaged across 60 sectors were reduced in ON (0.17 (0.13-0.33)), ION (0.14 (0.12-0.21)) and CON (0.21 (0.14-0.30)) when compared to controls. The median mfVEP relative latencies compared to controls were significantly prolonged in ON and CON group of 10.53 (2.62-15.50) ms and 5.73 (2.67-14.14) ms respectively compared to ION group (2.06 (-4.09-13.02)). The common mfVEP amplitude defects observed in probability plots were diffuse pattern in ON, inferior altitudinal defect in ION and temporal hemianopia in CON eyes. Conclusions: Optic nerve disorders cause reduction in mfVEP amplitudes. The extent of delayed latency noted in ischemic optic neuropathy was significantly lesser compared to subjects with optic neuritis and compressive optic neuropathy. mfVEP amplitudes can be used to objectively assess the topography of the visual field defect. PMID:24088641

Jayaraman, Manju; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar; Ravi, Priya; Sen, Parveen

2014-01-01

9

Progressive auditory neuropathy in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate auditory neural involvement in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods: Auditory assessment was undertaken in two patients with LHON. One was a 45 year old woman with Harding disease (multiple-sclerosis-like illness and positive 11778mtDNA mutation) and mild auditory symptoms, whose auditory function was monitored over five years. The other was a 59 year old man with positive 11778mtDNA mutation, who presented with a long standing progressive bilateral hearing loss, moderate on one side and severe to profound on the other. Standard pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, stapedial reflex threshold measurements, stapedial reflex decay, otoacoustic emissions with olivo-cochlear suppression, auditory brain stem responses, and vestibular function tests were undertaken. Results: Both patients had good cochlear function, as judged by otoacoustic emissions (intact outer hair cells) and normal stapedial reflexes (intact inner hair cells). A brain stem lesion was excluded by negative findings on imaging, recordable stapedial reflex thresholds, and, in one of the patients, olivocochlear suppression of otoacoustic emissions. The deterioration of auditory function implied a progressive course in both cases. Vestibular function was unaffected. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with auditory neuropathy—a lesion of the cochlear nerve presenting with abnormal auditory brain stem responses and with normal inner hair cells and the cochlear nucleus (lower brain stem). The association of auditory neuropathy, or any other auditory dysfunction, with LHON has not been recognised previously. Further studies are necessary to establish whether this is a consistent finding. PMID:15026512

Ceranic, B; Luxon, L

2004-01-01

10

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Should a Chaperone Accompany Our Therapeutic Approach?  

PubMed Central

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes that is associated with axonal atrophy, demyelination, blunted regenerative potential, and loss of peripheral nerve fibers. The development and progression of DPN is due in large part to hyperglycemia but is also affected by insulin deficiency and dyslipidemia. Although numerous biochemical mechanisms contribute to DPN, increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction seem intimately associated with nerve dysfunction and diminished regenerative capacity. Despite advances in understanding the etiology of DPN, few approved therapies exist for the pharmacological management of painful or insensate DPN. Therefore, identifying novel therapeutic strategies remains paramount. Because DPN does not develop with either temporal or biochemical uniformity, its therapeutic management may benefit from a multifaceted approach that inhibits pathogenic mechanisms, manages inflammation, and increases cytoprotective responses. Finally, exercise has long been recognized as a part of the therapeutic management of diabetes, and exercise can delay and/or prevent the development of painful DPN. This review presents an overview of existing therapies that target both causal and symptomatic features of DPN and discusses the role of up-regulating cytoprotective pathways via modulating molecular chaperones. Overall, it may be unrealistic to expect that a single pharmacologic entity will suffice to ameliorate the multiple symptoms of human DPN. Thus, combinatorial therapies that target causal mechanisms and enhance endogenous reparative capacity may enhance nerve function and improve regeneration in DPN if they converge to decrease oxidative stress, improve mitochondrial bioenergetics, and increase response to trophic factors. PMID:22885705

Farmer, Kevin L.; Li, Chengyuan

2012-01-01

11

Systemic corticosteroids in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is one of the most prevalent optic nerve disorders seen in ophthalmic practice. The role of corticosteroid therapy in NAION remains a highly controversial area of debate in ophthalmology. This brief review will provide an overview of the current clinical evidence on this topic as well as some comment on the medical debate. PMID:25449939

Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Zhang, Jason; Spitze, Arielle; Lee, Andrew G

2014-01-01

12

Histopathologic studies of ischemic optic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To define the histopathologic features of eyes in which a pathologic diagnosis of ischemic optic neuropathy had been made in the years 1951 through 1998. METHODS: The following data were documented: age of patient, race, sex, source of tissue, cause of death, clinical history, interval from loss of vision to death, enucleation, exenteration, and biopsy. The histopathologic criteria for diagnosis of ischemic optic neuropathy were the presence of localized ischemic edema, cavernous degeneration, or an area of atrophy located superior or inferior in the optic nerve. Cases with history of abrupt loss of vision were combined with reports from the literature to construct a time table of histopathologic features and associated conditions. RESULTS: Ischemic optic neuropathy was present in 193 eyes. There were 88 females and 65 males. The average age was 71.6 years. Ischemic edema without (early) and with (later) gitter macrophages was present in 26 (13.5%). Cavernous degeneration was present in 69 nerves (36%). Mucopolysaccharide (MPS) was present in 37 cavernous lesions 1 month or longer after loss of vision. Cavernous lesions were seen in 3 eyes in which peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer hemorrhage had been observed prior to death. Atrophic lesions, the most common pattern, were observed in 133 optic nerves (66.8%). More than 1 ischemic lesion was seen in 38 optic nerves (19.7%). Bilateral ischemic lesions were seen in 50 (35.2%) of 142 paired eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic optic nerve lesions are initially acellular and later show macrophage infiltration. Cavernous lesions with MPS are present 4 weeks or longer after vision loss. The location of MPS posteriorly and along the internal margin suggests that MPS is produced at the edges of lesions. Progressive vision loss in ischemic optic neuropathy may be secondary to compression of intact nerve from ischemic edema and cavernous swelling, or a second ischemic lesion. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 24 F FIGURE 25 A FIGURE 25 B FIGURE 25 C FIGURE 25 D FIGURE 25 E FIGURE 25 F FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 PMID:11190024

Knox, D L; Kerrison, J B; Green, W R

2000-01-01

13

Hereditary optic neuropathies share a common mitochondrial coupling defect.  

PubMed

Hereditary optic neuropathies are heterogeneous diseases characterized by the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leading to optic nerve atrophy and impairment of central vision. We found a common coupling defect of oxidative phosphorylation in fibroblasts of patients affected by autosomal dominant optic atrophy (mutations of OPA1), autosomal dominant optic atrophy associated with cataract (mutations of OPA3), and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, a disorder associated with point mutations of mitochondrial DNA complex I genes. Interestingly, the energetic defect was significantly more pronounced in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy patients with a more complex phenotype, the so-called plus phenotype. PMID:18496845

Chevrollier, Arnaud; Guillet, Virginie; Loiseau, Dominique; Gueguen, Naïg; de Crescenzo, Marie-Anne Pou; Verny, Christophe; Ferre, Marc; Dollfus, Hélène; Odent, Sylvie; Milea, Dan; Goizet, Cyril; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal

2008-06-01

14

Treatment of Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common clinical presentation of acute ischemic damage to the optic nerve. Most treatments proposed for NAION are empirical and include a wide range of agents presumed to act on thrombosis, on the blood vessels, or on the disc edema itself. Others are presumed to have a neuroprotective effect. Although there have been multiple therapies attempted, most have not been adequately studied, and animal models of NAION have only recently emerged. The Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial (IONDT), the only class I large multicenter prospective treatment trial for NAION, found no benefit from surgical intervention. One recent large, nonrandomized controlled study suggested that oral steroids might be helpful for acute NAION. Others recently proposed interventions are intravitreal injections of steroids or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. There are no class I studies showing benefit from either medical or surgical treatments. Most of the literature on the treatment of NAION consists of retrospective or prospective case series and anecdotal case reports. Similarly, therapies aimed at secondary prevention of fellow eye involvement in NAION remain of unproven benefit. PMID:20006051

Atkins, Edward J.; Bruce, Beau B.; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie

2013-01-01

15

The clinical spectrum of amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical spectrum of amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy. METHODS: Observational cases series and review. RESULTS: Of 55 cases, the median interval for onset of optic neuropathy was four months after initiating amiodarone; 88% occurred within 12 months. Seven (13%) patients were asymptomatic. Twenty-two (40%) patients presented with sudden visual loss, while 26 (47%) had insidious loss of vision. Visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to light perception; 10 (18%) patients had legal blindness with visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. Visual field loss was present in 91% of cases. Color vision loss was present in eight (40%) of 20 cases. Optic disc edema was present in 85% of cases, while eight (15%) patients had retrobulbar optic neuropathy, without evidence of disc edema. Optic disc edema resolved over a median time of three months. Five patients had raised intracranial pressure on lumbar puncture. CONCLUSION: We were able to classify amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy into five clinical categories with respect to temporal characteristics and optic nerve appearance: insidious-onset (43%), acute-onset (28%), retrobulbar (13%), increased intracranial pressure (8%), and delayed-progressive onset (8%). Most cases of optic neuropathy commenced within 12 months of initiating amiodarone, with the median onset being four months. Over 10% of patients will have no visual symptoms at the onset. Ophthalmologic examinations within the first 12 months--and particularly within four months of initiating amiodarone--should improve early detection of amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy. PMID:15586652

Johnson, Lenworth N.; Krohel, Gregory B.; Thomas, Eric R.

2004-01-01

16

Toxic optic neuropathy: An unusual cause  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism and tobacco use presented with the complaint of a painless decrease in vision in both eyes. She lost vision first in the left eye then in the right eye. She admitted consuming at least one 16 ounce bottle of over the counter mouthwash daily and denied consumption of any other alcohols, methanol, or antifreeze. She stated that her vision had been continuing to deteriorate in both eyes. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 4/200 in each eye. Color vision was nil in each eye. Her pupils were sluggish bilaterally, and her optic discs were flat and hyperemic with peripapillary hemorrhages. Her visual fields revealed central scotomas bilaterally. The magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and lumbar puncture were within normal limits. Antinuclear antibody, human leukocyte antigen-B27 genotyping, and B12 were normal; serum thiamine was low. While continuing to ingest mouthwash, her vision decreased to count fingers at 2 feet, and maculopapillary bundle pallor developed. She was started on folate and thiamine supplementation. Once she discontinued mouthwash, her vision improved to 20/400 bilaterally, and her central scotomas improved. This case demonstrates an alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy from mouthwash ingestion with some visual recovery after discontinuation of the offending agent. PMID:25449946

Ramkumar, Hema L; Savino, Peter J

2014-01-01

17

Toxic optic neuropathy: An unusual cause.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism and tobacco use presented with the complaint of a painless decrease in vision in both eyes. She lost vision first in the left eye then in the right eye. She admitted consuming at least one 16 ounce bottle of over the counter mouthwash daily and denied consumption of any other alcohols, methanol, or antifreeze. She stated that her vision had been continuing to deteriorate in both eyes. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 4/200 in each eye. Color vision was nil in each eye. Her pupils were sluggish bilaterally, and her optic discs were flat and hyperemic with peripapillary hemorrhages. Her visual fields revealed central scotomas bilaterally. The magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and lumbar puncture were within normal limits. Antinuclear antibody, human leukocyte antigen-B27 genotyping, and B12 were normal; serum thiamine was low. While continuing to ingest mouthwash, her vision decreased to count fingers at 2 feet, and maculopapillary bundle pallor developed. She was started on folate and thiamine supplementation. Once she discontinued mouthwash, her vision improved to 20/400 bilaterally, and her central scotomas improved. This case demonstrates an alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy from mouthwash ingestion with some visual recovery after discontinuation of the offending agent. PMID:25449946

Ramkumar, Hema L; Savino, Peter J

2014-10-01

18

Nutritional optic neuropathy following bariatric surgery  

PubMed Central

Bariatric procedures, associated with gastrointestinal malabsorption of vitamins and microelements, may constitute a risk factor for nutritional optic neuropathy (NON). We present a case of a 34-year-old female patient who developed bilateral NON after sleeve gastrectomy. Despite postoperative ophthalmological supervision, 10 months after the procedure the woman presented with a bilateral decrease in visual acuity down to 0.8, bilateral visual field loss and abnormal visual evoked potential recordings. Laboratory abnormalities included decreased serum concentration of vitamin B12 (161 pg/ml). Treatment was based on intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 (1000 units per day). After 1 week of the treatment, we observed more than a three-fold increase in the serum concentration of vitamin B12 and resolution of the bilateral symptoms of NON. The incidence of NON is likely to increase due to the growing number of these bariatric procedures performed worldwide. Therefore, all persons subjected to such surgery should receive long-term ophthalmological follow-up and supplementation with vitamins and microelements.

Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Hady, Razak Hady; Mariak, Zofia; Dadan, Jacek

2014-01-01

19

Compressive optic neuropathy caused by renal osteodystrophy. Case report.  

PubMed

Compressive optic neuropathy with acute or chronic vision loss has been associated with various skull base tumors, aneurysms, Graves disease, trauma, and, less commonly, fibrous dysplasia and osteopetrosis. The authors present a case of acute visual deterioration in a 25-year-old woman who had massive calvarial hypertrophy with optic canal stenosis secondary to renal osteodystrophy (uremic leontiasis ossea [ULO]: bighead disease). Significant visual field restoration was achieved with high-dose corticosteroids followed by optic nerve decompression. This is the first case report of cranial neuropathy associated with ULO. PMID:11596967

Schmidt, R H; Rietz, L A; Patel, B C; Osborne, A G; Pratt, D; Digre, K B

2001-10-01

20

Bilateral Optic Neuropathy with Bilateral Putaminal Lesions: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Bilateral optic neuropathy with bilateral putaminal lesions may be caused by methanol or cyanide poisoning or mitochondrial disorders including Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and Leigh syndrome. We report the case of a 34-year-old Japanese man who developed bilateral visual loss 5 days after the development of gastrointestinal symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain on admission revealed high-intensity signal areas in the bilateral putamina on diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images as well as a high-intensity signal area in the left middle cerebellar peduncle that had been identified 3 years previously. We diagnosed bilateral optic neuropathy with bilateral putaminal lesions caused by preceding infection-triggered demyelination. We administered methylprednisolone, but his vision did not recover. PMID:25052423

Togawa, Jumpei; Ohi, Takekazu

2014-07-23

21

Reversible optic neuropathy with OPA1 exon 5b mutation.  

PubMed

A new c.740G>A (R247H) mutation in OPA1 alternate spliced exon 5b was found in a patient presenting with bilateral optic neuropathy followed by partial, spontaneous visual recovery. R247H fibroblasts from the patient and his unaffected father presented unusual highly tubular mitochondrial network, significant increased susceptibility to apoptosis, oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling, and altered OPA1 protein profile, supporting the pathogenicity of this mutation. These results suggest that the clinical spectrum of the OPA1-associated optic neuropathies may be larger than previously described, and that spontaneous recovery may occur in cases harboring an exon 5b mutation. PMID:18360822

Cornille, Karen; Milea, Dan; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Zazoun, Lydie; Guillet, Virginie; El Achouri, Ghizlane; Delettre, Cécile; Gueguen, Naïg; Loiseau, Dominique; Muller, Agnès; Ferré, Marc; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Wallace, Douglas C; Bonneau, Dominique; Hamel, Christian; Reynier, Pascal; Lenaers, Guy

2008-05-01

22

Sight-threatening optic neuropathy is associated with paranasal lymphoma.  

PubMed

Malignant lymphoma around the orbit is very rare. We present a rare case of optic neuropathy caused by lymphoma. A 61-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of idiopathic optic neuropathy affecting her right eye. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy (methyl-predonisolone 1 g daily for 3 days) with a presumed diagnosis of idiopathic optic neuritis. After she had been switched to oral steroid therapy, endoscopic sinus surgery had been performed, which revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the ethmoidal sinus. Although R-CHOP therapy was immediately started, prolonged optic nerve compression resulted in irreversible blindness. Accordingly, patients with suspected idiopathic optic neuritis should be carefully assessed when they show a poor response, and imaging of the orbits and brain should always be done for initial diagnosis because they may have compression by a tumor. PMID:20390034

Hayashi, Takahiko; Watanabe, Ken; Tsuura, Yukio; Tsuji, Gengo; Koyama, Shingo; Yoshigi, Jun; Hirata, Naoko; Yamane, Shin; Iizima, Yasuhito; Toyota, Shigeo; Takeuchi, Satoshi

2010-01-01

23

Acute dysthyroid optic neuropathy exacerbated by orbital radiotherapy.  

PubMed

A 76-year-old lady presenting with acute dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) was stabilised with systemic intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP). Two separate attempts at a treatment course of orbital radiotherapy (OR) were commenced and subsequently abandoned as there was an acute worsening of her DON during OR, despite cover with oral glucocorticoids and subsequently IVMP. The patient underwent urgent orbital decompression which normalised her vision and optic neuropathy. Our case likely represents worsening of DON due to soft tissue swelling secondary to OR despite cover with IVMP in a patient previously responsive to IVMP alone. Some authors advocate the use of OR in active DON as either a surgery delaying or surgery sparing alternative. This case report illustrates the rare risk of transiently worsening DON with OR. We highlight the need for close monitoring of optic nerve function if OR is utilised in this patient group. PMID:24841498

Hersh, Dov; Kinnar, Merchant

2014-10-01

24

Nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in Addison's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo report three cases of Nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAAION) in patients with Addison's diseaseMethodsWe present a retrospective review of patients presenting with NAAION with underlying Addison's disease.ResultsThree eyes of two young patients presented with NAAION. Both patients had underlying Addison's disease with episodes of prolonged hypotension.ConclusionTo our knowledge, this is the first published report of NAAION associated with

A H Ross; S Haider; C C Bailey

2010-01-01

25

Optic Neuropathy Secondary to Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis.  

PubMed

: Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare fibroinflammatory disorder with a predilection for upper respiratory tract submucosa. We report a 45-year-old man with progressive unilateral visual loss secondary to a retroorbital soft tissue mass with histological features consistent with EAF. The patient experienced marked improvement in vision after endoscopic optic nerve decompression through sphenoethmoidectomy. PMID:25232841

Lloyd, Adam P; Benzimra, James D; Warfield, Adrian T; Prasad, Balaji T S; Matthews, Timothy D; Ahmed, Shahzada K

2014-09-16

26

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy as a Manifestation of HELLP Syndrome.  

PubMed

Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are a group of disorders characterized by occurrence of thrombi of fibrin and/or platelets with microvascular occlusion and organ ischemia especially the kidney and brain. Hemolysis with a microangiopathic blood smear, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP syndrome) is a type of TMA peculiar to pregnancy and may be associated with neurological complications. Visual complications in HELLP are usually related to cortical blindness. We present the first case of HELLP associated with bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and blindness which resolved with plasma exchange. PMID:25328716

Maramattom, Boby Varkey

2014-01-01

27

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy as a Manifestation of HELLP Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are a group of disorders characterized by occurrence of thrombi of fibrin and/or platelets with microvascular occlusion and organ ischemia especially the kidney and brain. Hemolysis with a microangiopathic blood smear, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP syndrome) is a type of TMA peculiar to pregnancy and may be associated with neurological complications. Visual complications in HELLP are usually related to cortical blindness. We present the first case of HELLP associated with bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and blindness which resolved with plasma exchange. PMID:25328716

Maramattom, Boby Varkey

2014-01-01

28

Auditory function in individuals within Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy pedigrees.  

PubMed

The aims of this study are to investigate whether auditory dysfunction is part of the spectrum of neurological abnormalities associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and to determine the perceptual consequences of auditory neuropathy (AN) in affected listeners. Forty-eight subjects confirmed by genetic testing as having one of four mitochondrial mutations associated with LHON (mt11778, mtDNA14484, mtDNA14482 and mtDNA3460) participated. Thirty-two of these had lost vision, and 16 were asymptomatic at the point of data collection. While the majority of individuals showed normal sound detection, >25% (of both symptomatic and asymptomatic participants) showed electrophysiological evidence of AN with either absent or severely delayed auditory brainstem potentials. Abnormalities were observed for each of the mutations, but subjects with the mtDNA11778 type were the most affected. Auditory perception was also abnormal in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, with >20% of cases showing impaired detection of auditory temporal (timing) cues and >30% showing abnormal speech perception both in quiet and in the presence of background noise. The findings of this study indicate that a relatively high proportion of individuals with the LHON genetic profile may suffer functional hearing difficulties due to neural abnormality in the central auditory pathways. PMID:21887510

Rance, Gary; Kearns, Lisa S; Tan, Johanna; Gravina, Anthony; Rosenfeld, Lisa; Henley, Lauren; Carew, Peter; Graydon, Kelley; O'Hare, Fleur; Mackey, David A

2012-03-01

29

Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a child with optic disk drusen.  

PubMed

Optic disk drusen are calcific deposits that form in the optic nerve head secondary to abnormalities in axonal metabolism and degeneration. The clinical course is variable, ranging from stable vision to acute or progressive visual loss. We evaluated a healthy 12-year-old boy with a history of asymptomatic bilateral disk drusen who presented with acute painless unilateral visual loss after hiking to an altitude of 11,000 feet. Findings were consistent with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. PMID:22525184

Nanji, Afshan A; Klein, Kathryn S; Pelak, Victoria S; Repka, Michael X

2012-04-01

30

High doses of cobalt induce optic and auditory neuropathy.  

PubMed

The adverse biological effects of continuous exposure to cobalt and chromium have been well defined. In the past, this toxicity was largely an industrial issue concerning workers exposed in occupational setting. Nevertheless, recent reports have described a specific toxicity mediated by the high levels of cobalt and chromium released by metallic prostheses, particularly in patients who had received hip implants. Clinical symptoms, including blindness, deafness and peripheral neuropathy, suggest a specific neurotropism. However, little is known about the neuropathological basis of this process, and experimental evidence is still lacking. We have investigated this issue in an experimental setting using New Zealand White rabbits treated with repeated intravenous injections of cobalt and chromium, alone or in combination. No evident clinical or pathological alterations were associated after chromium administration alone, despite its high levels in blood and tissue while cobalt-chromium and cobalt-treated rabbits showed clinical signs indicative of auditory and optic system toxicity. On histopathological examination, the animals showed severe retinal and cochlear ganglion cell depletion along with optic nerve damage and loss of sensory cochlear hair cells. Interestingly, the severity of the alterations was related to dosages and time of exposure. These data confirmed our previous observation of severe auditory and optic nerve toxicity in patients exposed to an abnormal release of cobalt and chromium from damaged hip prostheses. Moreover, we have identified the major element mediating neurotoxicity to be cobalt, although the molecular mechanisms mediating this toxicity still have to be defined. PMID:23069009

Apostoli, Pietro; Catalani, Simona; Zaghini, Anna; Mariotti, Andrea; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Vielmi, Valentina; Semeraro, Francesco; Duse, Sarah; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Padovani, Alessandro; Rizzetti, Maria Cristina; De Caro, Raffaele

2013-09-01

31

Bilateral Retrobulbar Optic Neuropathy in the Setting of Interferon Alpha-2a Therapy  

PubMed Central

The development of biopharmaceutical agents, including the interferons (IFN), offers new treatment options for a wide range of medical conditions. Such advancements, however, have not come without risk to patients. Optic neuropathy in the setting of IFN therapy has been previously documented and is usually attributed to anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy; however, the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Retrobulbar optic neuropathy associated with IFN treatment has not been described in the medical literature to date. We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian female with refractory acute myeloid leukaemia who developed painless bilateral blurred vision within 2 weeks of commencing a course of IFN alpha-2a. Extensive clinical workup demonstrated bilateral retrobulbar optic neuropathy. We report the clinical evaluation of this first documented case and discuss the possible aetiologies of her presentation. PMID:25298771

Fuzzard, Dujon R.W.; Mack, Heather G.; Symons, R.C. Andrew

2014-01-01

32

SITA Standard in Optic Neuropathies and Hemianopias: A Comparison with Full Threshold Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS. Twenty-four patients with nonglaucomatous optic neuropathies and 18 patients with a relative homonymous or bitemporal hemianopia were tested with both conventional perimetry (Humphrey 24-2 program) and \\

Michael Wall; Steven G. Punke; Tanner L. Stickney; Caridad F. Brito; Kimberly R. Withrow; Randy H. Kardon

33

Post-traumatic optic neuropathy: our surgical and medical protocol.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a rare, but very much feared event. It is a traumatic injury of the optic nerve at any level along its course (often inside the optic canal), with partial or total loss of visual acuity, temporarily or permanently. Until now, an univocal treatment strategy does not exist. The clinical records of 26 patients, treated from 2002 to 2013, were reviewed. The most frequent cause of injury was road traffic accident (63 %), followed by iatrogenic damage, work injuries, sport or home accidents. All patients underwent pre-operative ophthalmological evaluation, neuro-imaging (angio-CT or angio-MRI scans) and systemic corticosteroid therapy. All patients required a surgical treatment, due to poor response to medical therapy; it consisted of an endonasal endoscopic decompression of the intracanalicular segment of the optic nerve, performed by removing the bony wall of the optical canal and releasing the perineural sheath. Improvement of visual acuity was reached in 65 % of cases. No minor or major complication occurred intra- or post-operative, with a maximum follow-up time of 41 months. An improvement in visual acuity was achieved, although very limited in some cases, when surgery was performed as close as possible to the traumatic event. In the literature, there is no evidence-based data evaluating both of the two main treatment options (medical therapy versus surgical decompression), to state which is the gold standard in the treatment for TON. We discuss the pro and cons of our protocol: medical endovenous steroid treatment, within 8 h of injury, and endoscopic surgical decompression within 12-24 since the beginning of medical therapy, represent the best solution in terms of risk-benefit ratio for the patients. PMID:25472815

Emanuelli, E; Bignami, M; Digilio, E; Fusetti, S; Volo, T; Castelnuovo, P

2014-12-01

34

Imaging studies for diagnosing Graves' orbitopathy and dysthyroid optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Although the diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy is primarily made clinically based on laboratory tests indicative of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity, imaging studies, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and color Doppler imaging, play an important role both in the diagnosis and follow-up after clinical or surgical treatment of the disease. Imaging studies can be used to evaluate morphological abnormalities of the orbital structures during the diagnostic workup when a differential diagnosis versus other orbital diseases is needed. Imaging may also be useful to distinguish the inflammatory early stage from the inactive stage of the disease. Finally, imaging studies can be of great help in identifying patients prone to develop dysthyroid optic neuropathy and therefore enabling the timely diagnosis and treatment of the condition, avoiding permanent visual loss. In this paper, we review the imaging modalities that aid in the diagnosis and management of Graves' orbitopathy, with special emphasis on the diagnosis of optic nerve dysfunction in this condition. PMID:23184212

Gonçalves, Allan C. Pieroni; Gebrim, Eloísa M. M. S.; Monteiro, Mário L. R.

2012-01-01

35

Toxic optic neuropathy in the setting of docetaxel chemotherapy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the first reported case of toxic optic neuropathy secondary to docetaxel (Taxotere®) chemotherapy. Case presentation A 53-year-old female presented with predominantly unilateral visual loss, but extensive bilateral visual field defects and bilateral optic nerve head swelling 2 weeks after first dose of docetaxel (Taxotere®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®) chemotherapy for a left sided node-positive, HER2 positive breast cancer. Extensive investigation ruled out other causes of optic neuropathy. She was treated with high dose corticosteroids intravenously for 1 week then a tapering oral dose over 8 weeks. Visual field defects gradually resolved and visual acuity improved. Docetaxel chemotherapy was discontinued but targeted therapy with trastuzumab continued without further complication. Conclusion Docetaxel can cause a toxic optic neuropathy possibly due to an ischemic or neurotoxic mechanism at the optic nerve head. With cessation of docetaxel therapy and treatment with systemic corticosteroids, visual recovery can occur without significant residual visual deficit. PMID:24564293

2014-01-01

36

Ultrasonography in distinguishing optic neuritis from nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Optic neuritis (ON) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) have some overlapping clinical profiles. We evaluated the usefulness of B-scan ultrasonography in distinguishing ON from NAION by measuring diameter of the optic nerve. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with an acute noncompressive unilateral optic neuropathy with relative afferent pupillary defect and onset of visual loss during the last 2 weeks were included. Diagnosis of ON was based on age ? 35 years, orbital pain associated with eye movement, and no disk edema, and diagnosis of NAION was based on age ? 60 years, no orbital pain associated with eye movement, and presence of disk edema. Age- and gender-matched subjects without ocular disease were selected for comparison. The diameter of the optic nerve was measured by a single radiologist with B-scan ultrasonography. Results: In ON patients, the mean diameter of the affected nerve was significantly larger than that of the unaffected nerve and also larger than that of the right nerve of young controls; P < 0.05. In NAION patients, however, there was no significant difference between the mean diameter of the affected nerve and of the unaffected nerve or the right nerve of elderly controls; P > 0.05. Also, the diameter of the affected nerve was significantly larger in ON than in AION patients; P < 0.05. Conclusion: B-scan ultrasonography is helpful in the early stages of optic neuropathy to distinguish ON from NAION in those cases for which the diagnosis is still uncertain after clinical evaluation. PMID:23210062

Dehghani, Alireza; Giti, Masoomeh; Akhlaghi, Mohamad Reza; Karami, Mehdi; Salehi, Fatemeh

2012-01-01

37

UV/Optical Emission Accompanying Gamma-ray Burst  

E-print Network

We discuss the possible simultaneously UV/optical emission accompanying Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We show that as long as the intrinsic spectrum of GRB can extend to $\\sim$10 GeV or higher, there is a large amount of relativistic $e^\\pm$ pairs generated due to the annihilation of the soft $\\gamma-$rays with the very energetic photons, which dominates over the electrons/positrons associated with the fireball, no matter the fireball is highly magnetized or not (For the highly magnetized fireball, the magnetic field is ordered, the high linear polarization of the multi-wavelength emission is expected). We find that these $e^\\pm$ pairs can power an UV flash with $m\\simeq 12-13{\\rm th}$ magnitude, and the corresponding optical emission can be up to $m_{\\rm R}\\simeq15-16{\\rm th}$ magnitude. Such bright UV emission can be detected by the upcoming satellite Swift, planned for launch in early 2004. The behavior of the optical-UV spectrum ($F_{\

Y. Z. Fan.; D. M. Wei

2004-08-26

38

Clinical Profile of Patients with Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Presented to a Referral Center from 2003 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We conducted this study to report the demographics and clinical profile of patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy referred to a referral neuro- ophthalmology center in Iran. Methods: During a five-year period, 107 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy were studied. A detailed history of previous or current systemic diseases was obtained and a complete ophthalmic evaluation

Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani; Mostafa Soltan Sanjari; Mehdi Modarres; Farzaneh Aghamohammadi

39

An Abscess Causing a Delayed Optic Neuropathy After Decompression for Thyroid Eye Disease  

PubMed Central

Thyroid orbitopathy is the most common cause of proptosis in adults. It often requires surgical decompression to relieve proptosis, keratopathy, and/or optic neuropathy (1). Complications including diplopia, sinusitis, infraorbital hypesthesia, and cerebrospinal fluid leak have been reported (2–4). Mucocele formation or orbital abscess after decompression surgery are rare (5–9). To our knowledge, there are no reports of an orbital abscess causing a compressive optic neuropathy after decompression. We describe such a patient with both orbital abscess and mucoceles that was treated with intravenous antibiotics, steroids, and surgery. PMID:24144317

Patel, Rakesh M; Aakalu, Vinay K; Joe, Stephanie; Setabutr, Pete

2014-01-01

40

Physiological significance of recombination-activating gene 1 in neuronal death, especially optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Although the transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is known to regulate cell death and survival, its precise role in cell death within the central nervous system remains unknown. We previously reported that mice with a homozygous deficiency for NF-?Bp50 spontaneously develop optic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the expression and activation of the proapoptotic factor(s) that mediate optic neuropathy in p50-deficient mice. Recombination-activating gene (Rag) 1 is known to activate the recombination of immunoglobulin V(D)J. In this study, experiments with genetically engineered mice revealed the involvement of Rag1 expression in apoptosis of Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells, and also demonstrated the specific effect of p50 deficiency on the activation of Rag1 gene transcription. Furthermore, genetic analysis of murine neuronal stem-like cells clarified the biological significance of Rag1 in N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced neuronal apoptosis. We also detected the apoptosis-regulating factors Bax and cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9 in HEK293 cells transfected-molecule of Rag1, and a human histological examination revealed the expression of Rag1 in retinal ganglion cells. The results of the present study indicate that Rag1 plays a role in optic neuropathy as a proapoptotic candidate in p50-deficient mice. This finding may lead to new therapeutic targets in optic neuropathy. PMID:25312244

Hirano, Takao; Murata, Toshinori; Hayashi, Takuma

2015-01-01

41

Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are resistant to neurodegeneration in mitochondrial optic neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial optic neuropathies, that is, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dominant optic atrophy, selectively affect retinal ganglion cells, causing visual loss with relatively preserved pupillary light reflex. The mammalian eye contains a light detection system based on a subset of retinal ganglion cells containing the photopigment melanopsin. These cells give origin to the retinohypothalamic tract and support the non-image-forming visual functions of the eye, which include the photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion and pupillary light reflex. We studied the integrity of the retinohypothalamic tract in five patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, in four with dominant optic atrophy and in nine controls by testing the light-induced suppression of nocturnal melatonin secretion. This response was maintained in optic neuropathy subjects as in controls, indicating that the retinohypothalamic tract is sufficiently preserved to drive light information detected by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. We then investigated the histology of post-mortem eyes from two patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and one case with dominant optic atrophy, compared with three age-matched controls. On these retinas, melanopsin retinal ganglion cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry and their number and distribution evaluated by a new protocol. In control retinas, we show that melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are lost with age and are more represented in the parafoveal region. In patients, we demonstrate a relative sparing of these cells compared with the massive loss of total retinal ganglion cells, even in the most affected areas of the retina. Our results demonstrate that melanopsin retinal ganglion cells resist neurodegeneration due to mitochondrial dysfunction and maintain non-image-forming functions of the eye in these visually impaired patients. We also show that in normal human retinas, these cells are more concentrated around the fovea and are lost with ageing. The current results provide a plausible explanation for the preservation of pupillary light reaction despite profound visual loss in patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathy, revealing the robustness of melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to a metabolic insult and opening the question of mechanisms that might protect these cells. PMID:20659957

La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Hannibal, Jens; Munarini, Alessandra; Mantovani, Vilma; Barboni, Piero; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Tozer, Kevin R.; Sancisi, Elisa; Salomao, Solange R.; Moraes, Milton N.; Moraes-Filho, Milton N.; Heegaard, Steffen; Milea, Dan; Kjer, Poul; Montagna, Pasquale

2010-01-01

42

Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are resistant to neurodegeneration in mitochondrial optic neuropathies.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial optic neuropathies, that is, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dominant optic atrophy, selectively affect retinal ganglion cells, causing visual loss with relatively preserved pupillary light reflex. The mammalian eye contains a light detection system based on a subset of retinal ganglion cells containing the photopigment melanopsin. These cells give origin to the retinohypothalamic tract and support the non-image-forming visual functions of the eye, which include the photoentrainment of circadian rhythms, light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion and pupillary light reflex. We studied the integrity of the retinohypothalamic tract in five patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, in four with dominant optic atrophy and in nine controls by testing the light-induced suppression of nocturnal melatonin secretion. This response was maintained in optic neuropathy subjects as in controls, indicating that the retinohypothalamic tract is sufficiently preserved to drive light information detected by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells. We then investigated the histology of post-mortem eyes from two patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and one case with dominant optic atrophy, compared with three age-matched controls. On these retinas, melanopsin retinal ganglion cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry and their number and distribution evaluated by a new protocol. In control retinas, we show that melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are lost with age and are more represented in the parafoveal region. In patients, we demonstrate a relative sparing of these cells compared with the massive loss of total retinal ganglion cells, even in the most affected areas of the retina. Our results demonstrate that melanopsin retinal ganglion cells resist neurodegeneration due to mitochondrial dysfunction and maintain non-image-forming functions of the eye in these visually impaired patients. We also show that in normal human retinas, these cells are more concentrated around the fovea and are lost with ageing. The current results provide a plausible explanation for the preservation of pupillary light reaction despite profound visual loss in patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathy, revealing the robustness of melanopsin retinal ganglion cells to a metabolic insult and opening the question of mechanisms that might protect these cells. PMID:20659957

La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Sadun, Alfredo A; Hannibal, Jens; Munarini, Alessandra; Mantovani, Vilma; Barboni, Piero; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Tozer, Kevin R; Sancisi, Elisa; Salomao, Solange R; Moraes, Milton N; Moraes-Filho, Milton N; Heegaard, Steffen; Milea, Dan; Kjer, Poul; Montagna, Pasquale; Carelli, Valerio

2010-08-01

43

Ischemic optic neuropathy associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture of anterior communicating artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Two clinical cases in which ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) occurred after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are reported. Hemorrhage in the proximity of the optic chiasm was confirmed in 2 cases following rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Optic disk atrophy with excavation and permanent visual field defect (altitudinal superior hemianopia) occurred in both cases. ION seems to occur in association with the optic nerve coincidental with the hyperdensity side of SAH on head CT scan. The incidence of ION appears to be attributable to an insufficient blood supply to arteries distributed in the posterior part of the optic nerve as a result of SAH. PMID:12566879

Hara, Naoto; Mukuno, Kazuo; Ohtaka, Hironori; Shimizu, Kimiya

2003-01-01

44

Myopia and diabetes mellitus as modificatory factors of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Myopic deformation of the eye and metabolic alterations of the nerve tissue of patients with diabetes may modify glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). Blockage of axonal transport of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is the event crucial to understanding the factors that affect GON. The primary, but not sole, blockage site is at the lamina cribrosa (LC). Other than this primary site of damage at the LC, 7 other factors may explain atypical nerve fiber layer (NFL) defects and the vulnerability of the nerve fibers in eyes with high myopia and glaucoma: a second point of blockage at the edge of the posterior scleral foramen; ectatic strain on the NFL; ectasia and distortion of the LC; association of a hypoplastic optic disc; thin and weak collagen fibers; peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy; and myopic neuropathy. Among diabetic patients, diabetic neuropathy in the retinal NFL is present initially, and increased resistance to aqueous outflow leads to ocular hypertension. Superimposition of GON on diabetic neuropathy and ocular hypertension in patients with diabetes may enhance their susceptibility to nerve damage. Results of a meta-analysis study suggested a positive association between diabetes mellitus and glaucoma whereas other reports suggested that leakage of vascular endothelial growth factor, a survival mechanism of ischemic neural tissue, and enhanced stiffness of the LC as a result of diabetic glycation may protect neurons from apoptosis. Thus, modification of GON as a result of diabetes remains controversial. PMID:23942995

Chihara, Etsuo

2014-01-01

45

Behaviour of Disc Oedema During and After Amiodarone Optic Neuropathy: Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation treated with Amiodarone presented with Optic Disc oedema in right eye (OD). Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) we describe the impact of this neuropathy on Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer (RNFL). At diagnosis RNFL average was of 188 ?m OD and 77 ?m in the left eye (OS), six months after discontinuation of the drug decreased to 40 ?m in OD and 76 ?m in OS. The RNFL average of OD presented a transient increase during the acute oedema that returned to normal levels during the first month after discontinuation of the drug and fell dramatically to 44 ?m at the second month and 40 ?m at the sixth month. We show there is axonal loss after amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy measured with OCT. The OCT may be used in these patients to document changes in RNFL in the follow-up. PMID:24959500

Martínez-Gamero, Bertha O.; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cavazos-Adame, Med. Humberto; Mohamed-Hamsho, Med. Jesús

2014-01-01

46

Optic neuropathy associated with the use of over-the-counter sexual enhancement supplements  

PubMed Central

This case report details an association of the use of over-the-counter sexual enhancement supplements with atypical optic neuropathy. A 42-year-old man presented with right-sided headache and vision loss of the right eye, which deteriorated to a single quadrant of hand motion over 11 days. Serial orbital magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated progressive orbital optic nerve enhancement extending into the optic canal despite high-dose steroid treatment. The patient eventually admitted to using several over-the-counter sexual enhancement supplements prior to the onset of symptoms and throughout the course of his steroid treatment, which he subsequently discontinued. His vision improved to 20/200 with an expanded visual field. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy has been reported in association with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor use, but visual loss in association with unregulated sexual enhancement supplements has not been studied. While one case cannot establish association, our case is suggestive of potential dangers of over-the-counter sexual enhancement supplements, which may contain PDE-5 inhibitors, “male hormones,” and “substances that enhance blood production.” The case also underscores the importance of obtaining a careful history of supplements in patients with optic neuropathies. PMID:25378904

Karli, Sapir Z; Liao, Sophie D; Carey, Andrew R; Lam, Byron L; Wester, Sara T

2014-01-01

47

Receptor for advanced glycation end products is upregulated in optic neuropathy of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been shown to be associated with a true primary optic neuropathy, the underlying pathophysiology of this disease and in particular the optic nerve disorder is still poorly understood. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD by mediating the transport of plasma amyloid-? into the brain. Once ligated, RAGE can play a role in signal transduction, leading to amplification and perpetuation of inflammatory processes. As a key player in the reaction to CNS injury, astrocytes have been shown to associate with RAGE in a number of diseases, including AD. To investigate the role of RAGE and astrocytes in the pathogenesis of AD optic neuropathy, we conducted immunohistochemical studies to examine the presence of RAGE in donor eyes from patients with AD (n = 10) and controls (n = 3). Both qualitative observation and quantitative analyses using imaging software were used to document the extent of RAGE in the neural tissues. The intensity and extent of RAGE expression was more prominent in AD nerves compared to controls (P < 0.05). The RAGE immunoreactivity was observed in the microvasculature and in close proximity to astrocytic processes. While RAGE immunoreactivity increased with age, the increase was more precipitous in the AD group compared to the controls. The up-regulation of RAGE in the AD optic nerves indicates that RAGE may play a role in the pathophysiology of AD optic neuropathy. PMID:19277685

Wang, Michelle Y.; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Aggarwal, Divya; Liang, Chiao-Ying

2010-01-01

48

Efficient mitochondrial biogenesis drives incomplete penetrance in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited blinding disease caused as a result of homoplasmic point mutations in complex I subunit genes of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by incomplete penetrance, as only some mutation carriers become affected. Thus, the mitochondrial DNA mutation is necessary but not sufficient to cause optic neuropathy. Environmental triggers and genetic modifying factors have been considered to explain its variable penetrance. We measured the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass indicators in blood cells from affected and carrier individuals, screening three large pedigrees and 39 independently collected smaller families with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, as well as muscle biopsies and cells isolated by laser capturing from post-mortem specimens of retina and optic nerves, the latter being the disease targets. We show that unaffected mutation carriers have a significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass compared with their affected relatives and control individuals. Comparative studies of fibroblasts from affected, carriers and controls, under different paradigms of metabolic demand, show that carriers display the highest capacity for activating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore we postulate that the increased mitochondrial biogenesis in carriers may overcome some of the pathogenic effect of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Screening of a few selected genetic variants in candidate genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis failed to reveal any significant association. Our study provides a valuable mechanism to explain variability of penetrance in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy and clues for high throughput genetic screening to identify the nuclear modifying gene(s), opening an avenue to develop predictive genetic tests on disease risk and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24369379

Iommarini, Luisa; Giordano, Luca; Maresca, Alessandra; Pisano, Annalinda; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Caporali, Leonardo; Liguori, Rocco; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Fanelli, Francesca; Fracasso, Flavio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; D’Adamo, Pio; Hudson, Gavin; Pyle, Angela; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Zeviani, Massimo; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Ventura, Dora Fix; Moraes, Milton; Moraes Filho, Milton; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Annamaria; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Tancredi, Andrea; Mancini, Massimiliano; d’Amati, Giulia; Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Cantatore, Palmiro

2014-01-01

49

Efficient mitochondrial biogenesis drives incomplete penetrance in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited blinding disease caused as a result of homoplasmic point mutations in complex I subunit genes of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by incomplete penetrance, as only some mutation carriers become affected. Thus, the mitochondrial DNA mutation is necessary but not sufficient to cause optic neuropathy. Environmental triggers and genetic modifying factors have been considered to explain its variable penetrance. We measured the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass indicators in blood cells from affected and carrier individuals, screening three large pedigrees and 39 independently collected smaller families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, as well as muscle biopsies and cells isolated by laser capturing from post-mortem specimens of retina and optic nerves, the latter being the disease targets. We show that unaffected mutation carriers have a significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass compared with their affected relatives and control individuals. Comparative studies of fibroblasts from affected, carriers and controls, under different paradigms of metabolic demand, show that carriers display the highest capacity for activating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore we postulate that the increased mitochondrial biogenesis in carriers may overcome some of the pathogenic effect of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Screening of a few selected genetic variants in candidate genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis failed to reveal any significant association. Our study provides a valuable mechanism to explain variability of penetrance in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and clues for high throughput genetic screening to identify the nuclear modifying gene(s), opening an avenue to develop predictive genetic tests on disease risk and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24369379

Giordano, Carla; Iommarini, Luisa; Giordano, Luca; Maresca, Alessandra; Pisano, Annalinda; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Caporali, Leonardo; Liguori, Rocco; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Fanelli, Francesca; Fracasso, Flavio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; D'Adamo, Pio; Hudson, Gavin; Pyle, Angela; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Chinnery, Patrick F; Zeviani, Massimo; Salomao, Solange R; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Ventura, Dora Fix; Moraes, Milton; Moraes Filho, Milton; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Annamaria; Sadun, Alfredo A; Tancredi, Andrea; Mancini, Massimiliano; d'Amati, Giulia; Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Cantatore, Palmiro; Carelli, Valerio

2014-02-01

50

Single Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection for Unilateral Acute Nonarteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (ANAION) is the most common optic neuropathy in the elderly population without a well-established treatment. A 67-year-old man with a sudden painless visual loss in his left eye of one-day duration was diagnosed to have left ANAION. Next day, 2?mg aflibercept injection was injected intravitreally in OS. Visual acuity improved to 7/10 from 1/10 a week after the injection. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was reduced to 159,7??m from 182,4??m at the first week. Visual fields improved dramatically during the follow-up of three months. The aim of this study is to present a case having ANAION treated with a single intravitreal aflibercept injection and discuss the place of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in the treatment of armamentarium of ANAION.

Ayhan, Ziya; Kocao?lu, Gamze; Bajin, Meltem Söylev; Saatci, A. Osman

2015-01-01

51

Single intravitreal aflibercept injection for unilateral acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (ANAION) is the most common optic neuropathy in the elderly population without a well-established treatment. A 67-year-old man with a sudden painless visual loss in his left eye of one-day duration was diagnosed to have left ANAION. Next day, 2?mg aflibercept injection was injected intravitreally in OS. Visual acuity improved to 7/10 from 1/10 a week after the injection. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was reduced to 159,7??m from 182,4??m at the first week. Visual fields improved dramatically during the follow-up of three months. The aim of this study is to present a case having ANAION treated with a single intravitreal aflibercept injection and discuss the place of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in the treatment of armamentarium of ANAION. PMID:25632361

Ayhan, Ziya; Kocao?lu, Gamze; Yaman, Aylin; Bajin, Meltem Söylev; Saatci, A Osman

2015-01-01

52

Incipient non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy: a distinct clinical entity, the Singapore scene 3.  

PubMed

We report five cases of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) where spontaneous resolution of the optic disc swelling occurred, and all relevant visual modalities were normal at presentation and remained so until resolution of the process after a median time of 9.6 weeks. This condition, which can be termed 'incipient NA?AION' or 'threatened NA-AION', should be recognised so that unnecessary investigations for other and more serious causes of optic disc swelling can be prevented. PMID:25273931

Chua, Daniel; Cullen, James F

2014-09-01

53

Evidence for a novel x-linked modifier locus for leber hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disease caused by missense mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, incomplete penetrance and a predominance of male patients presenting with vision loss suggest that modifying factors play an important role in the development of the disease. Evidence from several studies suggests that both nuclear modifier genes and environmental factors may be necessary to trigger the optic neuropathy in individuals harboring an LHON-causing mtDNA mutation. Recently, an optic neuropathy susceptibility locus at Xp21-Xq21 has been reported. In this study, we performed X-chromosomal linkage analysis in a large Brazilian family harboring a homoplasmic G11778A mtDNA mutation on a haplogroup J background. We report the identification of a novel LHON susceptibility locus on chromosome Xq25-27.2, with multipoint non-parametric linkage scores of > 5.00 (P = 0.005) and a maximum two-point non-parametric linkage score of 10.12, (P = 0.003) for marker DXS984 (Xq27.1). These results suggest genetic heterogeneity for X-linked modifiers of LHON. PMID:18363168

Shankar, Suma P; Fingert, John H; Carelli, Valerio; Valentino, Maria L; King, Terri M; Daiger, Stephen P; Salomao, Solange R; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Braun, Terri A; Sheffield, Val C; Sadun, Alfredo A; Stone, Edwin M

2008-03-01

54

Changes in Cellular Structures Revealed by Ultra-high Resolution Retinal Imaging in Optic Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To study the integrity of inner and outer retinal layers in patients with various types of optic neuropathy by using high-resolution imaging modalities. METHODS Three high-resolution imaging systems constructed at the University of California Davis were used to acquire retinal images from patients with optic neuropathy: (1) adaptive optics (AO)-flood–illuminated fundus camera, (2) high-resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT), and (3) adaptive optics-Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (AO-FDOCT). The AO fundus camera provides en face images of photoreceptors whereas cross-sectional images (B-scans) of the retina are obtained with both FDOCT and AO-FDOCT. From the volumetric FDOCT data sets, detailed thickness maps of a three-layer complex consisting of the nerve fiber (NF), ganglion cell (GC), and inner plexiform (IP) layers were created. The number of visible cones in the en face images of photoreceptors was then compared with visual sensitivity maps from Humphrey visual field (HVF; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) testing, as well as FDOCT and AO-FDOCT images, including the thickness maps of the NF–GC–IP layer complex. Five types of optic neuropathy were studied: (1) optic neuritis with multiple sclerosis (MS), (2) idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), (3) nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), (4) optic nerve head drusen with NAION, and (5) systemic lupus erythematosus with MS and arthritis. RESULTS With permanent visual field loss and thinning of the NF–GC–IP layer complex, cone photoreceptors showed structural changes, making them less reflective, which caused the appearance of dark spaces in the en face images (hence, reduced number of visible cones) and indistinct outer retinal layers in OCT images. However, when the visual field loss was only transient, with a normal NF–GC–IP layer complex, there were no detectable abnormalities in cone photoreceptors (i.e., they were densely packed and had distinct photoreceptor layering in the OCT images). CONCLUSIONS Cone photoreceptors show structural changes when there is permanent damage to overlying inner retinal layers. There was a positive relation between the thickness of the three-layer inner retinal complex, visual sensitivity, and integrity of the cone mosaic. PMID:18436843

Choi, Stacey S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Keltner, John L.; Werner, John S.

2009-01-01

55

[Hereditary optic neuropathies: from clinical signs to diagnosis].  

PubMed

Inherited optic atrophy must be considered when working up any optic nerve involvement and any systemic disease with signs of optic atrophy, even with a negative family history. There are two classical forms: dominant optic atrophy, characterized by insidious, bilateral, slowly progressive visual loss and temporal disc pallor, and Leber's optic atrophy, characterized by acute loss of central vision followed by the same event in the fellow eye within a few weeks to months, with disc hyperemia in the acute phase. Family history is critical for diagnosis. In the absence of family history, the clinician must rule out an identifiable acquired cause, i.e. toxic, inflammatory, perinatal injury, traumatic or tumoral, with orbital and brain imaging (MRI). Recessive optic atrophies are more rare and more severe and occur as part of multisystemic disorders, particularly Wolfram syndrome (diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and hearing loss). Effective treatments are limited; alcohol and smoking should be avoided. A cyclosporine trial (taken immediately upon visual loss in the first eye) is in progress in Leber's optic atrophy to prevent involvement of the fellow eye. PMID:24161764

Meunier, I; Lenaers, G; Hamel, C; Defoort-Dhellemmes, S

2013-12-01

56

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy - Historical report in comparison with the current knowledge.  

PubMed

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a genetic, maternally inherited disease caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial genome. LHON patients present with sudden, painless and usually bilateral loss of vision caused by optic nerve atrophy. The first clinical description of the disease was made by Theodor Leber, a German ophthalmologist, in 1871. Here we present his thorough notes about members of four families and their pedigrees. We also provide insights into the current knowledge about LHON pathology, genetics and treatment in comparison with Leber's findings. PMID:25261848

Piotrowska, Agnieszka; Korwin, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; To?ska, Katarzyna

2015-01-15

57

Current concepts in the diagnosis, pathogenesis and management of nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common acute optic neuropathy in patients over the age of 50 and is the second most common cause of permanent optic nerve-related visual loss in adults after glaucoma. Patients typically present with acute, painless, unilateral loss of vision associated with a variable visual field defect, a relative afferent pupillary defect, a swollen, hyperaemic optic disc, and one or more flame-shaped peripapillary retinal haemorrhages. The pathogenesis of this condition is unknown, but it occurs primarily in patients with structurally small optic discs that have little or no cup and a variety of underlying vascular disorders that may or may not be known at the time of visual loss. There is no consistently beneficial medical or surgical treatment for the condition, but there are now animal models that allow testing of various potential therapies. About 40% of patients experience spontaneous improvement in visual acuity. Patients in whom NAION occurs in one eye have a 15-19% risk of developing a similar event in the opposite eye over the subsequent 5 years. PMID:24993324

Miller, N R; Arnold, A C

2015-01-01

58

Characterization of macular thickness changes in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy by optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize macular thickness (MT) changes in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients by cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to study the correlation between MT and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Methods Fifty-two eyes from 52 consecutive LHON patients and 14 eyes from 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned by OCT. Affected eyes were classified into five groups according to disease duration (1st group: ?3 months; 2nd group: 3–6 months; 3rd group: 6–9 months; 4th group: 9–12 months; and 5th group: >12 months). MT was compared and analyzed. The correlation between BCVA and MT was calculated. Results Less than six months after LHON onset, the cube average thickness (CAT) and the MT in the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal quadrants of the inner ring and the MT in the nasal quadrant of the outer ring were decreased (P?

2014-01-01

59

Development and validation of a computerized expert system for evaluation of automated visual fields from the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective of this report is to describe the methods used to develop and validate a computerized system to analyze Humphrey visual fields obtained from patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and enrolled in the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial (IONDT). The IONDT was a multicenter study that included randomized and non-randomized patients with newly diagnosed NAION

Steven E Feldon; Lori Levin; Roberta W Scherer; Anthony Arnold; Sophia M Chung; Lenworth N Johnson; Gregory Kosmorsky; Steven A Newman; Joanne Katz; Patricia Langenberg; P David Wilson; Shalom E Kelman; Kay Dickersin

2006-01-01

60

Does altered fractionation influence the risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the parameters that influence the risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1964 and 2000, 273 patients with tumors of the nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, and hard palate adenoid cystic carcinomas were treated with curative intent and had radiation fields that included the optic nerves and/or chiasm. Patients were followed for at least 1 year after radiotherapy. Results: Radiation-induced optic neuropathy developed in 32 eyes of 24 patients (9%). The 5-year rates of freedom from RION according to the total dose and once- vs. twice-daily fractionation were as follows: {<=}63 Gy once daily, 95%; {<=}63 Gy twice daily, 98%; >63 Gy once daily, 78%; and >63 Gy twice daily, 91%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the total dose affected the risk of RION (p = 0.0047), with patient age (p = 0.0909), once-daily vs. twice-daily fractionation (p = 0.0684), and overall treatment time (p = 0.0972) were marginally significant. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy did not significantly influence the likelihood of developing RION. Conclusion: The likelihood of developing RION is primarily influenced by the total dose. Hyperfractionation may reduce the risk of experiencing this complication.

Bhandare, Niranjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Monroe, Alan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bhatti, M. Tariq [Department of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, William M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: mendewil@shands.ufl.edu

2005-07-15

61

Oxidative phosphorylation differences between mitochondrial DNA haplogroups modify the risk of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited optic atrophy caused by mitochondrial DNA point mutations. Previous epidemiological studies have shown that individuals from mitochondrial genetic backgrounds (haplogroups) J/Uk and H have a higher and a lower risk, respectively, of suffering this disorder. To analyze the bases of these associations at cellular and molecular levels, functional studies with cybrids provide high quality evidence. Cybrids from haplogroup J contain less mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) and synthesize a smaller amount of mitochondrial DNA-encoded polypeptides than those from haplogroup H. Haplogroup J cybrids also display lower oxygen consumption, mitochondrial inner membrane potential and total adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA levels correlate with many parameters of the oxidative phosphorylation system. These results suggest that the mitochondrial DNA amount determines oxidative phosphorylation capacity and, along with other recently published observations, support the possibility that mitochondrial DNA levels may be responsible for the bias of the disorder toward males, for the incomplete penetrance of mutations causing Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and for the association of the disease with particular mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. PMID:22561905

Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Pacheu-Grau, David; Martínez-Romero, Iñigo; López-Gallardo, Ester; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

2012-08-01

62

Diabetic Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Is there ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a peripheral nerve disorder ...

63

Molecular screening of 980 cases of suspected hereditary optic neuropathy with a report on 77 novel OPA1 mutations.  

PubMed

We report the results of molecular screening in 980 patients carried out as part of their work-up for suspected hereditary optic neuropathies. All the patients were investigated for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), by searching for the ten primary LHON-causing mtDNA mutations and examining the entire coding sequences of the OPA1 and OPA3 genes, the two genes currently identified in ADOA. Molecular defects were identified in 440 patients (45% of screened patients). Among these, 295 patients (67%) had an OPA1 mutation, 131 patients (30%) had an mtDNA mutation, and 14 patients (3%), belonging to three unrelated families, had an OPA3 mutation. Interestingly, OPA1 mutations were found in 157 (40%) of the 392 apparently sporadic cases of optic atrophy. The eOPA1 locus-specific database now contains a total of 204 OPA1 mutations, including 77 novel OPA1 mutations reported here. The statistical analysis of this large set of mutations has led us to propose a diagnostic strategy that should help with the molecular work-up of optic neuropathies. Our results highlight the importance of investigating LHON-causing mtDNA mutations as well as OPA1 and OPA3 mutations in cases of suspected hereditary optic neuropathy, even in absence of a family history of the disease. PMID:19319978

Ferré, Marc; Bonneau, Dominique; Milea, Dan; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Verny, Christophe; Dollfus, Hélène; Ayuso, Carmen; Defoort, Sabine; Vignal, Catherine; Zanlonghi, Xavier; Charlin, Jean-Francois; Kaplan, Josseline; Odent, Sylvie; Hamel, Christian P; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia

2009-07-01

64

Controversies in neuro-ophthalmology: Steroid therapy for traumatic optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an increase in the incidence of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) due to increasing urbanization and rapid spurt in the number of motor vehicles on the road. Despite early presentation and ease of diagnosis the visual outcomes in TON are still limited. There is also significant confusion about the timing, dose and efficacy of steroid treatment in its management. Purpose: To provide a clinical update of the pros and cons of steroid therapy for TON. Design: The paper is a retrospective review of the currently available literature in the English language indexed in PubMed. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted by the authors using the following terms: Traumatic optic neuropathy, megadose, steroids, methylprednisolone. Relevant original articles, review articles, and case reports related to the topic of discussion were evaluated and discussed in the paper. Results: There is no prospective randomized control trial evaluating the effect of steroids in TON. There are varying reports on the effect of steroid therapy from significant improvement to no difference compared to observation. Conclusion: The decision to give steroids to patients with TON has to be on an individual case to case basis and must involve informed consent from the patient. There are documented advantages and disadvantages of steroid therapy and a prospective, randomized, controlled trial is necessary comparing steroids, surgery and observation before definitive management can be evolved. PMID:25449942

Saxena, Rohit; Singh, Digvijay; Menon, Vimla

2014-01-01

65

Bilateral Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy in a Patient with Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of bilateral posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) in a patient with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Design Observational case report. Participant A 35-year-old male who suffered bilateral visual loss during a severe episode of DKA. Methods Neuro-ophthalmological examination, neuroimaging consisting of a CT scan and MRI of the brain and orbits, as well as a MRA of brain vessels. Results Bilateral PION was diagnosed in a 35-year-old male with no light perception vision, who emerged from a coma caused by severe DKA. The patient developed optic nerve pallor in both eyes 4 weeks after the initial examination. Visual acuity with no light perception in both eyes remained unchanged after 6 months’ follow-up. Conclusions Severe DKA can be complicated by bilateral PION, resulting in total blindness. PMID:21475607

Smolyar, Albert E.; Hamrah, Pedram

2011-01-01

66

Long-term evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy-like symptoms in rotenone administered rats.  

PubMed

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disorder affecting the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that lead to the loss of central vision. This study is aimed at evaluating the LHON symptoms in rats administered with rotenone microspheres into the superior colliculus (SC). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis showed substantial loss of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in rotenone injected rats. Optokinetic testing in rotenone treated rats showed decrease in head-tracking response. Electrophysiological mapping of the SC surface demonstrated attenuation of visually evoked responses; however, no changes were observed in the ERG data. The progressive pattern of disease manifestation in rotenone administered rats demonstrated several similarities with human disease symptoms. These rats with LHON-like symptoms can serve as a model for future investigators to design and implement reliable tests to assess the beneficial effects of therapeutic interventions for LHON disease. PMID:25481764

Zhang, Li; Liu, Laura; Philip, Ann L; Martinez, Juan C; Guttierez, Juan C; Marella, Mathieu; Patki, Gaurav; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao; Thomas, Biju B

2015-01-12

67

Clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: a European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) survey  

PubMed Central

Background This study was performed to determine clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) across Europe. Methods Forty seven patients with DON presented to seven European centres during one year. Local protocols for thyroid status, ophthalmic examination and further investigation were used. Each eye was classified as having definite, equivocal, or no DON. Results Graves' hyperthyroidism occurred in the majority; 20% had received radioiodine. Of 94 eyes, 55 had definite and 17 equivocal DON. Median Clinical Activity Score was 4/7 but 25% scored 3 or less, indicating severe inflammation was not essential. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/9 (Snellen) or worse in 75% of DON eyes. Colour vision was reduced in 33 eyes, of which all but one had DON. Half of the DON eyes had normal optic disc appearance. In DON eyes proptosis was > 21?mm (significant) in 66% and visual fields abnormal in 71%. Orbital imaging showed apical muscle crowding in 88% of DON patients. Optic nerve stretch and fat prolapse were infrequently reported. Conclusion Patients with DON may not have severe proptosis and orbital inflammation. Optic disc swelling, impaired colour vision and radiological evidence of apical optic nerve compression are the most useful clinical features in this series. PMID:17035276

McKeag, David; Lane, Carol; Lazarus, John H; Baldeschi, Lelio; Boboridis, Kostas; Dickinson, A Jane; Hullo, A Iain; Kahaly, George; Krassas, Gerry; Marcocci, Claudio; Marinò, Michele; Mourits, Maarten P; Nardi, Marco; Neoh, Christopher; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Perros, Petros; Pinchera, Aldo; Pitz, Susanne; Prummel, Mark F; Sartini, Maria S; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

2007-01-01

68

Clinical and electrophysiological recovery in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy with G3460A mutation.  

PubMed

To report a case of clinical and electrophysiological recovery in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) with G3460A Mutation. A 10-year-old boy with a three-month history of painless bilateral sequential visual loss upon presentation underwent visual acuity (diminished), anterior and posterior segment examination (normal), fluorescein angiography (normal), Goldman kinetic perimetry (bilateral central scotomata), genetic (a point G3460A mutation) and electrophysiological investigation (undetectable pattern visual evoked potentials (VEP); low amplitude, broadened and reduced flash VEPs and loss of the N95 component in the pattern electroretinograms). Diagnosis of LHON was made. Eighteen months later vision and electrophysiological tests results began spontaneously improving. Kinetic perimetry revealed reduced density and size of scotomata. Two years later, there had been further electrophysiological improvement. This report describes both clinical and electrophysiological improvement in LHON with G3460A mutation. PMID:22684678

Sharkawi, Eamon; Oleszczuk, Justyna D; Holder, Graham E; Raina, Joyti

2012-08-01

69

Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of primary antiphospholipid syndrome  

PubMed Central

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. Ocular involvement in APS includes a broad spectrum of manifestations involving anterior and posterior segment or the presence of neuroophthalmologic features. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a very rare finding, and in this report a case having NAION as the prevailing sign of APS is presented. A middle-aged women who presented with visual disturbances in her left eye (LE) and turned out to have the diagnosis of primary APS with the help of rheumatological investigations is discussed. She was treated with oral steroids for NAION in her LE. With systemic and rheumatological work-up, primary APS was diagnosed, and hydroxychloroquine, coumadin, and aspirin were started, after which she remained stable under control. Due to the important diagnostic and therapeutic implications of APS, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of NAION, particularly when the etiology is uncertain. PMID:23571268

Tugcu, Betul; Acar, Nur; Coskun, Cigdem Tanr?verdi; Celik, Selda; Yigit, Fadime Ulviye

2014-01-01

70

Visual loss related to macular subretinal fluid and cystoid macular edema in HIV-related optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Optic nerve involvement may occur in various infectious diseases, but is rarely reported after infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report the atypical case of a 38-year-old patient in whom the presenting features of HIV infection were due to a bilateral optic neuropathy associated with macular subretinal fluid and cystoid macular edema, which responded well to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22581321

Gautier, David; Rabier, Valérie; Jallet, Ghislaine; Milea, Dan

2012-08-01

71

Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Bevacizumab for Radiation Optic Neuropathy: Secondary to Plaque Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor, bevacizumab, for treatment of radiation optic neuropathy (RON). Methods and Materials: A prospective interventional clinical case series was performed of 14 patients with RON related to plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. The RON was characterized by optic disc edema, hemorrhages, microangiopathy, and neovascularization. The entry criteria included a subjective or objective loss of vision, coupled with findings of RON. The study subjects received a minimum of two initial injections of intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg in 0.05 mL) every 6-8 weeks. The primary objectives included safety and tolerability. The secondary objectives included the efficacy as measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart for visual acuity, fundus photography, angiography, and optical coherence tomography/scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Results: Reductions in optic disc hemorrhage and edema were noted in all patients. The visual acuity was stable or improved in 9 (64%) of the 14 patients. Of the 5 patients who had lost vision, 2 had relatively large posterior tumors, 1 had had the vision decrease because of intraocular hemorrhage, and 1 had developed optic atrophy. The fifth patient who lost vision was noncompliant. No treatment-related ocular or systemic side effects were observed. Conclusions: Intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor bevacizumab was tolerated and generally associated with improved vision, reduced papillary hemorrhage, and resolution of optic disc edema. Persistent optic disc neovascularization and fluorescein angiographic leakage were invariably noted. The results of the present study support additional evaluation of antivascular endothelial growth factor medications as treatment of RON.

Finger, Paul T., E-mail: pfinger@eyecancer.com [New York Eye Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Chin, Kimberly J. [New York Eye Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2012-02-01

72

Mathematically Modeling the Involvement of Axons in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a mitochondrial disease, has clinical manifestations that reflect the initial preferential involvement of the papillomacular bundle (PMB). The present study seeks to predict the order of axonal loss in LHON optic nerves using the Nerve Fiber Layer Stress Index (NFL-SI), which is a novel mathematical model. Methods. Optic nerves were obtained postmortem from four molecularly characterized LHON patients with varying degrees of neurodegenerative changes and three age-matched controls. Tissues were cut in cross-section and stained with p-phenylenediamine to visualize myelin. Light microscopic images were captured in 32 regions of each optic nerve. Control and LHON tissues were evaluated by measuring axonal dimensions to generate an axonal diameter distribution map. LHON tissues were further evaluated by determining regions of total axonal depletion. Results. A size gradient was evident in the control optic nerves, with average axonal diameter increasing progressively from the temporal to nasal borders. LHON optic nerves showed an orderly loss of axons, starting inferotemporally, progressing centrally, and sparing the superonasal region until the end. Values generated from the NFL-SI equation fit a linear regression curve (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The quantitative histopathologic data from this study revealed that the PMB is most susceptible in LHON, supporting clinical findings seen early in the course of disease onset. The present study also showed that the subsequent progression of axonal loss within the optic nerve can be predicted precisely with the NFL-SI equation. The results presented provided further insight into the pathophysiology of LHON. PMID:23060142

Pan, Billy X.; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Carelli, Valerio; Rue, Kelly S.; Salomao, Solange R.; Moraes-Filho, Milton N.; Moraes, Milton N.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Sadun, Alfredo A.

2012-01-01

73

Safety and Effects of the Vector for the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Gene Therapy Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE We developed a novel strategy for treatment of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) caused by a mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit IV (ND4) mitochondrial gene. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the safety and effects of the gene therapy vector to be used in a proposed gene therapy clinical trial. DESIGN AND SETTING In a series of laboratory experiments, we modified the mitochondrial ND4 subunit of complex I in the nuclear genetic code for import into mitochondria. The protein was targeted into the organelle by agency of a targeting sequence (allotopic expression). The gene was packaged into adeno-associated viral vectors and then vitreally injected into rodent, nonhuman primate, and ex vivo human eyes that underwent testing for expression and integration by immunohistochemical analysis and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. During serial follow-up, the animal eyes underwent fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, and multifocal or pattern electroretinography. We tested for rescue of visual loss in rodent eyes also injected with a mutant G11778A ND4 homologue responsible for most cases of LHON. EXPOSURE Ocular infection with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors containing a wild-type allotopic human ND4 gene. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Expression of human ND4 and rescue of optic neuropathy induced by mutant human ND4. RESULTS We found human ND4 expressed in almost all mouse retinal ganglion cells by 1 week after injection and ND4 integrated into the mouse complex I. In rodent eyes also injected with a mutant allotopic ND4, wild-type allotopic ND4 prevented defective adenosine triphosphate synthesis, suppressed visual loss, reduced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and prevented demise of axons in the optic nerve. Injection of ND4 in the ex vivo human eye resulted in expression in most retinal ganglion cells. Primates undergoing vitreal injection with the ND4 test article and followed up for 3 months had no serious adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Expression of our allotopic ND4 vector in the ex vivo human eye, safety of the test article, rescue of the LHON mouse model, and the severe irreversible loss of visual function in LHON support clinical testing with mutated G11778A mitochondrial DNA in our patients. PMID:24457989

Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D.; Yu, Hong; Chou, Tsung-Han; Feuer, William J.; Ruggeri, Marco; Porciatti, Vittorio; Tse, David; Hauswirth, William W.; Chiodo, Vince; Boye, Sanford L.; Lewin, Alfred S.; Neuringer, Martha; Renner, Lauren; Guy, John

2014-01-01

74

Case report: hyperbaric oxygen and MRI findings in radiation-induced optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy has been utilized in conjunction with systemic corticosteroid administration for treating radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RON) with varying success. We present the case of a 78-year-old female with RON who received two courses of HBO2 (without corticosteroids) and also pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her brain. Her visual acuity subjectively and functionally improved throughout her first course of 30 treatments, including regaining the ability to ambulate independently, but subsequently deteriorated following completion. A second course of 40 additional treatments was prescribed; the patient's visual symptoms subjectively improved once more, followed again with subsequent decline after treatment. Post-treatment MRI also showed resolution of previously visible optic nerve contrast enhancement. This patient represents the 27th reported case of RON treated with HBO2 and the first reported case of radiologic and transient symptomatic improvement without concomitant steroid use. Our case adds additional evidence to the limited anecdotal data supporting MRI correlation with RON symptoms and HBO2 in RON treatment as well. PMID:24649718

Li, Charles Q; Gerson, Samuel; Snyder, Brian

2014-01-01

75

Genetic polymorphisms associated with endothelial function in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the relationship between nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and genetic polymorphisms of enzymes influencing endothelial function. Methods The subjects were 34 patients with NAION (mean age, 62.4 years old; 59% male) and 102 controls (mean age, 63.8 years old; 66% male). Genetic polymorphisms were investigated in three candidate genes associated with endothelial function: endothelin-1 (ET-1), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). The genotype distributions in the patients with NAION were compared with those in the controls. Results There were no significant differences in the genotype distributions of the ACE I/D and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms between the NAION and control groups (p=0.261 and p=0.354, respectively), whereas the genotype distribution of the G/T (Lys198Asn) polymorphism of the ET-1 gene varied significantly between the groups (p=0.009). After adjusting for covariates, individuals with the TT genotype of the Lys198Asn polymorphism were more likely to develop NAION compared with those with the GG genotype (odds ratio=4.43, 95% confidence interval 1.33–14.73, p=0.015). Conclusions We found an increased prevalence of a G/T polymorphism of the ET-1 gene in patients with NAION. Our data suggest that this polymorphism may be an important risk factor in developing NAION in the Japanese population. PMID:23401650

Shikishima, Keigo; Matsushima, Masato; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

76

A Female Patient with Down Syndrome and Low-Penetrance Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 19-year-old female with a history of Down syndrome (DS) who was referred to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic for evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The patient's family history was significant for a known G11778A mutation in a maternal relative, consistent with LHON. The patient was also positive for the G11778A mutation; however, the genotype demonstrated low penetrance in the pedigree, with only 1 out of 10 adult male offspring showing signs or symptoms of the disease. Mitochondrial mutations implicated in LHON have been shown to impair complex I of the electron transport chain and thereby reducing the effective generation of adenosine triphosphate and increasing the production of toxic reactive oxygen species. Although the partial or complete triplicate of chromosome 21 constitutes the etiology of DS, some of the pleiotropic phenotypes of the syndrome have been attributed to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Given the low penetrance of the mutation and the patient's sex, this case illustrates the possibility that the mitochondrial mutation demonstrated increased penetrance due to pre-existing mitochondrial dysfunction related to DS.

Frousiakis, Starleen E.; Pouw, Andrew E.; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A.

2014-01-01

77

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with mitochondrial ND6 T14502C mutation  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of three Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). There were variable severity and age of onset in visual impairment among these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the homoplasmic T14502C (I58V) mutation, which localized at a highly conserved isoleucine at position 58 of ND6, and distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphisms belonging to haplogroups M10a, F1a1, and H2. The occurrence of T14502C mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by visual impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of visual impairment. Here, mtDNA variants I187T in the ND1, A122V in CO1, S99A in the A6, and V254I in CO3 exhibited an evolutionary conservation, indicating a potential modifying role in the development of visual impairment associated with T14502C mutation in those families. Furthermore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s) may play a role in the phenotypic manifestation of the LHON-associated T14502C mutation in these Chinese families.

Zhao, Fuxin [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Guan, Minqiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhou, Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yuan, Meixia; Liang, Ming [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Liu, Qi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yongmei [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yang, Li [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)] [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Tong, Yi [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005 (China); Wei, Qi-Ping; Sun, Yan-Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Qu, Jia, E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); and others

2009-11-20

78

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with mitochondrial ND1 T3394C mutation  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of four Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). There were variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment among these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the homoplasmic T3394C (Y30H) mutation, which localized at a highly conserved tyrosine at position 30 of ND1, and distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphisms belonging to haplogroups D4b and M9a. The occurrence of T3394C mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by visual impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of visual impairment. However, there was the absence of functionally significant mtDNA mutations in these four Chinese pedigrees carrying the T3394C mutation. Therefore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s) may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated T3394C mutation.

Liang, Min [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Guan, Minqiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhao, Fuxing; Zhou, Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yuan, Meixia [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Tong, Yi [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005 (China); Yang, Li [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)] [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wei, Qi-Ping; Sun, Yan-Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Lu, Fan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qu, Jia, E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); and others

2009-06-05

79

Clinical Profile and Visual Outcomes after Treatment in Patients with Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the clinical data and visual outcomes after treatment of patients with dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and orbital images of 40 patients (65 eyes) with DON and analyzed the visual outcomes after treatment with intravenous steroids pulse therapy, radiotherapy and orbital decompression. Results The study included 21 men and 19 women, with 10 (25%) being diabetic patients. Visual field test results revealed defects in 88.7% of DON eyes; afferent pupillary defects in 63.2%; reduced color vision in 78.5%; and abnormal visual evoked potentials in 84%. Orbital imaging showed moderate to severe apical crowding in 95% of the orbits and intracranial fat prolapse in 24.2%. Median best corrected visual acuity improved from 0.4 to 1.0 after one year of treatment (p < 0.001). We noted more improvement in vision with the use of decompressive surgery than with non-surgical methods (p < 0.05). Recurrences occurred in 7 patients who had not received orbital radiotherapy. Conclusions Visual field defects and apical crowding seen on orbital imaging were the most sensitive indicators for the detection of DON. Treatment with intravenous steroids pulse therapy, radiotherapy and orbital decompression effectively improved visual outcomes in cases of DON. PMID:22511831

Jeon, Chan; Shin, Jae Ho; Woo, Kyung In

2012-01-01

80

Neuron-Specific Enolase Is Elevated in Asymptomatic Carriers of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a biomarker for neuronal stress. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease affecting retinal ganglion cells (RGC). These RGCs and their axons in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head may show subclinical pathology in unaffected mutation carriers, or undergo cell death in affected patients. We hypothesize that increased levels of blood NSE may characterize LHON carriers as a biomarker of ongoing RGC stress. Methods. Serum was obtained from 74 members of a Brazilian pedigree with LHON carrying the homoplasmic 11778/ND4 mitochondrial DNA mutation. Classified by symptoms and psychophysical metrics, 46/74 patients were unaffected mutation “carriers,” 14/74 were “affected,” and 14/74 were “off-pedigree” controls. Serum NSE levels were determined by ELISA specific for the ? subunit of NSE. Results. Serum NSE concentrations in carriers (27.17 ± 39.82 ?g/L) were significantly higher than affected (5.66 ± 4.19 ?g/L; P = 0.050) and off-pedigree controls (6.20 ± 2.35 ?g/L; P = 0.047). Of the 14/46 (30.4 %) carriers with significantly elevated NSE levels (mean = 75.8 ± 42.3 ?g/L), 9/14 (64.3%) were male. Furthermore, NSE levels were nearly three times greater in asymptomatic male carriers (40.65 ± 51.21 ?g/L) than in asymptomatic female carriers (15.85 ± 22.27 ?g/L; P = 0.034). Conclusions. Serum NSE levels are higher in LHON carriers compared with affected and off-pedigree individuals. A subgroup of mostly male carriers had significantly elevated serum NSE levels. Thus, male carriers are at higher risk for LHON-related neuronal stress. PMID:22893673

Yee, Kenneth M.; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Lee, Jeong Goo; Da Rosa, Arlon Bastos; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Chicani, Filipe; Moraes-Filho, Milton; Sebag, Jerry; Carelli, Valerio; Sadun, Alfredo A.

2012-01-01

81

SUBCLINICAL CARRIERS AND CONVERSIONS IN LEBER HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY: A PROSPECTIVE PSYCHOPHYSICAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Purpose The authors previously presented the results of their 2001 field investigation to rural Brazil to investigate a 336-member pedigree of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The present work describes the yearly field investigations 2001 to 2005, utilizing a variety of highly sophisticated psychophysical and electrophysiologic procedures, in asymptomatic LHON carriers, some of whom converted to affected status. Methods Careful, repeated examinations of 75 carriers of homoplasmic 11778 LHON mtDNA J-haplogroup mutants were performed as part of the field investigation of this pedigree. All subjects underwent a detailed neuro-ophthalmologic investigation, including formal visual fields (Humphrey; HVF) and fundus photography. In addition, many subjects underwent rigorous psychophysical examination, including Cambridge Research Systems color vision and contrast sensitivity testing, OCT, GDx, and multifocal visual evoked response (mfVER) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Two patients followed as nonsymptomatic LHON carriers converted to affected status. Results Many LHON carriers did, in fact, show subclinical or occult abnormalities. Focal edema was often seen involving the arcuate nerve fiber bundles, and this corresponded with areas of relative paracentral or arcuate scotomas on HVF testing. Compared to controls, LHON carriers had significant losses in color vision affecting mostly the red-green system and reduction in spatial but not temporal contrast sensitivity. The mfVER and mfERG data showed that most carriers had depressed central responses and abnormal interocular asymmetries. Conclusions In this very large pedigree of 11778 LHON, the carriers frequently showed manifestations of optic nerve impairments. Their occult disease reflected low-grade compromise that waxed and waned. In two cases, these changes led to a crescendo of dramatic impairments that characterize conversion to affected status. PMID:17471325

Sadun, Alfredo A.; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Sadun, Federico; DeNegri, Anna Maria; Quiros, Peter A.; Chicani, Filipe; Ventura, Dora; Barboni, Piero; Sherman, Jerome; Sutter, Erich; Belfort, Rubens; Carelli, Valerio

2006-01-01

82

Neuropathy Association  

MedlinePLUS

... FIND US ON Boston Skyscraper Shines Purple and Gold for Millions Living With Neuropathy! Photo Credit: Michael ... Tower in Boston, MA lit up, purple and gold, for over 20 million people living with neuropathy. ...

83

Long-term Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Single-Fraction Stereotactic Radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the long-term risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) in patients having single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for benign skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 222 patients having Gamma Knife radiosurgery for benign tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway (AVP) between 1991 and 1999. Excluded were patients with prior or concurrent external beam radiation therapy or SRS. One hundred twenty-nine patients (58%) had undergone previous surgery. Tumor types included confirmed World Health Organization grade 1 or presumed cavernous sinus meningioma (n=143), pituitary adenoma (n=72), and craniopharyngioma (n=7). The maximum dose to the AVP was ?8.0 Gy (n=126), 8.1-10.0 Gy (n=39), 10.1-12.0 Gy (n=47), and >12 Gy (n=10). Results: The mean clinical and imaging follow-up periods were 83 and 123 months, respectively. One patient (0.5%) who received a maximum radiation dose of 12.8 Gy to the AVP developed unilateral blindness 18 months after SRS. The chance of RION according to the maximum radiation dose received by the AVP was 0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-3.6%), 0 (95% CI 0-10.7%), 0 (95% CI 0-9.0%), and 10% (95% CI 0-43.0%) for patients receiving ?8 Gy, 8.1-10.0 Gy, 10.1-12.0 Gy, and >12 Gy, respectively. The overall risk of RION in patients receiving >8 Gy to the AVP was 1.0% (95% CI 0-6.2%). Conclusions: The risk of RION after single-fraction SRS in patients with benign skull base tumors who have no prior radiation exposure is very low if the maximum dose to the AVP is ?12 Gy. Physicians performing single-fraction SRS should remain cautious when treating lesions adjacent to the AVP, especially when the maximum dose exceeds 10 Gy.

Leavitt, Jacqueline A., E-mail: leavitt.jacqueline@mayo.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stafford, Scott L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Link, Michael J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Pollock, Bruce E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

2013-11-01

84

Point mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in a Latvian population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in patients suspected of having this mitochondrial disorder in a Latvian population. Additional aims were to determine the heteroplasmy status of all non-synonymous polymorphisms identified in the current study and to identify the mitochondrial haplogroups of the studied participants because these factors may contribute to the manifestation of LHON. Methods Twelve patients, including patients in two families, were enrolled in the current study. LHON was suspected based on the findings of ophthalmologic examinations. In clinically affected individuals, the presence of all previously reported LHON-associated mutations was assessed with sequencing analysis. Additionally, the SURVEYOR endonuclease assay was used to detect heteroplasmy. The mitochondrial haplogroups were identified with restriction analysis and the sequencing of hypervariable segment 1. Results In one family (mother and son), there was one primary LHON-associated mutation, G11778A. In addition, one rare previously reported LHON-associated polymorphism, A13637G, was detected in two unrelated patients. A non-synonymous polymorphism at T6253C was found in one individual. This mutation was reported in the background of the 3460 mutation among LHON patients in a Chinese population. No non-synonymous point mutations in mitochondrial DNA were found in five of the study participants. Conclusions Molecular analysis of 12 patients with suspected LHON confirmed the diagnosis in four patients and allowed the use of appropriate prophylactic measures and treatment. Further investigations and additional studies of different populations are necessary to confirm the role of the non-synonymous polymorphisms A13637G and T6253C in the manifestation of LHON and the associations of these polymorphisms with mitochondrial haplogroups and heteroplasmy. PMID:24319328

Baumane, Kristine; Zalite, Solveiga; Ranka, Renate; Zole, Egija; Pole, Ilva; Sepetiene, Svetlana; Laganovska, Guna; Baumanis, Viesturs; Pliss, Liana

2013-01-01

85

A very large Brazilian pedigree with 11778 Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: We conducted extensive epidemiological, neuro-ophthalmological, psychophysical, and blood examinations on a newly discovered, very large pedigree with molecular analysis showing mtDNA mutation for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). METHODS: Four patients representing four index cases from a remote area of Brazil were sent to Sao Paulo, where complete ophthalmological examinations strongly suggested LHON. Molecular analysis of their blood demonstrated that they were LHON, homoplasmic 11778, J-haplogroup. They had an extensive family that all lived in one rural area in Brazil. To investigate this family, we drew on a number of international experts to form a team that traveled to Brazil. This field team also included several members of the Federal University of Sao Paulo, and together we evaluated 273 of the 295 family members that were still alive. We conducted epidemiological interviews emphasizing possible environmental risk factors, comprehensive neuro-ophthalmological examinations, psychophysical tests, Humphrey visual field studies, fundus photography, and blood testing for both mitochondrial genetic analysis and nuclear gene linkage analysis. RESULTS: The person representing the first-generation case immigrated from Verona, Italy, to Colatina. Subsequent generations demonstrated penetrance rates of 71%, 60%, 34%, 15%, and 9%. The percentages of males were 60%, 50%, 64%, 100%, and 100%. Age at onset varied from 10 to 64 years, and current visual acuities varied from LP to 20/400. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 95% of a nearly 300-member pedigree with LHON 11778 were comprehensively studied. Analysis of environmental risk factors and a nuclear modifying factor from this group may help address the perplexing mystery of LHON: Why do only some of the genetically affected individuals manifest the disease? This fully described database may also provide an excellent opportunity for future clinical trials of any purported neuroprotective agent. PMID:12545691

Sadun, Alfredo A; Carelli, Valerio; Salomao, Solange R; Berezovsky, Adriana; Quiros, Peter; Sadun, Federico; DeNegri, Anna-Maria; Andrade, Rafael; Schein, Stan; Belfort, Rubens

2002-01-01

86

Mitochondrial DNA variant associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and high-altitude Tibetans.  

PubMed

The distinction between mild pathogenic mtDNA mutations and population polymorphisms can be ambiguous because both are homoplasmic, alter conserved functions, and correlate with disease. One possible explanation for this ambiguity is that the same variant may have different consequences in different contexts. The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) nucleotide 3394 T > C (Y30H) variant is such a case. This variant has been associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and it reduces complex I activity and cellular respiration between 7% and 28% on the Asian B4c and F1 haplogroup backgrounds. However, complex I activity between B4c and F1 mtDNAs, which harbor the common 3394T allele, can also differ by 30%. In Asia, the 3394C variant is most commonly associated with the M9 haplogroup, which is rare at low elevations but increases in frequency with elevation to an average of 25% of the Tibetan mtDNAs (odds ratio = 23.7). In high-altitude Tibetan and Indian populations, the 3394C variant occurs on five different macrohaplogroup M haplogroup backgrounds and is enriched on the M9 background in Tibet and the C4a4 background on the Indian Deccan Plateau (odds ratio = 21.9). When present on the M9 background, the 3394C variant is associated with a complex I activity that is equal to or higher than that of the 3394T variant on the B4c and F1 backgrounds. Hence, the 3394C variant can either be deleterious or beneficial depending on its haplogroup and environmental context. Thus, this mtDNA variant fulfills the criteria for a common variant that predisposes to a "complex" disease. PMID:22517755

Ji, Fuyun; Sharpley, Mark S; Derbeneva, Olga; Alves, Leonardo Scherer; Qian, Pin; Wang, Yaoli; Chalkia, Dimitra; Lvova, Maria; Xu, Jiancheng; Yao, Wei; Simon, Mariella; Platt, Julia; Xu, Shiqin; Angelin, Alessia; Davila, Antonio; Huang, Taosheng; Wang, Ping H; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Moore, Lorna G; Qian, Guisheng; Wallace, Douglas C

2012-05-01

87

A case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy of a male with family history of the disease after receiving sildenafil  

PubMed Central

A 51-year-old male was referred to the University Eye Clinic of Ioannina with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) 12 hours after receiving sildenafil citrate (Viagra®). Examination for possible risk factors revealed mild hypercholesterolemia. Family history showed that his father had suffered from bilateral NAION. Although a cause-and-effect relationship is difficult to prove, there are reports indicating an association between the use of erectile dysfunction agents and the development of NAION. Physicians might need to investigate the presence of family history of NAION among systemic or vascular predisposing risk factors before prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs. PMID:22034568

Felekis, T; Asproudis, I; Katsanos, K; Tsianos, EV

2011-01-01

88

Phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain is a marker of neurodegeneration in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the profile of neurodegeneration in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods We quantitated serum levels of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H) in a Brazilian pedigree of 16 affected patients and 59 carriers with LHON, both molecularly characterized as harboring the G to A mutation at nucleotide 11,778 of the mitochondrial genome. The association of subject characteristics to pNF-H levels was studied with multiple regression; pNF-H data were square-root transformed to effect normality of distribution of residuals. Relationships between the square-root of pNF-H and age and sex were investigated within groups with Pearson correlation and the two-sample t-test. Linear regression was used to assess the difference between groups and to determine if the relationship of age was different between affected individuals and carriers. Results of plotting pNF-H levels by age suggested a nonlinear, quadratic association so age squared was used in the statistical analysis. ANCOVA was used to assess the influence of age and group on pNF-H levels. Results In the carrier group, there was a significant correlation of square-root pNF-H (mean=0.24 ng/ml2) with age (r=0.30, p=0.022) and a stronger correlation with quadratic age (r=0.37, p=0.003). With a higher mean pNF-H (0.33 ng/ml2) for the affected group, correlations were of similar magnitude, although they were not statistically significant: age (r=0.22, p=0.42), quadratic age (r=0.22, p=0.45). There was no correlation between age and pNF-H levels (mean=0.34 ng/ml2) in the off-pedigree group: age (r=0.03, p=0.87), quadratic age (r=0.04, p=0.84). There was no difference between sexes and pNF-H levels in any of the groups (affected, p=0.65; carriers, p=0.19; off-pedigree, p=0.93). Conclusions Elevated pNF-H released into the serum of some affected LHON patients may suggest that axonal degeneration occurs at some point after loss of visual function. Increases in pNF-H levels of carriers with increasing age, not seen in off-pedigree controls, may suggest subtle subclinical optic nerve degeneration. PMID:19104679

Shaw, Gerry; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Quiros, Peter; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Carelli, Valerio; Feuer, William J.; Sadun, Alfredo A.

2008-01-01

89

Variation in OPA1 does not explain the incomplete penetrance of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a common cause of inherited blindness, primarily due to one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. These mtDNA pathogenic mutations have variable clinical penetrance. Recent linkage evidence raised the possibility that the nuclear gene optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) determines whether mtDNA mutation carriers develop blindness. To validate these findings we studied OPA1 in three independent LHON cohorts: sequencing the gene in discordant male sib pairs, carrying out a family-based association study of common functional genetic variants, and carrying out a population-based association study of the same genetic variants. Methods We tested 3 hypothesis in three separate study groups. Study group 1: Direct sequencing of OPA1 coding regions was performed using sequencing methodologies (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Chromatograms were compared with the GenBank reference sequence NM_015560.1. Splice-site prediction was performed using GeneSplicer. Study group 2: Genotyping for rs166850 and rs10451941 was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with specific primers for both genotypes, using The restriction enzymes RsaI and FspBI to discriminate genotypes. Study group 3: Genotyping for rs166850 and rs10451941 was performed by primer extension of allele-specific extensions products by matrix-associated laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF, Seqeunom, San Diego, CA) mass spectrometry. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared using Pearson’s chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression was performed to look for interactions between the variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS software version 17.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results In all three groups we were unable to find an association between OPA1 genetic variation and visual failure in LHON mtDNA mutation carriers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that genetic variation in OPA1 is unlikely to make a major contribution to the risk of blindness in LHON mutation carriers. PMID:21203403

Hudson, Gavin; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Griffiths, Phillip G.; Caporali, Leonardo; Salomao, Solange S.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Carelli, Valerio; Zeviani, Massimo

2010-01-01

90

Beta-zone parapapillary atrophy and multifocal visual evoked potentials in eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

We investigated changes in multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) responses due to beta-zone parapapillary atrophy (ßPPA). Patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) with or without standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) abnormalities were referred for mfVEP testing during a 2-year period. Eyes with good quality optic disc stereophotographs and reliable SAP results were included. The mfVEP monocular mean latency delays (ms) and amplitudes (SNR) were analyzed. Age, SAP mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and spherical equivalent (SE) were analyzed in the multivariate model. Generalized estimated equations were used for comparisons between groups after adjusting for inter-eye associations. Of 394 eyes of 200 patients, 223 (57%) had ßPPA. The ßPPA eyes were older (59.6 ± 13.7 vs. 56.5 ± 13.7 year, P = 0.02), more myopic (-4.0 ± 3.5 vs. -1.3 ± 3.5 D, P < 0.01), and had poorer SAP scores (MD: -4.9 ± 5.2 vs. -2.6 ± 5.2 dB, P < 0.01; PSD: 4.3 ± 2.9 vs. 2.5 ± 3.0 dB, P < 0.01). By univariate analysis, mean latencies were longer in ßPPA eyes (6.1 ± 5.3 vs. 4.0 ± 5.5 ms, P < 0.01). After adjusting for differences in SE, age, and SAP MD, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.09). ßPPA eyes had lower amplitude log SNR (0.49 ± 0.16 vs. 0.56 ± 0.15, P < 0.01), which lost significance (P = 0.51) after adjusting for MD and PSD. Although eyes with ßPPA had significantly lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies than eyes without ßPPA, these differences were attributable to differences in SAP severity, age, and refractive error. Thus, ßPPA does not appear to be an independent factor affecting mfVEP responses in eyes with GON. PMID:21735265

De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Ketner, Scott; Teng, Christopher C; Ehrlich, Joshua R; Raza, Ali S; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C

2011-08-01

91

Rare Primary Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Probable Synergistic Variants in Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disorder, which in over 90% of cases is due to one of three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations (m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C, respectively in MT-ND4, MT-ND1 and MT-ND6 genes). However, the spectrum of mtDNA mutations causing the remaining 10% of cases is only partially and often poorly defined. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve such a list of pathological variants, we completely sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of suspected LHON patients from Italy, France and Germany, lacking the three primary common mutations. Phylogenetic and conservation analyses were performed. Sixteen mitochondrial genomes were found to harbor at least one of the following nine rare LHON pathogenic mutations in genes MT-ND1 (m.3700G>A/p.A132T, m.3733G>A-C/p.E143K-Q, m.4171C>A/p.L289M), MT-ND4L (m.10663T>C/p.V65A) and MT-ND6 (m.14459G>A/p.A72V, m.14495A>G/p.M64I, m.14482C>A/p.L60S, and m.14568C>T/p.G36S). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these substitutions were due to independent events on different haplogroups, whereas interspecies comparisons showed that they affected conserved amino acid residues or domains in the ND subunit genes of complex I. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that these nine substitutions are all primary LHON mutations. Therefore, despite their relative low frequency, they should be routinely tested for in all LHON patients lacking the three common mutations. Moreover, our sequence analysis confirms the major role of haplogroups J1c and J2b (over 35% in our probands versus 6% in the general population of Western Europe) and other putative synergistic mtDNA variants in LHON expression. PMID:22879922

Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Reynier, Pascal; La Morgia, Chiara; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Liguori, Rocco; Pizza, Fabio; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Anna Maria; Zeviani, Massimo; Dollfus, Helene; Moulignier, Antoine; Ducos, Ghislaine; Orssaud, Christophe; Bonneau, Dominique; Procaccio, Vincent; Leo-Kottler, Beate; Fauser, Sascha; Wissinger, Bernd; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Torroni, Antonio; Carelli, Valerio

2012-01-01

92

Inherited Neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Inherited peripheral neuropathies are among the most common hereditary diseases of the nervous system. Charcot-Marie-Tooth\\u000a (CMT) disease, also known from previous classifications as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is certainly the\\u000a most common inherited neuropathy. In the past several years, various treatments for CMT have been proposed, although specific\\u000a therapies are not yet available. In clinical practice, rehabilitative

Angelo Schenone; Lucilla Nobbio; Margherita Monti Bragadin; Giulia Ursino; Marina Grandis

2011-01-01

93

AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of many of the systemic amyloidoses. Although the cause of neuropathy is not entirely clear, it is likely related to amyloid deposition within the nerve. This may lead to focal, multifocal, or diffuse neuropathies involving sensory, motor and/or autonomic fibers. The presenting symptoms depend on the distribution of nerves affected. One of the most common phenotypes is sensorimotor polyneuropathy, which is characterized by symptoms of neuropathic pain, numbness, and in advanced cases weakness. Symptoms begin in the feet and ultimately progress to the proximal legs and hands. The most common focal neuropathy is a median neuropathy at the wrist, or clinically known as carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel symptoms may include pain and sensory disturbances in the lateral palm and fingers; hand weakness may ensue if the focal neuropathy is severe. Autonomic neuropathy may affect a variety of organ systems such as the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Symptoms may be non-specific making the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy more difficult to identify. However, it is important to recognize and distinguish autonomic neuropathy from diseases of the end-organs themselves. This chapter reviews the inherited and acquired amyloidoses that affect the peripheral nervous system including familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and primary, secondary and senile amyloidosis. We emphasize the clinical presentation of the neurologic aspects of these diseases, physical examination findings, appropriate diagnostic evaluation, treatment and prognosis. PMID:23239211

Shin, Susan C.; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

2012-01-01

94

Very high penetrance and occurrence of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy in a large Han Chinese pedigree carrying the ND4 G11778A mutation  

PubMed Central

We report here the clinical, genetics and molecular characterization of a five-generation Han Chinese family with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Strikingly, this family exhibits very high penetrance and occurrence of optic neuropathy. In particular, twenty-five (10 males/15 females) of 30 matrilineal relatives exhibited the variable severity, ranging from profound to mild of visual impairment. This penetrance of optic neuropathy in this Chinese family is much higher than those in many families with LHON worldwide. The age-at-onset for visual impairment in matrilineal relatives in this Chinese family varied from 7 to 24 years old, with the average of 15 years old. Furthermore, the ratio between affected male and female matrilineal relatives is 1:1.5 in the Chinese family. This observation is in contrast with the typical features in LHON pedigrees that there was predominance of affected males in LHON in many families from different ethnic origins. Molecular analysis of mitochondrial genome identified the known ND4 G11778A mutation and 51 variants, belonging to Asian haplogroup C4a1. The absence of other known secondary LHON-associated and functionally significant mtDNA mutations in this Chinese family suggested that mitochondrial variants may not play an important role in the phenotypic manifestation of the G11778A mutation in this Chinese family. Therefore, nuclear modifier gene(s) may be responsible for very high penetrance and occurrence of optic neuropathy in this Chinese pedigree. PMID:20627642

Zhou, Xiangtian; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhao, Fuxin; Ji, Yanchun; Tong, Yi; Zhang, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Li; Qian, Yaping; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Guan, Min-Xin

2010-01-01

95

[New insights into the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and refinement of the objective assessment of its functional damage].  

PubMed

Glaucomatous optic neuropathy is a primary pathological condition responsible for visual dysfunction due to glaucoma. However, how intraocular pressure and other risk factors lead to glaucomatous optic neuropathy is not fully understood. Given that static or kinetic visual field tests for evaluating visual dysfunction in glaucomatous optic neuropathy are a subjective assessments based on a psychophysical principle, the development of a tool for objective assessment of the visual field is needed. In this study, we attempt to elucidate the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and to refine a modality for the objective assessment of the visual dysfunction due to it. Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are located primarily in the plasma membrane. These proteins form either a homo- or hetero-tetramer and allow water to cross the plasma membrane bi-directionally. The transmembrane water movement through AQPs is critically involved in the maintenance of normal neuronal activity. Among the 13 isoforms indentified so far, AQP-4 is known to be expressed in the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve. However, the optic nerve head, the primary pathological site of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, reportedly does not express AQP-4. We found that in control rats, astrocytes throughout the optic nerve express AQP-9. The chronic elevation of intraocular pressure due to cauterization of three episcleral veins substantially reduced both gene expression and immunoreactivity of AQP-9, whereas it did not change the AQP-4 gene or protein expression in the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve. These findings are implicated in the chronic elevation of intraocular pressure in astrocytes. Similar findings were also observed in the eyes of a monkey with angle-laser-induced ocular hypertension and of a human with primary open-angle glaucoma. AQP-9 was also expressed in the cell bodies of retinal ganglion cells in control rats and its expression was significantly reduced in the eyes of rats with ocular hypertension. Recently, the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis has been proposed. This hypothesis suggests that lactate generated by glucose during glycolysis in astrocytes is used by neurons as an energy substrate. Given that AQP-9 belongs to an aquaglyceroporin subfamily and allows solutes other than water (e.g., lactate) to cross the plasma membrane, chronic ocular hypertension may perturb this physiological passage of lactate. Thus, lactate as the energy substrate may be unable to be transported from astrocytes to retinal ganglion cells at the cell bodies and axons due to the reduction of AQP-9 expression by astrocytes at the optic nerve head and retinal ganglion cells. The multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) is an objective visual field test, which enables the recording of cortical potential corresponding to 60 local retinal areas simultaneously. Evidence is accumulating that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been enhanced by recording mfVEPs from multiple channels at the same time. However, previous studies evaluated the mfVEPs mostly in Caucasians. It has not yet been proven whether this strategy is applicable to Japanese people who have a skull frame that may be different from that of Caucasians. We calculated the relative position of the calcarine landmark for electrode placement during the mfVEP recording, from brain MRI images of 200 individuals, which were found to be 1 cm lower than those reported in Caucasians with a statistical significance. Then, we recorded mfVEPs from 110 normal controls using three channels and conducted receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the overlap of SNR distribution at signal and noise windows. We found that a combination of one horizontal channel straddling the inion with either one of the two perpendicular vertical channels yielded the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC). Next, we showed that the SNR-AUC exhibited a similar diagnostic performance to, and a significant correlation with, a total deviation of the Humphrey visual field in 56 eyes with mild to

Nakamura, Makoto

2012-03-01

96

Autonomic neuropathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

97

Peripheral Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... have been studied for PN caused by diabetes: B vitamins. Several B vitamins are useful in treating diabetic neuropathy. These include biotin, choline, inositol, and thiamine. They appear to improve nerve function. Alpha-lipoic ...

98

Paraneoplastic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Recent progress in serological screening of paraneoplastic antibodies and in diagnostic imaging techniques to detect malignancies has enabled a broadening of the concept of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes by integrating nonclassic clinical features. The peripheral nervous system is frequently involved in patients with paraneoplastic syndrome and may be seen alone or in combination with involvement of other areas of the nervous system. Destruction of dorsal root ganglion cells due to lymphocytic infiltration, especially with CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, has been postulated to mediate the classic syndrome of subacute sensory neuronopathy. However, the motor and autonomic nervous systems are frequently affected. Indeed, patients can develop clinical features compatible with Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, or brachial plexopathy. Other forms of paraneoplastic neuropathy are vasculitic neuropathy, autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Various onconeural antibodies, including anti-Hu, anti-CV2/CRMP-5, and anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies, are associated with neuropathy. Somatic neuropathy is the most common manifestation in patients with anti-Hu and anti-CV2/CRMP-5 antibodies, while anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibody is associated with autonomic neuropathies. A whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan may be useful to detect malignancy in patients with unremarkable conventional radiological findings. Recognition and diagnosis of paraneoplastic neuropathy is important, as neuropathic symptoms usually precede the identification of the primary tumor, and treatment at an earlier stage provides better chances of good outcomes. PMID:23931811

Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

2013-01-01

99

Sustained Neuroprotection From a Single Intravitreal Injection of PGJ2 in a Rodent Model of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common cause of sudden optic nerve–related vision loss in persons older than 50 in the United States. There currently is no treatment for this disorder. We previously showed that systemic administration of 15-deoxy, delta (12, 14) prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) is neuroprotective in our rodent model of AION (rAION). In this study, we determined if a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of PGJ2 is neuroprotective after rAION, and if this method of administration is toxic to the retina, optic nerve, or both. Methods. Toxicity was assessed after a single IVT injection of PGJ2 in one eye and PBS in the contralateral eye of normal, adult Long-Evans rats. Efficacy was assessed by inducing rAION in one eye and injecting either PGJ2 or vehicle immediately following induction, with the fellow eye serving as naïve control. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and ERGs were performed before induction and at specific intervals thereafter. Animals were euthanized 30 days after induction, after which immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and quantitative stereology of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) numbers were performed. Results. Toxicity: IVT PGJ2 did not alter the VEP or ERG compared with PBS-injected control eyes, and neither IVT PGJ2 nor PBS reduced overall RGC numbers. Efficacy: IVT PGJ2 preserved VEP amplitude, reduced optic nerve edema, and resulted in significant preservation of RGCs and axons in eyes with rAION. Conclusions. A single IVT injection of PGJ2 is nontoxic to the retina and optic nerve and neuroprotective when given immediately after rAION induction. PMID:24106118

Touitou, Valerie; Johnson, Mary A.; Guo, Yan; Miller, Neil R.; Bernstein, Steven L.

2013-01-01

100

Intravitreal delivery of AAV-NDI1 provides functional benefit in a murine model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited form of visual dysfunction caused by mutations in several genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (complex I). Development of gene therapies for LHON has been impeded by genetic heterogeneity and the need to deliver therapies to the mitochondria of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the cells primarily affected in LHON. The therapy under development entails intraocular injection of a nuclear yeast gene NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NDI1) that encodes a single subunit complex I equivalent and as such is mutation independent. NDI1 is imported into mitochondria due to an endogenous mitochondrial localisation signal. Intravitreal injection represents a clinically relevant route of delivery to RGCs not previously used for NDI1. In this study, recombinant adenoassociated virus (AAV) serotype 2 expressing NDI1 (AAV-NDI1) was shown to protect RGCs in a rotenone-induced murine model of LHON. AAV-NDI1 significantly reduced RGC death by 1.5-fold and optic nerve atrophy by 1.4-fold. This led to a significant preservation of retinal function as assessed by manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and optokinetic responses. Intraocular injection of AAV-NDI1 overcomes many barriers previously associated with developing therapies for LHON and holds great therapeutic promise for a mitochondrial disorder for which there are no effective therapies. PMID:22669418

Chadderton, Naomi; Palfi, Arpad; Millington-Ward, Sophia; Gobbo, Oliverio; Overlack, Nora; Carrigan, Matthew; O'Reilly, Mary; Campbell, Matthew; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Wolfrum, Uwe; Humphries, Peter; Kenna, Paul F; Farrar, G Jane

2013-01-01

101

Suprascapular neuropathy.  

PubMed

Suprascapular neuropathy has often been overlooked as a source of shoulder pain. The condition may be more common than once thought as it is being diagnosed more frequently. Etiologies for suprascapular neuropathy may include repetitive overhead activities, traction from a rotator cuff tear, and compression from a space-occupying lesion at the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for visualizing space-occupying lesions, other pathological entities of the shoulder, and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff. Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity studies remain the standard for diagnosis of suprascapular neuropathy; however, data on interobserver reliability are limited. Initial treatment of isolated suprascapular neuropathy is typically nonoperative, consisting of physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and activity modification; however, open or arthroscopic operative intervention is warranted when there is extrinsic nerve compression or progressive pain and/or weakness. More clinical data are needed to determine if treatment of the primary offending etiology in cases of traction from a rotator cuff tear or compression from a cyst secondary to a labral tear is sufficient or whether concomitant decompression of the nerve is warranted for management of the neuropathy. PMID:20926731

Boykin, Robert E; Friedman, Darren J; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P

2010-10-01

102

The Pupil Light Reflex in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Evidence for Preservation of Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the pupillary light reflex (PLR) of patients with severe loss of vision due to Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) in the context of a proposed preservation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs). Methods. Ten LHON patients (7 males; 51.6 ± 14.1 years), with visual acuities ranging from 20/400 to hand motion perception and severe visual field losses, were tested and compared with 16 healthy subjects (7 males; 42.15 ± 15.4 years) tested as controls. PLR was measured with an eye tracker and the stimuli were controlled with a Ganzfeld system. Pupil responses were measured monocularly, to 1 second of blue (470 nm) and red (640 nm) flashes with 1, 10, 100, and 250 cd/m2 luminances. The normalized amplitude of peak of the transient PLR and the amplitude of the sustained PLR at 6 seconds after the flash offset were measured. In addition, optical coherence topography (OCT) scans of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer were obtained. Results. The patient's peak PLR responses were on average 15% smaller than controls (P < 0.05), but 5 out of 10 patients had amplitudes within the range of controls. The patients' sustained PLRs were comparable with controls at lower flash intensities, but on average, 27% smaller to the 250 cd/m2 blue light, although there was considerable overlap with the PLR amplitudes of control. All patients had severe visual field losses and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was reduced to a minimum around the optic disc in 8 of the 10 patients. Conclusions. The PLR is maintained overall in LHON patients despite the severity of optic atrophy. These results are consistent with previous evidence of selective preservation of mRGCs. PMID:23737476

Moura, Ana Laura A.; Nagy, Balázs V.; La Morgia, Chiara; Barboni, Piero; Oliveira, André Gustavo Fernandes; Salomão, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; de Moraes-Filho, Milton Nunes; Chicani, Carlos Filipe; Belfort, Rubens; Carelli, Valerio; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Hood, Donald C.; Ventura, Dora Fix

2013-01-01

103

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with the mitochondrial ND6 T14484C mutation in three Chinese families  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of three Chinese families with maternally transmitted Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Clinical and genetic evaluations revealed the variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment in these families. In the affected matrilineal relatives, the loss of central vision is bilateral, the fellow eye becoming affected either simultaneously (45%) or sequentially (55%). The penetrances of vision loss in these pedigrees were 27%, 50%, and 60%, respectively. The age-at-onset of vision loss in these families was 14, 19, and 24 years, respectively. Furthermore, the ratios between affected male and female matrilineal relatives were 1:1, 1:1.2, and 1:2, respectively. Mutational analysis of mitochondrial DNA revealed the presence of homoplasmic ND6 T14484C mutation, which has been associated with LHON. The incomplete penetrance and phenotypic variability implicate the involvement of nuclear modifier gene(s), environmental factor(s) or mitochondrial haplotype(s) in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated T14484C mutation in these Chinese pedigrees.

Sun Yanhong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Wei Qiping [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Zhou Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qian Yaping [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Zhou Jian [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Lu Fan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qu Jia [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]. E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net; Guan Minxin [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States) and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)]. E-mail: min-xin.guan@cchmc.org

2006-08-18

104

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with the mitochondrial ND4 G11696A mutation in five Chinese families  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of five Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Clinical and genetic evaluations revealed the variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment in these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphism, in addition to the identical ND4 G11696A mutation associated with LHON. Indeed, this mutation is present in homoplasmy only in the maternal lineage of those pedigrees but not other members of these families. In fact, the occurrence of the G11696A mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by visual impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of visual impairment. Furthermore, the N405D in the ND5 and G5820A in the tRNA{sup Cys}, showing high evolutional conservation, may contribute to the phenotypic expression of G11696A mutation in the WZ10 pedigree. However, there was the absence of functionally significant mtDNA mutations in other four Chinese pedigrees carrying the G11696A mutation. Therefore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s) may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated G11696A mutation in these Chinese pedigrees.

Zhou Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]|[Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Wei Qiping [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing Univ. of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Yang Li [Div. of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Tong Yi [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]|[First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical Univ., Fuzhou, Fujian 350005 (China); Zhao Fuxin [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Lu Chunjie [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qian Yaping [Div. of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Sun Yanghong [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing Univ. of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Lu Fan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qu Jia [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]|[Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]. E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net; Guan Minxin [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]|[Div. of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)]|[Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)]. E-mail: min-xin.guan@cchmc.org

2006-02-03

105

Psychophysical analysis of contrast processing segregated into magnocellular and parvocellular systems in asymptomatic carriers of 11778 Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

We examined achromatic contrast discrimination in asymptomatic carriers of 11778 Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON 18 controls) and 18 age-match were also tested. To evaluate magnocellular (MC) and Parvocellular (PC) contrast discrimination, we used a version of Pokorny and Smith's (1997) pulsed/steady-pedestal paradigms (PPP/SPP) thought to be detected via PC and MC pathways, respectively. A luminance pedestal (four 1 degree x 1 degree squares) was presented on a 12 cd/m2 surround. The luminance of one of the squares (trial square, TS) was randomly incremented for either 17 or 133 ms. Observers had to detect the TS, in a forced-choice task, at each duration, for three pedestal levels: 7, 12, 19 cd/m2. In the SPP, the pedestal was fixed, and the TS was modulated. For the PPP, all four pedestal squares pulsed for 17 or 133 ms, and the TS was simultaneously incremented or decremented. We found that contrast discrimination thresholds of LHON carriers were significantly higher than controls' in the condition with the highest luminance of both paradigms, implying impaired contrast processing with no evidence of differential sensitivity losses between the two systems. Carriers' thresholds manifested significantly longer temporal integration than controls in the SPP, consistent with slowed MC responses. The SPP and PPP paradigms can identify contrast and temporal processing deficits in asymptomatic LHON carriers, and thus provide an additional tool for early detection and characterization of the disease. PMID:18598420

Gualtieri, M; Bandeira, M; Hamer, R D; Costa, M F; Oliveira, A G F; Moura, A L A; Sadun, F; De Negri, A M; Berezovsky, A; Salomão, S R; Carelli, V; Sadun, A A; Ventura, D F

2008-01-01

106

Auditory Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... of organizations that can answer questions and provide printed or electronic information on auditory neuropathy. Please see the list of organizations at www.nidcd.nih.gov/directory . Use the following keywords ... a printed list of organizations, contact: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 ...

107

Autonomic neuropathy, II: Specific peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of peripheral neuropathies. It is often of little clinical importance, but some conditions may cause profound disturbance of autonomic function. These conditions include acute dysautonomia, diabetes, primary and familial amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, porphyria, and some inherited neuropathies. A wide range of neuropathies are associated with lesser degrees of autonomic dysfunction. These include hereditary neuropathies, and neuropathies associated with metabolic disturbances, alcohol abuse, malignancy, medications, infections, and connective tissue disorders. PMID:8791232

McDougall, A J; McLeod, J G

1996-06-01

108

Acoustic effects at interaction of laser radiation with a liquid accompanied by optical breakdown  

SciTech Connect

The experimental researches of acoustic emission from optical breakdown in liquids are presented. Spectral characteristics and power of the acoustic waves generated in a liquid by optical breakdown at interaction of laser radiation with the wavelength of 532 nanometers were studied. It is shown, that two spectral maxima characterizing acoustic emission are observed. The shift of low-frequency maximum depending on the laser energy pulse is observed. As a whole, the linear dependence of acoustic pressure on the energy of laser pulse is observed. It is shown, that using acoustic data it is possible to reproduce function R(t) which will be in accord with characteristic dependences R(t), obtained from optical data. The last is especially important for breakdown studying in opaque environments.

Bulanov, A. V.; Nagorny, I. G. [V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanologic Institute Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 43, Baltic Str., Vladivostok, 690041 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Sukhanova Str., Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation)

2012-09-04

109

Clinical classification of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Identification of risk factors for optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Clinical signs of Graves' ophthalmopathy were correlated with extraocular muscle volumes in 50 patients. Significant correlations were obtained for horizontal, vertical, and total extraocular muscle limitation, as well as periorbital swelling. Proptosis correlated to a lesser extent. Optic nerve involvement was found to be correlated with both total extraocular muscle volume and limitation of ocular motility. From this information, no risk, future risk, and immediate risk categories of disease were defined quantitatively. The results of the study imply that optic nerve involvement is more likely to occur in association with noncompliant, fibrotic muscle than with more supple muscle of the same total volume. PMID:6548373

Feldon, S E; Muramatsu, S; Weiner, J M

1984-10-01

110

Diabetic Neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic neuropathies (DN) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that include a wide range of abnormalities. They can be\\u000a focal or diffuse, proximal or distal, affecting both peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, causing morbidity with significant\\u000a impact on the quality of life of the person with diabetes, resulting in early mortality. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy,\\u000a the most common form of DN,

Aaron I. Vinik

111

Diabetic Neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical trials of agents for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy have been confronted with a lack of agreement on appropriate\\u000a endpoints and have generated controversy on why ample demonstration of efficacy of an agent in animal studies has not been\\u000a readily translated into success in human clinical trials. There has been a failure to recognize that the relief of symptoms

Aaron I. Vinik

112

Suprascapular neuropathy.  

PubMed

Suprascapular neuropathy is an uncommon cause of shoulder pain and weakness and therefore may be overlooked as an etiologic factor. The suprascapular nerve is vulnerable to compression at the suprascapular notch as well as at the spinoglenoid notch. Other causes of suprascapular neuropathy include traction injury at the level of the transverse scapular ligament or the spinoglenoid ligament and direct trauma to the nerve. Sports involving overhead motion, such as tennis, swimming, and weight lifting, may result in traction injury to the suprascapular nerve, leading to dysfunction. The diagnosis of suprascapular neuropathy is based on clinical findings and abnormal electrodiagnostic test results, after the exclusion of other causes of shoulder pain and weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging may provide an anatomic demonstration of nerve entrapment and muscle atrophy. With this modality, ganglion cysts are recognized with increasing frequency as a source of external compression of the suprascapular nerve. Without evidence of a discrete lesion compressing the nerve, nonoperative treatment should include physical therapy and avoidance of precipitating activities. When nonoperative treatment fails to alleviate symptoms or when a discrete lesion such as a ganglion cyst is present, surgical decompression is warranted. Decompression gives reliable pain relief, but recovery of shoulder function and restoration of atrophied muscle tissue may be incomplete. PMID:11497489

Romeo, A A; Rotenberg, D D; Bach, B R

1999-01-01

113

Unilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: chromatic pupillometry in affected, fellow non-affected and healthy control eyes.  

PubMed

The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin, which is sensitive to blue light. Previous chromatic pupillometry studies have shown that the post-illumination response is considered an indicator of the melanopsin activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the ipRGC mediated pupil response in patients with a unilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Consensual pupil responses during and after exposure to continuous 20?s blue (470?nm) or red (660?nm) light of high intensity (300?cd/m(2)) were recorded in each eye for 10 patients. Comparisons were performed both intra-individually (affected versus non-affected eyes) and inter-individually (compared with healthy controls). The pupil response was calculated both during the illumination and during the post-illumination phase. The pupil responses to blue and red colors were significantly reduced in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the fellow non-affected eyes. When comparing the affected eyes with the healthy control eyes, the post-illumination responses were not significantly different. In addition, the post-illumination pupil responses after blue light exposure were increased in the fellow non-affected patients' eyes, compared with the healthy controls. However, significance was only reached for the late post-illumination response. In conclusion, chromatic pupillometry disclosed reduced post-illumination pupil responses in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the non-affected fellow eyes, suggesting dysfunction of the ipRGCs. Compared with the responses of the healthy controls, the blue light post-illumination pupil responses were similar in the affected eyes and increased in the fellow non-affected eyes. This suggests a possible adaptive phenomenon, involving the ipRGCs of both eyes after unilateral NAION. PMID:23717301

Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Wegener, Marianne; Hannibal, Jens; Milea, Dan

2013-01-01

114

Unilateral Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy: Chromatic Pupillometry in Affected, Fellow Non-Affected and Healthy Control Eyes  

PubMed Central

The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin, which is sensitive to blue light. Previous chromatic pupillometry studies have shown that the post-illumination response is considered an indicator of the melanopsin activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the ipRGC mediated pupil response in patients with a unilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Consensual pupil responses during and after exposure to continuous 20?s blue (470?nm) or red (660?nm) light of high intensity (300?cd/m2) were recorded in each eye for 10 patients. Comparisons were performed both intra-individually (affected versus non-affected eyes) and inter-individually (compared with healthy controls). The pupil response was calculated both during the illumination and during the post-illumination phase. The pupil responses to blue and red colors were significantly reduced in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the fellow non-affected eyes. When comparing the affected eyes with the healthy control eyes, the post-illumination responses were not significantly different. In addition, the post-illumination pupil responses after blue light exposure were increased in the fellow non-affected patients’ eyes, compared with the healthy controls. However, significance was only reached for the late post-illumination response. In conclusion, chromatic pupillometry disclosed reduced post-illumination pupil responses in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the non-affected fellow eyes, suggesting dysfunction of the ipRGCs. Compared with the responses of the healthy controls, the blue light post-illumination pupil responses were similar in the affected eyes and increased in the fellow non-affected eyes. This suggests a possible adaptive phenomenon, involving the ipRGCs of both eyes after unilateral NAION. PMID:23717301

Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Wegener, Marianne; Hannibal, Jens; Milea, Dan

2013-01-01

115

Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment  

SciTech Connect

A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)] [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15

116

Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Is Associated with the T3866C Mutation in Mitochondrial ND1 Gene in Three Han Chinese Families  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the pathophysiology of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods. Seventy-one subjects from three Chinese families with LHON underwent clinical, genetic, molecular, and biochemical evaluations. Biochemical characterizations included the measurements of the rates of endogenous, substrate-dependent respirations, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and generation of reactive oxygen species using lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from five affected matrilineal relatives of these families and three control subjects. Results. Ten of 41 matrilineal relatives exhibited variable severity and age at onset of optic neuropathy. The average age at onset of optic neuropathy in matrilineal relatives of the three families was 5, 11, and 24 years, respectively. Molecular analysis identified the ND1 T3866C (I187T) mutation and distinct sets of polymorphisms belonging to the Eastern Asian haplogroups D4a, M10a, and R, respectively. The I187T mutation is localized at the highly conserved isoleucine at a transmembrane domain of the ND1 polypeptide. The marked reductions in the rate of endogenous, malate/glutamate-promoted and succinate/glycerol-3-phosphate-promoted respiration were observed in mutant cell lines carrying the T3866C mutation. The deficient respiration is responsible for the reduced ATP synthesis and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions. Our data convincingly show that the ND1 T3866C mutation leads to LHON. This mutation may be insufficient to produce a clinical phenotype. Other modifier factors may contribute to the phenotypic manifestation of the T3866C mutation. The T3866C mutation should be added to the list of inherited factors for molecular diagnosis of LHON. Thus, our findings may provide new insights into the understanding of pathophysiology and valuable information on the management of LHON. PMID:22577081

Zhou, Xiangtian; Qian, Yaping; Zhang, Juanjuan; Tong, Yi; Jiang, Pingping; Liang, Min; Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui; Zhao, Fuxin; Ji, Yanchun; Mo, Jun Qin; Qu, Jia; Guan, Min-Xin

2012-01-01

117

Optic neuropathy in McCune-Albright syndrome: an indication for aggressive treatment.  

PubMed

McCune-Albright syndrome consists of the triad polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait spots and autonomous hyperfunction of one or more endocrine systems. The most frequent neurological complication of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is visual loss. We describe a 17-y-old boy with McCune-Albright syndrome and acute loss of vision in the left eye caused by encroachment of the left optic nerve by fibrous dysplastic lesions. Neurosurgical intervention improved left eye vision. Aggressive intervention is indicated in cases of acute visual loss in patients with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. This is supported by a review of other reported cases. PMID:9641748

Bocca, G; de Vries, J; Cruysberg, J R; Boers, G H; Monnens, L A

1998-05-01

118

Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetisation transfer imaging, and diffusion weighted imaging correlates of optic nerve, brain, and cervical cord damage in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease leading to bilateral loss of central vision and severe optic nerve atrophy. A subtype of LHON presents additional clinical and MRI aspects indistinguishable from those of multiple sclerosis (MS) (LHON-MS). In patients with LHON or LHON-MS, an assessment was made of (a) the severity of optic nerve damage, using MRI and magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI), and (b) the presence and extent of macroscopic and microscopic pathology in the brain and cervical cord, using MRI and MT ratio (MTR) and mean diffusivity (&Dmacr;) histogram analysis.?METHODS—Ten patients with LHON, four with LHON-MS, and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were studied. For the optic nerve and the brain, dual-echo turbo spin echo (TSE), T1 weighted spin echo, and MT images were obtained. For the brain, fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) and diffusion weighted images were also obtained. For the cervical cord, fast short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and MT images were obtained. The volume and the average MTR value of both the optic nerves were measured. MTR and &Dmacr; histograms of the normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) and MTR histograms of the whole cervical cord tissue were created.?RESULTS—The mean values of optic nerve volumes and MTR were significantly lower in patients with LHON than in healthy controls. Mean NABT-MTR histogram peak height was significantly lower in patients with LHON than in controls, whereas no significant difference was found for any of the cervical cord MTR histogram derived measures. Average diffusivity (&Dmacr;) was higher in patients with LHON than in controls. Optic nerve volume and MTR value and mean NABT-MTR were lower in patients with LHON-MS than in those with LHON.?CONCLUSIONS—The severity of optic nerve pathology in LHON is measurable in vivo using MRI and MTI. MTR and &Dmacr; histogram analysis suggests that microscopic brain damage occurs in LHON and that it is more severe in the MS-like form of the disease.?? PMID:11254765

Inglese, M; Rovaris, M; Bianchi, S; Mantia, L; Mancardi, G; Ghezzi, A; Montagna, P; Salvi, F; Filippi, M

2001-01-01

119

Disappearance of holographic and interference fringes accompanies optical diagnostics of a supersonic bow shock flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of optical diagnostics of bow shocks in a supersonic wind tunnel by applying dual-hologram shear interferometry technique are discussed. A strong refraction effect of the probing beam penetrating a region in the vicinity of a bow shock over a blunt nose cone model has been discovered. On a signal hologram the effect leads to the disappearance of holographic fringes in a narrow region attached to the shock wave front. A reconstructed interferogram in this region manifests the absence of an interference pattern. Computer simulations were performed for a part of the probing beam penetrating the area of high-density steep gradients of compressed air attached to the central part of the shock front of a bow shock. The compressed area was modeled as a hyperbolic cap. The bow shock was assumed axisymmetric. The simulations made it possible to evaluate angles of deflections and found conformity with reconstructed interferograms (shadowgraphs). It is concluded that in the above-indicated region of bow shocks probing light is deviated refractively into some angles, which could be large enough for light rays to be blocked out and never arrive at the detector (photo film)E In the case when interferometric fringes disappear, the effect of strong refraction makes it impossible to measure air density gradients in some critical region.

Toker, Grigory; Korneev, Nikolay

2008-02-01

120

Suprascapular neuropathy.  

PubMed

Suprascapular neuropathy is a relatively uncommon but significant cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction. The suprascapular nerve follows a tortuous course from the neck to the posterior shoulder. There are several potential causes of nerve entrapment along this path, particularly at the vulnerable suprascapular and spinoglenoid notches, where nerve excursion is limited by bony and ligamentous constraints. Additional extrinsic compression may be caused by glenohumeral joint-related ganglion cysts or soft-tissue masses. Traction neuropathy may occur following excessive nerve excursion during overhead sports or as a result of massive, retracted rotator cuff tears in older patients. Diagnosis is based on a careful history, physical examination, focused imaging, and electrodiagnostic studies. In the absence of a clear structural compression or overtensioning of the nerve, treatment initially should be nonsurgical, with activity modification and physical therapy. Discrete nerve compression or failure of nonsurgical measures warrants early surgical intervention. Arthroscopic alternatives to the traditional open suprascapular and/or spinoglenoid notch decompressions have the benefit of simultaneously diagnosing and addressing intra-articular and/or subacromial pathology while minimizing morbidity. In most patients, both open and arthroscopic approaches provide reliable pain relief and improvements in function; return of strength and muscle bulk is less predictable. PMID:19880677

Piasecki, Dana P; Romeo, Anthony A; Bach, Bernard R; Nicholson, Gregory P

2009-11-01

121

Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

1997-01-01

122

Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at alpha/beta = 3 gray equivalent (GyE{sub 3}). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE{sub 3}) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

Demizu, Yusuke, E-mail: y_demizu@nifty.co [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Akagi, Takashi [Department of Accelerator Managing, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei [Division of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Terashima, Kazuki [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Suga, Daisaku [Department of Radiation Technology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Kamae, Isao [Division of Medical Statistics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hishikawa, Yoshio [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan)

2009-12-01

123

Comparison of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Loss and Visual Outcome in Fellow Eyes Following Sequential Bilateral Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Aim: To report on the correlation of structural damage to the axons of the optic nerve and visual outcome following bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of 25 patients with bilateral sequential non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy was performed. Outcome measures were peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with the Stratus optical coherence tomography scanner, visual acuity and visual field loss. Results: Median peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, mean deviation (MD) of visual field, and visual acuity of initially involved NAION eyes (54.00?µm, -17.77 decibels (dB), 0.4, respectively) were comparable to the same parameters measured following development of second NAION event in the other eye (53.70?µm, p?=?0.740; -16.83 dB, p?=?0.692; 0.4, p?=?0.942, respectively). In patients with bilateral NAION, there was a significant correlation of peripapillary RNFL thickness (r?=?0.583, p?=?0.002) and MD of the visual field (r?=?0.457, p?=?0.042) for the pairs of affected eyes, whereas a poor correlation was found in visual acuity of these eyes (r?=?0.279, p?=?0.176). Peripapillary RNFL thickness following NAION was positively correlated with MD of visual field (r?=?0.312, p?=?0.043) and negatively correlated with logMAR visual acuity (r?=?-0.365, p?=?0.009). Conclusion: In patients who experience bilateral NAION, the magnitude of RNFL loss is similar in each eye. There is a greater similarity in visual field loss than in visual acuity between the two affected eyes with NAION of the same individual. PMID:25153943

Dotan, Gad; Kesler, Anat; Naftaliev, Elvira; Skarf, Barry

2014-08-25

124

Leprous neuropathy.  

PubMed

Leprous neuropathy, which is due to infection of nerve cells by Mycobacterium leprae, still affects millions of people in many developing countries. The clinical and pathological manifestations are determined by the natural resistance of the host to invasion of M. Leprae. Failure of early detection of leprosy often leads to severe disability in spite of eradication of mycobacterium at a later date. In the lepromatous type, bacilli are easily found in the skin and in nerve cells including Schwann cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. In the tuberculoid type, a strong cell-mediated immune reaction leads to formation of granulomas and destruction of cells harboring bacilli and neighboring nerve fibers. In many cases, treatment of patients with the multibacillary leprosy is complicated by reversal reaction and further nerve damage. Nerve lesions lead to a symmetrical, pseudo-polyneuritic pattern in most cases of lepromatous leprosy, which is usually associated with typical skin lesions, but pure neuritic forms occur in up to 10% of patients with lepromatous leprosy. In the pure neuropathic cases, only nerve biopsy permits diagnosis. The multifocal pattern is more common in tuberculoid leprosy. Treatment is currently based on multidrug therapy with dapsone, rifampicin, and clofazimine. The use of corticosteroids can reduce or prevent nerve damage in reversal reactions. It is important to remember that sequelae, especially sensory loss, are extremely common, which can lead to secondary trophic changes due to repeated trauma in painless areas. PMID:23931798

de Freitas, Marcos R G; Said, Gérard

2013-01-01

125

Very low penetrance of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in five Han Chinese families carrying the ND1 G3460A mutation  

PubMed Central

We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of five Han Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Strikingly, there were very low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families, ranging from 4.2% to 22.2%, with an average of 10.2%. In particular, only 7 (4 males/3 females) of 106 matrilineal relatives in these families exhibited the variable severity and age-at-onset in visual dysfunction. The age-at-onset for visual impairment in matrilineal relatives in these families, varied from 20 to 25 years, with an average of 21.8 years old. Molecular analysis of mitochondrial genomes identified the homoplasmic ND1 G3460A mutation and distinct sets of variants, belonging to the Asian haplogroups B5b, C4a1, D5, F1, and R9, respectively. This suggests that the G3640A mutation occurred sporadically and multiplied through evolution of the mtDNA in China. However, there was the absence of known secondary LHON-associated mtDNA mutations in these Chinese families. Very low penetrance of visual loss in these five Chinese pedigrees strongly indicated that the G3640A mutation was itself insufficient to develop the optic neuropathy. The absence of secondary LHON mtDNA mutations suggest that these mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants may not play an important role in the phenotypic expression of the G3640A mutation in those Chinese families with low penetrance of vision loss. However, nuclear modifier genes, epigenetic and environmental factors appear to be modifier factors for the phenotypic manifestation of the G3640A mutation in these Chinese families. PMID:20053576

Tong, Yi; Sun, Yan-Hong; Zhou, Xiangtian; Zhao, Fuxin; Mao, Yijian; Wei, Qi-ping; Yang, Li; Qu, Jia; Guan, Min-Xin

2009-01-01

126

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy caused by the homoplasmic ND1 m.3635G>A mutation in nine Han Chinese families.  

PubMed

In this report, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)-associated mitochondrial m.3635G>A (p.S110N, ND1) mutation. A mutational screening of ND1 gene in a cohort of 1070 Han Chinese subjects LHON identified the m.3635G>A mutation in nine Chinese families with suggestively maternally transmitted LHON. Thirty-eight (22 males/16 females) of 162 matrilineal relatives in these families exhibited the variable severity and age-at-onset of optic neuropathy. Molecular analysis of their mitochondrial genomes identified the homoplasmic m.3635G>A mutation and distinct sets of polymorphisms belonging to the Asian haplogroups G2a1, R11a, D4, R11a, M7b2, G1a, F1a1, B4, and N9a3, respectively. Using cybrids constructed by transferring mitochondria from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from one Chinese family into mtDNA-less (?(0)) cells, we showed ~27% decrease in the activity of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in mutant cybrids carrying the m.3635G>A mutation, compared with control cybrids. The respiratory deficiency caused by the m.3635G>A mutation results in decreased efficiency of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. These mitochondrial dysfunctions caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in the mutant cybrids. The data provide the direct evidence for the m.3635G>A mutation leading to LHON. Our findings may provide new insights into the understanding of pathophysiology of LHON. PMID:25194554

Zhang, Juanjuan; Jiang, Pingping; Jin, Xiaofen; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Minglian; Xie, Shipeng; Gao, Min; Zhang, Sai; Sun, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Jinping; Ji, Yanchun; Wei, Qi-Ping; Tong, Yi; Guan, Min-Xin

2014-09-01

127

Diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies.  

PubMed

Diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies (DRPN) are neuropathies clinically and pathologically distinct from the neuropathy typically associated with diabetes (DPN). DRPN are usually subacute in onset, painful, and often demonstrate a monophasic course with incomplete recovery. Pathologically, these neuropathies are due to ischemic injury from altered immunity and often have features suggestive or diagnostic of microvasculitis. Unlike DPN, immune therapy may be helpful in treatment of these conditions given their pathological substrate and therefore are important to identify early and distinguish from other neuropathies that occur in patient with diabetes. PMID:25410213

Laughlin, Ruple S; Dyck, P James B

2014-01-01

128

Development and validation of a computerized expert system for evaluation of automated visual fields from the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this report is to describe the methods used to develop and validate a computerized system to analyze Humphrey visual fields obtained from patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and enrolled in the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial (IONDT). The IONDT was a multicenter study that included randomized and non-randomized patients with newly diagnosed NAION in the study eye. At baseline, randomized eyes had visual acuity of 20/64 or worse and non-randomized eyes had visual acuity of better than 20/64 or were associated with patients refusing randomization. Visual fields were measured before treatment using the Humphrey Field Analyzer with the 24-2 program, foveal threshold, and size III stimulus. Methods We used visual fields from 189 non-IONDT eyes with NAION to develop the computerized classification system. Six neuro-ophthalmologists ("expert panel") described definitions for visual field patterns defects using 19 visual fields representing a range of pattern defect types. The expert panel then used 120 visual fields, classified using these definitions, to refine the rules, generating revised definitions for 13 visual field pattern defects and 3 levels of severity. These definitions were incorporated into a rule-based computerized classification system run on Excel® software. The computerized classification system was used to categorize visual field defects for an additional 95 NAION visual fields, and the expert panel was asked to independently classify the new fields and subsequently whether they agreed with the computer classification. To account for test variability over time, we derived an adjustment factor from the pooled short term fluctuation. We examined change in defects with and without adjustment in visual fields of study participants who demonstrated a visual acuity decrease within 30 days of NAION onset (progressive NAION). Results Despite an agreed upon set of rules, there was not good agreement among the expert panel when their independent visual classifications were compared. A majority did concur with the computer classification for 91 of 95 visual fields. Remaining classification discrepancies could not be resolved without modifying existing definitions. Without using the adjustment factor, visual fields of 63.6% (14/22) patients with progressive NAION and no central defect, and all (7/7) patients with a paracentral defect, worsened within 30 days of NAION onset. After applying the adjustment factor, the visual fields of the same patients with no initial central defect and 5/7 of the patients with a paracentral defect were seen to worsen. Conclusion The IONDT developed a rule-based computerized system that consistently defines pattern and severity of visual fields of NAION patients for use in a research setting. PMID:17116264

Feldon, Steven E; Levin, Lori; Scherer, Roberta W; Arnold, Anthony; Chung, Sophia M; Johnson, Lenworth N; Kosmorsky, Gregory; Newman, Steven A; Katz, Joanne; Langenberg, Patricia; Wilson, P David; Kelman, Shalom E; Dickersin, Kay

2006-01-01

129

Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurological or multisystem syndrome. Due to the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. Here, we review the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineate major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing. PMID:23642725

Saporta, Mario A.; Shy, Michael E.

2013-01-01

130

Protective effects of systemic treatment with methylprednisolone in a rodent model of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION).  

PubMed

This study investigated the protective effects of the administration of steroids on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rodent model of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). We induced rAION using rose bengal and argon laser irradiation in a photodynamic procedure on the optic discs of rats. The treated groups received methylprednisolone (MP) via peritoneal injection for 2 weeks. The control group received intraperitoneal injections of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) post-rAION. At the 4th week post-infarct, MP treatments significantly rescued the RGCs (mm(2)) in the central retinas (1920 ± 210, p < 0.001) and mid-peripheral retinas (950 ± 240, respectively, p = 0.018) compared with those of the PBS-treated rats (central: 900 ± 210 and mid-peripheral: 440 ± 180). Functional assessment with flash visual-evoked potentials demonstrated that P1 latency (ms) was shortened in the MP group compared to the PBS group (108 ± 14 and 147 ± 9, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the P1 amplitude (uV) was enhanced in the MP group compared to the PBS group (55 ± 12 and 41 ± 13, respectively, p < 0.05). TUNEL assays showed a decrease in the number of apoptotic cells in the RGC layers of MP-treated retinas compared to the PBS-treated group (p < 0.05). ED1 positive cells (/HPF) were significantly decreased in the ONs of the MP group compared to the PBS group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, systemic administration of MP had neuroprotective effects on RGC survival and ON function in the rAION animal model. PMID:25543054

Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Shun-Ping; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Lin, Kung-Hung; Chang, Shu-Wen; Tsai, Rong-Kung

2015-02-01

131

ND4L gene concurrent 10609T>C and 10663T>C mutations are associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in a large pedigree from Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Background Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a condition characterised by a rapid bilateral central vision loss due to death of the retinal ganglion cells, leading to visual impairment commonly occurring during young adulthood. The disease manifests itself more in male patients than female patients. The mtDNA mutations m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C are by far more frequent in LHON than any other mutation. In this report, a multi-generational Arab family from Kuwait with 14 male members with LHON was investigated. Methods Complete mtDNA mutational analysis by direct Sanger's sequencing was carried out to detect pathogenic mutations, polymorphisms and haplogrouping. Results All maternally related subjects from this study who were examined expressed the L3 haplotype background, with two concurrent mtDNA mutations, 10609T>C and 10663T>C, that led to non-conservative amino acid changes of Ile47Thr and Val65Ala, respectively. The two variations were absent in 144 normal and ethnicity-matched controls. Conclusions The two identified mutations associated with LHON in this family may exert their pathogenicity through a cumulative or haplogroup effect. This is the first report of the presence of two concurrent mutations in the ND4L gene in individuals with LHON who carry the L3 haplogroup. PMID:24568867

Behbehani, Raed; Melhem, Motasem; Alghanim, Ghazi; Behbehani, Kazem; Alsmadi, Osama

2014-01-01

132

Low penetrance of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy in ten Han Chinese families carrying the ND6 T11484C mutation  

PubMed Central

We report there the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of 10 Han Chinese families with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy. Clinical evaluation revealed that ten families exhibited extremely low penetrance of visual impairment, with the average of 10%. In particular, ten (8 males/2 females) of 114 matrilineal relatives in these families exhibited the variable severity and age-at-onset in visual dysfunction. The average age-of-onset of vision loss was 19 years old. Molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) identified the homoplasmic ND6 T14484C mutation and distinct sets of variants, belonging to the Asian haplogroups B5b, D4, D4g1b, G3a2, R11, R11a and Z3, respectively. However, there was the absence of secondary LHON-associated mtDNA mutations in these ten Chinese families: The low penetrance of vision loss in these Chinese pedigrees strongly indicated that the T14484C mutation was itself insufficient to produce a clinical phenotype. The absence of secondary LHON mtDNA mutations suggest that these mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants may not play an important role in the phenotypic expression of the T14484C mutation in those Chinese families with low penentrace of vision loss. However, nuclear modifier genes and environmental factors appear to be modifier factors for the phenotypic manifestation of the T14484C mutation in these Chinese families. PMID:19733221

Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian; Zhao, Fuxin; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Minglian; Sun, Yan-Hong; Liang, Min; Yuan, Meixia; Liu, Qi; Tong, Yi; Wei, Qi-Ping; Yang, Li; Guan, Min-Xin

2009-01-01

133

X chromosome-linked and mitochondrial gene control of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: Evidence from segregation analysis for dependence on X chromosome inactivation  

SciTech Connect

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been shown to involve mutation(s) of mitochondrial DNA, yet there remain several confusing aspects of its inheritance not explained by mitochondrial inheritance alone, including male predominance, reduced penetrance, and a later age of onset in females. By extending segregation analysis methods to disorders that involve both a mitochondrial and a nuclear gene locus, the authors show that the available pedigree data for LHON are most consistent with a two-locus disorder, with one responsible gene being mitochondrial and the other nuclear and X chromosome-linked. Furthermore, they have been able to extend the two-locus analytic method and demonstrate that a proportion of affected females are likely heterozygous at the X chromosome-linked locus and are affected due to unfortunate X chromosome inactivation, thus providing an explanation for the later age of onset in females. The estimated penetrance for a heterozygous female is 0.11{plus minus}0.02. The calculated frequency of the X chromosome-linked gene for LHON is 0.l08. Among affected females, 60% are expected to be heterozygous, and the remainder are expected to be homozygous at the responsible X chromosome-linked locus.

Xiangdong Bu; Rotter, J.I. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1991-09-15

134

Anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome): a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We report a 62-year-old man with mild fever, headache and acute visual loss in his right eye due to anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION), followed a few days later by pain in the legs and left arm associated with numbness and weakness. Giant cell arteritis complicated by AION was suspected at the beginning and high-dose oral glucocorticoids were started. However, on the basis of the past medical history of nasal polyposis, asthma, and hypereosynophilia as well as of further investigations (biopsy of the nasal mucosa showing granulomatous inflammation with a rich eosinophilic infiltrate, electromyography demonstrating, mononeuritis multiplex and positive p-ANCA), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), previously known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, was diagnosed. Because visual acuity in the right eye deteriorated despite glucocorticoid therapy, pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide was started, subsequently replaced by oral azathioprine, while prednisone was slowly tapered. This treatment led to gradual improvement of the neurological symptoms, whereas the right visual impairment remained unchanged. EGPA-related AION is an uncommon lesion that is probably due to vasculitic involvement of posterior ciliary and/or chorioretinal arteries. The prognosis of established AION is poor for the affected eye, even when glucocorticoid treatment is started immediately. However, early recognition of AION and prompt aggressive treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids plus cyclophosphamide can prevent visual loss in the unaffected eye. PMID:24144341

Padovano, Ilaria; Pazzola, Giulia; Pipitone, Nicolò; Cimino, Luca; Salvarani, Carlo

2014-01-01

135

Voriconazole-Induced Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fungal infections are common and life threatening among immunosupressive patients. Rare side effects may occur related to the use of voriconazole, which is the drug of choice in invasive aspergillosis. Patients and Methods: Neuropathy was determined through clinical and electromyographic findings during the course of voriconazole therapy in 2 patients developing invasive aspergillosis. Results: Since examinations revealed no neuropathy

Firdevs Aksoy; Elif Akdogan; Kemalettin Aydin; Mustafa Yilmaz; Vildan Altunayoglu; Ebru Emel Sozen; Serdar Bedii Omay; Iftihar Koksal

2008-01-01

136

Treatment of peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed Central

There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254

Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A

1985-01-01

137

Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy is Associated with Compound Primary Mutations of Mitochondrial ND1 m.3635G?>?A and ND6 m.14502 T?>?C.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of a Chinese Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) pedigree with compound mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations of m.3635G?>?A and m.14502T?>?C. Methods: A total of 22 individuals (2 affected, 20 unaffected) from a five-generation Chinese family with LHON underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity, slit lamp examination, fundoscopy, visual field examination and visual evoked potentials (VEP). The complete mtDNA genome of the two patients were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced using a Bigdye terminator v3.1 cycle sequencing kit and analyzed on an ABI 3700XL Genetic Analyzer. Results: Two LHON patients in the family presented typical features of LHON: painless and progressive deterioration of bilateral vision, bilateral optic atrophy, centrocecal scotomata in both eyes and significant prolonged P100 latency and low amplitude potential in VEP. Compound primary mtDNA mutations of m.3635G?>?A and m.14502T?>?C were identified in these two patients and another 12 living matrilineal members of the pedigree. Haplogroup analysis showed the patients in this LHON family belonged to the N9b1 haplogroup. Modeled mutant structure showed the mutations altered the molecular local space conformation on the surface of ND1 and ND6. Conclusions: Compound mtDNA mutations of m.3635G?>?A and m.14502T?>?C presented with low penetration, and the patients with these compound mutations exhibited mild visual impairment. The biological information analysis suggested that m.14502T?>?C might play a protective role in LHON associated with m.3635G?>?A. The haplogroup analysis indicated that the mtDNA haplogroup might be an important factor affecting the expression of LHON associated with m.3635G?>?A and/or m.14502T?>?C. PMID:24417559

Jin, Xin; Wang, Lifeng; Gong, Yan; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Tingjun; Wei, Shihui

2014-01-13

138

Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.  

PubMed Central

Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369

Gill, G V; Bell, D R

1982-01-01

139

Association of the mtDNA m.4171C>A/MT-ND1 mutation with both optic neuropathy and bilateral brainstem lesions  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, mainly in complex I genes, have been associated with variably overlapping phenotypes of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with stroke-like episodes (MELAS) and Leigh syndrome (LS). We here describe the first case in which the m.4171C>A/MT-ND1 mutation, previously reported only in association with LHON, leads also to a Leigh-like phenotype. Case presentation A 16-year-old male suffered subacute visual loss and recurrent vomiting and vertigo associated with bilateral brainstem lesions affecting the vestibular nuclei. His mother and one sister also presented subacute visual loss compatible with LHON. Sequencing of the entire mtDNA revealed the homoplasmic m.4171C>A/MT-ND1 mutation, previously associated with pure LHON, on a haplogroup H background. Three additional non-synonymous homoplasmic transitions affecting ND2 (m.4705T>C/MT-ND2 and m.5263C>T/MT-ND2) and ND6 (m.14180T>C/MT-ND6) subunits, well recognized as polymorphisms in other mtDNA haplogroups but never found on the haplogroup H background, were also present. Conclusion This case widens the phenotypic expression of the rare m.4171C>A/MT-ND1 LHON mutation, which may also lead to Leigh-like brainstem lesions, and indicates that the co-occurrence of other ND non-synonymous variants, found outside of their usual mtDNA backgrounds, may have increased the pathogenic potential of the primary LHON mutation. PMID:24884847

2014-01-01

140

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

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141

Peripheral neuropathy and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy has a major impact on quality of life and may limit the amount of treatment patients can receive. Neurotoxic\\u000a agents are used increasingly in oncologic practice, yet clinicians are often unaware of the protean manifestations of neuropathy\\u000a and find its management troubling. Recent knowledge about the mechanisms of neuropathic disease and new treatments may help\\u000a to minimize the

Arthur D. Forman

2004-01-01

142

Asymptomatic Vasculitic Neuropathy.  

PubMed

Objectives: We did a retrospective analysis of the clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological features of 21 cases of asymptomatic vasculitic neuropathy (AsVN). Methods: Among 270 patients with biopsy proven vasculitic neuropathy, we identified 21 (7.8%) who had asymptomatic neuropathy. Results: Of the 21 patients with AsVN, 11 were women and 10 were men. The mean age was 62.5 years. Referring physicians suspected systemic vasculitis on the basis of clinical and laboratory features, but none of the patients had neuropathy by examination. Screening nerve conduction studies identified neuropathy in all, leading us to perform a sural nerve, biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis of vasculitis. Twelve patients had active (Type I), 6 had inactive (Type II), and 3 had probable (Type III) vasculitis. Vasculitis was primary in 10 patients and secondary in 11. Conclusions: Nerve conduction study is an important tool for identifying AsVN, a sub-type of vasculitic neuropathy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25354330

Kurt, Semiha; Alsharabati, Mohammad; Lu, Liang; Claussen, Gwendolyn C; Oh, Shin J

2014-10-29

143

Painful diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic, and associated neuropathy is its most costly and disabling complication. Given the rising prevalence of painful diabetic neuropathy, it is increasingly important that we understand the best ways to diagnose and treat this condition. Diagnostic tests in this field are evolving rapidly. These include the use of skin biopsies to measure small unmyelinated fibers, as well as even newer techniques that can measure both small unmyelinated fibers and large myelinated fibers in the same biopsy. The main treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy remain management of the underlying diabetes and drugs for the relief of pain. However, emerging evidence points to major differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including the ability of glycemic control to prevent neuropathy. Enhanced glucose control is much more effective at preventing neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 disease [corrected]. This dichotomy emphasizes the need to study the pathophysiologic differences between the two types of diabetes, because different treatments may be needed for each condition. The impact of the metabolic syndrome on neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes may account for the difference between the two types of diabetes and requires further study. Finally, neuropathic pain is under-recognized and undertreated despite an ever evolving list of effective drugs. Evidence exists to support several drugs, but the optimal sequence and combination of these drugs are still to be determined. PMID:24803311

Peltier, Amanda; Goutman, Stephen A; Callaghan, Brian C

2014-01-01

144

Gene delivery to mitochondria by targeting modified adenoassociated virus suppresses Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in a mouse model.  

PubMed

To introduce DNA into mitochondria efficiently, we fused adenoassociated virus capsid VP2 with a mitochondrial targeting sequence to carry the mitochondrial gene encoding the human NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4). Expression of WT ND4 in cells with the G11778A mutation in ND4 led to restoration of defective ATP synthesis. Furthermore, with injection into the rodent eye, human ND4 DNA levels in mitochondria reached 80% of its mouse homolog. The construct expressed in most inner retinal neurons, and it also suppressed visual loss and optic atrophy induced by a mutant ND4 homolog. The adenoassociated virus cassette accommodates genes of up to ?5 kb in length, thus providing a platform for introduction of almost any mitochondrial gene and perhaps even allowing insertion of DNA encompassing large deletions of mtDNA, some associated with aging, into the organelle of adults. PMID:22523243

Yu, Hong; Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D; Chou, Tsung-Han; Porciatti, Vittorio; Ozdemir, Sacide S; Chiodo, Vince; Boye, Sanford L; Boye, Shannon E; Hauswirth, William W; Lewin, Alfred S; Guy, John

2012-05-15

145

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of peripheral neuropathy is a common factor in limiting therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs. Little is known\\u000a about the mechanisms responsible for the development of neuropathy. Depending on the substance used, a pure sensory and painful\\u000a neuropathy (with cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin) or a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy with or without involvement of the\\u000a autonomic nervous system (with vincristine, taxol, suramin)

Stefan Quasthoff; Hans Peter Hartung

2002-01-01

146

[Entrapment neuropathies in sports medicine].  

PubMed

The more frequent entrapment neuropathies related to sport are described: thoracic outlet syndrome in aquatic athletes and pitchers, long thoracic neuropathy in tennis players, suprascapular neuropathy in volleyball and tennis players, ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow in pitchers and at the wrist in cyclists, Morton's syndrome in runners and dancers. PMID:11475937

Wang, F C; Crielaard, J M

2001-05-01

147

[Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy].  

PubMed

Autonomic neuropathies may occur primarily or secondarily to various underlying diseases. Primary autonomic neuropathies are divided into pure autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy with sensory impairment, and autonomic neuropathy with sensory and motor impairment based on the concomitance or absence of sensory or motor dysfunctions. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy refers to a pure autonomic neuropathy, which typically affects both cholinergic and adrenergic functions. About a half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy are positive for anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies. The mode of progression widely ranges from acute to chronic, including that mimicking pure autonomic failure. The number of unmyelinated fibers in the sural nerve biopsy specimens tends to decrease with the duration of disease become longer. Immunomodulatory treatments are suggested to be effective for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. Acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy is characterized by autonomic and sensory impairment without motor dysfunction that reaches its nadir within a short period of time mimicking the progression of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The monophasic clinical course and frequent presence of a history of antecedent infections suggests a participation of immune mechanisms. The initial symptoms are those related to autonomic disturbance or superficial sensory impairment, while deep sensory impairment accompanied by sensory ataxia subsequently appears in some patients. Sural nerve biopsy specimens reveal small-fiber predominant axonal loss, and autopsy cases show neuronal loss in the thoracic sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia. Hence, small neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia may be affected in the initial phase and, subsequently, large neurons in the sensory ganglia are damaged in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. PMID:24291976

Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

2013-01-01

148

Peripheral neuropathies of childhood.  

PubMed

This article has provided a brief overview of the most common inherited and acquired peripheral nerve diseases encountered in childhood. The diagnostic approach of peripheral neuropathies in children often relies on some combination of careful history taking, physical examination findings, a careful determination of family history, electrodiagnostic studies, molecular genetic studies, sural nerve biopsy, and occasionally metabolic laboratory studies. Although pediatric mononeuropathies may have different causes than those observed in adults, the clinical presentations, diagnostic evaluation, and management of mononeuropathies are frequently similar in adults and children. Encouraging progress is being made in the management of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), which is the most common acquired neuropathy of childhood. Rapid advances in molecular genetics over the past decade have had a significant impact on our diagnostic approach to hereditary motor sensory neuropathy in particular. In the future it is likely that the sequencing of genes, characterization of protein structure and function, and further elucidation of pathophysiology will have significant impacts on the treatment of many inherited peripheral neuropathies of childhood. PMID:11345019

McDonald, C M

2001-05-01

149

Megaoesophagus due to acrylamide neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Greyhound dogs exposed to oral acrylamide for a period of eight weeks developed a sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy that had many features in common with acrylamide neuropathy seen in other species. Most of the animals also developed the clinical and radiological features of megaoesophagus. The association of neuropathy and megaoesophagus suggests that an axonopathy of the vagus may be an aetiological factor in this disorder. Images PMID:6273507

Satchell, P M; McLeod, J G

1981-01-01

150

Emerging toxic neuropathies and myopathies.  

PubMed

Psychiatrists in practice encounter patients abusing alcohol and street drugs such as cocaine that can lead to toxic myopathies or neuropathies. Psychiatrists also encounter patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus who are treated with myotoxic medications (e.g., Hydroxychloroquine). Thus a well-rounded knowledge of toxic myopathies and neuropathies is extremely useful. The differential diagnosis of toxic myopathies and neuropathies is expanding rapidly and practical knowledge of these entities is becoming important. PMID:23688688

Kushlaf, Hani A

2013-06-01

151

Canine inherited hypertrophic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recessively inherited hypertrophic neuropathy was discovered in Tibetan Mastiff dogs. Affected pups developed a generalized weakness with hyporeflexia shortly after weaning. Diagnostic findings in 10–18-week-old pups included: moderate to severe reduction in nerve conduction velocities, infrequent denervation potentials, and inconstant elevation in CSF protein. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of peripheral nerves and roots revealed widespread demyelination and primitive onion

J. F. Cummings; B. J. Cooper; A. Lahunta; T. J. Winkle

1981-01-01

152

[Radiation-induced neuropathy].  

PubMed

Radiation-induced neuropathy is commonly observed among oncological patients. Radiation can affect the nervous tissue directly or indirectly by inducing vasculopathy or dysfunction of internal organs. Symptoms may be mild and reversible (e.g., pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, drowsiness, fatigue, paresthesia) or life-threatening (cerebral oedema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures). Such complications are clinically divided into peripheral (plexopathies, neuropathies of spinal and cranial nerves) and central neuropathy (myelopathy, encephalopathy, cognitive impairment). The degree of neuronal damages primarily depends on the total and fractional radiation dose and applied therapeutic methods. The conformal and megavoltage radiotherapy seems to be the safeties ones. Diagnostic protocol includes physical examination, imaging (in particular magnetic resonance), electromyography, nerve conduction study and sometimes histological examination. Prevention and early detection of neurological complications are necessary in order to prevent a permanent dysfunction of the nervous system. Presently their treatment is mostly symptomatic, but in same cases a surgical intervention is required. An experimental and clinical data indicates some effectiveness of different neuroprotective agents (e.g. anticoagulants, vitamin E, hyperbaric oxygen, pentoxifylline, bevacizumab, methylphenidate, donepezil), which should be administered before and/or during radiotherapy. PMID:24490474

Kolak, Agnieszka; Staros?awska, Elzbieta; Kieszko, Dariusz; Cisek, Pawe?; Patyra, Krzysztof Ireneusz; Surdyka, Dariusz; Dobrzy?ska-Rutkowska, Aneta; ?opacka-Szatan, Karolina; Burdan, Franciszek

2013-12-01

153

Peripheral systems: neuropathy.  

PubMed

Long-term, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages produces a peripheral neuropathy with symptoms of decreased superficial sensation, hyperalgesia, and weakness. Alcoholic neuropathy is characterized by axonal degeneration with reduced density of both small and large fibers and axonal sprouting. Electrophysiologic studies reveal a marked reduction in the amplitude of sensory potentials and moderate slowing of nerve conduction, mainly in the lower extremities. Dietary deficiency of vitamins, which are often associated with chronic alcoholism, can contribute to the pathogenesis. Recent studies using animal models have identified several mechanisms by which ethanol impacts peripheral nerve function. Ethanol can exert direct neurotoxic effects on peripheral nerves via its metabolite acetaldehyde and by enhancing oxidative stress. Ethanol activation of protein kinase C? signaling in primary afferent nociceptors plays an important role in lowering nociceptive threshold. Further, ethanol causes cytoskeletal dysfunction and inhibits both anterograde and retrograde axonal transport. Alcoholic neuropathy is potentially reversible and treatments include abstinence from alcoholic beverages and consumption of a nutritionally balanced diet supplemented with B vitamins. However, response to these treatment strategies can be variable, which underscores the need for novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical findings and insights on molecular mechanisms from animal models. PMID:25307593

Maiya, Rajani P; Messing, Robert O

2014-01-01

154

Painful Peripheral Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases affecting peripheral nerves. The causes are multiple: hereditary, metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, toxic, traumatic. The temporal profile includes acute, subacute and chronic conditions. The majority of peripheral neuropathies cause mainly muscle weakness and sensory loss, positive sensory symptoms and sometimes pain. When pain is present, however, it is usually extremely intense and among the most disabling symptoms for the patients. In addition, the neurological origin of the pain is often missed and patients receive inadequate or delayed specific treatment. Independently of the disease causing the peripheral nerve injury, pain originating from axonal pathology or ganglionopathy privileges neuropathies affecting smaller fibres, a clinical observation that points towards abnormal activity within nociceptive afferents as a main generator of pain. Natural activation of blood vessels or perineurial nociceptive network by pathology also causes intense pain. Pain of this kind, i.e. nerve trunk pain, is among the heralding symptoms of inflammatory or ischemic mononeuropathy and for its intensity represents itself a medical emergency. Neuropathic pain quality rekindles the psychophysical experience of peripheral nerves intraneural microstimulation i.e. a combination of large and small fibres sensation temporally distorted compared to physiological perception evoked by natural stimuli. Pins and needles, burning, cramping mixed with numbness, and tingling are the wording most used by patients. Nociceptive pain instead is most often described as aching, deep and dull. Good command of peripheral nerve anatomy and pathophysiology allows timely recognition of the different pain components and targeted treatment, selected according to intensity, type and temporal profile of the pain. PMID:18615140

Marchettini, P; Lacerenza, M; Mauri, E; Marangoni, C

2006-01-01

155

Metabolic neuropathies and myopathies.  

PubMed

Inborn errors of metabolism may impact on muscle and peripheral nerve. Abnormalities involve mitochondria and other subcellular organelles such as peroxisomes and lysosomes related to the turnover and recycling of cellular compartments. Treatable causes are ?-oxidation defects producing progressive neuropathy; pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, porphyria, or vitamin B12 deficiency causing recurrent episodes of neuropathy or acute motor deficit mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. On the other hand, lysosomal (mucopolysaccharidosis, Gaucher and Fabry diseases), mitochondriopathic (mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or mDNA depletion), peroxisomal (adrenomyeloneuropathy, Refsum disease, sterol carrier protein-2 deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, ?-methylacyl racemase deficiency) diseases are multisystemic disorders involving also the heart, liver, brain, retina, and kidney. Pathophysiology of most metabolic myopathies is related to the impairment of energy production or to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Main symptoms are exercise intolerance with myalgias, cramps and recurrent myoglobinuria or limb weakness associated with elevation of serum creatine kinase. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency, followed by acid maltase deficiency, and lipin deficiency, are the most common cause of isolated rhabdomyolysis. Metabolic myopathies are frequently associated to extra-neuromuscular disorders particularly involving the heart, liver, brain, retina, skin, and kidney. PMID:23622366

D'Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico

2013-01-01

156

Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG). EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block) and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG). Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them. PMID:19893645

Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Nair, Pradeep P.

2008-01-01

157

Canine inherited hypertrophic neuropathy.  

PubMed

A recessively inherited hypertrophic neuropathy was discovered in Tibetan Mastiff dogs. Affected pups developed a generalized weakness with hyporeflexia shortly after weaning. Diagnostic findings in 10-18-week-old pups included: moderate to severe reduction in nerve conduction velocities, infrequent denervation potentials, and inconstant elevation in CSF protein. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of peripheral nerves and roots revealed widespread demyelination and primitive onion bulb formation with relatively little degeneration of axons. Myelin changes often were most striking in the cytoplasmic regions of the sheaths and consisted of separations at the major dense lines, anomalous incisure patterns, and marked filamentous accumulations in the inner spirals and adaxonal cytoplasm. The results of these initial studies suggest an inborn defect in the Schwann cell's ability to form or maintain a stable myelin sheath. PMID:6259873

Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J; de Lahunta, A; van Winkle, T J

1981-01-01

158

Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, researchers are testing the ability of an antioxidant supplement called alpha-lipoic acid to prevent peripheral neuropathy caused by the platinum-containing drugs cisplatin and oxaliplatin.

159

Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy  

Cancer.gov

The pain and discomfort caused by peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common reasons that cancer patients stop their treatment early. Researchers are working to improve new screening, treatment, and prevention options for patients.

160

Crucifixion and median neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Crucifixion as a means of torture and execution was first developed in the 6th century B.C. and remained popular for over 1000 years. Details of the practice, which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, have intrigued scholars as historical records and archaeological findings from the era are limited. As a result, various aspects of crucifixion, including the type of crosses used, methods of securing victims to crosses, the length of time victims survived on the cross, and the exact mechanisms of death, remain topics of debate. One aspect of crucifixion not previously explored in detail is the characteristic hand posture often depicted in artistic renditions of crucifixion. In this posture, the hand is clenched in a peculiar and characteristic fashion: there is complete failure of flexion of the thumb and index finger with partial failure of flexion of the middle finger. Such a “crucified clench” is depicted across different cultures and from different eras. A review of crucifixion history and techniques, median nerve anatomy and function, and the historical artistic depiction of crucifixion was performed to support the hypothesis that the “crucified clench” results from proximal median neuropathy due to positioning on the cross, rather than from direct trauma of impalement of the hand or wrist. PMID:23785656

Regan, Jacqueline M; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Watson, Joseph C

2013-01-01

161

Diagnosis and new treatments in genetic neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic neuropathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases of which the most common types are Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), the hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies and the distal hereditary motor neuropathies. More than 30 causative genes have been described, making an accurate genetic diagnosis increasingly possible. Although no specific therapies are yet available, research into their pathogenesis

M M Reilly; M E Shy

2009-01-01

162

Peripheral neuropathy in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is an uncommon manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus and has not yet been characterized in pediatric patients. We report the clinical and electrophysiologic features of peripheral neuropathy in one child and three adolescents with lupus erythematosus. There were three females and one male. The peripheral neuropathy followed the onset of lupus erythematosus by a mean of 3 years.

Liora Harel; Masha Mukamel; Riva Brik; Hannah Blau; Rachel Straussberg

2002-01-01

163

Emerging toxic neuropathies and myopathies.  

PubMed

There is a daunting list of toxins that can affect the peripheral nervous system, with new drugs and chemicals added to this list every year. This article focuses on some of the more recent toxic neuropathies and myopathies that have emerged from the medical literature. Among these are toxic myopathies caused by statins, daptomycin, imatinib, hydroxychloroquine, and highly active antiretroviral therapy; neuromuscular junction toxicity caused by tandutinib; toxic peripheral neuropathies caused by bortezomib, angel's trumpet, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, tumor necrosis factor ? antagonists, cobalt-chromium, and ixabepilone; and a unique syndrome reported in workers exposed to aerosolized porcine neural tissue. PMID:21803218

Kushlaf, Hani A

2011-08-01

164

Validation of Michigan neuropathy screening instrument for diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe reliability and accuracy of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI) have been discussed recently. As a result of the difficulties of performing and analyzing nerve biopsy as a standard diagnostic test, electromyography and neuronography is used as the best alternative diagnostic procedure. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of the test characteristics and cut-off

Ali Moghtaderi; Alireza Bakhshipour; Homayra Rashidi

2006-01-01

165

Profiling the Mitochondrial Proteome of Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) in Thailand: Down-Regulation of Bioenergetics and Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control Pathways in Fibroblasts with the 11778G>A Mutation  

PubMed Central

Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is one of the commonest mitochondrial diseases. It causes total blindness, and predominantly affects young males. For the disease to develop, it is necessary for an individual to carry one of the primary mtDNA mutations 11778G>A, 14484T>C or 3460G>A. However these mutations are not sufficient to cause disease, and they do not explain the characteristic features of LHON such as the higher prevalence in males, incomplete penetrance, and relatively later age of onset. In order to explore the roles of nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins in development of LHON, we applied a proteomic approach to samples from affected and unaffected individuals from 3 pedigrees and from 5 unrelated controls. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis in the mitochondrial lysate identified 17 proteins which were differentially expressed between LHON cases and unrelated controls, and 24 proteins which were differentially expressed between unaffected relatives and unrelated controls. The proteomic data were successfully validated by western blot analysis of 3 selected proteins. All of the proteins identified in the study were mitochondrial proteins and most of them were down regulated in 11778G>A mutant fibroblasts. These proteins included: subunits of OXPHOS enzyme complexes, proteins involved in intermediary metabolic processes, nucleoid related proteins, chaperones, cristae remodelling proteins and an anti-oxidant enzyme. The protein profiles of both the affected and unaffected 11778G>A carriers shared many features which differed from those of unrelated control group, revealing similar proteomic responses to 11778G>A mutation in both affected and unaffected individuals. Differentially expressed proteins revealed two broad groups: a cluster of bioenergetic pathway proteins and a cluster involved in protein quality control system. Defects in these systems are likely to impede the function of retinal ganglion cells, and may lead to the development of LHON in synergy with the primary mtDNA mutation. PMID:25215595

Tun, Aung Win; Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Kaewsutthi, Supannee; Katanyoo, Wanphen; Chuenkongkaew, Wanicha; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Peerapittayamongkol, Chayanon; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Lertrit, Patcharee

2014-01-01

166

The neuropathy of erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

These studies were intended to explore the relationship between autonomic neuropathy and erectile dysfunction (ED). Sensory thresholds reflecting the integrity of both large diameter, myelinated neurons (ie pressure, touch, vibration) and small diameter axons (ie hot and cold thermal sensation) were determined on the penis and finger. Data were compared across subjects with and without ED, controlling for age, hypertension

CB Bleustein; JC Arezzo; H Eckholdt; A Melman

2002-01-01

167

Subdural Hemorrhage Mimicking Peripheral Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) can manifest various neurologic symptoms. However, SDH presenting with only hand weakness has rarely been reported. We report two SDH cases with only hand weakness mimicking peripheral neuropathy. Since SDH can present with hand weakness only, we suggest the clinicians to do a careful history taking and recommend a CT scan in the elderly patients. PMID:25328658

Kim, Hye Ihn; Oh, Yeo Jin; Cho, Yu Na

2014-01-01

168

Overview of Optic Nerve Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Papilledema Optic Neuritis Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Toxic Amblyopia Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Eye Disorders > Optic Nerve Disorders ...

169

Investigation of the Elementary Physical Processes in Plasma of Filamentation and Optical Breakdown Regions Accompanying the Propagation of the Femtosecond Laser Pulse with Wavelength of 950 nm in Air at Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time comparative investigations are performed of the emission spectra of pure air breakdown plasma initiated by a high-voltage pulse nanosecond discharge and nanosecond and femtosecond optical pulses. The plasma initiated in air by femtosecond laser pulses differs significantly from the plasma initiated by the nanosecond high-voltage discharge and optical breakdown. The propagation of femtosecond laser radiation in pure nitrogen in the filamentation region is accompanied by stimulated emission on transitions of the molecular nitrogen ion at a wavelength of 427.8 nm. The energy of the laser electromagnetic field is accumulated in the field of charged particles and is mainly dissipated in the processes of dissipative recombination. It is demonstrated that the emission spectra of air in the range 0.6-1 ?m coincide almost completely for all excitation types, and in the range 0.2-0.6 ?m, these spectra have the characteristic features caused by the parameters of high-voltage and optical breakdown plasma.

Prokopyev, V. E.; Ivanov, N. G.; Krivonosenko, D. A.; Losev, V. F.

2014-03-01

170

Effects of Semelil (ANGIPARS™) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A randomized, double-blind Placebo-controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Diabetic neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication that often is accompanied by significant morbidity, mortality and economic burden. The purpose of this study was evaluation of effect of Semelil (ANGIPARS™), a new herbal drug for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers or diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods In this double blind clinical trial, 49 type 2 diabetes patients with different degrees of neuropathy were evaluated in two groups (ANGIPARS™ and placebo groups). All patients were assessed at the start and 12 weeks after treatment, with laboratory tests, United Kingdom screening test, Michigan neuropathy screening score, Michigan diabetic neuropathy score, vibration perception thresholds, nerve conduction study, monofilament test and visual analog scale. Results Michigan diabetic neuropathy score was decreased notably in ANGIPARS™ group. In the nerve conduction study, appropriate meaningful changes were observed in the distal latency and amplitude in the motor Ulnar nerve in ANGIPARS™ group. Conclusion The results showed limited evidence of efficacy of ANGIPARS™ in diabetic neuropathy treatment and more studies with a larger sample size and longer duration are required. PMID:22615641

Bakhshayeshi, S.; Madani, SP.; Hemmatabadi, M.; Heshmat, R.; Larijani, B.

2011-01-01

171

Guanethidine adrenergic neuropathy: an animal model of selective autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Chronic administration of guanethidine to adult rats induces a selective autoimmune adrenergic neuropathy. Physiological and biochemical features of this disorder in the peripheral nervous system were explored in young adult Sprague-Dawley rats given daily intraperitoneal guanethidine monosulfate for 5 weeks. Control rats received daily saline injections. The guanethidine-treated animals gained less weight, had ptosis, and had a lower mean arterial blood pressure in the supine and upright tilted positions. Norepinephrine was depleted in the peroneal, sural, tibial, and vagal nerves, the nutrient artery to the tibial nerve and in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion of the drug-treated animals. On light microscopy, there was an inflammatory cell infiltrate and neuron loss in the superior cervical ganglion. Caudal and sciatic-tibial nerve conduction values were well preserved in the guanethidine-treated animals as was the 'C' potential derived from unmyelinated vagal fibers recorded in an in vitro chamber. The 'C' potential recorded from the cervical sympathetic trunk, however, was reduced in amplitude correlating with the loss of norepinephrine content in the harvested contralateral superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. The findings further support the view that guanethidine produces a selective adrenergic neuropathy in the rat--providing a useful standard with which to gauge autonomic involvement in other models of neuropathy. In addition, loss of the cervical sympathetic 'C' potential suggests that this presumed preganglionic structure also contains postganglionic adrenergic fibers. PMID:3224270

Zochodne, D W; Ward, K K; Low, P A

1988-09-27

172

Not all neuropathy in diabetes is of diabetic etiology: Differential diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the most common peripheral neuropathy in the developed world; however, not all patients\\u000a with diabetes and peripheral nerve disease have a peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes. Several (although not all) studies\\u000a have drawn attention to the presence of other potential causes of a neuropathy in individuals with diabetes; 10% to 50% of\\u000a individuals with diabetes may

Roy Freeman

2009-01-01

173

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... December 2009 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 is a condition ...

174

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... 2007 What is hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies? Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies ...

175

Animal Models of Autoimmune Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises the cranial nerves, the spinal nerves with their roots and rami, dorsal root ganglia neurons, the peripheral nerves, and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system. Cell-mediated or antibody-mediated immune attack on the PNS results in distinct clinical syndromes, which are classified based on the tempo of illness, PNS component(s) involved, and the culprit antigen(s) identified. Insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathy have been provided by ex vivo immunologic studies, biopsy materials, electrophysiologic studies, and experimental models. This review article summarizes earlier seminal observations and highlights the recent progress in our understanding of immunopathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathies based on data from animal models. PMID:24615441

Soliven, Betty

2014-01-01

176

Treatment of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 50% of patients with chronic sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy will experience painful or uncomfortable symptoms, and\\u000a of these a significant minority may require pharmacological therapy. As painful symptomatology may be worsened by a sudden\\u000a change in glycaemic control, the first step in management should be the quest for stable, near normal glycaemic control avoiding\\u000a glycaemic flux. Of all the

Andrew J. M. Boulton

177

Colour vision defects in asymptomatic carriers of the Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mtDNA 11778 mutation from a large Brazilian LHON pedigree: a case?control study  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine if asymptomatic carriers from a previously identified large pedigree of the Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) 11778 mtDNA mutation have colour vision deficits. Methods As part of a comprehensive analysis of over 200 members of a large Brazilian LHON pedigree spanning seven generations, colour vision tests were obtained from 91 members. Colour vision was tested one eye at a time using the Farnsworth?Munsell 100 (FM?100) hue colour vision test. The test was administered under uniform conditions, taking into account: ambient light levels, daylight colour temperature of 6700?kelvin, and neutral uniform background. Tests were scored using the FM?100 MS?Excel computer scoring program. Defects were determined and categorised as tritan, deutan, or protan. Categorisation of each dyschromatopsia was based on review of demonstrated axis computer generated plots and age adjusted error scores which coincided with Verriest 95% confidence intervals. Only the axis with the greatest magnitude error score was used to classify the defect. 55 of the 91 test subjects were LHON mtDNA 11778 J haplotype mutation carriers, proved by mtDNA analysis. The remaining 36 subjects were age matched non?blood relatives (off pedigree), who served as controls. Results 27 of 55 carriers (49.10%) were shown to have colour vision defects in one or both eyes. 13 of the 27 (48%) abnormal tests in the carrier group were tritan defects and the remaining 14 (52%) were deutan defects. Nine of the 27 (33%) abnormals in the carrier group were identified as having bilateral defects. Six of these were deutan, and the remaining three were tritan dyschromatopsias. Only six of the 36 (16.66%) age matched controls were found to have any type of dyschromatopsia. Five (83.3%) of these were deutan defects. The remaining one was a tritan defect. The difference between the two groups using a ?2 test with one degree of freedom was statistically significant with a p value less that 0.001. Conclusions Until now, LHON has always been characterised by a sudden, devastating vision loss. Asymptomatic carriers, those without vision loss, were considered unaffected by the disease. It now appears that asymptomatic carriers of the LHON mutation are affected by colour vision defects and may manifest other subtle, yet chronic, changes. PMID:16424523

Quiros, P A; Torres, R J; Salomao, S; Berezovsky, A; Carelli, V; Sherman, J; Sadun, F; De Negri, A; Belfort, R; Sadun, A A

2006-01-01

178

FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells Determine Disease Severity in Rodent Models of Inflammatory Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory neuropathies represent disabling human autoimmune disorders with considerable disease variability. Animal models provide insights into defined aspects of their disease pathogenesis. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) are anti-inflammatory cells that maintain immune tolerance and counteract tissue damage in a variety of immune-mediated disorders. Dysfunction or a reduced frequency of Tregs have been associated with different human autoimmune disorders. We here analyzed the functional relevance of Tregs in determining disease manifestation and severity in murine models of autoimmune neuropathies. We took advantage of the DEREG mouse system allowing depletion of Treg with high specificity as well as anti-CD25 directed antibodies to deplete Tregs in mice in actively induced experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). Furthermore antibody-depletion was performed in an adoptive transfer model of chronic neuritis. Early Treg depletion increased clinical EAN severity both in active and adoptive transfer chronic neuritis. This was accompanied by increased proliferation of myelin specific T cells and histological signs of peripheral nerve inflammation. Late stage Treg depletion after initial disease manifestation however did not exacerbate inflammatory neuropathy symptoms further. We conclude that Tregs determine disease severity in experimental autoimmune neuropathies during the initial priming phase, but have no major disease modifying function after disease manifestation. Potential future therapeutic approaches targeting Tregs should thus be performed early in inflammatory neuropathies. PMID:25286182

Meyer zu Hörste, Gerd; Cordes, Steffen; Mausberg, Anne K.; Zozulya, Alla L.; Wessig, Carsten; Sparwasser, Tim; Mathys, Christian; Wiendl, Heinz; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C.

2014-01-01

179

Peripheral neuropathy associated with capecitabine.  

PubMed

5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-associated peripheral neuropathy is an uncommon event. Capecitabine (CAP) is a pro-drug of 5-FU and peripheral neuropathy associated with CAP has not been reported. During analysis of 28 patients receiving CAP with concomitant radiation (XRT) for pancreatic cancer (resected or locally advanced), two patients developed signs and symptoms consistent with peripheral neuropathy. Patients received CAP 1200-1600 mg/m2 in two divided doses with XRT (total 5040-5400 Gy) x 6 weeks, followed by 4 weeks rest, then 6 cycles of CAP 2000-2500 mg/m2 in two divided doses x 14 days every (q) 3 weeks. Patients were assessed weekly during CAP-XRT and q 3 weeks during CAP alone. Patient A reported right leg weakness (foot drop) during week 4 of CAP-XRT (1600 mg/m2). Patient B developed perioral and upper extremity paresthesias during the fourth cycle of CAP alone (2500 mg/m2). Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity was measured by radioisotopic assay using lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Neurologic examination revealed right foot drop in Patient A and was unremarkable in Patient B. Central nervous system imaging was negative. Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies showed sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy in both patients. DPD activity was normal in both patients. There was no evidence of disease progression. Neurologic symptoms resolved after stopping CAP for 4 weeks in Patient A, with no recurrence after reinitiating CAP alone at 2000 mg/m2. Patient B continued at 80% of standard dose (2000 mg/m2) and symptoms resolved without further intervention. We conclude peripheral neuropathy with 5-FU is rare. Neurotoxicity occurs most often with intermittent high dose 5-FU as bolus injection or 24- to 48-h infusions. The etiology of neurotoxicity in our two patients remains unclear; however, as CAP is rapidly metabolized to 5-FU in patients with normal liver function, it is likely that 5-FU or its active metabolites (fluoro-beta-alanine) were contributing factors. Knowledge regarding potential adverse effects of CAP is paramount and dose modification is indicated with development of neurotoxicity. PMID:15494638

Saif, M Wasif; Wood, Tina E; McGee, Philip J; Diasio, Robert B

2004-09-01

180

Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations  

PubMed Central

This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

181

Disulfiram-induced neuropathy: a case report.  

PubMed

Disulfiram is widely used for aversive treatment of alcoholism. Neuropathy is one of the most severe side effects of disulfiram therapy. We report the case of a young man who developed a neuropathy following disulfiram administration, with a virtually complete recovery within 2 months. PMID:25445071

Mohapatra, Satyakam; Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; Rath, Neelmadhav

2014-10-01

182

[Axonal involvement in dysimmune neuropathies].  

PubMed

Dysimmune neuropathies, in common with other neuropathies, comprise an axonal impairment that it is primary or secondary to a demyelinating process. We consider here axonal impairment in the course of certain dysimmune neuropathies, such as the Guillain Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis and multiple conduction block neuropathy. We mention the fact that it is not always easy to evidence the axonal impairment, its severity and its potential for regeneration. The mechanisms of the axonal lesions stem essentially from the special and tight bonds between the axon and the Schwann cell, which in the central central nervous system are mirrored by the bonds between axons and oligodendrocytes. Indeed, myelinating Schwann cells modify the properties of the axon in the normal peripheral nervous system, and abnormal Schwann cells induce pathological modifications. The periods of appearance of the axonal impairment are nevertheless quite variable depending on the type of the dysimmune neuropathy: acute or chronic. Some Guillain-Barré syndromes may be distinguished by a severe axonal impairment, now well documented and referred to as AMSAN and AMAN. Various mechanisms of axonal impairment are discussed. The bond between axon and myelin means that any pathological process in Schwann cells leads to axonal impairment, with inflammatory processes having a direct impact on the axon: mechanism of typical 'by-stander effect', repressive role of endoneurial edema, direct dysimmune attack on axonal epitopes on the corresponding axolemma, especially on the GM1 gangliosides, intra-axonal accumulation of sodium and calcium due to disruption the voltage-dependent sodium/potassium ion channels, slow retrograde progression to anterior horn neurons and possibly also to posterior spinal cords. The treatment of the axonal impairment is not straightforward; it is based, in a first instance, on the direct relation between the severity of the demyelinating lesions and the axonal impairment. For the acute forms of typical Guillain-Barré syndrome, the value of plasma exchanges and intravenous immunoglobulins has demonstrated in double blind, randomized trials. For the chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyradiculoneuritis, corticotherapy, along with plasma exchange and the immunoglobulins, have also been shown to be effective. Immunosuppressor treatment has benefits, but it is hard to prove objectively. It is generally recognized that it is only useful if applied for a period of weeks, although this is currently a matter of debate. Other therapeutic options have been discussed and proposed, although to date there is a lack of proven efficiency: such treatments include neuroprotective agents and drugs which block sodium/potassium ion channels. It is increasingly difficult to propose new treatments with validated efficiency, due to the small number of patients presenting dysimmune neuropathies of the type discussed here that are both typical and suitable for inclusion in medium to long term studies. PMID:18087224

Vallat, J-M

2007-09-01

183

Diabetic neuropathy and foot complications.  

PubMed

Foot ulceration and Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) are well recognized and documented late sequelae of diabetic peripheral, somatic, and sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The neuropathic foot, however, does not ulcerate spontaneously: it is a combination of loss of sensation due to neuropathy together with other factors such as foot deformity and external trauma that results in ulceration and indeed CN. The commonest trauma leading to foot ulcers in the neuropathic foot in Western countries is from inappropriate footwear. Much of the management of the insensate foot in diabetes has been learned from leprosy which similarly gives rise to insensitive foot ulceration. No expensive equipment is required to identify the high risk foot and recently developed tests such as the Ipswich Touch Test and the Vibratip have been shown to be useful in identifying the high risk foot. A comprehensive screening program, together with education of high risk patients, should help to reduce the all too high incidence of ulceration in diabetes. More recently another very high risk group has been identified, namely patients on dialysis, who are at extremely high risk of developing foot ulceration; this should be preventable. The most important feature in management of neuropathic foot ulceration is offloading as patients can easily walk on active foot ulcers due to the loss of pain sensation. Infection should be treated aggressively and if there is any evidence of peripheral vascular disease, arteriography and appropriate surgical management is also indicated. CN often presents with a unilateral hot, swollen foot and any patient presenting with these features known to have neuropathy should be treated as a Charcot until this is proven otherwise. Most important in the management of acute CN is offloading, often in a total contact cast. PMID:25410217

Boulton, Andrew J M

2014-01-01

184

Electrodiagnostic evaluation of ulnar neuropathy and other upper extremity mononeuropathies.  

PubMed

Upper extremity mononeuropathies are some of the common disorders seen in neurophysiology laboratories. Electrophysiologic studies rely on accurate localization based on knowledge of applicable anatomy and features of history and physical examination. Careful electrodiagnostic studies provide an accurate diagnosis, help localize the lesion site, exclude alternate diagnoses, reveal unsuspected diagnoses, determine pathophysiology of lesions, and assess severity, timeframe, and prognosis of lesions. This article discusses the electrodiagnostic approach to ulnar neuropathy, proximal median neuropathy, radial neuropathy, musculocutaneous neuropathy, axillary neuropathy, suprascapular neuropathy, and long thoracic neuropathy. Pertinent aspects of the history and physical examination, nerve conduction studies, and electromyography are presented. PMID:22361371

Dimberg, Elliot L

2012-05-01

185

Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

2014-01-01

186

Current understanding of auditory neuropathy.  

PubMed

Auditory neuropathy is defined by the presence of normal evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sites of lesion could be at the cochlear inner hair cells, spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea, synapse between the inner hair cells and auditory nerve, or the auditory nerve itself. Genetic, infectious or neonatal/perinatal insults are the 3 most commonly identified underlying causes. Children usually present with delay in speech and language development while adult patients present with hearing loss and disproportionately poor speech discrimination for the degree of hearing loss. Although cochlear implant is the treatment of choice, current evidence show that it benefits only those patients with endocochlear lesions, but not those with cochlear nerve deficiency or central nervous system disorders. As auditory neuropathy is a disorder with potential long-term impact on a child's development, early hearing screen using both OAE and ABR should be carried out on all newborns and infants to allow early detection and intervention. PMID:19904452

Boo, Nem-Yun

2008-12-01

187

Suprascapular neuropathy: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Although historically considered a diagnosis of exclusion, suprascapular neuropathy may be more common than once believed, as more recent reports are describing the condition as a cause of substantial pain and weakness in patients with and without concomitant shoulder pathology. The etiology is traction or compression of the suprascapular nerve. This can result from a space-occupying lesion, such as a ganglion cyst, or a traction injury as a result of repetitive overhead activities. More recent studies have cited cases of traction injuries occurring with retraction of a large rotator cuff tear. Atrophy of the infraspinatus and/or supraspinatus rotator cuff muscles with resultant weakness in forward flexion and/or external rotation of the shoulder on physical examination may be demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality to assess atrophy of the rotator cuff muscles as well as assess potential causes of suprascapular nerve compression. Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity studies remain the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis of suprascapular neuropathy; however, nerve pain may occur even in the setting of a negative electromyography. Initial management is usually nonoperative, consisting of activity modification, physical therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgical intervention is considered for patients with nerve compression by an external source or for symptoms refractory to conservative measures. Decompression of the suprascapular nerve may be accomplished through an open approach, although arthroscopic surgical approaches have become more common in the past several years. PMID:22508253

Freehill, Michael T; Shi, Lewis L; Tompson, Jeffrey D; Warner, Jon J P

2012-02-01

188

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is common and causes significant morbidity. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is also common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because OSA is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that OSA is associated with peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. Objectives: To assess the relationship between OSA and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults with type 2 diabetes recruited randomly from the diabetes clinic of two UK hospitals. Measurements and Main Results: Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ? 5 events/h) was assessed using home-based, multichannel respiratory monitoring. Serum nitrotyrosine was measured by ELISA, lipid peroxide by spectrophotometer, and microvascular function by laser speckle contrast imaging. Two hundred thirty-four patients (mean [SD] age, 57 [12] yr) were analyzed. OSA prevalence was 65% (median apnea-hypopnea index, 7.2; range, 0–93), 40% of which were moderate to severe. Neuropathy prevalence was higher in patients with OSA than those without (60% vs. 27%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, OSA remained independently associated with diabetic neuropathy (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.44–5.52; P = 0.0034). Nitrotyrosine and lipid peroxide levels (n = 102, 74 with OSA) were higher in OSA and correlated with hypoxemia severity. Cutaneous microvascular function (n = 71, 47 with OSA) was impaired in OSA. Conclusions: We describe a novel independent association between diabetic peripheral neuropathy and OSA. We identified increased nitrosative/oxidative stress and impaired microvascular regulation as potential mechanisms. Prospective and interventional studies are needed to assess the impact of OSA and its treatment on peripheral neuropathy development and progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22723291

Ali, Asad; Raymond, Neil T.; Begum, Safia; Dubb, Kiran; Mughal, Shanaz; Jose, Biju; Piya, Milan K.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Stevens, Martin J.

2012-01-01

189

Pathogenesis of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diabetes is rising globally and, as a result, its associated complications are also rising. Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a well-known complication of diabetes and the most common cause of all neuropathic pain. About one-third of all diabetes patients suffer from PDN. It has a huge effect on a person's daily life, both physically and mentally. Despite huge advances in diabetes and neurology, the exact mechanism of pain causation in PDN is still not clear. The origin of pain could be in the peripheral nerves of the central nervous system. In this review, we discuss various possible mechanisms of the pathogenesis of pain in PDN. We discuss the role of hyperglycaemia in altering the physiology of peripheral nerves. We also describe central mechanisms of pain. PMID:24891949

Rajbhandari, Satyan

2014-01-01

190

Bicycling induced pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy.  

PubMed

Pudendal neuropathies are well recognised as part of more generalised peripheral neuropathies; however, focal abnormalities of the pudendal nerve due to cycling-related injuries have been infrequently reported. We describe two patients who developed pudendal neuropathies secondary to pressure effects on the perineum from racing-bicycle saddles. Both were male competitive athletes, one of whom developed recurrent numbness of the penis and scrotum after prolonged cycling; the other developed numbness of the penis, an altered sensation of ejaculation, with disturbance of micturition and reduced awareness of defecation. Both patients improved with alterations in saddle position and riding techniques. We conclude that pudendal nerve pressure neuropathy can result from prolonged cycling, particularly when using a poor riding technique. PMID:1821826

Silbert, P L; Dunne, J W; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G

1991-01-01

191

INHERITED NEUROPATHIES: CLINICAL OVERVIEW AND UPDATE  

PubMed Central

Inherited neuropathy is a group of common neurologic disorders with heterogeneous clinical presentations and genetic causes. Detailed neuromuscular evaluations, including nerve conduction studies, laboratory testing, and histopathologic examination, can assist in identification of the inherited component beyond family history. Genetic testing increasingly enables definitive diagnosis of specific inherited neuropathies. Diagnosis, however, is often complex, and neurologic disability may have both genetic and acquired components in individual patients. The decision of which genetic test to order or whether to order genetic tests is often complicated, and the strategies to maximize the value of testing are evolving. Apart from rare inherited metabolic neuropathies, treatment approaches remain largely supportive. We provide a clinical update of the various types of inherited neuropathies, their differential diagnoses, and distinguishing clinical features (where available). A framework is provided for clinical evaluations, including the inheritance assessment, electrophysiologic examinations, and specific genetic tests. PMID:23801417

KLEIN, CHRISTOPHER J.; DUAN, XIAOHUI; SHY, MICHAEL E.

2014-01-01

192

Fatigue in immune-mediated neuropathies.  

PubMed

Fatigue, a highly debilitating symptom, is reported in most patients with immune-mediated neuropathies, particularly in Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic immune-mediated demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance related polyneuropathy, and multifocal motor neuropathy. Aspects like the degree of known fatigue in these disorders, its impact on daily functioning and quality of life, the suggested underlying mechanisms, and possible therapeutic interventions for fatigue will be addressed in this review. PMID:23182640

Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G

2012-12-01

193

Pattern Recognition Approach to Neuropathy and Neuronopathy  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Neuropathic disorders encompass those that affect the neuron’s cell body or neuronopathies, those affecting the peripheral process, or peripheral neuropathies. The peripheral neuropathies can be broadly subdivided into the myelinopathies and axonopathies. These conditions can be hereditary or acquired. Each of these disorders has distinct clinical features that enable neurologists to recognize the various patterns of presentation. Once a particular pattern is established, further laboratory studies can be performed to confirm the clinical impression. PMID:23642713

Barohn, Richard J; Amato, Anthony A.

2014-01-01

194

Cigarette smoking and neuropathy in diabetic patients.  

PubMed

We studied whether lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with the presence of diabetic neuropathy. The research design consisted of a case-control study conducted from a referral-based diabetes clinic at a major medical center. The patients were a 65% sample (163 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM] and 166 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM] patients) of all patients admitted during a 26-mo period. Neuropathy was diagnosed on the basis of signs and symptoms. Smoking history was obtained by mailed questionnaire (66% response rate). Diabetes duration, HbA1, age, sex, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension history, and lifetime alcohol consumption were measured as covariates. The prevalence of neuropathy was 49 and 38% in IDDM (n = 113) and NIDDM (n = 104) patients, respectively. In IDDM, but not NIDDM, current or ex-smokers were significantly more likely to have neuropathy than individuals who had never smoked (odds ratio 2.46, P = 0.02), and the prevalence of neuropathy increased with increasing number of pack-years smoked (P less than 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, IDDM patients smoking greater than or equal to 30 pack-yr were 3.32 times more likely to have neuropathy than patients smoking less than this amount (95% confidence interval 1.15-9.58, P = 0.026). Cigarette smoking was associated with the presence of neuropathy in this clinic-based population of IDDM patients. The hypothesis that cigarette smoking is associated with diabetic neuropathy should be investigated further, both prospectively and in a more representative population. PMID:2318103

Mitchell, B D; Hawthorne, V M; Vinik, A I

1990-04-01

195

Pachydermoperiostosis Accompanied by Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Pachydermoperiostosis or primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is an uncommon disease of acromegaloid facial feature, but characterized by unique phenotype (digital clubbing and pachydermia) and distinctive radiographic appearances like periostosis. We experienced a case with complete form of pachydermoperiostosis accompanied by heart failure. He presented with typical features consisting of clubbing with enlargement of the hand, thickening of facial skin and periosteal new bone formation involving lower leg. Echocardiography revealed severely decreased left ventricular systolic function. Treatment with medications resulted in an improvement of cardiac function and symptom. There is no previous report documenting pachydermoperiostosis accompanied by heart failure. We report that case for the first time. PMID:20661338

Shin, Kwen-Chul; Lee, Ki Young; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Sei-Hyun; Jo, Yun Jeong; Park, Yae Min; Ahn, Tae Hoon; Choi, In Suk; Shin, Eak Kyun

2009-01-01

196

Sonography of entrapment neuropathies in the upper limb (wrist excluded).  

PubMed

The progressive refinement of broadband transducers with frequencies higher than 10 MHz and improved near-field resolution has enhanced the potential of sonography to evaluate a variety of nerve entrapment syndromes occurring in the upper limb, such as suprascapular neuropathy in the area of the spinoglenoid-supraspinous notch, the quadrilateral space syndrome (axillary neuropathy), radial neuropathy in the area of the spiral groove, the supinator syndrome (posterior interosseous neuropathy), the cubital tunnel syndrome (ulnar neuropathy), and the Kiloh-Nevin syndrome (anterior interosseous neuropathy). In these settings, high-resolution sonography can depict changes in the nerve's shape and echotexture and can depict many extrinsic causes of nerve entrapment. PMID:15558622

Martinoli, Carlo; Bianchi, Stefano; Pugliese, Francesca; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Gauglio, Cristina; Valle, Maura; Derchi, Lorenzo E

2004-01-01

197

Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a debilitating consequence of diabetes that may be present in as many as one in five patients with diabetes. The objective assessment of PDN is difficult, making it challenging to diagnose and assess in both clinical practice and clinical trials. No single treatment exists to prevent or reverse neuropathic changes or to provide total pain relief. Treatment of PDN is based on three major approaches: intensive glycaemic control and risk factor management, treatments based on pathogenetic mechanisms, and symptomatic pain management. Clinical guidelines recommend pain relief in PDN through the use of antidepressants such as amitriptyline and duloxetine, the ?-aminobutyric acid analogues gabapentin and pregabalin, opioids and topical agents such as capsaicin. Of these medications, duloxetine and pregabalin were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004 and tapentadol extended release was approved in 2012 for the treatment of PDN. Proposed pathogenetic treatments include ?-lipoic acid (stems reactive oxygen species formation), benfotiamine (prevents vascular damage in diabetes) and aldose-reductase inhibitors (reduces flux through the polyol pathway). There is a growing need for studies to evaluate the most potent drugs or combinations for the management of PDN to maximize pain relief and improve quality of life. A number of agents are potential candidates for future use in PDN therapy, including Nav 1.7 antagonists, N-type calcium channel blockers, NGF antibodies and angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists. PMID:25553239

Javed, Saad; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Alam, Uazman; Malik, Rayaz A

2015-01-01

198

Mouse Models of Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. DPN is characterized by progressive, distal-to-proximal degeneration of peripheral nerves that leads to pain, weakness, and eventual loss of sensation. The mechanisms underlying DPN pathogenesis are uncertain, and other than tight glycemic control in type 1 patients, there is no effective treatment. Mouse models of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are critical to improving our understanding of DPN pathophysiology and developing novel treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss the most widely used T1DM and T2DM mouse models for DPN research, with emphasis on the main neurologic phenotype of each model. We also discuss important considerations for selecting appropriate models for T1DM and T2DM DPN studies and describe the promise of novel emerging diabetic mouse models for DPN research. The development, characterization, and comprehensive neurologic phenotyping of clinically relevant mouse models for T1DM and T2DM will provide valuable resources for future studies examining DPN pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24615439

O'Brien, Phillipe D.; Sakowski, Stacey A.; Feldman, Eva L.

2014-01-01

199

Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a debilitating consequence of diabetes that may be present in as many as one in five patients with diabetes. The objective assessment of PDN is difficult, making it challenging to diagnose and assess in both clinical practice and clinical trials. No single treatment exists to prevent or reverse neuropathic changes or to provide total pain relief. Treatment of PDN is based on three major approaches: intensive glycaemic control and risk factor management, treatments based on pathogenetic mechanisms, and symptomatic pain management. Clinical guidelines recommend pain relief in PDN through the use of antidepressants such as amitriptyline and duloxetine, the ?-aminobutyric acid analogues gabapentin and pregabalin, opioids and topical agents such as capsaicin. Of these medications, duloxetine and pregabalin were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004 and tapentadol extended release was approved in 2012 for the treatment of PDN. Proposed pathogenetic treatments include ?-lipoic acid (stems reactive oxygen species formation), benfotiamine (prevents vascular damage in diabetes) and aldose-reductase inhibitors (reduces flux through the polyol pathway). There is a growing need for studies to evaluate the most potent drugs or combinations for the management of PDN to maximize pain relief and improve quality of life. A number of agents are potential candidates for future use in PDN therapy, including Nav 1.7 antagonists, N-type calcium channel blockers, NGF antibodies and angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists. PMID:25553239

Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Alam, Uazman; Malik, Rayaz A.

2015-01-01

200

Suprascapular neuropathy in volleyball players.  

PubMed

Entrapment neuropathy of the suprascapular nerve (SNE), although a recognised clinical entity, is a relatively rare cause of shoulder pain and subjective weakness in the athlete involved in overhead sports like volleyball and badminton. This study deals with the presentation and management of four unusual cases of suprascapular nerve entrapment in volleyball players. Four male volleyball players presented to our department with intractable shoulder pain and subjective sensation of shoulder weakness. They all had visible wasting of both supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles, together with weakness of abduction and external rotation of the arm. They all responded temporarily to a diagnostic injection of local anaesthetic. MR imaging was useful in diagnosing space occupying lesions in three cases and the presence of a hypertrophic suprascapular ligament in one case. Due to failure of non- operative treatment, which included activity modification, rest, analgesics and rehabilitation programme over 6 months, surgery was then required to decompress the suprascapular nerve. All patients were symptom free at 6 months postoperatively and after an intensive rehabilitation programme, they were able to return to their normal level of activity including sport. PMID:16035699

Dramis, Asterios; Pimpalnerkar, Ashvin

2005-06-01

201

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V  

MedlinePLUS

... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; inherited ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

202

PHENYLMETHYLSULFONYL FLUORIDE PROTECTS RATS FROM MIPAFOX-INDUCED DELAYED NEUROPATHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Initiation of organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is thought to consist of two molecular events involving the phosphorylation of the target enzyme, neurotoxic esterase or neuropathy target enzyme (NTE), and a subsequent 'aging' reaction which transforms the inhibi...

203

Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats Exposed to Dichloroacetate  

PubMed Central

The use of dichloroacetate (DCA) for treating patients with mitochondrial diseases is limited by the induction of peripheral neuropathy. The mechanisms of DCA-induced neuropathy are not known. Oral DCA treatment (50–500 mg/kg/day for up to 16 weeks) induced tactile allodynia in both juvenile and adult rats; concurrent thermal hypoalgesia developed at higher doses. Both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA developed nerve conduction slowing that was more pronounced in adult rats. No overt axonal or glial cell abnormalities were identified in peripheral nerves or spinal cord of any DCA-treated rats but morphometric analysis identified a reduction of mean axonal caliber of peripheral nerve myelinated fibers. DCA treatment also caused accumulation of oxidative stress markers in the nerves. These data indicate that behavioral, functional and structural indices of peripheral neuropathy may be induced in both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA at doses similar to those in clinical use. DCA-induced peripheral neuropathy primarily afflicts axons and involves both metabolic and structural disorders. The DCA-treated rat may provide insight into the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy and facilitate development of adjuvant therapeutics to prevent this disorder that currently restricts the clinical use of DCA. PMID:19680144

Calcutt, Nigel A.; Lopez, Veronica L.; Bautista, Arjel D.; Mizisin, Leah M.; Torres, Brenda R.; Shroads, Albert L.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

2009-01-01

204

Porphyric neuropathy: prevention of progression using haeme-arginate.  

PubMed

We report on a patient with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) who, during treatment with hypertonic glucose, developed peripheral neuropathy. Once haeme-arginate was started, the progression of the neuropathy was attenuated. This suggests that hypertonic glucose may be inadequate in preventing the development of neuropathy in a patient with porphyria. However, haeme-arginate, if started early, can attenuate the progression of porphyric neuropathy. PMID:8258754

Muthane, U B; Vengamma, B; Bharathi, K C; Mamatha, P

1993-12-01

205

Expenditures in the elderly with peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Summary To optimize care in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy, we sought to define which tests drive expenditures and the role of the provider type. We investigated test utilization and expenditures by provider type in those with incident neuropathy in a nationally representative elderly, Medicare population. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of MRI and electrodiagnostic utilization. MRIs of the neuroaxis and electrodiagnostic tests accounted for 88% of total expenditures. Mean and aggregate diagnostic expenditures were higher in those who saw a neurologist. Patients who saw a neurologist were more likely to receive an MRI and an electrodiagnostic test. MRIs and electrodiagnostic tests are the main contributors to expenditures in the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy, and should be the focus of future efficiency efforts. PMID:24175158

Callaghan, Brian C.; Burke, James F.; Rodgers, Ann; McCammon, Ryan; Langa, Kenneth M.; Feldman, Eva L.; Kerber, Kevin A.

2013-01-01

206

Ischemic Neuropathy Associated with Livedoid Vasculitis  

PubMed Central

Background Livedoid vasculitis is a chronic dermatological problem with an unclear etiology. Clinical findings are petechiae with painful ulcers in both lower extremities, which heal to become hyperpigmented and porcelain-white satellite lesions. There are only a few reported cases of livedoid vasculitis presenting in combination with peripheral neuropathy. Case Report We report the first case of a Korean patient presenting with mononeuritis multiplex combined with livedoid vasculitis, which was confirmed by electrophysiological and pathological studies. Conclusions Our report supports the possible vaso-occlusive etiology of livedoid vasculitis in multifocal ischemic neuropathy. PMID:22259622

Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Su-Yeon; Sinn, Dong In; Kim, Sung-Min; Hong, Yoon-Ho; Park, Kyung Seok; Lee, Kwang-Woo

2011-01-01

207

Sympathetic neuropathy and dysphagia following doxycycline sclerotherapy.  

PubMed

This case report demonstrates neurologic sequela following treatment with doxycycline sclerotherapy. A six-week-old child presented with respiratory distress from a macrocystic lymphatic malformation, extending from the skull base to the anterior mediastinum. Following doxycycline sclerotherapy, the airway symptoms resolved; however, the child developed silent aspiration and Horner's syndrome. Two months following treatment the patient resumed oral diet and at one year post-intervention there has been no recurrence of symptoms, with only mild ptosis remaining. While neuropathies following doxycycline sclerotherapy have been described, aspiration has never been documented. This case demonstrates a single patient's clinical course and resolution of their neuropathies. PMID:23931985

Wang, Kevin L; Chun, Robert H; Kerschner, Joseph E; Sulman, Cecille G

2013-09-01

208

Curcumin Treatment Abrogates Endoplasmic Reticulum Retention and Aggregation-Induced Apoptosis Associated with Neuropathy-Causing Myelin Protein Zero–Truncating Mutants  

PubMed Central

Mutations in MPZ, the gene encoding myelin protein zero (MPZ), the major protein constituent of peripheral myelin, can cause the adult-onset, inherited neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, as well as the more severe, childhood-onset Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy. Most MPZ-truncating mutations associated with severe forms of peripheral neuropathy result in premature termination codons within the terminal or penultimate exons that are not subject to nonsense-mediated decay and are stably translated into mutant proteins with potential dominant-negative activity. However, some truncating mutations at the 3? end of MPZ escape the nonsense-mediated decay pathway and cause a mild peripheral neuropathy phenotype. We examined the functional properties of MPZ-truncating proteins that escaped nonsense-mediated decay, and we found that frameshift mutations associated with severe disease cause an intracellular accumulation of mutant proteins, primarily within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which induces apoptosis. Curcumin, a chemical compound derived from the curry spice tumeric, releases the ER-retained MPZ mutants into the cytoplasm accompanied by a lower number of apoptotic cells. Our findings suggest that curcumin treatment is sufficient to relieve the toxic effect of mutant aggregation-induced apoptosis and may potentially have a therapeutic role in treating selected forms of inherited peripheral neuropathies. PMID:16252242

Khajavi, Mehrdad ; Inoue, Ken ; Wiszniewski, Wojciech ; Ohyama, Tomoko ; Snipes, G. Jackson ; Lupski, James R. 

2005-01-01

209

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies presenting with sciatic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal-dominant disorder associated with recurrent mononeuropathies following compression or trivial trauma. Reports on sciatic neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of HNPP are very scarce. We report on a 21-year-old previously healthy man who was admitted with sensorimotor deficits in his left leg. He had no history of preceding transient episodes of weakness or sensory loss. Clinical and electrophysiological examinations were consistent with sciatic neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid investigation and MRI of the nerve roots, plexus, and sciatic nerve did not indicate the underlying aetiology. When extended electrophysiological tests revealed multiple subclinical compression neuropathies in the upper limbs, HNPP was contemplated and eventually confirmed by genetic testing. PMID:25326571

Topakian, Raffi; Wimmer, Sibylle; Pischinger, Barbara; Pichler, Robert

2014-01-01

210

Sensory neuropathy as part of the cerebellar ataxia neuropathy vestibular areflexia syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: The syndrome of cerebellar ataxia with bilateral vestibulopathy was delineated in 2004. Sensory neuropathy was mentioned in 3 of the 4 patients described. We aimed to characterize and estimate the frequency of neuropathy in this condition, and determine its typical MRI features. Methods: Retrospective review of 18 subjects (including 4 from the original description) who met the criteria for bilateral vestibulopathy with cerebellar ataxia. Results: The reported age at onset range was 39–71 years, and symptom duration was 3–38 years. The syndrome was identified in one sibling pair, suggesting that this may be a late-onset recessive disorder, although the other 16 cases were apparently sporadic. All 18 had sensory neuropathy with absent sensory nerve action potentials, although this was not apparent clinically in 2, and the presence of neuropathy was not a selection criterion. In 5, the loss of pinprick sensation was virtually global, mimicking a neuronopathy. However, findings in the other 11 with clinically manifest neuropathy suggested a length-dependent neuropathy. MRI scans showed cerebellar atrophy in 16, involving anterior and dorsal vermis, and hemispheric crus I, while 2 were normal. The inferior vermis and brainstem were spared. Conclusions: Sensory neuropathy is an integral component of this syndrome. It may result in severe sensory loss, which contributes significantly to the disability. The MRI changes are nonspecific, but, coupled with loss of sensory nerve action potentials, may aid diagnosis. We propose a new name for the condition: cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). Neurology® 2011;76:1903–1910 PMID:21624989

Waterston, J.A.; Halmagyi, G.M.; Mossman, S.; Chancellor, A.M.; McLean, C.A.; Storey, E.

2011-01-01

211

DIABETIC NEUROPATHY PART 1: OVERVIEW AND SYMMETRIC PHENOTYPES  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy in US and neuropathies are the most common complication of diabetes mellitus affecting up to 50% of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Various types of neuropathies can be associated with diabetes mellitus.1 Symptoms usually include numbness, tingling, pain and weakness. Dizziness with postural changes can be seen with autonomic neuropathy. Metabolic, vascular and immune theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Pathologically axonal damage and segmental demyelination can be seen with diabetic neuropathies. Management of diabetic neuropathy should begin at the initial diagnosis of diabetes and mainly requires tight and stable glycemic control. Many medications are available for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:23642717

Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Kluding, Patricia; Barohn, Richard J.

2014-01-01

212

International Neuropathy Workshop of 2009: introduction to the final reports.  

PubMed

Neuropathies are amongst the most common of the long-term complications of diabetes, affecting up to 50% of patients. Their clinical features vary immensely and patients may present with a wide spectrum of specialties, from neurology to urology, for example, or from cardiology to podiatry. Neuropathies are typically characterized by a progressive loss of nerve fibres which may affect both of the principal divisions of the peripheral nervous system. The epidemiology and natural history of the diabetic neuropathies remain poorly defined. The International Consensus Workshop in Toronto in 2009 arose from the fact that at the moment there are no clear, universally accepted guidelines regarding the definition of diabetic neuropathies. This has resulted in a massive variation in how neuropathy is diagnosed in different centres and countries. A preliminary summary report of the Toronto meeting was published in 2010. The series of papers published in this issue of Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews are the detailed reports that came from each sub-group of this Consensus panel. These reviews cover the problems with definitions and classification of neuropathy, the management of painful neuropathy and then the sub-group of small fibre neuropathies. There are also 3 papers on the autonomic neuropathies, covering cardiovascular autonomic neuropathies, as well as other areas of the autonomic neuropathies including gastrointestinal, urogenital and pseudomotor neuropathies. This series of papers will give the reader detailed information on the diverse aspects of diabetic neuropathies, their measurement and management, and will also assist in the selection of appropriate measures of both autonomic and somatic nerve function in clinical trials. This is clearly work in progress as diagnostic criteria for diabetic neuropathies are likely to evolve with developments in the field. PMID:21695765

Boulton, Andrew J M; Valensi, Paul; Tesfaye, Solomon

2011-10-01

213

Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.?? PMID:9576536

Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.

1998-01-01

214

Genetics Home Reference: Giant axonal neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... What if I still have specific questions about giant axonal neuropathy? Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center . Where can I find general ... Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding giant axonal ... (11 links) The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for ...

215

Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy Type VI with Bilateral Middle Cerebellar Peduncle Involvement  

PubMed Central

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) 2A with optic atrophy is referred to as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type VI (HMSN VI) and is caused by mitofusin 2 gene (MFN2) mutation. In patients with MFN2 related CMT, central nervous system is known to be also involved and cerebral white matter is mostly involved. We report a patient confirmed as HMSN VI who had isolated bilateral middle cerebellar peduncular lesions in brain MRI. PMID:25258575

Oh, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Han Sang; Cha, Dong Min

2014-01-01

216

Ozone partially prevents diabetic neuropathy in rats.  

PubMed

Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus. Although the beneficial effects of good blood glucose control on diabetic neuropathy are known, this control cannot completely prevent the occurrence and progression of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ozone prevents diabetic neuropathy. 36 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=6): control (C), ozone (O), diabetic (D), ozone-treated diabetic (DO), insulin-treated diabetic (DI), and ozone- and insulin-treated diabetic (DOI). Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (60?mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]), after which insulin was administered (3 IU, i.p.) to the DI and DOI groups for 28 days, and 1.1?mg/kg (50?µg/ml) ozone was given to the O, DO, and DOI groups for 15 days. 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes, the nerve conduction velocity (NCV), amplitude of the compound action potential (CAP), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured, and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. The NCV, amplitude of CAP, and TAS of the DI and DOI groups were higher than those of the D group; the amplitudes of CAP and TAS of the DO group were higher than those of the D group; and the TOS and OSI of the DO, DI, and DOI groups were lower than those of the D group. These findings indicate that ozone partially prevents diabetic neuropathy in rats. It appears that the preventive effects of ozone are mediated through oxidant/antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:25502578

Erken, H A; Genç, O; Erken, G; Ayada, C; Gündo?du, G; Do?an, H

2015-02-01

217

Effects of treatments for symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the effects of treatments for the symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy. Design Systematic review. Data sources Articles (English and full text) on double blind randomised trials found by searching with the key words anticonvulsant, antidepressant, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, tramadol, opioid, ion channel blocker, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and neuropathy. The search included Medline, Embase,

Man-chun Wong; Joanne W Y Chung; Thomas K S Wong

2007-01-01

218

Cerebellar learning distinguishes inflammatory neuropathy with and without tremor  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aims to investigate if patients with inflammatory neuropathies and tremor have evidence of dysfunction in the cerebellum and interactions in sensorimotor cortex compared to nontremulous patients and healthy controls. Methods: A prospective data collection study investigating patients with inflammatory neuropathy and tremor, patients with inflammatory neuropathy without tremor, and healthy controls on a test of cerebellar associative learning (eyeblink classical conditioning), a test of sensorimotor integration (short afferent inhibition), and a test of associative plasticity (paired associative stimulation). We also recorded tremor in the arms using accelerometry and surface EMG. Results: We found impaired responses to eyeblink classical conditioning and paired associative stimulation in patients with neuropathy and tremor compared with neuropathy patients without tremor and healthy controls. Short afferent inhibition was normal in all groups. Conclusions: Our data strongly suggest impairment of cerebellar function is linked to the production of tremor in patients with inflammatory neuropathy. PMID:23596070

Schwingenschuh, Petra; Saifee, Tabish A.; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Reilly, Mary M.; Lunn, Michael P.; Manji, Hadi; Aguirregomozcorta, Maria; Schmidt, Reinhold; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Rothwell, John C.

2013-01-01

219

77 FR 47795 - Disease Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents: Peripheral Neuropathy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...neuropathies, regardless of whether they are transient or persistent in nature. In 1996, NAS...occurrence of ``acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy.'' In subsequent...description of the condition to ``early onset transient peripheral neuropathy.'' This...

2012-08-10

220

Peripheral neuropathy associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Clinical and electrophysiological signs of peripheral neuropathy were found in 10 of 46 patients (21.7%) with primary Sjögren's syndrome, symmetric polyneuropathy in seven (mainly sensory in five, mainly autonomic in two), sensory neuronopathy in two patients, and mononeuropathy multiplex in one patient. Peripheral neuropathy was the presenting manifestation in five patients (10.9%). Onset of the disease after 50 years was significantly more common in the polyneuropathy group (six of seven) than in non-neuropathic patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (14 of 36; p = 0.034). No other difference in clinical or laboratory variables between neuropathic and non-neuropathic patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome was found. Neurophysiological study showed variable findings predominantly suggesting an axonopathy. Nerve biopsy showed moderate remyelination and regeneration in four patients, and fibre loss, mainly of large size, in three. Necrotising vasculitis was not seen but alterations of the endoneurial microvessels were prominent. PMID:8057125

Gemignani, F; Marbini, A; Pavesi, G; Di Vittorio, S; Manganelli, P; Cenacchi, G; Mancia, D

1994-01-01

221

[2013: what's new in inflammatory neuropathies].  

PubMed

Several high-quality publications were published in 2013 and some major trials studies were started. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, events included the launch of IGOS and a better understanding of diagnostic limits, the effect of influenza vaccination, and better care, but uncertainty remains about analgesics. A new mouse model was also described. In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), diagnostic pitfalls can be recalled. Our knowledge of underlying pathophysiological processes has improved, and the value of monitoring with function and deficit scores has been demonstrated. IVIG can sometimes be effective longer than expected, but CIDP remains sensitive to corticosteroids, particularly with the long-term beneficial effects of megadose dexamethasone. The impact of fingolimod remains to be demonstrated in an ongoing trial. Advances concerning multifocal motor neuropathy, inflammatory plexopathy, and neuropathy with anti -MAG activity are discussed but treatments already recognized as effective should not be changed. Imaging of peripheral nerve progresses. PMID:25459118

Kuntzer, T

2014-12-01

222

Motor neuropathy due to docetaxel and paclitaxel.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel and docetaxel are novel chemotherapeutic agents that promote the polymerization and inhibit the depolymerization of microtubules. Sensory neuropathy is common with these agents, particularly paclitaxel. We evaluated 64 patients treated with these drugs; 54 were followed prospectively. Eleven (17%, including six of the 54 prospectively followed patients) developed muscle weakness that was predominantly proximal. The weakness was idiosyncratic, occurring at any stage of treatment, had a variable course, and was reversible upon cessation of drug. All patients developed symptoms or signs of taxane-induced sensory neuropathy. Weakness was likely neuropathic in origin; electrodiagnostic studies suggested a distal axonopathy in some patients and proximal denervation (anterior horn cell or nerve root) in other. PMID:8710063

Freilich, R J; Balmaceda, C; Seidman, A D; Rubin, M; DeAngelis, L M

1996-07-01

223

Suprascapular neuropathy: what does the literature show?  

PubMed

Suprascapular neuropathy remains a rare, albeit increasingly recognized, diagnosis. Despite its relatively low prevalence, it must be kept in the shoulder surgeon's mind as a potential cause of shoulder pain, particularly in patients where the history, physical examination, and imaging studies do not adequately explain a patient's symptoms or disability. Although challenging to identify, suprascapular neuropathy can be successfully treated. The current literature shows that the location and mechanism of nerve injury are the most important factors guiding management. Different treatment strategies are required, depending on the specific location and type of nerve injury. Controversy regarding if and when to perform an isolated suprascapular nerve release continues. Furthermore, no recommendations regarding suprascapular nerve release in conjunction with rotator cuff repair can be made at this time, and further research is necessary to better delineate the indications in the future. PMID:22445163

Moen, Todd C; Babatunde, Oladapo M; Hsu, Stephanie H; Ahmad, Christopher S; Levine, William N

2012-06-01

224

Other Autonomic Neuropathies Associated with Ganglionic Antibody  

PubMed Central

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer. This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in clinical practice in which an autoimmune etiology is suspected. They include a chronic form (pure autonomic failure) and limited autonomic neuropathies with predominant involvement of one neurotransmitter type (i.e., cholinergic vs. adrenergic) or one system (such as the gastrointestinal system) or a distal small fiber dysfunction. In each of these conditions, occasional positivity to the G-AchR antibody has been found, but the pathogenetic significance of such finding is still uncertain. Other antigens and antibodies yet to be identified are more likely to be responsible in these disorders. PMID:19058765

Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A.

2009-01-01

225

Other autonomic neuropathies associated with ganglionic antibody.  

PubMed

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer. This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in clinical practice in which an autoimmune etiology is suspected. They include a chronic form (pure autonomic failure) and limited autonomic neuropathies with predominant involvement of one neurotransmitter type (i.e., cholinergic vs. adrenergic) or one system (such as the gastrointestinal system) or a distal small fiber dysfunction. In each of these conditions, occasional positivity to the G-AchR antibody has been found, but the pathogenetic significance of such finding is still uncertain. Other antigens and antibodies yet to be identified are more likely to be responsible in these disorders. PMID:19058765

Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A

2009-03-12

226

Clinicopathological and genetic study of early-onset demyelinating neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie- Tooth disease (CMT4), Dejerine-Sottas disease and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy are variants of hereditary demyelinating neuropathy of infancy, a geneti- cally heterogeneous group of disorders. To explore the spectrum of early-onset demyelinating neuropathies further, we studied the clinicopathological and genetic aspects of 20 patients born to unaffected parents. In 19 families out of 20, consanguinity between

Yesim Parman; Ibrahim Bars; Birdal Bilir; Muruvvet Poyraz; Nisrine Bissar-Tadmouri; Anna Williams; Nadia Ammar; Eva Nelis; Vincent Timmerman; Feza Deymeer; Piraye Serdaro; Peter J. Brophy

2004-01-01

227

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: pathogenesis and emerging therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents. The type and degree of neuropathy depend on the chemotherapy drug, dose-intensity, and cumulative dose. Disabling peripheral neuropathy has a significant negative impact on quality of life. Accordingly, a reliable assessment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity is necessary, especially if potential neuroprotective agents are to be investigated. Chemoprotectants are

Allyson J. Ocean; Linda T. Vahdat

2004-01-01

228

Suprascapular neuropathy related to a glenohumeral joint cyst.  

PubMed

A man with shoulder pain and complaints of weakness had examination findings consistent with a suprascapular neuropathy with predominant involvement of the infraspinatus muscle. Electrodiagnostic studies confirmed an axon-loss suprascapular neuropathy with greater involvement of the infraspinatus muscle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large ganglion cyst originating from the glenohumeral joint. The clinical, electrodiagnostic, and radiologic evaluation of suprascapular neuropathy is discussed. PMID:10366233

McCluskey, L; Feinberg, D; Dolinskas, C

1999-06-01

229

Diabetic retinopathy is associated with bone marrow neuropathy and a depressed peripheral clock  

PubMed Central

The present epidemic of diabetes is resulting in a worldwide increase in cardiovascular and microvascular complications including retinopathy. Current thinking has focused on local influences in the retina as being responsible for development of this diabetic complication. However, the contribution of circulating cells in maintenance, repair, and dysfunction of the vasculature is now becoming appreciated. Diabetic individuals have fewer endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in their circulation and these cells have diminished migratory potential, which contributes to their decreased reparative capacity. Using a rat model of type 2 diabetes, we show that the decrease in EPC release from diabetic bone marrow is caused by bone marrow neuropathy and that these changes precede the development of diabetic retinopathy. In rats that had diabetes for 4 mo, we observed a dramatic reduction in the number of nerve terminal endings in the bone marrow. Denervation was accompanied by increased numbers of EPCs within the bone marrow but decreased numbers in circulation. Furthermore, denervation was accompanied by a loss of circadian release of EPCs and a marked reduction in clock gene expression in the retina and in EPCs themselves. This reduction in the circadian peak of EPC release led to diminished reparative capacity, resulting in the development of the hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy, acellular retinal capillaries. Thus, for the first time, diabetic retinopathy is related to neuropathy of the bone marrow. This novel finding shows that bone marrow denervation represents a new therapeutic target for treatment of diabetic vascular complications. PMID:19934019

Tikhonenko, Maria; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Opreanu, Madalina; Yakubova, Nafissa; Caballero, Sergio; Player, Danny; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Afzal, Aqeela; Kielczewski, Jennifer; Sochacki, Andrew; Hasty, Stephanie; Calzi, Sergio Li; Kim, Sungjin; Duclas, Shane K.; Segal, Mark S.; Guberski, Dennis L.; Esselman, Walter J.; Boulton, Michael E.; Grant, Maria B.

2009-01-01

230

Nerve Growth Factor and Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Neuropathy is one of the most debilitating complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with estimates of prevalence between 50–90% depending on the means of detection. Diabetic neuropathies are heterogeneous and there is variable involvement of large myelinated fibers and small, thinly myelinated fibers. Many of the neuronal abnormalities in diabetes can be duplicated by experimental depletion of specific neurotrophic factors, their receptors or their binding proteins. In experimental models of diabetes there is a reduction in the availability of these growth factors, which may be a consequence of metabolic abnormalities, or may be independent of glycemic control. These neurotrophic factors are required for the maintenance of the neurons, the ability to resist apoptosis and regenerative capacity. The best studied of the neurotrophic factors is nerve growth factor (NGF) and the related members of the neurotrophin family of peptides. There is increasing evidence that there is a deficiency of NGF in diabetes, as well as the dependent neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) that may also contribute to the clinical symptoms resulting from small fiber dysfunction. Similarly, NT3 appears to be important for large fiber and IGFs for autonomic neuropathy. Whether the observed growth factor deficiencies are due to decreased synthesis, or functional, e.g. an inability to bind to their receptor, and/or abnormalities in nerve transport and processing, remains to be established. Although early studies in humans on the role of neurotrophic factors as a therapy for diabetic neuropathy have been unsuccessful, newer agents and the possibilities uncovered by further studies should fuel clinical trials for several generations. It seems reasonable to anticipate that neurotrophic factor therapy, specifically targeted at different nerve fiber populations, might enter the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:14668049

Vinik, Aaron

2003-01-01

231

Other autonomic neuropathies associated with ganglionic antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer.This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in

Paola Sandroni; Phillip A. Low

2009-01-01

232

Inherited peripheral neuropathies due to mitochondrial disorders.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently responsible for neuropathies with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PNP) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. The last years have seen a growing list of evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics might be dysfunctional in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), and these mechanisms might present a common link between dissimilar CMT2-causing genes. PMID:24768438

Cassereau, J; Codron, P; Funalot, B

2014-05-01

233

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: A comprehensive survey.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a potentially dose limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents like taxanes, vinca-alkaloids, platinum compounds, bortezomib and thalidomide. Supposed pathogenetic mechanisms of CIPN are axonopathy through dying back axon damage and neuronopathy in which the cell bodies of the dorsal root ganglia are involved. The exact pathophysiology however is not clear and different underlying mechanisms have been proposed for different classes of anti-cancer drugs. Sensory symptoms, like pain, numbness and tingling are most common, but motor weakness, autonomic dysfunction and even cranial nerve involvement may occur. CIPN can be painful and/or disabling, causing significant loss of functional abilities and decreasing quality of life. This can lead to dose reductions, discontinuation of treatment and may thus, ultimately, affect survival. Risk factors for CIPN include dose per cycle, cumulative dose, treatment schedule, duration of infusion, administration of other chemotherapeutics, comorbidity and pre-existing peripheral neuropathy. The exploration of polymorphisms in genes associated with incidence or severity of neuropathy might result in identifying individuals being at higher risk of neurotoxicity. An update on genes possibly associated with CIPN is given. CIPN may be reversible or be more or less permanent. Many preventive and treatment strategies have been explored, without significant efficacy up till now. In this review we describe the different drug-related characteristics of CIPN, pharmacogenomic studies, neurophysiological findings, treatment and outcome, and neuroprotective strategies. PMID:24830939

Miltenburg, N C; Boogerd, W

2014-08-01

234

A reversible functional sensory neuropathy model.  

PubMed

Small-fiber neuropathy was induced in young adult mice by intraperitoneal injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. At day 7, RTX induced significant thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia. At day 28, mechanical and thermal nociception were restored. No nerve degeneration in skin was observed and unmyelinated nerve fiber morphology and density in sciatic nerve were unchanged. At day 7, substance P (SP) was largely depleted in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was only moderately depleted. Three weeks after, SP and CGRP expression was restored in DRG neurons. At the same time, CGRP expression remained low in intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) whereas SP expression had improved. In summary, RTX induced in our model a transient neuropeptide depletion in sensory neurons without nerve degeneration. We think this model is valuable as it brings the opportunity to study functional nerve changes in the very early phase of small fiber neuropathy. Moreover, it may represent a useful tool to study the mechanisms of action of therapeutic strategies to prevent sensory neuropathy of various origins. PMID:24792390

Danigo, Aurore; Magy, Laurent; Richard, Laurence; Sturtz, Franck; Funalot, Benoît; Demiot, Claire

2014-06-13

235

Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning and optic nerve head cupping are key diagnostic features of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The higher resolution of the recently introduced SD-OCT offers enhanced visualization and improved segmentation of the retinal layers, providing a higher accuracy in identification of subtle changes of the optic disc and RNFL thinning associated with glaucoma.

Berisha, Fatmire; Hoffmann, Esther M.; Pfeiffer, Norbert

236

Comparison of the complete mtDNA genome sequences of human cell lines--HL-60 and GM10742A--from individuals with pro-myelocytic leukemia and leber hereditary optic neuropathy, respectively, and the inclusion of HL-60 in the NIST human mitochondrial DNA standard reference material--SRM 2392-I.  

PubMed

Forensic and clinical laboratories benefit from DNA standard reference materials (SRMs) that provide the quality control and assurance that their results from sequencing unknown samples are correct. Therefore, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome of HL-60, a promyelocytic leukemia cell line, has been completely sequenced by four laboratories and will be available to the forensic and medical communities in the spring of 2003; it will be called National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SRM 2392-I. NIST human mtDNA SRM 2392 will continue to be available and includes the DNA from two apparently healthy individuals. Both SRM 2392 and 2392-I contain all the information (e.g. the sequences of 58 unique primer sets) needed to use these SRMs as positive controls for the amplification and sequencing any DNA. Compared to the templates in SRM 2392, the HL-60 mtDNA in SRM 2392-I has two tRNA differences and more polymorphisms resulting in amino acid changes. Four of these HL-60 mtDNA polymorphisms have been associated with Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON), one as an intermediate mutation and three as secondary mutations. The mtDNA from a cell line (GM10742A) from an individual with LHON was also completely sequenced for comparison and contained some of the same LHON mutations. The combination of these particular LHON associated mutations is also found in phylogenetic haplogroup J and its subset, J2, and may only be indicative that HL-60 belongs to haplogroup J, one of nine haplogroups that characterize Caucasian individuals of European descent or may mean that haplogroup J is more prone to LHON. Both these mtDNA SRMs will provide enhanced quality control in forensic identification, medical diagnosis, and single nucleotide polymorphism detection. PMID:16120335

Levin, Barbara C; Holland, Koren A; Hancock, Diane K; Coble, Michael; Parsons, Thomas J; Kienker, Laura J; Williams, Diana W; Jones, Marypat; Richie, Kristy L

2003-06-01

237

Comparison of Efficiencies of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument, Neurothesiometer, and Electromyography for Diagnosis of Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Aim. This study compares the effectiveness of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), neurothesiometer, and electromyography (EMG) in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes type 2. Materials and Methods. 106 patients with diabetes type 2 treated at the outpatient clinic of Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Department of Endocrinology between September 2008 and May 2009 were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by glycemic regulation tests, MNSI (questionnaire and physical examination), EMG (for detecting sensorial and motor defects in right median, ulnar, posterior tibial, and bilateral sural nerves), and neurothesiometer (for detecting alterations in cold and warm sensations as well as vibratory sensations). Results. According to the MNSI score, there was diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 34 (32.1%) patients (score ?2.5). However, when the patients were evaluated by EMG and neurothesiometer, neurological impairments were detected in 49 (46.2%) and 79 (74.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusion. According to our findings, questionnaires and physical examination often present lower diabetic peripheral neuropathy prevalence. Hence, we recommend that in the evaluation of diabetic patients neurological tests should be used for more accurate results and thus early treatment options to prevent neuropathic complications. PMID:23818897

Mete, Turkan; Aydin, Yusuf; Saka, Mustafa; Cinar Yavuz, Halise; Bilen, Sule; Yalcin, Yavuz; Arli, Berna; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

2013-01-01

238

Motor neuropathy in porphobilinogen deaminase–deficient mice imitates the peripheral neuropathy of human acute porphyria  

PubMed Central

Acute porphyrias are inherited disorders caused by partial deficiency of specific heme biosynthesis enzymes. Clinically, porphyrias are manifested by a neuropsychiatric syndrome that includes peripheral neuropathy. Although much is known about the porphyrias’ enzyme defects and their biochemical consequences, the cause of the neurological manifestations remains unresolved. We have studied porphyric neuropathy in mice with a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). PBGD-deficient mice (PBGD–/–) imitate acute porphyria through massive induction of hepatic ?-aminolevulinic acid synthase by drugs such as phenobarbital. Here we show that PBGD–/– mice develop impairment of motor coordination and muscle weakness. Histologically femoral nerves of PBGD–/– mice exhibit a marked decrease in large-caliber (>8 ?m) axons and ultrastructural changes consistent with primary motor axon degeneration, secondary Schwann cell reactions, and axonal regeneration. These findings resemble those found in studies of affected nerves of patients with acute porphyria and thus provide strong evidence that PBGD deficiency causes degeneration of motor axons without signs of primary demyelination, thereby resolving a long-standing controversy. Interestingly, the neuropathy in PBGD–/– mice developed chronically and progressively and in the presence of normal or only slightly (twofold) increased plasma and urinary levels of the putative neurotoxic heme precursor ?-aminolevulinic acid. These data suggest that heme deficiency and consequent dysfunction of hemeproteins can cause porphyric neuropathy. PMID:10207164

Lindberg, Raija L.P.; Martini, Rudolf; Baumgartner, Matthias; Erne, Beat; Borg, Jacques; Zielasek, Jürgen; Ricker, Kenneth; Steck, Andreas; Toyka, Klaus V.; Meyer, Urs A.

1999-01-01

239

Critical illness neuropathy in pediatric intensive care patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical illness neuropathy is an axonal polyneuropathy recognized more frequently in adult intensive care patients with sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction. In children the diagnosis is rarely made. Within 1 year the authors observed two children with critical illness neuropathy. Both patients, a male 6 years, 6 months of age with a brain contusion and a male 2 years, 6

Birgit Petersen; Christiane Schneider; Hans-Michael Strassburg; Lothar Schrod

1999-01-01

240

Atypical Traumatic Pneumorrhachis Accompanied by Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Pneumorrhachis, caused by intraspinal air, is an exceptional but important radiographic finding that is accompanied by different etiologies. Pneumorrhachis, by itself, is usually asymptomatic and gets reabsorbed spontaneously. Therefore, the patients with pneumorrhachis are mostly managed conservatively. We encountered a unique case of atypical traumatic pneumorrhachis accompanied by paraparesis. PMID:25024968

Kim, Kweon Young; Kang, Jung Hun; Lee, Min Hong; Han, Yong

2014-01-01

241

Recommendations to enable drug development for inherited neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Giant Axonal Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1 in 2500 Americans suffer from Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The underlying disease mechanisms are unique in most forms of CMT, with many point mutations on various genes causing a toxic accumulation of misfolded proteins. Symptoms of the disease often present within the first two decades of life, with CMT1A patients having reduced compound muscle and sensory action potentials, slow nerve conduction velocities, sensory loss, progressive distal weakness, foot and hand deformities, decreased reflexes, bilateral foot drop and about 5% become wheelchair bound. In contrast, the ultra-rare disease Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN) is frequently described as a recessively inherited condition that results in progressive nerve death. GAN usually appears in early childhood and progresses slowly as neuronal injury becomes more severe and leads to death in the second or third decade. There are currently no treatments for any of the forms of CMTs or GAN. We suggest that further clinical studies should analyse electrical impedance myography as an outcome measure for CMT. Further, additional quality of life (QoL) assessments for these CMTs are required, and we need to identify GAN biomarkers as well as develop new genetic testing panels for both diseases. We propose that using the Global Registry of Inherited Neuropathy (GRIN) could be useful for many of these studies. Patient advocacy groups and professional organizations (such as the Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation (HNF), Hannah's Hope Fund (HHF), The Neuropathy Association (TNA) and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) can play a central role in educating clinicians and patients. Undertaking these studies will assist in the correct diagnosis of disease recruiting patients for clinical studies, and will ultimately improve the endpoints for clinical trials. By addressing obstacles that prevent industry investment in various forms of inherited neuropathies, we can envision treatment options for these rare diseases in the near future. PMID:24860645

Sames, Lori; Moore, Allison; Arnold, Renee; Ekins, Sean

2014-01-01

242

In vivo silencing of the Ca V3.2 T-type calcium channels in sensory neurons alleviates hyperalgesia in rats with streptozocin-induced diabetic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier, we showed that streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes in rats leads to the development of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) manifested as thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia accompanied by significant enhancement of T-type calcium currents (T-currents) and cellular excitability in medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here, we studied the in vivo and in vitro effects of gene-silencing therapy

Richard B. Messinger; Ajit K. Naik; Miljen M. Jagodic; Michael T. Nelson; Woo Yong Lee; Won Joo Choe; Peihan Orestes; Janelle R. Latham; Slobodan M. Todorovic; Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic

2009-01-01

243

Molecular Mechanisms of Inherited Demyelinating Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

The past 15 years have witnessed the identification of more than 25 genes responsible for inherited neuropathies in humans, many associated with primary alterations of the myelin sheath. A remarkable body of work in patients, as well as animal and cellular models, has defined the clinical and molecular genetics of these illnesses and shed light on how mutations in associated genes produce the heterogeneity of dysmyelinating and demyelinating phenotypes. Here, we review selected recent developments from work on the molecular mechanisms of these disorders and their implications for treatment strategies. PMID:18803325

SCHERER, STEVEN S.; WRABETZ, LAWRENCE

2008-01-01

244

Clinical approach to optic neuritis: pitfalls, red flags and differential diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Demyelinating optic neuritis (ON) is the most common cause of optic neuropathy typically presenting with a subacute painful visual loss. In 20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), ON is the presenting symptom and half of the patients with isolated ON develop MS within 15 years. The diagnosis of ON plays an important role in neurological practice. A correct and early diagnosis is necessary to ensure optimal further investigations and treatment. Other causes of optic neuropathies such as connective tissue disorders, infectious diseases, tumours or ischaemic neuropathies are less frequent but clinical and therapeutic management can differ dramatically. We present five patients admitted to our hospital with suspected demyelinating ON, but the clinical work up revealed different causes of optic neuropathy. We discuss the differential diagnosis of ON and clinical red flags that require careful diagnostic assessment of other diseases. A workflow for the diagnosis of optic neuropathies is presented. PMID:21694809

Voss, Elke; Raab, Peter; Trebst, Corinna; Stangel, Martin

2011-01-01

245

Chemotherapy induced neuropathy in clinical practice Neuropatía inducida por quimioterapia en la práctica clínica  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Neuropathic pain is a common symptom amongst patients with chemotherapy induced peripheral nerve neurotoxicity, and symptoms are indistinguishable from those seen with toxic neuropathy from other causes. The neuropathy is predominantly sensory and follows a glove-stocking distribution and associates with burning pain. Autonomic neuropathy manifested as constipation frequently occurs. There are some risk factors for neuropathy caused by chemotherapy:

Camilo E. Fadul

246

Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

2014-03-01

247

Peripheral autonomic neuropathy: diagnostic contribution of skin biopsy.  

PubMed

Skin biopsy has gained widespread use for the diagnosis of somatic small-fiber neuropathy, but it also provides information on sympathetic fiber morphology. We aimed to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of skin biopsy in disclosing sympathetic nerve abnormalities in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Peripheral nerve fiber autonomic involvement was confirmed by routine autonomic laboratory test abnormalities. Punch skin biopsies were taken from the thigh and lower leg of 28 patients with various types of autonomic neuropathy for quantitative evaluation of skin autonomic innervation. Results were compared with scores obtained from 32 age-matched healthy controls and 25 patients with somatic neuropathy. The autonomic cutoff score was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Skin biopsy disclosed a significant autonomic innervation decrease in autonomic neuropathy patients versus controls and somatic neuropathy patients. Autonomic innervation density was abnormal in 96% of patients in the lower leg and in 79% of patients in the thigh. The abnormal findings disclosed by routine autonomic tests ranged from 48% to 82%. These data indicate the high sensitivity and specificity of skin biopsy in detecting sympathetic abnormalities; this method should be useful for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, together with currently available routine autonomic testing. PMID:23037327

Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Giannoccaro, Maria Pia; Cortelli, Pietro; Di Stasi, Vitantonio; Pizza, Fabio; Jaber, Masen Abdel; Baruzzi, Agostino; Liguori, Rocco

2012-11-01

248

The Metabolic Syndrome and Neuropathy: Therapeutic Challenges and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

The metabolic syndrome and neuropathy are common conditions, especially in the elderly, that are associated with significant morbidity. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome is reaching epidemic proportions across the world. Current evidence supports the association of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components with neuropathy. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that treating hyperglycemia, one component of the metabolic syndrome, has a significant effect on reducing the incidence of neuropathy in those with type 1 diabetes. However, glucose control only has a marginal effect on preventing neuropathy in those with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that other factors may be driving nerve injury in these patients. Emerging evidence supports the metabolic syndrome as these risk factors for neuropathy. Interventions exist for treatment of all of the metabolic syndrome components, but only glucose control has strong evidence to support its use and is widely employed. Our understanding of the biology of metabolic nerve injury has rapidly expanded over the last several years. Mechanisms of injury include fatty deposition in nerves, extracellular protein glycation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. Additionally, the activation of counter-regulatory signaling pathways leads to chronic metabolic inflammation. Medications that target these signaling pathways are being used for a variety of diseases and are intriguing therapeutics for future neuropathy clinical trials. As we move forward, we need to expand our understanding of the association between the metabolic syndrome and neuropathy by addressing limitations of previous studies. Just as importantly, we must continue to investigate the pathophysiology of metabolically induced nerve injury. PMID:23929529

Callaghan, Brian; Feldman, Eva

2013-01-01

249

Under-recognised paradox of neuropathy from rapid glycaemic control  

PubMed Central

Insulin induced neuropathy has been reported previously in people with diabetes treated with insulin, and subsequently reported in patients with insulinomas. However, neuropathy caused by rapid glycaemic control in patients with poorly controlled diabetes with chronic hyperglycaemia is not a widely recognised entity among clinicians worldwide. It is expected that this phenomenon of paradoxical complication of neuropathy in the face of drastic decreases in glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations will assume greater importance with clinicians achieving glycaemic targets at a faster pace than before. PMID:15701742

Leow, M; Wyckoff, J

2005-01-01

250

Exercise increases cutaneous nerve density in diabetic patients without neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Early diabetic neuropathy is characterized by loss of unmyelinated axons, resulting in pain, numbness, and progressive decline in intraepidermal nerve fiber density. Patients with type 2 diabetes, without neuropathy, were assigned to quarterly lifestyle counseling (N = 40) or structured, supervised weekly exercise (N = 60) for 1 year. Distal leg IENFD significantly increased in the exercise cohort and remained unchanged in the counseling cohort (1.5 ± 3.6 vs. ?0.1 ± 3.2 fibers/mm, P = 0.03). These results suggest preclinical injury to unmyelinated axons is potentially reversible, and that IENFD may be a responsive biomarker useful in future neuropathy prevention clinical trials. PMID:25493275

Singleton, John R; Marcus, Robin L; Jackson, Justin E; K Lessard, Margaret; Graham, Timothy E; Smith, Albert G

2014-01-01

251

Neuroactive steroid treatment modulates myelin lipid profile in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes a decrease in the levels of dihydroprogesterone and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (3?-diol) in the peripheral nerves. These two neuroactive steroids exert protective effects, by mechanisms that still remain elusive. We have previously shown that the activation of Liver X Receptors improves the peripheral neuropathic phenotype in diabetic rats. This protective effect is accompanied by the restoration to control values of the levels of dihydroprogesterone and 3?-diol in peripheral nerves. In addition, activation of these receptors decreases peripheral myelin abnormalities by improving the lipid desaturation capacity, which is strongly blunted by diabetes, and ultimately restores the myelin lipid profile to non-diabetic values. On this basis, we here investigate whether dihydroprogesterone or 3?-diol may exert their protective effects by modulating the myelin lipid profile. We report that both neuroactive steroids act on the lipogenic gene expression profile in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats, reducing the accumulation of myelin saturated fatty acids and promoting desaturation. These changes were associated with a reduction in myelin structural alterations. These findings provide evidence that dihydroprogesterone and 3?-diol are protective agents against diabetic peripheral neuropathy by regulating the de novo lipogenesis pathway, which positively influences myelin lipid profile. PMID:24607810

Mitro, Nico; Cermenati, Gaia; Brioschi, Elisabetta; Abbiati, Federico; Audano, Matteo; Giatti, Silvia; Crestani, Maurizio; De Fabiani, Emma; Azcoitia, Inigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Caruso, Donatella; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

2014-09-01

252

Simulating focal demyelinating neuropathies: membrane property abnormalities.  

PubMed

Membrane properties such as potentials (intracellular, extracellular, electrotonic) and axonal excitability indices (strength-duration and charge-duration curves, strength-duration time constants, rheobasic currents, recovery cycles) can now be measured in healthy subjects and patients with demyelinating neuropathies. They are regarded here in two cases of simultaneously reduced paranodal seal resistance and myelin lamellae in one to three consecutive internodes of human motor nerve fiber. The investigations are performed for 70 and 96% myelin reduction values. The first value is not sufficient to develop a conduction block, but the second leads to a block and the corresponding demyelinations are regarded as mild and severe. For both the mild and severe demyelinations, the paranodally internodally focally demyelinated cases (termed as PIFD1, PIFD2, and PIFD3, respectively, with one, two, and three demyelinated internodes) are simulated using our previous double-cable model of the fiber. The axon model consists of 30 nodes and 29 internodes. The membrane property abnormalities obtained can be observed in vivo in patients with demyelinating forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). The study confirms that focal demyelinations are specific indicators for acquired demyelinating neuropathies. Moreover, the following changes have been calculated in our previous papers: (1) uniform reduction of myelin thickness in all internodes (Stephanova et al. in Clin Neurophysiol 116: 1153-1158, 2005); (2) demyelination of all paranodal regions (Stephanova and Daskalova in Clin Neurophysiol 116: 1159-1166, 2005a); (3) simultaneous reduction of myelin thickness and paranodal demyelination in all internodes (Stephanova and Daskalova in Clin Neurophysiol 116: 2334-2341, 2005b); and (4) reduction of myelin thickness of up to three internodes (Stephanova et al., in J Biol Phys, 2006a,b, DOI: 10.1007/s10867-005-9001-9; DOI: 10.1007/s10867-006-9008-x). The membrane property abnormalities obtained in the homogeneously demyelinated cases are quite different and abnormally greater than those in the case investigated here of simultaneous reduction in myelin thickness and paranodal demyelination of up to three internodes. Our previous and present results show that unless focal demyelination is severe enough to cause outright conduction block, changes are so slight as to be essentially indistinguishable from normal values. Consequently, the excitability-based approaches that have shown strong potential as diagnostic tools in systematically demyelinated conditions may not be useful in detecting mild focal demyelinations, independently of whether they are internodal, paranodal, or paranodal internodal. PMID:17072638

Stephanova, D I; Alexandrov, A S; Kossev, A; Christova, L

2007-02-01

253

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE  

MedlinePLUS

... addition of methyl groups, consisting of one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms, to DNA molecules. In particular, the enzyme helps ... understanding hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE? atom ; autonomic nervous system ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; cytosine ; ...

254

Diagnosing Neuropathy: The Key to Understanding the Cause  

MedlinePLUS

... primarily involves the axons or the myelin sheaths. Electromyography (EMG): measures the electrical activity of muscles in response ... Biopsy Small fiber neuropathy cannot be diagnosed with EMG and nerve conduction studies that only measure the ...

255

Bilateral axillary and suprascapular neuropathy after coronary artery bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Neuropathies after coronary artery bypass (CABG) and cardiac surgery are usually transient and have been described fairly frequently. Our patient presented with an acute onset of a surprisingly symmetrical bilateral axillary and suprascapular neuropathy during the immediate CABG period (which to our knowledge has not been reported on before). The patient, aged 64 years, suffered from diabetes mellitus type 2 and hypertension, and underwent a triple CABG. Electroneuronographic and electromyographic examination confirmed the presence of the bilateral axillary and suprascapular neuropathy, which showed only minimal improvement 15 months later. The surmise is that the neuropathy developed as a result of compression or overstretching of the involved nerves during the surgical procedure, associated with suboptimal positioning of the arms. The 'hands-up position', with careful sternal retraction (Cooley retractor), may appear to prevent the posterior displacement of the shoulders and plexus injuries. The diabetes mellitus may have acted as an aggravating factor. PMID:17117233

Hassan, I; Jacobs, A G; Baig, M E; Van der Meyden, C H

2006-01-01

256

Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (4 links) ...

257

Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: an analysis of evidence-based approaches.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is a common and vexing symptom for people living with HIV infection (PLWH). Neuropathy occurs in several different syndromes and is identified in the literature as distal sensory polyneuropathy or distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. More recently, the HIV literature has focused on the syndrome as painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, addressing the symptom rather than the underlying pathophysiology. Assessment of neuropathy in PLWH is critical and must be incorporated into nursing practice for each visit. Neuropathy has been attributed to the direct effects of HIV, exposure to antiretroviral medications (particularly the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), advanced immune suppression, and comorbid tuberculosis infection and exposure to antituberculosis medications. Evidence supports the importance of addressing neuropathy in PLWH with pharmacologic treatment regimens and complementary/alternative approaches. This paper examines the pathophysiology, evidence, and approaches to managing peripheral neuropathy. A case study has been included to illustrate a patient's experience with neuropathy symptoms. PMID:24698331

Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Evans, Linda A

2014-01-01

258

Peripheral Neuropathy Associated With Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathies are the most common neurological syndromes associated with HIV infection. The spectrum of neuropathic\\u000a syndromes is broad (xi238-1|Table 1), and neuropathies may be encountered during any stage of the infection. Some disorders\\u000a of the peripheral nerves in patients with HIV infection are presumed to be caused by pathological factors resulting from the\\u000a virus itself, whereas others may result

Bruce A. Cohen; Russell Bartt

259

Cisplatin induced neuropathy: Central, peripheral and autonomic nerve involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A prospective study was performed in patients treated with cisplatin to evaluate the occurrence and degree of central, peripheral\\u000a and autonomic neuropathy and to determine the most accurate method to study this neuropathy. Twelve patients were examined\\u000a before, during and after treatment. Evaluation included neurologic examination, conventional nerve conduction studies of the\\u000a median and peroneal nerves and short latency somatosensory

Willem Boogerd; Wim W. ten Bokkel Huinink; Otilia Dalesio; Walter J. J. F. Hoppenbrouwers; J. Jacob van der Sande

1990-01-01

260

Self-care management for neuropathy in HIV disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, the self-care strategies, and sources of information for self-care utilized by the sample. A convenience sample of

P. K. Nicholas; J. K. Kemppainen; W. L. Holzemer; K. M. Nokes; L. Sanzero Eller; I. B. Corless; E. Haugen Bunch; C. A. Bain; K. M. Kirksey; S. M. Davis; B. K. Goodroad

2002-01-01

261

Unipedal stance testing in the assessment of peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurvitz EA, Richardson JK, Werner RA. Unipedal stance testing in the assessment of peripheral neuropathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:198-204 Objective: To define further the relation between unipedal stance testing and peripheral neuropathy. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: Electroneuromyography laboratory of a Veterans Affairs medical center and a university hospital. Patients: Ninety-two patients referred for lower extremity electrodiagnostic studies. Main Outcome

Edward A. Hurvitz; James K. Richardson; Robert A. Werner

2001-01-01

262

Animal models of chemotherapy-evoked painful peripheral neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review examines recent preclinical research on toxic peripheral neuropathy and potential therapeutic developments. Chemotherapy-induced\\u000a peripheral neurotoxicity is a major clinical problem because it represents the dose-limiting side effects of a significant\\u000a number of antineoplastic drugs. Patients are unable to complete full or optimal treatment schedules. The incidence of chemotherapy-induced\\u000a peripheral neuropathy varies depending on the drugs and schedules used,

Nicolas Authier; David Balayssac; Fabien Marchand; Bing Ling; Aude Zangarelli; Juliette Descoeur; François Coudore; Emmanuel Bourinet; Alain Eschalier

2009-01-01

263

Pathogenesis and Treatment of Immune-Mediated Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Immune-mediated neuropathies represent a heterogeneous spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders that can be classified according to time course, predominant involvement of motor/sensory fibers, distribution of deficits and paraclinical parameters such as electrophysiology and serum antibodies. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in elucidating underlying pathomechanisms, which made it possible to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the latest development in pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated neuropathies. PMID:21179533

Lehmann, Helmar C.; zu Horste, Gerd Meyer; Kieseier, Bernd C.

2009-01-01

264

Bilateral femoral neuropathy complicating rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.  

PubMed

Simultaneous bilateral femoral neuropathies are uncommon and are usually seen as a consequence of pelvic surgery or related to pregnancy. This report describes the case of a young man with rhabdomyolysis after a drug-induced coma, which led to intramuscular dystrophic calcification and compression of the femoral nerves. Acute dystrophic calcification has been documented in the setting of rhabdomyolysis with renal failure. This is the first reported case of a compressive neuropathy occurring as a result of such dystrophic calcification. PMID:19078767

Nicolle, Michael; Doherty, Timothy; Algahtani, Hussein

2005-06-01

265

The Association between Autoantibodies and Peripheral Neuropathy in Lupus Nephritis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim. The sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers used for predicting peripheral neuropathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis (SLE-LN) remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to determine the autoantibodies levels in SLE-LN patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods. Data of 559 SLE-LN patients were collected retrospectively, including titers of autoantibodies, electrodiagnostic studies, and clinical manifestations. Results. The neurologic manifestations of the SLE-LN patients were diverse and nonspecific. The prevalence rate of peripheral polyneuropathy was 2.68%, of which about 73.33% was mixed sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Numbness and functional gastrointestinal problems were the most prevalent symptoms and these were noted in every subtype of peripheral neuropathy. Among all the serology markers, anti-Ro was significantly associated with neuropathy related to SLE (P = 0.009). Conclusion. Peripheral neuropathy among LN patients is rare and may be easily overlooked. This study demonstrated that positive anti-Ro antibody may imply neuropathy in LN patients. Thus, anti-Ro can be considered a biomarker that should be added to the panel of conventional autoantibodies in LN patients. PMID:24864250

Su, Yu-Jih; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Chih-Min; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

2014-01-01

266

Animal models of peripheral neuropathy due to environmental toxicants.  

PubMed

Despite the progress in our understanding of pathogeneses and the identification of etiologies of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic neuropathy remains common. Typically, attention to peripheral neuropathies resulting from exposure to environmental agents is limited relative to more commonly diagnosed causes of peripheral neuropathy (diabetes and chemotherapeutic agents). Given that there are more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and that at least 1000 chemicals are known to have neurotoxic potential, very few chemicals have been established to affect the peripheral nervous system (mainly after occupational exposures). A wide spectrum of exposures, including pesticides, metals, solvents, nutritional sources, and pharmaceutical agents, has been related, both historically and recently, to environmental toxicant-induced peripheral neuropathy. A review of the literature shows that the toxicity and pathogeneses of chemicals adversely affecting the peripheral nervous system have been studied using animal models. This article includes an overview of five prototypical environmental agents known to cause peripheral neuropathy--namely, organophosphates, carbon disulfide, pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), acrylamide, and hexacarbons (mainly n-hexane, 2,5-hexanedione, methyl n-butyl ketone). Also included is a brief introduction to the structural components of the peripheral nervous system and pointers on common methodologies for histopathologic evaluation of the peripheral nerves. PMID:24615445

Rao, Deepa B; Jortner, Bernard S; Sills, Robert C

2014-01-01

267

Mitotoxicity and bortezomib-induced chronic painful peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Many of the most effective anti-cancer drugs induce a dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy that compromises therapy. Evidence from animal models of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the taxane agent, paclitaxel, and the platinum-complex agent, oxaliplatin, indicate that they produce neuropathy via a common mechanism-a toxic effect on the mitochondria in primary afferent sensory neurons. Bortezomib is from the proteasome-inhibitor class of chemotherapeutics. It also produces a dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy, but its effects on neuronal mitochondria are unknown. To investigate this, we developed a model of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat and assessed mitochondrial function (respiration and ATP production) in sciatic nerve samples harvested at two time points: day 7, which is three days after treatment and before pain appears, and day 35, which is one month post-treatment and the time of peak pain severity. We found significant deficits in Complex I-mediated and Complex II-mediated respiration, and in ATP production at both time points. Prophylactic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine, which has previously been shown to prevent paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and pain, completely blocked bortezomib's effects on mitochondria and pain. These results suggest that mitotoxicity may be the core pathology for all chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and that drugs that protect mitochondrial function may be useful chemotherapy adjuncts. PMID:22947198

Zheng, H; Xiao, W H; Bennett, G J

2012-12-01

268

Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Environmental Toxicants  

PubMed Central

Despite the progress in our understanding of pathogeneses and the identification of etiologies of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic neuropathy remains common. Typically, attention to peripheral neuropathies resulting from exposure to environmental agents is limited relative to more commonly diagnosed causes of peripheral neuropathy (diabetes and chemotherapeutic agents). Given that there are more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and that at least 1000 chemicals are known to have neurotoxic potential, very few chemicals have been established to affect the peripheral nervous system (mainly after occupational exposures). A wide spectrum of exposures, including pesticides, metals, solvents, nutritional sources, and pharmaceutical agents, has been related, both historically and recently, to environmental toxicant-induced peripheral neuropathy. A review of the literature shows that the toxicity and pathogeneses of chemicals adversely affecting the peripheral nervous system have been studied using animal models. This article includes an overview of five prototypical environmental agents known to cause peripheral neuropathy—namely, organophosphates, carbon disulfide, pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), acrylamide, and hexacarbons (mainly n-hexane, 2,5-hexanedione, methyl n-butyl ketone). Also included is a brief introduction to the structural components of the peripheral nervous system and pointers on common methodologies for histopathologic evaluation of the peripheral nerves. PMID:24615445

Rao, Deepa B.; Jortner, Bernard S.; Sills, Robert C.

2014-01-01

269

Treatment options for atypical optic neuritis  

PubMed Central

Context: Optic neuritis (ON) is defined as inflammation of the optic nerve and can have various etiologies. The most common presentation in the US is demyelinating, or “typical” ON, usually associated with multiple sclerosis. This is in contrast to “atypical” causes of ON, which differ in their clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. These atypical cases are characterized by lack of eye pain, exudates, and hemorrhages on exam, very severe, bilateral or progressive visual loss, or with failure to recover vision. Aims: The aim was to describe the clinical presentations of atypical ON and their treatments. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Literature review. Results: Types of atypical ON identified include neuromyelitis optica, autoimmune optic neuropathy, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, idiopathic recurrent neuroretinitis, and optic neuropathy associated with systemic diseases. Atypical ON usually requires corticosteroid treatment and often will require aggressive immunosuppression. Conclusions: Unlike demyelinating ON, atypical ON requires treatment to preserve vision. PMID:25449930

Malik, Amina; Ahmed, Maryam; Golnik, Karl

2014-01-01

270

NOTES TO ACCOMPANY FLOWCHARTS PROGRESSION REGULATIONS  

E-print Network

NOTES TO ACCOMPANY FLOWCHARTS OF PROGRESSION REGULATIONS 1. These flowcharts are intended to help students and staff understand the implications of the progression regulations. Inevitably they use a form of `short-hand' and do not illustrate all the details of the progression regulations

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

271

Hard Metal Alveolitis Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard metal lung diseases (HML) are rare, and complex to diagnose. We describe the case of a patient with allergic alveolitis accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis. A sharpener of hard metal by trade, our patient was a 45-year-old, nonsmoking Caucasian female who experienced symptoms of cough and phlegm, and dyspnea on exertion. Preliminary lung findings were inspiratory rales in both basal

Paula A. Hahtola; Ritva E. Järvenpää; Kari Lounatmaa; Jorma J. Mattila; Immo Rantala; Jukka A. Uitti; Seppo Sutinen

2000-01-01

272

Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin), aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat), advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine), the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine), inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril). The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials. PMID:23738033

Hosseini, Asieh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

273

Diabetic neuropathy and oxidative stress: therapeutic perspectives.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin), aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat), advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine), the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine), inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril). The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials. PMID:23738033

Hosseini, Asieh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

274

Suprascapular Neuropathy in Collegiate Baseball Player  

PubMed Central

Background Suprascapular neuropathy (SSN) is generally thought of as a diagnosis of exclusion. However, increasing attention is being paid to the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of this pathology to prevent chronic supraspinatus and infraspinatus atrophy in patients. To date, literature has only articulated variable or customized treatment and rehabilitation plans without clear standardized care. This case study provides a detailed description of the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of a collegiate baseball player's recovery from suprascapular nerve release. Case Presentation A 20 year-old male baseball pitcher with right shoulder pain reported for athletic training evaluation, was treated conservatively, and due to lack of resolution was referred for further imaging and evaluation by an orthopedist. Following inconclusive magnetic resonance imaging findings the patient underwent electrodiagnostic testing which showed decreased nerve conduction velocity of the right suprascapular nerve. The patient elected for surgical intervention. Post-operative rehabilitation followed and the patient was able to pitch in 22 weeks. The patient provided positive subjective feedback and was able to return to unrestricted pitching without pain, loss of velocity, or loss in pitch control. Conclusion This study demonstrates a need for further investigation into the most appropriate treatment and rehabilitation of suprascapular nerve injury. PMID:23785580

J.Niemann, Andrew; S.Juzeszyn, Laura; Kahanov, Leamor; E.Eberman, Lindsey

2012-01-01

275

Diabetic neuropathy: mechanisms, emerging treatments, and subtypes.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathies (DNs) differ in clinical course, distribution, fiber involvement (type and size), and pathophysiology, the most typical type being a length-dependent distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) with differing degrees of autonomic involvement. The pathogenesis of diabetic DSP is multifactorial, including increased mitochondrial production of free radicals due to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Mechanisms that impact neuronal activity, mitochondrial function, membrane permeability, and endothelial function include formation of advanced glycosylation end products, activation of polyol aldose reductase signaling, activation of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, and altered function of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump. Hyperglycemia-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers several neuronal apoptotic processes. Additional mechanisms include impaired nerve perfusion, dyslipidemia, altered redox status, low-grade inflammation, and perturbation of calcium balance. Successful therapies require an integrated approach targeting these mechanisms. Intensive glycemic control is essential but is insufficient to prevent onset or progression of DSP, and disease-modifying treatments for DSP have been disappointing. Atypical forms of DN include subacute-onset sensory (symmetric) or motor (asymmetric) predominant conditions that are frequently painful but generally self-limited. DNs are a major cause of disability, associated with reduced quality of life and increased mortality. PMID:24954624

Albers, James W; Pop-Busui, Rodica

2014-08-01

276

NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION BY ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS IN HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Certain organophosphorus compounds (OPs) produce a delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) in man and some animal species. apability to cause OPIDN is generally predicted in animal models by early and irreversible inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE, neurotoxic esterase) . In this s...

277

Incidence of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in the province of Siena (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is the second most frequent focal peripheral neuropathy of the upper limb after carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), no figures on its prevalence or incidence in the general population have been reported.

Mauro Mondelli; Fabio Giannini; Michele Ballerini; Federica Ginanneschi; Elena Martorelli

2005-01-01

278

Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

2014-01-01

279

Laser Doppler imaging in the detection of peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Small fiber neuropathy is common in a number of systemic diseases and is often challenging to diagnose. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a test of small fiber neurovascular function that can quantify the integrity of the vasomotor C-fiber mediated axon-reflex, but no standardized method of analysis exists. We developed a novel LDI analysis technique and tested it in a human model of small fiber neuropathy. Eighteen healthy subjects (age 24 ± 3 years) underwent LDI testing to assess the axon-mediated flare area in response to 10% acetylcholine iontophoresis. LDI measurements were taken before and longitudinally after a 48-hour application of 0.1% capsaicin (to cause a transient small fiber neuropathy) on the skin of the thigh; placebo cream was placed on the contralateral thigh as a control. We compared our new LDI image analysis technique to two previously published methods. The new LDI analysis technique was the only method to show a consistent difference in axon-reflex area between capsaicin treated and placebo treated skin on all testing days (p<0.05) with maximum attenuation of the flare area immediately post-application (438 ± 298 mm(2) vs. 824 ± 375 mm(2), p<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that our novel flare area method for LDI analysis can detect neurovascular dysfunction in a model of small fiber neuropathy, is an improvement over existing methods, and may supplement clinical assessment of small fiber neuropathy. PMID:23850386

Illigens, Ben M W; Siepmann, Timo; Roofeh, Joseph; Gibbons, Christopher H

2013-10-01

280

Laser-Doppler Imaging in the Detection of Peripheral Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Small fiber neuropathy is common in a number of systemic diseases and is often challenging to diagnose. Laser-Doppler Imaging (LDI) is a test of small fiber neurovascular function that can quantify the integrity of the vasomotor C-fiber mediated axon-reflex, but no standardized method of analysis exists. We developed a novel LDI analysis technique and tested it in a human model of small fiber neuropathy. Eighteen healthy subjects (age 24±3 years) underwent LDI testing to assess the axon-mediated flare area in response to 10% acetylcholine iontophoresis. LDI measurements were taken before and longitudinally after a 48-hour application of 0.1% capsaicin (to cause a transient small fiber neuropathy) on the skin of the thigh; placebo cream was placed on the contralateral thigh as a control. We compared our new LDI image analysis technique to two previously published methods. The new LDI analysis technique was the only method to show a consistent difference in axon-reflex area between capsaicin treated and placebo treated skin on all testing days (p<0.05) with maximum attenuation of the flare area immediately post-application (438 ±298 mm2 vs. 824 ±375 mm2, p<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that our novel flare area method for LDI analysis can detect neurovascular dysfunction in a model of small fiber neuropathy, is an improvement over existing methods, and may supplement clinical assessment of small fiber neuropathy. PMID:23850386

Illigens, Ben M.W.; Siepmann, Timo; Roofeh, Joe; Gibbons, Christopher H.

2013-01-01

281

Peripheral neuropathy induced by combination chemotherapy of docetaxel and cisplatin.  

PubMed Central

Docetaxel, a new semisynthetic taxoid that has demonstrated promising activity as an antineoplastic agent, was administered in combination with cisplatin to 63 patients in a dose-escalating study. As both drugs were known to be potentially neurotoxic, peripheral neurotoxicity was prospectively assessed in detail. Neuropathy was evaluated by clinical sum-score for signs and symptoms and by measurement of the vibration perception threshold (VPT). The severity of neuropathy was graded according to the National Cancer Institute's 'Common Toxicity Criteria'. The docetaxel-cisplatin combination chemotherapy induced a predominantly sensory neuropathy in 29 (53%) out of 55 evaluable patients. At cumulative doses of both cisplatin and docetaxel above 200 mg m(-2), 26 (74%) out of 35 patients developed a neuropathy which was mild in 15, moderate in ten and severe in one patient. Significant correlations were present between both the cumulative dose of docetaxel and cisplatin and the post-treatment sum-score of neuropathy (P < 0.01) as well as the post-treatment VPT (P < 0.01). The neurotoxic effects of this combination were more severe than either cisplatin or docetaxel as single agent at similar doses. PMID:9020489

Hilkens, P. H.; Pronk, L. C.; Verweij, J.; Vecht, C. J.; van Putten, W. L.; van den Bent, M. J.

1997-01-01

282

Subclinical Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow in Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate the prevalence and characteristics of subclinical ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in diabetic patients. Methods One hundred and five patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited for the study of ulnar nerve conduction analysis. Clinical and demographic characteristics were assessed. Electrodiagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow was based on the criteria of the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM1 and AANEM2). The inching test of the ulnar motor nerve was additionally performed to localize the lesion. Results The duration of diabetes, the existence of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) symptoms, the duration of symptoms, and HbA1C showed significantly larger values in the DPN group (p<0.05). Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow was more common in the DPN group. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of cases that met the three diagnostic criteria between the no DPN group and the DPN group. The most common location for ulnar mononeuropathy at the elbow was the retrocondylar groove. Conclusion Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is more common in patients with DPN. If the conduction velocities of both the elbow and forearm segments are decreased to less than 50 m/s, it may be useful to apply the AANEM2 criteria and inching test to diagnose ulnar neuropathy. PMID:24639928

Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Yun Tae; Park, Byung Kyu; Cheong, In Yae

2014-01-01

283

Diabetic Neuropathies: Update on Definitions, Diagnostic Criteria, Estimation of Severity, and Treatments  

PubMed Central

Preceding the joint meeting of the 19th annual Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (NEURODIAB) and the 8th International Symposium on Diabetic Neuropathy in Toronto, Canada, 13–18 October 2009, expert panels were convened to provide updates on classification, definitions, diagnostic criteria, and treatments of diabetic peripheral neuropathies (DPNs), autonomic neuropathy, painful DPNs, and structural alterations in DPNs. PMID:20876709

Tesfaye, Solomon; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Dyck, Peter J.; Freeman, Roy; Horowitz, Michael; Kempler, Peter; Lauria, Giuseppe; Malik, Rayaz A.; Spallone, Vincenza; Vinik, Aaron; Bernardi, Luciano; Valensi, Paul

2010-01-01

284

Noise-Enhanced Vibrotactile Sensitivity in Older Adults, Patients With Stroke, and Patients With Diabetic Neuropathy  

E-print Network

With Diabetic Neuropathy Wen Liu, PhD, Lewis A. Lipsitz, MD, Manuel Montero-Odasso, MD, Jonathan Bean, MD, D, and patients with diabetic neuropathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83: 171-6. Objective: To test the hypothesis that vibrotactile detection thresholds in older adults, patients with stroke, and patients with diabetic neuropathy

Collins, James J.

285

Phenotyping animal models of diabetic neuropathy: a consensus statement of the diabetic neuropathy study group of the EASD (Neurodiab)  

PubMed Central

NIDDK, JDRF, and the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of EASD sponsored a meeting to explore the current status of animal models of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The goal of the workshop was to develop a set of consensus criteria for the phenotyping of rodent models of diabetic neuropathy. The discussion was divided into five areas: (1) status of commonly used rodent models of diabetes, (2) nerve structure, (3) electrophysiological assessments of nerve function, (4) behavioral assessments of nerve function, and (5) the role of biomarkers in disease phenotyping. Participants discussed the current understanding of each area, gold standards (if applicable) for assessments of function, improvements of existing techniques, and utility of known and exploratory biomarkers. The research opportunities in each area were outlined, providing a possible roadmap for future studies. The meeting concluded with a discussion on the merits and limitations of a unified approach to phenotyping rodent models of diabetic neuropathy and a consensus formed on the definition of the minimum criteria required for establishing the presence of the disease. A neuropathy phenotype in rodents was defined as the presence of statistically different values between diabetic and control animals in 2 of 3 assessments (nocifensive behavior, nerve conduction velocities, or nerve structure). The participants propose that this framework would allow different research groups to compare and share data, with an emphasis on data targeted toward the therapeutic efficacy of drug interventions. PMID:24934510

Biessels, G.J.; Bril, V.; Calcutt, N.A.; Cameron, N.E.; Cotter, M.A.; Dobrowsky, R.; Feldman, E.L.; Fernyhough, P.; Jakobsen, J.; Malik, R.A.; Mizisin, A.P.; Oates, P.J.; Obrosova, I.G.; Pop-Busui, R.; Russell, J.W.; Sima, A.A.; Stevens, M.J.; Schmidt, R.E.; Tesfaye, S.; Veves, A.; Vinik, A.I.; Wright, D.E.; Yagihashi, S.; Yorek, M.A.; Ziegler, D.; Zochodne, D.W.

2015-01-01

286

The pathological basis of conduction block in human neuropathies.  

PubMed Central

Conduction block was detected in patients with neuropathy by measuring a decrease in the size of the compound muscle action potential of more than 20% on proximal versus distal stimulation of the peroneal, median or ulnar nerve in the absence of excess temporal dispersion of the potential. The teased fibre analyses of nerve biopsies from four patients with "definite" and six patients with "probable" conduction block and from seven patients with neuropathy but without conduction block were compared. All patients with conduction block had significant demyelination (X% demyelinated and remyelinated fibres = 50%) while those without conduction block did not (X = 5.0%). Demyelination is the pathological basis of conduction block in human neuropathies. PMID:3981192

Feasby, T E; Brown, W F; Gilbert, J J; Hahn, A F

1985-01-01

287

[Denny-Brown sensory neuropathy disclosing a bilateral ovarian adenocarcinoma].  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 76 year-old woman examined because of occurrence of a paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy. Three months later, she developed a left inguinal adenopathy, metastasis of a bilateral ovarian adenocarcinoma. This case of particular interest in view of the way the neoplasm was discovered. The sensory neuropathy was previously reported to be associated with an ovarian cancer in only one case of the literature. Besides the tumor masse only limited to a left inguinal adenopathy, in this case emphasizes the ability of these rare metastasis. The ovarian cancer-associated antigen CA 125 is particularly useful for the diagnosis when high levels are found. In the absence of a pelvic tumor masse, the paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy, as well as the high levels of CA 125, have resulted in an exploratory laparotomy with extemporaneous examination of the ovaries, enabling to make the diagnosis of bilateral ovarian adenocarcinoma. PMID:3206097

Humbert, P; Mas, J; Monnier, G; Carbillet, J P; Chatelain, F; Montcuquet, P; Dupond, J L

1988-11-01

288

[Electron microscopy as a tool for the diagnosis of neuropathies].  

PubMed

Ultrastructural examination of a peripheral nerve biopsy may be particularly useful and sometimes indispensable for identification of the type of nerve lesion and of the aetiologies of peripheral neuropathies. The ultrastructural findings have, anyway, to be correlated with the clinical findings, the electrophysiological examination and the laboratory investigations. In this presentation, the various causes of peripheral neuropathies for which nerve biopsy study by electron microscope can provide diagnostic information are discussed. The principal aetiologies that will benefit from such an ultrastructural study are toxic, infectious, haemopathic and storage disorders. Chiefly for Charcot-Marie-Tooth sporadic cases, there are still indications for nerve biopsy to orientate diagnostic research in molecular biology. Sometimes, the electron microscopic examination will help to determine not only the cause of the peripheral neuropathy, but also the mechanism of nerve lesions which may induce specific and efficient treatments. PMID:19084717

Vallat, Jean-Michel; Richard, Laurence; Sindou, Philippe; Magy, Laurent

2008-12-01

289

The variable clinical manifestations of ulnar neuropathies at the elbow.  

PubMed Central

In twenty-five cases of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, the involvement of the fibres from three sensory and to four motor branches were examined clinically and, where possible, electrophysiologically. Of the sensory fibres, those from the terminal digital nerves were most commonly involved. The fibres to the hand muscles were much more frequently involved than those to the forearm muscles. These findings suggest that in ulnar neuropathies at the elbow there is variable damage to the fascicles within the nerve. PMID:3031220

Stewart, J D

1987-01-01

290

Autonomic Involvement in Subacute and Chronic Immune-Mediated Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716

Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Vita, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

291

Entrapment neuropathies of the shoulder and elbow in the athlete.  

PubMed

MRI is a useful diagnostic method for evaluating nerve disease at the shoulder and elbow. MRI can depict the normal anatomy of the nerves, confirm and identify the cause of the neuropathy, identify the site of entrapment based on muscle denervation patterns, and detect unsuspected space-occupying lesions. MRI can also narrow down the differential diagnosis of nerve disease, such as in the case of suprascapular nerve syndrome versus Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or radial tunnel syndrome versus lateral epicondylitis. Large prospective studies with surgical correlation, however, are still necessary to better elucidate MRI's exact role in the assessment of entrapment neuropathies of the upper extremity. PMID:16798138

Bencardino, Jenny T; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka

2006-07-01

292

Bortezomib-induced painful neuropathy in patients with multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxicity towards the peripheral nervous system which appears clinically in the form of painful neuropathy is an essential dose-limiting factor during the treatment of multiple myeloma. In this review article different forms of this painful neuropathy are presented together with currently available diagnostic tools which are usually applied to confirm the diagnosis. Also, the most often used neurological scales estimating neurological deficit are presented. Special attention is paid to the management of the reversibility of bortezomib-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:24596530

Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Lidia; Pokryszko-Dragan, Anna

2013-01-01

293

Sporadic bulbospinal muscle atrophy with facial-onset sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

We report a case of idiopathic severe facial-onset sensorimotor neuropathy with no evidence of Kennedy's disease, familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, amyloidosis, Tangier disease, sarcoidosis, chronic basilar meningitis, or Sjögren's syndrome. Clinical and neurophysiological features of this patient resemble those of four recently reported patients who were affected with facial-onset sensorimotor neuropathy (FOSMN), a probably novel disease. The present report provides information about a further patient with FOSMN in order to better characterize the clinical and laboratory features of this disease. PMID:18335469

Isoardo, Gianluca; Troni, Walter

2008-05-01

294

Mechanical Surface Waves Accompany Action Potential Propagation  

E-print Network

Many studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane accompanies the electrical pulse defining the Action Potential (AP). Despite a large and diverse body of experimental evidence, there is no theoretical consensus either for the physical basis of this mechanical wave nor its interdependence with the electrical signal. In this manuscript we present a model for these mechanical displacements as arising from the driving of surface wave modes in which potential energy is stored in elastic properties of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is carried by the axoplasmic fluid. In our model these surface waves are driven by the traveling wave of electrical depolarization that characterizes the AP, altering the compressive electrostatic forces across the membrane as it passes. This driving leads to co-propagating mechanical displacements, which we term Action Waves (AWs). Our model for these AWs allows us to predict, in terms of elastic constants, axon radius and axoplasmic density and viscosity, the shape of the AW that should accompany any traveling wave of voltage, including the AP predicted by the Hodgkin and Huxley (HH) equations. We show that our model makes predictions that are in agreement with results in experimental systems including the garfish olfactory nerve and the squid giant axon. We expect our model to serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs in neurobiology.

Ahmed El Hady; Benjamin B. Machta

2014-07-28

295

Effect of mitomycin C on the optic nerve in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo prevent scarring after surgical optic nerve sheath decompression, it has been suggested that treating the area of fenestration with mitomycin C (MMC) might be effective. An animal model was used to test whether this toxic substance may cause optic neuropathy.METHODSThe optic nerves of 15 rabbits were exposed to balanced salt solution (BSS) or mitomycin C (MMC) in a concentration

Holger Mietz; Thomas C Prager; Craig Schweitzer; James Patrinely; James R Valenzuela

1997-01-01

296

Sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation.  

PubMed

Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Hyeun Sung

2009-03-01

297

Successful treatment of IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy with fludarabine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the response of four patients with IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy to a novel therapy—pulsed intravenous fludarabine.?BACKGROUND—The peripheral neuropathy associated with IgM paraproteinaemia usually runs a chronic, slowly progressive course which may eventually cause severe disability. Treatment with conventional immunosuppressive regimens has been unsatisfactory. Fludarabine is a novel purine analogue which has recently been shown to be effective in low grade lymphoid malignancies.?METHODS—Four patients were treated with IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy with intravenous pulses of fludarabine. Two of the four patients had antibodies to MAG and characteristic widely spaced myelin on nerve biopsy and a third had characteristic widely spaced myelin only. The fourth had an endoneurial lymphocytic infiltrate on nerve biopsy and a diagnosis of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia.?RESULTS—In all cases subjective and objective clinical improvement occurred associated with a significant fall in the IgM paraprotein concentration in three cases. Neurophysiological parameters improved in the three patients examined. The treatment was well tolerated. All patients developed mild, reversible lymphopenia and 50% mild generalised myelosuppression, but there were no febrile episodes.?CONCLUSION—Fludarabine should be considered as a possible treatment for patients with IgM MGUS paraproteinaemic neuropathy.?? PMID:10209166

Wilson, H.; Lunn, M.; Schey, S.; Hughes, R

1999-01-01

298

Association between acute motor axonal neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different subtypes producing the clinical picture of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and overlapping forms of GBS subtypes have been described. GBS as a complication in pregnancy has been reported rarely. The present report describes the clinical, electrophysiological and prognostic features of a pregnant woman with overlapping forms of GBS subtypes, acute motor axonal neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia.

Deniz Yerdelen; Umran Kucukgoz; Mehmet Karatas

2011-01-01

299

IgG monoclonal paraproteinaemia and peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with peripheral neuropathy and benign IgG monoclonal paraproteinemia are reported, all of whom had a sensorimotor neuropathy with a remitting and relapsing course. The serum paraprotein level did not correlate with the patient's clinical status. Electrophsyiological studies showed marked slowing of conduction velocity and conduction block in four of the patients and mild slowing in the other. Sural nerve biopsies demonstrated a demyelinating neuropathy with inflammatory cell infiltrates in each of the five patients. Three of the patients had evidence of myelin/Schwann cell reactivity on immunofluorescence studies and in all nerves dense expression of major histocompatability complex class I and II molecules was evident within the endoneurium, on invading mononuclear cells, endothelial cells and Schwann cells. All the patients responded to treatment, plasmapheresis being particularly effective. Four patients have achieved prolonged remissions after all treatment had ceased. These five cases of peripheral neuropathy and IgG paraproteinaemia were identical in their clinical, electrophysiological and pathological features to patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Images PMID:8381472

Bleasel, A F; Hawke, S H; Pollard, J D; McLeod, J G

1993-01-01

300

Nanostructured Biosensor for Measuring Neuropathy Target Esterase Activity  

E-print Network

Nanostructured Biosensor for Measuring Neuropathy Target Esterase Activity Neeraj Kohli, Devesh, such as motor neuron disease. This paper describes development of the first nanostructured biosensor interface containing a catalytically active fragment of NTE known as NEST. The biosensor was fabricated using the layer

Lee, Ilsoon

301

Role of vagal neuropathy in the hyponatraemia of alcoholic cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyponatraemia common in decompensated cirrhosis arises in part from secretion of antidiuretic hormone attributed to a decrease in effective blood volume. Baroreceptors send inhibitory impulses to the midbrain and hypothalamus through the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. Since vagal neuropathy often occurs in chronic alcoholism, this might theoretically contribute to the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, which might in turn

G Decaux; P Cauchie; A Soupart; M Kruger; F Delwiche

1986-01-01

302

Neuropathological alterations in diabetic truncal neuropathy: evaluation by skin biopsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To describe the neuropathological features in skin biopsies from patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy.?METHODS—Three patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy underwent skin biopsies from both symptomatic and asymptomatic regions of the chest and trunk. After local anaesthesia, biopsies were performed using a 3 mm diameter punch device (Acupunch). Intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENFs), the most distal processes of small myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres, were identified after staining with PGP 9.5 as previously described.?RESULTS—Diabetes was diagnosed at the time of the neurological presentation in two, and one was a known diabetic patient. All three had associated sensory-motor polyneuropathy. In all, skin biopsies showed a marked reduction of both epidermal and dermal nerve fibres in the symptomatic dermatomes, compared with skin from asymptomatic truncal areas. In one patient, a follow up skin biopsy when symptoms had improved showed a return of IENFs.?CONCLUSIONS—In diabetic truncal neuropathy, skin biopsies from symptomatic regions show a loss of IENFs. After clinical recovery, there is a return of the IENF population, suggesting that improvement occurs by nerve regeneration. These findings suggest that sensory nerve fibre injury in diabetic truncal neuropathy is distal to or within the sensory ganglia. Skin biopsy provides a possible tool for understanding the pathophysiology of the disease.?? PMID:9810952

Lauria, G.; McArthur, J.; Hauer, P.; Griffin, J.; Cornblath, D.

1998-01-01

303

Cystic lesions accompanying extra-axial tumours.  

PubMed

We examined the mechanism of cyst formation in extra-axial tumours in the central nervous system (CNS). Cyst fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma were analysed in eight patients with nine peritumoral cysts: four with meningiomas, two with intracranial and two spinal intradural schwannomas. Measuring concentrations of various proteins [albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, alpha 2-macroglobulin and IgM] in cyst fluid, CSF and blood plasma provides insight into the state of the semipermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Peritumoral cysts accompanying intra-axial brain tumours are the end result of disruption of the BBB and oedema formation. Unlike intra-axial tumours which lie embedded within nervous tissue, extra-axial tumours tend to be separated from nervous tissue by arachnoid and pia mater. High concentrations of proteins were measured in the cyst fluid, approaching blood plasma levels, suggesting a local barrier disruption, and passage across the arachnoid, pia mater and cortical/medullary layer into the CNS parenchyma, leaving the protein concentrations of CSF practically unchanged. We confirmed that very high concentrations of protein are to be found in tumour cysts, plasma proteins forming almost 90% of the total protein in the cyst. We review current hypotheses on the pathogenesis of cysts accompanying neoplasms, particularly meningiomas and schwannomas, and conclude that the majority of proteins in cyst fluid in extra-axial, intradural meningiomas and schwannomas are plasma proteins. This provides a strong argument for pathogenesis of extra-axial intradural tumour cysts in favour of leakage of plasma proteins out of the tumour vessels into the nervous tissue. PMID:9987761

Lohle, P N; Wurzer, H A; Seelen, P J; Kingma, L M; Go, K G

1999-01-01

304

[Review of the recent literature on hereditary neuropathies].  

PubMed

The recent literature included interesting reports on the pathogenic mechanisms of hereditary neuropathies. The axonal traffic and its abnormalities in some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease were particularly reviewed by Bucci et al. Many genes related to CMT disease code for proteins that are involved directly or not in intracellular traffic. KIF1B controls vesicle motility on microtubules. MTMR2, MTMR13 and FIG4 regulate the metabolism of phosphoinositide at the level of endosomes. The HSPs are involved in the proteasomal degradation. GDAP1 and MFN2 regulate the mitochondrial fission and fusion respectively and the mitochondial transport within the axon. Pareyson et al. reported a review on peripheral neuropathies in mitochondrial disorders. They used the term of "mitochondrial CMT" for the forms of CMT with abnormal mitochondrial dynamic or structure. Among the new entities, we can draw the attention to a proximal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance, which is characterized by motor deficit with cramps and fasciculations predominating in proximal muscles. Distal sensory deficit can be present. The gene TFG on chromosome 3 has been recently identified to be responsible for this form. Another rare form of axonal autosomal recessive neuropathy due to HNT1 gene mutation is characterized by the presence of hands myotonia that appears later than neuropathy but constitute an interesting clinical hallmark to orientate the diagnosis of this form. In terms of differential diagnosis, CMT4J due to FIG4 mutation can present with a rapidly progressive and asymmetric weakness that resembles CIDP. Bouhy et al. made an interesting review on the therapeutic trials, animal models and the future therapeutic strategies to be developed in CMT disease. PMID:25459128

Birouk, N

2014-12-01

305

Onion bulb neuropathy in the trembler mouse: A model of hypertrophic interstitial neuropathy (Dejerine-Sottas) in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trembler mouse is a spontaneous mutant showing dominant inheritance. Clinical symptoms become manifest from 10 to 14 days of age as an action tremor affecting the head, neck and limbs, convulsions which decrease with increasing age, and weakness and rigidity of the limbs. Histological examination revealed a normal central nervous system, and a peripheral onion bulb neuropathy similar to

Margaret M. Ayers; R. McD Anderson

1973-01-01

306

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy, Multifocal Acquired Demyelinating Sensory and Motor Neuropathy and Other Chronic Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Variants  

PubMed Central

Chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathies (CADP) are an important group of immune neuromuscular disorders affecting myelin. These are distinct from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Classically, CIDP is characterized by proximal and distal weakness, large fiber sensory loss, elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein content, demyelinating changes nerve conduction studies or nerve biopsy, and response to immunomodulating treatment. In this chapter we discuss CADP with emphasis on multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy and conclude with less common variants. While each of these entities has distinctive laboratory and electrodiagnostic features that aid in their diagnosis, clinical characteristics are of paramount importance in diagnosing specific conditions and determining the most appropriate therapies. Unlike CIDP, MMN is typically asymmetric and affects only the motor nerve fibers. MMN is a rare disease that presents chronically, over several years of progression affecting the arms are more commonly than the legs. Men are more likely than women to develop MMN. MADSAM should be suspected in patients who have weakness and loss of sensation in primarily one arm or leg which progresses slowly over several months to years. It is important in patient with multifocal demyelinating clinical presentation to distinguish MMN from MADSAM since corticosteroids are not effective in MMN where the mainstay of therapy is intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg). DADS can be subdivided into DADS-M (associated woth M-protein) and DADS-I which is idioapthic. While DADS-I patients respond somewhat to immunotherapy, DADS-M patients present with distal predominant sensorimotor demyelinating neuropathy phenotype and are notoriously refractory to immunotherapies regardless of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Our knowledge regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis and management continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. PMID:23642723

Barohn, Richard J.; Katz, Jonathan

2014-01-01

307

Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of groundwater can generate land subsidence by causing the compaction of susceptible aquifer systems, typically unconsolidated alluvial or basin-fill aquifer systems comprising aquifers and aquitards. Various ground-based and remotely sensed methods are used to measure and map subsidence. Many areas of subsidence caused by groundwater pumping have been identified and monitored, and corrective measures to slow or halt subsidence have been devised. Two principal means are used to mitigate subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal—reduction of groundwater withdrawal, and artificial recharge. Analysis and simulation of aquifer-system compaction follow from the basic relations between head, stress, compressibility, and groundwater flow and are addressed primarily using two approaches—one based on conventional groundwater flow theory and one based on linear poroelasticity theory. Research and development to improve the assessment and analysis of aquifer-system compaction, the accompanying subsidence and potential ground ruptures are needed in the topic areas of the hydromechanical behavior of aquitards, the role of horizontal deformation, the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and the regional-scale simulation of coupled groundwater flow and aquifer-system deformation to support resource management and hazard mitigation measures.

Galloway, Devin L.; Burbey, Thomas J.

2011-12-01

308

Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Drug-Induced Regulation of the Gene Giant Axonal Neuropathy (Gan) in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral-Induced Painful Peripheral Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating complication of the treatment of HIV with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Patients are living longer with these drugs; however many develop excruciating, unremitting, and often treatment-limiting neuropathy that is resistant to conventional pain management therapies. Improving patient comfort and quality of life is paramount and depends on a clearer understanding of this devastating side effect. The mechanisms underlying the development of NRTI-induced neuropathy, however, remain unclear. Using a mouse model of NRTI-induced neuropathy, the authors conducted an unbiased whole-genome microarray screen to identify molecular targets in the spinal dorsal horn, which is the location where integration of ascending sensory transmission and descending modulatory effects occur. Analysis of the microarray data identified a change in the gene giant axonal neuropathy 1 (Gan1). Mutation of this gene has been linked to the development of giant axonal neuropathy (GAN), a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by a progressive sensorimotor neuropathy. Gan1 has not been previously linked to nerve pathologies in other populations. In this study, downregulation of the Gan1 gene and the gene protein product, gigaxonin, was validated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction ([qPCR] gene expression) and Western blot analyses (protein level). Our report is the first to suggest that Gan1 might be a novel molecular target in the development of NRTI-induced peripheral neuropathy with implications for new therapeutic approaches to preventing or reducing a significant side effect of HIV treatment. PMID:19398414

Dorsey, Susan G.; Leitch, Carmen C.; Renn, Cynthia L.; Lessans, Sherrie; Smith, Barbara A.; Wang, Xiao M.; Dionne, Raymond A.

2012-01-01

309

Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Drug-Induced Regulation of the Gene Giant Axonal Neuropathy (Gan) in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral-Induced Painful Peripheral Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating complication of the treatment of HIV with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Patients are living longer with these drugs; however many develop excruciating, unremitting, and often treatment-limiting neuropathy that is resistant to conventional pain management therapies. Improving patient comfort and quality of life is paramount and depends on a clearer understanding of this devastating

Susan G. Dorsey; Carmen C. Leitch; Cynthia L. Renn; Sherrie Lessans; Barbara A. Smith; Xiao M. Wang; Raymond A. Dionne

2009-01-01

310

Genome-wide screen identifies drug-induced regulation of the gene giant axonal neuropathy (Gan) in a mouse model of antiretroviral-induced painful peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating complication of the treatment of HIV with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Patients are living longer with these drugs; however many develop excruciating, unremitting, and often treatment-limiting neuropathy that is resistant to conventional pain management therapies. Improving patient comfort and quality of life is paramount and depends on a clearer understanding of this devastating side effect. The mechanisms underlying the development of NRTI-induced neuropathy, however, remain unclear. Using a mouse model of NRTI-induced neuropathy, the authors conducted an unbiased whole-genome microarray screen to identify molecular targets in the spinal dorsal horn, which is the location where integration of ascending sensory transmission and descending modulatory effects occur. Analysis of the microarray data identified a change in the gene giant axonal neuropathy 1 (Gan1). Mutation of this gene has been linked to the development of giant axonal neuropathy (GAN), a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by a progressive sensorimotor neuropathy. Gan1 has not been previously linked to nerve pathologies in other populations. In this study, downregulation of the Gan1 gene and the gene protein product, gigaxonin, was validated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction ([qPCR] gene expression) and Western blot analyses (protein level). Our report is the first to suggest that Gan1 might be a novel molecular target in the development of NRTI-induced peripheral neuropathy with implications for new therapeutic approaches to preventing or reducing a significant side effect of HIV treatment. PMID:19398414

Dorsey, Susan G; Leitch, Carmen C; Renn, Cynthia L; Lessans, Sherrie; Smith, Barbara A; Wang, Xiao M; Dionne, Raymond A

2009-07-01

311

[Recognizing the pitfalls. Non-glaucomatous optic disc cupping].  

PubMed

Pathological optic disc cupping is most often caused by open angle glaucoma. More rarely, other optic neuropathies may be associated with acquired pathological optic disc cupping, sometimes mimicking glaucoma. A careful interpretation of the history, optic disc characteristics and visual fields are the main tools in the decision process of glaucomatous versus non-glaucomatous optic disc cupping, avoiding inappropriate, expensive neuroimaging examinations. PMID:17646798

Milea, D

2007-05-01

312

Optical coherence tomography shows retinal abnormalities associated with optic nerve disease.  

PubMed

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula in patients with primary optic neuropathy has revealed the presence of structural changes in the neurosensory retina in addition to the nerve fibre layer. Subretinal fluid has been documented in papilloedema and non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy, and may account for decreased visual acuity in affected patients. Subretinal fluid has also been described from other causes of optic nerve head swelling including diabetic papillopathy and papillitis. Drugs used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, such as corticosteroids and fingolimod can cause decreased vision due to central serous and cystoid macular oedema sometimes confused with recurrent optic neuritis. A subset of patients with various types of optic atrophy show microcystic changes in the inner nuclear layer on spectral domain OCT imaging. The pathophysiology and visual significance of these retinal changes remain unclear, but may affect the diagnosis and management of optic nerve disorders. PMID:24627251

Tawse, Kirstin L; Hedges, Thomas R; Gobuty, Marisa; Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos

2014-07-01

313

Peripheral neuropathy in a turkey vulture with lead toxicosis.  

PubMed

Clinical, electromyographic, and pathologic findings characteristic of lead toxicosis were detected in a turkey vulture (Cathartes aura). The bird had generalized lower motor neuron dysfunction that progressed over 5 days. Electromyography revealed diffuse denervation potentials and a presumed decrement in the sciatic-tibial nerve conduction velocity. Histologic examination of peripheral nerves obtained at necropsy revealed changes that could be compatible with lead-induced neuropathy. Lead toxicosis was confirmed by determination of blood lead concentrations. Lead toxicosis causing neurologic disorders in birds has been described. However, this report emphasizes the effects of lead on the peripheral nervous system and demonstrates the use of electromyography for diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy in birds. PMID:10212687

Platt, S R; Helmick, K E; Graham, J; Bennett, R A; Phillips, L; Chrisman, C L; Ginn, P E

1999-04-15

314

Peripheral Neuropathy Induced by Paclitaxel: Recent Insights and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Paclitaxel is an antineoplastic agent derived from the bark of the western yew, Taxus brevifolia, with a broad spectrum of activity. Because paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly, neurotoxicity is one of its side effects. Clinical use of paclitaxel has led to peripheral neuropathy and this has been demonstrated to be dependent upon the dose administered, the duration of the infusion, and the schedule of administration. Vehicles in the drug formulation, for example Cremophor in Taxol®, have been investigated for their potential to induce peripheral neuropathy. A variety of neuroprotective agents have been tested in animal and clinical studies to prevent paclitaxel neurotoxicity. Recently, novel paclitaxel formulations have been developed to minimize toxicities. This review focuses on recent advances in the etiology of paclitaxel-mediated peripheral neurotoxicity, and discusses current and ongoing strategies for amelioration of this side effect. PMID:18615126

Scripture, Charity D; Figg, William D; Sparreboom, Alex

2006-01-01

315

Peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel: recent insights and future perspectives.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel is an antineoplastic agent derived from the bark of the western yew, Taxus brevifolia, with a broad spectrum of activity. Because paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly, neurotoxicity is one of its side effects. Clinical use of paclitaxel has led to peripheral neuropathy and this has been demonstrated to be dependent upon the dose administered, the duration of the infusion, and the schedule of administration. Vehicles in the drug formulation, for example Cremophor in Taxol, have been investigated for their potential to induce peripheral neuropathy. A variety of neuroprotective agents have been tested in animal and clinical studies to prevent paclitaxel neurotoxicity. Recently, novel paclitaxel formulations have been developed to minimize toxicities. This review focuses on recent advances in the etiology of paclitaxel-mediated peripheral neurotoxicity, and discusses current and ongoing strategies for amelioration of this side effect. PMID:18615126

Scripture, Charity D; Figg, William D; Sparreboom, Alex

2006-04-01

316

Suspected hypothyroid-associated neuropathy in a female rottweiler dog  

PubMed Central

A 7-year-old, 46-kg spayed female rottweiler dog was presented with sudden onset of disorientation, bilateral convergent strabismus, and enophthalmos. Diagnostic workup revealed hypothyroid-associated cranial neuropathy. Symptoms abated considerably upon treatment with levothyroxine-sodium (T4) at an initial dose of 800 ?g/kg body weight (BW), PO, q12h, which was reduced 3 days later to 600 ?g/kg BW, q12h due to severe agitation and panting. Two weeks later the dosage of the levothyroxine-sodium (T4) was reduced to 400 ?g/kg BW in the morning and 600 ?g/kg BW in the evening. Eight weeks after the initial presentation, the dog had recovered with only mild convergent strabismus in the right eye. This is the first case report of suspected hypothyroid-associated neuropathy resulting in these symptoms. PMID:24082164

Rushton, James Oliver; Leschnik, Michael; Nell, Barbara

2013-01-01

317

Peroneal neuropathy misdiagnosed as L5 radiculopathy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented with a case of peroneal neuropathy that was originally diagnosed and treated as a L5 radiculopathy. Clinical features A 53-year old female registered nurse presented to a private chiropractic practice with complaints of left lateral leg pain. Three months earlier she underwent elective left L5 decompression surgery without relief of symptoms. Intervention and outcome Lumbar spine MRI seven months prior to lumbar decompression surgery revealed left neural foraminal stenosis at L5-S1. The patient symptoms resolved after she stopped crossing her legs. Conclusion This report discusses a case of undiagnosed peroneal neuropathy that underwent lumbar decompression surgery for a L5 radiculopathy. This case study demonstrates the importance of a thorough clinical examination and decision making that ensures proper patient diagnosis and management. PMID:23618508

2013-01-01

318

Microvascular dysfunction in the context of diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Microvascular dysfunction in diabetes plays a crucial role in the development of diabetic complications. The skin, as one of the most accessible organs, serves as a model for the investigation of microvascular dysfunction. Several non-invasive, mostly laser-Doppler-based methods have been developed lately to assess microvascular function in the skin. Microvascular functional changes occur even in the prediabetic state and become more complex with overt diabetes, being exacerbated by the presence of peripheral and/or autonomic diabetic neuropathy. The present article aims at shedding light on the implication of endothelial and neurovascular dysfunction in microvascular changes in diabetes, highlighting the contribution of different forms of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25189434

Stirban, Alin

2014-11-01

319

[Visual analysis for an early detection of diabetic neuropathy].  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy is the most common long-term complication of diabetes mellitus. It comes along with significant nerve dysfunction, which is not reversible. Hence, it is essential to detect nerve fibre abnormalities as early as possible. In this paper, we investigate markers describing degradation of corneal nerves. We apply statistical computations and visual analysis to identify those variables of two clinical studies that separate DN patients from a control group. In this way, the diagnosis of DN patients is supported. The visual analysis is based on different representations visualizing both the statistical results and the gathered multi-variate data. The user can interactively manipulate the views, or select data that will be shown by further displays. In this way, the understanding of the data and its classification is supported. Ambiguous categorisations can be identified and grouped into a so-called "fuzzy group". For this group, further investigations are needed to decide about diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25519502

Röhlig, M; Luboschik, M; Kundt, G; Stachs, O; Peschel, S; Zhivov, A; Guthoff, R F; Winter, K; Schumann, H

2014-12-01

320

The spectrum of immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies: insights from the clinicopathological features.  

PubMed

Although autonomic neuropathy may occur as a secondary consequence of various diseases, other patients without any obvious underlying diseases show profound autonomic dysfunctions from the early phase of the disease. These idiopathic or primary cases are divided into pure autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy with sensory impairment, and autonomic neuropathy with sensory and motor impairment based on the concomitance or absence of sensory or motor dysfunctions. The discovery of the antiganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibody suggested the involvement of immune mechanisms in idiopathic cases, especially in those cases with pure autonomic neuropathy. The ability to test for the presence of this antibody has significantly expanded the concept of autonomic neuropathy to include cases with a chronic progressive course that mimics pure autonomic failure. Recent work based on the antiganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibody has established autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy as an isolated nosological entity. Other forms of primary autonomic neuropathies include acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy and acute autonomic sensory and motor neuropathy, although the nosological relationship of the latter to Guillain-Barré syndrome should be discussed. Although the possibility of infectious, metabolic or toxic aetiologies should be carefully excluded in these forms of autonomic neuropathy, the monophasic clinical course and the presence of antecedent infections suggest the involvement of immune mechanisms similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neuronopathy in the autonomic ganglia is considered to be a common pathology in these autonomic neuropathies. In addition, clinically significant autonomic neuropathy may be associated with pre-existing immunological diseases such as paraneoplastic syndrome and Sjögren's syndrome. An overlap with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy has been suggested in these settings. PMID:22906617

Koike, Haruki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Sobue, Gen

2013-01-01

321

“Peripheral Neuropathy Crippling Bronchial Asthma”: Two Rare Case Reports of Churg-Strauss Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare cause of vasculitic neuropathy. Although rare and potentially fatal, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is easily diagnosable and treatable. The presence of bronchial asthma with peripheral neuropathy in a patient alerts a physician to this diagnosis. This is vividly illustrated by the presented two cases who had neuropathy associated with bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, sinusitis, and positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) test, which improved with administration of steroids. PMID:25580342

Pandita, Kamal Kishore; Bhat, Khalid Javid; Razdan, Sushil; Kudyar, R. P.

2014-01-01

322

Treatment of multifocal motor neuropathy with intravenous immunoglobulin.  

PubMed

Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a rare inflammatory, chronically progressive, unremitting disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system. Although the etiology of this condition is not known, high titers of IgM Ab to GM1 may serve as a biomarker for this disease. Clinical findings of motor weakness are associated with focal conduction blocks and with time, axonal destruction. Evidence supporting an immune etiology as well as the use of intravenous immunoglobulin to limit the disease progression is reviewed. PMID:24699885

Koski, Carol Lee

2014-07-01

323

Measurement of somatic neuropathy for clinical practice and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal sensory polyneuropathy is a common and unpleasant complication of diabetes mellitus. It is the main initiating factor\\u000a for foot ulceration. The increasing prevalence of diabetes has important associated health implications, both in terms of\\u000a morbidity and mortality, and results in the consumption of scarce medical resources. Identification of somatic neuropathy\\u000a in clinical practice is therefore important for targeted educational

Vern A. La Scott; Solomon Tesfaye

2001-01-01

324

Reduction of Paclitaxel-induced Peripheral Neuropathy with Glutamine1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Dose-limiting toxicity of many newer chemo- therapeutic agents is peripheral neuropathy. Prior attempts to reduce this side effect have been unsuccessful. We report on the possible successful reduction of peripheral neuropa- thy with glutamine administration after high-dose pacli- taxel. Experimental Design: Patients entered a high-dose chemotherapy protocol in which the first high-dose cycle was paclitaxel at 825 mg\\/m2 given

Linda Vahdat; Kyriakos Papadopoulos; Dale Lange; Shelby Leuin; Elizabeth Kaufman; Diana Donovan; Deborah Frederick; Emilia Bagiella; Amy Tiersten; Gwen Nichols; Thomas Garrett; David Savage; Karen Antman; Charles S. Hesdorffer; Casilda Balmaceda

2001-01-01

325

Two cases of suprascapular neuropathy in a family.  

PubMed

Suprascapular entrapment neuropathy is well known in certain athletes, especially volleyball players. A brother and sister presented with right shoulder pain and wasting of the scapular muscles, particularly the infraspinatus. They had played volleyball for over six years and were forced to retire because of disability. Investigations showed involvement of the rhomboid muscles also, suggesting a probable extension of this syndrome to other nerves in the region such as the dorsal scapular nerve. PMID:14665596

Ravindran, M

2003-12-01

326

Periaxin mutations cause a broad spectrum of demyelinating neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that apparent loss-of-function mutations in the periaxin gene cause autosomal re- cessive Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy or severe demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this report, we extend the associated phenotypes with the identification of two additional families with novel periaxin gene mutations (C715X and R82fsX96) and provide detailed neuropathology. Each patient had marked sensory involvement; two siblings with a

Hiroshi Takashima; Cornelius F. Boerkoel; Peter De Jonghe; Chantal Ceuterick; Jean-Jacques Martin; Thomas Voit; Anna Williams; Peter J. Brophy; Vincent Timmerman; James R. Lupski

2002-01-01

327

Protection of Trigonelline on Experimental Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms leading to diabetic peripheral neuropathy are complex and there is no effective drug to treat it. As an active component of several traditional Chinese medicines, trigonelline has beneficial effects on diabetes with hyperlipidemia. The protective effects and the mechanism of trigonelline on diabetic peripheral neuropathy were evaluated in streptozotocin- and high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into four groups at the end of week 2: control, diabetes, diabetes + trigonelline (40?mg/kg), and diabetes + sitagliptin (4?mg/kg). After 48-week treatment, technologies of nerve conduction, cold and hot immersion test, transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR, and Western blotting were applied. Serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin sensitivity index, lipid parameters, body weight, sciatic nerve conduction velocity, nociception, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor mRNA and protein, total and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases protein expression, malonaldehyde content, and superoxide dismutase activity were altered in diabetic rats, and were near control levels treated with trigonelline. Slight micropathological changes existed in sciatic nerve of trigonelline-treated diabetic rats. These findings suggest that trigonelline has beneficial effects for diabetic peripheral neuropathy through glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway, nerve conduction velocity, antioxidant enzyme activity, improving micropathological changes of sciatic nerve and decreasing lipid peroxidation. PMID:23304193

Zhou, Ji-Yin; Zhou, Shi-Wen

2012-01-01

328

The Armadillo as a Model for Peripheral Neuropathy in Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Leprosy (also known as Hansen's Disease) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that primarily targets the peripheral nervous system; skin, muscle, and other tissues are also affected. Other than humans, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are the only natural hosts of M. leprae, and they are the only laboratory animals that develop extensive neurological involvement with this bacterium. Infection in the armadillo closely recapitulates many of the structural, physiological, and functional aspects of leprosy seen in humans. Armadillos can be useful models of leprosy for basic scientific investigations into the pathogenesis of leprosy neuropathy and its associated myopathies, as well as for translational research studies in piloting new diagnostic methods or therapeutic interventions. Practical and ethical constraints often limit investigation into human neuropathies, but armadillos are an abundant source of leprotic neurologic fibers. Studies with these animals may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in leprosy that also might benefit the understanding of other demyelinating neuropathies. Although there is only a limited supply of armadillo-specific reagents, the armadillo whole genomic sequence has been completed, and gene expression studies can be employed. Clinical procedures, such as electrophysiological nerve conduction testing, provide a functional assessment of armadillo nerves. A variety of standard histopathological and immunopathological procedures including Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density (ENFD) analysis, Schwann Cell Density, and analysis for other conserved cellular markers can be used effectively with armadillos and will be briefly reviewed in this text. PMID:24615444

Truman, Richard W.; Ebenezer, Gigi J.; Pena, Maria T.; Sharma, Rahul; Balamayooran, Gayathriy; Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Scollard, David M.; McArthur, Justin C.; Rambukkana, Anura

2014-01-01

329

The armadillo as a model for peripheral neuropathy in leprosy.  

PubMed

Leprosy (also known as Hansen's Disease) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that primarily targets the peripheral nervous system; skin, muscle, and other tissues are also affected. Other than humans, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are the only natural hosts of M. leprae, and they are the only laboratory animals that develop extensive neurological involvement with this bacterium. Infection in the armadillo closely recapitulates many of the structural, physiological, and functional aspects of leprosy seen in humans. Armadillos can be useful models of leprosy for basic scientific investigations into the pathogenesis of leprosy neuropathy and its associated myopathies, as well as for translational research studies in piloting new diagnostic methods or therapeutic interventions. Practical and ethical constraints often limit investigation into human neuropathies, but armadillos are an abundant source of leprotic neurologic fibers. Studies with these animals may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in leprosy that also might benefit the understanding of other demyelinating neuropathies. Although there is only a limited supply of armadillo-specific reagents, the armadillo whole genomic sequence has been completed, and gene expression studies can be employed. Clinical procedures, such as electrophysiological nerve conduction testing, provide a functional assessment of armadillo nerves. A variety of standard histopathological and immunopathological procedures including Epidermal Nerve Fiber Density (ENFD) analysis, Schwann Cell Density, and analysis for other conserved cellular markers can be used effectively with armadillos and will be briefly reviewed in this text. PMID:24615444

Truman, Richard W; Ebenezer, Gigi J; Pena, Maria T; Sharma, Rahul; Balamayooran, Gayathriy; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Scollard, David M; McArthur, Justin C; Rambukkana, Anura

2014-01-01

330

[Treatment algorithm for oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy].  

PubMed

Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a key drug in the treatment of colorectal cancer; however, L-OHP-induced peripheral neuropathy becomes a dose-limiting factor for which withdrawal is the only effective option. In the present study, we attempted to treat L-OHP-induced peripheral neuropathy using the algorithm consisting of pregabalin, duloxetine, and oxycodone at Iwate Medical University Hospital. The first, second, and third stages of the algorithm consist of pregabalin, duloxetine, and oxycodone, respectively. We examined the usefulness and safety of the treatment algorithm for 27 patients with colorectal cancer by evaluating the side effects and degree of improvement of subjective symptoms. When discontinuation was necessary due to adverse events or invalid treatment during the 4-week study period, the patient was transitioned to the next stage. The response rates of the first, second, and third stages of the algorithm were 33% (9/27), 33% (6/18), and 17% (1/6), respectively, whereas the overall response rate was 59% (16/27). The side effect rates of the first, second, and third stages were 37% (10/27), 33% (6/18), and 83% (5/6), respectively. Somnolence was the most common side effect of these drugs. Thus, our treatment algorithm appears to be useful for L-OHP-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, pregabalin, duloxetine, and oxycodone should be administered with specific attention on the potential side effects. PMID:25434440

Nihei, Satoru; Sato, Junya; Kimura, Toshimoto; Otsuka, Koki; Kawaguchi, Sachiko; Kudo, Kenzo

2014-11-01

331

Putative peripheral neuropathy in suckling piglets.  

PubMed

Over a period of almost 2 years, a progressive motor disturbance was found to occur in 20-50% of the litters of both primiparous and multiparous sows in a large pig herd of 1000 sows. The motor disturbance sometimes affected the entire litter; however, in most cases only a few piglets per litter were affected. The clinical signs appeared at 3-5 days of age and consisted of difficult movement followed by anteflexion or retroflexion of the tarsal joints or 'rabbit-like posture'. Subsequently, primarily after weaning, inflammatory and necrotic lesions developed on the paralysed limbs as a result of secondary infections of injuries. The tibial nerve and the common fibular nerve of recently affected (5- to 6-day-old) piglets showed degeneration, demyelination and necrosis of some of the nerve fibres, accompanied by restorative changes in more chronic cases. The central nervous system, bones, skeletal muscles, tendons and joints showed no lesions that could have accounted for the symptoms of motor disturbance. Aetiological investigations excluded the possibility of lead, copper and cadmium toxicity. Vitamin B2 administered orally at 1 day old proved to be ineffective. The disease did not develop in piglets of sows kept at another farm under the same management and fed a diet prepared according to an identical formula from the same ingredients as those used on the affected farm, but with no milk whey added. This raised the suspicion of triaryl phosphate (TAP) poisoning, but this was found not to be the cause of the disease. New boars had not been brought to the farm in the year preceding the onset of disease, and the disease could not be linked to a specific boar or boar line. The aetiology of the disease has remained unclear. PMID:11014060

Sályi, G; Glávits, R; Molnár, T

2000-08-01

332

Evaluation of neuropathy during intensive vincristine chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Back ground: Vincristine (VCR), is a chemotherapy drug, useful in the treatment of leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumor and it is a potent neurotoxin and sensory neuropathy drug which a common behavioral toxicity of this drug. Neuropathy is common squeal of intensive chemotherapy protocols that contain vincristine and corticosteroids. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective and descriptive study of neuropathy during in chemotherapy program with vincristine for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Data was analyzed by spss Version16 software. Results: From total of 51 cases, 23 patients had vincristine neuropathy (45%). Patients with visceral neuropathy have shown ileus, constipation in 13 patients (25%), occasionally severe diarrhea 11 (21%), mild diarrhea 7 (13.7%) and transient diarrhea in 16 patients (31%). Motor neuropathy were found in one patient with Bell, s palsy (1.9%) and one patient with Hoarseness. 12 patients (23.5%) had some type of complication together with sensory peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: Almost half of patients with vincristin chemotherapy had neuropathy and the mean age of patients with neuropathy was 12.3 years. PMID:24575286

Dorchin, M; Masoumi Dehshiri, R; Soleiman, S; Manashi, M

2013-01-01

333

Neuropathy-Inducing Effects of Eribulin Mesylate Versus Paclitaxel in Mice with Preexisting Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Eribulin mesylate (E7389, INN:eribulin mesilate Halaven®) is a non-taxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor currently in clinical use for advanced breast cancer. Other microtubule-targeting agents for breast cancer, including paclitaxel and ixabepilone, display a common treatment dose-limiting toxicity of peripheral neuropathy (PN). In an earlier study, we found eribulin mesylate had a lower propensity to induce PN in mice than either paclitaxel or ixabepilone. In the current study, we compared additional PN induced by paclitaxel versus eribulin mesylate when administered to mice with preexisting paclitaxel-induced PN. Initially, paclitaxel at 0.75 × its maximum tolerated dose (MTD; 22.5 mg/kg) was given on a Q2Dx3 regimen for 2 weeks. The second chemotherapy was 0.5 MTD eribulin mesylate (0.875 mg/kg) or paclitaxel (15 mg/kg) on a similar regimen, starting 2 weeks after the first. Initial paclitaxel treatment produced significant decreases in caudal nerve conduction velocity (NCV; averaging 19.5 ± 1 and 22.2 ± 1.3 %, p < 0.001) and amplitude (averaging 53.2 ± 2.6 and 72.4 ± 2.1 %, p < 0.001) versus vehicle when measured 24 h or 2 weeks after dosing cessation, respectively. Additional 0.5 MTD paclitaxel further reduced caudal NCV and amplitude relative to immediately before initiation of the second regimen (by 11 ± 2.1 and 59.2 ± 5 %, p < 0.01, respectively). In contrast, 0.5 MTD eribulin mesylate caused no further decrease in caudal NCV. In conclusion, unlike additional paclitaxel treatment, eribulin mesylate administered to mice with preexisting paclitaxel-induced PN had limited additional deleterious effects at 6 weeks. These preclinical data suggest that eribulin mesylate may have reduced tendency to exacerbate preexisting paclitaxel-induced PN in clinical settings. PMID:23637052

Wozniak, Krystyna M.; Wu, Ying; Farah, Mohamed H.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Nomoto, Kenichi

2014-01-01

334

Neuropathy-inducing effects of eribulin mesylate versus paclitaxel in mice with preexisting neuropathy.  

PubMed

Eribulin mesylate (E7389, INN:eribulin mesilate Halaven(®)) is a non-taxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor currently in clinical use for advanced breast cancer. Other microtubule-targeting agents for breast cancer, including paclitaxel and ixabepilone, display a common treatment dose-limiting toxicity of peripheral neuropathy (PN). In an earlier study, we found eribulin mesylate had a lower propensity to induce PN in mice than either paclitaxel or ixabepilone. In the current study, we compared additional PN induced by paclitaxel versus eribulin mesylate when administered to mice with preexisting paclitaxel-induced PN. Initially, paclitaxel at 0.75 × its maximum tolerated dose (MTD; 22.5 mg/kg) was given on a Q2Dx3 regimen for 2 weeks. The second chemotherapy was 0.5 MTD eribulin mesylate (0.875 mg/kg) or paclitaxel (15 mg/kg) on a similar regimen, starting 2 weeks after the first. Initial paclitaxel treatment produced significant decreases in caudal nerve conduction velocity (NCV; averaging 19.5 ± 1 and 22.2 ± 1.3 %, p < 0.001) and amplitude (averaging 53.2 ± 2.6 and 72.4 ± 2.1 %, p < 0.001) versus vehicle when measured 24 h or 2 weeks after dosing cessation, respectively. Additional 0.5 MTD paclitaxel further reduced caudal NCV and amplitude relative to immediately before initiation of the second regimen (by 11 ± 2.1 and 59.2 ± 5 %, p < 0.01, respectively). In contrast, 0.5 MTD eribulin mesylate caused no further decrease in caudal NCV. In conclusion, unlike additional paclitaxel treatment, eribulin mesylate administered to mice with preexisting paclitaxel-induced PN had limited additional deleterious effects at 6 weeks. These preclinical data suggest that eribulin mesylate may have reduced tendency to exacerbate preexisting paclitaxel-induced PN in clinical settings. PMID:23637052

Wozniak, Krystyna M; Wu, Ying; Farah, Mohamed H; Littlefield, Bruce A; Nomoto, Kenichi; Slusher, Barbara S

2013-10-01

335

PMP22 related neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies  

PubMed Central

PMP22 related neuropathies comprise (1) PMP22 duplications leading to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), (2) PMP22 deletions, leading to Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP), and (3) PMP22 point mutations, causing both phenotypes. Overall prevalence of CMT is usually reported as 1:2,500, epidemiological studies show that 20-64% of CMT patients carry the PMP22 duplication. The prevalence of HNPP is not well known. CMT1A usually presents in the first two decades with difficulty walking or running. Distal symmetrical muscle weakness and wasting and sensory loss is present, legs more frequently and more severely affected than arms. HNPP typically leads to episodic, painless, recurrent, focal motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy, preceded by minor compression on the affected nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation is needed to determine whether the polyneuropathy is demyelinating. Sonography of the nerves can be useful. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding respectively a PMP22 duplication, deletion or point mutation. Differential diagnosis includes other inherited neuropathies, and acquired polyneuropathies. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant and de novo mutations occur. Offspring of patients have a chance of 50% to inherit the mutation from their affected parent. Prenatal testing is possible; requests for prenatal testing are not common. Treatment is currently symptomatic and may include management by a rehabilitation physician, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and orthopaedic surgeon. Adult CMT1A patients show slow clinical progression of disease, which seems to reflect a process of normal ageing. Life expectancy is normal. PMID:24646194

2014-01-01

336

Guillain Barré syndrome and other immune mediated neuropathies: diagnosis and classification.  

PubMed

Immune mediated neuropathies are uncommon but important to diagnose because they are potentially treatable. This chapter summarizes the clinical approach to diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and related neuropathies which are thought to be caused by direct autoimmune attack on peripheral nerves. PMID:24434363

Eldar, Adi Hersalis; Chapman, Joab

2014-01-01

337

Should coeliac disease be considered in the work up of patients with chronic peripheral neuropathy?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between chronic peripheral neuropathy and coeliac disease. Methods: The cause of chronic peripheral neuropathy was first investigated in a group of 478 patients. Published reports were then examined systematically for an association between chronic peripheral neuropathy and coeliac disease. Cases were divided into two groups: group A, polyneuropathy preceding duodenal biopsy and controls undergoing duodenal biopsies; group B, coeliac disease preceding polyneuropathy. Patients with cerebellar ataxia, small fibre neuropathy, or a cause for their neuropathy were excluded. Results: In 425 of the 478 patients, a cause other than coeliac disease was established. In the patients with no determined cause for neuropathy, one had abnormally increased IgA antigliadin antibodies but duodenal biopsy was normal. Ten previous studies of patients with chronic peripheral neuropathies were reviewed. The incidence of biopsy proven coeliac disease in patients with polyneuropathy did not differ from the controls (group A). In patients with a proven coeliac disease (group B), polyneuropathy could not be diagnosed more often than in the general population. Conclusions: The results of both the clinical study and the literature review suggest that it is unlikely that chronic peripheral neuropathy without other neurological signs is associated with coeliac disease. PMID:16170088

Rosenberg, N; Vermeulen, M

2005-01-01

338

Carcinoma associated paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathies in patients with and without anti-onconeural antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVEWhen to suspect a paraneoplastic disorder is a puzzling problem that has not recently been studied in a large series of patients referred for peripheral neuropathy.METHODSFrom 422 consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy, 26 were analysed who concomitantly had carcinoma but no tumorous infiltration, drug toxicity, or cachexia. Their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological data were analysed according to the presence of

Jean-Christophe Antoine; Jean-François Mosnier; Léna Absi; Philippe Convers; Jérôme Honnorat; Daniel Michel

1999-01-01

339

[Two cases of medicinal treatment of diabetic post treatment painful neuropathy].  

PubMed

Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common, difficult-to-manage complication of diabetes. We report two case of intractable painful diabetic neuropathy which occurred after the rapid lowering of blood sugar level. Although pregabalin, antidepressants, opioid analgetics and various nerve block did not improve their pain, clomipramine dramatically reduced their pain. PMID:24498768

Yanaki, Masashi; Iwade, Motoyo; Yamagata, Katsuyuki; Hamada, Keiko; Ozaki, Kyoko; Higuchi, Hideyuki; Ozaki, Makoto

2013-12-01

340

Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters  

E-print Network

577 Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters Jennie E of Chicago. All rights reserved. 1522-2152/2003/7604-2092$15.00 Introduction Production of melatonin (Mel is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel

Zucker, Irving

341

Investigating the Role of Score Following in Automatic Musical Accompaniment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When suitable accompanists are not available to a soloist musician, an alternative possibility is to use computer-generated accompaniment. A computer accompanist should interact with the soloist and adapt to the soloist's playing as a human accompanist would, both reacting to expressive nuances of tempo and to unintentional errors such as wrong or mistimed notes. Over the past 25 years, accompaniment

Anna Jordanous; Alan Smaill

2009-01-01

342

Etiologic Spectrum of Biopsy-Proven Peripheral Neuropathies in Childhood from a Resource-Poor Setting.  

PubMed

There are only a few studies describing the etiologic spectrum of biopsy-proven peripheral neuropathies in children. This study reviewed the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathologic profile of 239 children (?18 years of age) who have undergone nerve biopsy in a tertiary care centre for neurologic disorders and analyzed the etiologic spectrum and utility of nerve biopsy. The clinical profile, neuropathologic findings, and other investigations were combined to infer the final diagnosis. Neuropathy was detected in 199 biopsies; axonal pathology in 43%; demyelination in 41%; mixed pattern in 8%; and nonspecific findings in 8%. The major diagnostic categories included hereditary neuropathies (48%), heredodegenerative and metabolic disorders (27%), and inflammatory neuropathies (12%). Nerve biopsy proved most helpful in diagnosis of demyelinating and inflammatory neuropathies, reiterating its usefulness in specific situations. PMID:25038122

Krishnan, Pramod; Mahadevan, Anita; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Taly, Arun B

2014-07-17

343

Therapy-related peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma patients.  

PubMed

This review discusses the most common issues concerning multiple myeloma (MM)-related peripheral neuropathy (PN). This is an important MM complication, observed in up to 54% of newly diagnosed patients, caused by the disease itself or its treatment. Although its aetiology is largely unknown, a number of mechanisms are suspected. It is important to know the neurological status of a patient, as many new antimyeloma medicines can trigger or exacerbate any pre-existing neuropathy. Examples include thalidomide-induced and bortezomib-induced PN (TiPN and BiTN, respectively), which are key MM treatment options. TiPN is usually sensory and sensorimotor, whereas BiPN is typically sensory. The mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity in MM are well known; thalidomide seems to induce PN through its antiangiogenic properties, whereas bortezomib neurotoxicity is connected with disrupted calcium homeostasis. TiPN incidence ranges from 25% to 75%, and its prevalence and severity appears to be dose-dependent. BiPN incidence is almost 40% and is dose-related as well. Poor (25%) reversibility of TiPN prompted the recommendations for dose and exposure reduction, whereas BiPN cases are mostly reversible (64%). Peripheral sensory neuropathy is very rare in patients receiving bendamustine monotherapy. Because of this favourable toxicity profile, bendamustine may be considered a promising option for combination therapies in pre-existing PN in myeloma patients. Considering the lack of curative therapy for treatment-emergent PN, prevention is a key management strategy in MM patients. All patients should be evaluated for PN before the administration of a neurotoxic drug, and those under treatment should be closely monitored by a neurologist. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25399783

Morawska, Marta; Grzasko, Norbert; Kostyra, Magdalena; Wojciechowicz, Jolanta; Hus, Marek

2014-11-14

344

Explosive Nucleosynthesis in GRB Jets Accompanied by Hypernovae  

E-print Network

Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a collapsar using the model of MacFadyen and Woosley (1999). It is shown that 56Ni is not produced in the jet of the collapsar sufficiently to explain the observed amount of a hypernova when the duration of the explosion is \\sim 10 sec, which is considered to be the typical timescale of explosion in the collapsar model. Even though a considerable amount of 56Ni is synthesized if all explosion energy is deposited initially, the opening angles of the jets become too wide to realize highly relativistic outflows and gamma-ray bursts in such a case. From these results, it is concluded that the origin of 56Ni in hypernovae associated with GRBs is not the explosive nucleosynthesis in the jet. We consider that the idea that the origin is the explosive nucleosynthesis in the accretion disk is more promising. We also show that the explosion becomes bi-polar naturally due to the effect of the deformed progenitor. This fact suggests that the 56Ni synthesized in the accretion disk and conveyed as outflows are blown along to the rotation axis, which will explain the line features of SN 1998bw and double peaked line features of SN 2003jd. Some fraction of the gamma-ray lines from 56Ni decays in the jet will appear without losing their energies because the jet becomes optically thin before a considerable amount of 56Ni decays as long as the jet is a relativistic flow. We show that abundance of nuclei whose mass number \\sim 40 in the ejecta depends sensitively on the energy deposition rate. So it may be determined by observations of chemical composition in metal poor stars which model is the proper one as a model of a gamma-ray burst accompanied by a hypernova.

Shigehiro Nagataki; Akira Mizuta; Katsuhiko Sato

2006-05-11

345

Reversible abnormalities of the Hering Breuer reflex in acrylamide neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

The sensitivity of the Hering Breuer reflex was compared in anaesthetised rabbits before, during and after the induction of acrylamide neuropathy, and was measured as the tracheal pressure which produced 30 seconds of apnoea. After four weeks of acrylamide (400 mg/kg total dose) there was ataxia and the conduction velocity of hindlimb motor nerves was significantly reduced. At this time there was a marked and reproducible reduction in the sensitivity of the Hering Breuer reflex. The ataxia resolved within a month of stopping acrylamide administration. Three months after the cessation of acrylamide the sensitivity of the Hering Breuer reflex had increased significantly but had not returned to normal. PMID:2993526

Satchell, P

1985-01-01

346

Pentazocine-induced fibrous myopathy and localized neuropathy.  

PubMed

A 47 year-old woman who had a 4-year history of intramuscular pentazocine injections in the lower extremities, developed gradual stiffness and weakness of the lower extremities. The thigh and buttock muscles were "wooden-hard" on palpation. The skin was hard, shiny and hairless. Associated clinical and electrophysiological polyradiculopathy and multiple mononeuropathy of the lower extremities were observed. Imaging studies showed calcification and fibrosis of the involved muscles. Muscle biopsy revealed fibrous myopathy. Caution in longterm usage and early recognition of pentazocine toxicity as a neuromuscular complication are important in order to prevent irreversible drug-induced fibrous myopathy and localized neuropathy. PMID:9737132

Sinsawaiwong, S; Phanthumchinda, K

1998-09-01

347

Anti-histone antibodies in subacute sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

We investigated the levels of anti-histone antibodies in the sera of 7 patients with subacute sensory neuropathy. IgG antibodies to histones H1 and H3 were significantly elevated in 4 of these patients. The anti-H1 antibodies reacted mainly with determinants located in the central globular and the carboxy-terminal domain of the H1 molecule. We also observed reactivity of these sera with histone H1 zero, a variant found in terminally-differentiated cells such as neurons. This study suggests a potential for histones to serve as autoantigens in humorally-mediated paraneoplastic diseases. PMID:1655989

Monestier, M; Fasy, T M; Bohm, L; Lieberman, F S

1991-08-01

348

What's new in common upper extremity entrapment neuropathies.  

PubMed

Upper extremity entrapment neuropathies are common and disabling, and correct diagnosis is essential for proper management. This article is a review of the recent developments related to diagnosis and treatment of common upper extremity nerve entrapments, including novel treatment strategies for suprascapular, median, ulnar, and radial nerve entrapments. When combined with classic peripheral nerve examination techniques, innovations in imaging modalities have led to more reliable diagnoses. Innovations in surgical techniques, such as endoscopic approaches, have been controversial as to their effects on patient outcome, but recent randomized controlled trials have provided important information regarding common operative techniques, particularly with regard to carpal tunnel surgery and ulnar nerve transpositions. PMID:19010282

Toussaint, Charles P; Zager, Eric L

2008-10-01

349

Control of uremic neuropathy by equilibrium peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNVC) and distal motor latencies times (DMLT) were evaluated both in upper and lower limbs in three groups of 15 patients of comparable age, treated respectively by extracorporeal dialysis (HD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and combined peritoneal dialysis (CPD) for comparable sufficiently long periods. Moreover, MNCV was monitored longitudinally in two groups of patients shifted from CAPD to HD and vice versa. The results show a significant superiority of peritoneal dialysis and particularly of CAPD with respect to HD in controlling uremic neuropathy. PMID:6329962

Buoncristiani, U; Mazzotta, G; Carobi, C; Gallai, V; Cozzari, M; Di Paolo, N N

1984-03-01

350

Ischaemic neuropathy of the lumbosacral plexus following intragluteal injection.  

PubMed Central

A lesion of the lumbo sacral plexus may result from an inadvertent intra-arterial injection of vasotoxic drugs into one of the gluteal arteries. Symptoms and follow-up of three cases are reported. The neuropathy is attributed to a toxic endarteritis with retrograde propagation of spasm and thrombosis. Swelling an bluish discoloration of the buttocks ("embolia cutis medicamentosa") as well as an impaired circulation in the homolateral leg are associated with the neurological syndrome in fully developed cases and makes possible a correct diagnosis. Images PMID:7205289

Stöhr, M; Dichgans, J; Dörstelmann

1980-01-01

351

Disease associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents: peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule its proposal to amend its adjudication regulations by clarifying and expanding the terminology regarding presumptive service connection for acute and subacute peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents. This amendment implements a decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs based on findings from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine report, Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2010. It also amends VA's regulation governing retroactive awards for certain diseases associated with herbicide exposure as required by court orders in the class action litigation of Nehmer v. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:24040683

2013-09-01

352

Restless Leg Syndrome in Different Types of Demyelinating Neuropathies: A Single-Center Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: to determine the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a cohort of patients with demyelinating neuropathies. Methods: Patients were retrospectively recruited from our cohort of different forms of demyelinating neuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A), and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) referred to our Department of Neurology in a 10-year period. The validated 4-item RLS questionnaire was used for diagnosis of RLS. All patients with RLS who fulfilled criteria underwent a suggested immobilization test to confirm the diagnosis. A group of outpatients referred to the sleep disorders unit and data from published literature were used as controls. Results: Prevalence of RLS in demyelinating neuropathy group was higher than prevalence observed in control population (p = 0.0142) or in the literature data (p = 0.0007). In particular, in comparison with both control population and literature data, prevalence of RLS was higher in CIDP group (p = 0.0266 and p = 0.0063, respectively) and in CMT1A group (p = 0.0312 and p = 0.0105, respectively), but not in HNPP (p = 1.000 and p = 0.9320, respectively). Conclusions: our study confirms a high prevalence of RLS in inflammatory neuropathies as CIDP and, among inherited neuropathies, in CMT1A but not in HNPP. Considering that this is only a small cohort from a single-center retrospective experience, the link between RLS and neuropathy remains uncertain, and larger multicenter studies are probably needed to clarify the real meaning of the association between RLS and neuropathy. Citation: Luigetti M; Del Grande A; Testani E; Bisogni G; Losurdo A; Giannantoni NM; Mazza S; Sabatelli M; Della Marca G. Restless leg syndrome in different types of demyelinating neuropathies: a single-center pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):945-949. PMID:23997707

Luigetti, Marco; Del Grande, Alessandra; Testani, Elisa; Bisogni, Giulia; Losurdo, Anna; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Mazza, Salvatore; Sabatelli, Mario; Della Marca, Giacomo

2013-01-01

353

Expanding the phenotype of PRPS1 syndromes in females: neuropathy, hearing loss and retinopathy.  

PubMed

BackgroundPhosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) I deficiency is a rare medical condition caused by missense mutations in PRPS1 that lead to three different phenotypes: Arts Syndrome (MIM 301835), X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMTX5, MIM 311070) or X-linked non-syndromic sensorineural deafness (DFN2, MIM 304500). All three are X-linked recessively inherited and males affected display variable degree of central and peripheral neuropathy. We applied whole exome sequencing to a three-generation family with optic atrophy followed by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in all three cases, and ataxia, progressive peripheral neuropathy and hearing loss with variable presentation.MethodsWhole exome sequencing was performed in two affecteds and one unaffected member of the family. Sanger sequencing was used to validate and segregate the 12 candidate mutations in the family and to confirm the absence of the novel variant in PRPS1 in 191 controls. The pathogenic role of the novel mutation in PRPS1 was assessed in silico and confirmed by enzymatic determination of PRS activity, mRNA expression and sequencing, and X-chromosome inactivation.ResultsA novel missense mutation was identified in PRPS1 in the affected females. Age of onset, presentation and severity of the phenotype are highly variable in the family: both the proband and her mother have neurological and ophthalmological symptoms, whereas the phenotype of the affected sister is milder and currently confined to the eye. Moreover, only the proband displayed a complete lack of expression of the wild type allele in leukocytes that seems to correlate with the degree of PRS deficiency and the severity of the phenotype. Interestingly, optic atrophy and RP are the only common manifestations to all three females and the only phenotype correlating with the degree of enzyme deficiency.ConclusionsThese results are in line with recent evidence of the existence of intermediate phenotypes in PRS-I deficiency syndromes and demonstrate that females can exhibit a disease phenotype as severe and complex as their male counterparts. PMID:25491489

Almoguera, Berta; He, Sijie; Corton, Marta; Fernandez-San Jose, Patricia; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; López-Molina, Maria; García-Sandoval, Blanca; Del Val, Javier; Guo, Yiran; Tian, Lifeng; Liu, Xuanzhu; Guan, Liping; Torres, Rosa J; Puig, Juan G; Hakonarson, Hakon; Xu, Xun; Keating, Brendan; Ayuso, Carmen

2014-12-10

354

Optic atrophy after sildenafil use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt has been well-reported that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, originally investigated for their effect on smooth muscles and now used widely in treatment of erectile dysfunction, can cause mild transient visual disturbances because of their action on inhibiting enzymes involved in retinal transduction. Recently, these medications have been associated with the development of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAAION) with attendant

Joseph W. Sowka; Maryke N. Neiberg; Lori A. Vollmer

2007-01-01

355

Carcinoma associated paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathies in patients with and without anti-onconeural antibodies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—When to suspect a paraneoplastic disorder is a puzzling problem that has not recently been studied in a large series of patients referred for peripheral neuropathy.?METHODS—From 422 consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy, 26 were analysed who concomitantly had carcinoma but no tumorous infiltration, drug toxicity, or cachexia. Their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological data were analysed according to the presence of anti-onconeural antibodies, the latency between presentation and cancer diagnosis, and the incidence of carcinoma in the corresponding types of neuropathy of the population of 422patients.?RESULTS—Seven patients (group I) had anti-onconeural antibodies (six anti-Hu, one anti-CV2) and 19 did not (groups IIA and B). In group I, subacute sensory neuropathy (SSN) was the most frequent but other neuropathies including demyelinating neuropathies were present. Patients in group II A had a short latency (mean 7.88months), and a rapidly and usually severe neuropathy which corresponded in 11/14 to an established inflammatory disorder including neuropathy with encephalomyelitis, mononeuritis multiplex, and acute or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients in group IIB had a long latency (mean 8.4 years) and a very chronic disorder corresponding in four of five to an axonal non-inflammatory polyneuropathy. In this population, the incidence of carcinoma occurring with a short latency was 47% in sensory neuronopathy, 1.7% in Guillain-Barré syndrome, 10% in mononeuritis multiplex and CIDP, and 4.5% in axonal polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSIONS—Paraneoplastic neuropathies associated with carcinoma are heterogeneous disorders. Neuropathies occurring with a long latency with tumours probably resulted from a coincidental association. Neuropathies which occurred within a few years of the tumour evolved rapidly and corresponded mostly to inflammatory disorders. As dysimmune neuropathies are probably paraneoplastic in a limited number of cases, patients with these disorders should probably not be investigated systematically for carcinoma in the absence of anti-onconeural antibodies, except when the neuropathy is associated with encephalomyelitis and probably with vasculitis. Questions remain concerning CIDP.?? PMID:10369814

Antoine, J.; Mosnier, J.; Absi, L.; Convers, P.; Honnorat, J.; Michel, D.

1999-01-01

356

Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Presentations, Mechanisms, and Exercise Therapy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a frequent complication of diabetes and a major cause of morbidity and increased mortality. It is typically characterized by significant deficits in tactile sensitivity, vibration sense, lower-limb proprioception, and kinesthesia. Painful diabetic neuropathy (P-DPN) is a common phenotype of DPN that affects up to one-third of the general diabetic population. P-DPN has been shown to be associated with significant reductions in overall quality of life, increased levels of anxiety and depression, sleep impairment, and greater gait variability. The purpose of this review is to examine proposed mechanisms of P-DPN, summarize current treatment regimen, and assess exercise as a potential therapy for P-PDN. Although exercise has been shown to be an effective therapeutic modality for diabetes, its specific effects on DPN and especially the painful phenotype have not been sufficiently investigated in current literature. Several rodent models and clinical trials have presented promising results in this area, and warrant further investigations examining the effect of exercise on P-DPN. PMID:25360348

Yoo, Min; Sharma, Neena; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Kluding, Patricia M

2013-01-01

357

Multifocal motor neuropathy: a review of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment  

PubMed Central

Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is an uncommon, purely motor neuropathy associated with asymmetric deficits with predilection for upper limb involvement. Even in the early descriptions of MMN, the associations of anti-GM1 antibodies and robust response to immunomodulatory treatment were recognized. These features highlight the likelihood of an underlying autoimmune etiology of MMN. The clinical presentation of MMN can closely mimic several neurological conditions including those with more malignant prognoses such as motor neuron disease. Therefore early and rapid recognition of MMN is critical. Serological evidence of anti GM-1 antibodies and electrodiagnostic findings of conduction block are helpful diagnostic clues for MMN. Importantly, these diagnostic features are not universally present, and patients lacking these characteristic findings can demonstrate similar robust response to immunodulatory treatment. In the current review, recent research in the areas of diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of MMN and needs for the future are discussed. The characteristic findings of MMN and treatment implications are reviewed and contrasted with other mimicking disorders. PMID:24741315

Lawson, Victoria H; Arnold, W David

2014-01-01

358

Pathological features of ganglioradiculitis (sensory neuropathy) in two dogs.  

PubMed

Canine ganglioradiculitis (sensory neuropathy) was examined pathologically in two dogs (dog Nos. 1 and 2). The affected dogs had 1 and 2 years clinical courses from the onset, respectively. As common clinical signs, both cases showed progressive ataxia, difficulty in prehending food, visual deficit, and several sensory abnormalities. Gross observation after tissue fixation revealed whitish discoloration in the dorsal column of the spinal cords. The histological lesions were mainly distributed in the spinal dorsal roots, ganglions, and dorsal columns. In the spinal dorsal roots and ganglions, there were striking myelin loss, mild infiltration of mononuclear cells, and proliferation of small spindle cells. In the dorsal funiculus, there were moderate to severe diffuse myelin-loss and axonal degeneration. Immunohistochemistry for substance P (SP) revealed marked reduction of SP-immunopositive granules in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of affected dogs. By immunohistochemistry, CD3-positive cells were observed in the dorsal roots of dog No. 2, while CD3-positive cells were rare in those of dog No. 1. In the spinal ganglion of dog No. 1 there were many CD3- and MHC class II-positive cells. By indirect immunofluorescence assay using sera from affected dogs, no autoantibodies against canine nerve tissues were detected. The clinicopathological features of the present cases are almost consistent with those in previous reports of canine sensory neuropathies, while the etiology remains unclear. PMID:18176020

Funamoto, Miwako; Nibe, Kazumi; Morozumi, Motoji; Edamura, Kazuya; Uchida, Kazuyuki

2007-12-01

359

Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an often overlooked and common complication of diabetes mellitus. CAN is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of CAN is complex and involves a cascade of pathways activated by hyperglycaemia resulting in neuronal ischaemia and cellular death. In addition, autoimmune and genetic factors are involved in the development of CAN. CAN might be subclinical for several years until the patient develops resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, postural hypotension, cardiac dysfunction and diabetic cardiomyopathy. During its sub-clinical phase, heart rate variability that is influenced by the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic tones can help in detecting CAN before the disease is symptomatic. Newer imaging techniques (such as scintigraphy) have allowed earlier detection of CAN in the pre-clinical phase and allowed better assessment of the sympathetic nervous system. One of the main difficulties in CAN research is the lack of a universally accepted definition of CAN; however, the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy has recently issued guidance for the diagnosis and staging of CAN, and also proposed screening for CAN in patients with diabetes mellitus. A major challenge, however, is the lack of specific treatment to slow the progression or prevent the development of CAN. Lifestyle changes, improved metabolic control might prevent or slow the progression of CAN. Reversal will require combination of these treatments with new targeted therapeutic approaches. The aim of this article is to review the latest evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, manifestations, diagnosis and treatment for CAN. PMID:24567799

Dimitropoulos, Gerasimos; Tahrani, Abd A; Stevens, Martin J

2014-02-15

360

Pilot study of pyridostigmine in constipated patients with autonomic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase colonic motility in health, on chronic constipation are unknown. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors for dysautonomia and chronic constipation and to assess whether acute effects could predict the long term response. Methods In this single-blind study, 10 patients with autonomic neuropathy and constipation were treated with placebo (2 weeks), followed by an escalating dose of pyridostigmine to the maximum tolerated dose (i.e., 180–540 mg daily) for 6 weeks. Symptoms and gastrointestinal transit were assessed at 2 and 8 weeks. The acute effects of neostigmine on colonic transit and motility were also assessed. Results At baseline, 4, 6, and 3 patients had delayed gastric, small intestinal, and colonic transit respectively. Pyridostigmine was well tolerated in most patients, improved symptoms in 4 patients, and accelerated the geometric center for colonic transit at 24 h by ?0.7 unit in 3 patients. The effects of i.v. neostigmine on colonic transit and compliance predicted (P < 0.05) the effects of pyridostigmine on colonic transit. Conclusions Pyridostigmine improves colonic transit and symptoms in some patients with autonomic neuropathy and constipation. The motor response to neostigmine predicted the response to oral pyridostigmine. PMID:18622640

Bharucha, Adil E.; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; Low, Phillip A.; Gehrking, Tonette L.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

2008-01-01

361

Suprascapular neuropathy. Results of non-operative treatment.  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed the results of non-operative treatment of suprascapular neuropathy in fifteen patients seen between November 1983 and February 1991. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed with electrodiagnostic studies. The treatment consisted of a program of physical therapy to improve the range of motion of the shoulder and to strengthen the surrounding muscles. The average duration of follow-up was three years and eleven months (range, one year to eight years and ten months). The latest evaluation included electrodiagnostic studies of the affected extremity and dynamic isokinetic testing of both upper extremities. The result was excellent for five patients and good for seven. The three remaining patients had operative treatment because of persistent symptoms; one of these patients had an excellent result, one had a good result, and one had a poor result. The results suggest that, in the absence of a well defined lesion producing mechanical compression of the suprascapular nerve, suprascapular neuropathy should be treated non-operatively. PMID:9278075

Martin, S D; Warren, R F; Martin, T L; Kennedy, K; O'Brien, S J; Wickiewicz, T L

1997-08-01

362

Animal Models of Diabetic Neuropathy: Progress Since 1960s  

PubMed Central

Diabetic or peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is one of the major complications among some other diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. The use of animal models in the research of diabetes and diabetic complications is very common when rats and mice are most commonly used for many reasons. A numbers of animal models of diabetic and PDN have been developed in the last several decades such as streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models, conventional or genetically modified or high-fat diet-fed C57BL/Ks (db/db) mice models, streptozotocin-induced C57BL6/J and ddY mice models, Chinese hamster neuropathic model, rhesus monkey PDN model, spontaneously diabetic WBN/Kob rat model, L-fucose-induced neropathic rat model, partial sciatic nerve ligated rat model, nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice model, spontaneously induced Ins2 Akita mice model, leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice model, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model, surgically-induced neuropathic model, and genetically modified Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat model, none of which are without limitations. An animal model of diabetic or PDN should mimic the all major pathogeneses of human diabetic neuropathy. Hence, this review comparatively evaluates the animal models of diabetic and PDN which are developed since 1960s with their advantages and disadvantages to help diabetic research groups in order to more accurately choose an appropriate model to meet their specific research objectives. PMID:23984428

Islam, Md. Shahidul

2013-01-01

363

Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an often overlooked and common complication of diabetes mellitus. CAN is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of CAN is complex and involves a cascade of pathways activated by hyperglycaemia resulting in neuronal ischaemia and cellular death. In addition, autoimmune and genetic factors are involved in the development of CAN. CAN might be subclinical for several years until the patient develops resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, postural hypotension, cardiac dysfunction and diabetic cardiomyopathy. During its sub-clinical phase, heart rate variability that is influenced by the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic tones can help in detecting CAN before the disease is symptomatic. Newer imaging techniques (such as scintigraphy) have allowed earlier detection of CAN in the pre-clinical phase and allowed better assessment of the sympathetic nervous system. One of the main difficulties in CAN research is the lack of a universally accepted definition of CAN; however, the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy has recently issued guidance for the diagnosis and staging of CAN, and also proposed screening for CAN in patients with diabetes mellitus. A major challenge, however, is the lack of specific treatment to slow the progression or prevent the development of CAN. Lifestyle changes, improved metabolic control might prevent or slow the progression of CAN. Reversal will require combination of these treatments with new targeted therapeutic approaches. The aim of this article is to review the latest evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, manifestations, diagnosis and treatment for CAN. PMID:24567799

Dimitropoulos, Gerasimos; Tahrani, Abd A; Stevens, Martin J

2014-01-01

364

Sympathetic Blocks Provided Sustained Pain Relief in a Patient with Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients. PMID:22606406

Cheng, Jianguo; Daftari, Anuj; Zhou, Lan

2012-01-01

365

Long-term neuropathy after regional isolated perfusion with melphalan for melanoma of the limbs.  

PubMed

The incidence of long-term (> or = 3 months) neuropathy in 350 melanoma patients treated with single normothermic or 'mild' hyperthermic perfusion with melphalan in the period 1978 to 1990 was studied. Long-term neuropathy was encountered in 14 patients; in 10/51 patients (20%) after perfusion at the axillary level and in 4/247 patients (2%) after perfusion at the iliac level. After brachial and femoro-popliteal perfusions no long-term neuropathy was observed. Neuropathy, mainly consisting of paresis/paralysis of the hand and/or fingers, anaesthesia, and/or paraesthesiae, improved over a mean period of 16 (3-43) months in eight patients, but three patients still had serious neuropathy one year after perfusion. In another six patients little improvement was seen and four died with permanent neuropathy. Acute regional toxicity after perfusion and the application of 'mild' hyperthermia did not seem to influence the incidence of long-term neuropathy. This complication is probably a result of the isolating Esmarch rubber bandage being applied too tightly during perfusion at a proximal level. At the axillary level, where the brachial plexus lacks the protection from enveloping tissues, nerve damage is especially prone to occur. We recommend applying this bandage no tighter than is necessary to maintain the isolation of the circuit. This implies meticulous surgical isolation of the vascular system and accurate monitoring of leakage. PMID:7995421

Vrouenraets, B C; Eggermont, A M; Klaase, J M; Van Geel, B N; Van Dongen, J A; Kroon, B B

1994-12-01

366

245NASA FY 2011 Performance and Accountability Report Other Accompanying  

E-print Network

245NASA FY 2011 Performance and Accountability Report Other Accompanying Information Office of Inspector General Letter on NASA's Top Management and Performance Challenges 247 FY 2011 Inspector General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 NASA's Audit Follow-up Program

367

Map accompanies a series of letters regarding modifications to the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Map accompanies a series of letters regarding modifications to the Aurora shops written during the later portion of 1878. Aurora shop scale 50 - 1' - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

368

Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes: an acute, iatrogenic complication of diabetes.  

PubMed

Treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes (also referred to as insulin neuritis) is considered a rare iatrogenic small fibre neuropathy caused by an abrupt improvement in glycaemic control in the setting of chronic hyperglycaemia. The prevalence and risk factors of this disorder are not known. In a retrospective review of all individuals referred to a tertiary care diabetic neuropathy clinic over 5 years, we define the proportion of individuals that present with and the risk factors for development of treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes. Nine hundred and fifty-four individuals were evaluated for a possible diabetic neuropathy. Treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes was defined as the acute onset of neuropathic pain and/or autonomic dysfunction within 8 weeks of a large improvement in glycaemic control-specified as a decrease in glycosylated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) of ?2% points over 3 months. Detailed structured neurologic examinations, glucose control logs, pain scores, autonomic symptoms and other microvascular complications were measured every 3-6 months for the duration of follow-up. Of 954 patients evaluated for diabetic neuropathy, 104/954 subjects (10.9%) met criteria for treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes with an acute increase in neuropathic or autonomic symptoms or signs coinciding with a substantial decrease in HbA1c. Individuals with a decrease in HbA1c had a much greater risk of developing a painful or autonomic neuropathy than those individuals with no change in HbA1c (P < 0.001), but also had a higher risk of developing retinopathy (P < 0.001) and microalbuminuria (P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between the magnitude of decrease in HbA1c, the severity of neuropathic pain (R = 0.84, P < 0.001), the degree of parasympathetic dysfunction (R = -0.52, P < 0.01) and impairment of sympathetic adrenergic function as measured by fall in blood pressure on tilt-table testing (R = -0.63, P < 0.001). With a decrease in HbA1c of 2-3% points over 3 months there was a 20% absolute risk of developing treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes, with a decrease in HbA1c of >4% points over 3 months the absolute risk of developing treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes exceeded 80%. Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes is an underestimated iatrogenic disorder associated with diffuse microvascular complications. Rapid glycaemic change in patients with uncontrolled diabetes increases the risk of this complication. PMID:25392197

Gibbons, Christopher H; Freeman, Roy

2014-11-11

369

Motor Branch Biopsy of the Pronator Teres Muscle in a Patient with Painful Forearm Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Histological evaluation of a peripheral nerve is often the final diagnostic work-up for a neuropathy of unknown origin, and a distal sensory nerve is usually biopsied. Here, we report the case of a female patient with painful unilateral neuropathy in the upper arm. According to the histological evaluation of the pronator teres motor branch, vasculitis seemed to be the most probable cause of the condition, and steroid therapy improved the patients’ symptoms. A biopsy of the motor branch of the pronator teres muscle nerve may be considered a valuable diagnostic option in selected cases with neuropathy affecting the upper limb, when performed in cooperation with neurologists and orthopedic surgeons. PMID:25232332

Kinoshita, Tomomi; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Abe, Ryu-ta; Ogawa, Yuka; Nakagawa, Michitaka; Katoh, Nagaaki; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

2014-01-01

370

The peripheral neuropathy evaluation in an office-based neurology setting.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neuromuscular disorder encountered in a neurologic practice. The evaluation of patients with suspected peripheral neuropathy can be a challenging endeavor for the neurologist. Determining the pattern of clinical involvement and the nerve modalities affected can help to generate a differential diagnosis and design an approach to determine a potential cause. The combination of clinical features, electrodiagnostic testing, and ancillary laboratory studies may be used to determine the etiology. As the most common acquired etiology of peripheral neuropathy is diabetes, careful testing for impaired glucose metabolism is an important part of any diagnostic evaluation. PMID:21321837

Vavra, Michael W; Rubin, Devon I

2011-02-01

371

Complete Fatty infiltration of intact rotator cuffs caused by suprascapular neuropathy.  

PubMed

Suprascapular neuropathy is generally considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion, although it has been described in association with several activities and conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first description of suprascapular neuropathy with complete neurogenic fatty replacement in patients with intact rotator cuff tendons in the absence of traction or compression mechanisms. We present 4 cases of patients who presented with complete fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus (1 patient), infraspinatus (2 patients), and both (1 patient) resulting from suprascapular neuropathy. Each of these patients underwent arthroscopic suprascapular nerve decompression and subsequently had immediate improvement in pain and subjective shoulder value. PMID:24630957

Leclere, Lance E; Shi, Lewis L; Lin, Albert; Yannopoulos, Paul; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P

2014-05-01

372

Loudness adaptation accompanying ribbon synapse and auditory nerve disorders.  

PubMed

Abnormal auditory adaptation is a standard clinical tool for diagnosing auditory nerve disorders due to acoustic neuromas. In the present study we investigated auditory adaptation in auditory neuropathy owing to disordered function of inner hair cell ribbon synapses (temperature-sensitive auditory neuropathy) or auditory nerve fibres. Subjects were tested when afebrile for (i) psychophysical loudness adaptation to comfortably-loud sustained tones; and (ii) physiological adaptation of auditory brainstem responses to clicks as a function of their position in brief 20-click stimulus trains (#1, 2, 3 … 20). Results were compared with normal hearing listeners and other forms of hearing impairment. Subjects with ribbon synapse disorder had abnormally increased magnitude of loudness adaptation to both low (250 Hz) and high (8000 Hz) frequency tones. Subjects with auditory nerve disorders had normal loudness adaptation to low frequency tones; all but one had abnormal adaptation to high frequency tones. Adaptation was both more rapid and of greater magnitude in ribbon synapse than in auditory nerve disorders. Auditory brainstem response measures of adaptation in ribbon synapse disorder showed Wave V to the first click in the train to be abnormal both in latency and amplitude, and these abnormalities increased in magnitude or Wave V was absent to subsequent clicks. In contrast, auditory brainstem responses in four of the five subjects with neural disorders were absent to every click in the train. The fifth subject had normal latency and abnormally reduced amplitude of Wave V to the first click and abnormal or absent responses to subsequent clicks. Thus, dysfunction of both synaptic transmission and auditory neural function can be associated with abnormal loudness adaptation and the magnitude of the adaptation is significantly greater with ribbon synapse than neural disorders. PMID:23503620

Wynne, Dwight P; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Bhatt, Shrutee; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Starr, Arnold

2013-05-01

373

Impairment, disability, or handicap in peripheral neuropathy: analysis of the use of outcome measures in clinical trials in patients with peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed Central

Outcome measures can be classified into measures of impairment, disability, and handicap. To investigate the biological effect of treatment, measures of impairment are appropriate. Studies investigating whether patients benefit from treatment in terms of improvement of functional health, however, require disability or handicap measures. In a review of the medical literature between 1978 and 1993, 73 controlled intervention studies in patients with peripheral neuropathies were found. Disability or handicap measures were used in two of 54 studies in patients with diabetic neuropathy, in two of six studies in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, in none of five studies in a mixed group of patients, and in all eight studies in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The limited use of disability and handicap measures in patients with diabetic and mixed neuropathies can be explained by the experimental nature of most studies. In four of six studies, however, in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy or neuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy that were designed to assess effectiveness of treatment, the choice of outcome measures was not appropriate. It is concluded that in the design of intervention studies in patients with peripheral neuropathy more attention should be paid to a proper choice of suitable outcome measures to assess the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:7629531

Molenaar, D S; de Haan, R; Vermeulen, M

1995-01-01

374

?-Tubulin mutations that cause severe neuropathies disrupt axonal transport  

PubMed Central

Microtubules are fundamental to neuronal morphogenesis and function. Mutations in tubulin, the major constituent of microtubules, result in neuronal diseases. Here, we have analysed ?-tubulin mutations that cause neuronal diseases and we have identified mutations that strongly inhibit axonal transport of vesicles and mitochondria. These mutations are in the H12 helix of ?-tubulin and change the negative charge on the surface of the microtubule. This surface is the interface between microtubules and kinesin superfamily motor proteins (KIF). The binding of axonal transport KIFs to microtubules is dominant negatively disrupted by these mutations, which alters the localization of KIFs in neurons and inhibits axon elongation in vivo. In humans, these mutations induce broad neurological symptoms, such as loss of axons in the central nervous system and peripheral neuropathy. Thus, our data identified the critical region of ?-tubulin required for axonal transport and suggest a molecular mechanism for human neuronal diseases caused by tubulin mutations. PMID:23503589

Niwa, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Hironori; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

2013-01-01

375

Autoantibodies to neurofascin-186 and gliomedin in multifocal motor neuropathy.  

PubMed

We tested autoantibodies to neurofascin-186 (NF186) and gliomedin in sera from patients with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN, n=53) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP, n=95) by ELISA. IgG antibodies to NF186 or gliomedin were found in 62% of MMN and 1% of CIDP sera, and IgM antibodies to the same antigens in 12% of MMN and 1% of CIDP sera. These autoantibodies activated complement. Ten percent of the MMN sera without IgM anti-GM1 reactivity had anti-NF186 antibodies. Because NF186 and gliomedin play a crucial role for salutatory conduction, the autoantibodies may contribute to produce motor nerve conduction block and muscle weakness in MMN. PMID:25283719

Notturno, Francesca; Di Febo, Tiziana; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Fernandez Rodriguez, Blanca M; Corti, Davide; Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Carpo, Marinella; De Lauretis, Angelo; Uncini, Antonino

2014-11-15

376

NGLY1 mutation causes neuromotor impairment, intellectual disability, and neuropathy.  

PubMed

N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) is a conserved enzyme that is responsible for the deglycosylation of misfolded N-glycosylated proteins in the cytoplasm prior to their proteasome-mediated degradation. Disruption of this degradation process has been associated with various neurologic diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Here, we describe two siblings with neuromotor impairment, apparent intellectual disability, corneal opacities, and neuropathy who were found to possess a novel homozygous frame-shift mutation due to a 4 base pair deletion in NGLY1 (c.1533_1536delTCAA, p.Asn511LysfsX51). We hypothesize that this mutation likely limits the capability of neuronal cells to respond to stress due to accumulation of misfolded proteins, thereby impairing their survival and resulting in progressive loss of neurological function. PMID:25220016

Caglayan, Ahmet Okay; Comu, Sinan; Baranoski, Jacob F; Parman, Yesim; Kaymakçalan, Hande; Akgumus, Gozde Tugce; Caglar, Caner; Dolen, Duygu; Erson-Omay, Emine Zeynep; Harmanci, Akdes Serin; Mishra-Gorur, Ketu; Freeze, Hudson H; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Bilguvar, Kaya; Gunel, Murat

2015-01-01

377

An unusual case of suprascapular nerve neuropathy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Suprascapular nerve neuropathy constitutes an unusual cause of shoulder weakness, with the most common etiology being nerve compression from a ganglion cyst at the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch. We present a puzzling case of a man with suprascapular nerve neuropathy that may have been associated with an appendectomy. The case was attributed to nerve injury as the most likely cause that may have occurred during improper post-operative patient mobilization. Case presentation A 23-year-old Caucasian man presented to an orthopedic surgeon with a history of left shoulder weakness of several weeks' duration. The patient complained of pain and inability to lift minimal weight, such as a glass of water, following an appendectomy. His orthopedic clinical examination revealed obvious atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 2 of 5 muscle strength scores on flexion resistance and external rotation resistance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse high signal intensity within the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and early signs of minimal fatty infiltration consistent with denervation changes. No compression of the suprascapular nerve in the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch was noted. Electromyographic studies showed active denervation effects in the supraspinatus muscle and more prominent in the left infraspinatus muscle. The findings were compatible with damage to the suprascapular nerve, especially the part supplying the infraspinatus muscle. On the basis of the patient's history, clinical examination, and imaging studies, the diagnosis was suspected to be associated with a possible traction injury of the suprascapular nerve that could have occurred during the patient's transfer from the operating table following an appendectomy. Conclusion Our case report may provide important insight into patient transfer techniques used by hospital personnel, may elucidate the clinical significance of careful movement of patients following general anesthesia, and may have important implications for patient safety techniques, including those outlined in the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist program. PMID:21871073

2011-01-01

378

Suprascapular neuropathy. Variability in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.  

PubMed

The functional outcome of operative and nonoperative treatment of suprascapular neuropathy was compared to determine the preferred method of treatment for each etiology of nerve injury. The predictive value of preoperative electromyography also was studied. Fifty-three patients were evaluated at least 1 year (average, 28 months) from the time of operative (n = 36) or nonoperative (n = 17) treatment. A modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons self-assessment score was obtained at presentation and at final followup. Electromyography data were obtained at initial presentation. Minimal electromyographic changes associated with denervation were associated with a limited response to treatment, especially in patients with nerve compression secondary to spinoglenoid notch cysts. Pretreatment electromyographic findings, therefore, were predictive of treatment response. Overall, operative and nonoperative treatment of these suprascapular nerve injuries resulted in significant functional improvement, but the results varied depending on the etiology of the injury. Spinoglenoid notch cysts responded significantly better to operative treatment, with the results for open surgery being the same as the results for arthroscopic decompression. In addition, compressive lesions attributable to suprascapular notch entrapment had the best improvement with surgical decompression. Traumatic lesions, including traction and direct closed injuries, had an equal response to operative and nonoperative treatment. Overuse injuries did not improve with operative treatment. Viral neuritis improved with nonoperative treatment and never was treated with surgery. Overall, traumatic injuries resulted in significantly worse final outcomes than any other etiologic processes. In the nonoperative group, neuropathy secondary to spinoglenoid cysts resulted in significantly worse function. The outcome of treatment is dependent on the severity and etiology of the nerve injury, and the method of treatment. PMID:11347826

Antoniou, J; Tae, S K; Williams, G R; Bird, S; Ramsey, M L; Iannotti, J P

2001-05-01

379

Conditioned pain modulation predicts duloxetine efficacy in painful diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

This study aims to individualize the selection of drugs for neuropathic pain by examining the potential coupling of a given drug's mechanism of action with the patient's pain modulation pattern. The latter is assessed by the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and temporal summation (TS) protocols. We hypothesized that patients with a malfunctioning pain modulation pattern, such as less efficient CPM, would benefit more from drugs augmenting descending inhibitory pain control than would patients with a normal modulation pattern of efficient CPM. Thirty patients with painful diabetic neuropathy received 1 week of placebo, 1 week of 30 mg/d duloxetine, and 4 weeks of 60 mg/d duloxetine. Pain modulation was assessed psychophysically, both before and at the end of treatment. Patient assessment of drug efficacy, assessed weekly, was the study's primary outcome. Baseline CPM was found to be correlated with duloxetine efficacy (r=0.628, P<.001, efficient CPM is marked negative), such that less efficient CPM predicted efficacious use of duloxetine. Regression analysis (R(2)=0.673; P=.012) showed that drug efficacy was predicted only by CPM (P=.001) and not by pretreatment pain levels, neuropathy severity, depression level, or patient assessment of improvement by placebo. Furthermore, beyond its predictive value, the treatment-induced improvement in CPM was correlated with drug efficacy (r=-0.411, P=.033). However, this improvement occurred only in patients with less efficient CPM (16.8±16.0 to -1.1±15.5, P<.050). No predictive role was found for TS. In conclusion, the coupling of CPM and duloxetine efficacy highlights the importance of pain pathophysiology in the clinical decision-making process. This evaluative approach promotes personalized pain therapy. PMID:22480803

Yarnitsky, David; Granot, Michal; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granovsky, Yelena

2012-06-01

380

Right Calf Claudication Revealing Leriche Syndrome Presenting as Right Sciatic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The syndrome of aortoiliac occlusive disease, also known as Leriche syndrome, is characterized by claudication, pain, and diminished femoral pulse. We highlight an unusual case of right sciatic neuropathy caused by Leriche syndrome, which was initially misdiagnosed. A 52-year-old male, with a past medical history of hypertension and bony fusion of the thoracolumbar spine, visited our hospital complaining of right leg pain and claudication, and was initially diagnosed with spinal stenosis. The following electrophysiologic findings showed right sciatic neuropathy; but his symptom was not relieved, despite medications for neuropathy. A computed tomography angiography of the lower extremities revealed the occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, and bilateral common iliac and right external iliac arteries. All these findings suggested omitted sciatic neuropathy associated with Leriche syndrome, and the patient underwent a bilateral axillo-femoral and femoro-femoral bypass graft. PMID:24639938

Yoon, Do Hyun; Cho, Hyungpil; Seol, Seung Jun

2014-01-01

381

A High-Fat Diet Alters the Phenotype of Diabetic Neuropathy  

E-print Network

Diabetic neuropathy is a principal chronic complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and affects over half of diabetic patients. This debilitating disease presents with a dichotomous phenotype such that affected ...

Guilford, Brianne Lynn

2013-05-31

382

Motor Axonal Neuropathy Associated With Idiopathic CD4+ T-Lymphocytopenia  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia is a rare immune disorder characterized by an unexplained deficit of CD4+ T cells and results in various opportunistic infections. Herein, we report a case of new onset weakness in a 10-year-old boy secondary to motor axonal neuropathy associated with idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia. The patient was referred to rehabilitation for an evaluation of progressive weakness involving all four limbs. A subsequent nerve conduction study and needle electromyography identified motor axonal neuropathy. At that time, laboratory studies specific to the differential diagnosis of motor axonal neuropathy were performed; however, the abnormality noted was a decreased CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. Motor axonal neuropathy represents an uncommon manifestation of idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia and is probably associated with an underlying immune process. PMID:23526179

Yi, Tae Im; Han, In Soo; Kim, Bo Kyoung

2013-01-01

383

Frequency-modulated electromagnetic neural stimulation enhances cutaneous microvascular flow in patients with diabetic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of frequency modulated electromagnetic neural stimulation (FREMS), a recently developed safe and effective treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy, on cutaneous microvascular function.

Morena Conti; Elena Peretti; Giuliana Cazzetta; Gabriella Galimberti; Cristiana Vermigli; Roberto Pola; Luciano Scionti; Emanuele Bosi

2009-01-01

384

Neuropathy and levodopa in Parkinson's disease: evidence from a multicenter study.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the risk of neuropathy in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the role of levodopa exposure as a potential risk factor. A multicenter study of 330 patients with PD and 137 healthy controls with a comparable age distribution was performed. With respect to levodopa exposure, 144 patients had long exposure (? 3 years) to levodopa (LELD), 103 patients had short exposure (<3 years) to levodopa (SELD), and 83 patients had no exposure to levodopa (NOLD). Nerve function was evaluated using the reduced total neuropathy score. Right sural sensory antidromic and peroneal motor nerve conduction studies were performed by neurophysiologists who were blinded to the existence of neuropathy clinical features or PD treatment. Overall, 19.40% of patients in the LELD group, 6.80% in the SELD group, 4.82% in the NOLD group, and 8.76% in the control group were diagnosed with neuropathy (axonal, predominantly sensory). Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the risk of neuropathy was not influenced by disease duration, severity, or sex. The risk of neuropathy increased by approximately 8% for each year of age (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.037-1.128). The risk of neuropathy was 2.38 higher in the LELD group than in the control group (P = 0.022; OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.130-5.014). In a comparison between patients with and without neuropathy (Student's t test), the levodopa dose was higher (P < 0.0001), serum vitamin B12 levels were lower (P = 0.0102), and homocysteine levels were higher (P < 0.001) in the patients with neuropathy. Our results demonstrate that the duration of exposure to levodopa, along with age, is the main risk factor for the development of neuropathy. Screening for homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels and clinical-neurophysiological monitoring for neuropathy may be advisable in patients with PD who are receiving treatment with levodopa. PMID:23836370

Ceravolo, Roberto; Cossu, Giovanni; Bandettini di Poggio, Monica; Santoro, Lucio; Barone, Paolo; Zibetti, Maurizio; Frosini, Daniela; Nicoletti, Valentina; Manganelli, Fiore; Iodice, Rosa; Picillo, Marina; Merola, Aristide; Lopiano, Leonardo; Paribello, Alessandra; Manca, Davide; Melis, Maurizio; Marchese, Roberta; Borelli, Paolo; Mereu, Alessandra; Contu, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

2013-09-01

385

Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effect of smoked cannabis on the neuropathic pain of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and an experimental pain model. Methods: Prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted in the inpatient General Clinical Research Center between May 2003 and May 2005 involving adults with painful HIV- associated sensory neuropathy. Patients were randomly assigned to smoke either cannabis (3.56% tetrahydrocannabinol) or identical

D. I. Abrams; C. A. Jay; S. B. Shade; H. Vizoso; H. Reda; M. E. Kelly; M. C. Rowbotham; K. L. Petersen

2007-01-01

386

Multimodal assessment of painful peripheral neuropathy induced by chronic oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A major clinical issue affecting 10-40% of cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin is severe peripheral neuropathy with symptoms\\u000a including cold sensitivity and neuropathic pain. Rat models have been used to describe the pathological features of oxaliplatin-induced\\u000a peripheral neuropathy; however, they are inadequate for parallel studies of oxaliplatin's antineoplastic activity and neurotoxicity\\u000a because most cancer models are developed in mice. Thus,

Cynthia L Renn; Valentina A Carozzi; Peter Rhee; Danisha Gallop; Susan G Dorsey; Guido Cavaletti

2011-01-01

387

Arterial Stiffness and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the relationship between peripheral neuropathy and parameters of arterial stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods The study included 161 patients (80 females and 81 males), 69 of whom had peripheral neuropathy. All patients underwent 24-h blood pressure monitoring, and arterial stiffness parameters were measured. The CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasonography and patients also underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination. Results Patients with peripheral neuropathy, compared with those without it, were older (54.68±8.35 years vs. 51.04±7.89 years; p=0.005) and had T2DM for longer periods (60 vs. 36 months; p=0.004). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values (8.55±1.85 mg/dL vs. 7.30±1.51 mg/dL; p<0.001), pulse wave velocity (PWV) (7.74±1.14 m/s vs. 7.15±1.10 m/s; p=0.001), CIMT (anterior 0.74±0.15 mm vs. 0.67±0.13 mm; p=0.01), and left ventricular mass (LVM) index (98.68±26.28 g/m2 vs. 89.71±19.70 g/m2; p=0.02) were all significantly increased in the group with peripheral neuropathy compared to the group without peripheral neuropathy. We determined that duration of diabetes, HbA1c, and LVM index were predictors of peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions A significant relationship was found between diabetic neuropathy and increased PWV, a parameter of arterial stiffness, as well as CIMT, a marker of systemic atherosclerosis. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may be a determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM. PMID:25351260

Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Kaya, Zeynettin; Marakoglu, Kamile; Ceylan, Esra; Ekmekci, Ahmet Hakan; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Demir, Aysegul; Altunkeser, Bulent Behlul

2014-01-01

388

Symptom management and self-care for peripheral neuropathy in HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, sociodemographic and disease-related correlates and self-care strategies. A convenience sample of 1,217 respondents was recruited from data

P. K. Nicholas; J. K. Kemppainen; G. E. Canaval; I. B. Corless; E. F. Sefcik; K. M. Nokes; C. A. Bain; K. M. Kirksey; L. Sanzero Eller; P. J. Dole; M. J. Hamilton; C. L. Coleman; W. L. Holzemer; N. R. Reynolds; C. J. Portillo; E. H. Bunch; D. J. Wantland; J. Voss; R. Phillips; Y.-F. Tsai; M. Rivero Mendez; T. G. Lindgren; S. M. Davis; D. M. Gallagher

2007-01-01

389

Bilateral mental nerve neuropathy in an adolescent during sickle cell crises.  

PubMed

Mental nerve neuropathy causes the "numb chin" syndrome and is usually associated with mandibular bone injury or disease in adults. It has been reported in adults during sickle cell crises. We describe a 15-year-old boy who developed bilateral mental nerve neuropathies during a sickle cell crisis. This case is unusual because of the simultaneous bilateral involvement and because of the age. PMID:22290855

Hamdoun, Elwaseila; Davis, Lamar; McCrary, Sara Jane; Eklund, Neva Penton; Evans, Owen B

2012-08-01

390

Mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER.  

PubMed

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy remains an important complication of combination antiretroviral therapy and HIV infection. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been associated with symptomatic neuropathy in clinical trial participants. We examined associations between mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER). CHARTER is a USA-based longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent a structured interview and standardized examination. HIV-associated sensory neuropathy was determined by trained examiners as ?1 sign (diminished vibratory and sharp-dull discrimination or ankle reflexes) bilaterally. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing was performed and haplogroups were assigned by published algorithms. Multivariable logistic regression of associations between mitochondrial DNA SNPs, haplogroups, and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were performed. In analyses of associations of each mitochondrial DNA SNP with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, the two most significant SNPs were at positions A12810G [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval)?=?0.27 (0.11-0.65); p?=?0.004] and T489C [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval)?=?0.41 (0.21-0.80); p?=?0.009]. These synonymous changes are known to define African haplogroup L1c and European haplogroup J, respectively. Both haplogroups were associated with decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy compared with all other haplogroups [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval)?=?0.29 (0.12-0.71); p?=?0.007 and odds ratio (95 % confidence interval)?=?0.42 (0.18-1.0); p?=?0.05, respectively]. In conclusion, in this cohort of mostly combination antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects, two common mitochondrial DNA SNPs and their corresponding haplogroups were associated with a markedly decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. PMID:23073667

Holzinger, Emily R; Hulgan, Todd; Ellis, Ronald J; Samuels, David C; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Haas, David W; Kallianpur, Asha R; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Clifford, David B; Collier, Ann C; Gelman, Benjamin B; Marra, Christina M; McArthur, Justin C; McCutchan, J Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Franklin, Donald R; Rosario, Debralee; Selph, Doug; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor

2012-12-01

391

Achalasia, chronic sensory neuropathy, and N-type calcium channel autoantibodies: beneficial response to IVIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune gastrointestinal dysmotility (AGID) can result from paraneoplastic onconeuronal antibodies. Patients may present\\u000a with regional hypomotility anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a woman who developed an insidious\\u000a sensory neuropathy and achalasia. She was found to have a high-titer of N-type voltage gated-calcium channel (VGCC) antibodies.\\u000a She demonstrated clinical and electrophysiological improvement of her neuropathy, as

Hugh J. McMillan; Jayashri Srinivasan

2010-01-01

392

Retinoic acid reduces chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in an animal model and patients with lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in an experimental animal model and in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized in 5 groups: group A, control; groups B and C, treated with cisplatin; and groups D and E, treated with paclitaxel. ATRA (20 mg/kg PO) was administered for 15 days in groups C and E. We evaluated neuropathy and nerve regeneration–related morphologic changes in sciatic nerve, the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF), and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)–? and RAR-? expression. In addition, 95 patients with NSCLC under chemotherapy treatment were randomized to either ATRA (20 mg/m2/d) or placebo. Serum NGF, neurophysiologic tests, and clinical neurotoxicity were assessed. Results: The experimental animals developed neuropathy and axonal degeneration, associated with decreased NGF levels in peripheral nerves. Treatment with ATRA reversed sensorial changes and nerve morphology; this was associated with increased NGF levels and RAR-? expression. Patients treated with chemotherapy had clinical neuropathy and axonal loss assessed by neurophysiology, which was related to decreased NGF levels. ATRA reduced axonal degeneration demonstrated by nerve conduction velocity and clinical manifestations of neuropathy grades ?2. Conclusions: ATRA reduced chemotherapy-induced experimental neuropathy, increased NGF levels, and induced RAR-? expression in nerve. In patients, reduction of NGF in serum was associated with the severity of neuropathy; ATRA treatment reduced the electrophysiologic alterations. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that ATRA improves nerve conduction in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Neurology® 2011;77:987–995 PMID:21865574

Hernández-Pedro, N.; Fernández-González- Aragón, M.C.; Saavedra-Pérez, D.; Campos-Parra, A.D.; Ríos-Trejo, M.Á.; Cerón-Lizárraga, T.; Martínez-Barrera, L.; Pineda, B.; Ordóñez, G.; Ortiz-Plata, A.; Granados-Soto, V.; Sotelo, J.

2011-01-01

393

Distinct lymphocytes subsets in IgM-related neuropathy: clinical-immunological correlations.  

PubMed

IgM-related neuropathy generally presents as a late-onset demyelinating polyneuropathy with predominant sensory loss and ataxia. However, we recently reported the clinical, neurophysiological and pathological findings from our cohort and identified in about a third of patients an atypical phenotype. We analyzed by flow cytometry the different lymphocytes subsets in the peripheral blood of patients affected by IgM-related neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and healthy subjects, to investigate whether different immunological patterns may differentiate the classical phenotype from atypical forms. IFN-gamma producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing T-bet (T-helper type 1, Th1) were increased in CIDP patients. The percentage of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-10 as well as the percentage of CD19+ cells expressing Blimp-1 were higher in patients with IgM-neuropathy. We did not find any significant differences in the different lymphocytes subsets in the IgM-related neuropathy between patients with classical and atypical phenotype. Th1 cells are increased in CIDP patients while a T helper type 2-phenotype seems to prevail in patients with IgM-neuropathy. Further studies involving a larger patient population are needed to evaluate if different lymphocytes subset may be involved in different clinical phenotypes of IgM-related neuropathy. PMID:25192662

Iorio, Raffaele; Sabatelli, Mario; Del Grande, Alessandra; Bisogni, Giulia; Damato, Valentina; Plantone, Domenico; Marti, Alessandro; Frisullo, Giovanni; Romano, Angela; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Luigetti, Marco

2015-02-01

394

Peripheral neuropathies in Sjögren's syndrome: a critical update on clinical features and pathogenetic mechanisms.  

PubMed

Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that, apart from exocrine glands, may affect every organ or system. Involvement of different sections of the peripheral nervous system results in a wide spectrum of neuropathic manifestations. Based on distinct clinical, electrophysiological and histological criteria, the types of neuropathies seen in Sjögren's syndrome include: a) pure sensory which presents with distal symmetric sensory loss due to axonal degeneration of sensory fibers; sensory ataxia due to loss of proprioceptive large fibers (ganglionopathy); or with painful dysethesias (small fiber sensory neuropathy) due to degeneration of cutaneous axons. The latter appears to be the most common neuropathy in Sjögren's syndrome and requires skin biopsy for diagnosis to document loss or reduction of nerve fiber density; b) sensorimotor polyneuropathy affecting sensory and motor axons, often associated with severe systemic or pro-lymhomatous manifestations, such as palpable purpura and cryoglobulinemia, and c) rare types that include autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex and autonomic neuropathy. In this review, the frequency, prevalence and diagnostic criteria for each neuropathy subset are discussed and possible pathogenetic mechanisms are outlined. PMID:22318209

Pavlakis, P P; Alexopoulos, H; Kosmidis, M L; Mamali, I; Moutsopoulos, H M; Tzioufas, A G; Dalakas, M C

2012-08-01

395

Minocycline improves peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: MIND study.  

PubMed

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic autonomic neuropathy are serious and common complications of diabetes associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of minocycline in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral and autonomic neuropathy. In a randomized placebo controlled study, 50 outpatients were randomly assigned to receive 100 mg minocycline or placebo. Outcome measures included the vibration perception threshold (VPT), Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS), Pain Disability Index (PDI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), beck depression inventory (BDI), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) and autonomic neuropathy, assessed by cardiovascular reflex tests according to Ewing and peripheral sympathetic autonomic function was assessed by FDA approved Sudoscan. At baseline there were no significant differences between demographic variables and the neuropathy variables in the minocycline and placebo groups. After treatment, VPT significantly improved in the minocycline group as compared to the placebo group. Mean posttreatment scores on the LANSS, PDI and HAQ were significantly lower in the minocycline group compared with the placebo group. However, BDI and VAS significantly (p = 0.01) improved in both minocycline and placebo groups (Table 2). After treatment with minocycline, heart rate (HR) response to standing significantly improved, while there was a borderline significance toward a reduction in HR response to deep breath. These finding indicate that 6-week oral treatment with minocycline is safe, well tolerated and significantly improves peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:24497205

Syngle, Ashit; Verma, Inderjeet; Krishan, Pawan; Garg, Nidhi; Syngle, Vijaita

2014-07-01

396

Surgical management of complete penile duplication accompanied by multiple anomalies.  

PubMed

Diphallus (penile duplication) is very rare and seen once every 5.5 million births. It can be isolated, but is usually accompanied by other congenital anomalies. Previous studies have reported many concurrent anomalies, such as bladder extrophy, cloacal extrophy, duplicated bladder, scrotal abnormalities, hypospadias, separated symphysis pubis, intestinal anomalies and imperforate anus; no penile duplication case accompanied by omphalocele has been reported. We present the surgical management of a patient with multiple anomalies, including complete penile duplication, hypo-gastric omphalocele and extrophic rectal duplication. PMID:25408817

Karaca, Irfan; Turk, Erdal; Ucan, A Basak; Yayla, Derya; Itirli, Gulcin; Ercal, Derya

2014-09-01

397

Brain and optic nerve ischemia in malaria with immune disorders.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a European returning from tropical regions associating an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and an asymptomatic centropontine myelinolysis. The transient antiphospholipid antibodies detected in the patient may have played a role in the ischemic process at the origin of this unusual clinical association. PMID:16647756

Gallien, Sebastien; Milea, Dan; Thiebaut, Marie-Marthe; Bricaire, François; Le Hoang, Phuc

2007-01-01

398

Mechanism, Prevalence, and More Severe Neuropathy Phenotype of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A Triplication  

PubMed Central

Copy-number variations cause genomic disorders. Triplications, unlike deletions and duplications, are poorly understood because of challenges in molecular identification, the choice of a proper model system for study, and awareness of their phenotypic consequences. We investigated the genomic disorder Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), a dominant peripheral neuropathy caused by a 1.4 Mb recurrent duplication occurring by nonallelic homologous recombination. We identified CMT1A triplications in families in which the duplication segregates. The triplications arose de novo from maternally transmitted duplications and caused a more severe distal symmetric polyneuropathy phenotype. The recombination that generated the triplication occurred between sister chromatids on the duplication-bearing chromosome and could accompany gene conversions with the homologous chromosome. Diagnostic testing for CMT1A (n = 20,661 individuals) identified 13% (n = 2,752 individuals) with duplication and 0.024% (n = 5 individuals) with segmental tetrasomy, suggesting that triplications emerge from duplications at a rate as high as ?1:550, which is more frequent than the rate of de novo duplication. We propose that individuals with duplications are predisposed to acquiring triplications and that the population prevalence of triplication is underascertained. PMID:24530202

Liu, Pengfei; Gelowani, Violet; Zhang, Feng; Drory, Vivian E.; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Roney, Erin; Medeiros, Adam C.; Moore, Rebecca J.; DiVincenzo, Christina; Burnette, William B.; Higgins, Joseph J.; Li, Jun; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Lupski, James R.

2014-01-01

399

Clinical features, molecular genetics, and pathophysiology of dominant optic atrophy.  

PubMed Central

Inherited optic neuropathies are a significant cause of childhood and adult blindness and dominant optic atrophy (DOA) is the most common form of autosomally inherited (non-glaucomatous) optic neuropathy. Patients with DOA present with an insidious onset of bilateral visual loss and they characteristically have temporal optic nerve pallor, centrocaecal visual field scotoma, and a colour vision deficit, which is frequently blue-yellow. Evidence from histological and electrophysiological studies suggests that the pathology is confined to the retinal ganglion cell. A gene for dominant optic atrophy (OPA1) has been mapped to chromosome 3q28-qter, and studies are under way to refine the genetic interval in which the gene lies, to map the region physically, and hence to clone the gene. A second locus for dominant optic atrophy has recently been shown to map to chromosome 18q12.2-12.3 near the Kidd blood group locus. The cloning of genes for dominant optic atrophy will provide important insights into the pathophysiology of the retinal ganglion cell in health and disease. These insights may prove to be of great value in the understanding of other primary ganglion cell diseases, such as the mitochondrially inherited Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and other diseases associated with ganglion cell loss, such as glaucoma. Images PMID:9783700

Votruba, M; Moore, A T; Bhattacharya, S S

1998-01-01

400

Chemical Reaction Dynamics accompanying Electron-Transfer Osamu SUGINO  

E-print Network

transfer as does in the redox, while the latter appears in the photochemical reactions. Simulating bothChemical Reaction Dynamics accompanying Electron-Transfer Osamu SUGINO Institute for Solid State Physics, the University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8581 1. Introduction Many chemical reactions

Katsumoto, Shingo

401

Overview accompaniment for papers on the bergy bit impact trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of bergy bit impact trials carried out on the CCGS Terry Fox off the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland in June 18–23, 2001 and is meant to accompany the five papers that follow. The trial consisted of impacting target iceberg ice masses ranging from roughly 100 t (growlers) to 22,000 t (bergy bits)

Robert Gagnon; David Cumming; Ron Ritch; Robin Browne; Michelle Johnston; Robert Frederking; Richard McKenna; Freeman Ralph

2008-01-01

402

Observations of long period earthquakes accompanying hydraulic fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waveforms of most seismic events accompanying hydraulic fracturing have been reported to contain clear P and S waves and have fault plane solutions consistent with shear displacement across a fault. This observation is surprising since classical hydraulic fracturing theory predicts the creation of a tensile opening of a cavity in response to fluid pressure. Very small long period events, similar

Dorthe Bame; Michael Fehler

1986-01-01

403

Hereditary nodular heterotopia accompanied by mega cisterna magna.  

PubMed

This is the first report of hereditary nodular heterotopia accompanied by mega cisterna magna. Magnetic resonance imaging documented multiple bilateral subependymal nodules, which were isointense to gray matter. This disease entity is considered a dominant trait, since the mother and two daughters, half-sisters, were affected. PMID:8213918

Oda, T; Nagai, Y; Fujimoto, S; Sobajima, H; Kobayashi, M; Togari, H; Wada, Y

1993-08-15

404

INTRODUCTION In most animals, advancing age is accompanied by the  

E-print Network

of Healthy Ageing, and Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London INTRODUCTION In most animals, advancing age is accompanied by the deteriorative process of aging (senescence). Aging is the main cause of severe illness and death in humans

Gems, David

405

Charge inversion accompanies DNA condensation by multivalent ions  

E-print Network

LETTERS Charge inversion accompanies DNA condensation by multivalent ions K. BESTEMAN, K. VAN EIJK The condensation of stiff, highly charged DNA molecules into compact structures by condensing agents ranging from overcompensate the DNA charge when present at high concentration11 , in turn destabilizing the condensates12

Loss, Daniel

406

Differential gene expression of cytokines and neurotrophic factors in nerve and skin of patients with peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed

Pathophysiologically relevant alterations in cytokine and neurotrophic factor levels have been reported in neuropathy subtypes. We characterized gene expression profiles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors in nerve and skin samples of patients with neuropathies of different etiologies. We prospectively studied 133 patients with neuropathies and compared data between subtypes and with healthy controls. All patients underwent sural nerve and/or skin punch biopsy at the lateral thigh and lower leg; controls received skin punch biopsies. Gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, TNF, IL-10), neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, NT3, TrkA), and erythropoietin with the erythropoietin receptor (Epo, EpoR) was analyzed. Sural nerve gene expression of the investigated cytokines and neurotrophic factors did not differ between neuropathies of different etiologies; however, IL-6 (p < 0.01) and IL-10 (p < 0.05) expression was higher in painful compared to painless neuropathies. Skin IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression was increased in patients compared to controls (p < 0.05), and IL-10 expression was higher in lower leg skin of patients with non-inflammatory neuropathies compared to inflammatory neuropathies (p < 0.05). Proximal and distal skin neurotrophic factor and Epo gene expression of patients with neuropathies was reduced compared to controls (NGF, NT3, Epo; p < 0.05). Neuropathies are associated with an increase in cytokine expression and a decrease in neurotrophic factor expression including nerve and skin. PMID:25371017

Üçeyler, Nurcan; Riediger, Nadja; Kafke, Waldemar; Sommer, Claudia

2015-01-01

407

Compartment syndromes of the optic nerve and open-angle glaucoma.  

PubMed

A compartment is a space or volume that is separated from its environment. The cause for separation can be manifold. It can be expressed as a difference [INCREMENT] in parameters, such as size, area, volume, color or pressure. The border of a compartment can be rigid or flexible (compliance). The optic nerve is located within the subarachnoid space and is covered by the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater that cover the brain as well. As is the brain, the optic nerve is bathed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Optic nerve compartmentalization has been demonstrated in papilledema, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and normal tension glaucoma. Anatomically the optic nerve can be described as located in a cul de sac with a steady inflow of CSF from the pituitary cistern via the optic canal. This specific anatomy raises questions concerning the mechanism of CSF recycling from the confined perioptic space. PMID:23733118

Killer, Hanspeter Esriel

2013-01-01

408

Pathobiology of cancer chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN)  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a type of neuropathic pain that is a major dose-limiting side-effect of potentially curative cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens that develops in a “stocking and glove” distribution. When pain is severe, a change to less effective chemotherapy agents may be required, or patients may choose to discontinue treatment. Medications used to alleviate CIPN often lack efficacy and/or have unacceptable side-effects. Hence the unmet medical need for novel analgesics for relief of this painful condition has driven establishment of rodent models of CIPN. New insights on the pathobiology of CIPN gained using these models are discussed in this review. These include mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress that are implicated as key mechanisms in the development of CIPN. Associated structural changes in peripheral nerves include neuronopathy, axonopathy and/or myelinopathy, especially intra-epidermal nerve fiber (IENF) degeneration. In patients with CIPN, loss of heat sensitivity is a hallmark symptom due to preferential damage to myelinated primary afferent sensory nerve fibers in the presence or absence of demyelination. The pathobiology of CIPN is complex as cancer chemotherapy treatment regimens frequently involve drug combinations. Adding to this complexity, there are also subtle differences in the pathobiological consequences of commonly used cancer chemotherapy drugs, viz platinum compounds, taxanes, vincristine, bortezomib, thalidomide and ixabepilone, on peripheral nerves. PMID:24385965

Han, Yaqin; Smith, Maree T.

2013-01-01

409

Focal neuropathies following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) – preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Postoperative neurological complications in pelvic and renal surgery are a well-known clinical problem and their morbidities are important. We designed this study to determine prevalence and risk factors of such complications after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) surgery. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed during February and July 2011 on 68 PCNL cases. Demographic data and surgery reports were gathered and comprehensive neurological physical examination carried out before and after surgery. Then, data was analyzed using software SPSS 18. Results: The ultimate sample included 30 (46.2%) male and 35 (53.8%) female patients with a mean age of 47.9 ± 11.47 years. In intercostal and lumbosacral plexus area, sensory neurological complications occurred in 8 patients (12.31%), 4 men and 4 women. The most common involved dermatomes and nerves were T12 (8 cases). There was a significant correlation between prolonged duration of surgery and prevalence of sensory complications (p<0.010). The highest hemoglobin value drop after surgery occurred in patients with neurological complications (p<0.001). There were no correlations between age, tracts used, diabetes mellitus, BMI, hypertension, positioning of patients and side of surgery with incidence of sensory neurological complications. No motor neurological complications occurred. Conclusion: Prolonged duration of PCNL and increased value of hemoglobin drop may lead to increased risk of neuropathy. Larger prospective studies with retroperitoneal imagings and patients’ follow up is suggested for better understanding of this complication. PMID:23798911

Nasseh, Hamidreza; Pourreza, Farshid; Saberi, Alia; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Kalantari, Behnam Behmardi; Falahatkar, Siavash

2013-01-01