Science.gov

Sample records for optical alignment techniques

  1. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes specified back reflection. This 3 to 6dB increase in back reflection from the surface relative to the probes specified back reflection is the optimal level for acquiring data from the flyer. Data obtained with the LLNL system is shown in Figure 5.

  2. Characterization and bioactivity study of nanohydroxyapatite on superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira Irineu, Joao Anderson; Marsi, Teresa C.; Santos, Tiago G.; Santo, Ana Maria E.; Rangel, Joao L.; Mengui, Ursula A.; Martin, Airton A.; Corat, Evaldo J.; Marciano, Fernanda R.; Lobo, Anderson O.

    2012-03-01

    Vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VACNT) is of particular interest in regenerative medicine. Templateinduced hydroxyapatite (HA) has broad prospects in applied fields of bone regenerative medicine. Thus, it becomes very attractive a combination these two excellent materials to bone tissue engineering applications. In this study the HA/VACNT nanocomposites were used as scaffolds to Human osteoblast cells culture. Superhydrophilic VACNT films were obtained by CVD method and funcionalized by oxygen plasma. The fabrication of HA/VACNT nanocomposites was performed with a direct electrodeposition of the thin HA films on the VACNT films. The bioactivity and biomineralization in vitro process of superhydrophilic HA/VACNT nanocomposites were investigated using simulated body fluid (SBF) and optical techniques. The characterization of of HA/VACNT nanocomposites was performed before and after soaking 21 days in SBF and compared to superydrophilic VACNT films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometer by energy-dispersive and X-ray difractogram were employed to investigate the structural and chemical properties. The morphology was investigated by FEG-SEM analysis. After 21 days was identified that others biological apatites were formed only on HA/VACNT nanocomposites. Optical techniques showing a powerful tool to characterizated and investigated the bioactivity in vitro process. These findings were very atractive to application of this new nanocomposite to bone tissue regeneration.

  3. Alignment signal extraction of the optically degenerate RSE interferometer using the wave front sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Kawamura, S.

    2008-07-01

    The alignment sensing and control scheme of the resonant sideband extraction interferometer is still an unsettled issue for the next-generation gravitational wave antennas. The issue is that it is difficult to extract separate error signals for all 12 angular degrees of freedom, which is mainly arising from the complexity of the optical system and cavity 'degeneracy'. We have suggested a new sensing scheme giving reasonably separated signals which is fully compatible with the length sensing scheme. The key of this idea is to resolve the 'degeneracy' of the optical cavities. By choosing an appropriate Gouy phase for the degenerate cavities, alignment error signals with much less admixtures can be extracted.

  4. Optics Alignment Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The Optics Alignment Panel (OAP) was commissioned by the HST Science Working Group to determine the optimum alignment of the OTA optics. The goal was to find the position of the secondary mirror (SM) for which there is no coma or astigmatism in the camera images due to misaligned optics, either tilt or decenter. The despace position was reviewed of the SM and the optimum focus was sought. The results of these efforts are as follows: (1) the best estimate of the aligned position of the SM in the notation of HDOS is (DZ,DY,TZ,TY) = (+248 microns, +8 microns, +53 arcsec, -79 arcsec), and (2) the best focus, defined to be that despace which maximizes the fractional energy at 486 nm in a 0.1 arcsec radius of a stellar image, is 12.2 mm beyond paraxial focus. The data leading to these conclusions, and the estimated uncertainties in the final results, are presented.

  5. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  6. Fast DNA sequence alignment using optical computing

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, M.L.; Craft, D.C.

    1996-11-01

    Alignment of DNA sequences is a necessary step prior to comparison of sequence data. High-speed alignment is needed due to the large size of DNA databases. Correlation, a standard pattern recognition technique, can be used to perform alignment. Correlation can be performed rapidly using optical techniques. Thus, optical correlation offers the potential for high-speed processing of DNA sequence data. This report describes research efforts to apply one-dimensional acousto-optical correlation methods to the problem of DNA sequence alignment. Experimental results are presented.

  7. Adaptive optical alignment in microgravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity researchers use optical measurement techniques to study fluid samples undergoing crystallization, solidification, separation, mixing, and other processes. However, optical systems are often environmentally sensitive, and can be difficult to keep aligned in space. We have developed a system that autonomously maintains alignment with a software controller and electronic feedback loops that adjust optical components. The project goal was to develop mechanisms to stabilize optical beams under vibrationally noisy microgravity conditions. We constructed a testbed Mach-Zehnder interferometer system with automated systems that compensate for alignment shifts. We tested the system on the NASA KC-135 low-gravity simulation aircraft. We developed electronics to monitor and buffer high frequency vibrations, as well as mechanical systems to damp vibration and software systems to recalibrate alignment. We delivered a prototype adaptive self-aligning optical system capable of performing interferometric measurements under vibrational conditions of microgravity on KC-135 and space shuttle flights. This included design, construction and testing of a useful optical testbed, mechanical damping systems, specialized monitoring, feedback and controller electronics, and software realignment tools. We found that these systems could maintain alignment more quickly and efficiently than originally expected. We plan to apply these techniques to phase-shifting interferometry tailored to protein crystal growth studies.

  8. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  9. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  10. High-speed optical beam alignment based on a motion control technique for three-dimensional microelectromechanical systems optical switch modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Masato; Yamaguchi, Joji; Nemoto, Naru

    2011-07-01

    For optical axis alignment when light deflection control of a MEMS mirror is done at high speed, we propose a method based on identifying the quadratic surface shape. The method uses information about the optical power monitored when the mirror is inclined to a small angle. It is shown that the search for maximum optical power is possible by using this method. We also designed a control system with a band-stop filter for resonance frequency to decrease residual vibration generated when the mirror is moved at high speed. We confirm that the searchable level of optical power can be improved.

  11. Low-Cost 10-Gb/s Optical Receiver Module Using a Novel Plastic Package and a Passive Alignment Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kur Ki, Takeshi; Shuto, Yoshito; Tadokoro, Takashi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Endo, Jun; Amano, Michiyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Ishihara, Noboru; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2005-12-01

    A new low-cost 10-Gb/s optical receiver module constructed using a novel plastic package is proposed. Passive alignment using a glass V-groove substrate and an edge-illuminated refracting-facet photodiode (RFPD) was employed to reduce cost. Instead of a conventional GaAs IC, a Si-bipolar preamplifier IC was mounted on the package to reduce power consumption. High-speed signal lines with a bandwidth of more than 10 GHz were realized using a three-dimensional electromagnetic-field analysis. For the fabricated module, a 3-dB detection bandwidth of 7.7 GHz and a sensitivity of less than -14 dBm at 10 Gb/s were achieved. To confirm the reliability of the fabricated module, a damp-heat test without bias voltage and a temperature-cycling test were performed. The results show that the optical receiver module, if covered with silicone resin, has the ability to withstand humidity and thermal stress.

  12. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emission of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Robert; Celeste, John; Celliers, Peter; Frogget, Brent; Robert Guyton,,; Kaufman, Morris; Lee, Tony; MacGowan, Brian; Ng, Edmend; Reinbachs, Imants; Robinson, Ronald; Tunnell, Thomas; Watts, Phillip

    2007-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 m. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  13. Optical Alignment Techniques for Line-Imaging Velocity Interferometry and Line-Imaging Self-Emission of Targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R M; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Frogget, B .; Guyton, R L; Kaufman, M I; Lee, T L; MacGowan, B J; Ng, E W; Reinbachs, I P; Robinson, R B; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P W

    2007-07-31

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 meters. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  14. Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-10-01

    Safe and efficient optical alignment is a critical requirement for industrial laser systems used in a high volume manufacturing environment. Of specific interest is the development of techniques to align beam shaping optics within a beam line; having the ability to instantly verify by a qualitative means that each element is in its proper position as the beam shaper module is being aligned. There is a need to reduce these types of alignment techniques down to a level where even a newbie to optical alignment will be able to complete the task. Couple this alignment need with the fact that most laser system manufacturers ship their products worldwide and the introduction of a new set of variables including cultural and language barriers, makes this a top priority for manufacturers. Tools and methodologies for alignment of complex optical systems need to be able to cross these barriers to ensure the highest degree of up time and reduce the cost of maintenance on the production floor. Customers worldwide, who purchase production laser equipment, understand that the majority of costs to a manufacturing facility is spent on system maintenance and is typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. This desire to reduce costs is driving the trend these days towards predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of laser based optical beam delivery systems [10]. With proper diagnostic tools, laser system developers can develop proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic optics failures. Obviously analytical data will provide quantifiable performance standards which are more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall optical system performance [10]. This paper will discuss the use of film and fluorescent mirror devices as diagnostic tools for beam shaper module alignment off line or in-situ. The paper will also provide an overview methodology showing how it is possible to reduce complex alignment directions into a simplified set of instructions for layman service engineers.

  15. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emulsion of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Malone, Brent C. Frogget, Morris I. Kaufman, Thomas W. Tunnell, Robert L. Guyton, Imants P. Reinbachs, Phillip W. Watts, et al.

    2007-08-31

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 69 feet. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. The orange alignment laser is introduced at the entrance to the two-level interferometer table and passes forward through the optical systems to the recording streak cameras. The red alignment laser is introduced in front of the recording streak cameras and passes in the reverse direction through all optical elements, out of the interferometer table, eventually reaching the target chamber center. Red laser wavelength is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of a special beamsplitter used to separate emission light from the Doppler-shifted interferometer light. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignments spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1- to 15-inch-diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-inch diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  16. High-performance semiconductor optical amplifier array for self-aligned packaging using Si V-groove flip-chip technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, D.; Brosson, P.; Pommereau, F.; Ngo, R.; Doussiere, P.; Mallecot, F.; Gavignet, P.; Wamsler, I.; Laube, G.; Hunziker, W.

    1995-05-01

    A high performance four-tilted stripe semiconductor optical amplifier array, with low polarization sensitivity and very low-gain ripple, compatible with self-aligned flip-chip mounting on a Si motherboard is reported. Up to 32 dB of internal gain with 2-dB polarization sensitivity is obtained. A multifiber module has been realized, following an almost static optical alignment procedure, showing no degradation of the SOA array performances. Fiber-to-fiber gain, measured on the four stripes, is 14.4 +/- 1.3 dB with a gain ripple below +/- 0.1 dB.

  17. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  18. Laser optics accurately measure running shaft alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1990-11-05

    This paper discusses how laser-optic alignment systems can be employed effectively to detect and accurately measure rotary machinery shaft alignment while the machinery is running. These measurements can be used to maintain proper alignment at operating conditions. One of the many significant factors influencing machinery reliability in process plants is alignment accuracy. When driven process machines operate in misaligned condition with respect to their drivers, equipment bearings are exposed to additional loads. Vibration severity may increase, bearings will be more highly loaded, and equipment life expectancy will diminish as a result.

  19. State estimation in optical system alignment using monochromatic beam imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Joyce; Savransky, Dmitry

    2015-09-01

    Automated alignment of optical systems saves the time and energy needed for manual alignment and is required in cases where manual intervention is impossible. This research discusses the state estimation of the misalignment of a reimaging system using a focal plane sensor. We control two moving lenses to achieve high precision alignments by feeding back state estimates calculated from images from a CCD camera. We perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on a simulated data set. The monochromatic images are decoupled into Karhunen- Love (KL) modes, which are used as the measurement in state estimation. An Extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to estimate the misalignment of the optical components, and we describe a closed-loop control system with monochromatic beam to demonstrate the performance of the state estimation process. The state and measurement residuals converge with the Kalman observer. The automated alignment technique can be extended to reconfigurable systems with multiple lenses and other optical components.

  20. Automated optical system alignment and low order wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Joyce; Savransky, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    An automated alignment optical system will greatly simplify alignment tasks, increase the flexibility and utility of reconfigurable optical systems, and allow for the quick and efficient set up distributed optical systems. In this work, we demonstrate automated alignment of a tilted and decentered focal lens using only focal plane imaging by exploiting the aberration effects caused by the misalignment. A Gaussian beam is passed through the lens with 4 degrees of freedom and onto a science camera. The deformation of the spot image is analyzed to determine the tilt and shift misalignments on the lens. Corrections based on these measurements are applied in closed loop to align the system. We discuss various techniques for mitigating measurement errors, characterizing the system and operating the control loop and present results from the experiment.

  1. Measuring Cell Mechanics By Optical Alignment Compression Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Kevin B.; Eggleton, Charles D.; Neeves, Keith B.; Marr, David W. M.

    2013-01-01

    To address the need for a high throughput, non-destructive technique for measuring individual cell mechanical properties, we have developed optical alignment compression (OAC) cytometry. OAC combines hydrodynamic drag in an extensional flow microfluidic device with optical forces created with an inexpensive diode laser to induce measurable deformations between compressed cells. In this, a low-intensity linear optical trap aligns incoming cells with the flow stagnation point allowing hydrodynamic drag to induce deformation during cell-cell interaction. With this novel approach, we measure cell mechanical properties with a throughput that improves significantly on current non-destructive individual cell testing methods. PMID:23440063

  2. Optical and magneto-optical properties of aligned Ni nanowires embedded in polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, S. M.; Sobhani, A.; Aftabi, A.; Najafi, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of aligned Nickel nanowires embedded in polydimethylsiloxane matrix. The NWs prepared by electrodeposition method in anodic alumina template and then dispersed in ethanol and placed in a heater to evaporate the ethanol and finally dispersed in PDMS matrix to reach to the composite. The used external magnetic field arranges the NWs and our aligned NWs were investigated by magnetic hysteresis loop, surface plasmon resonance and spectral magneto-optical techniques. Our results show that these aligned NWs have a sufficient squareness, a strong increase of the magneto-optical response in visible range and very good surface plasmon resonance.

  3. HETDEX: Optical Alignment Of The Virus Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Emily; Marshall, J.; Rheault, J.; DePoy, D.; Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Hill, G.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We present an optical alignment procedure for the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) collimator. Texas A&M is helping to build the VIRUS spectrographs, designed in collaboration with The University of Texas at Austin. The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will use as many as 192 units of this instrument to search for answers regarding Dark Energy. Texas A&M is currently assembling the collimators for VIRUS and designing alignment fixtures to aid in the assembly. We used ZEMAX models of VIRUS optics made by UT engineers to analyze various alignment methods we have considered. Our current plan uses two steps to properly align the collimator within the tolerance of 0.1-degrees. This will permit interchangeability among the various VIRUS parts.

  4. Optical alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; McLean, Kyle

    2013-09-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite autocollimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  5. AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome assembly is difficult due to repeated sequences within the genome, which create ambiguities and cause the final assembly to be broken up into many separate sequences (contigs). Long range linking information, such as mate-pairs or mapping data, is necessary to help assembly software resolve repeats, thereby leading to a more complete reconstruction of genomes. Prior work has used optical maps for validating assemblies and scaffolding contigs, after an initial assembly has been produced. However, optical maps have not previously been used within the genome assembly process. Here, we use optical map information within the popular de Bruijn graph assembly paradigm to eliminate paths in the de Bruijn graph which are not consistent with the optical map and help determine the correct reconstruction of the genome. Results We developed a new algorithm called AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment. AGORA is the first algorithm to use optical map information directly within the de Bruijn graph framework to help produce an accurate assembly of a genome that is consistent with the optical map information provided. Our simulations on bacterial genomes show that AGORA is effective at producing assemblies closely matching the reference sequences. Additionally, we show that noise in the optical map can have a strong impact on the final assembly quality for some complex genomes, and we also measure how various characteristics of the starting de Bruijn graph may impact the quality of the final assembly. Lastly, we show that a proper choice of restriction enzyme for the optical map may substantially improve the quality of the final assembly. Conclusions Our work shows that optical maps can be used effectively to assemble genomes within the de Bruijn graph assembly framework. Our experiments also provide insights into the characteristics of the mapping data that most affect the performance of our algorithm, indicating the potential benefit of more accurate optical mapping technologies, such as nano-coding. PMID:22856673

  6. Optical Alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; Mclean, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite auto-collimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  7. Optical-precision alignment of diffraction grating mold in moire interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joh, D.

    1992-01-01

    A high-precision optical method is presented for aligning diffraction grating molds with the edges of specimens in moire interferometry. The alignment fixture is simple and convenient to operate. The conventional method of grating-mold alignment has a wide band of uncertainty in the range of error which is not compatible with the required precision of high-sensitivity moire interferometry. Following a description of the alignment technique, both the single-edge and parallel-edge guide bar optical alignment methods are introduced and compared.

  8. Automated alignment of complex optical systems using far-field optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Antonio; Manzo, Patrick R.; Gullapalli, Sarma N.; Gayhart, Alan R.; LaBonte, R.; Heydenburg, Thomas J.; Maccabee, Bruce S.

    2000-05-01

    Techniques for autonomous alignment of beam control systems have been developed for a number of technologies including laser resonators, telescopes, and optical components. These techniques have been designed to perform remote autonomous alignment on space-based optical systems. This paper present an alignment procedure based on a modified Downhill Simplex optimization algorithm using the attributes of the optical system's far-field image as a figure of merit. Investigations using numerical simulations have demonstrated that this methodology is robust and viable as an approach for alignment of the wide field-of-view three-mirror beam expander developed under the Advanced Beam Control System (ABCS) program. Following computer simulations, we conducted laboratory experiments to validate the far-field optimization concept using the ABCS brassboard optical system. The potential utility of far-field optimization to the alignment of other optical systems such as Space-Based Laser is briefly discussed.

  9. Optical alignment of Centaur's inertial guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordan, Andrew L.

    1987-01-01

    During Centaur launch operations the launch azimuth of the inertial platform's U-accelerometer input axis must be accurately established and maintained. This is accomplished by using an optically closed loop system with a long-range autotheodolite whose line of sight was established by a first-order survey. A collimated light beam from the autotheodolite intercepts a reflecting Porro prism mounted on the platform azimuth gimbal. Thus, any deviation of the Porro prism from its predetermined heading is optically detected by the autotheodolite. The error signal produced is used to torque the azimuth gimbal back to its required launch azimuth. The heading of the U-accelerometer input axis is therefore maintained automatically. Previously, the autotheodolite system could not distinguish between vehicle sway and rotational motion of the inertial platform unless at least three prisms were used. One prism was mounted on the inertial platform to maintain azimuth alignment, and two prisms were mounted externally on the vehicle to track sway. For example, the automatic azimuth-laying theodolite (AALT-SV-M2) on the Saturn vehilce used three prisms. The results of testing and modifying the AALT-SV-M2 autotheodolite to simultaneously monitor and maintain alignment of the inertial platform and track the sway of the vehicle from a single Porro prism.

  10. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  11. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  12. Construction of rugged, ultrastable optical assemblies with optical component alignment at the few microradian level.

    PubMed

    Killow, Christian J; Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Hough, James; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Rowan, Sheila; Ward, Henry

    2013-01-10

    A method for constructing quasimonolithic, precision-aligned optical assemblies is presented. Hydroxide-catalysis bonding is used, adapted to allow optimization of component fine alignment prior to the bond setting. We demonstrate the technique by bonding a fused silica mirror substrate to a fused silica baseplate. In-plane component placement at the submicrometer level is achieved, resulting in angular control of a reflected laser beam at the sub-10-?rad level. Within the context of the LISA Pathfinder mission, the technique has been demonstrated as suitable for use in space-flight applications. It is expected that there will also be applications in a wide range of areas where accuracy, stability, and strength of optical assemblies are important. PMID:23314633

  13. Dry contact transfer printing of aligned carbon nanotube patterns and characterization of their optical properties for diameter distribution and alignment.

    PubMed

    Pint, Cary L; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Moghazy, Sharief; Cherukuri, Tonya; Alvarez, Noe T; Haroz, Erik H; Mahzooni, Salma; Doorn, Stephen K; Kono, Junichiro; Pasquali, Matteo; Hauge, Robert H

    2010-02-23

    A scalable and facile approach is demonstrated where as-grown patterns of well-aligned structures composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) synthesized via water-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be transferred, or printed, to any host surface in a single dry, room-temperature step using the growth substrate as a stamp. We demonstrate compatibility of this process with multiple transfers for large-scale device and specifically tailored pattern fabrication. Utilizing this transfer approach, anisotropic optical properties of the SWNT films are probed via polarized absorption, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Using a simple model to describe optical transitions in the large SWNT species present in the aligned samples, polarized absorption data are demonstrated as an effective tool for accurate assignment of the diameter distribution from broad absorption features located in the infrared. This can be performed on either well-aligned samples or unaligned doped samples, allowing simple and rapid feedback of the SWNT diameter distribution that can be challenging and time-consuming to obtain in other optical methods. Furthermore, we discuss challenges in accurately characterizing alignment in structures of long versus short carbon nanotubes through optical techniques, where SWNT length makes a difference in the information obtained in such measurements. This work provides new insight to the efficient transfer and optical properties of an emerging class of long, large diameter SWNT species typically produced in the CVD process. PMID:20092353

  14. Robust optical alignment systems using geometric invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tzung-Hsien; Rzasa, John; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2007-09-01

    Traditional coarse pointing, acquisition, and tracking (CPAT) systems are pre-calibrated to have the center pixel of the camera aligned to the laser pointing vector and the center pixel is manually moved to the target of interest to complete the alignment process. Such a system has previously demonstrated its capability in aligning with distant targets and the pointing accuracy is on the order of sensor resolution. However, aligning with targets at medium range where the distance between angular sensor and transceiver is not negligible is its Achilles Heel. This limitation can be resolved by imposing constraints, such as the trifocal tensor (TT), which is deduced from the geometrical dependence between cameras and transceivers. Two autonomous CPAT systems are introduced for FSO transceiver alignment in mid- and long-range scenarios. This work focuses on experimental results that validate the pointing performance for targets at different distances, backed up by the theoretical derivations. A mid-range CPAT system, applying a trifocal tensor as its geometric invariant, includes two perspective cameras as sensors to perceive target distances. The long-range CPAT system, applying linear mapping as the invariant, requires only one camera to determine the pointing angle. Calibration procedures for both systems are robust to measurement noise and the resulting system can autonomously point to a target of interest with a high accuracy, which is also on the order of sensor resolution. The results of this work are not only beneficial to the design of CPAT systems for FSO transceiver alignment, but also in new applications such as surveillance and navigation.

  15. Optical Techniques in Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially-controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities. PMID:26412943

  16. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  17. Optical assembly and alignment for the National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, P.A.; Grasz, E.L.; Wong, H.; Schmitt, E.H.; Simmons, M.R.

    1997-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will use about 8,000 large optics to carry a high-power laser through a stadium-size building, and will do so on a very tight schedule and budget. The collocated Optics Assembly Building (OAB) will assemble and align, in a clean-room environment, the NIF`s large optics, which are the biggest optics ever assembled in such an environment. In addition, the OAB must allow for just-in-time processing and clean transfer to the areas where the optics will be used. By using a mixture of off-the-shelf and newly designed equipment and by working with industry, we have developed innovative handling systems to perform the clean assembly and precise alignment required for the full variety of optics, as well as for postassembly inspection. We have also developed a set of loading mechanisms that safely get the clean optics to their places in the main NIF building.

  18. Test procedure for calibration, grooming and alignment of the LDUA Optical Alignment Scope

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.D.

    1995-12-07

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remotely operated manipulator used to enter into underground waste tanks through one of the tank risers. The LDUA must be carefully aligned with the tank riser during the installation process. The Optical Alignment Scope (OAS) is used to determine when optimum alignment has been achieved between the LDUA and the riser. This procedure is used to assure that the instrumentation and equipment comprising the OAS is properly adjusted in order to achieve its intended functions successfully.

  19. Radio-Optical Alignments in a Low Radio Luminosity Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Mark; Ridgway, Susan E.; Wold, Margrethe; Lilje, Per B.; Rawlings, Steve

    1999-01-01

    We present an optically-based study of the alignment between the radio axes and the optical major axes of eight z approximately 0.7 radio galaxies in a 7C sample. The radio galaxies in this sample are approximately 20-times less radio luminous than 3C galaxies at the same redshift, and are significantly less radio-luminous than any other well-defined samples studied to date. Using Nordic Optical Telescope images taken in good seeing conditions at rest-frame wavelengths just longward of the 4000A break, we find a statistically significant alignment effect in the 7C sample. Furthermore, in two cases where the aligned components are well separated from the host we have been able to confirm spectroscopically that they are indeed at the same redshift as the radio galaxy. However, a quantitative analysis of the alignment in this sample and in a corresponding 3C sample from HST (Hubble Space Telescope) archival data indicates that the percentage of aligned flux may be lower and of smaller spatial scale in the 7C sample. Our study suggests that alignments on the 50-kpc scale are probably closely related to the radio luminosity, whereas those on the 15 kpc scale are not. We discuss these results in the context of popular models for the alignment effect.

  20. The art of planning for optical systems integration and alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph F.

    2015-09-01

    This will address Lessons Learned on the approaches that worked or did not work over various programs when integrating and aligning elements into fairly complex optical systems. The appropriate planning can prevent many unnecessary headaches and achieve the desired optical performance while optimizing integration efficiency.

  1. TOW optical and infrared test and alignment calibration capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, Martin; Armstrong, Edward P.; Mann, Edward L.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the design of test equipment constructed to enable the Marine Corps Logistics Base the capability to provide the required optical/IR boresight and electronic tests for rebuild and TOSH (TOW optical sight hardening) modification for the TOW (tube launched, optically tracked, wire guided) guided missile launcher optical/infrared sight. Optical modification and calibration are performed to improve system accuracy and reliability against failure, especially in a battlefield environment. Although principle concern was for the day sight, provision for the thermal night sight was also included. This design includes a large diameter optical beam, provision for thermal targets and night sight boresight alignment capability with the day sight. Primarily, a specially constructed collimator test set is discussed, implemented as the TOW 150 test and alignment station. In addition, a precision TOSH prism test system is briefly described, which is used to facilitate internal optical component boresight alignment utilizing a HeNe laser, alignment telescope and video camera. Radiometric theory is applied to the collimator geometry, which includes the modulation factor, Planck radiation function and appropriate bandpass integrated to yield effective rms irradiance values for calibration of the day sight.

  2. Focal Plane Alignment Utilizing Optical CMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Meras, Patrick L.; Clark, Gerald J.; Sedaka, Jack J.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Hirsch, Brian; Decker, Todd A.; Scholtz, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    In many applications, an optical detector has to be located relative to mechanical reference points. One solution is to specify stringent requirements on (1) mounting the optical detector relative to the chip carrier, (2) soldering the chip carrier onto the printed circuit board (PCB), and (3) installing the PCB to the mechanical structure of the subsystem. Figure 1 shows a sketch of an optical detector mounted relative to mechanical reference with high positional accuracy. The optical detector is typically a fragile wafer that cannot be physically touched by any measurement tool. An optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) can be used to position optical detectors relative to mechanical reference points. This approach will eliminate all requirements on positional tolerances. The only requirement is that the PCB is manufactured with oversized holes. An exaggerated sketch of this situation is shown in Figure 2. The sketch shows very loose tolerances on mounting the optical detector in the chip carrier, loose tolerance on soldering the chip carrier to the PCB, and finally large tolerance on where the mounting screws are located. The PCB is held with large screws and oversized holes. The PCB is mounted loosely so it can move freely around. The optical CMM measures the mechanical reference points. Based on these measurements, the required positions of the optical detector corners can be calculated. The optical CMM is commanded to go to the position where one detector corner is supposed to be. This is indicated with the cross-hairs in Figure 2(a). This figure is representative of the image of the optical CMM monitor. Using a suitable tapping tool, the PCB is manually tapped around until the corner of the optical detector is at the crosshairs of the optical CMM. The CMM is commanded to another corner, and the process is repeated a number of times until all corners of the optical detector are within a distance of 10 to 30 microns of the required position. The situation is sketched in Figure 2(b) (the figure also shows the tapping tool and where to tap). At this point the fasteners for the PCB are torqued slightly so the PCB can still move. The PCB location is adjusted again with the tapping tool. This process is repeated 3 to 4 times until the final torque is achieved. The oversized mounting holes are then filled with a liquid bonding agent to secure the board in position (not shown in the sketch). A 10- to 30-micron mounting accuracy has been achieved utilizing this method..

  3. Implant alignment in total elbow arthroplasty: conventional vs. navigated techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Colin P.; Johnson, James A.; King, Graham J. W.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    Incorrect selection of the native flexion-extension axis during implant alignment in elbow replacement surgery is likely a significant contributor to failure of the prosthesis. Computer and image-assisted surgery is emerging as a useful surgical tool in terms of improving the accuracy of orthopaedic procedures. This study evaluated the accuracy of implant alignment using an image-based navigation technique compared against a conventional non-navigated approach. Implant alignment error was 0.8 +/- 0.3 mm in translation and 1.1 +/- 0.4 in rotation for the navigated alignment, compared with 3.1 +/- 1.3 mm and 5.0 +/- 3.8 for the non-navigated alignment. Five (5) of the 11 non-navigated alignments were malaligned greater than 5 while none of the navigated alignments were placed with an error of greater than 2.0. It is likely that improved implant positioning will lead to reduced implant loading and wear, resulting in fewer implantrelated complications and revision surgeries.

  4. Use laser optics for on-stream alignment verification

    SciTech Connect

    Block, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    One of the many significant factors influencing machinery reliability in process plants is alignment accuracy. When driven process machines operate in misaligned condition with respect to their drivers, equipment bearings are exposed to additional loads. Vibration severity may increase, bearings will be more highly loaded and equipment life expectancy will diminish. This paper reports on the use of laser optics for on-stream alignment verification.

  5. Breaking through 1D layout limitations and regaining 2D design freedom Part I: 2D layout decomposition and stitching techniques for hybrid optical and self-aligned multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyi; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Yijian

    2015-03-01

    To break through 1-D IC layout limitations, we develop computationally efficient 2-D layout decomposition and stitching techniques which combine the optical and self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) processes. A polynomial time algorithm is developed to decompose the target layout into two components, each containing one or multiple sets of unidirectional features that can be formed by a SAMP+cut/block process. With no need of connecting vias, the final 2-D features are formed by directly stitching two components together. This novel patterning scheme is considered as a hybrid approach as the SAMP processes offer the capability of density scaling while the stitching process creates 2-D design freedom as well as the multiple-CD/pitch capability. Its technical advantages include significant reduction of via steps and avoiding the interdigitating types of multiple patterning (for density multiplication) to improve the processing yield. The developed decomposition and synthesis algorithms are tested using 2-D layouts from NCSU open cell library. Statistical and computational characteristics of these public layout data are investigated and discussed.

  6. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  7. VISA UNDULATOR RE-ALIGNMENT USING AN OPTICAL MONITORING SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    TREMAINE,A.; MUROKH,A.; WANG,X.J.

    2001-01-01

    The VISA experiment is designed to reach and study saturation in a high gain 800nm SASE FEL at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). To do this, the undulator must be aligned at first to within 20 {micro}m with use of a laser interferometric system. Once aligned, any small movements from the aligned position will greatly detriment the SASE FEL performance thus making continuous monitoring of the undulator position necessary. This is quite a complicated task since the 4m undulator is made up of four 1m sections enclosed in a vacuum chamber. We have developed an in situ optical system to monitor the undulator position with an accuracy better than 10 {micro}m. In addition, we have demonstrated the accuracy of this system by bringing the grossly misaligned VISA undulator ({approximately} 500 {micro}m in some locations) into alignment and attaining very high gain of the SASE FEL.

  8. Aligning Optical Fibers by Means of Actuated MEMS Wedges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Brian; Ghodssi, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) of a proposed type would be designed and fabricated to effect lateral and vertical alignment of optical fibers with respect to optical, electro-optical, optoelectronic, and/or photonic devices on integrated circuit chips and similar monolithic device structures. A MEMS device of this type would consist of a pair of oppositely sloped alignment wedges attached to linear actuators that would translate the wedges in the plane of a substrate, causing an optical fiber in contact with the sloping wedge surfaces to undergo various displacements parallel and perpendicular to the plane. In making it possible to accurately align optical fibers individually during the packaging stages of fabrication of the affected devices, this MEMS device would also make it possible to relax tolerances in other stages of fabrication, thereby potentially reducing costs and increasing yields. In a typical system according to the proposal (see Figure 1), one or more pair(s) of alignment wedges would be positioned to create a V groove in which an optical fiber would rest. The fiber would be clamped at a suitable distance from the wedges to create a cantilever with a slight bend to push the free end of the fiber gently to the bottom of the V groove. The wedges would be translated in the substrate plane by amounts Dx1 and Dx2, respectively, which would be chosen to move the fiber parallel to the plane by a desired amount Dx and perpendicular to the plane by a desired amount Dy. The actuators used to translate the wedges could be variants of electrostatic or thermal actuators that are common in MEMS.

  9. Aligning Arrays of Lenses and Single-Mode Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan

    2004-01-01

    A procedure now under development is intended to enable the precise alignment of sheet arrays of microscopic lenses with the end faces of a coherent bundle of as many as 1,000 single-mode optical fibers packed closely in a regular array (see Figure 1). In the original application that prompted this development, the precise assembly of lenses and optical fibers serves as a single-mode spatial filter for a visible-light nulling interferometer. The precision of alignment must be sufficient to limit any remaining wavefront error to a root-mean-square value of less than 1/10 of a wavelength of light. This wavefront-error limit translates to requirements to (1) ensure uniformity of both the lens and fiber arrays, (2) ensure that the lateral distance from the central axis of each lens and the corresponding optical fiber is no more than a fraction of a micron, (3) angularly align the lens-sheet planes and the fiber-bundle end faces to within a few arc seconds, and (4) axially align the lenses and the fiber-bundle end faces to within tens of microns of the focal distance. Figure 2 depicts the apparatus used in the alignment procedure. The beam of light from a Zygo (or equivalent) interferometer is first compressed by a ratio of 20:1 so that upon its return to the interferometer, the beam will be magnified enough to enable measurement of wavefront quality. The apparatus includes relay lenses that enable imaging of the arrays of microscopic lenses in a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that is part of the interferometer. One of the arrays of microscopic lenses is mounted on a 6-axis stage, in proximity to the front face of the bundle of optical fibers. The bundle is mounted on a separate stage. A mirror is attached to the back face of the bundle of optical fibers for retroreflection of light. When a microscopic lens and a fiber are aligned with each other, the affected portion of the light is reflected back by the mirror, recollimated by the microscopic lens, transmitted through the relay lenses and the beam compressor/expander, then split so that half goes to a detector and half to the interferometer. The output of the detector is used as a feedback control signal for the six-axis stage to effect alignment.

  10. ACCELERATORS: Alignment techniques for DRAGON-I LIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Yu-Tong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Liu, Yun-Long; Pan, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Lin-Wen; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2009-09-01

    DRAGON-I designed and manufactured by CAEP is a linear induction accelerator which can produce a 20 MeV-3 kA-60 ns electron beam. The high performance required for the machine is determined by the beam quality and thus is greatly dependent on the accelerator alignment. In order to reduce the chromatic effect of the beam, the stretched wire technique has been developed to measure magnetic axes of the cells precisely, and the dipole steering magnets have been equipped into each cell to correct its magnetic axis misalignment. Finally, the laser tracker has been used to examine the installation error of the accelerator. In this paper, different alignment techniques and the primary results are presented and discussed.

  11. Improved assessment of lower extremity alignment using new roentgenographic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, T.D.; Rohr, W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    Accurate assessment of total hip and knee alignment requires a single-exposure weight-bearing roentgenogram of the involved limb. The problem with single-exposure technique is that a good exposure of the hip overexposes the lower leg. This problem is solved by using leaded acrylic wedges, which, when placed in front of the X-ray tube (collimator), block excessive radiation to the lower limb and create an evenly exposed film of the entire lower extremity. The development of these collimator wedge filters and the advent of newer fast-speed film and screens have reduced the amount of radiation absorbed by the patient by eight times or more. Guided by a chart to interchange and choose between film/screen combinations, the method and technique provides the surgeon with an exact alignment of the limb and joints for all kinds of operations.

  12. Optimized features allocation technique for improved automated alignment of wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshin, Michael; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present a new fuzzy logic based approach for automatic optimized features allocation. The technique is used for improved automatic alignment and classification of silicon wafers and chips that are used in the electronic industry. The proposed automatic image processing approach was realized and experimentally demonstrated in real industrial application with typical wafers. The automatic features allocation and grading supported the industrial requirements and could replace human expert based inspection that currently is performed manually.

  13. Optical alignment of electrodes on electrical discharge machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boissevain, A. G.; Nelson, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Shadowgraph system projects magnified image on screen so that alignment of small electrodes mounted on electrical discharge machines can be corrected and verified. Technique may be adapted to other machine tool equipment where physical contact cannot be made during inspection and access to tool limits conventional runout checking procedures.

  14. Optical digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Optical interface losses between transmitter-to-fiber interface, connector-to-connector interface, and fiber-to-receiver interface were studied. System effects such as pulse dispersion, risetimes of the sources and detectors, type of fibers used, output power of the sources, and detector sensitivity were considered. Data bus systems such as TEE, Star, and Hybrid were analyzed. The matter of single fiber versus bundle technologies for future avionics systems was considered. The existing data bus system on Space Shuttle was examined and an optical analog was derived for a fiber bundle system, along with the associated power margin. System tests were performed on a feasibility model of a 9-port Star data bus system including BER, star losses, connector losses, etc. The same system was subjected to EMI between the range of 200 Hz to 10 GHz at 20V/m levels. A lightning test was also performed which simulated the conditions similar to those on Space Shuttle. The data bus system was found to be EMI and lightning hard. It is concluded that an optical data bus system is feasible for shuttle orbiter type vehicles.

  15. An alignment strategy for the optics of LINC-NIRVANA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschke, Daniel; Bertram, Thomas; Bizenberger, Peter

    2012-09-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is an instrument to combine the light from both LBT primary mirrors in an imaging Fizeau interferometer. The goals in terms of resolution and field of view are quite ambitious, which leads to a complex instrument consisting of a bunch of subsystems. The layer oriented MCAO system alone is already quite complicated and to get everything working together properly is not a small challenge. As we are reaching the completion of LINC-NIRVANA's subsystems, it becomes more and more important to define a strategy to align all these various subsystems. The specific layout of LINC-NIRVANA imposes some restrictions and difficulties on the sequence and the method of this alignment. The main problem for example is that we have to get two perfectly symmetrical focal planes to be able to properly combine them interferometrically. This is the major step on which all further alignment is based on, since all the subsystems (collimator and camera optics, wavefront sensors, cold IR optics, etc.) rely on these focal planes as a reference. I will give a small introduction on the optics of the instrument and line out the resulting difficulties as well as the strategy that we want to apply in order to overcome these.

  16. Inverting Image Data For Optical Testing And Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Redding, David; Yu, Jeffrey W.; Dumont, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from images produced by slightly incorrectly figured concave primary mirror in telescope processed into estimate of spherical aberration of mirror, by use of algorithm finding nonlinear least-squares best fit between actual images and synthetic images produced by multiparameter mathematical model of telescope optical system. Estimated spherical aberration, in turn, converted into estimate of deviation of reflector surface from nominal precise shape. Algorithm devised as part of effort to determine error in surface figure of primary mirror of Hubble space telescope, so corrective lens designed. Modified versions of algorithm also used to find optical errors in other components of telescope or of other optical systems, for purposes of testing, alignment, and/or correction.

  17. New technique for aberration diagnostics and alignment of an extreme ultraviolet Schwarzschild objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Flora, F.; Mezi, L.; Murra, D.; Torre, A.

    2013-08-01

    Schwarzschild objectives are widely used in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/soft X-ray spectral region both as reduction and magnification optics, e.g. for small-field projection lithography and microscopy, respectively. When using a Schwarzschild objective as a micro-exposure tool (MET) at high spatial resolution (half-pitch?0.1 ?m), in addition to the tight requirements on the design and surface figure for the single optics, also an accurate alignment between the two mirrors is needed to reach the planned spatial imaging detail. Ideally, at-wavelength alignment should be done in order to overcome limitations due to diffractive effects. While this can be easily performed on synchrotron beam lines, it becomes time expensive (and components consuming) on low-power laboratory plasma sources. In this work we propose and test a new technique to align a EUV Schwarzschild objective by means of ultraviolet light. The aligned objective allowed the attainment of lithographic patterning with edge response of 90 nm, as part of the laboratory-scale MET for EUV projection lithography realized at the ENEA Frascati Research Centre.

  18. Molecular alignment relaxation in polymer optical fibers for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajanca, Pavol; Cetinkaya, Onur; Schukar, Marcus; Mergo, Pawel; Webb, David J.; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-03-01

    A systematic study of annealing behavior of drawn PMMA fibers was performed. Annealing dynamics were investigated under different environmental conditions by fiber longitudinal shrinkage monitoring. The shrinkage process was found to follow a stretched exponential decay function revealing the heterogeneous nature of the underlying molecular dynamics. The complex dependence of the fiber shrinkage on initial degree of molecular alignment in the fiber, annealing time and temperature was investigated and interpreted. Moreover, humidity was shown to have a profound effect on the annealing process, which was not recognized previously. Annealing was also shown to have considerable effect on the fiber mechanical properties associated with the relaxation of molecular alignment in the fiber. The consequences of fiber annealing for the climatic stability of certain polymer optical fiber-based sensors are discussed, emphasizing the importance of fiber controlled pre-annealing with respect to the foreseeable operating conditions.

  19. A Concept for Zero-Alignment Micro Optical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    DESCOUR, MICHAEL R.; KOLOLUOMA,TERHO; LEVEY,RAVIV; RANTALA,JUHA T.; SHUL,RANDY J.; WARREN,MIAL E.; WILLISON,CHRISTI LEE

    1999-09-16

    We are developing a method of constructing compact, three-dimensional photonics systems consisting of optical elements, e.g., lenses and mirrors, photo-detectors, and light sources, e.g., VCSELS or circular-grating lasers. These optical components, both active and passive, are mounted on a lithographically prepared silicon substrate. We refer to the substrate as a micro-optical table (MOT) in analogy with the macroscopic version routinely used in optics laboratories. The MOT is a zero-alignment, microscopic optical-system concept. The position of each optical element relative to other optical elements on the MOT is determined in the layout of the MOT photomask. Each optical element fits into a slot etched in the silicon MOT. The slots are etched using a high-aspect-ratio silicon etching (HARSE) process. Additional positioning features in each slot's cross-section and complementary features on each optical element permit accurate placement of that element's aperture relative to the MOT substrate. In this paper we present the results of the first fabrication and micro-assembly experiments of a silicon-wafer based MOT. Based on these experiments, estimates of position accuracy are reported. We also report on progress in fabrication of lens elements in a hybrid sol-gel material (HSGM). Diffractive optical elements have been patterned in a 13-micron thick HSGM layer on a 150-micron thick soda-lime glass substrate. The measured ms surface roughness was 20 nm. Finally, we describe modeling of MOT systems using non-sequential ray tracing (NSRT).

  20. Anisotropic picosecond photoconductivity caused by optical alignment of electron momenta in cubic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Malevich, Y. V. Adomavi?ius, R.; Krotkus, A.; Malevich, V. L.

    2014-02-21

    Transient photoconductivity in cubic semiconductors InGaAs and InAs excited by a femtosecond laser pulse in the presence of a uniform dc electric field has been studied with the use of the Monte Carlo simulation by taking into account optical alignment of photoexcited electrons over their momenta. Simulations show that due to the optical alignment effect and energy dependence of the electron mobility, the transient photoconductivity in cubic semiconductors becomes anisotropic during the first few picoseconds after optical excitation. The magnitude of this anisotropy reaches its peak when the excess energy of the optically excited electrons approaches the threshold for the intervalley transfer. It has also been found that when the electrons are excited near the threshold energy for the intervalley transfer, the component of the transient photocurrent directed along the dc field for a short time after the end of the femtosecond optical pulse can become negative. The anisotropy of the transient photoconductivity has been investigated experimentally on (001) InGaAs sample by the optical pump - terahertz-probe technique. Optically induced changes in terahertz pulse amplitude were found to be dependent on the direction of terahertz field relative to the polarization of the optical pump pulse and to the crystallographic axes of the semiconductor. Experimental data have been explained in terms of the transient anisotropic photoconductivity and correlate with the results of the Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. Optical alignment of the SPICE EUV imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Caldwell, Martin; Eccleston, Paul; Griffin, Doug; Greenway, Paul; Fludra, Andrzej; Middleton, Kevin; Tosh, Ian; Richards, Tony; Phillipon, Anne; Schhle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    SPICE is a high resolution imaging spectrometer operating at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. SPICE will address the key science goals of Solar Orbiter by providing the quantitative knowledge of the physical state and composition of the plasmas in the solar atmosphere, in particular investigating the source regions of outflows and ejection processes which link the solar surface and corona to the heliosphere. By observing the intensities of selected spectral lines and line profiles, SPICE will derive temperature, density, flow and composition information for the plasmas in the temperature range from 10,000 K to 10MK. The optical components of the instrument consist of an off axis parabolic mirror mounted on a mechanism with a scan range of 8 arc minutes. This allows the rastering of an image of the spectrometer slit, which is interchangeable defining the instrument resolution, on the sky. A concave toroidal variable line space grating disperses, magnifies, and re-images incident radiation onto a pair of photocathode coated microchannel plate image intensifiers, coupled to active pixel sensors. For the instrument to meet the scientific and engineering objectives these components must be tightly aligned with each other and the mechanical interface to the spacecraft. This alignment must be maintained throughout the environmental exposure of the instrument to vibration and thermal cycling seen during launch, and as the spacecraft orbits around the sun. The built alignment is achieved through a mixture of dimensional metrology, autocollimation, interferometry and imaging tests. This paper shall discuss the requirements and the methods of optical alignment.

  2. Optical characterization of a dual-frequency hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, S. A.; Sambles, J. R.

    2005-04-01

    The dielectric anisotropy of a highly dispersive dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal (MDA-00-3969 (Merck KGa)) has been determined using the optical fully-leaky guided-mode technique. A 4Vrms sinusoidal voltage was applied across a 5m hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) cell at various frequencies in both the positive and negative dielectric anisotropy regime. Optical data was collected at each frequency enabling the director profile in each case to be determined using a multi-layer optics model in combination with a liquid crystal free-energy minimization routine. The thresholdless response of the HAN cell combined with the extreme sensitivity of the optical characterization technique has allowed subtle changes in dielectric permittivity with frequency to be observed. The resulting measured dispersion shows excellent agreement with a single Debye-type relaxation model.

  3. Monitoring techniques for the manufacture of tapered optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Kevin; Correia, Ricardo; Staines, Stephen E; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2015-10-01

    The use of a range of optical techniques to monitor the process of fabricating optical fiber tapers is investigated. Thermal imaging was used to optimize the alignment of the optical system; the transmission spectrum of the fiber was monitored to confirm that the tapers had the required optical properties and the strain induced in the fiber during tapering was monitored using in-line optical fiber Bragg gratings. Tapers were fabricated with diameters down to 5 ?m and with waist lengths of 20 mm using single-mode SMF-28 fiber. PMID:26479631

  4. Elevation angle alignment of quasi optical receiver mirrors of collective Thomson scattering diagnostic by sawtooth measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Moseev, D.; Meo, F.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Stejner, M.; Bindslev, H.; Furtula, V.; Kantor, M.

    2012-10-15

    Localized measurements of the fast ion velocity distribution function and the plasma composition measurements are of significant interest for the fusion community. Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics allow such measurements with spatial and temporal resolution. Localized measurements require a good alignment of the optical path in the transmission line. Monitoring the alignment during the experiment greatly benefits the confidence in the CTS measurements. An in situ technique for the assessment of the elevation angle alignment of the receiver is developed. Using the CTS diagnostic on TEXTOR without a source of probing radiation in discharges with sawtooth oscillations, an elevation angle misalignment of 0.9 Degree-Sign was found with an accuracy of 0.25 Degree-Sign .

  5. Elevation angle alignment of quasi optical receiver mirrors of collective Thomson scattering diagnostic by sawtooth measurementsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Meo, F.; Korsholm, S. B.; Bindslev, H.; Furtula, V.; Kantor, M.; Leipold, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Stejner, M.

    2012-10-01

    Localized measurements of the fast ion velocity distribution function and the plasma composition measurements are of significant interest for the fusion community. Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics allow such measurements with spatial and temporal resolution. Localized measurements require a good alignment of the optical path in the transmission line. Monitoring the alignment during the experiment greatly benefits the confidence in the CTS measurements. An in situ technique for the assessment of the elevation angle alignment of the receiver is developed. Using the CTS diagnostic on TEXTOR without a source of probing radiation in discharges with sawtooth oscillations, an elevation angle misalignment of 0.9 was found with an accuracy of 0.25.

  6. Panoramic alignment system for optical wireless communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Thomas C.; Drost, Robert J.; Rzasa, John; Sadler, Brian M.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2015-03-01

    Free space optical communication may provide a viable adjunct to radio frequency (RF) technology for mobile communications, especially in "RF-denied" settings in which RF-based communication may be prohibited or impractical. These settings may include military tactical environments or settings which suffer from RF jamming or interference. Unlike many RF communication systems, point-to-point optical communications between mobile nodes typically require establishing and maintaining alignment, which requires each node to have awareness of the locations of neighboring nodes. We propose a method to create this situational awareness between nodes using purely optical means. This method uses a camera that is focused on a hyperboloidal mirror, thus providing a 360-degree view of the surrounding environment. The camera and mirror are used to detect light emitted from the beacon transmitters from neighboring nodes, with the location of the beacon image in the sensor plane of the camera yielding elevation and azimuth information of the beacon. The beacon transmitter itself is modulated, allowing it to be distinguished from the environment. In discussing our experimental realization of this system, we assess its performance.

  7. Theoferometer for High Accuracy Optical Alignment and Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald; Leviton, Doug; Koterba, Seth

    2004-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the orientation of optical parts and systems is a pressing problem for upcoming space missions, such as stellar interferometers, requiring the knowledge and maintenance of positions to the sub-arcsecond level. Theodolites, the devices commonly used to make these measurements, cannot provide the needed level of accuracy. This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of an interferometer system to fill the widening gap between future requirements and current capabilities. A Twyman-Green interferometer mounted on a 2 degree of freedom rotation stage is able to obtain sub-arcsecond, gravity-referenced tilt measurements of a sample alignment cube. Dubbed a 'theoferometer,' this device offers greater ease-of-use, accuracy, and repeatability than conventional methods, making it a suitable 21st-century replacement for the theodolite.

  8. Nanophotonics of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: Two-dimensional photonic crystals and optical dipole antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and related nanostructures represent a novel class of condensed matters with intriguing properties due to their unique atomic structures and nanoscale morphologies. It is of particular interest to examine the interaction behavior and mechanism between the free electron gas within carbon nanotubes and the external electromagnetic wave, which may greatly facilitate the understanding of the physics of nanophotonics at the fundamental level. This dissertation is committed to investigate the optical responses of arrays of vertically aligned CNTs in different configurations, based on their fabrication by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and other techniques involved therein. The mechanisms of the photonic results are categorized into inter-CNT and intra-CNT contributions through data analysis on periodic and random CNT arrays, which then give rise to practical applications in photonic crystals and optical antennas. The growth and fabrication procedure of vertically aligned CNTs with optimized morphology and well-defined arrangement is first elaborated in this dissertation, owing to the tremendous difficulties encountered and efforts paid during the sample fabrication and optimization process, and the dominant effect of sample quality on the final results at the optical characterization stage. To fabricate periodic CNT arrays, a microsphere self-assembly technique is first adopted for catalyst patterning and a parametric study is carried out systematically for CNT growth by PECVD method. For random CNT arrays, the growth conditions are also modified so that small diameter CNTs can be grown and an IC industry-compatible procedure can be developed for practical application purposes. The inter-scatterer optical responses are studied by using hexagonal lattices of vertically aligned CNTs with various lattice constants and CNT morphologies. The diffraction patterns of theses CNT arrays are recorded and compared to theoretical calculations based on Bragg diffraction principles for two-dimensional photonic crystals where good consistencies are obtained. The intra-scatterer optical responses are investigated using random CNT arrays with various CNT spacing and lengths. The reflection spectra revealed optical antenna effects of individual vertically aligned CNTs including polarization effect, length-matching effect and multilobe radiation pattern. The results indicate that photocurrents are generated on the CNTs upon illumination. Challenges are identified and potential solutions are proposed to utilize CNT optical antennas for optoelectronic applications.

  9. Genetic Algorithm Phase Retrieval for the Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jaime; Rakoczy, John; Steincamp, James

    2003-01-01

    Phase retrieval requires calculation of the real-valued phase of the pupil fimction from the image intensity distribution and characteristics of an optical system. Genetic 'algorithms were used to solve two one-dimensional phase retrieval problem. A GA successfully estimated the coefficients of a polynomial expansion of the phase when the number of coefficients was correctly specified. A GA also successfully estimated the multiple p h e s of a segmented optical system analogous to the seven-mirror Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment (SIBOA) testbed located at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center. The SIBOA testbed was developed to investigate phase retrieval techniques. Tiphilt and piston motions of the mirrors accomplish phase corrections. A constant phase over each mirror can be achieved by an independent tip/tilt correction: the phase Conection term can then be factored out of the Discrete Fourier Tranform (DFT), greatly reducing computations.

  10. Optical Device for Converting a Laser Beam into Two Co-aligned but Oppositely Directed Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Optical systems consisting of a series of optical elements require alignment from the input end to the output end. The optical elements can be mirrors, lenses, sources, detectors, or other devices. Complex optical systems are often difficult to align from end-to-end because the alignment beam must be inserted at one end in order for the beam to traverse the entire optical path to the other end. The ends of the optical train may not be easily accessible to the alignment beam. Typically, when a series of optical elements is to be aligned, an alignment laser beam is inserted into the optical path with a pick-off mirror at one end of the series of elements. But it may be impossible to insert the beam at an end-point. It can be difficult to locate the pick-off mirror at the desired position because there is not enough space, there is no mounting surface, or the location is occupied by a source, detector, or other component. Alternatively, the laser beam might be inserted at an intermediate location (not at an end-point) and sent, first in one direction and then the other, to the opposite ends of the optical system for alignment. However, in this case, alignment must be performed in two directions and extra effort is required to co-align the two beams to make them parallel and coincident, i.e., to follow the same path as an end-to-end beam. An optical device has been developed that accepts a laser beam as input and produces two co-aligned, but counter-propagating beams. In contrast to a conventional alignment laser placed at one end of the optical path, this invention can be placed at a convenient position within the optical train and aligned to send its two beams simultaneously along precisely opposite paths that, taken together, trace out exactly the same path as the conventional alignment laser. This invention allows the user the freedom to choose locations within the optical train for placement of the alignment beam. It is also self-aligned by design and requires almost no adjustment.

  11. Neural nets for aligning optical components in harsh environments: Beam smoothing spatial filter as an example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Krasowski, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The goal is to develop an approach to automating the alignment and adjustment of optical measurement, visualization, inspection, and control systems. Classical controls, expert systems, and neural networks are three approaches to automating the alignment of an optical system. Neural networks were chosen for this project and the judgements that led to this decision are presented. Neural networks were used to automate the alignment of the ubiquitous laser-beam-smoothing spatial filter. The results and future plans of the project are presented.

  12. Ribbon plastic optical fiber linked optical transmitter and receiver modules featuring a high alignment tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak-Soon; Park, Jun-Young; Cha, Sang-Mo; Lee, Sang-Shin; Hwang, Gyo-Sun; Son, Yung-Sung

    2011-02-28

    Ribbon plastic optical fiber (POF) linked four-channel optical transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) modules have been proposed and realized featuring an excellent alignment tolerance. The two modules share a common configuration involving an optical sub-assembly (OSA) with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)/photodetectors (PDs), and their driver ICs, which are integrated onto a single printed circuit board (PCB) substrate. The OSA includes an alignment structure, a beam router and a fiber guide, which were produced by using plastic injection molding. We have accomplished a fully passive alignment between the VCSELs/PDs and the ribbon POF by taking advantage of the alignment structure that serves as a reference during the alignment of the constituent parts of the OSA. The electrical link, which largely determines the operation speed, has been remarkably shortened, due to a direct wire-bonding between the VCSELs/PDs and the driver circuits. The light sources and the detectors can be individually positioned, thereby overcoming the pitch limitations of the ribbon POF, which is made up of perfluorinated graded-index (GI) POF with a 62.5 ?m core diameter. The overall alignment tolerance was first assessed by observing the optical coupling efficiency in terms of VCSEL/PD misalignment. The horizontal and vertical 3-dB alignment tolerances were about 20 ?m and 150 ?m for the Tx and 50 ?m and over 200 ?m for the Rx, respectively. The VCSEL-to-POF coupling loss for the Tx and the POF-to-PD loss for the Rx were 3.25 dB and 1.35 dB at a wavelength of 850 nm, respectively. Subsequently, a high-speed signal at 3.2 Gb/s was satisfactorily delivered via the Tx and Rx modules over a temperature range of -30 to 70C with no significant errors; the channel crosstalk was below -30 dB. Finally, the performance of the prepared modules was verified by transmitting a 1080p HDMI video supplied by a Bluelay player to an LCD TV. PMID:21369260

  13. Electronic implementation of optical burst switching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanese, Ilijc; Darcie, Thomas E.; Ganti, Sudhakar

    2013-10-01

    Extensive research effort is ongoing in energy-efficient Internet-based communications. Optical Flow Switching (OFS) and Optical Burst Switching (OBS) offer potentially efficient alternatives to IP-router-based networks for large data transactions, but significant challenges remain. OFS requires each user to install expensive core network technology, limiting application to highly specialized nodes. OBS can achieve higher scalability but burst assembly/disassembly procedures reduce power efficiency. Finally both OFS and OBS use all-optical switching technologies for which energy efficiency and flexibility remain subject to debate. Our study aims at combining the advantages of both OBS and OFS while avoiding their shortcomings. We consider using a two-way resource reservation protocol for periodic concatenations of large (e.g. 1 Mb) packets or Media Frames (MFs). These chains of MFs (MFCs) are semi-transparent with a periodicity referred to as the "transparency degree". Each MFC is assembled and stored at an end-user machine during the resource reservation procedure and is then switched and buffered electronically along its path. The periodic configuration of each MFC enables interleaving of several chains using buffering only to align the MFs in each MFC in time, largely reducing the buffer requirements with respect to OBS. This periodicity also enables a simple scheduling algorithm to schedule large transactions with minimal control plane processing, achieving link utilization approaching 99.9%. In summary, results indicate that implementing optical burst switching techniques in the electronic domain is a compelling path forward to high-throughput power-efficient networking.

  14. Minimal-effort planning of active alignment processes for beam-shaping optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Schranner, Matthias; Mller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Schlette, Christian; Losch, Daniel; Brecher, Christian; Romann, Jrgen

    2015-03-01

    In science and industry, the alignment of beam-shaping optics is usually a manual procedure. Many industrial applications utilizing beam-shaping optical systems require more scalable production solutions and therefore effort has been invested in research regarding the automation of optics assembly. In previous works, the authors and other researchers have proven the feasibility of automated alignment of beam-shaping optics such as collimation lenses or homogenization optics. Nevertheless, the planning efforts as well as additional knowledge from the fields of automation and control required for such alignment processes are immense. This paper presents a novel approach of planning active alignment processes of beam-shaping optics with the focus of minimizing the planning efforts for active alignment. The approach utilizes optical simulation and the genetic programming paradigm from computer science for automatically extracting features from a simulated data basis with a high correlation coefficient regarding the individual degrees of freedom of alignment. The strategy is capable of finding active alignment strategies that can be executed by an automated assembly system. The paper presents a tool making the algorithm available to end-users and it discusses the results of planning the active alignment of the well-known assembly of a fast-axis collimator. The paper concludes with an outlook on the transferability to other use cases such as application specific intensity distributions which will benefit from reduced planning efforts.

  15. Holographic weapons sight as a crew optical alignment sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

    2011-06-01

    Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA's Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit's size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

  16. Holographic Weapons Sight as Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

    2011-01-01

    Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA s Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit s size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

  17. Fabrication and optical simulation of vertically aligned silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. K.; Salhi, B.; Mukhaimer, A. W.; Al-Sulaiman, F. A.

    2015-11-01

    Silicon nanowires (Si-NWs) have been considered widely as a perfect light absorber with strong evidence of enhanced optical functionalities. Here we report finite-difference time-domain simulations for Si-NWs to elucidate the key factors that determine enhanced light absorption, energy flow behavior, electric field profile, and excitons generation rate distribution. To avoid further complexity, a single Si-NW of cylindrical shape was modeled on c-Si and optimized to elucidate the aforementioned characteristics. Light absorption and energy flow distribution confirmed that Si-NW facilitates to confine photon absorption of several orders of enhancement whereas the energy flow is also distributed along the wire itself. With reference to electric field and excitons generation distribution it was revealed that Si-NW possesses the sites of strongest field distributions compared to those of flat silicon wafer. To realize the potential of Si-NWs-based thin film solar cell, a simple process was adopted to acquire vertically aligned Si-NWs grown on c-Si wafer. Further topographic characterizations were conducted through scanning electron microscope and tunneling electron microscope-coupled energy-dispersive spectroscopy.

  18. Stabilized nonlinear optical chromophore alignment in high-? guest - host polycarbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, D.; Bloor, D.; Gray, D.; Cross, G. H.

    1997-11-01

    Electric-field-poling studies of two polycarbonates doped with 2-(N,N dimethylamino)-5-nitroacetanilide revealed a long-term room-temperature alignment stability. This stability at room temperature is compared with that of similarly doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) which displays short-term relaxation. Despite several previous suggestions that hydrogen bonding between guest and host plays a major role in these effects, infra-red spectroscopic studies refuted the idea that stronger hydrogen bond formation in the polycarbonate rather than in PMMA is the dominant influence. Rather we show, using an examination of the poling currents during poling, that the re-orientation dynamics in the polycarbonate systems are markedly different. In the case of PMMA-doped films, the deposited surface charge is compensated by poling currents at a rate at least comparable to the rate of deposition of corona charge. The compensation rate for polycarbonate-doped systems was markedly lower, however, suggesting that polar re-orientation is slower. Studies of the second-order optical nonlinearities of poled thin films using second-harmonic generation revealed an apparent enhancement of the second-harmonic coefficient compared with the predictions of conventional theories. However, we note that the use of microscopic parameters (the dipole moment and the first hyperpolarizability) obtained from measurements in non-dipolar media may give rise to the apparent anomaly since high reaction fields in polycarbonate films may act to modify these parameters.

  19. Mirror alignment techniques for point-focus solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diver, R. B.

    1992-06-01

    Accurate alignment and focus of mirror facets are critical for the integration of concentrators and receivers in many of the low-cost stretched-membrane concentrators currently under development. In this report, the theoretical development of computer software that traces light rays from a source to a facet of a point-focusing solar concentrator and then to a target is given. Examples of approaches for the alignment of faceted point-focusing solar concentrators, which make use of targets generated by this computer program, are also presented.

  20. Molecular alignment and orientation with a hybrid Raman scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustard, Philip J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate a scheme for the preparation of molecular alignment and angular momentum orientation using a hybrid combination of two limits of Raman scattering. First a weak, impulsive pump pulse initializes the system via the nonresonant dynamic Stark effect. Then, having overcome the influence of the vacuum fluctuations, an amplification pulse selectively enhances the initial coherences by transient stimulated Raman scattering, generating alignment and angular momentum orientation of molecular hydrogen. The amplitude and phase of the resulting coherent dynamics are experimentally probed, indicating an amplification factor of 4.5. An analytic theory is developed to model the dynamics.

  1. Omnium-G parabolic dish optical efficiency: A comparison of two independent measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, M.; Gaul, H. W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements made at SERI of the optical efficiency of the Omnium-G parabolic dish concentrator are described. Two independent techniques are emphasized: the cold water calorimeter method; and the heat of fusion method. Results from both techniques indicate that the optical efficiency for a 10 cm receiver aperture is 25 percent. An optical alignment procedure is described that resulted in the increase in optical efficiency from 21 percent to the current value of 25 percent.

  2. A Fast and Scalable Kymograph Alignment Algorithm for Nanochannel-Based Optical DNA Mappings

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Charleston; Nilsson, Adam N.; Freitag, Camilla; Beech, Jason P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Optical mapping by direct visualization of individual DNA molecules, stretched in nanochannels with sequence-specific fluorescent labeling, represents a promising tool for disease diagnostics and genomics. An important challenge for this technique is thermal motion of the DNA as it undergoes imaging; this blurs fluorescent patterns along the DNA and results in information loss. Correcting for this effect (a process referred to as kymograph alignment) is a common preprocessing step in nanochannel-based optical mapping workflows, and we present here a highly efficient algorithm to accomplish this via pattern recognition. We compare our method with the one previous approach, and we find that our method is orders of magnitude faster while producing data of similar quality. We demonstrate proof of principle of our approach on experimental data consisting of melt mapped bacteriophage DNA. PMID:25875920

  3. Alignment control study for the solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the alignment and focus errors than can be tolerated, methods of sensing such errors, and mechanisms to make the necessary corrections were addressed. Alternate approaches and their relative merits were considered. The results of this study indicate that adequate alignment control can be achieved.

  4. Enzyme activity assays within microstructured optical fibers enabled by automated alignment.

    PubMed

    Warren-Smith, Stephen C; Nie, Guiying; Schartner, Erik P; Salamonsen, Lois A; Monro, Tanya M

    2012-12-01

    A fluorescence-based enzyme activity assay has been demonstrated within a small-core microstructured optical fiber (MOF) for the first time. To achieve this, a reflection-based automated alignment system has been developed, which uses feedback and piezoelectric actuators to maintain optical alignment. The auto-alignment system provides optical stability for the time required to perform an activity assay. The chosen assay is based on the enzyme proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC6) and has important applications in women's health. PMID:23243579

  5. The alignment and isostatic mount bonding technique of the aerospace Cassegrain telescope primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei Cheng; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chang, Yu-Ting; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet both optical performance and structural stiffness requirements of the aerospace Cassegrain telescope, iso-static mount is used as the interface between the primary mirror and the main plate. This article describes the alignment and iso-static mount bonding technique of the primary mirror by assistance of CMM. The design and assembly of mechanical ground support equipment (MGSE) which reduces the deformation of primary mirror by the gravity effect is also presented. The primary mirror adjusting MGSE consists of X-Y linear translation stages, rotation stage and kinematic constrain platform which provides the function of decenter, orientation, tilt and height adjustment of the posture sequentially. After CMM measurement, the radius of curvature, conic constant, decenter and tilt, etc. will be calculated. According to these results, the posture of the mirror will be adjusted to reduce the tilt by the designed MGSE within 0.02 degrees and the distance deviation from the best fitted profile of mirror to main plate shall be less than 0.01 mm. After that, EC 2216 adhesive is used to bond mirror and iso-static mount. During iso-static mount bonding process, CMM is selected to monitor the relative position deviation of the iso-static mount until the adhesive completely cured. After that, the wave front sensors and strain gauges are used to monitor the strain variation while the iso-static mount mounted in the main plate with the screws by the torque wrench. This step is to prevent deformation of the mirror caused from force of the iso-static mount during the mounting process. In the end, the interferometer is used for the optical performance test with +1G and -1G to check the alignment and bonding technique is well or not.

  6. Null test fourier domain alignment technique for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    Alignment technique for calibrating a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer involves three independent steps where the first two steps independently align the image points and pinholes in rotation and separation to a fixed reference coordinate system, e.g, CCD. Once the two sub-elements have been properly aligned to the reference in two parameters (separation and orientation), the third step is to align the two sub-element coordinate systems to each other in the two remaining parameters (x,y) using standard methods of locating the pinholes relative to some easy to find reference point.

  7. Phase Retrieval Using a Genetic Algorithm on the Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jaime R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center s Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment (SIBOA) Testbed was developed to test phase retrieval algorithms and hardware techniques. Individuals working with the facility developed the idea of implementing phase retrieval by breaking the determination of the tip/tilt of each mirror apart from the piston motion (or translation) of each mirror. Presented in this report is an algorithm that determines the optimal phase correction associated only with the piston motion of the mirrors. A description of the Phase Retrieval problem is first presented. The Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment (SIBOA) Testbeb is then described. A Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is necessary to transfer the incoming wavefront (or estimate of phase error) into the spatial frequency domain to compare it with the image. A method for reducing the DFT to seven scalar/matrix multiplications is presented. A genetic algorithm is then used to search for the phase error. The results of this new algorithm on a test problem are presented.

  8. Wavelength-addressed intra-board optical interconnection by plug-in alignment with a micro hole array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakama, Kenichi; Tokiwa, Yuu; Mikami, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    Intra-board interconnection between optical waveguide channels is suitable for assembling high-speed optoelectronic printed wiring boards (OE-PWB). Here, we propose a novel optical interconnection method combining techniques for both wavelength-based optical waveguide addressing and plug-in optical waveguide alignment with a micro-hole array (MHA). This array was fabricated by the mask transfer method. For waveguide addressing, we used a micro passive wavelength selector (MPWS) module, which is a type of Littrow mount monochromator consisting of an optical diffraction grating, a focusing lens, and the MHA. From the experimental results, we found that the wavelength addressing operation of the MPWS module was effective for intra-board optical interconnection.

  9. Optically guided mode study of nematic liquid crystal alignment on a zero-order grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallam, B. T.; Sambles, J. R.

    2000-06-01

    The characterization of a liquid crystal cell, which comprises one zero-order (that is, at the wavelength of study it is nondiffractive) diffraction grating and one rubbed polyimide-coated substrate, has been performed using an optically guided mode technique. The cell is filled with nematic liquid crystal E7 (manufactured and sold by Merck, Poole, U.K.). The excitation of fully leaky guided modes within the liquid crystal layer has allowed the optical director profile to be quantified under the application of weak in-plane electric fields. The fitting of angle-dependent optical data to multilayer optical theory yields the accurate twist profile of the liquid crystal for different field strengths. Comparisons with profiles predicted from elastic continuum theory, assuming a Rapini-Papoular-type anchoring at the surfaces, allow both the azimuthal anchoring strength at each surface and the twist elastic constant of the bulk to be accurately determined. Repeating these measurements as a function of temperature allows the surface and bulk order parameters of the grating-aligned liquid crystal to be deduced.

  10. Underwater Multi-Vehicle Trajectory Alignment and Mapping Using Acoustic and Optical Constraints.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ricard; Gracias, Nuno; Ridao, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Multi-robot formations are an important advance in recent robotic developments, as they allow a group of robots to merge their capacities and perform surveys in a more convenient way. With the aim of keeping the costs and acoustic communications to a minimum, cooperative navigation of multiple underwater vehicles is usually performed at the control level. In order to maintain the desired formation, individual robots just react to simple control directives extracted from range measurements or ultra-short baseline (USBL) systems. Thus, the robots are unaware of their global positioning, which presents a problem for the further processing of the collected data. The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, we present a global alignment method to correct the dead reckoning trajectories of multiple vehicles to resemble the paths followed during the mission using the acoustic messages passed between vehicles. Second, we focus on the optical mapping application of these types of formations and extend the optimization framework to allow for multi-vehicle geo-referenced optical 3D mapping using monocular cameras. The inclusion of optical constraints is not performed using the common bundle adjustment techniques, but in a form improving the computational efficiency of the resulting optimization problem and presenting a generic process to fuse optical reconstructions with navigation data. We show the performance of the proposed method on real datasets collected within the Morph EU-FP7 project. PMID:26999144

  11. The optical wing aligning device of the Langley Field tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H; Bacon, D L

    1921-01-01

    Described here is a convenient and accurate method of aligning the wing chord with the airflow. The device was developed to permit rapid and accurate alignment of airfoils and models with the airstream passing through the tunnel. It consists of three main parts: a projector, a reflector, and a target. The arrangement, which is shown in a figure, has proven satisfactory in operation. It is far better than the old method of sighting across a long batten, as the operator of a balance may see the target and correctly judge the accuracy of his alignment. Whereas the old method required two operators and several minutes time to align to within 1/10 degree, this method enables one operator to align a wing to within 1/100 of a degree in a few seconds. This method also has the advantage of being able to measure the angle of the wing while the tunnel is running. Thus, the true angle of incidence is shown.

  12. Analysis of the influence of manufacturing and alignment related errors on an optical tweezer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, R.; Sinzinger, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present the design process as well as experimental results of an optical system for trapping particles in air. For positioning applications of micro-sized objects onto a glass wafer we developed a highly efficient optical tweezer. The focus of this paper is the iterative design process where we combine classical optics design software with a ray optics based force simulation tool. Thus we can find the best compromise which matches the optical systems restrictions with stable trapping conditions. Furthermore we analyze the influence of manufacturing related tolerances and errors in the alignment process of the optical elements on the optical forces. We present the design procedure for the necessary optical elements as well as experimental results for the aligned system.

  13. The deterministic optical alignment of the HERMES spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gers, Luke; Staszak, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) is a four channel, VPH-grating spectrograph fed by two 400 fiber slit assemblies whose construction and commissioning has now been completed at the Anglo Australian Telescope (AAT). The size, weight, complexity, and scheduling constraints of the system necessitated that a fully integrated, deterministic, opto-mechanical alignment system be designed into the spectrograph before it was manufactured. This paper presents the principles about which the system was assembled and aligned, including the equipment and the metrology methods employed to complete the spectrograph integration.

  14. Genetic Algorithm Phase Retrieval for the Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Steincamp, James; Taylor, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    A reduced surrogate, one point crossover genetic algorithm with random rank-based selection was used successfully to estimate the multiple phases of a segmented optical system modeled on the seven-mirror Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment testbed located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Aligned Nanofibers from Polypyrrole/Graphene as Electrodes for Regeneration of Optic Nerve via Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lu; Zhao, Bingxin; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Xuan; Zeng, Chao; Shi, Haiyan; Xu, Xiaoxue; Lin, Tong; Dai, Liming; Liu, Yong

    2016-03-23

    The damage of optic nerve will cause permanent visual field loss and irreversible ocular diseases, such as glaucoma. The damage of optic nerve is mainly derived from the atrophy, apoptosis or death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Though some progress has been achieved on electronic retinal implants that can electrically stimulate undamaged parts of RGCs or retina to transfer signals, stimulated self-repair/regeneration of RGCs has not been realized yet. The key challenge for development of electrically stimulated regeneration of RGCs is the selection of stimulation electrodes with a sufficient safe charge injection limit (Qinj, i.e., electrochemical capacitance). Most traditional electrodes tend to have low Qinj values. Herein, we synthesized polypyrrole functionalized graphene (PPy-G) via a facile but efficient polymerization-enhanced ball milling method for the first time. This technique could not only efficiently introduce electron-acceptor nitrogen to enhance capacitance, but also remain a conductive platform-the π-π conjugated carbon plane for charge transportation. PPy-G based aligned nanofibers were subsequently fabricated for guided growth and electrical stimulation (ES) of RGCs. Significantly enhanced viability, neurite outgrowth and antiaging ability of RGCs were observed after ES, suggesting possibilities for regeneration of optic nerve via ES on the suitable nanoelectrodes. PMID:26926578

  16. Stitching Techniques Advance Optics Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Because NASA depends on the fabrication and testing of large, high-quality aspheric (nonspherical) optics for applications like the James Webb Space Telescope, it sought an improved method for measuring large aspheres. Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Goddard Space Flight Center, QED Technologies, of Rochester, New York, upgraded and enhanced its stitching technology for aspheres. QED developed the SSI-A, which earned the company an R&D 100 award, and also developed a breakthrough machine tool called the aspheric stitching interferometer. The equipment is applied to advanced optics in telescopes, microscopes, cameras, medical scopes, binoculars, and photolithography."

  17. Developing and testing an optical alignment system for SALT"s segmented primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Allan; Gonsiorowski, Tom; Roberts, Jennifer; Bruno, Theresa L.; Swiegers, Jian; Gajjar, Hitesh; Swat, Arek

    2004-10-01

    The design of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), which is based closely on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at the University of Texas but includes advances incorporating lessons learned from HET, is briefly reviewed. The flowdown of requirements from the optical error budget to the primary mirror control subsystems is presented. The techniques and algorithms used by the Center of Curvature Alignment Sensor (CCAS) to measure segment tilt and piston and estimate the global radius of curvature of the primary are discussed in detail. The steps in the process that allows CCAS to capture and identify segments misaligned by more than 70 arcsec and bring them into alignment with residual errors less than 50milli-arcsec is fully described. Next, the hardware and software designs of CCAS are presented, as well as the results of laboratory performance testing. CCAS has been installed and integrated with the primary mirror control system. Performance results of the integrated system over a range of environmental conditions will be shown. Finally, the overall results of this project are summarized and suggestions for future improvements presented.

  18. Techniques used in the alignment of TJNAF's accelerators and experimental halls

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Curtis; J.C. Dahlberg; W.A. Oren; K.J. Tremblay

    1997-10-13

    With the successful completion of the main accelerator in 1994 the alignment emphasis at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly CEBAF) switched to the continuing installation and upgrades in the three experimental halls. This presentation examines the techniques used in completing the CEBAF machine and also gives an update on the alignment of the new accelerator, a 1 kW free-electron laser, currently being built at the facility.

  19. Optical tweezers technique and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, HongLian; Li, ZhiYuan

    2013-12-01

    Since their advent in the 1980s, optical tweezers have attracted more and more attention due to their unique non-contact and non-invasion characteristics and their wide applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medical science and nanoscience. In this paper, we introduce the basic principle, the history and typical applications of optical tweezers and review our recent experimental works on the development and application of optical tweezers technique. We will discuss in detail several technological issues, including high precision displacement and force measurement in single-trap and dual-trap optical tweezers, multi-trap optical tweezers with each trap independently and freely controlled by means of space light modulator, and incorporation of cylindrical vector optical beams to build diversified optical tweezers beyond the conventional Gaussian-beam optical tweezers. We will address the application of these optical tweezers techniques to study biophysical problems such as mechanical deformation of cell membrane and binding energy between plant microtubule and microtubule associated proteins. Finally we present application of the optical tweezers technique for trapping, transporting, and patterning of metallic nanoparticles, which can be harnessed to manipulate surface plasmon resonance properties of these nanoparticles.

  20. TKA Sagittal Alignment with Navigation Systems and Conventional Techniques Vary Only a Few Degrees

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akio; Iwaki, Hiroyoshi; Ohashi, Hirotsugu; Takaoka, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    Navigation systems have been developed to achieve more reliable prosthetic alignment in TKAs. However, the component alignment in the sagittal plane is reportedly less reliable than in the coronal plane even with navigation systems. We measured and compared sagittal prosthetic alignments for TKAs with the conventional technique and three navigation approaches to establish reference frames, using radiographs of the entire lower extremity while standing. The sagittal alignments simulated on the radiographs with the conventional technique and navigation systems differed by a mean of 2° to 4°. Use of navigation systems resulted in a mean of 1° to 4° hyperextension between the femoral and tibial components and use of the conventional technique resulted in a mean of 1° flexion. Use of different reference points on the distal femoral condyle for the navigation systems resulted in differences of as much as 3° alignment in the sagittal plane. Although optimal prosthetic alignment for TKA in the sagittal plane is unknown, surgeons and technicians using navigation systems should be aware of this difference in the sagittal plane and the risk of hyperextension between the femoral and tibial components, which might be associated with osteolysis and anterior post-cam impingement. PMID:18712579

  1. Field-aligned electric currents and their measurement by the incoherent backscatter technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P.; Cole, K. D.; Lejeume, G.

    1975-01-01

    Field aligned electric currents flow in the magnetosphere in many situations of fundamental geophysical interest. It is shown here that the incoherent backscatter technique can be used to measure these currents when the plasma line can be observed. The technique provides a ground based means of measuring these currents which complements the rocket and satellite ones.

  2. Generation of terahertz radiation by optical excitation of aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Titova, Lyubov V; Pint, Cary L; Zhang, Qi; Hauge, Robert H; Kono, Junichiro; Hegmann, Frank A

    2015-05-13

    We have generated coherent pulses of terahertz radiation from macroscopic arrays of aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) excited by femtosecond optical pulses without externally applied bias. The generated terahertz radiation is polarized along the SWCNT alignment direction. We propose that top-bottom asymmetry in the SWCNT arrays produces a built-in electric field in semiconducting SWCNTs, which enables generation of polarized terahertz radiation by a transient photocurrent surge directed along the nanotube axis. PMID:25879274

  3. All-optical signal processing technique for secure optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Su, Bing; Ye, Ya-lin; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shao-feng; Duan, Tao; Duan, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Secure optical communication technologies are important means to solve the physical layer security for optical network. We present a scheme of secure optical communication system by all-optical signal processing technique. The scheme consists of three parts, as all-optical signal processing unit, optical key sequence generator, and synchronous control unit. In the paper, all-optical signal processing method is key technology using all-optical exclusive disjunction (XOR) gate based on optical cross-gain modulation effect, has advantages of wide dynamic range of input optical signal, simple structure and so on. All-optical XOR gate composed of two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is a symmetrical structure. By controlling injection current, input signal power, delay and filter bandwidth, the extinction ratio of XOR can be greater than 8dB. Finally, some performance parameters are calculated and the results are analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can be achieved over 10Gbps optical signal encryption and decryption, which is simple, easy to implement, and error-free diffusion.

  4. Automated alignment of optical components for high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Guerrero Lule, V.

    2012-03-01

    Despite major progress in developing brilliant laser sources a huge potential for cost reductions can be found in simpler setups and automated assembly processes, especially for large volume applications. In this presentation, a concept for flexible automation in optics assembly is presented which is based on standard micro assembly systems with relatively large workspace and modular micromanipulators to enhance the system with additional degrees of freedom and a very high motion resolution. The core component is a compact flexure-based micromanipulator especially designed for the alignment of micro optical components which will be described in detail. The manipulator has been applied in different scenarios to develop and investigate automated alignment processes. This paper focuses on the automated alignment of fast axis collimation (FAC) lenses which is a crucial step during the production of diode lasers. The handling and positioning system, the measuring arrangement for process feedback during active alignment as well as the alignment strategy will be described. The fine alignment of the FAC lens is performed with the micromanipulator under concurrent analysis of the far and the near field intensity distribution. An optimization of the image processing chains for the alignment of a FAC in front of a diode bar led to cycle times of less than 30 seconds. An outlook on other applications and future work regarding the development of automated assembly processes as well as new ideas for flexible assembly systems with desktop robots will close the talk.

  5. Real-time Optical Alignment and Diagnostic System (ROADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The ultimate and most frequent usage of ROADS will be the alignment of subassemblies (collector and collimator) prior to their installation in a chamber. The system as designed has inherent associated capabilities well applied to acceptance testing of the No. 4 mirror, prediction of in-chamber performance, generation of a catalog of test results and other data, providing data for the plotting of isointensity lines, and other applications which are discussed. The ROADS system will collect, process, display, analyze, and retain data as required for components, partial subassemblies, complete subassemblies, complete modules, and multimodular arrays.

  6. Error Management Techniques For Optical Disk Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsover, S. L.; Thomas, C. H.

    1982-04-01

    RCA Corporation has been actively developing optical disc media, techniques and systems which can store 1011 bits per disc at bit error rates of 10-9 and user data rates of 100 Mb/s. In parallel with efforts to improve the media and hardware, new techniques have been developed to manage the statistically inevitable errors which will occur in the recording, storage and playback process. These techniques, which include EDAC codes, data blocking formats and data verification schemes, have been implemented in operating hardware at RCA. Error sources in Optical Disc systems are outlined and media and hardware error management techniques are described.

  7. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  8. Single-walled carbon nanotube transistors fabricated by advanced alignment techniques utilizing CVD growth and dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Xuan, Y.; Ye, P. D.; Mohammadi, S.; Lee, S. W.

    2008-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (SWNT-FETs) are fabricated by two different alignment techniques. The first technique is based on direct synthesis of an aligned SWNTs array on quartz wafer using chemical vapor deposition. The transistor with three SWNTs and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 gate oxide shows a contact resistance of 280 K?, a maximum on-current of -7 ?A, and a high Ion/Ioff ratio (>103). The second technique is based on room temperature self-assembly of SWNT bundles using dielectrophoresis. By applying AC electric fields, we have aligned nanotube bundles between drain and source contact patterns of a transistor at room temperature. Transistors based on twisted bundle of SWNTs show high contact resistance (M? range) and low current drive in the order of tens of nA.

  9. Object recognition using an efficient technique for aligning quadric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvertos, Nicolas; D'Cunha, Ivan

    1992-11-01

    Pose and orientation of an object are central issues in 3-D recognition problems. Most of today's available techniques require considerable pre-processing, such as detecting edges or joints, fitting curves or surfaces to segment images, and trying to extract higher order features from the input images. In this paper we present a method based on analytical geometry, whereby all the rotation parameters of any quadric surface are determined and subsequently eliminated. This procedure is iterative in nature and has been found to converge to the desired results in as few as three iterations. The approach enables us to position the quadric surface in a desired coordinate system, then, utilize the presented shape information to explicitly represent and recognize the 3-D surface. Experiments were conducted with simulated data for objects such as hyperboloid of one and two sheets, elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloid, elliptic and hyperbolic cylinders, ellipsoids, and quadric cones. Real data of quadric cones and cylinders were also utilized. Both of these sets yielded excellent results.

  10. Electrical dependencies of optical modulation capabilities in digitally addressed parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez, Francisco Javier; Mrquez, Andrs; Gallego, Sergi; Ortuo, Manuel; Francs, Jorge; Belndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2014-06-01

    Parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) displays have found wide acceptance in applications requiring phase-only modulation. Among LCoS devices, and PA-LCoS as a specific case, digital addressing has become a very common technology. In principle, modern digital technology provides some benefits with respect to analog addressing such as reduced interpixel cross-talk, lower power consumption and supply voltage, gray level scale repeatability, high programmability, and noise robustness. However, there are also some degradating issues, such as flicker, which may be enhanced. We analyze the characteristics of the digital pulse width modulated voltage signals in relation to their effect on the optical modulation capabilities of LCoS displays. We apply calibration techniques developed in our laboratory, basically the classical linear polarimeter extended to take into account the existence of flicker. Various digital sequence formats are discussed, focusing the analysis on the variations in the magnitude of the applied voltages across the LC layer. From this analysis, we obtain how to amplify the retardance dynamic range and how to enhance linearity in the device without enhancing flicker and without diminishing the number of available quantization levels. Electrical configurations intended for phase-only and intensity modulation regimes, useful in diffractive optics, are given.

  11. Optical metrology and alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Joseph A.; Bos, Brent J.; Davila, Pamela S.; Eichhorn, William L.; Frey, Bradley J.; Hagopian, John G.; Hylan, Jason E.; Marsh, James M.; McGuffey, Douglas B.; McMann, Joseph; Nowak, Maria D.; Ohl, Raymond G., IV; Redman, Kevin W.; Sabatke, Derek; Sampler, Henry P.; Stock, Joseph; Sullivan, Joseph; Wenzel, Gregory W.; Wright, Geraldine A.; Young, Philip

    2008-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an infrared space telescope scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST has a 6.5 meter diameter deployable and segmented primary mirror, a deployable secondary mirror, and a deployable sun-shade. The optical train of JWST consists of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE), and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), which contains four science instruments. When the four science instruments are integrated to ISIM at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the structure becomes the ISIM Element. The ISIM Element is assembled at ambient cleanroom conditions using theodolite, photogrammetry, and laser tracker metrology, but it operates at cryogenic temperature, and temperature-induced mechanical and alignment changes are measured using photogrammetry. The OTE simulator (OSIM) is a high-fidelity, cryogenic, telescope simulator that features a ~1.5 meter diameter powered mirror. OSIM is used to test the optical performance of the science instruments in the ISIM Element, including focus, pupil shear, and wavefront error. OSIM is aligned to the flight coordinate system in six degrees of freedom via OSIM-internal cryogenic mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors. We highlight optical metrology methods, introduce the ISIM and the Science Instruments, describe the ambient alignment and test plan, the cryogenic test plan, and verification of optical performance of the ISIM Element in cryo-vacuum environment.

  12. Aligning and testing non-null optical system with deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weirui; Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2014-09-01

    We present our analysis methodology for a 20.3 cm prototype optical tracker to determine why instabilities occur below 50 Hz and suggest improvements. The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer makes use of six small optical telescope stations spaced along a Y-array to synthesize an equivalent single larger telescope. Piezoelectric-driven optical trackers steer 12.5 cm output beams from each station to an optics laboratory up to 700 m distant. A percentage of this starlight is split off and used in a closed-loop feedback to update the pointing of the telescope and steering of the tracker. Steering stabilizes atmospheric induced beam trajectory deviations, required for fringe generation. Because of closedloop feedback, we require all fundamental frequencies to be at least 3 times the desired operational frequency, or 150 Hz. These trackers are modified commercial aluminum gimbal mounts with flex-pivot axles and very small damping ratio. Steering is tip/tilt mirror rotation by push-only actuators and a return spring. It is critical contact be maintained between actuator, mirror mount and return spring. From our dynamic analysis, the 122 N return spring is 2.9 times that required, and has a natural frequency equal to 238 Hz. The range of steering, 140 microradian, is double that required and the 0.077 microradian precision is 2.6 times that required. The natural frequency of the tracker is 66 Hz and the tuned closed-loop operational frequency is only 22 Hz. We conclude the low fundamental frequency of the mount limits its performance below 50 Hz and stiffening the structure is required.

  13. Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 μm. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflectance signal from the precontact lens tear film is clearly observed, and the thinning dynamics have been easily recorded from 3.69 to 1.31 μm with lipid layer thickness variation in the range of 41 to 67 nm. The accuracy of the measurement is better than ±0.58% of the film thickness at an estimated tear film refractive index error of ±0.001. The fiber-based reflectometer system is compact and easy to handle. PMID:24500519

  14. Techniques for Solution- Assisted Optical Contacting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVine, Glenn; Ware, Brent; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Spero, Robert E.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a solution-assisted contacting technique for optical contacting. An optic of surface flatness Lambda/20 was successfully contacted with one of moderate surface quality, or Lambda/4. Optics used were both ultra-low expansion (ULE) glass (Lambda/4 and Lambda/20) and fused silica (Lambda/20). A stainless steel template of the intended interferometer layout was designed and constructed with three contact points per optic. The contact points were all on a common side of the template. The entire contacting jig was tilted at about 30 . Thus, when the isopropanol was applied, each optic slid due to gravity, resting on the contact points. All of the contacting was performed in a relatively dusty laboratory. A number of successful contacts were achieved where up to two or three visible pieces of dust could be seen. These were clearly visible due to refraction patterns between the optic and bench. On a number of optics, the final step of dropping isopropyl between the surfaces was repeated until a successful contact was achieved. The new procedures realized in this work represent a simplification for optical contacting in the laboratory. They will both save time and money spent during the contacting process, and research and development phases. The techniques outlined are suitable for laboratory experiments, research, and initial development stages.

  15. Optical design for LED dental lighting with imaging optic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young-Hoon; Bae, Seung-Chul; Lim, Hae-Ryong; Jang, Ja-Soon

    2011-10-01

    We did a research as follows. First of all, selected optimum LEDs and mixed it for higher CRI, target CCT and illuminance. The following step is optical module design. Light directional characteristics of dental lighting must be concentrated to illuminate a part. Because This part is oral cavity, The feature of illumination pattern is rectangular. For uniformity of illuminance and clearer pattern boundary at reference distance, we designed it as direct type (no use reflector) by imaging optic technique. First, Image is rectangular feature, so object must be the same feature with magnification in general imaging optics. But the emitting surface feature of LED (1W grade) is square or circular generally. For that reason, made object as rectangular source with rectangular lightguide. This optical component was designed for higher efficiency by illumination optic technique. Next, we designed optical lenses based on imaging optic technique for image object feature using Code V. set to high NA for light efficiency in this design. Fundamentally, Finally, This product is luminaire so illumination simulation and result analysis were executed by LightTools as illumination design software.

  16. Surveying and optical tooling technologies combined to align a skewed beamline at the LAMPF accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bauke, W.; Clark, D.A.; Trujillo, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Optical Tooling evolved from traditional surveying, and both technologies are sometimes used interchangeably in large industrial installations, since the instruments and their specialized adapters and supports complement each other well. A unique marriage of both technologies was accomplished in a novel application at LAMPF, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. LAMPF consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, one of which had to be altered to accommodate a new beamline for a neutrino experiment. The new line was to be installed into a crowded beam tunnel and had to be skewed and tilted in compound angles to avoid existing equipment. In this paper we describe how Optical Tooling was used in conjunction with simple alignment and reference fixtures to set fiducials on the magnets and other mechanical components of the beamline, and how theodolites and sight levels were then adapted to align these components along the calculated skew planes. Design tolerances are compared with measured alignment results.

  17. Tests and results of active alignment fiber optic connectors for space usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, Lisa J.

    1996-10-01

    There exist commercially available fiber optic connectors which are capable of extremely low insertion losses per mated pair due to the utilization of a unique process of optical centering and crimping during termination. We have identified both single-fiber and multi-fiber connectors which utilize this process and have acquired a fabrication line which is capable of performing the active alignment termination process. This paper discusses tests and results required for space usage.

  18. Electro-optical effects in hybrid aligned flexoelectric nematic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derfel, G.; Buczkowska, M.

    2013-11-01

    Liquid crystal cells with hybrid boundary anchoring, filled with nematic possessing flexoelectric properties, and subjected to external electric field, were studied numerically in order to find the influence of flexoelectricity on their behavior. Such layers may adopt three kinds of director structures: uniform planar, uniform homeotropic, and non-uniform which is intermediate between the former two. Stability of these structures depends on flexoelectric coefficients, anchoring strengths, thickness of the layer, dielectric anisotropy, and elastic constants. Changes of bias voltage cause transitions between them, which lead to electro-optical effects if the layers are placed between crossed polarizers. Three cases of transitions were considered: (i) transition between bright planar and dark non-uniform states, (ii) between dark planar and bright non-uniform states, and (iii) between dark homeotropic and bright non-uniform states. The director distributions in various states corresponding to various grey levels were calculated, and the electro-optic characteristics were obtained. The dynamics of the transitions between dark, bright, and intermediate states was determined taking into account the backflow effect. It was found that the transitions are faster when the nematic is devoid of flexoelectric properties.

  19. Microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO deposited onto vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by physical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Borkar, Tushar; Chang, Won Seok; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Shepherd, Nigel D.; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2012-10-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films with thicknesses of 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, and 50 nm were deposited via magnetron sputtering onto the surface of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ZnO/CNTs heterostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. No structural degradation of the CNTs was observed and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the nanostructured ZnO layers show that the optical properties of these films are typical of ZnO deposited at low temperatures. The results indicate that magnetron sputtering is a viable technique for growing heterostructures and depositing functional layers onto CNTs.

  20. Alignment and Integration Techniques for Mirror Segment Pairs on the Constellation X Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Lehan, John; Olsen, Larry; Owens, Scott; Saha, Timo; Wallace, Tom; Zhang, Will

    2007-01-01

    We present the concepts behind current alignment and integration techniques for testing a Constellation-X primary-secondary mirror segment pair in an x-ray beam line test. We examine the effects of a passive mount on thin glass x-ray mirror segments, and the issues of mount shape and environment on alignment. We also investigate how bonding and transfer to a permanent housing affects the quality of the final image, comparing predicted results to a full x-ray test on a primary secondary pair.

  1. Optical switch and interconnect techniques based on semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Deming; Hu, Xiaojun; Huang, Dexiu

    1999-11-01

    In this paper the new progress in the researching fields of optical switch were reviewed. A compute model for calculating the switch speed, extinction ratio, noise figure, dynamic range as well as the switch gain was presented. The switch time, contrast ratio of SOA gate are calculated and evaluated. The methods to suppress the ASE noise are discussed. A novel and special method to extract optical route signal is presented. The result of the theoretical analysis showed that the optical gain of the SOA should be setup in optimum so as to obtain the best performances of the switch. An optical switch matrix using the polarization-insensitive strained quantum well SOAs and the optical couplers was fabricated and a novel and simplified method for extracting the logical control signal of the optical switch was specially designed, in which the optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) techniques could be used to fabricate a compact, effect, high speed and low-cost optical switch matrix. IT is show that with the rapid improvement of OEIC techniques, the larger scale switch matrix based on SOA gate would be able to get into practice in the near future.

  2. Optimal analysis for segmented mirror capture and alignment in space optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Yu, Xin; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Lei

    2008-07-01

    A great deal segmented mirror errors consisting of piston and tip-tilt exist when space large aperture segmented optics system deploys. These errors will result in the departure of segmented mirrors images from the view. For that, proper scanning function should be adopted to control actuators rotating the segmented mirror, so that the images of segmented mirror can be put into the view and placed in the ideal position. In my paper, the scanning functions such as screw-type, rose-type, and helianthus-type and so on are analyzed and discussed. And the optimal scanning function principle based on capturing images by the fastest velocity is put forward. After capturing, each outer segmented mirror should be brought back into alignment with the central segment. In my paper, the central and outer segments with surface errors have the different figure, a new way to control the alignment accuracy is present, which can decrease the bad effects from mirror surface and position errors effectively. As a sample, a simulation experiment is carried to study the characteristics of different scanning functions and the effects of mirror surface and position errors on alignment accuracy. In simulation experiment, the piston and tip-tilt errors scale and the ideal position of segmented mirror are given, the capture and alignment process is realized by utilizing the improved optics design software ZEMAX, the optimal scanning function and the alignment accuracy is determined.

  3. A comparison between using incoherent or coherent sources to align and test an adaptive optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The concept in the initial alignment of the segmented mirror adaptive optics telescope called the phased array mirror extendable large aperture telescope (Pamela) is to produce an optical transfer function (OTF) which closely approximates the diffraction limited value which would correspond to a system pupil function that is unity over the aperture and zero outside. There are differences in the theory of intensity measurements between coherent and incoherent radiation. As a result, some of the classical quantities which describe the performance of an optical system for incoherent radiation can not be defined for a coherent field. The most important quantity describing the quality of an optical system is the OTF and for a coherent source the OTF is not defined. Instead a coherent transfer function (CTF) is defined. The main conclusion of the paper is that an incoherent collimated source and not a collimated laser source is preferred to calibrate the Hartmann wavefront sensor (WFS) of an aligned adaptive optical system. A distant laser source can be used with minimum problems to correct the system for atmospheric turbulence. The collimation of the HeNe laser alignment source can be improved by using a very small pin hole in the spatial filter so only the central portion of the beam is transmitted and the beam from the filter is nearly constant in amplitude. The size of this pin hole will be limited by the sensitivity of the lateral effect diode (LEDD) elements.

  4. Polymer nanofibers embedded with aligned gold nanorods: a new platform for plasmonic studies and optical sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Younan; Tong, Limin; Xu, Xia; Ying, Yibin

    2012-06-13

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of polymer nanofibers embedded with gold nanorods in uniaxial alignment for applications in optical waveguiding and sensing. Using a waveguiding approach, we demonstrated highly efficient excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance in the embedded gold nanorods with a photon-to-plasmon-conversion efficiency as high as 70% for a single nanorod at its longitudinal resonance wavelength. On the basis of waveguiding polymer nanofibers embedded with gold nanorods, we further demonstrated compact optical humidity sensors with a response time of 110 ms and an operation optical power as low as 500 pW. PMID:22582809

  5. Resonant optical alignment and orientation of Mn2+ spins in CdMnTe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshnikov, K. A.; Langer, L.; Akimov, I. A.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Averkiev, N. S.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.

    2015-11-01

    We report on spin orientation and alignment of Mn2 + ions in (Cd,Mn)Te diluted magnetic semiconductor crystals using resonant intracenter excitation with circular- and linear-polarized light. The resulting polarized emission of the magnetic ions is observed at low temperatures when the spin relaxation time of the Mn2 + ions is in the order of 1 ms , which considerably exceeds the photoluminescence decay time of 23 ? s . We demonstrate that the experimental data on optical orientation and alignment of Mn2 + ions can be explained using a phenomenological model that is based on the approximation of isolated centers.

  6. Experimental Estimation of CLASP Spatial Resolution: Results of the Instrument's Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giono, Gabrial; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Narukage, Noriyuki; Bando, Takamasa; Kano, Ryohei; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Auchere, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding-rocket experiment currently being built at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This instrument aims to probe for the first time the magnetic field strength and orientation in the solar upper-chromosphere and lower-transition region. CLASP will measure the polarization of the Lyman-Alpha line (121.6nm) with an unprecedented accuracy, and derive the magnetic field information through the Hanle effect. Although polarization accuracy and spectral resolution are crucial for the Hanle effect detection, spatial resolution is also important to get reliable context image via the slit-jaw camera. As spatial resolution is directly related with the alignment of optics, it is also a good way of ensuring the alignment of the instrument to meet the scientific requirement. This poster will detail the experiments carried out to align CLASP's optics (telescope and spectrograph), as both part of the instrument were aligned separately. The telescope was aligned in double-pass mode, and a laser interferometer (He-Ne) was used to measure the telescope's wavefront error (WFE). The secondary mirror tilt and position were adjusted to remove comas and defocus aberrations from the WFE. Effect of gravity on the WFE measurement was estimated and the final WFE derived in zero-g condition for CLASP telescope will be presented. In addition, an estimation of the spot shape and size derived from the final WFE will also be shown. The spectrograph was aligned with a custom procedure: because Ly-??light is absorbed by air, the spectrograph's off-axis parabolic mirrors were aligned in Visible Light (VL) using a custom-made VL grating instead of the flight Ly-? grating. Results of the alignment in Visible Light will be shown and the spot shape recorded with CCDs at various position along the slit will be displayed. Results from both alignment experiment will be compared to the design requirement, and will be combined in order to estimate CLASP spatial resolution after its alignment in visible light.

  7. Study of optical destruction techniques for optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taeyoung

    The topic of this dissertation is on the investigation of optical techniques for completely destroying data stored in optical discs. Complete and secure destruction of data is important when disposal of an optical disc containing sensitive and possibly classified information is concerned, since some information can be retrieved even from a fragment of a disc. After several candidate techniques and related systems are examined and fundamental system components are identified, an optical data destruction (ODD) system using a focused high power laser beam is devised, and a prototype system is designed and constructed. The ODD system uses a high power laser diode (HPLD) to expose data marks on optical discs and maintains the focused laser beam on a data layer by a focus servo using a diffractive optical element (DOE). The optical characteristics of the beam emitted from an HPLD are thoroughly investigated, and a few methods of modeling an HPLD beam in an optical system are studied. With the understanding of the HPLD beam properties, a limited-divergence raytracing (LDRT) model is developed to predict the propagation behavior of the HPLD beam in an optical system and shows good agreement with the real HPLD beam. This LDRT method is used to model the HPLD beam in the ODD system and simulate the resultant focus error signal with and without fabrication errors. The DOE focus sensor overcomes the problems in conventional focus sensors associated with the use of an intense line beam. The DOE comprising two angled gratings is designed to use only two weak 3rd order beams for focus sensing and fabricated on a chrome-coated glass substrate using a maskless lithography tool. The constructed ODD system is then used to perform destruction tests on various optical discs, which are examined using static and dynamic methods of data observation and retrieval. The observations show that data marks are optical invisible or completely covered with numerous micro-bubbles. These test results demonstrate that secure and complete destruction of data on optical discs is achieved using an ODD system. Successful destruction, however, depends greatly on exposure conditions and the type of optical media.

  8. Nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies. [Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.R.

    1981-09-01

    Recent effort in developing nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies is reviewed. Emphasis is on monolayer detection of adsorbed molecules on surfaces. It is shown that surface coherent antiStokes Raman scattering (CARS) with picosecond pulses has the sensitivity of detecting submonolayer of molecules. On the other hand, second harmonic or sum-frequency generation is also sensitive enough to detect molecular monolayers. Surface-enhanced nonlinear optical effects on some rough metal surfaces have been observed. This facilitates the detection of molecular monolayers on such surfaces, and makes the study of molecular adsorption at a liquid-metal interface feasible. Advantages and disadvantages of the nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies are discussed.

  9. Alignment performance comparison between MFR and MDCO for a TMA optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyukmo; Oh, Eunsong; Kim, Sug-Whan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we performed alignment state estimation simulations and compared the performance of two Computer Aided Alignment (hereafter CAA) algorithms i.e. `Merit Function Regression (MFR)' and `Multiple Design Configuration Optimization (MDCO)' for a TMA optical system. The former minimizes the merit function using multi-field wavefront error measurements from single configuration, while the latter minimizes the merit function using single-field measured wavefront error from multiple configurations. The optical system used is an unobscured three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) optical system of 70mm in diameter, and F/5.0. It is designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle for coastal water remote sensing. The TMA consists of two aspherical mirrors, a spherical mirror and a flat folding mirror. Based on the sensitivity analysis, we set the tilt x, y of tertiary mirror as a compensator, and not considered decenter of tertiary mirror because of its spherical characteristic. For the simulation, we introduced Gaussian distribution of initial misalignment to M3. It has the mean value of zero and standard deviation of 0.5 mrad. The initial simulation result of alignment state estimation shows that both algorithms can meet the alignment requirement, λ/10 RMS WFE at 633nm. However, when we includes measurement noise, the simulation result of MFR shows greater standard deviation in RMS WFE than that of MDCO. As for the measurement, the MDCO requires single on-axis field while the MFR requires multiple fields, we concluded that the MDCO is more practical method to align the off-axis TMA optics than MFR.

  10. Optical Measurement Technique for Space Column Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Watson, Judith J.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Phelps, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A simple optical technique for the structural characterization of lightweight space columns is presented. The technique is useful for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion during cool down as well as the induced strain during tension and compression testing. The technique is based upon object-to-image plane scaling and does not require any photogrammetric calibrations or computations. Examples of the measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion are presented for several lightweight space columns. Examples of strain measured during tension and compression testing are presented along with comparisons to results obtained with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) position transducers.

  11. Implement of Digital Moire technique on DSP for alignment of partial compensation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuhan; QunHao; YaoHu; Wang, Shaopu; Li, Tengfei; Wang, Jingxian

    2016-01-01

    Digital Moiré technique is adopted in partial compensation interferometer (PCI) for high-precision testing of figure error of the aspheric surfaces. The figure error of the measured aspheric is obtained by a series of calculation with the real interferogram and ideal interferograms generated by computer. The dense interference fringes at the exit pupil make it difficult to align the PCI. On the contrary, digital Moire fringes composed from real and ideal interferograms are sparse and corresponding to the figure error of the measured aspheric, making it easier to align the PCI. Generally, digital Moire technique is processed on the computer, resulting in slow processing speed and difficult display in real time. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) can be used to implement digital Moire technique and display digital Moire fringes in real time with its powerful processing capacity. In this paper, digital Moire technique is implemented on the TMS320C6455 DSP. The hardware system consists of a DSP module, a CCD camera and a monitor. Finally we experimentally obtain the digital Moire image, and further analyze how to align the PCI theoretically.

  12. A one-step technique to prepare aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanandia, Pitamber; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2008-04-01

    A simple effective pyrolysis technique has been developed to synthesize aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without using any carrier gas in a single-stage furnace at 700?C. This technique eliminates nearly the entire complex and expensive machinery associated with other extensively used methods for preparation of CNTs such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and pyrolysis. Carbon source materials such as xylene, cyclohexane, camphor, hexane, toluene, pyridine and benzene have been pyrolyzed separately with the catalyst source material ferrocene to obtain aligned arrays of MWCNTs. The synthesized CNTs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectroscopy. In this technique, the need for the tedious and time-consuming preparation of metal catalysts and continuously fed carbon source material containing carrier gas can be avoided. This method is a single-step process where not many parameters are required to be monitored in order to prepare aligned MWCNTs. For the production of CNTs, the technique has great advantages such as low cost and easy operation.

  13. Asymmetric dyes align inside carbon nanotubes to yield a large nonlinear optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambr, Sofie; Campo, Jochen; Beirnaert, Charlie; Verlackt, Christof; Cool, Pegie; Wenseleers, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Asymmetric dye molecules have unusual optical and electronic properties. For instance, they show a strong second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response that has attracted great interest for potential applications in electro-optic modulators for optical telecommunications and in wavelength conversion of lasers. However, the strong Coulombic interaction between the large dipole moments of these molecules favours a pairwise antiparallel alignment that cancels out the NLO response when incorporated into bulk materials. Here, we show that by including an elongated dipolar dye (p,p?-dimethylaminonitrostilbene, DANS, a prototypical asymmetric dye with a strong NLO response) inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), an ideal head-to-tail alignment in which all electric dipoles point in the same sense is naturally created. We have applied this concept to synthesize solution-processible DANS-filled SWCNTs that show an extremely large total dipole moment and static hyperpolarizability (?0?=?9,800??10-30?e.s.u.), resulting from the coherent alignment of arrays of 70 DANS molecules.

  14. Asymmetric dyes align inside carbon nanotubes to yield a large nonlinear optical response.

    PubMed

    Cambr, Sofie; Campo, Jochen; Beirnaert, Charlie; Verlackt, Christof; Cool, Pegie; Wenseleers, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Asymmetric dye molecules have unusual optical and electronic properties. For instance, they show a strong second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response that has attracted great interest for potential applications in electro-optic modulators for optical telecommunications and in wavelength conversion of lasers. However, the strong Coulombic interaction between the large dipole moments of these molecules favours a pairwise antiparallel alignment that cancels out the NLO response when incorporated into bulk materials. Here, we show that by including an elongated dipolar dye (p,p'-dimethylaminonitrostilbene, DANS, a prototypical asymmetric dye with a strong NLO response) inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), an ideal head-to-tail alignment in which all electric dipoles point in the same sense is naturally created. We have applied this concept to synthesize solution-processible DANS-filled SWCNTs that show an extremely large total dipole moment and static hyperpolarizability (?0?=?9,800??10(-30)?e.s.u.), resulting from the coherent alignment of arrays of ?70 DANS molecules. PMID:25643253

  15. Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Lee, Kang-Min; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Young-Hwan; Han, Jin-Woo; Han, Jeong-Min; Lee, Sang-Keuk; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2008-09-15

    The surface modification characteristics of liquid crystal (LC) alignment layers irradiated with various argon (Ar) ion beam (IB) energies were investigated as a substitute for rubbing technology. Various pretilt angles were created on the IB-irradiated polyimide (PI) surfaces after IB irradiation, but the Ar ions did not alter the morphology on the PI surface, indicating that the pretilt angle was not due to microgrooves. The chemical bonding states of the IB-irradiated PI surfaces were analyzed in detail by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify the compositional behavior for the LC alignment. Chemical structure analysis showed that the alignment ability of LCs was due to the preferential reorientation of the carbon network due to the breaking of C=O double bonds in the imide ring parallel to the incident IB direction. The potential of applying nonrubbing technology to display devices was further supported by the superior electro-optical characteristics compared to rubbed PI.

  16. Method for auto-alignment of digital optical phase conjugation systems based on digital propagation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mooseok; Ruan, Haowen; Zhou, Haojiang; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) has enabled many optical applications such as aberration correction and image transmission through fiber. In recent years, implementation of digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) has opened up the possibility of its use in biomedical optics (e.g. deep-tissue optical focusing) due to its ability to provide greater-than-unity OPC reflectivity (the power ratio of the phase conjugated beam and input beam to the OPC system) and its flexibility to accommodate additional wavefront manipulations. However, the requirement for precise (pixel-to-pixel matching) alignment of the wavefront sensor and the spatial light modulator (SLM) limits the practical usability of DOPC systems. Here, we report a method for auto-alignment of a DOPC system by which the misalignment between the sensor and the SLM is auto-corrected through digital light propagation. With this method, we were able to accomplish OPC playback with a DOPC system with gross sensor-SLM misalignment by an axial displacement of up to~1.5 cm, rotation and tip/tilt of ~5∘, and in-plane displacement of ~5 mm (dependent on the physical size of the sensor and the SLM). Our auto-alignment method robustly achieved a DOPC playback peak-to-background ratio (PBR) corresponding to more than ~30 % of the theoretical maximum. As an additional advantage, the auto-alignment procedure can be easily performed at will and, as such, allows us to correct for small mechanical drifts within the DOPC systems, thus overcoming a previously major DOPC system vulnerability. We believe that this reported method for implementing robust DOPC systems will broaden the practical utility of DOPC systems. PMID:24977504

  17. Metrology Optical Power Budgeting in SIM Using Statistical Analysis Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Gary M

    2008-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based stellar interferometry instrument, consisting of up to three interferometers, which will be capable of micro-arc second resolution. Alignment knowledge of the three interferometer baselines requires a three-dimensional, 14-leg truss with each leg being monitored by an external metrology gauge. In addition, each of the three interferometers requires an internal metrology gauge to monitor the optical path length differences between the two sides. Both external and internal metrology gauges are interferometry based, operating at a wavelength of 1319 nanometers. Each gauge has fiber inputs delivering measurement and local oscillator (LO) power, split into probe-LO and reference-LO beam pairs. These beams experience power loss due to a variety of mechanisms including, but not restricted to, design efficiency, material attenuation, element misalignment, diffraction, and coupling efficiency. Since the attenuation due to these sources may degrade over time, an accounting of the range of expected attenuation is needed so an optical power margin can be book kept. A method of statistical optical power analysis and budgeting, based on a technique developed for deep space RF telecommunications, is described in this paper and provides a numerical confidence level for having sufficient optical power relative to mission metrology performance requirements.

  18. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; Shannon, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  19. Diagnostic apparatus and method for use in the alignment of one or more laser means onto a fiber optics interface

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, S.A.; Shannon, R.R.

    1985-01-18

    Diagnostic apparatus for use in determining the proper alignment of a plurality of laser beams onto a fiber optics interface is disclosed. The apparatus includes a lens assembly which serves two functions, first to focus a plurality of laser beams onto the fiber optics interface, and secondly to reflect and image the interface using scattered light to a monitor means. The monitor means permits indirect observation of the alignment or focusing of the laser beams onto the fiber optics interface.

  20. Applying Harmonic Optical Microscopy for Spatial Alignment of Atrial Collagen Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Chang, Yi-Chung; Hsu, Rong-Bin; Yu, Hsu-Yu; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2010-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrosis creates a vulnerable tissue for atrial fibrillation (AF), but the spatial disarray of collagen fibers underlying atrial fibrosis is not fully elucidated. Objective This study hypothesizes that harmonics optical microscopy can illuminate the spatial mal-alignment of collagen fibers in AF via a layer-by-layer approach. Patients and Methods Atrial tissues taken from patients who underwent open-heart surgery were examined by harmonics optical microscopy. Using the two-dimensional Fourier transformation method, a spectral-energy description of image texture was constituted and its entropy was used to quantify the mal-alignment of collagen fibers. The amount of collagen fiber was derived from its area ratio to total atrial tissue in each image. Serum C-terminal pro-collagen pro-peptide (CICP), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-1 (pro-MMP-1), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were also evaluated. Results 46 patients were evaluated, including 20 with normal sinus rhythm and 26 with AF. The entropy of spectral-energy distribution of collagen alignment was significantly higher in AF than that in sinus rhythm (3.970.33 vs. 2.800.18, p<0.005). This difference was more significant in the permanent AF group. The amount of collagen was also significantly higher in AF patients (0.390.13 vs. 0.180.06, p<0.005) but serum markers of cardiac fibrosis were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions Harmonics optical microscopy can quantify the spatial mal-alignment of collagen fibers in AF. The entropy of spectral-energy distribution of collagen alignment is a potential tool for research in atrial remodeling. PMID:21085489

  1. Redesign of the image processing techniques used for the alignment of the LMJ beams transportation section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilsz, Laurent; Benoit, Jean-Christophe; Poutriquet, Florence; Bach, Olivier; Nicaise, Frdric; Adolf, Alain

    2010-08-01

    The Megajoule laser (LMJ) project was launched in 1995 by the French Atomic Energy Commission and is aimed at developing a facility to achieve inertial confinement fusion. The LMJ architecture is based on 176 laser beamlines. To provide these 176 high-powered beams when required for subsequent operations, one of the main issues consists of aligning reliably the laser Transportation Section (TS) not only during the normal operation of the installation but also during the power rising of each laser chain, its initial alignment and after major maintenance. They also must be compatible with the fact that the entire installation should be maintained by a limited staff. Consequently, the goals of the techniques involved in this processing design are essentially robust detection and identification of the relevant items of information present in images, but also the reduction of the number of parameters accessible to the operators. This paper provides a general overview of how the TS is aligned before focusing on the image processing techniques developed to identify and measure the beam centering, since the major difference between the LIL and LMJ TS is the type of centering detector. These techniques have been developed and tested thoroughly against sets of up to 57 images representing both nominal and extreme conditions acquired during recent experiments on the Laser Integration Line (LIL). This facility is fully consistent with the LMJ requirements, a complete laser chain with 4 beamlines. After presenting the basic design principles, we focus on the performances as demonstrated and measured.

  2. Application of holographic optical techniques to bulk memory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. K.

    1971-01-01

    Current efforts to exploit the spatial redundancy and built-in imaging of holographic optical techniques to provide high information densities without critical alignment and tight mechanical tolerances are reviewed. Read-write-erase in situ operation is possible but is presently impractical because of limitations in available recording media. As these are overcome, it should prove feasible to build holographic bulk memories with mechanically replaceable hologram plates featuring very fast (less than 2 microsec) random access to large (greater than 100 million bit) data blocks and very high throughput (greater than 500 Mbit/sec). Using volume holographic storage it may eventually be possible to realize random-access mass memories which require no mechanical motion and yet provide very high capacity.

  3. Optical alignment influenced aberrations in laser beam delivery systems and their correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaggs, Michael; Haas, Gil

    2015-03-01

    Industrial high power laser systems are often evaluated based upon spatial profile of the beam before they are brought to focus for processing materials. It is therefore often assumed that if the raw beam profile is good that the focus is equally as good. The possibility of having good optics and poor alignment or bad optics and good alignment and therefore not achieve a good focal spot is quite high due to the fact that a raw beam spatial profile does not manifest third order aberrations. In such instances the focal spot will contain aberrations when there are slightly misaligned, poor quality, high power optics in the system such as a beam expander or eye piece and objective of a 3-axis galvo. Likewise, if the beam itself is not on axis, the third order aberrations of astigmatism and coma are likely to appear but again not be seen in the unfocused beams spatial profile. The third order aberrations of astigmatism, coma and spherical aberration can significantly alter both the size and spatial profile at the focus resulting in out of spec performance. The impact of beam and zoom expanders and their alignment in beam delivery systems is investigated by measuring both the far field unfocused and the far field focus beams using an all passive beam waist analyzer system.

  4. Alignment, assembly, and testing of high-energy x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Alexander, Cheryl; Ramsey, Brian

    2005-08-01

    We are developing grazing incidence x-ray imaging optics for a balloon-borne hard x-ray telescope (HERO). The HERO payload, scheduled for launch in May 2006, consists of 8 mirror modules with 12 mirror shells each fabricated using electroform-nickel replication off super polished cylindrical mandrels. An optical system for alignment and assembly of the shells into their modules will be described together with an assessment of the systematic errors associated with this process. Full details of the assembly procedures and results of the on-ground x-ray testing of the HERO modules will be provided.

  5. Alignment, Assembly and Testing of High Energy X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian

    2005-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray imaging optics for a balloon-borne hard x-ray telescope (HERO). The HERO payload, scheduled for launch in May 2005, currently consists of 8 mirror modules each containing 12 mirror shells fabricated using electroform-nickel replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. An optical system developed for aligning and assembling the shells in the modules will be described. Sources for systematic errors associated with this process will be discussed and results from on-ground x-ray testing of each module will be presented.

  6. Integration and alignment of adaptive optics systems: 10 years of experience at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordo, Sbastien

    2010-07-01

    The number and importance of the adaptive optics instruments has grown in the world through the last two decades. Such systems are becoming key elements for large telescopes, with increasing types and complexity. The Very Large Telescope (VLT) has been equipped with many instruments using adaptive optics such as Shack-Hartmann, curvature or pyramid wavefront sensors. In this framework the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has collected a large expertise in the field of instrument integration and in particular the integration of adaptive optics systems. The purpose of this article is to share this expertise with the community and tell how instruments are being built in our organization. Therefore this article is aimed at persons who have some or little experience in integration and optical alignment.

  7. Optical and structural properties of amorphous Se x Te100- x aligned nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Agel, Faisal A.

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, we report studies on optical and structural phenomenon in as-deposited thin films composed of aligned nanorods of amorphous Se x Te100- x ( x = 3, 6, 9, and 12). In structural studies, field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images suggest that these thin films contain high yield of aligned nanorods. These nanorods show a completely amorphous nature, which is verified by X-ray diffraction patterns of these thin films. Optical studies include the measurement of spectral dependence of absorption, reflection, and transmission of these thin films, respectively. On the basis of optical absorption data, a direct optical band gap is observed. This observation of a direct optical band gap in these nanorods is interesting as chalcogenides normally show an indirect band gap, and due to this reason, these materials could not become very popular for semiconducting devices. Therefore, this is an important report and will open up new directions for the application of these materials in semiconducting devices. The value of this optical band gap is found to decrease with the increase in selenium (Se) concentration. The reflection and absorption data are employed to estimate the values of optical constants (extinction coefficient ( k) and refractive index ( n)). From the spectral dependence of these optical constants, it is found that the values of refractive index ( n) increase, whereas the values of extinction coefficient ( k) decrease with the increase in photon energy. The real and imaginary parts of dielectric constants calculated with the values of extinction coefficient ( k) and refractive index ( n), are found to vary with photon energy and dopant concentration.

  8. Analysis of dimensional tolerance for an optical demultiplexer of a highly alignment tolerant 4 25 Gb/s ROSA module.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Ki; Huh, Joon Young; Kang, Sae-Kyoung; Jang, Youn-Seon

    2014-02-24

    We have developed a 4 25 Gb/s ROSA (receiver optical sub-assembly) module for 100G Ethernet optical transceiver. This ROSA module has very large alignment tolerance of more than 250 m between the optical DMUX (demultiplexer) and four photodiodes, for the reason it has the advantage of being easily assembled. The large alignment tolerance can be attributed to the dimensional tolerant optical DMUX, which is composed of four thin film filters attached to a parallelogram-shaped optic block. Since it is important to define the fabrication specifications for the dimension of the optic block, we analyze dimensional tolerance for the optic block using three-dimensional simulation. This parallelogram-shaped optical DMUX permits length tolerance of 300 m and angular tolerance of 0.1. The fabricated optical DMUX is estimated to have the angular error of less than 0.09. PMID:24663754

  9. Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.

  10. Optical approach to improve the ? curve in a vertical-alignment liquid-crystal cell.

    PubMed

    Mun, Byung-June; Jin, Tae Young; Lee, Gi-Dong; Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Hee

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, we propose an optical configuration of a four-domain vertical-alignment (VA) liquid-crystal (LC) cell, which can improve the ?-curve distortion by using a pair of patterned A plates, without any change in cell structure. In order to find the optimal parameter value of the patterned A film, we calculated the polarization difference between the normal direction and the all-viewing direction as functions of the optical axes and the retardation (?nd) under the voltage applied state. Based on the calculated results, the proposed LC cell showed an improvement in ?-curve distortion of more than 80% in each oblique viewing angle compared to a conventional wide-view VA LC cell, without any loss of optical performance in the dark state. PMID:23455303

  11. Computational chemistry modeling and design of photoswitchable alignment materials for optically addressable liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, K. L.; Sekera, E. R.; Xiao, K.

    2015-09-01

    Photoalignment technology based on optically switchable "command surfaces" has been receiving increasing interest for liquid crystal optics and photonics device applications. Azobenzene compounds in the form of low-molar-mass, watersoluble salts deposited either directly on the substrate surface or after dispersion in a polymer binder have been almost exclusively employed for these applications, and ongoing research in the area follows a largely empirical materials design and development approach. Recent computational chemistry advances now afford unprecedented opportunities to develop predictive capabilities that will lead to new photoswitchable alignment layer materials with low switching energies, enhanced bistability, write/erase fatigue resistance, and high laser-damage thresholds. In the work described here, computational methods based on the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory were employed to study the impact of molecular structure on optical switching properties in photoswitchable methacrylate and acrylamide polymers functionalized with azobenzene and spiropyran pendants.

  12. Well-aligned cellulose nanofiber-reinforced polyvinyl alcohol composite film: Mechanical and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Chen, Jingyao; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Miao; He, Jingren; Xiao, Anhong; Ma, Chengjie; Li, Sha; Xiong, Hanguo

    2016-04-20

    Uniaxially aligned cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), which are fabricated by electrospinning of cellulose acetate derived from bamboo cellulose (B-CA) followed by deacetylation, were used as reinforcements to make optically transparent composite films. We examined the effects of B-CA concentration and electrospinning parameters (e.g. spinning distance, and collection speed) on fiber morphology and orientation, which act on mechanical-to-optical properties of the CNFs-reinforced composites. Consequently, the resultant composite film exhibits high visible-light transmittance even with high fiber content, as well as improved mechanical properties. The understanding obtained from this study may facilitate the development of novel nanofibrous materials for various optical uses. PMID:26876850

  13. An Approach to Ontology Alignment Problems based on Category Matching Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiai, Tadashi; Yamane, Yasuo; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    When ontology description data by different authors would become widespread in the world, we will be faced with the difficulties of the ontology alignment (OA) problem required for integration and interoperability of ontologies. The OA problem is the problem to find couples of semantically same classes / properties between two ontologies, and includes points of different naming of classes / properties, polysemous naming of classes / properties, different granularity of classes / properties, different hierarchical structures, and so on. We applied our semantic category matching (SCM) tool to the ontology alignment problems. Our approach found pairs of semantically corresponding categories from two different classification hierarchies such as Yahoo directory or library classification as UDC or NDC, based on natural language processing, similarity searching of huge vector spaces, and structural consistency analysis. We tackled problems of the EON2004 Ontology Alignment Contest. For examples, the Contest's random name problems (#201, #202) could not be solved using conventional character string resemblance techniques. However, when we applied SCM to these problems, the results showed that SCM had improved the accuracy as compared to the conventional method (F-measure: 0.021=>0.949, 0.021=>0.580), and exceeded the accuracy average in all problem areas by over 10 % as compared to conventional methods. Our team participated as a competitor in EON OA Contest and could obtain satisfactory results.

  14. Optical multichannel analyzer techniques for high resolution optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The development of optical multichannel analyzer techniques for UV/VIS spectroscopy is presented. The research focuses on the development of spectroscopic techniques for measuring high resolution spectral lineshape functions from the exciton phosphorescence in H/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. It is found that the temperature dependent frequency shifts and widths confirm a theoretical model based on an exchange theory. The exchange of low energy phonon modes which couple with excited state exciton transitions is shown to display the proper temperature dependent behavior. In addition to the techniques for using the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) to perform low light level target integration, the use of the OMA for capturing spectral information in transient pulsed laser applications is discussed. An OMP data acquisition system developed for real-time signal processng is described. Both hardware and software interfacing considerations for control and data acquisition by a microcomputer are described. The OMA detector is described in terms of the principles behind its photoelectron detection capabilities and its design is compared with other optoelectronic devices.

  15. Finding the optical axis of a distant object using an optical alignment system based on a holographic marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, D. I.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.; Gutner, I. E.

    2015-07-01

    A way to construct a holographic indicator of the position of the central axis of a distant object based on recording a transmission hologram in a layer of photosensitive material and forming a remote real image before a light source is considered. A light source with a holographically formed marker designed for visual guidance to the object axis; it can be used to simplify aircraft landing on a glide path, preliminary visual alignment of large coaxial details of various machines, etc. Specific features of the scheme of recording a holographic marker and the reconstruction of its image are considered. The possibility of forming a remote holographic image marker, which can be aligned with a simultaneously operating reference laser system for determining the direction to an object and its optical axis, has been demonstrated experimentally.

  16. A synchronization technique for optical PPM signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.; Tan, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for maintaining synchronization between optical PPM (pulse-position modulation) pulses and a receiver clock by means of a delay-tracking loop is described and analyzed. The tracking loop is driven by a doubly stochastic Poisson process that contains information about the location of the desired slot boundaries. The slot boundaries are subject to slowly varying random delays that are ultimately tracked by the loop. The concept of fractional rms delay error is introduced to quantify the effects of signal and background induced shot noise on the performance of the delay-tracking loop.

  17. Stack growth of aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes using floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2015-04-01

    The Letter reports another approach to grow vertically aligned millimeter length multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) using chemical vapor deposition technique. In this stack growth, the first grown MWCNT layer is observe to have been lift-off from the substrate surface by the newly grown underneath layer as a result of the diffusion of iron catalyst and carbon source through the first layer. The first grown layer acts as a permeable membrane allowing the catalyst vapor and carbon to reach the bottom layer and the top surface of the substrate, resulting in the growth of another layer of MWCNT underneath it.

  18. Optical test bench for high precision metrology and alignment of zoom sub-assembly components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprêtre, F.; Levillain, E.; Wattellier, B.; Delage, P.; Brahmi, D.; Gascon, A.

    2013-09-01

    Thales Angénieux (TAGX) designs and manufactures zoom lens assemblies for cinema applications. These objectives are made of mobile lens assemblies. These need to be precisely characterized to detect alignment, polishing or glass index homogeneity errors, which amplitude may range to a few hundreds of nanometers. However these assemblies are highly aberrated with mainly spherical aberration (>30 μm PV). PHASICS and TAGX developed a solution based on the use of a PHASICS SID4HR wave front sensor. This is based on quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry, a technology known for its high dynamic range. A 100-mm diameter He:Ne source illuminates the lens assembly entrance pupil. The transmitted wave front is then directly measured by the SID4- HR. The measured wave front (WFmeas) is then compared to a simulation from the lens sub-assembly optical design (WFdesign). We obtain a residual wave front error (WFmanufactured), which reveals lens imperfections due to its manufacturing. WFmeas=WFdesign+(WFEradius+WFEglass+WFEpolish)=WF design + WFmanufactured The optical test bench was designed so that this residual wave front is measured with a precision below 100 nm PV. The measurement of fast F-Number lenses (F/2) with aberrations up to 30 μm, with a precision of 100 nm PV was demonstrated. This bench detects mismatches in sub-assemblies before the final integration step in the zoom. Pre-alignment is also performed in order to overpass the mechanical tolerances. This facilitates the completed zoom alignment. In final, productivity gains are expected due to alignment and mounting time savings.

  19. Space optical navigation techniques: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebordão, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Optical or vision-based navigation is an enabling technology for satellite autonomous navigation associated to different navigation approaches such as cruising, fly-by, terrain relative navigation, landing, rendezvous and docking between spacecrafts, rigidity of multi-satellite constellations. Since 2001, in many different ESA projects, the author and his team (at INETI and currently at FCUL) have been associated to most of the developments of the optical components of autonomous navigation, in cooperation with space primes or GNC subsystems suppliers. A unique experience related to seemingly simple photonic concepts associated to computational vision, photonic noises, camera tradeoffs and system concepts has emerged, and deserves a synthesis especially because some of these concepts are being implemented in the ESA Proba 3 mission and ESA is currently updating the technology in view of forthcoming planetary missions to Jupiter, Jupiter moons and asteroids. It is important to note that the US have already flown several missions relying on autonomous navigation and that NASA experience is at least one decade old. System approaches, sources of difficulty, some tradeoffs in both (and between) hardware and software, critical interface issues between the imaging and GNC (Guidance, Navigation and Control) subsystems, image processing techniques, utilization of apriori or to be estimated information, uncertainties, simulation of the imaging chain and non-cooperative environments will be addressed synthetically for both passive (optical) and active (lidar) systems.

  20. Theoretical study of optical torques for aligning Ag nanorods and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Lo, Wei-Jiun; Lin, Wu-Chun; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2015-09-01

    The optical torque that is exerted on an Ag nanorod (NR) by the irradiance of a linearly polarized laser was studied theoretically. The multiple multipole method was used to calculate the induced electromagnetic field, and then the surface traction in terms of Maxwell's stress tensor was integrated over the NR's surface. The maps of surface traction on the Ag NR in two (parallel and perpendicular) modes of alignment in various wavelength regimes were discussed. The turning point between the two modes was demonstrated to coincide with the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Ag NR. For example, the optical torques that are induced by different lasers (1064 nm, 633 nm and 532 nm) on Ag NR (with a radius 10 nm and an aspect ratio of 3) in water were analyzed to demonstrate the wavelength-dependent performance. The NR was aligned parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of the 1064 nm and 532 nm lasers, respectively. A laser with a wavelength of 633 nm, which was close to the LSPR, induced a null torque, and caused severe plasmonic heating. In contrast, over the entire spectrum, only the parallel mode of dielectric NRs was observed. The optical torque on Ag NR is two orders of magnitude greater than that of a high-k dielectric NR of equal size. For a highly elongated Ag NR (including nanowire), the perpendicular mode, rather than the parallel one, is induced even irradiated by a 1064 nm NIR laser, because its LSPR wavelength exceeds 1064 nm.

  1. TiO2 nanowire dispersions in viscous polymer matrix: electrophoretic alignment and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    utka, Andris; Saal, Kristjan; Kisand, Vambola; Lhmus, Rnno; Joost, Urmas; Timusk, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The changes in optical properties during TiO2 nanowire orientation in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix under the influence of an electric field are strongly influenced by nanowire (NW) diameter. It was demonstrated for the first time that either positive or negative change in transmittance can be induced by NW alignment parallel to the electric field depending on the NW diameter. These effects can be explained by the interplay between scattering and reflectance. Experimental findings reported could be important for smart window applications for the regulation of visible or even infrared transparency, thus reducing the energy consumption by air conditioning systems in buildings and automobiles in the future.

  2. TiO₂ nanowire dispersions in viscous polymer matrix: electrophoretic alignment and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Šutka, Andris; Saal, Kristjan; Kisand, Vambola; Lõhmus, Rünno; Joost, Urmas; Timusk, Martin

    2014-10-17

    The changes in optical properties during TiO₂ nanowire orientation in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix under the influence of an electric field are strongly influenced by nanowire (NW) diameter. It was demonstrated for the first time that either positive or negative change in transmittance can be induced by NW alignment parallel to the electric field depending on the NW diameter. These effects can be explained by the interplay between scattering and reflectance. Experimental findings reported could be important for smart window applications for the regulation of visible or even infrared transparency, thus reducing the energy consumption by air conditioning systems in buildings and automobiles in the future. PMID:25249192

  3. Optical stimulation of the prostate nerves: A potential diagnostic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat

    There is wide variability in sexual potency rates (9--86%) after nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery due to limited knowledge of the location of the cavernous nerves (CN's) on the prostate surface, which are responsible for erectile function. Thus, preservation of the CN's is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. Nerve-mapping devices, utilizing conventional Electrical Nerve Stimulation (ENS) techniques, have been used as intra-operative diagnostic tools to assist in preservation of the CN. However, these technologies have proven inconsistent and unreliable in identifying the CN's due to the need for physical contact, the lack of spatial selectivity, and the presence of electrical artifacts in measurements. Optical Nerve Stimulation (ONS), using pulsed infrared laser radiation, is studied as an alternative to ENS. The objective of this study is sevenfold: (1) to develop a laparoscopic laser probe for ONS of the CN's in a rat model, in vivo; (2) to demonstrate faster ONS using continuous-wave infrared laser radiation; (3) to describe and characterize the mechanism of successful ONS using alternative laser wavelengths; (4) to test a compact, inexpensive all-single-mode fiber configuration for optical stimulation of the rat CN studies; (5) to implement fiber optic beam shaping methods for comparison of Gaussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles during ONS; (6) to demonstrate successful ONS of CN's through a thin layer of fascia placed over the nerve and prostate gland; and (7) to verify the experimentally determined therapeutic window for safe and reliable ONS without thermal damage to the CN's by comparison with a computational model for thermal damage. A 5.5-Watt Thulium fiber laser operated at 1870 nm and two pigtailed, single mode, near-IR diode lasers (150-mW, 1455-nm laser and 500-mW, 1550-nm laser) were used for non-contact stimulation of the rat CN's. Successful laser stimulation, as measured by an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response in the penis, was achieved with the laser operating in CW mode. CW optical nerve stimulation provides a significantly faster ICP response time using a lower laser power laser than conventional pulsed stimulation. An all-single-mode fiber design was successfully tested in a rat model. The CN reached a threshold temperature of ˜ 42 °C, with response times as short as 3 s, and ICP responses in the rat penis of up to 50 mmHg compared to a baseline of 5--10 mmHg. Chemical etching of the distal single-mode-fiber tip produced a concave shape and transformed the Gaussian to a flat-top spatial beam profile, resulting in simplified alignment of the laser beam with the nerve. This novel, all-single-mode-fiber laser nerve stimulation system introduces several advantages including: (1) a less expensive and more compact ONS configuration; (2) elimination of alignment and cleaning bulk optical components; and (3) improved spatial beam profile for simplified alignment. For the fascia layers over the CN's (240--600 microm), the 1550 nm laser with an optical penetration depth of ˜ 930 microm in water was substituted for the 1455 nm laser. Successful ONS was achieved, for the first time, in fascia layers up to 450 microm thick which is critical for future clinical translation of this method for intra-operative identification and preservation of CN's during prostate cancer surgery. In order to define the upper limit of the therapeutic window for ONS of CN in a rat model, in vivo, identification of the thermal damage threshold for the CN after laser irradiation was investigated by direct comparison of the visible thermal damage data with a theoretical thermal damage calculation utilizing a standard Arrhenius integral model.

  4. Progress in ETA-II magnetic field alignment using stretched wire and low energy electron beam techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Deadrick, F.J.; Griffith, L.V.

    1990-08-17

    Flux line alignment of the solenoidal focus magnets used on the ETA-II linear induction accelerator is a key element leading to a reduction of beam corkscrew motion. Two techniques have been used on the ETA-II accelerator to measure and establish magnet alignment. A low energy electron beam has been used to directly map magnetic field lines, and recent work has utilized a pulsed stretched wire technique to measure magnet tilts and offsets with respect to a reference axis. This paper reports on the techniques used in the ETA-II accelerator alignment, and presents results from those measurements which show that accelerator is magnetically aligned to within {approximately}{plus minus}200 microns. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  5. New short-time alignment technique for 70-meter antenna surface panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katow, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    With severely limited field modification time for upgrading the 64-m antenna to 70-m diameter, a new shorter time method for aligning the surface panels of the main reflector was needed. For each target on the surface panel, both distance (or range) and elevation angle measurements are made. A new technique for setting the surface panels at zenith look has been devised. This article describes the software required to convert the computed target distortions obtained from the JPL-IDEAS structural analysis computer program (defining the gravity load change from a 45-deg elevation angle to zenith look) into the theodolite reading at zenith look. The technique results in a perfectly shaped reflector at the 45-deg rigging elevation, with acceptable surface error tolerance.

  6. Redesign of the image processing techniques used for the alignment of the LMJ amplifier section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilsz, Laurent; Challois, Sylvain; Nicaise, Frdric; Luttmann, Michel; Adolf, Alain

    2010-08-01

    The laser Megajoule (LMJ) project was launched in 1995 by the French Atomic Energy Commission and is aimed at developing a facility to achieve inertial confinement fusion. The LMJ architecture is based on 176 laser beamlines. To provide these 176 high-powered beams when required for subsequent operations, one of the main issues consists in reliably aligning the laser amplifier sections. This paper provides an overview of the image processing techniques developed to identify and measure the beam centering and pointing directions. These techniques have been developed and tested thoroughly against sets of up to 450 images representing both nominal and extreme conditions acquired during the initiation and power rising of the Laser Integration Line (LIL). This facility is fully consistent with the LMJ requirements, a complete laser chain with 4 beamlines. After presenting the basic design principles, we focus on the demonstrated performances measured.

  7. Optimal Parameter Design of Coarse Alignment for Fiber Optic Gyro Inertial Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Baofeng; Wang, Qiuying; Yu, Chunmei; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two different coarse alignment algorithms for Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on inertial reference frame are discussed in this paper. Both of them are based on gravity vector integration, therefore, the performance of these algorithms is determined by integration time. In previous works, integration time is selected by experience. In order to give a criterion for the selection process, and make the selection of the integration time more accurate, optimal parameter design of these algorithms for FOG INS is performed in this paper. The design process is accomplished based on the analysis of the error characteristics of these two coarse alignment algorithms. Moreover, this analysis and optimal parameter design allow us to make an adequate selection of the most accurate algorithm for FOG INS according to the actual operational conditions. The analysis and simulation results show that the parameter provided by this work is the optimal value, and indicate that in different operational conditions, the coarse alignment algorithms adopted for FOG INS are different in order to achieve better performance. Lastly, the experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26121614

  8. Pinned, optically aligned diagnostic dock for use on the Z facility.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M R; Rochau, G A; Bailey, J E; Dunham, G S; Kernaghan, M D; Gard, P; Robertson, G K; Owen, A C; Argo, J W; Nielsen, D S; Lake, P W

    2012-10-01

    The pinned optically aligned diagnostic dock (PODD) is a multi-configuration diagnostic platform designed to measure x-ray emission on the Z facility. The PODD houses two plasma emission acquisition (PEA) systems, which are aligned with a set of precision machined pins. The PEA systems are modular, allowing a single diagnostic housing to support several different diagnostics. The PEA configurations fielded to date include both time-resolved and time-integrated, 1D spatially resolving, elliptical crystal spectrometers, and time-integrated, 1D spatially resolving, convex crystal spectrometers. Additional proposed configurations include time-resolved, monochromatic mirrored pinhole imagers and arrays of filtered x-ray diodes, diamond photo-conducting diode detectors, and bolometers. The versatility of the PODD system will allow the diagnostic configuration of the Z facility to be changed without significantly adding to the turn-around time of the machine. Additionally, the PODD has been designed to allow instrument setup to be completed entirely off-line, leaving only a refined alignment process to be performed just prior to a shot, which is a significant improvement over the instrument the PODD replaces. Example data collected with the PODD are presented. PMID:23126888

  9. Pinned, optically aligned diagnostic dock for use on the Z facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, M. R.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Dunham, G. S.; Kernaghan, M. D.; Gard, P.; Robertson, G. K.; Owen, A. C.; Argo, J. W.; Nielsen, D. S.; Lake, P. W.

    2012-10-01

    The pinned optically aligned diagnostic dock (PODD) is a multi-configuration diagnostic platform designed to measure x-ray emission on the Z facility. The PODD houses two plasma emission acquisition (PEA) systems, which are aligned with a set of precision machined pins. The PEA systems are modular, allowing a single diagnostic housing to support several different diagnostics. The PEA configurations fielded to date include both time-resolved and time-integrated, 1D spatially resolving, elliptical crystal spectrometers, and time-integrated, 1D spatially resolving, convex crystal spectrometers. Additional proposed configurations include time-resolved, monochromatic mirrored pinhole imagers and arrays of filtered x-ray diodes, diamond photo-conducting diode detectors, and bolometers. The versatility of the PODD system will allow the diagnostic configuration of the Z facility to be changed without significantly adding to the turn-around time of the machine. Additionally, the PODD has been designed to allow instrument setup to be completed entirely off-line, leaving only a refined alignment process to be performed just prior to a shot, which is a significant improvement over the instrument the PODD replaces. Example data collected with the PODD are presented.

  10. Neural-network-directed alignment of optical systems using the laser-beam spatial filter as an example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an effort at NASA Lewis Research Center to use artificial neural networks to automate the alignment and control of optical measurement systems. Specifically, it addresses the use of commercially available neural network software and hardware to direct alignments of the common laser-beam-smoothing spatial filter. The report presents a general approach for designing alignment records and combining these into training sets to teach optical alignment functions to neural networks and discusses the use of these training sets to train several types of neural networks. Neural network configurations used include the adaptive resonance network, the back-propagation-trained network, and the counter-propagation network. This work shows that neural networks can be used to produce robust sequencers. These sequencers can learn by example to execute the step-by-step procedures of optical alignment and also can learn adaptively to correct for environmentally induced misalignment. The long-range objective is to use neural networks to automate the alignment and operation of optical measurement systems in remote, harsh, or dangerous aerospace environments. This work also shows that when neural networks are trained by a human operator, training sets should be recorded, training should be executed, and testing should be done in a manner that does not depend on intellectual judgments of the human operator.

  11. Measurement of anchoring coefficient of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal using a polarizing optical microscope in reflective mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sang-In; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Although the homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals is widely used in LCD TVs, no easy method exists to measure its anchoring coefficient. In this study, we propose an easy and convenient measurement technique in which a polarizing optical microscope is used in the reflective mode with an objective lens having a low depth of focus. All measurements focus on the reflection of light near the interface between the liquid crystal and alignment layer. The change in the reflected light is measured by applying an electric field. We model the response of the director of the liquid crystal to the electric field and, thus, the change in reflectance. By adjusting the extrapolation length in the calculation, we match the experimental and calculated results and obtain the anchoring coefficient. In our experiment, the extrapolation lengths were 0.31 ± 0.04 μm, 0.32 ± 0.08 μm, and 0.23 ± 0.05 μm for lecithin, AL-64168, and SE-5662, respectively.

  12. FMCW optical ranging technique in turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illig, David W.; Laux, Alan; Lee, Robert W.; Jemison, William D.; Mullen, Linda J.

    2015-05-01

    The performance of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) hybrid lidar-radar system will be presented in the context of an underwater optical ranging application. In adapting this technique from the radar community, a laser is intensity-modulated with a linear frequency ramp. A custom wideband laser source modulated by a new wideband digital synthesizer board is used to transmit an 800 MHz wide chirp into the underwater channel. The transmitted signal is mixed with a reference copy to obtain a "beat" signal representing the distance to the desired object. The expected form of the return signal is derived for turbid waters, a highly scattering environment, indicating that FMCW can detect both the desired object and the volumetric center of the backscatter "clutter" signal. This result is verified using both laboratory experiments and a realistic simulation model of the underwater optical channel. Ranging performance is explored as a function of both object position and water turbidity. Experimental and simulated results are in good agreement and performance out to ten attenuation lengths is reported, equivalent to 100 meters in open ocean or 5 meters in a turbid harbor condition.

  13. Magnetic field alignment of supramolecular perylene/block copolymer complexes for electro-optic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinadhan, Manesh; Majewski, Pawel; Shade, Ryan; Dell, Emma; Gupta, Nalini; Campos, Luis; Osuji, Chinedum

    2012-02-01

    The realization of nanostructured electro-optic materials by self-assembly is complicated by the persistence of structural defects which render the system properties isotropic on macroscopic length scales. Here we demonstrate the use of magnetic fields to facilitate large area alignment of a supramolecular system consisting of a poly(styrene-b-acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) diblock copolymer host and a semiconducting perylene ligand. Hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic acid groups of PAA and imidazole head group of the perylene species results in hierarchically ordered materials with smectic perylene layers in a matrix of hexagonally packed PS cylinders at appropriate stoichiometries. The smectic layers and the PS domains are strongly aligned by the application of large (> 2T) magnetic fields in a manner reflective of the positive diamagnetic anisotropy and the planar anchoring of perylene units at the PS interface. We use a combination of SAXS studies in-situ with applied magnetic fields, GISAXS and polarized optical transmission measurements to characterize the system. Magnetic fields thus offer a viable route for directing the self-assembly of functional materials based on rigid chromophores and further, that supramolecular approaches can be complementary to such efforts.

  14. Wave-optical assessment of alignment tolerances in nano-focusing with ellipsoidal mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ohashi, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors, which can efficiently focus X-rays to the nanometer dimension with a mirror, have not been realized because of the difficulties in the fabrication process. The purpose of our study was to develop nano-focusing ellipsoidal mirrors in the hard X-ray region. We developed a wave-optical focusing simulator for investigating alignment tolerances in nano-focusing with a designed ellipsoidal mirror, which produce a diffraction-limited focus size of 30 35 nm2 in full width at half maximum at an X-ray energy of 7 keV. The simulator can calculate focusing intensity distributions around the focal point under conditions of misalignment. The wave-optical simulator enabled the calculation of interference intensity distributions, which cannot be predicted by the conventional ray-trace method. The alignment conditions with a focal length error of ? 10 m, incident angle error of ? 0.5 rad, and in-plane rotation angle error of ? 0.25 rad must be satisfied for nano-focusing.

  15. Fiber probes based optical techniques for biomedical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce-Diego, José L.; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix

    2007-06-01

    Although fiber optics have been applied in optical communication and sensor systems for several years in a very successful way, their first application was developed in medicine in the early 20's. Manufacturing and developing of optical fibers for biomedical purposes have required a lot of research efforts in order to achieve a non-invasive, in-vivo, and real-time diagnosis of different diseases in human or animal tissues. In general, optical fiber probes are designed as a function of the optical measurement technique. In this work, a brief description of the main optical techniques for optical characterization of biological tissues is presented. The recent advances in optical fiber probes for biomedical diagnosis in clinical analysis and optical biopsy in relation with the different spectroscopic or tomographic optical techniques are described.

  16. New metrology techniques improve the production of silicon diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Cynthia B.; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Grigas, Michelle; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    Silicon immersion gratings and grisms offer significant advantages in compactness and performance over frontsurface gratings and over grisms made from lower-index materials. At the same time, the high refractive index of Si (3.4) leads to very stringent constraints on the allowable groove position errors, typically rms < 20 nm over 100 mm and repetitive error of <5 nm amplitude. For both types of devices, we produce grooves in silicon using photolithography, plasma etching, and wet etching. To date, producers have used contact photolithography to pattern UV sensitive photoresist as the initial processing step, then transferred this pattern to a layer of silicon nitride that, in turn, serves as a hard mask during the wet etching of grooves into silicon. For each step of the groove production, we have used new and sensitive techniques to determine the contribution of that step to the phase non-uniformity. Armed with an understanding of the errors and their origins, we could then implement process controls for each step. The plasma uniformity was improved for the silicon nitride mask etch process and the phase contribution of the plasma etch step was measured. We then used grayscale lithography, a technique in which the photoresist is deliberately underexposed, to measure large-scale nonuniformities in the UV exposure system to an accuracy of 3-5%, allowing us to make corrections to the optical alignment. Additionally, we used a new multiple-exposure technique combined with laser interferometry to measure the relationship between UV exposure dose and line edge shift. From these data we predict the contribution of the etching and photolithographic steps to phase error of the grating surface. These measurements indicate that the errors introduced during the exposure step dominate the contributions of all the other processing steps. This paper presents the techniques used to quantify individual process contributions to phase errors and steps that were taken to improve overall phase uniformity.

  17. Preparation of aligned porous chitin nanowhisker foams by directional freeze-casting technique.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiming; Fu, Shiyu; Pu, Yunqiao; Pan, Shaobo; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2014-11-01

    Structured biofoams with aligned porous structures were fabricated from nanosized chitin by employing a directional freeze-casting technique. The effects of the freezing conditions and slurry formulation on nanochitin foam morphology were investigated. The morphology of obtained foams was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the pore structure of the obtained foams was a likewise of the ice crystals formed during the directional freezing. The results indicate that directional freeze-casting protocol can significantly influence the morphological features and microstructures of the obtained biofoams which could have numerous applications, including engineered carriers, scaffolds, filters and specifically as a template for potential multi-layered composites after infusion with a second phase. PMID:25129745

  18. Spectroelectrochemistry: The Combination of Optical and Electrochemical Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, William R.

    1983-01-01

    Two different techniques, electrochemistry and spectroscopy, can be combined for studying the redox chemistry of inorganic, organic, and biological molecules. Several commonly used spectroelectrochemical methods and their applications are described. Includes discussions of optically transparent electrodes, optical absorption/fluorescence…

  19. Spectroelectrochemistry: The Combination of Optical and Electrochemical Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, William R.

    1983-01-01

    Two different techniques, electrochemistry and spectroscopy, can be combined for studying the redox chemistry of inorganic, organic, and biological molecules. Several commonly used spectroelectrochemical methods and their applications are described. Includes discussions of optically transparent electrodes, optical absorption/fluorescence

  20. Field validation of optical turbulence lidar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimmestad, G. G.; Dawsey, M. W.; Roberts, D. W.; Stewart, J. M.; Wood, J. W.; Eaton, F. D.; Jensen, M. L.; Welch, R. J.

    2005-05-01

    A new type of lidar is under development for measuring profiles of atmospheric optical turbulence. The principle of operation of the lidar is similar to the astronomical seeing instrument known as the Differential Image Motion Monitor, which views natural stars through two or more spatially separated apertures. A series of images is acquired, and the differential motion of the images (which is a measure of the difference in wavefront tilt between the two apertures) is analyzed statistically. The differential image motion variance is then used to find Fried's parameter r0. The lidar operates in a similar manner except that an artificial star is placed at a set of ranges, by focusing the laser beam and range-gating the imager. Sets of images are acquired at each range, and an inversion algorithm is then used to obtain the strength of optical turbulence as a function of range. In order to evaluate the technique in the field and to provide data for inversion algorithm development, a simplified version of the instrument was developed using a CW laser and a hard target carried to various altitudes by a tethered blimp. Truth data were simultaneously acquired with instruments suspended below the blimp. The tests were carried out on a test range at Eglin AFB in November 2004. Some of the resulting data have been analyzed to find the optimum frame rate for ground-based versions of the lidar instrument. Results are consistent with a theory that predicts a maximum rate for statistically independent samples of about 50 per second, for the instrument dimensions and winds speeds of the Eglin tests.

  1. Realization of reliable GaN nanowire transistors utilizing dielectrophoretic alignment technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motayed, Abhishek; He, Maoqi; Davydov, Albert V.; Melngailis, John; Mohammad, S. N.

    2006-12-01

    We have utilized dielectrophoretic force for assembling long (50?mto200?m) GaN nanowires for device fabrication. These catalyst-free nanowires were grown by direct reaction of NH3 and Ga, which resulted in free-standing nanowires along with GaN microplatelets. GaN nanowires were suspended in a solvent using sonication, and using dielectrophoretic forces nanowires were assembled on prepatterned substrates (SiO2 coated Si and sapphire). With fabrication sequence using batch fabrication processes such as standard photolithography, etching, and oxide deposition we were able to realize stable GaN nanowire devices. The present technique is potentially compatible with complementary metal-oxide semicondoctor technology, and integrating nanodevices with conventional Si microelectronics on the same chip can be made possible with this technique. Utilizing this technique, high mobility (230cm2V-1-s-1) GaN nanowire field effect transistors with reliable electrical characteristics have been achieved. These nanowire transistors even after prolonged period of conduction exhibited no deteriorations of their electrical properties. Several key factors in the processing that affect the device yield and reliability have been identified. Simple calculations predicted the effects of nanowire geometry, dispersing solvent, and alignment frequency on the dielectrophoretic force experienced by the nanowires.

  2. Modulated-alignment dual-axis (MAD) confocal microscopy for deep optical sectioning in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Steven Y.; Chen, Ye; Liu, Jonathan T.C.

    2014-01-01

    A strategy is presented to enable optical-sectioning microscopy with improved contrast and imaging depth using low-power (0.5 - 1 mW) diode laser illumination. This technology combines the inherent strengths of focal-modulation microscopy and dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy for rejecting out-of-focus and multiply scattered background light in tissues. The DAC architecture is unique in that it utilizes an intersecting pair of illumination and collection beams to improve the spatial-filtering and optical-sectioning performance of confocal microscopy while focal modulation selectively labels in-focus signals via amplitude modulation. Simulations indicate that modulating the spatial alignment of dual-axis beams at a frequency f generates signals from the focal volume of the microscope that are modulated at 2f with minimal modulation of background signals, thus providing nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement in optical-sectioning contrast compared to DAC microscopy alone. Experiments show that 2f lock-in detection enhances contrast and imaging depth within scattering phantoms and fresh tissues. PMID:24940534

  3. Transformer insulation monitoring by optical sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttamchandani, Deepak G.; Blue, Robert; Farish, O.

    1998-08-01

    High voltage transformers use paper to insulate the electrical windings present in the core which is then subsequently immersed in oil. In service, the temperature of the windings will increase to typically 80 degrees C. If the transformer is loaded to beyond its design ratings, the temperature can exceed 100 degrees C causing the cellulose chains in the paper to cleave at an accelerated rate, resulting in the degradation of mechanical strength and performance of the insulation. If unchecked, this can lead to catastrophic failure of the transformed and accompanying disruption to electricity supply and large economic losses to the operating utility. Furfuraldehyde (FFA) is a chemical by-product which is released into the oil by the thermal degradation of the paper winding. The concentration of FFA within the oil has been directly related to the condition of the paper insulation. We have developed absorbance and fluorescence optical techniques incorporating a novel FFA- sensitive material which we have invested at our laboratories. This material has been incorporated into a prototype portable optoelectronic instrument for the measurement of FFA at the site of the transformer. Results of experiments will be presented, and the implication of these results for condition monitoring of HV transformer will be discussed.

  4. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect.

  5. Optical techniques for determining dynamic material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Miniature plates are laser-launched with a 10-Joule Nd:YAG for one-dimensional (1-D) impacts on to target materials much like gas gun experiments and explosive plane wave plate launch. By making the experiments small, flyer plates (3 mm diameter x 50 micron thick) and targets (10 mm diameter x 200 micron thick), 1-D impact experiments can be performed in a standard laser-optical laboratory with minimum confinement and collateral damage. The laser-launched plates do not require the traditional sabot on gas guns nor the explosives needed for explosive planewave lenses, and as a result are much more amenable to a wide variety of materials and applications. Because of the small size very high pressure gradients can be generated with relative ease. The high pressure gradients result in very high strains and strain rates that are not easily generated by other experimental methods. The small size and short shock duration (1 - 20 ns) are ideal for dynamically measuring bond strengths of micron-thick coatings. Experimental techniques, equipment, and dynamic material results are reported.

  6. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, M; Klemes, J; Rebicek, J; Kotzianova, A; Velebny, V

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time. PMID:26521008

  7. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, M.; Klemes, J.; Rebicek, J.; Kotzianova, A.; Velebny, V.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time.

  8. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications. PMID:26726580

  9. Integrated motion system for self-alignment of micro-optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collard, Dominique; Fukuta, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Chauvel, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate an integrated X/Y motion system, compatible with silicon process that will allow the positioning of micro-optical devices. The basic actuator, used for this system is referred as scratch drive actuator (SDA). SDA is able to produce a 1-D displacement, so, by combining several SDA, multi-degree of freedom motion is obtained. First, the SDA dimension dependent yield was analyzed. From this study, SDA with 50 micrometer long and 70 micrometer wide scratching area are appropriate for the integrated alignment system. According to these dimensions, various X/Y stages configurations are designed and fabricated as well as other actuated components such as long springs, integrated snapping devices and also nonrectangular shaped SDA. Two-dimensional motion of a 150 micrometer by 150 micrometer polysilicon stage have been demonstrated, proving the SDA out force is able to overcome friction effects of this kind of device. Active snapping system have been also successfully implemented. Control schemes for the X/Y motion and for the alignment are now under investigation.

  10. Linear polarizing undulator and optical alignment system for a THz-FEL test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, B.; Liu, K. F.; Liu, Xu; Lei, Xiang; Wang, Yangbing; Tan, P.; Xiong, Y. Q.; Wei, W.; Pei, Yuanji

    2015-05-01

    A Free Electron Laser oscillator with radiation wavelength 50-100 ?m is under commissioning in Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). Physical design of a linear polarizing undulator has been performed in HUST, with variable gap for K=1.0-1.25. The undulator was manufactured by Kyma s.r.l., by using a pure permanent magnet scheme. In December 2014, this undulator was installed in HUST and acceptance test showed main tolerances including rms phase error, field integrals corresponding variable gaps are well controlled. Design considerations related to physical and engineering issues, magnetic field performance are described. This paper introduces the development of an online field integrals measurement system for the undulator, using the stretched wire method. The design and considerations of the optical alignment system is described as well.

  11. Optical addressing technique for a CMOS RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, W. H.; Bergman, L. A.; Allen, R. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Progress on optically addressing a CMOS RAM for a feasibility demonstration of free space optical interconnection is reported in this paper. The optical RAM chip has been fabricated and functional testing is in progress. Initial results seem promising. New design and SPICE simulation of optical gate cell (OGC) circuits have been carried out to correct the slow fall time of the 'weak pull down' OGC, which has been characterized experimentally. Methods of reducing the response times of the photodiodes and the associated circuits are discussed. Even with the current photodiode, it appears that an OGC can be designed with a performance that is compatible with a CMOS circuit such as the RAM.

  12. Electro-Optical Sensor Fabricated Using a Bulk Cleavage Technique and Its Characteristics for Near-Field Intra-Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Akinori; Sasaki, Ai-ichiro; Morimura, Hiroki; Aihara, Kimihisa; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes how to obtain a low cost electro-optical (EO) sensor module for the mass production of near-field intra-body communication devices. In this study, we used a bulk cleavage technique to fabricate EO modulators without the need for any optical polishing or washing processes, and clarified the feasibility of assembling optical components using only a passive alignment technique with a compact housing.

  13. Antifouling leaching technique for optical lenses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strahle, William J.; Perez, C. L.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of optical lenses deployed in water less than 100 m deep is significantly reduced by biofouling caused by the settlement of macrofauna, such as barnacles, hydroids, and tunicates. However, machineable porous plastic rings can be used to dispense antifoulant into the water in front of the lens to retard macrofaunal growth without obstructing the light path. Unlike coatings which can degrade the optical performance, antifouling rings do not interfere with the instrument optics. The authors have designed plastic, reusable cup-like antifouling rings to slip over the optical lenses of a transmissometer. These rings have been used for several deployments on shallow moorings in Massachusetts Bay, MA and have increased the time before fouling degrades optical characteristics

  14. Intraocular lens alignment from an en face optical coherence tomography image Purkinje-like method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mengchan; de Castro, Alberto; Ortiz, Sergio; Perez-Merino, Pablo; Birkenfeld, Judith; Marcos, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Measurement of intraocular lens (IOL) alignment implanted in patients in cataract surgery is important to understand their optical performance. We present a method to estimate tilt and decentration of IOLs based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. En face OCT images show Purkinje-like images that correspond to the specular reflections from the corneal and IOL surfaces. Unlike in standard Purkinje-imaging, the tomographic nature of OCT allows unequivocal association of the reflection with the corresponding surface. The locations of the Purkinje-like images are linear combinations of IOL tilt, IOL decentration, and eye rotation. The weighting coefficients depend on the individual anterior segment geometry, obtained from the same OCT datasets. The methodology was demonstrated on an artificial model eye with set amounts of lens tilt and decentration and five pseudophakic eyes. Measured tilt and decentration in the artificial eye differed by 3.7% and 0.9%, respectively, from nominal values. In patients, average IOL tilt and decentration from Purkinje were 3.30±4.68 deg and 0.16±0.16 mm, respectively, and differed on average by 0.5 deg and 0.09 mm, respectively, from direct measurements on distortion-corrected OCT images. Purkinje-based methodology from anterior segment en face OCT imaging provided, therefore, reliable measurements of IOL tilt and decentration.

  15. Micro-optics and lithography simulation are key enabling technologies for shadow printing lithography in mask aligners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Noell, Wilfried

    2015-02-01

    Mask aligners are lithographic tools used to transfer a pattern of microstructures by shadow printing lithography onto a planar wafer. Contact lithography allows us to print large mask fields with sub-micron resolution, but requires frequent mask cleaning. Thus, contact lithography is used for small series of wafer production. Proximity lithography, where the mask is located at a distance of typically 30-100 μm above the wafer, provides a resolution of approximately 3-5 μm, limited by diffraction effects. Proximity lithography in mask aligners is a very cost-efficient method widely used in semiconductor, packaging and MEMS manufacturing industry for high-volume production. Micro-optics plays a key role in improving the performance of shadow printing lithography in mask aligners. Refractive or diffractive micro-optics allows us to efficiently collect the light from the light source and to precisely shape the illumination light (customized illumination). Optical proximity correction and phase shift mask technology allow us to influence the diffraction effects in the aerial image and to enhance resolution and critical dimension. The paper describes the status and future trends of shadow printing lithography in mask aligners and the decisive role of micro-optics as key enabling technology.

  16. Computerized detection of masses in digital mammograms: automated alignment of breast images and its effect on bilateral-subtraction technique.

    PubMed

    Yin, F F; Giger, M L; Doi, K; Vyborny, C J; Schmidt, R A

    1994-03-01

    An automated technique for the alignment of right and left breast images has been developed for use in the computerized analysis of bilateral breast images. In this technique, the breast region is first identified in each digital mammogram by use of histogram analysis and morphological filtering operations. The anterior portions of the tracked breast border and computer-identified nipple positions are selected as landmarks for use in image registration. The paired right and left breast images, either from mediolateral oblique or craniocaudal views, are then registered relative to each other by use of a least-squares matching method. This automated alignment technique has been applied to our computerized detection scheme that employs a nonlinear bilateral-subtraction method for the initial identification of possible masses. The effectiveness of using bilateral subtraction in identifying asymmetries between corresponding right and left breast images is examined by comparing detection performances obtained with various computer-simulated misalignments of 40 pairs of clinical mammograms. Based on free-response receiver operating characteristic and regression analyses, the detection performance obtained with the automated alignment technique was found to be higher than that obtained with simulated misalignments. Detection performance decreased gradually as the amount of simulated misalignment increased. These results indicate that automatic alignment of breast images is possible and that mass-detection performance appears to improve with the inclusion of asymmetric anatomic information but is not sensitive to slight misalignment. PMID:8208220

  17. Optical fiber sensor technique for strain measurement

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Laser light from a common source is split and conveyed through two similar optical fibers and emitted at their respective ends to form an interference pattern, one of the optical fibers having a portion thereof subjected to a strain. Changes in the strain cause changes in the optical path length of the strain fiber, and generate corresponding changes in the interference pattern. The interference pattern is received and transduced into signals representative of fringe shifts corresponding to changes in the strain experienced by the strained one of the optical fibers. These signals are then processed to evaluate strain as a function of time, typical examples of the application of the apparatus including electrodeposition of a metallic film on a conductive surface provided on the outside of the optical fiber being strained, so that strains generated in the optical fiber during the course of the electrodeposition are measurable as a function of time. In one aspect of the invention, signals relating to the fringe shift are stored for subsequent processing and analysis, whereas in another aspect of the invention the signals are processed for real-time display of the strain changes under study.

  18. On numerical techniques for the transformation to an orthogonal coordinate system aligned with a vector field

    SciTech Connect

    CASTILLO,JOSE E.; OTTO,JAMES S.

    2000-02-11

    The authors explore the use of variational grid-generation to perform alignment of a grid with a given vector field. Variational methods have proven to be a powerful class of grid-generators, but when they are used in alignment, difficulties may arise in treating boundaries due to an incompatibility between geometry and vector field. In this paper, a refinement of the procedure of iterating boundary values is presented. It allows one to control the quality of the grid in the face of the above-mentioned incompatibility. This procedure may be incorporated into any variational alignment algorithm. The authors demonstrate its use with respect to a new quasi-variational alignment method having a particularly simple structure. The latter method is comparable to Knupp's method (see [7]), but avoids use of the Winslow equations.

  19. Building blocks for actively-aligned micro-optical systems in rapid prototyping and small series production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, Gunnar; Queisser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in utilizing fully automated machines for the assembly of microoptical systems. Such systems integrate laser sources, optical elements and detectors into tight packages, and efficiently couple light to free space beams, waveguides in optical backplanes, or optical fibers for longer reach transmission. The required electrical-optical and optical components are placed and aligned actively in more than one respect. For one, all active components are actually operated in the alignment process, and, more importantly, the placing of all components is controlled actively by camera systems and power detectors with live feedback for an optimal coupling efficiency. The total number of optical components typically is in the range of 5 to 50, whereas the number of actors with gripping tools for the actual handling and aligning is limited, with little flexibility in the gripping width. The assembly process therefore is strictly sequential and, given that an automated tool changing has not been established in this class of machines yet, there are either limitations in the geometries of components that may be used, or time-consuming interaction by human operators is needed. As a solution we propose and present lasered glass building blocks with standardized gripping geometries that enclose optical elements of various shapes and functionalities. These are cut as free form geometries with green short pulse and CO2 lasers. What seems to add cost at first rather increases freedom of design and adds an economical flexibility to create very hybrid assemblies of various micro-optical assemblies also in small numbers.

  20. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

  1. Is optical CDMA viable technique for broadband networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesk, Ivan; Baby, Varghese; Brs, Camille S.; Prucnal, Paul R.; Kwong, Wing C.

    2006-03-01

    The need for high speed communications together with availability of novel photonic devices have triggered a development of broadband optical networks. Current techniques for accessing bandwidth in a multi-user environment in optical networks rely on dense wavelength-division multiple access (DWDMA) and time-division multiple access (TDMA) approaches. On the other hand, code-division multiple access (CDMA) has been used more in RF wireless communication systems. However, by combining CDMA approaches with emerging optical technologies and novel code design, optical CDMA systems that provide unique multi-user access to shared optical bandwidth can be realized.

  2. Optical fiber measurement techniques based on complementary correlation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tao; Wen, Ke; Wang, Rong; Xu, Zhi-Yong

    2001-10-01

    Now, single-mode optical fiber has been widely applied in communication systems and the users of optical fiber have migrated to longer transmission wavelengths, which results in the task of optical fiber measurement becoming more difficult. A method measuring optical fiber properties such as fiber loss and attenuation is optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) measurement. Conventional OTDRs have a limitation: the trade-off between signal-to-noise ratio and response resolution. This paper presents an approach that applies spectrum-spread techniques to remedy this limitation, and improves dynamic range and reduces measurement time without sacrificing response resolution.

  3. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

  4. Interference cancellation technique of optical AND gate receiver using optical thyristor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Gu

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate an interference cancellation technique of optical AND gate receiver using optical thyristor for fiber-optic code division multiple access (FO-CDMA) systems. In particular, we fabricate the optical thyristor operating as optical hard-limiter and evaluate that the optical AND gate receiver using fabricated optical thyristor excludes the peaks of side-lobe and cross-correlation result in the system performance degradation. It found that the optical AND gate receiver using optical thyristor excludes the intensity of interference signal resulting in that the peaks of side-lobe and cross-correlation can be fully eliminated for any two users. Therefore, the optical AND gate receiver using optical thyristor is shown to be effective to accommodate more simultaneous users. PMID:18773033

  5. A Simple Technique for Visualizing Ultrasound Fields Without Schlieren Optics.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Nobuki

    2015-07-01

    A simple technique designed for visualization of ultrasound fields without Schlieren optics is introduced. An optical system of direct shadowgraphy with diverging light, which consists of a point light source and a shadow screen, constituted the basic system, but the screen was replaced by focusing optics: a camera that makes a virtual screen at its focus plane. The proposed technique visualizes displacement of light deflected by ultrasound, and the use of focusing optics enables flexible settings of the virtual screen position and optical magnification. Insufficient sensitivity of shadowgraphy was overcome by elimination of non-deflecting light using image subtraction of shadowgrams taken with and without ultrasound exposure. A 1-MHz focused transducer for ultrasound therapy and a 20-MHz miniature transducer for intravascular imaging were used for experiments, and alternate pressure change in short-pulsed ultrasound was visualized, indicating the usefulness of the proposed technique for evaluation of medical ultrasound fields. PMID:25842256

  6. Parallel optical interconnect between surface-mounted devices on FR4 printed wiring board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karppinen, Mikko; Alajoki, Teemu; Tanskanen, Antti; Kataja, Kari; Mkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Karioja, Pentti; Immonen, Marika; Kivilahti, Jorma

    2006-04-01

    Technologies to design and fabricate high-bit-rate chip-to-chip optical interconnects on printed wiring boards (PWB) are studied. The aim is to interconnect surface-mounted component packages or modules using board-embedded optical waveguides. In order to demonstrate the developed technologies, a parallel optical interconnect was integrated on a standard FR4-based PWB. It consists of 4-channel BGA-mounted transmitter and receiver modules as well as of four polymer multimode waveguides fabricated on top of the PWB using lithographic patterning. The transmitters and receivers built on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates include flip-chip mounted VCSEL or photodiode array and 4x10 Gb/s driver or receiver IC. Two microlens arrays and a surface-mounted micro-mirror enable optical coupling between the optoelectronic device and the waveguide array. The optical alignment is based on the marks and structures fabricated in both the LTCC and optical waveguide processes. The structures were optimized and studied by the use of optical tolerance analyses based on ray tracing. The characterized optical alignment tolerances are in the limits of the accuracy of the surface-mount technology.

  7. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  8. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  9. Optical correlator techniques applied to robotic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hine, Butler P., III; Reid, Max B.; Downie, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Vision processing is one of the most computationally intensive tasks required of an autonomous robot. The data flow from a single typical imaging sensor is roughly 60 Mbits/sec, which can easily overload current on-board processors. Optical correlator-based processing can be used to perform many of the functions required of a general robotic vision system, such as object recognition, tracking, and orientation determination, and can perform these functions fast enough to keep pace with the incoming sensor data. We describe a hybrid digital electronic/analog optical robotic vision processing system developed at Ames Research Center to test concepts and algorithms for autonomous construction, inspection, and maintenance of space-based habitats. We discuss the system architecture design and implementation, its performance characteristics, and our future plans. In particular, we compare the performance of the system to a more conventional all digital electronic system developed concurrently. The hybrid system consistently outperforms the digital electronic one in both speed and robustness.

  10. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  11. Automatic inspection technique for optical surface flaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, GuoGuang; Gao, Wenliang; Cheng, Shangyi

    1991-01-01

    Industrial inspection of optical component surface flaws requires objective, high efficient and fast measurement methods and instruments. In this paper, a novel method, which is practical for on- line inspecting optical component surface flaws in manufacturing industry, is discribed. Laser beam goes through a lean- placed mirror with a slot in center onto the surface of the specimen. The imformation of surface flaws is obtained through analysing the frequency spectrum of reflective light which is detected by a photomultiplier, the specimen scanning control and signal processing are finished by a low - cost and handy single- board microcomputer. The theory that applies the scanning frequency spectrum method , the method for determining flaw size and measuring sensitivity as well as control model for various specimen are analysed in detail .A system has been built according to the idea discribed above. By using the system, several specimen are measured, the comparison and analysis between exprimental results and actual flaw conditions are given. The minimum detectable flaw is 3 micrometer, the measuring error is also given.

  12. Fully passive-alignment pluggable compact parallel optical interconnection modules based on a direct-butt-coupling structure for fiber-optic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kwon-Seob; Park, Hyoung-Jun; Kang, Hyun Seo; Kim, Young Sun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost packaging method utilizing a fully passive optical alignment and surface-mounting method is demonstrated for pluggable compact and slim multichannel optical interconnection modules using a VCSEL/PIN-PD chip array. The modules are based on a nonplanar bent right-angle electrical signal path on a silicon platform and direct-butt-optical coupling without a bulky and expensive microlens array. The measured optical direct-butt-coupling efficiencies of each channel without any bulky optics are as high as 33% and 95% for the transmitter and receiver, respectively. Excellent lateral optical alignment tolerance of larger than 60 μm for both the transmitter and receiver module significantly reduces the manufacturing and material costs as well as the packaging time. The clear eye diagrams, extinction ratios higher than 8 dB at 10.3 Gbps for the transmitter module, and receiver sensitivity of better than -13.1 dBm at 10.3 Gbps and a bit error rate of 10-12 for all channels are demonstrated. Considering that the optical output power of the transmitter is greater than 0 dBm, the module has a sufficient power margin of about 13 dB for 10.3 Gbps operations for all channels.

  13. Dimensional metrology of large refractive optical components using nonoptical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peggs, Graham

    2002-02-01

    Traditionally, the key component design parameters such as radius, lens thickness, size and shape of most types of optical components are measured using optical techniques. There are several reasons for this, but in particular: the form of the entire surface is generally revealed in one testing set up, the optical functionality of the component is almost always the performance defining factor, and the heritage of many of the optical methods, i.e. the huge investment and expertise that has in the past been brought to bear on perfecting the testing methods. There are however, alternative non-optical instruments, such as CMMs, for measuring the form of optical components that are becoming increasingly attractive for conformal optical components, off-axis optics, and aspherical lenses and components, for example corrector plates, grisms, and so on. The main reasons for the increased acceptance of such techniques are that: the asphericity of some of the surfaces is often too great to be handled satisfactorily by interferometric methods at optical wavelengths, or even at infra-red wavelengths; the probing force of modern, special- purpose probes is remarkably small; the cost of producing computer-generated holograms required for optical testing can be very high and often the numbers of components to be tested do not justify the expense; the speed of production is such that the component cannot be repeatedly removed and replaced in the manufacturing machine and/or the manufacturing process is not so conductive to optical testing because of the presence of cutting fluids etc. and, finally, the level of accuracy required cannot be achieved using optical techniques for unorthodox shapes.

  14. High-resolution optical spectrum characterization using optical channel estimation and spectrum stitching technique.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; Bao, Yuan; Li, Zhaohui; Gui, Tao; Shang, Haiyan; Feng, Xinhuan; Li, Jianping; Yi, Xingwen; Yu, Changyuan; Li, Guifang; Lu, Chao

    2013-07-01

    A technique is proposed to measure the high-resolution and wide-band characterization of amplitude, phase responses, and polarization property of optical components. This technique combines the optical spectrum stitching and optical channel estimation methods. Two kinds of fiber Bragg grating based Fabry-Perot cavities with ultrafine structures have been characterized based on this technique. By using 1024 point fast Fourier transform and a narrow linewidth, wavelength-tunable laser source, a frequency resolution of ~10 MHz is realized with an optical measurement range beyond 250 GHz. PMID:23811913

  15. Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna

    2015-03-01

    Mask aligner lithography is very attractive for less-critical lithography layers and is widely used for LED, display, CMOS image sensor, micro-fluidics and MEMS manufacturing. Mask aligner lithography is also a preferred choice the semiconductor back-end for 3D-IC, TSV interconnects, advanced packaging (AdP) and wafer-level-packaging (WLP). Mask aligner lithography is a mature technique based on shadow printing and has not much changed since the 1980s. In shadow printing lithography a geometric pattern is transferred by free-space propagation from a photomask to a photosensitive layer on a wafer. The inherent simplicity of the pattern transfer offers ease of operation, low maintenance, moderate capital expenditure, high wafers-per-hour (WPH) throughput, and attractive cost-of-ownership (COO). Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) comprises different measures to improve shadow printing lithography beyond current limits. The key enabling technology for AMALITH is a novel light integrator systems, referred to as MO Exposure Optics (MOEO). MOEO allows to fully control and shape the properties of the illumination light in a mask aligner. Full control is the base for accurate simulation and optimization of the shadow printing process (computational lithography). Now photolithography enhancement techniques like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC), phase masks (AAPSM), half-tone lithography and Talbot lithography could be used in mask aligner lithography. We summarize the recent progress in advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) and discuss possible measures to further improve shadow printing lithography.

  16. Phase retrieval techniques for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C. J., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    We have developed and tested a method for minimizing static aberrations in adaptive optics systems. In order to correct the static phase aberrations, we need to measure the aberrations through the entire system. We have employed various phase retrieval algorithms to detect these aberrations. We have performed simulations of our experimental setup demonstrating that phase retrieval can improve the static aberrations to below the 20 nm rms level, with the limiting factor being local turbulence in the A0 system. Experimentally thus far, we have improved the static aberrations down to the 50 nm level, with the limiting factor being the ability to adjust the deformable mirror. This should be improved with better control algorithms now being implemented.

  17. A Novel Scheme for DVL-Aided SINS In-Motion Alignment Using UKF Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanli; Wang, Jinling; Lu, Liangqing; Wu, Wenqi

    2013-01-01

    In-motion alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS) without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). This paper presents a novel scheme for Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) aided SINS alignment using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) which allows large initial misalignments. With the proposed mechanism, a nonlinear SINS error model is presented and the measurement model is derived under the assumption that large misalignments may exist. Since a priori knowledge of the measurement noise covariance is of great importance to robustness of the UKF, the covariance-matching methods widely used in the Adaptive KF (AKF) are extended for use in Adaptive UKF (AUKF). Experimental results show that the proposed DVL-aided alignment model is effective with any initial heading errors. The performances of the adaptive filtering methods are evaluated with regards to their parameter estimation stability. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the measurement noise covariance can be estimated reliably by the adaptive UKF methods and hence improve the performance of the alignment. PMID:23322105

  18. A novel scheme for DVL-aided SINS in-motion alignment using UKF techniques.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanli; Wang, Jinling; Lu, Liangqing; Wu, Wenqi

    2013-01-01

    In-motion alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS) without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). This paper presents a novel scheme for Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) aided SINS alignment using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) which allows large initial misalignments. With the proposed mechanism, a nonlinear SINS error model is presented and the measurement model is derived under the assumption that large misalignments may exist. Since a priori knowledge of the measurement noise covariance is of great importance to robustness of the UKF, the covariance-matching methods widely used in the Adaptive KF (AKF) are extended for use in Adaptive UKF (AUKF). Experimental results show that the proposed DVL-aided alignment model is effective with any initial heading errors. The performances of the adaptive filtering methods are evaluated with regards to their parameter estimation stability. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the measurement noise covariance can be estimated reliably by the adaptive UKF methods and hence improve the performance of the alignment. PMID:23322105

  19. Field results of antifouling techniques for optical instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strahle, W.J.; Hotchkiss, F.S.; Martini, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    An anti-fouling technique is developed for the protection of optical instruments from biofouling which leaches a bromide compound into a sample chamber and pumps new water into the chamber prior to measurement. The primary advantage of using bromide is that it is less toxic than the metal-based antifoulants. The drawback of the bromide technique is also discussed.

  20. Advanced optical characterization techniques for borophosphosilicate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpio, Ronald A.; Taylor, Jon

    1995-09-01

    FTIR spectra of borophosphosilicate (BPSG) films which are obtained by metal backed configurations are compared to those obtained by the conventional normal incidence transmission geometry. Sensitivity advantages are demonstrated for both hydrogen incorporation and dopant analyses. P-polarized measurements are explored for preferential excitation of vibrational modes. Reflectance measurements of BPSG films on silicon by FTIR and by the emerging techniques of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) both in the UV-visible and mid-IR spectral ranges are reviewed. The use of differential and derivative spectral data anlysis is illustrated for investigating structural and compositional changes which occur from film densification and in the course of film storage.

  1. Neutron optics requirements for neutron imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E.; Morgano, M.; Peetermans, S.

    2014-07-01

    The utilization of X-rays for material research is common in many respects since their discovery at the end of the 19th century. New sources as electron synchrotrons or free-electron lasers push the methodology and the application ranges further. A similar approach started 50 years later with neutrons when sources with reasonable high intensity became available. Today, there are many similarities and complementarities visible between X-ray and neutron studies and the involved techniques. Therefore, it is worth to compare and to adapt from the advanced X-ray techniques and to translate it into the neutron world. Despite of the lack of neutron intensities compared to the most brilliant X-ray beams, the specific properties of neutrons (contrast, spin, magnetic moment, penetration power) are utilized and they will further play an important role in non-invasive studies on the micro- and macro scale. This paper wants to encourage to "look over the fence" into activities of the X-ray community as currently running in the COST action MP-1203.

  2. Tumor margin detection using optical biopsy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Li, Jiyou; Li, Zhongwu; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Ke; Pu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhu, Ke; Li, Qingbo; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use the Resonance Raman (RR) and fluorescence spectroscopic technique for tumor margin detection with high accuracy based on native molecular fingerprints of breast and gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. This tumor margins detection method utilizes advantages of RR spectroscopic technique in situ and in real-time to diagnose tumor changes providing powerful tools for clinical guiding intraoperative margin assessments and postoperative treatments. The tumor margin detection procedures by RR spectroscopy were taken by scanning lesion from center or around tumor region in ex-vivo to find the changes in cancerous tissues with the rim of normal tissues using the native molecular fingerprints. The specimens used to analyze tumor margins include breast and GI carcinoma and normal tissues. The sharp margin of the tumor was found by the changes of RR spectral peaks within 2 mm distance. The result was verified using fluorescence spectra with 300 nm, 320 nm and 340 nm excitation, in a typical specimen of gastric cancerous tissue within a positive margin in comparison with normal gastric tissues. This study demonstrates the potential of RR and fluorescence spectroscopy as new approaches with labeling free to determine the intraoperative margin assessment.

  3. Computational Electromagnetic Modeling of Optical Responses in Plasmonically Enhanced Nanoscale Devices Fabricated with Nanomasking Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Eric; Debu, Desalegn; Saylor, Cameron; Herzog, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    This work computationally explores plasmonic nanoscale devices fabricated with a recently developed nanomasking technique that is based on the self-aligned process. Computational electromagnetic modeling has determined enhancement factors and the plasmonic and optical properties of these structures. The nanomasking technique is a new process that is employed to overcome the resolution limits of traditional electron beam lithography and can also be used to increase resolution in photolithography fabrication as well. This technique can consistently produce accurate features with nanostructures and gaps smaller than 10 nm. These smaller dimensions can allow for increased and more localized plasmonically enhanced electric fields. These unique metal devices encompass tunable, enhanced plasmonic and optical properties that can be useful in a wide range of applications. Finite element methods are used to approximate the electromagnetic responses, giving the ability to alter the designs and dimensions in order to optimize the enhancement. Ultimately, we will fabricate devices and characterize the plasmonic properties with optical techniques, including dark-field spectroscopy, to confirm the properties with the goal of generating more efficient devices.

  4. Simple technique for optical flow estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical principles, design, and implementation of an image-motion detection system with possible robotics and autonomous-navigation applications are discussed. The operation of a simple one-dimensional second-derivative edge-motion detector is explained; its extension to a two-dimensional motion sensor based on the Laplacian of a Gaussian (Marr and Hildreth, 1980) is outlined; a center-surround array of 13 of these sensors (12 in a circle around a central sensor) is proposed; and processing techniques to overcome the aperture problem are examined. Simple video images involving unidirectional motion are then analyzed using a prototype version of this design; the sensors employed are based on a 15 x 15-pixel mask made up of 13 7 x 7-pixel kernels. Accurate measurements of image velocity are obtained, as required for navigation through complex environments. It is pointed out that the procedure is noniterative and well suited to implementation as a parallel network.

  5. Optical techniques for time and frequency transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumont, Francoise; Gaignebet, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Light has been used as a means for time synchronization for a long time. The flight time was supposed to be negligible. The first scientific determination of the velocity of the light was done by measuring a round trip flight time on a given distance. The well known flying clock experiment leading to Einstein's General Relativity is another example. The advent of lasers, particularly short pulse and modulated ones, as well as the improvements of the timing equipments have led to new concepts for time and frequency transfer. We describe some experiments using different techniques and configurations which have been proposed and tested in this field since the beginning of the space age. Added to that, we set out advantages, drawbacks, and performances achieved in the different cases.

  6. Optical alignment of a 0.5 meter ultra-violet spectrometer for Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroader, I. H.; Holliday, C. T.; Bush, G. B.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the design and performance of a 0.5 m Ebert spectrometer mounted on Apollo 17 for research on the ultraviolet spectrum of the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was designed for operation in the range 1175 to 1675 A. A method was developed for aligning subassemblies in such a way that the assembled instrument would be aligned in the ultraviolet to an accuracy of 2 A with maximum efficiency.

  7. Nanoscale optical and electrical characterization of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Raul D.; Toader, Marius; Hermann, Sascha; Sheremet, Evgeniya; Mller, Susanne; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Yu, Haibo; Schulz, Stefan E.; Hietschold, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich RT

    2012-12-01

    During the recent years, a significant amount of research has been performed on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a channel material in thin-film transistors (Pham et al. IEEE Trans Nanotechnol 11:44-50, 2012). This has prompted the application of advanced characterization techniques based on combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy studies (Mureau et al. Electrophoresis 29:2266-2271, 2008). In this context, we use confocal Raman microscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) to study phonons and the electronic transport in semiconducting SWCNTs, which were aligned between palladium electrodes using dielectrophoresis (Kuzyk Electrophoresis 32:2307-2313, 2011). Raman imaging was performed in the region around the electrodes on the suspended CNTs using several laser excitation wavelengths. Analysis of the G+/G- splitting in the Raman spectra (Sgobba and Guldi Chem Soc Rev 38:165-184, 2009) shows CNT diameters of 2.5 0.3 nm. Neither surface modification nor increase in defect density or stress at the CNT-electrode contact could be detected, but rather a shift in G+ and G- peak positions in regions with high CNT density between the electrodes. Simultaneous topographical and electrical characterization of the CNT transistor by CS-AFM confirms the presence of CNT bundles having a stable electrical contact with the transistor electrodes. For a similar load force, reproducible current-voltage ( I/ V) curves for the same CNT regions verify the stability of the electrical contact between the nanotube and the electrodes as well as the nanotube and the AFM tip over different experimental sessions using different AFM tips. Strong variations observed in the I/ V response at different regions of the CNT transistor are discussed.

  8. Nanoscale optical and electrical characterization of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Raul D; Toader, Marius; Hermann, Sascha; Sheremet, Evgeniya; Mller, Susanne; Gordan, Ovidiu D; Yu, Haibo; Schulz, Stefan E; Hietschold, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich Rt

    2012-01-01

    During the recent years, a significant amount of research has been performed on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a channel material in thin-film transistors (Pham et al. IEEE Trans Nanotechnol 11:44-50, 2012). This has prompted the application of advanced characterization techniques based on combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy studies (Mureau et al. Electrophoresis 29:2266-2271, 2008). In this context, we use confocal Raman microscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) to study phonons and the electronic transport in semiconducting SWCNTs, which were aligned between palladium electrodes using dielectrophoresis (Kuzyk Electrophoresis 32:2307-2313, 2011). Raman imaging was performed in the region around the electrodes on the suspended CNTs using several laser excitation wavelengths. Analysis of the G+/G- splitting in the Raman spectra (Sgobba and Guldi Chem Soc Rev 38:165-184, 2009) shows CNT diameters of 2.5??0.3 nm. Neither surface modification nor increase in defect density or stress at the CNT-electrode contact could be detected, but rather a shift in G+ and G- peak positions in regions with high CNT density between the electrodes. Simultaneous topographical and electrical characterization of the CNT transistor by CS-AFM confirms the presence of CNT bundles having a stable electrical contact with the transistor electrodes. For a similar load force, reproducible current-voltage (I/V) curves for the same CNT regions verify the stability of the electrical contact between the nanotube and the electrodes as well as the nanotube and the AFM tip over different experimental sessions using different AFM tips. Strong variations observed in the I/V response at different regions of the CNT transistor are discussed. PMID:23259903

  9. Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chandler, C.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional phased array antennas using waveguide or coax for signal distribution are impractical for large scale implementation on satellites or spacecraft because they exhibit prohibitively large system size, heavy weight, high attenuation loss, limited bandwidth, sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) temperature drifts and phase instability. However, optical beam forming systems are smaller, lighter, and more flexible. Three optical beam forming techniques are identified as applicable to large spaceborne phased array antennas. They are (1) the optical fiber replacement of conventional RF phased array distribution and control components, (2) spatial beam forming, and (3) optical beam splitting with integrated quasi-optical components. The optical fiber replacement and the spatial beam forming approaches were pursued by many organizations. Two new optical beam forming architectures are presented. Both architectures involve monolithic integration of the antenna radiating elements with quasi-optical grid detector arrays. The advantages of the grid detector array in the optical process are the higher power handling capability and the dynamic range. One architecture involves a modified version of the original spatial beam forming approach. The basic difference is the spatial light modulator (SLM) device for controlling the aperture field distribution. The original liquid crystal light valve SLM is replaced by an optical shuffling SLM, which was demonstrated for the 'smart pixel' technology. The advantages are the capability of generating the agile beams of a phased array antenna and to provide simultaneous transmit and receive functions. The second architecture considered is the optical beam splitting approach. This architecture involves an alternative amplitude control for each antenna element with an optical beam power divider comprised of mirrors and beam splitters. It also implements the quasi-optical grid phase shifter for phase control and grid amplifier for RF power. The advantages are no SLM is required for this approach, and the complete antenna system is capable of full monolithic integration.

  10. Polymer waveguides self-organized by two-photon photochemistry for self-aligned optical couplings with wide misalignment tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo; Takeda, Daisuke; Sato, Takuya; Kinugasa, Yoshihiko; Nawata, Hideyuki

    2016-03-01

    Self-organized optical waveguides formed in a photopolymer using two-photon photochemistry is proposed for self-aligned optical couplings involving nano-scale optical devices with wide tolerances in lateral misalignments. Simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain method revealed that on introducing a 400-nm write beam and a 780-nm write beam into the two-photon photopolymer respectively from two 600-nm-wide waveguides facing each other with 32 μm gap a self-aligned coupling waveguide called a two-photon self-organized lightwave network (SOLNET) is formed between the two waveguides. The lateral misalignment tolerance was found to be 3000 nm, which is five times larger than the misalignment limit of ~600 nm in waveguides formed by conventional one-photon photochemistry. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the two-photon SOLNETs are formed between multimode optical fibers by introducing a 448-nm write beam and a 780-nm (or 856-nm) write beam from the fibers into a photosensitive organic/inorganic hybrid material, SUNCONNECT®, with doped camphorquinone (or biacetyl).

  11. Evaluation of Protein Immobilisation Techniques on Optical Fibre Tirf Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, L.; Domenici, C.; Ahluwalia, A.; Baldini, F.; Mencaglia, A.

    2000-12-01

    The efficiency of optical immunosensors is highly dependent on the sensitivity of active protein layers anchored to the optical surface. In order to optimise the performance of the sensors, a comparative study of different immobilisation techniques of antibodies on optical surface has been carried out. In particular, experiments of different covalent immobilisation methods on planar quartz surfaces were conducted to enable a choice of the most suitable technique. The two methods resulting in higher surface densities of active sites were selected for further experiments on a fibre optic TIRF immunosensor. In both cases, the antibody coatings gave satisfactory responses to changes in fluorescent analyte concentrations for the tested range (~10-8 M). The capacity of polar organic solvents to dissociate the antigen-antibody complex and hence to regenerate the immunosensor surface has also been evaluated, indicating that DMSO can be used as a regenerating agent.

  12. Simple, Inexpensive, and Rapid Approach to Fabricate Cross-Shaped Memristors Using an Inorganic-Nanowire-Digital-Alignment Technique and a One-Step Reduction Process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Lee, Yeongjun; Min, Sung-Yong; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, scalable, and designable approach to produce a cross-shaped memristor array is demonstrated using an inorganic-nanowire digital-alignment technique and a one-step reduction process. Two-dimensional arrays of perpendicularly aligned, individually conductive Cu-nanowires with a nanometer-scale Cux O layer sandwiched at each cross point are produced. PMID:26585580

  13. Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798

  14. A novel technique for an integrated optical wavelength demultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy Rabeh, M.; Mohanna, M.; Hosny, Tarek; Gabr, Mohamed I.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new technique for optical wavelength demultiplexing (DEMUX) relaying on two phenomena: Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift and continuous refraction at a graded-index medium interface. In the first case, two light beams are totally reflected at a plane interface separating two dielectric lossless media. The reflected beams suffer different lateral shifts (GH shifts) depending on the wavelength; thus accomplishing the required spatial beam separation. In the second case, the two light beams have different "turning points" inside the graded index medium; hence, the "back-refracted" beams are spatially separated. In this paper, we optimized the conditions of operation of such demultiplexing technique. This makes possible the integration of such technique in "planar integrated-optics" structures which can be used reliably in optical fiber communication networks.

  15. Study on application of optical clearing technique in skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Hao; Liang, Yanmei; Wang, Jingyi; Li, Yan

    2012-11-01

    So far, the study of the optical clearing is almost always about healthy tissue. However, the ultimate goal is to detect diseases for clinical application. Optical clearing on diseased skins is explored. The effect is evaluated by applying a combined liquid paraffin and glycerol mixed solution on several kinds of diseased skins in vitro. Scanning experiments from optical coherence tomography show that it has different effects among fibroma, pigmented nevus, and seborrheic keratosis. Based on the results, we conclude that different skin diseases have different compositions and structures, and their optical parameters and biological characteristics should be different, which implies that the optical clearing technique may have selectivity and may not be suitable for all kinds of skin diseases.

  16. Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the thermotropic nematic phase of organo-siloxane tetrapodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ki; Senyuk, Bohdan; Shin, Sung-Tae; Kohlmeier, Alexandra; Mehl, Georg H; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2014-01-21

    We perform optical, surface anchoring, and textural studies of an organo-siloxane "tetrapode" material in the broad temperature range of the nematic phase. The optical, structural, and topological features are compatible with the uniaxial nematic order rather than with the biaxial nematic order, in the entire nematic temperature range -25 C < T < 46 C studied. For homeotropic alignment, the material experiences surface anchoring transition, but the director can be realigned into an optically uniaxial texture by applying a sufficiently strong electric field. The topological features of textures in cylindrical capillaries, in spherical droplets and around colloidal inclusions are consistent with the uniaxial character of the long-range nematic order. In particular, we observe isolated surface point defects - boojums and bulk point defects - hedgehogs that can exist only in the uniaxial nematic liquid crystal. PMID:24651889

  17. Treatment outcome and efficacy of an aligner technique regarding incisor torque, premolar derotation and molar distalization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of orthodontic treatment using the Invisalign system. Particularly, we analyzed the influence of auxiliaries (Attachment/Power Ridge) as well as the staging (movement per aligner) on treatment efficacy. Methods We reviewed the tooth movements of 30 consecutive patients who required orthodontic treatment with Invisalign. In all patients, one of the following tooth movements was performed: (1) Incisor Torque >10, (2) Premolar derotation >10 (3) Molar distalization >1.5mm. The groups (1)-(3) were subdivided: in the first subgroup (a) the movements were supported with the use of an attachment, while in the subgroup (b) no auxiliaries were used (except incisor torque, in which Power Ridges were used). All tooth movements were performed in a split-mouth design. To analyze the clinical efficacy, pre-treatment and final plaster cast models were laser-scanned and the achieved tooth movement was determined by way of a surface/surface matching algorithm. The results were compared with the amount of tooth movement predicted by ClinCheck. Results The overall mean efficacy was 59% (SD?=?0.2). The mean accuracy for upper incisor torque was 42% (SD?=?0.2). Premolar derotation showed the lowest accuracy with approximately 40% (SD?=?0.3). Distalization of an upper molar was the most effective movement, with efficacy approximately 87% (SD?=?0.2). Conclusion Incisor torque, premolar derotation and molar distalization can be performed using Invisalign aligners. The staging (movement/aligner) and the total amount of planned movement have an significant impact on treatment efficacy. PMID:24923279

  18. Selective growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by double plasma chemical vapour deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Gil; Titus, Elby; Misra, D S; Gracio, J

    2008-08-01

    The selective growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) on large area copper substrates was carried out using a double plasma hot-filament chemical vapour deposition system. Three independent power supplies were used to produce two glow discharges within the vacuum reactor. The generation of two glow discharges and the efficient utilization of the electric fields, by controlling the key process parameters, enabled the production of VACNTs. Morphology, density and structure of carbon nanotubes were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. PMID:19049172

  19. Techniques for analyzing lens manufacturing data with optical design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Morris I.; Light, Brandon B.; Malone, Robert M.; Gregory, Michael K.; Frayer, Daniel K.

    2015-09-01

    Optical designers assume a mathematically derived statistical distribution of the relevant design parameters for their Monte Carlo tolerancing simulations. However, there may be significant differences between the assumed distributions and the likely outcomes from manufacturing. Of particular interest for this study are the data analysis techniques and how they may be applied to optical and mechanical tolerance decisions. The effect of geometric factors and mechanical glass properties on lens manufacturability will be also be presented. Although the present work concerns lens grinding and polishing, some of the concepts and analysis techniques could also be applied to other processes such molding and single-point diamond turning.

  20. Acousto-optic techniques for real SAR imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, M.; Psaltis, D.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advancements in the development of the Real Time Acousto-optic SAR Processor are presented. In particular, the technique for introducing the azimuth reference function into the processor via an acousto-optic Bragg cell is discussed. This approach permits the reference function to be stored in electronic memory, thus giving the processor the flexibility needed to adapt rapidly to changes in the radar/target geometry. The architecture is described and results are presented which show the applicability of the technique to both spot-light and strip-map SAR.

  1. Self-alignment and instability of waveguides induced by optical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Amit; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Bonomelli, Fabio; Lomakin, Vitaliy; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2009-10-01

    We introduce a fundamental property of waveguides induced by the forces of the guided light, namely, the ability to self-align or be in instability. A nanoscale waveguide broken by an offset and a gap may tend to self-align to form a continuous waveguide. Conversely, depending on the geometry and light polarization, the two parts of the waveguide may be deflected away from each other, thus, being in an unstable state. These effects are unique as they rely on the presence of both the guided mode and the scattered light. Strong self-alignment forces, in both the transverse and longitudinal directions, may be facilitated by near field interaction with polarization surface charges.

  2. Self-alignment and instability of waveguides induced by optical forces

    SciTech Connect

    Mizrahi, Amit; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Bonomelli, Fabio; Lomakin, Vitaliy; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2009-10-15

    We introduce a fundamental property of waveguides induced by the forces of the guided light, namely, the ability to self-align or be in instability. A nanoscale waveguide broken by an offset and a gap may tend to self-align to form a continuous waveguide. Conversely, depending on the geometry and light polarization, the two parts of the waveguide may be deflected away from each other, thus, being in an unstable state. These effects are unique as they rely on the presence of both the guided mode and the scattered light. Strong self-alignment forces, in both the transverse and longitudinal directions, may be facilitated by near field interaction with polarization surface charges.

  3. Color schlieren optics - A review of techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, G. S.

    The history, underlying principles, and current status of color schlieren techniques are surveyed. The advantages of this optical tool for certain applications are discussed in terms of one- and two-dimensional visualizations, qualitative and quantitative analyses, and system sensitivity, range, and resolution. It is emphasized that schlieren techniques are more firmly rooted in the history of optics than is commonly recognized. A figure is included which illustrates and classifies most of the available color schlieren techniques in terms of source and cutoff masks added to the Toepler schlieren arrangement. Most of the applications cited here take advantage of color coding and color contrast in visualizing complex refractive fields and yielding both qualitative and quantitative results. The purpose is to present a unified framework to help other investigators decide whether color schlieren is useful for particular application and, if so, which technique to use.

  4. Optical Frequency Upconversion Technique for Transmission of Wireless MIMO-Type Signals over Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Shaddad, R. Q.; Mohammad, A. B.; Al-Gailani, S. A.; Al-Hetar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength. PMID:24772009

  5. Optical frequency upconversion technique for transmission of wireless MIMO-type signals over optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Shaddad, R Q; Mohammad, A B; Al-Gailani, S A; Al-Hetar, A M

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength. PMID:24772009

  6. Optical strain measuring techniques for high temperature tensile testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Hemann, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of optical techniques used for the analysis of in-plane displacements or strains are reviewed. The application would be for the high temperature, approximately 1430 C (2600 F), tensile testing of ceramic composites in an oxidizing atmosphere. General descriptions of the various techniques and specifics such as gauge lengths and sensitivities are noted. Also, possible problems with the use of each method in the given application are discussed.

  7. Pathfinder first light: alignment, calibration, and commissioning of the LINC-NIRVANA ground-layer adaptive optics subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopon, Derek; Conrad, Al; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Herbst, Tom; Viotto, Valentina; Farinato, Jacopo; Bergomi, Maria; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Marafatto, Luca; Baumeister, Harald; Bertram, Thomas; Berwein, Jrgen; Briegel, Florian; Hofferbert, Ralph; Kittmann, Frank; Krster, Martin; Mohr, Lars; Radhakrishnan, Kalyan

    2014-08-01

    We present descriptions of the alignment and calibration tests of the Pathfinder, which achieved first light during our 2013 commissioning campaign at the LBT. The full LINC-NIRVANA instrument is a Fizeau interferometric imager with fringe tracking and 2-layer natural guide star multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems on each eye of the LBT. The MCAO correction for each side is achieved using a ground layer wavefront sensor that drives the LBT adaptive secondary mirror and a mid-high layer wavefront sensor that drives a Xinetics 349 actuator DM conjugated to an altitude of 7.1 km. When the LINC-NIRVANA MCAO system is commissioned, it will be one of only two such systems on an 8-meter telescope and the only such system in the northern hemisphere. In order to mitigate risk, we take a modular approach to commissioning by decoupling and testing the LINC-NIRVANA subsystems individually. The Pathfinder is the ground-layer wavefront sensor for the DX eye of the LBT. It uses 12 pyramid wavefront sensors to optically co-add light from natural guide stars in order to make four pupil images that sense ground layer turbulence. Pathfinder is now the first LINC-NIRVANA subsystem to be fully integrated with the telescope and commissioned on sky. Our 2013 commissioning campaign consisted of 7 runs at the LBT with the tasks of assembly, integration and communication with the LBT telescope control system, alignment to the telescope optical axis, off-sky closed loop AO calibration, and finally closed loop on-sky AO. We present the programmatics of this campaign, along with the novel designs of our alignment scheme and our off-sky calibration test, which lead to the Pathfinder's first on-sky closed loop images.

  8. An Optical Characterization Technique for Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors Using Images of the Absorber Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owkes, Jeanmarie Kathleen

    As the concentrating solar power industry competes to develop a less-expensive parabolic trough collector, assurance is needed that new parabolic trough collectors maintain accurate optical alignment. Previous optical characterization techniques are either too slow, ill-suited for field testing, or do not allow the collector to be tested in realistic orientations. The Observer method presented here enables the rapid optical characterization of parabolic trough collectors in any orientation in the field. The Observer method directly measures the combined optical angular errors in the reflector surface shape and the absorber position, which can be separated into its two components: reflector surface slope and absorber misalignment. The data acquisition requires the placement of photogrammetry targets on and around the collector. Multiple photographs of the absorber and its reflection are taken with a digital camera from different angles with respect to the collector. The images are processed to determine the camera location of each image using photogrammetry bundle analysis. The absorber and its reflection are found in the photographs using image-processing techniques. A Monte Carlo uncertainty model was developed to determine the uncertainty in the Observer measurements. The uncertainty was estimated for a wide array of measurement test scenarios to demonstrate the user's control over the measurement uncertainty. To validate the Observer method, the absorber alignment technique was compared to traditional photogrammetry; the absorber position measured with the two methods compared with a root-mean-square difference of 1.5 mm in the transverse direction and 0.86 mm along the optical axis. The reflector surface slope error measurement was compared to both VSHOT and SOFAST, two well-established optical characterization tools, by measuring a single reflector panel in the laboratory. The VSHOT and SOFAST measurements agreed with the Observer with a root-mean-square difference of 1.6 mrad and 2.1 mrad, respectively. In the field, the Observer method's capability to test collectors in any orientation was demonstrated by mounting the camera on a radio-controlled helicopter and measuring a collector oriented at 90° above the horizon. The absorber measurement capability was demonstrated in the field for a collector facing both horizontally and vertically.

  9. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, M.; Cywiak, M.; Morales, A. and Modi, M.H.

    2011-09-15

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem.

  10. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique.

    PubMed

    Idir, Mourad; Cywiak, Moiss; Morales, Arqumedes; Modi, Mohammed H

    2011-09-26

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem. PMID:21996845

  11. Simulation of a symmetric optical response from a hybrid-aligned structure of a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Vakulin, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To create a hybrid-aligned structure of a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal (LC), we have obtained an approximate analytical solution of the system of equations that describes the dynamics of reorientations of the director under the action of a control electric signal of an arbitrary shape. Formulas obtained have been used to simulate a symmetric optical response of the LC structure for a sinusoidal electric pulse. It has been shown that, in terms of the used approximations, the results of the analytical calculation agree well with results of computer simulation and with experiment in the case of small deformations of the LC layer.

  12. Optical design of a system using a Fresnel lens that gathers light for a solar concentrator and that feeds into solar alignment optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Gary W.; Huegele, Vinson B.

    1998-09-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has been developing a space deployable, lightweight membrane concentrator to focus energy from the sun into a solar engine while remaining aligned to the sun. For an inner surface, this engine has a cylindrical heat exchanger cavity coaligned to the optical axis; the engine warms gas to propel the spacecraft. The membrane concentrator is a 1727 mm (68.00 in.) diameter, F/1.7 Fresnel lens. This large membrane is made from polyimide and is 0.076 mm (0.0030 in.) thick; it has the Fresnel grooves cast into it. The solar concentrator system has a super fast paraboloid reflector near the lens focus and immediately adjacent to the cylindrical exchanger cavity. The paraboloid collects the wide bandwidth and some of the solar energy scattered by the Fresnel lens. Finally, the paraboloid feeds the light into the cylinder. The Fresnel lens also possesses a narrow annular zone that focuses a reference beam toward four detectors that keep the optical system aligned to the sun; thus, occurs a refracting lens that focuses two places summarized as a composite Fresnel lens for solar concentration and alignment.

  13. The Optical Design of a System using a Fresnel Lens that Gathers Light for a Solar Concentrator and that Feeds into Solar Alignment Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Gary W.; Huegele, Vinson

    1998-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a space deployable, lightweight membrane concentrator to focus solar energy into a solar furnace while remaining aligned to the sun. For an inner surface, this furnace has a cylindrical heat exchanger cavity coaligned to the optical axis; the furnace warms gas to propel the spacecraft. The membrane concentrator is a 1727 mm (68.00 in.) diameter, F/1.7 Fresnel lens. This large membrane is made from polyimide and is 0.076 mm (0.0030 in.) thick; it has the Fresnel grooves cast into it. The solar concentrator system has a super fast paraboloid reflector near the lens focus and immediately adjacent to the cylindrical exchanger cavity. The paraboloid collects the wide bandwidth and some of the solar energy scattered by the Fresnel lens. Finally, the paraboloid feeds the light into the cylinder. The Fresnel lens also possesses a narrow annular zone that focuses a reference beam toward four detectors that keep the optical system aligned to the sun; thus, occurs a refracting lens that focuses two places! The result can be summarized as a composite Fresnel lens for solar concentration and alignment.

  14. Optical Imaging Techniques for Point-of-care Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongying; Isikman, Serhan O.; Mudanyali, Onur; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Improving the access to effective and affordable healthcare has long been a global endeavor. In this quest, the development of cost-effective and easy-to-use medical testing equipment that enable rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce the time and costs associated with healthcare services. To this end, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics plays a crucial role in healthcare delivery in both the developed and developing countries by bringing medical testing to patients, or to sites near patients. As the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases, including various types of cancers and many endemics relies on optical techniques, numerous compact and cost-effective optical imaging platforms have been developed in recent years for use at the POC. Here, we review the state-of-the-art optical imaging techniques that can have significant impact on global health by facilitating effective and affordable POC diagnostics. PMID:23044793

  15. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  16. Evaluation of optical reflectance techniques for imaging of alveolar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unglert, Carolin I.; Namati, Eman; Warger, William C.; Liu, Linbo; Yoo, Hongki; Kang, DongKyun; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the fine structures within the lung parenchyma could advance our understanding of alveolar physiology and pathophysiology. Current knowledge has been primarily based on histology, but it is a destructive two-dimensional (2-D) technique that is limited by tissue processing artifacts. Micro-CT provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging within a limited sample size, but is not applicable to intact lungs from larger animals or humans. Optical reflectance techniques offer the promise to visualize alveolar regions of the large animal or human lung with sub-cellular resolution in three dimensions. Here, we present the capabilities of three optical reflectance techniques, namely optical frequency domain imaging, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy, and full field optical coherence microscopy, to visualize both gross architecture as well as cellular detail in fixed, phosphate buffered saline-immersed rat lung tissue. Images from all techniques were correlated to each other and then to corresponding histology. Spatial and temporal resolution, imaging depth, and suitability for in vivo probe development were compared to highlight the merits and limitations of each technology for studying respiratory physiology at the alveolar level.

  17. Operation and maintenance manual for the optical alignment system (OAS) system 6250

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, A.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-16

    The OAS is a camera and laser system that will be used as an end effector on the LDUA to properly align the arm with the entry riser. It is attached to the LDUA by means of a Tool Interface Plat (TIP) which provides a feed through for all electrical and pneumatic utilities needed by the end effector to operate.

  18. Optical absorption depth profiling of photodegraded poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) films by quantitative photothermal deflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S.-W.; Power, J. F.; Nepotchatykh, O. V.

    2000-05-01

    An improved photothermal beam deflection technique is applied for optical absorption depth profiling of UV photodegraded PVC films, for nondestructive evaluation of their decomposition mechanism. A new model-based on diffraction theory is used to describe the photothermal response (with bicell recording), induced by impulse irradiation of a depth dependent array of thin planar optical absorbers approximating the sample's depth profile. Improved techniques of alignment, sample preparation and quantitative deconvolution of the bicell impulse response have increased the signal repeatability and reduced the principal bias errors affecting this ill posed problem. By this technique and a stable solution of the inverse problem, the absorption coefficient depth profile is accurately reconstructed in PVC films. Experimental depth profiles were confirmed against destructive techniques run on identical samples of the degraded material. An excellent agreement was found between depth profiles recovered using the mirage effect and these reference methods. Observed absorption profiles were fully consistent with known patterns of depth dependent PVC degradation under nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres.

  19. Fiber optic remote inspecting technique for caverned large oil tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weilai; Jiang, Desheng; Cao, He

    2000-12-01

    In the management of caverned fuel oil inventory, a strict rule of fire control has always been the first priority due to the special conditions. It is always a challenge to perform automatic measurement by means of conventional electrical devices for inspecting oil tank level there. Introduced in this paper is a fiber optic gauging technique with millimeter precision for automatic measurement in caverned tanks. Instead of using any electrical device, it uses optical encoders and optical fibers for converting and transmitting signals. Its principle, specifications, installation and applications are discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis of the factors affecting its accuracy, stability, and special procedures adopted in the installation of the fiber optic gauge are also discussed.

  20. An Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Using RF Interrogation Technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Choi, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Keum Soo; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel non-contact optical fiber displacement sensor. It uses a radio frequency (RF) interrogation technique which is based on bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The displacement is measured from the free spectral range (FSR) which is determined by the dip frequencies of the modulated MZ-EOM transfer function. In experiments, the proposed sensor showed a sensitivity of 456 kHz/mm or 1.043 kHz/V in a measurement range of 7 mm. The displacement resolution of the proposed sensor depends on the linewidth and the power of the optical source. Resolution better than 0.05 μm would be achieved if an optical source which has a linewidth narrower than 1.5 nm and a received power larger than -36 dBm is used. Also, the multiplexing characteristic of the proposed sensor was experimentally validated. PMID:26927098

  1. Optical Alignment and Diffraction Analysis for AIRES: An Airborne Infrared Echelle Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The optical design is presented for a long-slit grating spectrometer known as AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer). The instrument employs two gratings in series: a small order sorter and a large steeply blazed echelle. The optical path includes four pupil and four field stops, including two narrow slits. A detailed diffraction analysis is performed using GLAD by Applied Optics Research to evaluate critical trade-offs between optical throughput, spectral resolution, and system weight and volume. The effects of slit width, slit length, oversizing the second slit relative to the first, on- vs off-axis throughput, and clipping at the pupil stops and other optical elements are discussed.

  2. Alignment of optical system components using an ADM beam through a null assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Joseph E. (Inventor); Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for testing an optical surface includes a rangefinder configured to emit a light beam and a null assembly located between the rangefinder and the optical surface. The null assembly is configured to receive and to reflect the emitted light beam toward the optical surface. The light beam reflected from the null assembly is further reflected back from the optical surface toward the null assembly as a return light beam. The rangefinder is configured to measure a distance to the optical surface using the return light beam.

  3. Benchmarking process integration and layout decomposition of directed self-assembly and self-aligned multiple patterning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yijian; Zhou, Jun; You, Jun; Liu, Hongyi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a benchmarking study of directed self-assembly (DSA) and self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) techniques for potential applications in manufacturing 10-nm (half-pitch) IC devices. Using the self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) process as an example, we compare their process characteristics and complexity/costs, identify the integration challenges, and propose various patterning solutions for both BEOL and FEOL applications. Major differences in DSA and SAQP mask strategy, layout decomposition algorithm, and pattern-generation modeling are discussed, and critical requirements of overlay accuracy and CD control for implementing a DSA process in NAND wordline patterning are indentified. DSA technique is found to be a complementary solution for certain niche applications and we suggest that our industry should allocate more R and D resources to solve the 2-D SAMP layout decomposition challenges for logic BEOL patterning. We also propose an "out-of-the-box" idea of combining DSA and SADP process to significantly improve the 2-D design flexibility and develop a layout decomposition algorithm for this hybrid process

  4. Multiple Access Techniques for Fiber-Optic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestdagh, Denis J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances and breakthroughs achieved in optical fiber technology have led to the advent of a new generation of fiber systems-Multiaccess Optical Fiber Networks.The huge bandwidth of these networks is revolutionizing the capability of individual nodes, and not surprisingly, multiaccess networks have become the subject of intense activity in the optical fiber communication engineering. The purpose of this tutorial paper is to acquaint the uninitiated reader with the basic concepts as well as the most recent progress of multiple access techniques applied to these networks. It also provides some insights into their characteristics relevant to the design engineer. The four basic multiple access techniques based on wavelength, subcarrier, time, and code degrees of freedom are reviewed theoretically and examples of systems that have been implemented so far are described. However, due to present-day technological limitations, these four basic techniques cannot yet be fully exploited to provide the optimum network performance they can theoretically offer. Therefore,hybridmultiple access schemes that combine these basic techniques in order to benefit from the advantages of each scheme while mitigating the drawbacks of the other ones have been proposed in the professional literature. These hybrid multiple access techniques are also surveyed in this paper.

  5. Radio-Optical Alignment and Recent Star Formation Associated with Ionized Filaments in the Halo of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; Courbin, F.; Silva, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    We used a direct CCD camera at the Magellan I telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the Focal Reducer/Low Dispersion Spectrograph (FORS1) at the Antu Very Large Telescope (VLT) ESO Paranal Observatory to image fields centered on the inner and outer optical filaments in the halo of NGC 5128. In the V versus U-V color-magnitude diagrams we have identified young blue supergiants associated with these line-emitting filaments located between the inner radio lobe and the northern middle lobe. Around the outer filament, stars as young as 10 Myr were detected. They are principally aligned with the direction of the radio jet, but a vertical north-south alignment along the edge of the H I cloud is also present. Young stars in the inner filament field are found inside the bright knots of photoionized gas and are strongly aligned in the direction of the center of the galaxy at the same position angle as the inner radio jet. Fitting the Padova isochrones on UV color-magnitude diagrams, we find that blue stars around the inner filaments have ages similar to the ones around the outer filaments ~10-15 Myr and the same abundance of Z=0.004. The presence of young blue supergiants clearly shows that the bright blue knots in the northeastern halo of NGC 5128 are associations of young stars with photoionized gas. The temperature of the brightest stars is T~12,000-16,000 K, insufficient to account alone for the high excitation lines observed in the surrounding ionized gas. Thus, the optical emission jet is principally seen due to its alignment with the radio structure of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The highly collimated star formation is present only in the northeastern halo of the galaxy, suggesting interaction of the jet with the gas clouds deposited during the last accretion event as the preferred triggering mechanism. From these observations, we infer a lower limit for the age of the NGC 5128 jet at 107 yr. The triggering of the star formation in the dense clouds in the halo of the galaxy by the jet supports the alignment effect observed in high-redshift radio galaxies. It also suggests that radio galaxies should have higher than normal star formation rates. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, within the Observing Program 63.N-0229, and on observations collected by Magellan I telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  6. Electro-optic techniques in electron beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    van Tilborg, Jeroen; Toth, Csaba; Matlis, Nicholas; Plateau, Guillaume; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-17

    Electron accelerators such as laser wakefield accelerators, linear accelerators driving free electron lasers, or femto-sliced synchrotrons, are capable of producing femtosecond-long electron bunches. Single-shot characterization of the temporal charge profile is crucial for operation, optimization, and application of such accelerators. A variety of electro-optic sampling (EOS) techniques exists for the temporal analysis. In EOS, the field profile from the electron bunch (or the field profile from its coherent radiation) will be transferred onto a laser pulse co-propagating through an electro-optic crystal. This paper will address the most common EOS schemes and will list their advantages and limitations. Strong points that all techniques share are the ultra-short time resolution (tens of femtoseconds) and the single-shot capabilities. Besides introducing the theory behind EOS, data from various research groups is presented for each technique.

  7. Precise identification of <1 0 0> directions on Si{0 0 1} wafer using a novel self-aligning pre-etched technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. S.; Veerla, S.; Sharma, V.; Pandey, A. K.; Pal, P.

    2016-02-01

    Micromirrors with a tilt angle of 45° are widely used in optical switching and interconnect applications which require 90° out of plane reflection. Silicon wet bulk micromachining based on surfactant added TMAH is usually employed to fabricate 45° slanted walls at the < 1 0 0> direction on Si≤ft\\{0 0 1\\right\\} wafers. These slanted walls are used as 45° micromirrors. However, the appearance of a precise 45° ≤ft\\{0 1 1\\right\\} wall is subject to the accurate identification of the < 1 0 0> direction. In this paper, we present a simple technique based on pre-etched patterns for the identification of < 1 0 0> directions on the Si≤ft\\{0 0 1\\right\\} surface. The proposed pre-etched pattern self-aligns itself at the < 1 0 0> direction while becoming misaligned at other directions. The < 1 0 0> direction is determined by a simple visual inspection of pre-etched patterns and does not need any kind of measurement. To test the accuracy of the proposed method, we fabricated a 32 mm long rectangular opening with its sides aligned along the < 1 0 0> direction, which is determined using the proposed technique. Due to the finite etch rate of the ≤ft\\{1 1 0\\right\\} plane, undercutting occurred, which was measured at 12 different locations along the longer edge of the rectangular strip. The mean of these undercutting lengths, measured perpendicular to the mask edge, is found to be 13.41 μm with a sub-micron standard deviation of 0.38 μm. This level of uniform undercutting indicates that our method of identifying the < 1 0 0> direction is precise and accurate. The developed method will be extremely useful in fabricating arrays of 45° micromirrors.

  8. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnels. Part 1: Schlieren

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, George

    1992-01-01

    Alignment procedures and conceptual designs for the rapid alignment of the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel schlieren systems were devised. The schlieren systems can be aligned by translating the light source, the mirrors, and the knife edge equal distances. One design for rapid alignment consists of a manual pin locking scheme. The other is a motorized electronic position scheme. A study of two optical concepts which can be used with the schlieren system was made. These are the 'point diffraction interferometers' and the 'focus schlieren'. Effects of vibrations were studied.

  9. Alignment analyses of a galvanometer-based scanner in free-space Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qun; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Zhishan

    2015-11-10

    Free-space Fourier domain optical coherence tomography is adopted for biomedical imaging with ultrahigh resolution, in which the setup consists of an interferometer and a spectrometer. Two-dimensional lateral sampling in the sample arm of the interferometer is achieved by using a galvanometer-based scanner. Optical path difference (OPD) drift in the full scan field of view is observed in the assembly process of the scanner. A galvo mirror mount offset with respect to the rotation axis is demonstrated as the derivation of this OPD drift by both geometric analyses and model building. Then, an iterative assembly process of the scanner is proposed with the OPD drift taken as the alignment criteria. PMID:26560786

  10. Innovative, Inexpensive Etching Technique Developed for Polymer Electro- Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.

    1999-01-01

    Electro-optic, polymer-based integrated optic devices for high-speed communication and computing applications offer potentially significant advantages over conventional inorganic electro-optic crystals. One key area of integrated optical technology--primary processing and fabrication--may particularly benefit from the use of polymer materials. However, as efforts concentrate on the miniaturization of electro-integrated circuit pattern geometries, the ability to etch fine features and smoothly sloped sidewalls is essential to make polymers useful for electro-integrated circuit applications. There are many existing processes available to etch polymer materials, but they all yield nearly vertical sidewalls. Vertical sidewalls are too difficult to reliably cover with a metal layer, and incomplete metalization degrades microwave performance, particularly at high frequency. However, obtaining a very sloped sidewall greatly improves the deposition of metal on the sidewall, leading to low-loss characteristics, which are essential to integrating these devices in highspeed electro-optic modulators. The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed in-house an inexpensive etching technique that uses a photolithography method followed by a simple, wet chemical etching process to etch through polymer layers. In addition to being simpler and inexpensive, this process can be used to fabricate smoothly sloped sidewalls by using a commercial none rodible mask: Spin-On-Glass. A commercial transparent material, Spin-On-Glass, uses processes and equipment similar to that for photoresist techniques.

  11. New assembly technique for deeply buried optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mure-Ravaud, Alain; Pelissier, Serge; Pigeon, Florent; Biasse, B.; Pandraud, Gregory

    1996-08-01

    The growing demand for complex components for integrated- optic requires fabrication methods allowing good reproducibility and a minimized number of processing steps. The ion-exchange technique is attractive because it can be used to make inexpensive and versatile waveguides in glass. To ensure reliable operation, the waveguides have to be buried beneath the surface. Various methods for making buried waveguides are based on field assisted ion exchange with one or more steps in the procedure. We propose a new assembling method in which a buried optical waveguide is obtained by direct bonding of two separate waveguides. We found that direct bonding of preprocessed wafers is a useful and versatile step in the fabrication of integrated optical components. Wafer direct bonding is compatible with VLSI batch technology and device miniaturization therefore low cost combined with high performance can be achieved. Furthermore, a large variety of symmetrical or asymmetrical index profiles is possible and the method allows simultaneous fabrication of many identical optical components. Optical properties of the component are studied and the advantages of this new process are summarized and compared with other techniques.

  12. Well-aligned carbon nitride nanorods: the template-free synthesis and their optical and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Wu, Si; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Shunxi; Hu, Chunyuan; Li, Yingai; Jiang, Lina; Cui, Qiliang

    2015-06-01

    The fabrication and optical properties of well-aligned graphitic carbon nitride nanorods are demonstrated. The growth strategy involves the polycondensation of ballmilled molecular precursors of melamine and cyanuric chloride at programmed temperatures. The compositional and structural characterizations confirm that the prepared samples are polymeric graphitic carbon nitride with high crystallinity. The morphological studies reveal that the prepared samples consist of nanorods aligning nearly in parallel. The photophysical features of the carbon nitride nanorods can be satisfactorily described by the excitation and radiative recombination of molecular excitons. The significantly improved interlayer stacking, as well as the shifting of optical bandgap to higher energies, may be attributed to the general nanosize effect. Due to the overlap of orbitals induced by the delocalization of electrons in the sp 2 clusters with the higher packing density perpendicular to the layers, a wider bandgap is proposed for this peculiar nanoarchitecture. The luminescent nanorods remain thermally stable up to about 500 °C during calcination under atmospheric conditions, indicating their potential applications as sensors and nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Implementation of Accelerated Beam-Specific Matched-Filter-Based Optical Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K L; Taha, T M

    2009-01-29

    Accurate automated alignment of laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is essential for achieving extreme temperature and pressure required for inertial confinement fusion. The alignment achieved by the integrated control systems relies on algorithms processing video images to determine the position of the laser beam images in real-time. Alignment images that exhibit wide variations in beam quality require a matched-filter algorithm for position detection. One challenge in designing a matched-filter based algorithm is to construct a filter template that is resilient to variations in imaging conditions while guaranteeing accurate position determination. A second challenge is to process the image as fast as possible. This paper describes the development of a new analytical template that captures key recurring features present in the beam image to accurately estimate the beam position under good image quality conditions. Depending on the features present in a particular beam, the analytical template allows us to create a highly tailored template containing only those selected features. The second objective is achieved by exploiting the parallelism inherent in the algorithm to accelerate processing using parallel hardware that provides significant performance improvement over conventional processors. In particular, a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA hardware implementation processing 32 templates provided a speed increase of about 253 times over an optimized software implementation running on a 2.0 GHz AMD Opteron core.

  14. Hermetic fiber optic-to-metal connection technique

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH)

    1992-09-01

    A glass-to-glass hermetic sealing technique is disclosed which can be used to splice lengths of glass fibers together. A solid glass preform is inserted into the cavity of a metal component which is then heated to melt the glass. An end of an optical fiber is then advanced into the molten glass and the entire structure cooled to solidify the glass in sealing engagement with the optical fiber end and the metal cavity. The surface of the re-solidified glass may be machined for mating engagement with another component to make a spliced fiber optic connection. The resultant structure has a helium leak rate of less than 1.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.3 /sec.

  15. Effects of optical smoothing techniques on filamentation in laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, A.J.

    1988-10-01

    The effect of the induced spatial incoherence (ISI) and the random phase screen (RPS) optical smoothing techniques on the filamentation instability in laser plasmas has been investigated numerically and analytically. A two-dimensional time-dependent laser--plasma propagation code, including both ponderomotive and thermal-conduction dominated filamentation, is used to simulate the laser--plasma interaction. The results of these simulations are compared to the predictions of a simple theory that describes the filamentation of both coherent light and spatially and temporally incoherent light. It is shown that filaments driven by the thermal mechanism tend to cluster together and produce greater large scale nonuniformities in the laser illumination than the ponderomotively driven filaments. The RPS optical smoothing technique is found to reduce filamentation only if fast focusing optics (f/numberapprox. <5) are used. The ISI smoothing method suppresses filamentation for fast or slow focusing optics, and requires only moderate laser bandwidth (..delta omega../..omega..approx. =0.1%). In general, the ISI smoothing method provides the best suppression of filamentation. Under common laboratory conditions, filamentation is pronounced at longer laser wavelengths (1.06 ..mu..m--0.53 ..mu..m), suggesting that current experiments may be dominated by filamentation effects. Optical smoothing methods can suppress, but not eradicate, filamentation effects at these wavelengths. The optical smoothing methods are most effective in short-wavelength (0.25 ..mu..m) laser-driven plasmas. At 0.25 ..mu..m laser wavelength, ISI is found to completely eliminate filamentation effects in both time-averaged and instantaneous intensity distributions.

  16. Optical modulation techniques for underwater detection, ranging and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Linda; Cochenour, Brandon; Laux, Alan; Alley, Derek

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe research being conducted at NAVAIR in Patuxent River, MD to improve optical detection, ranging and imaging in the underwater environment through the use of optical modulation techniques. The modulation provides a way to discriminate against unwanted scattered light that would otherwise reduce detection sensitivity. Another benefit of modulating the transmitted light is that coherent detection of the modulation envelope results in the ability to accurately measure the range to the underwater object. Ways to use the hardware and methods developed for the detection, ranging, and imaging scenario to satisfy other mission requirements are also being investigated. The requirements for the modulation scheme, modulation frequency, and laser characteristics (pulsed, continuous, optical power level) depend on the targeted application. The implementation of this optical modulation technique in a variety of underwater sensors has become possible due to recent advances in laser and receiver technology. A review of the work being done in this area of research will be presented, and results from laboratory experiments will be discussed.

  17. Techniques for nonlinear optical characterization of materials: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, Cid B.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Boudebs, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Various techniques to characterize the nonlinear (NL) optical response of centro-symmetric materials are presented and evaluated with emphasis on the relationship between the macroscopic measurable quantities and the microscopic properties of photonic materials. NL refraction and NL absorption of the materials are the phenomena of major interest. The dependence of the NL refraction and NL absorption coefficients on the nature of the materials was studied as well as on the laser excitation characteristics of wavelength, intensity, spatial profile, pulse duration and pulses repetition rate. Selected experimental results are discussed and illustrated. The various techniques currently available were compared and their relative advantages and drawbacks were evaluated. Critical comparisons among established techniques provided elements to evaluate their accuracies and sensitivities with respect to novel methods that present improvements with respect to the conventional techniques.

  18. Optical Microstructures Fabricated with Direct Laser Writing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, M.; Nawrot, M.; Zinkiewicz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional photolitography, also known as Direct Laser Writing (DLW), is a powerful technique for fabrication of photonic microstructures. In this paper we present the basics of the relevant technology and discuss some features of the fabrication process. We also describe the experimental setup designed for making colour filters based on diffraction gratings, fibre-tip-integrated lens and anti-reflective coating designed for telecom wavelength (1550 nm). The results obtained demonstrate the DLW technique to be a promising fast prototyping fabrication method that may allow manipulating the properties of optical materials.

  19. Optical Fiber Technique for In-Reactor Mechanical Properties Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Schley; Zilong Hua; David H. Hurley; Heng Ban

    2012-07-01

    In-reactor measurement of material properties is required for a better understanding of radiation effects on materials. We present an optical fiber based technique for measuring changes in elastic properties which involves exciting and measuring flexural vibrations in a thin cantilever beam. By exciting the beam and measuring the natural frequency, changes in the modulus of elasticity can be monitored. The technique is demonstrated by monitoring the elastic property changes of a beam fabricated from copper, as the copper undergoes recrystallization at elevated temperature.

  20. Optical fiber technique for in-reactor mechanical properties measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Schley, R. S.; Hurley, D. H.; Hua, Z. A.

    2013-01-25

    In-reactor measurement of material properties is required for a better understanding of radiation effects on materials. We present an optical fiber based technique for measuring changes in elastic properties which involves exciting and measuring flexural vibrations in a thin cantilever beam. By exciting the beam and measuring the resonant frequency, changes in the modulus of elasticity can be monitored. The technique is demonstrated by monitoring the elastic property changes of a beam fabricated from copper, as the copper undergoes recrystallization at elevated temperature.

  1. Beam quality measurement of laser pulses by nonlinear optical techniques.

    PubMed

    Agnesi, A; Reali, G C; Tomaselli, A

    1992-12-15

    A novel method for measuring the beam quality of short, powerful laser pulses is presented. The method is based on the Z-scan technique used to investigate the nonlinear susceptibilities of optical materials. It is shown that both two-photon absorption and nonlinear refraction of a nonlinear sample can be used to obtain information about the spatial quality of the pulses. PMID:19798309

  2. Vertically aligned rolled-up SiO2 optical microcavities in add-drop configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttner, Stefan; Li, Shilong; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2013-06-01

    A significant step towards integrated vertically rolled-up microcavities is demonstrated by interfacing an as-fabricated SiO2 microtube optical ring resonator with tapered fibers. In this transmission configuration, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is shown in subwavelength thick walled microcavities. Moreover, we present a four-port add-drop filter based on a lifted doubly interfaced vertically rolled-up microcavity. Our work opens opportunities for vertical resonant light transfer in 3D multi-level optical data processing as well as for massively parallel optofluidic analysis of biomaterials in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  3. A patient alignment solution for lung SBRT setups based on a deformable registration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Bo; Mittauer, Kathryn; Li, Jonathan; Samant, Sanjiv; Dagan, Roi; Okunieff, Paul; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors propose a novel registration strategy for translation-only correction scenarios of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy setups, which can achieve optimal dose coverage for tumors as well as preserve the consistency of registrations with minimal human interference. Methods: The proposed solution (centroid-to-centroidor CTC solution) uses the average four-dimensional CT (A4DCT) as the reference CT. The cone-beam CT (CBCT) is deformed to acquire a new centroid for the internal target volume (ITV) on the CBCT. The registration is then accomplished by simply aligning the centroids of the ITVs between the A4DCT and the CBCT. Sixty-seven cases using 64 patients (each case is associated with separate isocenters) have been investigated with the CTC method and compared with the conventional gray-value (G) mode and bone (B) mode registration methods. Dosimetric effects among the tree methods were demonstrated by 18 selected cases. The uncertainty of the CTC method has also been studied. Results: The registration results demonstrate the superiority of the CTC method over the other two methods. The differences in the D99 and D95 ITV dose coverage between the CTC method and the original plan is small (within 5%) for all of the selected cases except for one for which the tumor presented significant growth during the period between the CT scan and the treatment. Meanwhile, the dose coverage differences between the original plan and the registration results using either the B or G method are significant, as tumor positions varied dramatically, relative to the rib cage, from their positions on the original CT. The largest differences between the D99 and D95 dose coverage of the ITV using the B or G method versus the original plan are as high as 50%. The D20 differences between any of the methods versus the original plan are all less than 2%. Conclusions: The CTC method can generate optimal dose coverage to tumors with much better consistency compared with either the G or B method, and it is especially useful when the tumor position varies greatly from its position on the original CT, relative to the rib cage.

  4. A New Technique to Map the Lymphatic Distribution and Alignment of the Penis.

    PubMed

    Long, Liu Yan; Qiang, Pan Fu; Ling, Tao; Wei, Zhang Yan; Long, Zhang Yu; Shan, Meng; Rong, Li Shi; Li, Li Hong

    2015-08-01

    The present study was to examine the distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis of normal adult males, which could provide an anatomical basis for improvement of incisions in penile lengthening surgery, and may also help to prevent postoperative refractory edema. Thirteen normal adult male volunteers were recruited for this study. Contrast agent was injected subcutaneously in the foreskin of the penis, and after two minutes magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL) was performed. The acquired magnetic resonance images were analyzed to determine the changes in the number and diameter of lymphatic vessels in different parts of the penis. Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and materializes interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) were applied to analyze the overall distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the lymphatic vessels were in conspicuous contrast with surrounding tissues and could be clearly identified. Penile lymphatic vessels were clearly visible in the root of the penis. At the junction of the penis and the abdominal wall, all lymphatic vessels were found to be concentrated in the dorsal part of the penis. MIP two-dimensional reconstruction showed that the overall distribution of relatively large lymphatic vessels in the dorsal and ventral parts of the penis could be seen clearly on bilateral 45 position, but not inside the abdominal wall because some of lymphatic vessels were overlapped by other tissues in the abdomen. MIMICS three-dimensional reconstruction was able to reveal the overall spatial distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis from any angle. The reconstruction results showed that there were 1-2 main lymphatic vessels on the root of dorsal penis, which coursed along the cavernous to the first physiological curvature of the penis. Lymphatic vessels merged on both sides of the ventral penis. At the root of the penis, lymphatic vessels gradually coursed to the dorsal surface of the penis and folded at the abdominal wall to the outside, and finally merged into the inguinal lymph nodes. The changes in distribution, number and diameter of the lymphatic vessels in the penis were observed by MRI. MIP and MIMICS reconstructions directly revealed the anatomical features of penile lymphatic vessels such as spatial distribution, overall alignment, and the relations to adjacent structures, drainage and reflux. The study will provide the anatomical basis for penile surgery, penile lymphatic reflux disorders caused by trauma or lymphatic vessels obstruction, and lymph node metastasis in penile cancer. PMID:25403330

  5. Optical Microscopy Techniques to Inspect for Metallic Whiskers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brusse, Jay A.

    2006-01-01

    Metal surface finishes of tin, zinc and cadmium are often applied to electronic components, mechanical hardware and other structures. These finishes sometimes unpredictably may form metal whiskers over periods that can take from hours to months or even many years. The metal whiskers are crystalline structures commonly having uniform cross sectional area along their entire length. Typical whisker dimensions are nominally on the order of only a few microns (um) across while their lengths can extend from a few microns to several millimeters. Metal whiskers pose a reliability hazard to electronic systems primarily as an electrical shorting hazard. The extremely narrow dimensions of metal whiskers can make observation with optical techniques very challenging. The videos herein were compiled to demonstrate the complexities associated with optical microscope inspection of electronic and mechanical components and assemblies for the presence or absence of metal whiskers. The importance of magnification, light source and angle of illumination play critical roles in being able to detect metal whiskers when present. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how improper techniques can easily obscure detection. It is hoped that these videos will improve the probability of detecting metal whiskers with optical inspection techniques.

  6. Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation via Alignment-to-Orientation Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Budker, D.; Kimball, D.F.; Rochester, S.M.; Yashchuk, V.V.

    2000-03-10

    Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) is investigated at highlight powers where the rotation is significantly modified by AC Stark shifts. These shifts are shown to change the overall sign of rotation for closed F-->F+1 transitions as light power is increased. The effect is demonstrated by measurements in rubidium and density matrix calculations. The results are important for applications of nonlinear optical rotation such as sensitive magnetometry.

  7. Multistability and non linear dynamics of the optical Fréedericksz transition in homeotropically aligned nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, G.; Maddalena, P.; Marrucci, L.; Saetta, L.; Santamato, E.

    1991-05-01

    A new simple model is presented to describe the dynamics of the optical reorientation induced by a laser beam into a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal. Unlike previous models on the subject, we accounted for transfer of angular momentum from light to the sample. A rich and somewhat unexpected dynamics is found also in the case of linear polarization of the incident light. On présente un modèle simple et nouveau pour décrire la dynamique de la réorientation optique obtenue par un rayon laser dans un cristal liquide nématique aligné homéotropiquement. Contrairement aux précédents modèles sur ce sujet, on a rendu compte de l'échange du moment angulaire entre la lumière et le milieu. On a trouvé une dynamique riche et assez inattendue, même dans le cas d'une polarisation linéaire de la lumière incidente.

  8. Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields nonintrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usually MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the partical image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

  9. Experimental Estimation of CLASP Spatial and Spectral Resolutions: Results of the Instrument's Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giono, G.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Suematsu, Y.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Auchere, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter is a sounding rocket experiment design to measure for the first time the polarization signal of the Lyman-Alpha line (121.6nm), emitted in the solar upper-chromosphere and transition region. This instrument aims to detect the Hanle effect's signature hidden in the Ly-alpha polarization, as a tool to probe the chromospheric magnetic field. Hence, an unprecedented polarization accuracy is needed ((is) less than 10 (exp -3). Nevertheless, spatial and spectral resolutions are also crucial to observe chhromospheric feature such as spicules, and to have precise measurement of the Ly-alpha line core and wings. Hence, this poster will present how the telescope and the spectrograph were separately aligned, and their combined spatial and spectral resolutions.

  10. FIRAS optical alignment and performance during vibration qualification and cryogenic cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is designed to investigate the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR), that permeates the universe as a consequence of the Big Bang. This 3 degree Kelvin radiation is a fossil that contains much information about the early universe. The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), will investigate the spectral isotropy of this ancient remnant and look for clues as to the subsequent evolution of the universe. The instrument is a cryogenically cooled, modified Michelson interferometer which operates in the 1 cm to 100 micron wavelength range. FIRAS is designed to provide absolute spectral information, therefore, all possible perturbations to the instrument response must be investigated to minimize distortions of the data. This paper discusses the methodology and resultant variations in the instrument performance noted during room temperature, and liquid nitrogen, (LN2) temperature vibration qualification. Reference alignment shifts in critical components such as the instrument wire-grid beamsplitter are correlated to changes in the instrument spectral response.

  11. FIRAS Optical Alignment And Performance During Vibration Qualification And Cryogenic Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    1988-04-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is designed to investigate the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR), that permeates the universe as a consequence of the Big Bang. This 3 degree Kelvin radiation is a fossil that contains much information about the early universe. The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), will investigate the spectral isotropy of this ancient remnant and look for clues as to the subsequent evolution of the universe. The instrument is a cryogenically cooled, modified Michelson interferometer which operates in the 1 cm to 100 micron wavelength range. FIRAS is designed to provide absolute spectral information, therefore, all possible perturbations to the instrument response must be investigated to minimize distortions of the data. This paper discusses the methodology and resultant variations in the instrument performance noted during room temperature, and liquid nitrogen, (LN2) temperature vibration qualification. Reference alignment shifts in critical components such as the instrument wire-grid beamsplitter are correlated to changes in the instrument spectral response.

  12. Effects of machining parameters and optical alignment in off-centered conic mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, R.C.

    1985-12-16

    Expressions are derived in simple, closed form (in terms of the aperture coordinates) for the optical signatures resulting from misalignment and from several controllable machining parameters in the manufacture of diamond-turned mirrors of the type comprising conic sections of revolution. Limited in validity to the lowest order in terms of the magnitudes of both angular misalignment and machining parameters, these wavefront error expressions are generally valid for optics of arbitrarily wide aperture. Through control of these signatures, dynamically induced part distortions can, in some cases, be eliminated.

  13. New optical tomographic & topographic techniques for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Jan

    The mammalian middle ear contains the eardrum and the three auditory ossicles, and forms an impedance match between sound in air and pressure waves in the fluid of the inner ear. Without this intermediate system, with its unsurpassed efficiency and dynamic range, we would be practically deaf. Physics-based modeling of this extremely complex mechanical system is necessary to help our basic understanding of the functioning of hearing. Highly realistic models will make it possible to predict the outcome of surgical interventions and to optimize design of ossicle prostheses and active middle ear implants. To obtain such models and with realistic output, basic input data is still missing. In this dissertation I developed and used two new optical techniques to obtain two essential sets of data: accurate three-dimensional morphology of the middle ear structures, and elasticity parameters of the eardrum. The first technique is a new method for optical tomography of macroscopic biomedical objects, which makes it possible to measure the three-dimensional geometry of the middle ear ossicles and soft tissues which are connecting and suspending them. I made a new and high-resolution version of this orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning method, to obtain micrometer resolution in macroscopic specimens. The result is thus a complete 3-D model of the middle (and inner) ear of gerbil in unprecedented quality. On top of high-resolution morphological models of the middle ear structures, I applied the technique in other fields of research as well. The second device works according to a new optical profilometry technique which allows to measure shape and deformations of the eardrum and other membranes or objects. The approach is called projection moire profilometry, and creates moire interference fringes which contain the height information. I developed a setup which uses liquid crystal panels for grid projection and optical demodulation. Hence no moving parts are present and the setup is entirely digitally controlled. This measurement method is developed to determine the elasticity parameters of the eardrum in-situ. Other surface shapes however can also be measured.

  14. Development of Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Microgravity Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Materials processing including crystal growth, either under a gravity environment on ground or a microgravity environment in space, involves complicated phenomena of fluid motions in gas or liquid phases as well as interaction of various species. To obtain important physical insight, it is very necessary to provide gross-field optical diagnostics for monitoring various physical properties. Materials processing inhibits easy access by ordinary instruments and thus characterizing gross-field physical properties is very challenging. Typical properties of importance can be fluid velocity, temperature, and species concentration for fluids, and surface topology and defects for solids. Observing surface grow rate during crystal growth is also important. Material microstructures, i.e., integrity of crystal structures, is strongly influenced by the existence of thermally-induced flow as well as local nucleation of particles during solidification, which may act in many detrimental ways. In both ground-based and microgravity experiments, the nature of product property changes resulting from three-dimensional fluid or particle motions need be characterized. Gross-field diagnostics is thus required to identify their effects on product defects and process deficiencies. The quantitative visualization techniques can also be used for validation of numerical modeling. For optical nonintrusive gross-field diagnostic techniques, two approaches were developed as summer projects. One optical approach allows us to provide information of species concentration and temperature for monitoring in real time. The other approach, that is, the concept which is formulated for detection of surface topography measurement can provide unprecedented spatial resolution during crystal growth.

  15. Anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism for an astigmatic atomic force microscope system based on a digital versatile disk optical head.

    PubMed

    Hwu, E-T; Illers, H; Wang, W-M; Hwang, I-S; Jusko, L; Danzebrink, H-U

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism is applied to an astigmatic detection system (ADS)-based atomic force microscope (AFM) for drift compensation and cantilever alignment. The optical path of the ADS adopts a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) optical head using the astigmatic focus error signal. The ADS-based astigmatic AFM is lightweight, compact size, low priced, and easy to use. Furthermore, the optical head is capable of measuring sub-atomic displacements of high-frequency AFM probes with a sub-micron laser spot (~570 nm, FWHM) and a high-working bandwidth (80 MHz). Nevertheless, conventional DVD optical heads suffer from signal drift problems. In a previous setup, signal drifts of even thousands of nanometers had been measured. With the anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism, the signal drift is compensated by actuating a voice coil motor of the DVD optical head. A nearly zero signal drift was achieved. Additional benefits of this mechanism are automatic cantilever alignment and simplified design. PMID:22299958

  16. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  17. Feasibility and optical performance of one axis three positions sun-tracking polar-axis aligned CPCs for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Runsheng; Yu, Yamei

    2010-09-15

    A new design concept, called one axis three positions sun-tracking polar-axis aligned CPCs (3P-CPCs, in short), was proposed and theoretically studied in this work for photovoltaic applications. The proposed trough-like CPC is oriented in the polar-axis direction, and the aperture is daily adjusted eastward, southward, and westward in the morning, noon and afternoon, respectively, by rotating the CPC trough, to ensure efficient collection of beam radiation nearly all day. To investigate the optical performance of such CPCs, an analytical mathematical procedure is developed to estimate daily and annual solar gain captured by such CPCs based on extraterrestrial radiation and monthly horizontal radiation. Results show that the acceptance half-angle of 3P-CPCs is a unique parameter to determine their optical performance according to extraterrestrial radiation, and the annual solar gain stays constant if the acceptance half-angle, {theta}{sub a}, is less than one third of {omega}{sub 0,min}, the sunset hour angle in the winter solstice, otherwise decreases with the increase of {theta}{sub a}. For 3P-CPCs used in China, the annual solar gain, depending on the climatic conditions in site, decreased with the acceptance half-angle, but such decrease was slow for the case of {theta}{sub a}{<=}{omega}{sub 0,min}/3, indicating that the acceptance half-angle should be less than one third of {omega}{sub 0,min} for maximizing annual energy collection. Compared to fixed east-west aligned CPCs (EW-CPCs) with a yearly optimal acceptance half-angle, the fixed south-facing polar-axis aligned CPCs (1P-CPCs) with the same acceptance half-angle as the EW-CPCs annually collected about 65-74% of that EW-CPCs did, whereas 3P-CPCs annually collected 1.26-1.45 times of that EW-CPCs collected, indicating that 3P-CPCs were more efficient for concentrating solar radiation onto their coupling solar cells. (author)

  18. Spartans: Single-Sample Periocular-Based Alignment-Robust Recognition Technique Applied to Non-Frontal Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Juefei-Xu, Felix; Luu, Khoa; Savvides, Marios

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate a single-sample periocular-based alignment-robust face recognition technique that is pose-tolerant under unconstrained face matching scenarios. Our Spartans framework starts by utilizing one single sample per subject class, and generate new face images under a wide range of 3D rotations using the 3D generic elastic model which is both accurate and computationally economic. Then, we focus on the periocular region where the most stable and discriminant features on human faces are retained, and marginalize out the regions beyond the periocular region since they are more susceptible to expression variations and occlusions. A novel facial descriptor, high-dimensional Walsh local binary patterns, is uniformly sampled on facial images with robustness toward alignment. During the learning stage, subject-dependent advanced correlation filters are learned for pose-tolerant non-linear subspace modeling in kernel feature space followed by a coupled max-pooling mechanism which further improve the performance. Given any unconstrained unseen face image, the Spartans can produce a highly discriminative matching score, thus achieving high verification rate. We have evaluated our method on the challenging Labeled Faces in the Wild database and solidly outperformed the state-of-the-art algorithms under four evaluation protocols with a high accuracy of 89.69%, a top score among image-restricted and unsupervised protocols. The advancement of Spartans is also proven in the Face Recognition Grand Challenge and Multi-PIE databases. In addition, our learning method based on advanced correlation filters is much more effective, in terms of learning subject-dependent pose-tolerant subspaces, compared with many well-established subspace methods in both linear and non-linear cases. PMID:26285149

  19. Optical constants of silicon carbide deposited with emerging PVD techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Gianni; Suman, M.; Pelizzo, M. G.; Nicolosi, P.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive material for EUV and soft X-ray optics. CVD-deposited silicon carbide (deposited at 1400° C on Si substrate) is the best reflective material in the whole EUV interval (with about the 48% of reflectance at 121.6 nm). Despite of this, SiC thin films deposited with PVD techniques, such as magnetron sputtering, on silicon substrate, do not have the same performances and they undergo to a degradation with time, probably because of some stoichiometry reason (carbon rich). Depositing stable SiC with PVD techniques is crucial in building ML's, like Si/SiC and SiC/Mg for soft X-ray applications (such space telescope and photolithography). We deposited some preliminary samples using the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and the Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) techniques achieving a good reflectance in the whole EUV range (27% at near normal incidence at 121.6 nn) on a silicon substrate. The higher energy involved in these deposition processes could lead to a film with a stoichiometry much closer to the target one. The reflectivity of the deposited films has been measured at the BEAR beamline of the ELETTRA synchrotron in Trieste (Italy; the optical constants retrieved at six wavelength from 121.6 nm down to 5 nm.

  20. Optical multiple access techniques for on-board routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Park, Eugene; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to design and analyze an optical multiple access system, based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) techniques, for on board routing applications on a future communication satellite. The optical multiple access system was to effect the functions of a circuit switch under the control of an autonomous network controller and to serve eight (8) concurrent users at a point to point (port to port) data rate of 180 Mb/s. (At the start of this program, the bit error rate requirement (BER) was undefined, so it was treated as a design variable during the contract effort.) CDMA was selected over other multiple access techniques because it lends itself to bursty, asynchronous, concurrent communication and potentially can be implemented with off the shelf, reliable optical transceivers compatible with long term unattended operations. Temporal, temporal/spatial hybrids and single pulse per row (SPR, sometimes termed 'sonar matrices') matrix types of CDMA designs were considered. The design, analysis, and trade offs required by the statement of work selected a temporal/spatial CDMA scheme which has SPR properties as the preferred solution. This selected design can be implemented for feasibility demonstration with off the shelf components (which are identified in the bill of materials of the contract Final Report). The photonic network architecture of the selected design is based on M(8,4,4) matrix codes. The network requires eight multimode laser transmitters with laser pulses of 0.93 ns operating at 180 Mb/s and 9-13 dBm peak power, and 8 PIN diode receivers with sensitivity of -27 dBm for the 0.93 ns pulses. The wavelength is not critical, but 830 nm technology readily meets the requirements. The passive optical components of the photonic network are all multimode and off the shelf. Bit error rate (BER) computations, based on both electronic noise and intercode crosstalk, predict a raw BER of (10 exp -3) when all eight users are communicating concurrently. If better BER performance is required, then error correction codes (ECC) using near term electronic technology can be used. For example, the M(8,4,4) optical code together with Reed-Solomon (54,38,8) encoding provides a BER of better than (10 exp -11). The optical transceiver must then operate at 256 Mb/s with pulses of 0.65 ns because the 'bits' are now channel symbols.

  1. Optical multiple access techniques for on-board routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Park, Eugene; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to design and analyze an optical multiple access system, based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) techniques, for on board routing applications on a future communication satellite. The optical multiple access system was to effect the functions of a circuit switch under the control of an autonomous network controller and to serve eight (8) concurrent users at a point to point (port to port) data rate of 180 Mb/s. (At the start of this program, the bit error rate requirement (BER) was undefined, so it was treated as a design variable during the contract effort.) CDMA was selected over other multiple access techniques because it lends itself to bursty, asynchronous, concurrent communication and potentially can be implemented with off the shelf, reliable optical transceivers compatible with long term unattended operations. Temporal, temporal/spatial hybrids and single pulse per row (SPR, sometimes termed 'sonar matrices') matrix types of CDMA designs were considered. The design, analysis, and trade offs required by the statement of work selected a temporal/spatial CDMA scheme which has SPR properties as the preferred solution. This selected design can be implemented for feasibility demonstration with off the shelf components (which are identified in the bill of materials of the contract Final Report). The photonic network architecture of the selected design is based on M(8,4,4) matrix codes. The network requires eight multimode laser transmitters with laser pulses of 0.93 ns operating at 180 Mb/s and 9-13 dBm peak power, and 8 PIN diode receivers with sensitivity of -27 dBm for the 0.93 ns pulses. The wavelength is not critical, but 830 nm technology readily meets the requirements. The passive optical components of the photonic network are all multimode and off the shelf. Bit error rate (BER) computations, based on both electronic noise and intercode crosstalk, predict a raw BER of (10 exp -3) when all eight users are communicating concurrently. If better BER performance is required, then error correction codes (ECC) using near term electronic technology can be used. For example, the M(8,4,4) optical code together with Reed-Solomon (54,38,8) encoding provides a BER of better than (10 exp -11). The optical transceiver must then operate at 256 Mb/s with pulses of 0.65 ns because the 'bits' are now channel symbols.

  2. Whole optic fiber weighing technique and device of belt conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weilai; Liu, Jie; Pan, Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Whole optic fiber weighing technique and its device of belt conveyor are developed and put into application. Four FBG stress cells support a frame in a belt conveying line. In each cell, two FBG strain gauges are respectively installed at the stretching and compressing places to get the effects of sensitivity enhancement and temperature compensation. The weighing signals are from both FBG wavelength shift of loading cells and fiber belt speed meter. By means of integral algorithm, the weighing result is obtained. Actual coal weighing test shows that the accuracy of this weighing device is under 0.5%.

  3. Computer-assisted technique versus intramedullary and extramedullary alignment systems in total knee replacement: a radiological comparison.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Norberto; Manzotti, Alfonso; Pullen, Chris; Ragone, Vincenza

    2005-12-01

    Malalignment in total knee replacement (TKR) is frequently associated with earlier failure and poor functional results. The authors compare the radiological results achieved in three consecutive series of TKRs using a computer-based alignment system (38 cases), a totally intramedullary alignment system (40 cases) and a totally extramedullary alignment system (37 cases). The frontal-femoral-component angle (FFC), the frontal-tibial-component angle (FTC), the hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) and the sagittal orientation of the tibial component (slope) were evaluated 12 months after operation. The results did not show any statistically significant differences between the mean values of FFC, FTC, HKA angles and tibial slope among the three groups. However in the extramedullary alignment group there was a statistically higher percentage of TKRs with abnormal FFC and HKA angles. Furthermore all the implants in the computer aligned group were aligned within 4 degrees both of an ideal HKA and tibial slope. PMID:16459861

  4. Optical modulation techniques for analog signal processing and CMOS compatible electro-optic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Douglas M.; Rasras, Mahmoud; Tu, Kun-Yii; Chen, Young-Kai; White, Alice E.; Patel, Sanjay S.; Carothers, Daniel; Pomerene, Andrew; Kamocsai, Robert; Beattie, James; Kopa, Anthony; Apsel, Alyssa; Beals, Mark; Mitchel, Jurgen; Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2008-02-01

    Integrating electronic and photonic functions onto a single silicon-based chip using techniques compatible with mass-production CMOS electronics will enable new design paradigms for existing system architectures and open new opportunities for electro-optic applications with the potential to dramatically change the management, cost, footprint, weight, and power consumption of today's communication systems. While broadband analog system applications represent a smaller volume market than that for digital data transmission, there are significant deployments of analog electro-optic systems for commercial and military applications. Broadband linear modulation is a critical building block in optical analog signal processing and also could have significant applications in digital communication systems. Recently, broadband electro-optic modulators on a silicon platform have been demonstrated based on the plasma dispersion effect. The use of the plasma dispersion effect within a CMOS compatible waveguide creates new challenges and opportunities for analog signal processing since the index and propagation loss change within the waveguide during modulation. We will review the current status of silicon-based electrooptic modulators and also linearization techniques for optical modulation.

  5. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  6. Self-amplified optical pattern-recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1992-01-01

    A self-amplified optical pattern-recognition technique that utilizes a photorefractive crystal as a real-time volume holographic filter with recording accomplished by means of laser beams of proper polarization and geometric configuration is described. After the holographic filter is recorded, it can be addressed with extremely weak object beams and an even weaker reference beam to obtain a pattern-recognition signal. Because of beam-coupling energy transfer from the input object beam to the diffracted beam, the recognition signal is greatly amplified. Experimental results of this technique using BaTiO3 crystal show that 5 orders of magnitude of amplification of a recognition signal can be obtained.

  7. Development of optical systems. [holographic technique for monitoring crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1995-01-01

    Several key aspects of multi-color holography and laser speckle technique to study holographic reconstructions are considered in the report. Holographic fringe contrast in two-color holography in the presence of a fluid cell in the object beam is discussed in detail. A specific example of triglycine sulfate crystal growth is also considered. A breadboard design using fiber optics and diode lasers for three-color holography for fluid experiments is presented. A possible role of multi-color holography in various new applications is summarized. Finally, the use of a a laser speckle technique is demonstrated for the study of holographic reconstructions. The demonstration is performed using a Spacelab 3 hologram.

  8. Experimental comparison of particle interaction measurement techniques using optical traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, Timothy P.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Molecke, Ryan A.

    2008-06-01

    Optical tweezers has become a powerful and common tool for sensitive determination of electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles. Recently, two techniques, 'blinking' tweezers and direct force measurements, have become increasingly prevalent in investigations of inter-particle potentials. The 'blinking' tweezers method acquires physical statistics of particle trajectories to determine drift velocities, diffusion coefficients, and ultimately colloidal forces as a function of the center-center separation of two particles. Direct force measurements monitor the position of a particle relative to the center of an optical trap as the separation distance between two continuously trapped particles is gradually decreased. As the particles near each other, the displacement from the trap center for each particle increases proportional to the inter-particle force. Although commonly employed in the investigation of interactions of colloidal particles, there exists no direct comparison of these experimental methods in the literature. In this study, an experimental apparatus was developed capable of performing both methods and is used to quantify electrostatic potentials between particles in several particle/solvent systems. Comparisons are drawn between the experiments conducted using the two measurement techniques, theory, and existing literature. Forces are quantified on the femto-Newton scale and results agree well with literature values.

  9. Studies of ferroelectric materials using novel optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi

    Morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) lead barium niobate (PBN) thin films are potentially important for optical and electronic applications due to their high switchable polarizability, thus giving large electro-optic and peizoelectric coefficients, and readily engineered tuning characteristics. The focus of this research was to fabricate high quality PBN thin films and to characterize their piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties using both transmission and reflection methods. We successfully grew PBN:65 thin films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Interdigital capacitors (IDC), consisting of with 10-pm conducting lines separated by 10-mum spaces, were deposited on top of the film to allow us to apply an external electric field. This dissertation presents two optical models to analyze our results. Optical model I was developed for characterization of electro-optic properties. New peaks in the diffraction were predicted due to the field induced period doubling. Optical model II was based upon the experimental observation that a superposition of a diffraction pattern, interference pattern and grating images was obtained when a grating sample was illuminated by a divergent beam. A combination of the geometrical rays and boundary diffraction waves was used to qualitatively reconstruct the superposed patterns. The field-induced bending of the PBN:65 thin film sample, resulting from its piezoelectric properties, was measured in both transmission and reflection experiments. A bending model was used to obtain the strain from the bending angle measurement. Either a piezoelectric constant of 1750 +/- 0.0002 (pC/N) or an electrostrictive constant of 0.000875 +/- 0.00005 (mum 2/V2) was calculated using the IEEE standard model. We believe, however, that electrostriction better describes the experimental results. In addition, three different types of strain-electric field hysteresis was measured in this PBN:65 thin film sample in the reflection experiment. A LiNbO3 sample with an IDC consisting of 7-mum lines and 8-mum spaces was used to observe the new peaks that were predicted in optical model II. These new peaks were observed in both the transmission and reflection experiments. In the transmission experiment, a sample scan technique was developed to examine the electric field distribution in the grating spaces in order to improve the accuracy of the electro-optic measurement. This same sample could be applied to examine experimentally electronic defects in thin film devices. The major contributions resulting from using a divergent beam to illuminate the grating sample in the transmission experiment are: (1) a magnification of more than 100 of the grating images is obtained; (2) the superposition of three different patterns provides a new method to calibrate the piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties of ferroelectric thin films; (3) a field imaging technique is developed for electronic defect examination and electric field distribution measurement. These results are experimentally observed and theoretically verified.

  10. Application of optical spectroscopic techniques for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anushree

    Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical application and will gain widespread acceptance within next few years from bench to bedside as an inexpensive and non-invasive tool compared to the other technologies.

  11. Real-Time Optical Hough Transform and Morphological Inspection Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Jeffrey Scott

    A real-time optical Hough transform inspection processor is described and applied to the industrial case study of the inspection of cigarette packages. The inspections are performed in real-time using a color Epson liquid crystal television as the input spatial light modulator. A new selective, real-time edge-enhancement technique is used to enhance edges only at the selected orientations which will Hough transform to peaks (this maximizes the signal to noise ratio in the Hough transform output). Several slices of the Hough transform are generated in parallel with a new computer generated hologram utilizing 1D modulated error diffusion. We benchmark our Hough transform processor with the inspection of 100 sample cigarette packages. Correct classification of all the packages (with defects that we intended to inspect for) was attained. We also discuss the confidence with which we can apply our laboratory sample set results to the industrial installation of our inspection processor. Extensions of the Hough transform are also described which generalize the Hough space to recognize shapes other than straight lines (e.g. circles, ellipses). We propose a new high speed acousto-optic architecture to implement these generalized Hough transforms. We also describe how the exact position of input lines can be extracted from Hough transform peak data. Typically, only the contour on which an input line resides is extracted from Hough data. Digital simulations illustrating both generalized Hough transformations and determination of input line position from Hough data are presented. Basic morphological transformations and their real-time optical implementation are discussed. We describe how morphological transformations are useful in inspection and show digital simulations and optical results of an inspection application (string detection in chopped tobacco) where morphological transformations are used.

  12. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.

    2013-07-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  13. Room-temperature near-infrared silicon carbide nanocrystalline emitters based on optically aligned spin defects

    SciTech Connect

    Muzha, A.; Fuchs, F.; Simin, D.; Astakhov, G. V.; Tarakina, N. V.; Trupke, M.; Soltamov, V. A.; Mokhov, E. N.; Baranov, P. G.; Dyakonov, V.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Bulk silicon carbide (SiC) is a very promising material system for bio-applications and quantum sensing. However, its optical activity lies beyond the near infrared spectral window for in-vivo imaging and fiber communications due to a large forbidden energy gap. Here, we report the fabrication of SiC nanocrystals and isolation of different nanocrystal fractions ranged from 600?nm down to 60?nm in size. The structural analysis reveals further fragmentation of the smallest nanocrystals into ca. 10-nm-size clusters of high crystalline quality, separated by amorphization areas. We use neutron irradiation to create silicon vacancies, demonstrating near infrared photoluminescence. Finally, we detect room-temperature spin resonances of these silicon vacancies hosted in SiC nanocrystals. This opens intriguing perspectives to use them not only as in-vivo luminescent markers but also as magnetic field and temperature sensors, allowing for monitoring various physical, chemical, and biological processes.

  14. Room-temperature near-infrared silicon carbide nanocrystalline emitters based on optically aligned spin defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzha, A.; Fuchs, F.; Tarakina, N. V.; Simin, D.; Trupke, M.; Soltamov, V. A.; Mokhov, E. N.; Baranov, P. G.; Dyakonov, V.; Krueger, A.; Astakhov, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    Bulk silicon carbide (SiC) is a very promising material system for bio-applications and quantum sensing. However, its optical activity lies beyond the near infrared spectral window for in-vivo imaging and fiber communications due to a large forbidden energy gap. Here, we report the fabrication of SiC nanocrystals and isolation of different nanocrystal fractions ranged from 600 nm down to 60 nm in size. The structural analysis reveals further fragmentation of the smallest nanocrystals into ca. 10-nm-size clusters of high crystalline quality, separated by amorphization areas. We use neutron irradiation to create silicon vacancies, demonstrating near infrared photoluminescence. Finally, we detect room-temperature spin resonances of these silicon vacancies hosted in SiC nanocrystals. This opens intriguing perspectives to use them not only as in-vivo luminescent markers but also as magnetic field and temperature sensors, allowing for monitoring various physical, chemical, and biological processes.

  15. ORFEUS alignment concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graue, R.; Kampf, D.; Rippel, H.; Witte, G.

    1991-09-01

    The alignment concept of ORFEUS, a short-term scientific space payload scheduled for launching by the STS in January 1993, is discussed. ORFEUS comprises two alternatively operating spectrometers (Echelle and Rowland) implemented in a CFC telescope with a 4-m tube length and an aperture of 1000 mm. The lightweight primary mirror has a focal length of 2426 mm. In order to achieve the required spectrometric high telescope resolution in the UV range (40-125 nm), a sophisticated alignment concept was developed. The centering of the alignment diaphragm (diameter: 15 microns) in the focus of the primary mirror has to be provided in the vertical tube position by means of an autocollimation telescope. The spectrometers have to be integrated into the horizontal telescope aligned within a special antigravity device to reduce optical surface deformations and to ensure the optical performance of the primary. The alignment of all optical components is to be performed in the visible spectral range.

  16. Optical techniques for millimeter-wave detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Christopher Arnim

    The benefits of imaging using regions of the electromagnetic spectrum outside the visible range have been known for decades. Infrared and radio frequency imaging techniques have achieved great successes in both military and civilian applications. However, there remains a range of the spectrum between these two regimes that remains relatively unexplored. Millimeter waves, or the range of wavelengths between one millimeter and one centimeter, have remained relatively unexplored as an imaging technology, largely due to the lack of sufficiently sensitive, practical detectors for passive imaging in this regime. At these short wavelengths, the diffraction limit imposed by the limited extent of the imaging aperture significantly limits attainable image resolution. Recent developments in semiconductor low-noise amplifiers have demonstrated many desirable applications for such imaging technology, but have, as yet, not been able to demonstrate the economical, small-format imagers necessary to make such imagers practical in most of the conceived applications. In this regard, I present a new approach to millimeter-wave detection based on optical modulation with subsequent carrier suppression. This approach demonstrates promise in achieving the goal of economical, high-resolution imagers with sufficient sensitivity for passive millimeter-wave imaging. In this thesis, I explain the operational requirements of such detectors, provide theoretical background for their operation, and describe current experimental results obtained using commercially available components in the 35 GHz. In addition, I describe successful efforts to fabricate modulators with improved modulation bandwidths for detection in the 95 GHz atmospheric window. These demonstration systems have attained sufficient single pixel performance to detect thermal emission with a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) approaching 1K/ Hz at both 35 and 95 GHz. The NETDs attained correspond to sub-picowatt noise equivalent powers which, to the best of my knowledge, have never before been obtained without the use of millimeter-wave low noise amplifiers or cryogenic cooling. The described optically-based detection technique has also demonstrated unique advantages to overcoming the resolution limits imposed by aperture size. Since the optical upconversion process preserves the phase of the collected energy, coherent imaging methods are possible. This enables the use of distributed aperture imaging, which could potentially provide large effective apertures for high resolution without the associated volumetric scaling associated with traditional focal plane arrays. Optical fiber can be utilized to provide low-loss, dispersion-free routing of the upconverted energy and optical lenses and cameras can be used to reconstruct the sampled image in a relatively simple manner. The combination of these factors offers potential for a uniquely capable millimeter-wave imaging technology based on optical upconversion. As part of this dissertation, I describe the relevant parameters that must be considered in designing such an imager and present results from a prototype array that has been successfully demonstrated.

  17. Manufacturing microcomponents for optical information technology using the LIGA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Hans-Dieter; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Hossfeld, Jens; Paatzsch, Thomas

    1999-09-01

    Recently, splices and connectors for fibers ribbons, optical cross connects and especially planar waveguide devices have been fabricated via LIGA in combination with precision engineering techniques. LIGA combines high precision and mass production capability, necessary for products designed for applications in the telecom and datacom market. In this presentation the fabrication of three-level molding and embossing tools is presented, which have been used for the manufacturing of waveguide prestructures consisting of waveguide channels and bier-to-waveguide coupling grooves. The precision of the tools is better than 1 micrometers in all directions, which allows for simple passive pigtailing. A first product, a precision of the tool is better than 1 micrometers in all directions, which allows for simple passive pigtailing. A first product, sixfold array of 4 X 4 multimode star couplers has been realized. The molding behavior of PMMA and COC material has been tested and compared. Production and assembly was tested by fabricating a series of 300 star couplers. The average insertion los has been found better than 9dB, the uniformity better than 3dB, both measured at 830nm. THe device is designed for application in optical backplanes for high-speed computers.

  18. Synthesis of Novel Y-Type Polyurethanes with High Thermal Stability of Dipole Alignment and Their Electro-Optic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Jung, Won-Taek; Rhee, Bum Ku

    3,4-di-(2?-hydroxyethoxy)benzylidenemalononitrile (3) was prepared and condensed with 2,4-toluenediisocyanate, 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate and 3,3?-dimethoxy-4,4?-biphenylenediisocyanate to yield novel Y-type polyurethanes (4-6) containing 3,4-dioxybenzylidenemalononitrile groups as nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores, which are parts of the polymer backbones. The resulting polyurethanes 4-6 were soluble in common organic solvents such as acetone and DMSO. Polymers 4-6 exhibited a thermal stability up to 260C from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with Tg values in the range of 96-152C. The SHG coefficients (d33) of poled polymer films were around 6.8 10-9 esu. These poled polymers exhibited a high thermal stability of dipole alignment even at 20C higher than Tg, and no SHG decay was observed below 175C due to the partial main chain character of the polymer structure, which is acceptable for NLO device applications.

  19. Polymer electro-optic waveguide devices: Low-loss etchless fabrication techniques and passive-to-active integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, Kevin

    The development of high-frequency polymer electro-optic modulators has seen steady and significant progress in recent years, yet applications of these promising materials to more complicated integrated optic structures and arrays of devices have been limited primarily due to high optical waveguide loss characteristics. This is unfortunate since a major advantage of polymers as photonic materials is their compatibility with photolithographic processing of large components. In this Dissertation, etchless waveguide writing techniques are presented in order to improve the overall optical insertion loss of electro-optic polymer waveguide devices. These techniques include poling-induced writing, stress-induced waveguide writing, and photobleaching. Using these waveguide writing mechanisms, we have demonstrated straight waveguides, phase modulators, Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators, variable optical attenuators, and multimode interference (MMI) power splitters, all with improved loss characteristics over their etched rib waveguide counterparts. Ultimately, the insertion loss of an integrated optic device is limited by the actual material loss of the core waveguide material. In this Dissertation, passive-to-active polymer waveguide transitions are proposed to circumvent this problem. These transitions are compact, in-plane, self-aligned, and require no tapering of any physical dimensions of the waveguides. By utilizing both the time-dependent and intensity-dependent photobleaching characteristics of electro-optic polymer materials, adiabatic refractive index tapers can be seamlessly coupled to in-plane butt couple transitions, resulting in losses as low as 0.1 dB per interface. By integrating passive polymer planar lightwave circuits with the high-speed phase shifting capability of electro-optic polymers, active wideband photonic devices of increased size and complexity can be realized. Optical fiber-to-device coupling can also result in significant contributions to the overall insertion loss of an integrated electro-optic polymer device. In this Dissertation, we leverage the photobleached refractive index taper component of our proposed passive-to-active polymer waveguide transitions in order to realize a two-dimensional optical mode transformer for improved overall fiber-to-device coupling of electro-optic polymer waveguide devices.

  20. Design of Optical Systems with Extended Depth of Field: An Educational Approach to Wavefront Coding Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferran, C.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.

    2012-01-01

    A practical activity designed to introduce wavefront coding techniques as a method to extend the depth of field in optical systems is presented. The activity is suitable for advanced undergraduate students since it combines different topics in optical engineering such as optical system design, aberration theory, Fourier optics, and digital image…

  1. Design of Optical Systems with Extended Depth of Field: An Educational Approach to Wavefront Coding Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferran, C.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.

    2012-01-01

    A practical activity designed to introduce wavefront coding techniques as a method to extend the depth of field in optical systems is presented. The activity is suitable for advanced undergraduate students since it combines different topics in optical engineering such as optical system design, aberration theory, Fourier optics, and digital image

  2. A proposed combining technique for partially coherent optical signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smadi, Mahmoud A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new least squares (LS) combining technique for coherent optical signals suffer from laser phase noise (partially coherent systems) and receiver shot noise. To assess the advantage of this method, we investigate the error rate performance of both homodyne and heterodyne partially coherent binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) systems. We also derive the gain penalties of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the partial recovery of the incoming laser phase to verify the appropriateness of the new combining method in mitigating laser phase noise. For design purposes, we provide tabulated results for the number of required photoelectrons to achieve a certain error rate level for the systems under investigation. The evaluation results show that the proposed technique has the ability to improve the error rate performance, and hence, reduce the SNR gain penalties caused by the laser phase noise. Finally, we show that the error rate performance of ideal systems (no phase error) can be achieved through this method by increasing the number of bit segmentations up to a reasonable level.

  3. Optical techniques to understand biofunctional adaptation in human dentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishen, Anil; Asundi, Anand K.

    2004-08-01

    Human tooth structure in the oral environment is subjected to mechanical forces and thermal fluctuations. Dentine, the major component of the tooth structure, is a bio-composite, mainly composed of a highly mineralized phase and a collagenous phase. When subjected to changes in load and/or temperature, dentine will experience stresses and strains distribution within their structure. Though such effects are found to cause deleterious effects on artificial dental restorations, biological structures such as dentine seem to posses an inherent ability to adapt to functional thermo-mechanical loads. Optical techniques enable visualization and quantification of deformation, strain and stress on dental structures and provide a better understanding on their thermo-mechanical response. In this study 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional digital photoelasticity, digital moir interferometry and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) are all shown to be quite promising in this application. This paper will highlight these techniques and the corresponding applications. These experiments will aid in designing and development of better dental restorations and implants in clinical practice.

  4. Response Surface Methods for Spatially-Resolved Optical Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, P. M.; Dorrington, A. A.; Cutler, A. D.; DeLoach, R.

    2003-01-01

    Response surface methods (or methodology), RSM, have been applied to improve data quality for two vastly different spatial ly-re solved optical measurement techniques. In the first application, modern design of experiments (MDOE) methods, including RSM, are employed to map the temperature field in a direct-connect supersonic combustion test facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The laser-based measurement technique known as coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure temperature at various locations in the combustor. RSM is then used to develop temperature maps of the flow. Even though the temperature fluctuations at a single point in the flowfield have a standard deviation on the order of 300 K, RSM provides analytic fits to the data having 95% confidence interval half width uncertainties in the fit as low as +/-30 K. Methods of optimizing future CARS experiments are explored. The second application of RSM is to quantify the shape of a 5-meter diameter, ultra-light, inflatable space antenna at NASA Langley Research Center.

  5. Fabricating and aligning pi-conjugated polymer-functionalized DNA nanowires: atomic force microscopic and scanning near-field optical microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hidenobu; Hayashi, Hideki; Iwata, Futoshi; Karasawa, Hidenori; Hirano, Koji; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Ohtani, Toshio

    2005-08-16

    We report a simple method to functionalize DNA with pi-conjugated polymer, forming highly aligned and integrated arrays of pi-conjugated polymer nanowires of a few nanometers diameter. pi-conjugated polymer, polyphenazasiline, having alkylammonium salts on the N atom (PPhenaz-TMA), synthesized in this study can be directly attached to DNA, which can be organized along stretched and aligned DNA molecules on surfaces as a template. Furthermore, PPhenaz-TMA/DNA nanowires were stretched and aligned on surfaces, even when PPhenaz-TMA/DNA complexes formed in solutions. The resulting PPhenaz-TMA/DNA nanowires could be easily converted to oxidized states or metallic nanowires by using adequate oxidant or metal salts. The direct visualization of PPhenaz-TMA/DNA nanowires and its structural changes have been studied by atomic force microscopy and scanning near-field optical microscopy. PMID:16089403

  6. Optical techniques and data/knowledge base machines

    SciTech Connect

    Berra, P.B.; Troullinos, N.B.

    1987-10-01

    The authors discuss how optics offer possible solutions to the requirements for database management. The inherent speed and bandwidth of optics, the ability of optics to carry information without interference at gigahertz rates through guided-wave or free-space propagation, the high speed of some optical switching elements and the two-dimensional character of optical processing, which suits many problems, has significant implications for the design of data and knowledge base systems. The authors discuss these implications.

  7. Tumor Functional and Molecular Imaging Utilizing Ultrasound and Ultrasound-Mediated Optical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Baohong; Rychak, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Tumor functional and molecular imaging has significantly contributed to cancer preclinical research and clinical applications. Among typical imaging modalities, ultrasonic and optical techniques are two commonly used methods; both share several common features such as cost efficiency, absence of ionizing radiation, relatively inexpensive contrast agents, and comparable maximum-imaging depth. Ultrasonic and optical techniques are also complementary in imaging resolution, molecular sensitivity, and imaging space (vascular and extravascular). The marriage between ultrasonic and optical techniques takes advantages of both techniques. This review introduces tumor functional and molecular imaging using microbubble-based ultrasound and ultrasound-mediated optical imaging techniques. PMID:23219728

  8. Electro-optic characteristics of fringe-field-switching mode with controllable anchoring strength of liquid crystal alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Chang, K.-H.; Song, Y.; Hsieh, C.; Lo, C.-C.; Lee, C.; Lien, S.-C. Alan; Hasebe, H.; Takatsu, H.; Chien, L.-C.

    2015-11-01

    A photoalignment technique used in preparation of fringe-field-switching (FFS) mode cells is presented. The azimuthal anchoring energy (AAE) of photoalignment is controllable by tuning the UV exposure and if the value of AAE is as strong as that of the rubbing method. The electro-optical properties of FFS cells are optimized with different electrode configurations and high quality dark states of various types of cells are achieved to create the high contrast ratio. The great thermal stability shown after applying voltage and heat confirms that photoalignment is suitable for FFS mode applications.

  9. Optical control of ground-state atomic orbital alignment: Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms from HCl(v=2,J=1) photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Sofikitis, Dimitris; Rubio-Lago, Luis; Martin, Marion R.; Ankeny Brown, Davida J.; Bartlett, Nathaniel C.-M.; Alexander, Andrew J.; Zare, Richard N.; Rakitzis, T. Peter

    2007-10-14

    H{sup 35}Cl(v=0,J=0) molecules in a supersonic expansion were excited to the H{sup 35}Cl(v=2,J=1,M=0) state with linearly polarized laser pulses at about 1.7 {mu}m. These rotationally aligned J=1 molecules were then selectively photodissociated with a linearly polarized laser pulse at 220 nm after a time delay, and the velocity-dependent alignment of the {sup 35}Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) photofragments was measured using 2+1 REMPI and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The {sup 35}Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms are aligned by two mechanisms: (1) the time-dependent transfer of rotational polarization of the H{sup 35}Cl(v=2,J=1,M=0) molecule to the {sup 35}Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) nuclear spin [which is conserved during the photodissociation and thus contributes to the total {sup 35}Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) photofragment atomic polarization] and (2) the alignment of the {sup 35}Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) electronic polarization resulting from the photoexcitation and dissociation process. The total alignment of the {sup 35}Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) photofragments from these two mechanisms was found to vary as a function of time delay between the excitation and the photolysis laser pulses, in agreement with theoretical predictions. We show that the alignment of the ground-state {sup 35}Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms, with respect to the photodissociation recoil direction, can be controlled optically. Potential applications include the study of alignment-dependent collision effects.

  10. Alignment and calibration of high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) 1D transducers using a dual wedge-tri step phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsham, N.; Chan, K.; Pan, L.; Tang, S.; Rohling, R. N.

    2011-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel alignment and calibration method for high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) 1D transducers. 2D images are constructed by means of translation of the transducers using a linear motor stage. Physical alignment of the transducers is needed in order to capture images of the same crosssectional plane, and calibration is needed to determine the relative coordinates of the images, including the image skew. A dual wedge-tri step phantom is created for both alignment and calibration. This phantom includes two symmetrical wedges and three steps that provide the user with visual feedback on how well the scan plane is aligned with the midplane of the phantom. The phantom image consists of five line segments, each of which corresponds to one of the wedges or steps. The slopes and positions of the lines are extracted from the image and compared with the phantom model. The scan plane parameters are found so that the difference between the model and extracted features is minimized. The main advantage of this phantom is that only one frame is required to determine translations, orientations, and skew parameters of the scan plane with respect to the phantom. Experimental results with ocular imaging show the ability to achieve alignment based on this method and its potential for medical applications.

  11. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  12. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E. (Huntington Beach, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  13. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  14. Optical techniques for sensing and measurement in hostile environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, C.H.; Greenwell, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on optical sensing and measurement in hostile environments. Topic include: nuclear waste storage facility monitoring, monitoring of nuclear and chemical explosions, exhaust gas monitoring, fiber-optic monitoring, temperature and radiation effects on optical fibers, and interferometers.

  15. Response Surface Methods For Spatially-Resolved Optical Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, P. M.; Dorrington, A. A.; Cutler, A. D.; DeLoach, R.

    2003-01-01

    Response surface methods (or methodology), RSM, have been applied to improve data quality for two vastly different spatially-resolved optical measurement techniques. In the first application, modern design of experiments (MDOE) methods, including RSM, are employed to map the temperature field in a direct-connect supersonic combustion test facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The laser-based measurement technique known as coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure temperature at various locations in the combustor. RSM is then used to develop temperature maps of the flow. Even though the temperature fluctuations at a single point in the flowfield have a standard deviation on the order of 300 K, RSM provides analytic fits to the data having 95% confidence interval half width uncertainties in the fit as low as +/- 30 K. Methods of optimizing future CARS experiments are explored. The second application of RSM is to quantify the shape of a 5-meter diameter, ultra-lightweight, inflatable space antenna at NASA Langley Research Center. Photogrammetry is used to simultaneously measure the shape of the antenna at approximately 500 discrete spatial locations. RSM allows an analytic model to be developed that describes the shape of the majority of the antenna with an uncertainty of 0.4 mm, with 95% confidence. This model would allow a quantitative comparison between the actual shape of the antenna and the original design shape. Accurately determining this shape also allows confident interpolation between the measured points. Such a model could, for example, be used for ray tracing of radio-frequency waves up to 95 GHz. to predict the performance of the antenna.

  16. Remote sensing of stress using electro-optics imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tong; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Kam, Firmin; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark; Oxford, William; Piper, Jonathan; Thomas, Francis; Lightman, Stafford

    2009-09-01

    Emotional or physical stresses induce a surge of adrenaline in the blood stream under the command of the sympathetic nerve system, which, cannot be suppressed by training. The onset of this alleviated level of adrenaline triggers a number of physiological chain reactions in the body, such as dilation of pupil and an increased feed of blood to muscles etc. This paper reports for the first time how Electro-Optics (EO) technologies such as hyperspectral [1,2] and thermal imaging[3] methods can be used for the detection of stress remotely. Preliminary result using hyperspectral imaging technique has shown a positive identification of stress through an elevation of haemoglobin oxygenation saturation level in the facial region, and the effect is seen more prominently for the physical stressor than the emotional one. However, all results presented so far in this work have been interpreted together with the base line information as the reference point, and that really has limited the overall usefulness of the developing technology. The present result has highlighted this drawback and it prompts for the need of a quantitative assessment of the oxygenation saturation and to correlate it directly with the stress level as the top priority of the next stage of research.

  17. Spatial-temporal demodulation technique for heterodyne optical scanning holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Luo, Dao-Zheng; Lu, Sheng-Hua

    2015-05-01

    In optical scanning holography (OSH), the object is raster scanned by a heterodyne fringe pattern. The light scattered from the object is detected by a photodetector. Traditionally, the photo-electric signal is demodulated by a dual-channel lock-in amplifier (LIA) to extract a complex hologram. The use of LIA complicates the detection module of the system and increases the cost, especially when the heterodyne frequency is high. In this paper, an alternative demodulation method called a spatial-temporal demodulation technique (STDT) is studied. In STDT, the photo-electric temporal signal is directly digitized as scanning lines. The spectrum of each scanning line is band-pass filtered to remove the zeroth-order term and the complex conjugate term. Finally, a complex hologram is obtained from the filtered spectrum. The first merit of STDT is that the phase of the demodulated complex hologram is insensitive to the modulation error. Thus it is easily applied to the applications of particle holography. Besides, the bandwidth of the zeroth-order term in STDT is narrow, which allows the system to be operated in a wide range of heterodyne frequency. This feature enables STDT-based OSH to be applied in low-cost and high-speed dynamic holographic imaging.

  18. Online technique for detecting state of onboard fiber optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Zhiyong; Xu, Dingjie; He, Kunpeng; Pang, Shuwan; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-02-01

    Although angle random walk (ARW) of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) has been well modeled and identified before being integrated into the high-accuracy attitude control system of satellite, aging and unexpected failures can affect the performance of FOG after launch, resulting in the variation of ARW coefficient. Therefore, the ARW coefficient can be regarded as an indicator of "state of health" for FOG diagnosis in some sense. The Allan variance method can be used to estimate ARW coefficient of FOG, however, it requires a large amount of data to be stored. Moreover, the procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation is painful. To overcome the barriers, a weighted state-space model that directly models the ARW to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for FOG. Then, a neural extended-Kalman filter algorithm was implemented to estimate and track the variation of ARW in real time. The results of experiment show that the proposed approach is valid to detect the state of FOG. Moreover, the proposed technique effectively avoids the storage of data.

  19. Online technique for detecting state of onboard fiber optic gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Zhiyong; He, Kunpeng Pang, Shuwan; Xu, Dingjie; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-02-15

    Although angle random walk (ARW) of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) has been well modeled and identified before being integrated into the high-accuracy attitude control system of satellite, aging and unexpected failures can affect the performance of FOG after launch, resulting in the variation of ARW coefficient. Therefore, the ARW coefficient can be regarded as an indicator of “state of health” for FOG diagnosis in some sense. The Allan variance method can be used to estimate ARW coefficient of FOG, however, it requires a large amount of data to be stored. Moreover, the procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation is painful. To overcome the barriers, a weighted state-space model that directly models the ARW to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for FOG. Then, a neural extended-Kalman filter algorithm was implemented to estimate and track the variation of ARW in real time. The results of experiment show that the proposed approach is valid to detect the state of FOG. Moreover, the proposed technique effectively avoids the storage of data.

  20. Online technique for detecting state of onboard fiber optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhiyong; Xu, Dingjie; He, Kunpeng; Pang, Shuwan; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-02-01

    Although angle random walk (ARW) of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) has been well modeled and identified before being integrated into the high-accuracy attitude control system of satellite, aging and unexpected failures can affect the performance of FOG after launch, resulting in the variation of ARW coefficient. Therefore, the ARW coefficient can be regarded as an indicator of "state of health" for FOG diagnosis in some sense. The Allan variance method can be used to estimate ARW coefficient of FOG, however, it requires a large amount of data to be stored. Moreover, the procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation is painful. To overcome the barriers, a weighted state-space model that directly models the ARW to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for FOG. Then, a neural extended-Kalman filter algorithm was implemented to estimate and track the variation of ARW in real time. The results of experiment show that the proposed approach is valid to detect the state of FOG. Moreover, the proposed technique effectively avoids the storage of data. PMID:25725877

  1. Alignment and Integration of Lightweight Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler; Biskach, Michael; Mazzarella, Jim; McClelland, Ryan; Saha, Timo; Zhang, Will; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc-seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4 mm thick, and 200 to 400 mm in size, which makes it difficult not to impart distortion at the sub-arc-second level. This paper outlines the precise alignment, permanent bonding, and verification testing techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Improvements in alignment include new hardware and automation software. Improvements in bonding include two module new simulators to bond mirrors into, a glass housing for proving single pair bonding, and a Kovar module for bonding multiple pairs of mirrors. Three separate bonding trials were x-ray tested producing results meeting the requirement of sub ten arc-second alignment. This paper will highlight these recent advances in alignment, testing, and bonding techniques and the exciting developments in thin x-ray optic technology development.

  2. Fabrication of nanowire channels with unidirectional alignment and controlled length by a simple, gas-blowing-assisted, selective-transfer-printing technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Kwan; Kang, Pil Soo; Kim, Dae-Il; Shin, Gunchul; Kim, Gyu Tae; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2009-03-01

    A printing-based lithographic technique for the patterning of V(2)O(5) nanowire channels with unidirectional orientation and controlled length is introduced. The simple, directional blowing of a patterned polymer stamp with N(2) gas, inked with randomly distributed V(2)O(5) nanowires, induces alignment of the nanowires perpendicular to the long axis of the line patterns. Subsequent stamping on the amine-terminated surface results in the selective transfer of the aligned nanowires with a controlled length corresponding to the width of the relief region of the polymer stamp. By employing such a gas-blowing-assisted, selective-transfer-printing technique, two kinds of device structures consisting of nanowire channels and two metal electrodes with top contact, whereby the nanowires were aligned either parallel (parallel device) or perpendicular (serial device) to the current flow in the conduction channel, are fabricated. The electrical properties demonstrate a noticeable difference between the two devices, with a large hysteresis in the parallel device but none in the serial device. Systematic analysis of the hysteresis and the electrical stability account for the observed hysteresis in terms of the proton diffusion in the water layer of the V(2)O(5) nanowires, induced by the application of an external bias voltage higher than a certain threshold voltage. PMID:19197970

  3. Transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes onto a polymeric substrate using a hot embossing technique for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A; Roy, S S; McLaughlin, J A

    2010-07-01

    We explored the hot embossing method for transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into microfluidic channels, fabricated on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Patterned and unpatterned CNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on silicon to work as a stamp. For hot embossing, 115 degrees C and 1 kN force for 2 min were found to be the most suitable parameters for the complete transfer of aligned CNTs on the PMMA microchannel. Raman and SEM studies were used to analyse the microstructure of CNTs before and after hot embossing. The PMMA microparticles with dimensions (approx. 10 microm in diameter) similar to red blood cells were successfully filtered using laminar flow through these microfluidic channels. Finally, a microfluidic-based point-of-care device for blood filtration and detection of bio-molecules is drawn schematically. PMID:20147316

  4. Differential Deposition Technique for Figure Corrections in Grazing Incidence X-ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    A differential deposition technique is being developed to correct the low- and mid-spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure profile of Wolter type grazing incidence X-ray optics. These deviations arise due to various factors in the fabrication process and they degrade the performance of the optics by limiting the achievable angular resolution. In the differential deposition technique, material of varying thickness is selectively deposited along the length of the optic to minimize these deviations, thereby improving the overall figure. High resolution focusing optics being developed at MSFC for small animal radionuclide imaging are being coated to test the differential deposition technique. The required spatial resolution for these optics is 100 m. This base resolution is achievable with the regular electroform-nickel-replication fabrication technique used at MSFC. However, by improving the figure quality of the optics through differential deposition, we aim at significantly improving the resolution beyond this value.

  5. Optical See-Through Head Mounted Display Direct Linear Transformation Calibration Robustness in the Presence of User Alignment Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axholt, Magnus; Skoglund, Martin; Peterson, Stephen D.; Cooper, Matthew D.; Schoen, Thomas B.; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technique by which computer generated signals synthesize impressions that are made to coexist with the surrounding real world as perceived by the user. Human smell, taste, touch and hearing can all be augmented, but most commonly AR refers to the human vision being overlaid with information otherwise not readily available to the user. A correct calibration is important on an application level, ensuring that e.g. data labels are presented at correct locations, but also on a system level to enable display techniques such as stereoscopy to function properly [SOURCE]. Thus, vital to AR, calibration methodology is an important research area. While great achievements already have been made, there are some properties in current calibration methods for augmenting vision which do not translate from its traditional use in automated cameras calibration to its use with a human operator. This paper uses a Monte Carlo simulation of a standard direct linear transformation camera calibration to investigate how user introduced head orientation noise affects the parameter estimation during a calibration procedure of an optical see-through head mounted display.

  6. Utilizing vertically aligned CdSe/CdS nanorods within a luminescent solar concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Martyn; Farrell, Daniel; Zanella, Marco; Lupi, Antonio; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Chatten, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Optical characterisation methodologies are employed to validate a nanorod self-alignment technique for use in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The nanorods utilised in this work were CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, and the self-alignment technique relied on the evaporation of a highly concentrated nanorod/xylene solution onto a glass substrate. Position and angular dependent light absorptivity measurements revealed evidence of vertical nanorod alignment over a limited region at the centre of the LSC sample. Vertical nanorod alignment is beneficial for absorbing diffuse/scattered sunlight and provides for a high light trapping efficiency in the LSC.

  7. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  8. VLTI image alignment monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitton, Philippe B.; Cantzler, Michael; Koehler, Bertrand; Kervella, P.

    2003-02-01

    In its current configuration, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines the light collected by two telescopes and directs it towards the commissioning instrument called VINCI. In an interferometer, the optical path ranging from a telescope to the point where beams are combined is referred as an arm of the interferometer. This arm contains a large number of optics that have to be aligned at installation time and kept aligned during the period of use of the interferometer. The method used to perform the initial alignment is reported in a separate article. This paper is focussed on the methods used to assess the stability of the image alignment of each interferometer arm. Collected data sets are presented and interpreted.

  9. Photon Counting Techniques for the Bandlimited Optical Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Clement G.; Gray, Andrew A.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods of estimating received photon counts given a realistic noisy and bandlimited optical channel are presented. The function of estimating photon counts is critical in any optical communications receiver. The purpose of this work is to compare two methods, neither of which is generically optimal, with realistic channels-for the purpose of assessing which is more appropriate for application in a hardware receiver given the current state-of-the art.

  10. Towards dual modality nerve assessment using electrical and optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebid, Solomiya; Ward, Tomas; O'Neill, Ray; Markham, Charles; Coyle, Shirley

    2005-05-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of acquiring fast optical response signals from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and specifically to obtain knowledge about the sensory response of the median nerve through comparing electrophysiological responses with those obtained with a single photon counting system. Nerve potentials have been well studied so the primary purpose of this investigation is to better understand the conditions required for recording the optical analogue of this signal. Such action potential-correlated optical signals have been termed 'fast optical evoked responses' and their measurement in-vivo has hitherto proved fraught with difficulty. As yet measurement of these signals has been confined to evoked potential studies in the brain and so far there is no repeatable, confirmed procedure for their robust acquisition. In this work it is suggested that perhaps an easier route to acquire these elusive optical signals is through evoked potential studies centred on the PNS as opposed to the brain. Preliminary results suggest it is possible to correlate both data and draw important information from it although the most important contribution of this paper is the principle of directing the search for robust fast optical signals to the peripheral nervous system as opposed to the brain.

  11. An approach to identifying the effect of technique asymmetries on body alignment in swimming exemplified by a case study of a breaststroke swimmer.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Ross H; Fairweather, Malcolm M; Alcock, Alison; McCabe, Carla B

    2015-06-01

    Despite the importance of maintaining good alignment to minimize resistive drag in swimming there is a paucity of literature relating to the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations of the body about a vertical axis (yaw). The purpose of this paper was to present an approach to analyzing the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations in swimming, exemplifying the process with a case study of a breaststroke swimmer. The kinematics and angular kinetics of an elite female international breaststroke swimmer performing a 'fatigue set' of four 100m swims were derived from digitized three-dimensional video data using a 13 segment body model. Personalised anthropometric data required to quantify accurately segment and whole body centres of mass and segmental angular momentum were obtained by the elliptical zone method. Five episodes of torques producing yaw occurred in the stroke cycle sampled for each 100m swim of this swimmer. These torques were linked to bilateral differences in upper limb kinematics during 1) out-sweep; 2) in-sweep; 3) upper limb recovery; and lower limb kinematics during 4) Lower limb recovery and 5) the kick. It has been shown that by quantifying whole body torques, in conjunction with the kinematic movement patterns, the effect of technique asymmetries on body alignment can be assessed. Assessment of individual swimmers in this manner provides a solid foundation for planning interventions in strength, flexibility, and technique to improve alignment and performance. Key pointsA unique (not been attempted previously) study of yaw in breaststroke swimming that yields new knowledge of how technique and strength asymmetries affects body alignment.Establishes an approach to investigation of yaw in swimming using 3D videography and inverse dynamics.Exemplifies the approach with a case study. The case study illustrated the potential of the approach to enable detailed assessment of yaw and to explain how the yaw is produced in terms of the asymmetries in speed and magnitude of the swimming actions.This procedure should be used to identify and quantify asymmetries that might impair performance. PMID:25983579

  12. An Approach to Identifying the Effect of Technique Asymmetries on Body Alignment in Swimming Exemplified by a Case Study of a Breaststroke Swimmer

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Ross H.; Fairweather, Malcolm M.; Alcock, Alison; McCabe, Carla B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of maintaining good alignment to minimize resistive drag in swimming there is a paucity of literature relating to the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations of the body about a vertical axis (yaw). The purpose of this paper was to present an approach to analyzing the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations in swimming, exemplifying the process with a case study of a breaststroke swimmer. The kinematics and angular kinetics of an elite female international breaststroke swimmer performing a ‘fatigue set’ of four 100m swims were derived from digitized three-dimensional video data using a 13 segment body model. Personalised anthropometric data required to quantify accurately segment and whole body centres of mass and segmental angular momentum were obtained by the elliptical zone method. Five episodes of torques producing yaw occurred in the stroke cycle sampled for each 100m swim of this swimmer. These torques were linked to bilateral differences in upper limb kinematics during 1) out-sweep; 2) in-sweep; 3) upper limb recovery; and lower limb kinematics during 4) Lower limb recovery and 5) the kick. It has been shown that by quantifying whole body torques, in conjunction with the kinematic movement patterns, the effect of technique asymmetries on body alignment can be assessed. Assessment of individual swimmers in this manner provides a solid foundation for planning interventions in strength, flexibility, and technique to improve alignment and performance. Key points A unique (not been attempted previously) study of yaw in breaststroke swimming that yields new knowledge of how technique and strength asymmetries affects body alignment. Establishes an approach to investigation of yaw in swimming using 3D videography and inverse dynamics. Exemplifies the approach with a case study. The case study illustrated the potential of the approach to enable detailed assessment of yaw and to explain how the yaw is produced in terms of the asymmetries in speed and magnitude of the swimming actions. This procedure should be used to identify and quantify asymmetries that might impair performance. PMID:25983579

  13. Centrally controlled self-healing wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network based on optical carrier suppression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jiao; Sun, Xiaohan

    2015-12-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a centrally controlled and self-healing wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network with colorless optical network units (ONUs) based on optical carrier suppression technique. By switching the affected data in the OCS signal sideband to an alternate protection path, only one optical switch is provisioned at the optical line terminal, which is controlled by a logic control circuit upon monitoring of power outage on the working path. The proposed scheme can reliably protect against both distribution and feeder fiber failures. Moreover, gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers are used as colorless transmitters in ONUs. The protection scheme feasibility and system performances are experimentally verified with 10 Gb/s downstream and 1.25 Gb/s upstream data in both working and protection modes. The protection switching time was measured to be around 1 ms.

  14. Development of differential deposition technique for figure corrections in grazing incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2009-08-01

    A differential deposition technique is being developed to correct the low- and mid-spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure profile of Wolter-type grazing-incidence X-ray optics. These deviations arise due to various factors in the fabrication process and they degrade the performance of optics by limiting the achievable angular resolution. In the differential deposition technique, material is selectively deposited in varying thickness along the length of the optic to minimize these deviations, thereby improving the overall figure. The process is being tested on focusing X-ray optics being developed at MSFC for small-animal radionuclide imaging. The required spatial resolution for these optics is 100 ?m (30 arc secs), which can be achieved with the electroformnickel- replication fabrication technique regularly employed at MSFC. However, by improving the figure quality of the optics through differential deposition, we aim to significantly improve the resolution beyond this value.

  15. Evaluation of Mechanical Modal Characteristics Using Optical Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John; Adamovsky, Grigory; Flanagan, Patrick; Weiland, Ken

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the sensitivity of embedded fiber optic sensors to changes in modal characteristics of plates is discussed. In order to determine the feasibility of embedded fiber Bragg gratings for the detection of modal shapes and modal frequencies, a comparison of holographically imaged modes and the detected dynamic strain from embedded fiber optic Bragg gratings is made. Time averaged optical holography is used for the detection of mechanical defects, or damage, in various aerospace components. The damage is detected by measuring an alteration in structural dynamics, which is visually apparent when using time-averaged holography. These shifts in the mode shapes, both in frequency of the resonance and spatial location of vibration nodes, are caused by changes in parameters that affect the structure's mechanical impedance, such as stiffness, mass and damping, resulting from cracks or holes. It is anticipated that embedded fiber optic sensor arrays may also be able to detect component damage by sensing these changes in modal characteristics. This work is designed to give an initial indication to the feasibility of damage detection through the monitoring of modal frequencies and mode shapes with fiber optic sensors.

  16. MP-Align: alignment of metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparing the metabolic pathways of different species is useful for understanding metabolic functions and can help in studying diseases and engineering drugs. Several comparison techniques for metabolic pathways have been introduced in the literature as a first attempt in this direction. The approaches are based on some simplified representation of metabolic pathways and on a related definition of a similarity score (or distance measure) between two pathways. More recent comparative research focuses on alignment techniques that can identify similar parts between pathways. Results We propose a methodology for the pairwise comparison and alignment of metabolic pathways that aims at providing the largest conserved substructure of the pathways under consideration. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a tool called MP-Align, which has been used to perform several validation tests. The results showed that our similarity score makes it possible to discriminate between different domains and to reconstruct a meaningful phylogeny from metabolic data. The results further demonstrate that our alignment algorithm correctly identifies subpathways sharing a common biological function. Conclusion The results of the validation tests performed with MP-Align are encouraging. A comparison with another proposal in the literature showed that our alignment algorithm is particularly well-suited to finding the largest conserved subpathway of the pathways under examination. PMID:24886436

  17. A preferential coating technique for fabricating large, high quality optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, S. G.; Cockerton, S.

    2010-05-01

    A major challenge facing optic manufacturers is the fabrication of large mirrors (>1 m) with minimal residual slope errors (<0.5 μrad rms). We present a differential coating method with the potential to satisfy such exacting technical demands. Iterative cycles of measurement using the Diamond-NOM, followed by preferential deposition, were performed on a 1200 mm long, silicon mirror. The applied coatings were observed to reduce the optical slope and figure errors from 1.62 to 0.44 μrad rms, and from 208 to 13 nm rms, respectively. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercially available products, of direct benefit to the Synchrotron, Free Electron Laser, Astronomy, Space, and Laser communities, who all require state-of-the-art optics.

  18. Weather watch studies by means of an optical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A series of articles is presented on a passive, optical, cross beam system. The passive, optical, cross beam system was evaluated as a remote sensor of atmospheric conditions. The system employed the light scattered from natural aerosols to sense atmospheric mean and turbulent motion. A space-time correlation of the output of two optical sensors was used to evaluate the mean convective wind speed. In approximately 20% of the tests, signal-to-noise levels were sufficient to allow estimation of convective wind speeds. The feasibility of employing intersecting beams to evaluate the atmospheric turbulent motion was also investigated. The intersecting beams produced maximums in the space-time correlation curves for other than zero delay. The non-zero time delay maximums indicate the cross beam system was detecting aerosol layers in the atmosphere, rather than information from the common intersecting volume.

  19. Comparison of Computational and Optical Techniques for Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Blair; Bunton, Patrick

    2003-03-01

    This project will demonstrate complementary methods of image analysis using Fourier transforms. The computational components will use MathCAD to calculate the Fourier transforms (FTs), while optical components will use a HeNe laser and a long focal length lens to process the FTs. The project will begin with use of simple shapes (a.k.a. -the aperture shape) to test the programming and optical outputs of the respective methods. In addition, starting with simple shapes allows for easy and straight forward conceptualization of the 2D FTs. From simple shapes, we will move to increasingly more complex apertures, until finally holograms of complex shapes (dendritic crystals and other objects) can be both optically and computationally processed (creating the FTs) and enhanced (for image clarity).

  20. Ultrafast optical technique for the characterization of altered materials

    DOEpatents

    Maris, H.J.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed herein is a method and a system for non-destructively examining a semiconductor sample having at least one localized region underlying a surface through into which a selected chemical species has been implanted or diffused. A first step induces at least one transient time-varying change in optical constants of the sample at a location at or near to a surface of the sample. A second step measures a response of the sample to an optical probe beam, either pulsed or continuous wave, at least during a time that the optical constants are varying. A third step associates the measured response with at least one of chemical species concentration, chemical species type, implant energy, a presence or absence of an introduced chemical species region at the location, and a presence or absence of implant-related damage. The method and apparatus in accordance with this invention can be employed in conjunction with a measurement of one or more of the following effects arising from a time-dependent change in the optical constants of the sample due to the application of at least one pump pulse: (a) a change in reflected intensity; (b) a change in transmitted intensity; (c) a change in a polarization state of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (d) a change in the optical phase of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (e) a change in direction of the reflected and/or transmitted light; and (f) a change in optical path length between the sample`s surface and a detector. 22 figs.

  1. Ultrafast optical technique for the characterization of altered materials

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method and a system for non-destructively examining a semiconductor sample (30) having at least one localized region underlying a surface (30a) through into which a selected chemical species has been implanted or diffused. A first step induces at least one transient time-varying change in optical constants of the sample at a location at or near to a surface of the sample. A second step measures a response of the sample to an optical probe beam, either pulsed or continuous wave, at least during a time that the optical constants are varying. A third step associates the measured response with at least one of chemical species concentration, chemical species type, implant energy, a presence or absence of an introduced chemical species region at the location, and a presence or absence of implant-related damage. The method and apparatus in accordance with this invention can be employed in conjunction with a measurement of one or more of the following effects arising from a time-dependent change in the optical constants of the sample due to the application of at least one pump pulse: (a) a change in reflected intensity; (b) a change in transmitted intensity; (c) a change in a polarization state of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (d) a change in the optical phase of the reflected and/or transmitted light; (e) a change in direction of the reflected and/or transmitted light; and (f) a change in optical path length between the sample's surface and a detector.

  2. Using quantum memory techniques for optical detection of ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuslan, D. L.; Taylor, L. R.; Longdell, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Quantum memories are inherently highly efficient and display low noise, making them particularly suitable for the optical detection of ultrasound. Here, we use an atomic-frequency-comb based quantum memory to demonstrate sensitive ultrasound detection, realising a 49 dB discrimination between the sidebands and the carrier. The method remains valid in the case of optically thin samples and thus represents a significant improvement over other ultrasound detection methods based on rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. Furthermore, we show that this non-destructive non-contact approach is also compatible with highly scattering samples and suggest its particular suitability for the real-time imaging of biological tissues.

  3. Space diversity techniques in indoor broadband optical wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqudah, Yazan A.

    Wireless optical (infrared) link provides a secure and a promising alternative to radio for wireless indoor connectivity, be it for terminals or sensors. The large spectrum of unregulated band enables a link to provide broadband access needed for multimedia and other bandwidth demanding applications. The spatial confinement of infrared light provides interference-free bandwidth-reuse in adjacent rooms. The ability to create spatially independent channels in a small physical space holds the promise of large link capacity. The main challenges in the design of an infrared link include: susceptibility to shadowing, multipath dispersion, and limited range resulting from noise generated by ambient light. Shadowing caused by benign objects blocking signal path results in service degradation, if not complete interruption. Configurations employing wide beam transmitter to service many receiver locations suffer multipath. Noise at receiver is generated by ambient light. Even in a uniformly lit environment, noise generated by natural and artificial light varies depending on receiver location and orientation. To combat the adverse effects of temporal dispersion in high-speed applications, an accurate channel impulse response is needed. The impulse response is used to analyze and to compensate for the effects of multipath dispersion. In this work, a new approach for obtaining the channel impulse response is presented resulting in tremendous savings in calculation time and bringing insight into the channel behavior. The ability to create spatially independent channels has motivated a new configuration called Multi-Spot Diffusing (MSD) configuration. In which, a transmitter acts as an array antenna, with each element transmitting data over an independent channel. A multibranch receiver is employed to receive independent copies of transmitted data through each of its branches. In our research, we analyze MSD link with the objective of determining the optimal number of branches that results in maximum signal-to-noise ratio, minimum probability of error and minimum outage probability. The MSD configuration increases link capacity and reliability by providing a multi-input multi-output channel between transceivers. The availability of N spatial channels implies the possibility of increasing data rate by N folds compared to a single channel. In order to improve link reliability, our research considers novel spatial diversity coding techniques. In orthogonal spatial coding, each channel is responsible for carrying one of N symbols. The receiver decides on a transmitted symbol by comparing received signals on its branches and selects the branch corresponding to maximum signal. In another proposed scheme, a symbol is represented by N bit code word. Each bit is transmitted through a separate channel. The diversity receiver decides on a symbol that corresponds to the highest correlation with a received code word. Thus, information is transmitted not only through signal shapes, but also through branches that receive them. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Characterization of optical components using contact and non-contact interferometry techniques: advanced metrology for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Conroy, Mike; Smith, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Advanced metrology plays an important role in the research, production and quality control of optical components. With surface finish, form error and other parameter specifications becoming more stringent, precision measurements are increasingly demanded by optics manufacturers and users. The modern metrologist now has both contact and noncontact measurement solutions available and a combination of these techniques now provides a more detailed understanding of optical components. Phase Grating Interferometry (PGI) with sub-nanometre vertical resolution and sub-micron lateral resolution can provide detailed characterization of a wide range of components including shallow and steep-sided optics. PGI is ideal for precision form measurement of a comprehensive range of lenses, moulds and other spherical or aspheric products. Because of the complex nature of these components, especially precision aspheric and asphero-diffractive optics, control of the form is vital to ensure they perform correctly. Recent hardware and software developments now make it possible to gain a better understanding and control of the form and function of this optics. Another change is the use of high speed 3D non-contact measurement of optics which is becoming more popular. Often scanning interferometric techniques such as coherence correlation interferometry (CCI) can be used to study components not suited to 2D contact analysis, including fragile surfaces and structured surfaces. Scanning interferometry can also be used to measure film thickness and uniformity of any coating present. In this paper the use of both PGI and CCI to measure optical lenses and coatings is discussed.

  5. TOTALLY OPTICAL TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING AMBIENT NON-METHANE HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for measuring ambient levels of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) has been developed and an instrument based on that method has been built. The instrument consists of a sample conditioner and an optical CO2-CO monitor. In the sample conditioner ambient air is scrubbed of C...

  6. Observing techniques for astronomical laser guide star adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Macintosh, B.; Olivier, S.S.; Gavel, D.T.; Friedman, H.W.

    1998-05-01

    We discuss astronomical observing requirements and their implementation using sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics. Specific issues requiring implementation include the ability to place the astronomical object at different locations within the field of view; reliable subtraction of Rayleigh-scattered light; efficient focusing; and stable point-spread-function characterization.

  7. Nanowires: Simple, Inexpensive, and Rapid Approach to Fabricate Cross-Shaped Memristors Using an Inorganic-Nanowire-Digital-Alignment Technique and a One-Step Reduction Process (Adv. Mater. 3/2016).

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Lee, Yeongjun; Min, Sung-Yong; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    An inorganic-nanowire digital-alignment technique for the easy fabrication of large-area aligned Cu nanowire-based memristor arrays is described by T.-W. Lee and co-workers on page 527. This technique digitally prints cross-shaped, arbitrarily long, continuous Cu precursor-blended polymer nanowires, and then converts the structure into two-dimensional arrays of perpendicularly aligned, individually conductive Cu-NWs with a nano-meter-scale Cux O layer sandwiched at each cross point. PMID:26765677

  8. Extramedullary versus intramedullary tibial alignment technique in total knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huan Bei; Ying, Xiao Zhou; Chen, Guang Jun; Yang, Xia Qing; Lin, Duo Duo; Li, Zhi Jie; Liu, Hai Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether the use of an extramedullary or intramedullary tibial cutting guide leads to superior mechanical leg axis and implant positioning. A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials including 350 knees was performed. For the mechanical axis, frontal tibial component angle and tibial slope, there were no significant differences in the mean values or the number of outliers (±3°) between the extramedullary and intramedullary groups. A reduced tourniquet time was associated with the intramedullary guide. No significant difference in the complication rate was noted between the two groups. Neither extramedullary nor intramedullary tibial alignment was more accurate in facilitating the tibial cut. Use of an intramedullary guide results in a shorter tourniquet time and exhibits a similar complication rate as the extramedullary guide. PMID:26598086

  9. Improving optical measurement accuracy using multi-technique nested uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, R. M.; Zhang, N. F.; Barnes, B. M.; Zhou, H.; Heckert, A.; Dixson, R.; Germer, T. A.; Bunday, B.

    2009-03-01

    This paper compares and contrasts different combinations of scatterfield and scatterometry optical configurations as well as introduces a new approach to embedding atomic force microscopy (AFM) or other reference metrology results directly in the uncertainty analysis and library-fitting process to reduce parametric uncertainties. We present both simulation results and experimental data demonstrating this new method, which is based on the application of a Bayesian analysis to library-based regression fitting of optical critical dimension (OCD) data. We develop the statistical methods to implement this approach of nested uncertainty analysis and give several examples, which demonstrate reduced uncertainties in the final combined measurements. The approach is also demonstrated through a combined reference metrology application using several independent measurement methods.

  10. Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Rinehart, S. A.; Benford, D.; Dwek, E.; Kinzer, R. E.; Nuth, J.; Silverberg, R.; Wollack, E.

    2011-05-01

    Infrared observations are uniquely able to observe the astrophysical processes deep within dusty regions and to provide key information on the characteristics of the dust itself. This information is critical for learning the role of dust in gas physics, for exploring how dust processing occurs, and for understanding the formation and destruction mechanisms of dust grains. Though relevant astronomical and ground-based observations already exist, the properties of dust at these long wavelengths are poorly known, and since observed spectral features of dust are used to infer characteristics of the surrounding neighborhood, these large uncertainties lead to ambiguity in interpretation. The OPASI-T program addresses the need for high fidelity optical characterization data in the far and mid infrared, aiming at the creation of a unique library of the optical properties of metal-enriched silicate condensates. Such database will cover a wide wavelength range connecting numerical data with laboratory and astronomical spectra in the mid infrared, while providing new data in the unexplored far-infrared and millimeter regime. Both new and established experiments are used to measure the transmission and reflection properties of amorphous silicates across the infrared, which are then analyzed by way of numerical methods in order to determine the variations of their optical constants and complex dielectric function as a function of wavelength. I will present room-temperature measurements of SiO in a KBr matrix from 5 to 25 ?m and its optical properties as derived from a least-squares nonlinear fit applied to a mixed approach coupling the Maxwell-Garnett theory, the Lorentz dispersive model for mixtures, and the averaged equation for transmission. This material is based upon work supported by NASA through the ROSES/APRA program. This research was supported by an appointment (Cataldo) at the Goddard Space Flight Center administered by Universities Space Research Association through a contract with NASA.

  11. Optical correlation technique for cement particle size measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, M. P.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2015-11-01

    Article describes optical correlation method of cement particle size distribution definition. It based on transverse coherent function definition. It has been shown that set of particles with random shapes and orientations produces correlation function which is almost the same as a function for round particles set. Measurements of coherence function are performed using polarization transverse shearing interferometer. Described method allows fast and high reliable definition of cement particle distribution by sizes.

  12. Segmentation of the optic tracts using graph-based techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Jack H.; D'Haese, Pierre-Franois; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2012-02-01

    In DBS surgery, electrodes are implanted in specific nuclei of the brain to treat several types of movement disorders. Pre-operative knowledge of the location of the optic tracts may prove useful for pre-operative planning assistance or intra-operative target refinement. In this article we present a semi-automated method to localize the optic tracts in MR. As opposed to previous approaches presented to identify these structures, our methods are able to recover the eccentric shape of the optic tracts. This approach consists of two parts: (1) automatic model construction from manually segmented exemplars and (2) segmentation of structures in unknown images using these models. The segmentation problem is solved by finding an optimal path in a graph. The graph is designed with novel structures that permit the incorporation of prior information from the model into the optimization process and account for several weaknesses of traditional graph-based approaches. The approach achieved mean and maximum surface errors of 0.35 and 1.9 mm in a validation study on 10 images. The results from all experiments were considered acceptable.

  13. Fiber optic sensor integration system and measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Marcus, Michael A.; Fielder, Robert S.

    2004-03-01

    Fiber optic measurement systems are on the cutting edge of instrumentation for many industries from military and government applications to commercial needs such as the automotive, aerospace, and power turbine industries. Measurement parameters including temperature, pressure, and strain can provide valuable information. Sensor mapping allows for larger scale monitoring capabilities and provide flexibility in sensing applications. A sensor and readout system is being developed to expand the capabilities of fiber optic sensing. Several iterations of multiplexed sensors have been tested using a high-resolution fiber optic coupled dual Michelson interferometer based-instrument that has the capability of reading gaps of 25?m to 6.5mm. This measurement range opened the opportunity to read several different sensors on the same fiber, i.e. the same channel. Sensor strings combining temperature and strain extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors were tested. These sensor strings produced were either serial multiplexed, parallel multiplexed, or a combination. This paper will discuss the capabilities of the sensors and instrumentation systems developed.

  14. Performance enhancement of multiple-gate ZnO metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using self-aligned and laser interference photolithography techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsin-Ying; Huang, Hung-Lin; Tseng, Chun-Yen

    2014-05-01

    The simple self-aligned photolithography technique and laser interference photolithography technique were proposed and utilized to fabricate multiple-gate ZnO metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Since the multiple-gate structure could improve the electrical field distribution along the ZnO channel, the performance of the ZnO MOSFETs could be enhanced. The performance of the multiple-gate ZnO MOSFETs was better than that of the conventional single-gate ZnO MOSFETs. The higher the drain-source saturation current (12.41 mA/mm), the higher the transconductance (5.35 mS/mm) and the lower the anomalous off-current (5.7 ?A/mm) for the multiple-gate ZnO MOSFETs were obtained.

  15. Performance enhancement of multiple-gate ZnO metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using self-aligned and laser interference photolithography techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The simple self-aligned photolithography technique and laser interference photolithography technique were proposed and utilized to fabricate multiple-gate ZnO metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Since the multiple-gate structure could improve the electrical field distribution along the ZnO channel, the performance of the ZnO MOSFETs could be enhanced. The performance of the multiple-gate ZnO MOSFETs was better than that of the conventional single-gate ZnO MOSFETs. The higher the drain-source saturation current (12.41mA/mm), the higher the transconductance (5.35 mS/mm) and the lower the anomalous off-current (5.7?A/mm) for the multiple-gate ZnO MOSFETs were obtained. PMID:24948884

  16. A technique for detecting and locating polarisation nonuniformities in an anisotropic optical fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Burdin, V V; Konstantinov, Yurii A; Pervadchuk, Vladimir P; Smirnov, A S

    2013-06-30

    One of the most important requirements for optical fibres as waveguiding media is uniformity. Polarisation-maintaining anisotropic fibres contain a special type of nonuniformity, which leads to polarisation cross-talk: optical power is transferred from one polarisation mode to the orthogonal mode. In this paper, we report a technique for detecting and locating such nonuniformities in a PANDA anisotropic single-mode fibre using polarised reflectometry. (fiber optics)

  17. A technique for computation of star magnitudes relative to an optical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The theory and techniques used to compute star magnitudes relative to any optical detector (such as the Mariner Mars 1971 Canopus star tracker) are described. Results are given relative to various star detectors.

  18. Flexible polymeric rib waveguide with self-align couplers system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a polymeric based rib waveguide with U shape self-align fiber couplers system using a simple micromolding process with SU8 as a molding material and polydimethysiloxane as a waveguide material. The material is used for its good optical transparency, low surface tension, biocompatibility, and durability. Furthermore, the material is highly formable. This unique fabrication molding technique provides a means of keeping the material and manufacturing costs to a minimum. The self-align fiber couplers system also proves a fast and simple means of light coupling. The flexible nature of the waveguide material makes this process ideal for a potential wearable optical sensor. PMID:22171151

  19. Flexible polymeric rib waveguide with self-align couplers system

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a polymeric based rib waveguide with U shape self-align fiber couplers system using a simple micromolding process with SU8 as a molding material and polydimethysiloxane as a waveguide material. The material is used for its good optical transparency, low surface tension, biocompatibility, and durability. Furthermore, the material is highly formable. This unique fabrication molding technique provides a means of keeping the material and manufacturing costs to a minimum. The self-align fiber couplers system also proves a fast and simple means of light coupling. The flexible nature of the waveguide material makes this process ideal for a potential wearable optical sensor. PMID:22171151

  20. ATLAS Muon Endcap Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensinger, James R.

    2006-01-01

    To align the endcap muon chambers of the ATLAS experiment, an optical grid is set up between aluminum "alignment bars" nested in each layer of chambers. Optical lines are made of laser diodes and CCD cameras that form an alignment grid. The alignment bars are self-aligning. They are then carefully measured using a large coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The subsequent shape changes of the bar are determined by calculations that are corrected by the readings of the internal monitors. The relationship between the bars is then established by a network of sensors that measure the bearing angle of light sources on the other parts of the system. The system is over-determined and the location and orientation of each bar is determined using a fitting program. Chambers are then referenced to the alignment grid using proximity sensors. This information is used to provide corrections to the nominal chamber positions before calculating track momentum. The performance of the system has been validated in a test beam at CERN. We have been able to track changes in muon sagitta's to an accuracy of about 15 microns under normal temperature variation and controlled movements. The system is stable over a period of months.

  1. Polarisation control through an optical feedback technique and its application in precise measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenxue; Zhang, Shulian; Long, Xingwu

    2013-01-01

    We present an anisotropic optical feedback technique for controlling light polarisation. The technique is based on the principle that the effective gain of a light mode is modulated by the magnitude of the anisotropic feedback. A new physical model that integrates Lamb's semi-classical theory and a model of the equivalent cavity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is developed to reveal the physical nature of this technique. We use this technique to measure the phase retardation, optical axis, angle, thickness and refractive index with a high precision of ?/1380, 0.01, 0.002, 59?nm and 0.0006, respectively. PMID:23771164

  2. Optical Trapping Techniques Applied to the Study of Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morss, Andrew J.

    Optical tweezers allow for manipulating micron-sized objects using pN level optical forces. In this work, we use an optical trapping setup to aid in three separate experiments, all related to the physics of the cellular membrane. In the first experiment, in conjunction with Brian Henslee, we use optical tweezers to allow for precise positioning and control of cells in suspension to evaluate the cell size dependence of electroporation. Theory predicts that all cells porate at a transmembrane potential VTMof roughly 1 V. The Schwann equation predicts that the transmembrane potential depends linearly on the cell radius r, thus predicting that cells should porate at threshold electric fields that go as 1/r. The threshold field required to induce poration is determined by applying a low voltage pulse to the cell and then applying additional pulses of greater and greater magnitude, checking for poration at each step using propidium iodide dye. We find that, contrary to expectations, cells do not porate at a constant value of the transmembrane potential but at a constant value of the electric field which we find to be 692 V/cm for K562 cells. Delivering precise dosages of nanoparticles into cells is of importance for assessing toxicity of nanoparticles or for genetic research. In the second experiment, we conduct nano-electroporationa novel method of applying precise doses of transfection agents to cellsby using optical tweezers in conjunction with a confocal microscope to manipulate cells into contact with 100 nm wide nanochannels. This work was done in collaboration with Pouyan Boukany of Dr. Lee's group. The small cross sectional area of these nano channels means that the electric field within them is extremely large, 60 MV/m, which allows them to electrophoretically drive transfection agents into the cell. We find that nano electroporation results in excellent dose control (to within 10% in our experiments) compared to bulk electroporation. We also find that, unlike bulk electroporation, nano-electroporation directly injects nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, to the cell interior, bypassing the cell membrane without the need for endocytosis. The aging of RBC's can render them rigid, an issue for the survivability of transfusion patients. This rigidity can be assessed by examining the fluctuations in the cell membrane. In the third experiment, we use back focal plane detectionan interferometric detection scheme using an optical tweezers setupto measure the membrane fluctuations of RBC's and K562 cells. Membrane fluctuations have long been observed in RBC's and a well developed theory exists linking them to the cells internal viscosity ?, the membrane bending modulus k and the surface tension of the membrane ?. We use back focal plane detection to measure the effect of ascorbic acid treatment on RBC aging and find no improvement in cell flexibility. K562 cells differ from RBC's in that they possess an actin cortex which the membrane attaches to. We demonstrate that K562 cells exhibit as much as an order of magnitude more variation in their fluctuations than RBC's do.

  3. Optical coherent reflectometry: a new technique to guide invasive procedures.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Kasaoka, S; Son, R; Gordon, I L; Khan, R; Neet, J; Hedrick, A D; Tobis, J M

    2001-10-01

    The success rate of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for chronic total arterial occlusions is still unsatisfactory. Inability to cross the lesion with a guidewire is a major cause of failure. Optical coherent reflectometry (OCR) is a new method of using laser light to measure the depth of tissue from the end of an optic fiber. This study tests whether an OCR prototype guidewire provides a guidance system that might be useful to assist reopening chronic total arterial occlusions. An OCR fiber optic within a 0.014" hypotube was developed using the interference pattern of two reflected light beams (wave length 1,300 nm). To determine if OCR can distinguish different tissue types, plaques of human lower extremity arterial segments were visually divided into three types (calcified, white, or yellow). The slope of the initial reflectance of the OCR curve was calculated and compared between the three groups. In six other arteries, the OCR wire was advanced longitudinally through occluded human artery segments in vitro. Guidewire position was determined by OCR and compared to the position of the guidewire tip observed simultaneously by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. In 16 arterial surface segments, calcified plaques had a significantly steeper slope than white or yellow plaques (-227.2 +/- 82.2; -81.5 +/- 12.9; -103.6 +/- 19.6 dB/mm; P < 0.01). For the determination of the guidewire position, IVUS and OCR corresponded correctly in 82% of 28 measurements. Sensitivity and specificity of OCR for detection of plaque versus the media/adventitia boundary were 79% and 89%, respectively (P < 0.001). OCR can distinguish calcified from noncalcified plaque and may distinguish plaque from the media/adventitia boundary. This technology may be useful as a means to help navigate a guidewire safely through an occluded artery. PMID:11590695

  4. PAPR reduction techniques for asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhaojun; Sun, Lu

    2014-07-01

    In the ultraviolet communication system, ACO-OFDM technology can effectively suppress inter-symbol interference on the system performance, and further improve the transmission rate of the system. However, ACO-OFDM has a high peak to average power ratio (PAPR), and high PAPR not only reduces the power efficiency of the optical modulator, but also bring damage to the human eye or skin. In order to solve the above problem, according to ACO-OFDM signal characteristics, two clipping and filtering algorithms are used, and its performance is simulated, the simulations show that the two algorithms are able to inhibit well the PAPR of ACO-OFDM system.

  5. Multiple Fan-Beam Optical Tomography: Modelling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Chen, Leong Lai; San, Chan Kok; Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul; Fea, Pang Jon

    2009-01-01

    This paper explains in detail the solution to the forward and inverse problem faced in this research. In the forward problem section, the projection geometry and the sensor modelling are discussed. The dimensions, distributions and arrangements of the optical fibre sensors are determined based on the real hardware constructed and these are explained in the projection geometry section. The general idea in sensor modelling is to simulate an artificial environment, but with similar system properties, to predict the actual sensor values for various flow models in the hardware system. The sensitivity maps produced from the solution of the forward problems are important in reconstructing the tomographic image. PMID:22291523

  6. Search for nearly massless, weakly coupled particles by optical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Cantatore, G.; Melissinos, A.C.; Ruoso, G.; Semertzidis, Y. ); Halama, H.J.; Lazarus, D.M.; Prodell, A.G. ); Nezrick, F. ); Rizzo, C.; Zavattini, E. )

    1993-05-01

    We have searched for light scalar and/or pseudoscalar particles that couple to two photons by studying the propagation of a laser beam ([lambda]=514 nm) through a transverse magnetic field. A limit of 3.5[times]10[sup [minus]10] rad was set on a possible optical rotation of the beam polarization for an effective path length of 2.2 km in a 3.25 T magnetic field. We find that the coupling [ital g][sub [alpha][gamma][gamma

  7. Rerouting technique with dynamic traffic in WDM optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wason, Amit; Kaler, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed an efficient wavelength rerouting algorithm for dynamic provisioning of lightpath. In wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks rerouting of lightpath can be used to improve throughput and to reduce blocking probability. We have proposed a shortest path wavelength rerouting (SPWRR) algorithm for dynamic traffic in WDM optical networks. The results have shown that SPWRR algorithm can improve blocking performance of the network. In this paper, low complexity algorithm has been developed which is used for the calculation of blocking probability of network. The proposed algorithm has also been applied on the realistic network such as NSFnet for calculation and optimization of blocking probability of the network.

  8. A technique for multiplexing 3x3-coupler terminated interferometric fiber-optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Gregory J.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis investigates the multiplexing of Mach-Zehnder type 3x3 terminated fiber-optic sensors demodulated by either 'quadrature' or 'symmetric' methods using intensity modulation of the source. 3x3-couplers produce signals that permit unmodulated passive demodulation of interferometric signals. The theory is described and the results of a 2x1 element array optical demonstration are presented. Possible architectures using this demultiplexing technique are presented for several applications with different return line requirements. The technique was successfully demonstrated and warrants further investigation to increase the number of sensors and reduce the number of return lines for specific applications. The multiplexing technique presents the opportunity for possible cost savings over other phase generated carrier techniques, which require wavelength modulation of the source and significant optical path differences in the interferometers, and are therefore constrained to presently very expensive sources. The technique presented uses compatible low coherent laser sources such as Compact Disc quality (830 nm) devices.

  9. MOLECULAR OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is interested in field screening hazardous waste sites for contaminants in the soil and surface and ground water. his study is an initial technical overview of the principal molecular spectroscopic techniques and instrumentation currently ...

  10. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y. (Sunnyvale, CA); Torgerson, Darrel D. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  11. A micro-optical modulation spectroscopy technique for local strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouaib, H.; Murtagh, M. E.; Kelly, P. V.

    2011-04-01

    We provide a high throughput method of performing optical modulation spectroscopy, such as photoreflectance or other spectroscopy techniques which include photoluminescence on a micrometric resolution scale of the order of 10 ?m. The spectroscopic technique is designed for strain induced by process in silicon wafers. The optical system is optimized using a polarizing beamsplitter in conjunction with a single Fresnel rhomb for the provision of an optimum separation of the reflected probe beam with minimal optical losses. In addition, a rapid detection system is used that allows the spectrum to be acquired within few seconds.

  12. Flipped-exponential Nyquist pulse technique to optimize the PAPR in optical direct detection OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun; Cao, Zizheng; Li, Fan; Chen, Lin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel technique based on flipped-exponential (FE) Nyquist pulse method is proposed for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in optical direct detection orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (DD-OFDM) system. The method is based on a proper selection of the FE Nyquist pulses for shaping the different subcarriers of the OFDM. We experimentally demonstrated an optical DD-OFDM transmission system with this novel technique to achieve significant improvement in PAPR reduction in the optical OFDM system. The received sensitivity of the OFDM signal after suffered from strong nonlinear effects in standard single-mode fiber (SMF) has been experimentally investigated.

  13. Integration of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the nondestructive inspection of aeronautic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, F.; Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Paoletti, D.; Maldague, X.

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses in the implementation of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the inspection of aeronautics parts. To this aim, a helicopter blade with known defects is inspected with four different techniques: long pulse thermography, pulsed thermography, digital speckle photography (DSP) and holographic interferometry (HI). The first two techniques belongs to the group of infrared imaging techniques, which are based on the analysis of the infrared thermal patterns in order to detect internal anomalies in the material; whilst the last two (DSP and HI) corresponds to the optical imaging techniques which make use of visible light to measure the material response to an applied stress. Both techniques were applied using the active approach, i.e. an external stimulation is applied in order to produce a gradient in either, the thermal and/or displacement field of the material. The results are then compared in order to evaluate the advantages and limitations of each technique.

  14. Study on metal nanoparticles induced third-order optical nonlinearity in phenylhydrazone derivatives with DFWM technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sudheesh, P.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Rao, D. Mallikharjuna

    2014-01-28

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of newly synthesized phenylhydrazone derivatives and the influence of noble metal nanoparticles (Ag and Au) on their nonlinear optical responses were investigated by employing Degenerate Four wave Mixing (DFWM) technique with a 7 nanosecond, 10Hz Nd: YAG laser pulses at 532nm. Metal nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation and the particle formation was confirmed using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The nonlinear optical susceptibility were measured and found to be of the order 10{sup ?13}esu. The results are encouraging and conclude that the materials are promising candidate for future optical device applications.

  15. Electro-optic techniques for very large scale integrated interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Jam Y.; Kwong, Sze-Keung; Ury, Israel

    1988-04-01

    Superluminescent diodes with broad emission spectrum, which makes them insensitive to optical feedback and hence most suitable for massively interconnected systems, were fabricated with an integrated modulator. The superluminescent diode has high emission power (up to 30mW) which makes possible systems with many levels of branchings. The modulator is based on carrier induced absorption and shows a very high modulation efficiency. In addition to device fabrication and experimental measurements which shows a direct modulation bandwidth beyond 1GHz, the static and dynamics of the superluminescent diode, with and without the integrated modulator, were analyzed. It is shown that by using quantum well materials much improvement in modulation efficiency as well as bandwidths in the multigigahertz range can be accomplished.

  16. Design, alignment, and deployment of the Hobby Eberly Telescope prime focus instrument package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattiat, Brian; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Moreira, Walter; Drory, Niv; Ramsey, Jason; Elliot, Linda; Landriau, Martin; Perry, Dave M.; Savage, Richard; Kriel, Herman; Huser, Marco; Mangold, Florian

    2014-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is undergoing an upgrade to increase the field of view to 22 arc-minutes with the dark energy survey HETDEX the initial science goal [1]. Here we report on the design, alignment, and deployment of a suite of instruments located at prime focus of the upgraded HET. This paper reviews the integration of motion control electronics and software and alignment of those electromechanical systems. Use of laser trackers, alignment telescopes, and other optical alignment techniques are covered. Deployment onto the upgraded telescope is discussed.

  17. [Optical colonoscopy and virtual colonoscopy: the current role of each technique].

    PubMed

    Bouzas Sierra, R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of optical or conventional colonoscopy in diagnosing colon disease is undisputed. In this context, optical colonoscopy is the gold standard against which other techniques must be validated. Apart from enabling direct inspection of the colonic mucosa, optical colonoscopy enables biopsies and techniques to treat and prevent colorectal cancer. Virtual colonoscopy or CT colonography has been validated in multicenter studies; virtual colonoscopy is as sensitive as optical colonoscopy for the detection of polyps and colon cancer. It is currently the only valid alternative to optical colonoscopy. Its role in patients with medium or high risk of colon cancer is in the process of being defined as multidisciplinary teams gain experience. This article aims to discuss the usefulness of virtual colonoscopy in different clinical situations, emphasizing the situations in which there is enough scientific evidence, and to discuss the controversies surrounding its possible use for population-based screening. PMID:25066725

  18. Frequency-Shifted Interferometry — A Versatile Fiber-Optic Sensing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fei; Zhang, Yiwei; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI). This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applications in fiber length and dispersion measurement, locating weak reflections along a fiber link, fiber-optic sensor multiplexing, and high-sensitivity cavity ring-down measurement. Detailed analysis of FSI system parameters is also presented. PMID:24955943

  19. Concepts and techniques for real-time optical synthetic aperture radar data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, C. D.

    1986-02-01

    Standard and newly-arrived concepts and techniques for optical SAR data processing are discussed and compared with comparable digital processing technologies. A generic real-time SAR optical data processing system is described, along with several acoustooptic architectures which could be incorporated into the system. A configuration of a compact optical signal processing system is described that could fly on a satellite equipped with an SAR system and offer the processing capabilities of a supercomputer. Data could be stored on photographic film media using holographic recording techniques to obtain high data densities and low error rates. The need for such a system, as well as the existence of a sufficent knowledge base to proceed, was demonstrated with the Shuttle IR camera, which has had both optical and digital signal processing systems. Also, the implementation of optical signal processing would permit higher visual resolution for either airborne or satellite-borne SAR systems.

  20. Orientation and alignment effects for one-electron transfer processes in ion-atom collisions involving an optically prepared target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowek, D.; Houver, J. C.

    1997-04-01

    Recent aspects in the study of the role of electronic orbital alignment and orientation in one-electron transfer processes induced in atomic collisions are reviewed. We focus on the study of collisions involving a laser prepared target, in the range where the collision velocity ?c and the velocity of the active electron ?e are of comparable magnitude. Results obtained in the recent years, both for total electron capture cross sections and for angular scattering analysis, are presented and discussed in terms of simple models.

  1. Spatial resolution of confocal XRF technique using capillary optics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a powerful technique for elemental analysis with a high sensitivity. The resolution is presently limited by the size of the primary excitation X-ray beam. A test-bed for confocal-type XRF has been developed to estimate the ultimate lateral resolution which could be reached in chemical mapping using this technique. A polycapillary lens is used to tightly focus the primary X-ray beam of a low power rhodium X-ray source, while the fluorescence signal is collected by a SDD detector through a cylindrical monocapillary. This system was used to characterize the geometry of the fluorescent zone. Capillary radii ranging from 50 ?m down to 5 ?m were used to investigate the fluorescence signal maximum level This study allows to estimate the ultimate resolution which could be reached in-lab or on a synchrotron beamline. A new tool combining local XRF and scanning probe microscopy is finally proposed. PMID:23758858

  2. Analysis of nonlinear optical materials properties by simple powder technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, O. A.; Naumov, A. K.; Lovchev, A. V.; Garipov, M. R.

    2015-03-01

    The article describes a simple technique for comparative analysis of the second harmonic generation properties of new samples and etalon materials by their powders. The effectiveness of the method was tested and and measuring of nonlinear coefficient and damage threshold of the well known materials: KDP, LiIO3, m-nitroaniline was demonstrated. The parameters of the new promising nonlinear material DNPAP were measured.

  3. Z-scan: A simple technique for determination of third-order optical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijender; Aghamkar, Praveen

    2015-08-01

    Z-scan is a simple experimental technique to measure intensity dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of third-order nonlinear optical materials. This technique is used to measure the sign and magnitude of both real and imaginary part of the third order nonlinear susceptibility (?(3)) of nonlinear optical materials. In this paper, we investigate third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ag-polymer composite film by using single beam z-scan technique with Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser (?=532 nm) at 5 ns pulse. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficient (?), nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (?(3)) of permethylazine were found to be 9.64 10-7 cm/W, 8.55 10-12 cm2/W and 5.48 10-10 esu, respectively.

  4. Synthesis, transfer printing, electrical and optical properties, and applications of materials composed of self-assembled, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, Cary L.

    Super growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has emerged as a unique method for synthesizing self-assembled, pristine, aligned SWNT materials composed of ultra-long (millimeter-long) nanotubes. This thesis focuses on novel routes of synthesizing such self-assembled SWNTs and the challenges that arise in integrating this material into next-generation applications. First of all, this work provides unique insight into growth termination of aligned SWNTs, emphasizing the mechanism that inhibits the growth of infinitely long nanotubes. Exhaustive real-time growth studies, combined with ex-situ and in-situ TEM characterization emphasizes that Ostwald ripening and subsurface diffusion of catalyst particles play a key role in growth termination. As a result, rational steps to solving this problem can enhance growth, and may ultimately lead to the meter or kilometer-long SWNTs that are necessary for a number of applications. In addition, other novel synthesis routes are discussed, such as the ability to form macroscopic fibrils of SWNTs, called "flying carpets" from 40 nm thick substrates, and the ability to achieve supergrowth of SWNTs that are controllably doped with nitrogen. In the latter case, molecular heterojunctions of doped and undoped sections in a single strand of ultralong SWNTs are demonstrated Secondly, as supergrowth is conducted on alumina coated SiO2 substrates, any applications will require that one can transfer the SWNTs to host surfaces with minimal processing. This work demonstrates a unique contact transfer route by which both patterned arrays of SWNTs, or homogenous SWNT carpets, can be transferred to any host surface. In the first case, the SWNTs are grown vertically aligned, and transferred in patterns of horizontally aligned SWNT. This transfer process relies on simple water-vapor etching of amorphous carbons at the catalyst following growth, and strong van der Waals adhesion of the high surface-area SWNT to host surfaces (gecko effect). Next, as the SWNTs produced in supergrowth are notably large in diameter (2-5 nm), this work provides the first characterization of these SWNTs using combined microscopy and infrared polarized absorption studies. Perfectly aligned SWNTs are transferred to infrared optical windows and mounted in a rotatable vacuum cell in which polarization dependent characterization is carried out. By modeling features observed in absorption to expected optical excitonic transition energies, diameter distributions are rapidly extracted. In addition, other concepts of optical characterization in ultra-long aligned SWNTs are explored. For example, the concept of using polarized near-IR characterization for such SWNT samples is inadequate to characterize the bulk alignment due to the mismatch of the excitation wavelength and the SWNT length. Therefore, comparing anisotropy in polarized near-IR Raman or absorption gives substantially different results than anisotropic electrical transport measurements. In addition to optical characterization, this work uniquely finds that the electrical transport properties of SWNTs is ultimately limited by SWNT-SWNT junctions. This is evident in temperature-dependent DC and AC conductivity measurements that emphasize localization-induced transport characteristics. A number of non-classical electrical transport features are observed that can simply be related to the sensitivity of electrical transport to SWNT-SWNT junctions. This means that despite the incredible electrical properties of individual SWNTs, it is necessary to focus on the growth and processing of ultra-long SWNTs in order to realistically make nanotube-based materials comparable in transport characteristics to conventional materials. Finally, this work concludes by demonstrating progress on the fabrication of new SWNT-based applications. First of all, a new type of solid-state supercapacitor material is fabricated where vertically aligned SWNT are coated with metal-oxide dielectric and counterelectrode layers to form efficient supercapacitors. This design benefits from the ultra-high surface area available in SWNT arrays, the intrinsic ultra-high current carrying capacity of ultra-long SWNT (1000 times copper), the high breakdown voltages one can achieve using solid dielectric layers, and the lightweight and temperature insensitive design of this capacitor. As a result, performance comparable to current electric-double layer capacitor devices is reported, and energy densities significant larger are predicted by material optimization. In addition, progress on other applications are discussed, including devices utilizing self-assembled molecular heterojunction arrays, and terahertz polarizers made from perfectly aligned transferred SWNT films. This work demonstrates a bottom-up route toward the synthesis of new materials for novel characterization and applications.

  5. Low voltage integrated optics electro-optical modulator applied to optical voltage transformer based on WLI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. C.; Rubini, J.; Silva, L. P. C.; Caetano, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of two electro-optical modulators linked in series, one for sensing and one for recovering signals, was formerly presented by some of the authors as a solution for interrogation of optical fiber sensor systems based on WLI method. A key feature required from such systems is that half-wave voltage (V?) of recovering modulator must be as small as possible. Aiming at meeting this requirement, in this paper it is presented the use of an unbalanced Michelson Interferometer implemented using an integrated optics component as recover interferometer in an optical voltage transformer intended for high voltage measurements.

  6. On the alignment of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing-fen

    1986-06-01

    Taking the two Savage-Bolton 5 5 regions of optical quasar patrol as samples, I made a systematic analysis of the number of aligned quasars and compared with the random data generated by Monte Carlo method. The statistical result is that, at least for these two samples, there is no clear evidence for alignment.

  7. On the alignment of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-F.

    1986-06-01

    Taking the two Savage-Bolton 5 deg x 5 deg regions of optical quasar patrol as samples, a systematic analysis of the number of aligned quasars was made and compared with the random data generated by Monte Carlo method. The statistical result is that, at least for these two samples, there is no clear evidence for alignment.

  8. A regression technique to analyze the second-order nonlinear optical response of thin films.

    PubMed

    Siltanen, Mikael; Cattaneo, Stefano; Vuorimaa, Elina; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Katz, Thomas J; Phillips, Karen E S; Kauranen, Martti

    2004-07-01

    We present a new technique, based on regression analysis, to determine the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor of thin films. The technique does not require the absolute levels or phases of measured signals to be mutually calibrated. In addition it yields indicators that address the quality of theoretical models describing the sample. We use the technique to determine the susceptibility tensor of samples of a nonracemic chiral material which have very low symmetry (both chiral and anisotropic) and have many independent tensor components. The results show the importance of using detailed theoretical models that account for the linear optical properties of the sample. PMID:15260516

  9. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.

  10. Processing speech for analysis using optical Fourier techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. L.

    1984-12-01

    In this thesis a system for displaying speech as a two dimensional video image is presented. The speech is pre-processed by compressing its dynamic range and filtering to emphasize frequencies above 500 Hz. Blanking and sync pulses are inserted to put the signal in standard video format, and every other field is blanked to prevent interference between fields in the interlaced display. Two dimensional variation is achieved by modulating the baseband audio signal up in the spectrum near a multiple of the video scan rate. The relationship between input frequency and pattern angle of the display is derived, and it is shown that the set of frequencies near a multiple of the video scan rate have points in the spatial frequency domain which lie in a straight line at a distance from the origin proportional to the scan rate multiple. Two modulation frequencies are selected to display in the spatial frequencies domain the location of the first and second formant peaks. The two modulated signals are mixed with the baseband audio and displayed simultaneously in a single image. The images are digitized and an optical Fourier transform is simulated on the computer by creating the image which would appear in the Fourier transform plane. Entire words are processed by assembling individual frames on video tape.

  11. Investigation of in vitro dental erosion by optical techniques.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shiny S; Mallia, Rupananda J; Jose, Mini; Subhash, Narayanan

    2008-07-01

    Nitrogen laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and tungsten halogen lamp excited diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in 350- to 700-nm range on a miniature fiber-optic spectrometer from in vitro premolar tooth during various stages of artificial erosion with 36% phosphoric acid. Both the LIF spectral intensity and the diffuse reflectance intensity gradually increased during tooth erosion. The LIF spectra were analyzed by curve fitting using Gaussian spectral functions to determine the true contribution of different bands in the spectra during erosion. Thus, the broad bands at 440 and 490 nm in the LIF spectra of sound enamel were resolved into four peaks centered at 409.1, 438.1, 492.4 and 523.1 nm and of sound dentin into peaks at 412.0, 440.1, 487.8 and 523.4 nm. The F410/F525 ratios derived from curve-fitted Gaussian peak amplitudes and curve areas were found to be more sensitive to erosion as compared to the diffuse reflectance ratio R500/R700 or the raw LIF spectral ratio F440/F490. PMID:17786500

  12. Optical waveguides in Er:LiNbO3 fabricated by different techniques - A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajzl, Jakub; Nekvindová, Pavla; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Staněk, Stanislav; Vytykáčová, Soňa; Špirková, Jarmila

    2016-03-01

    We report on the comparison of three techniques used for the fabrication of optical waveguides in erbium doped lithium niobate crystal substrates (Er:LiNbO3). The techniques include ion in-diffusion from a titanium metal layer, annealed proton exchange (APE), and He+ ion implantation. The main focus of the work was placed on the investigation of the influence of the used optical waveguides fabrication techniques on the structural and luminescence properties of Er:LiNbO3 substrates. The results have shown that none of the used optical-waveguide-fabrication techniques significantly affect the position of erbium in the host crystal structure. It turned out, however, that the fabrication process affected luminescence intensities of the characteristic luminescence bands of erbium ions - the most significant decrease in the luminescence intensity was observed in the Ti-indiffused waveguides.

  13. Novel x-ray optics for medical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyumchyan, A.; Arvanian, V.; Kuyumchyan, D.; Aristov, V.; Shulakov, E.

    2009-08-01

    A new hard X - ray hologram with using crystal Fresnel zone plates (ZP) has been described. An image of Fourier hologram for hard X- ray is presented. X-ray phase contrast methods for medical diagnostics techniques are presented. We have developed an X-ray microscope, based on micro focus source which is capable of high resolution phasecontrast imaging and holograms. We propose a new imaging technique with the x-ray energy 8 keV. The method is expected to have wide applications in imaging of low absorbing samples such as biological and medical tissue. We used FIB to reproduction three dimension structures of damaged spinal cord of rat before and after combined treatment with NT3 and NR2D. PUBLISHER'S NOTE 12/16/09: This SPIE Proceedings paper has been updated with an erratum correcting several issues throughout the paper. The corrected paper was published in place of the earlier version on 9/1/2009. If you purchased the original version of the paper and no longer have access, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service at CustomerService@SPIEDigitalLibrary.org for assistance.

  14. Using the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum for alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.B.

    1990-05-30

    Traditional alignment systems based on the use of visible light are not practical when opaque materials obstruct the alignment axis. X-ray Alignment Systems (XRA) have been designed specifically to overcome this limitation. XRA systems are analogous to visible light alignment methods, in that they both consist of placing an object to be aligned between a source of radiation and a detector. This report summarizes the interaction of the components which comprise an XRA System. Using physical principles and the knowledge developed by the traditional x-ray fields, general design guidelines are established. The specialized requirements for these systems are also provided, with analytical relationships for the basic alignment configurations being derived. These equations are used to predict the alignment error of a proposed system, in addition to interpreting the resulting alignment images. While this report establishes the limitations of this technique, it also reveals that XRA has some substantial advantages over optical methods. Besides the ability to penetrate materials opaque to visible light, it is possible to eliminate all optical aberrations when using a polychromatic x-ray source. This results in true geometric optics, making the measurements highly repeatable and accurate. This technique can readily position a fiducial within 0.001 in. of the alignment axis using off-the-shelf components. Typical alignment geometries are defined with an accuracy of one microradian through a distance of 100 feet. The ability of these systems to monitor the alignment in near real-time when using an x-ray camera is another advantage. This allows active alignment to be performed from a remote location prior to an experiment or through its duration. 19 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Structural and optical characteristics of graphene quantum dots size-controlled and well-aligned on a large scale by polystyrene-nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duck Oh, Si; Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Jang, Chan Wook; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are one of the most attractive graphene nanostructures due to their potential optoelectronic device applications, but it is a challenge to accurately control the size and arrangement of GQDs. In this report, we fabricate well-aligned GQDs on a large area by polystyrene (PS)-nanosphere (NS) lithography and study their structural and optical properties. Single-layer graphene grown on a Cu foil by chemical vapour deposition is patterned by reactive ion etching employing aligned PS-NS arrays as an etching mask. The size (d) of the GQDs is controlled from 75 to 23 nm by varying the etching time, as proved by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. This method is well valid for both rigid/flexible target substrates and even for multilayer graphene formed by piling up single layers. The absorption peak of the GQDs is blue-shifted with respect to that of a graphene sheet, and is sequentially shifted to higher energies by reducing d, consistent with the quantum confinement effect (QCE). The Raman D-to-G band intensity ratio shows an almost monotonic increase with decreasing d, resulting from the dominant contribution of the edge states at the periphery of smaller GQDs. The G-band frequency shows a three-step size-dependence: initial increase, interim saturation, and final decrease with decreasing d, thought to be caused by the competition between the QCE and edge-induced strain effect.

  16. Pupil Alignment Considerations for Large, Deployable Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kubalak, Daivd A.

    2011-01-01

    For many optical systems the properties and alignment of the internal apertures and pupils are not critical or controlled with high precision during optical system design, fabrication or assembly. In wide angle imaging systems, for instance, the entrance pupil position and orientation is typically unconstrained and varies over the system s field of view in order to optimize image quality. Aperture tolerances usually do not receive the same amount of scrutiny as optical surface aberrations or throughput characteristics because performance degradation is typically graceful with misalignment, generally only causing a slight reduction in system sensitivity due to vignetting. But for a large deployable space-based observatory like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have found that pupil alignment is a key parameter. For in addition to vignetting, JWST pupil errors cause uncertainty in the wavefront sensing process that is used to construct the observatory on-orbit. Furthermore they also open stray light paths that degrade the science return from some of the telescope s instrument channels. In response to these consequences, we have developed several pupil measurement techniques for the cryogenic vacuum test where JWST science instrument pupil alignment is verified. These approaches use pupil alignment references within the JWST science instruments; pupil imaging lenses in three science instrument channels; and unique pupil characterization features in the optical test equipment. This will allow us to verify and crosscheck the lateral pupil alignment of the JWST science instruments to approximately 1-2% of their pupil diameters.

  17. FIRAS optical alignment and performance during vibration qualification and cryogenic cycling. [Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is designed to investigate the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR), that permeates the universe as a consequence of the Big Bang. This 3 degree Kelvin radiation is a fossil that contains much information about the early universe. The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), will investigate the spectral isotropy of this ancient remnant and look for clues as to the subsequent evolution of the universe. The instrument is a cryogenically cooled, modified Michelson interferometer which operates in the 1 cm to 100 micron wavelength range. FIRAS is designed to provide absolute spectral information, therefore, all possible perturbations to the instrument response must be investigated to minimize distortions of the data. This paper discusses the methodology and resultant variations in the instrument performance noted during room temperature, and liquid nitrogen, (LN2) temperature vibration qualification. Reference alignment shifts in critical components such as the instrument wire-grid beamsplitter are correlated to changes in the instrument spectral response.

  18. Differential deposition technique for figure corrections in grazing-incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Gregory, Don A.

    2011-10-01

    A differential deposition technique was investigated as a way to minimize axial figure errors in full-shell, grazing-incidence, reflective x-ray optics. These types of optics use a combination of off-axis conic segments--hyperbolic, parabolic, and/or elliptical, to reflect and image x-rays. Several such mirrors or ``shells'' of decreasing diameter are typically concentrically nested to form a single focusing unit. Individual mirrors are currently produced at Marshall Space Flight Center using an electroforming technique, in which the shells are replicated off figured and superpolished mandrels. Several factors in this fabrication process lead to low- and mid-spatial frequency deviations in the surface profile of the shell that degrade the imaging quality of the optics. A differential deposition technique, discussed in this paper, seeks to improve the achievable resolution of the optics by correcting the surface profile deviations of the shells after fabrication. As a proof of concept, the technique was implemented on small-animal radionuclide-imaging x-ray optics being considered for medical applications. This paper discusses the deposition technique, its implementation, and the experimental results obtained to date.

  19. Optical and imaging techniques for in-vivo sunscreens investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, Sergei R.; Knuschke, Peter; Sinichkin, Yurii P.

    1996-01-01

    The methods available for testing the efficacy of topical sunscreens have improved considerably in recent years. Nevertheless, so far no simple and rapid test has been proposed to measure in vivo transmission spectra of sunscreens in the UVA region. Spectral changes that occur after sunscreen application were measured with a fluorescence spectrometer (LS 50B, Perkin Elmer, UK) equipped with a Y-shape quartz guide for in vivo measurements. Three sunscreens with different protection factors in the UVA range were tested. The excitation-emission maps of human collagen, skin, and sunscreens were analyzed. Visual demonstrations of the protective effects of sunscreens were also performed with photo- and video imaging techniques. As a consequence of the human skin and sunscreen's fluorescence map analysis, the optimal spectral regions (both for direct and indirect fluorescence measurements) were detected. In vivo fluorescence and remittance spectroscopy were used to investigate the time dependence in transmission spectra of epidermis with applied sunscreens. We also evaluate the feasibility of in vivo fluorescence measurements for the investigation of the sunscreen's water-resistance. The procedure is simple, and values obtained can be used to predict UVA protection on the basis of the mathematical algorithms.

  20. Optical techniques for industrial inspection; Proceedings of the Meeting, Quebec, Canada, June 4-6, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cielo, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Papers on optical inspection in industry; hot-slab surface inspection by the laser scanning method; surface inspection based on stochastic modeling; a semiconductor processing technique based on Faraday rotation measurements using a CO/sub 2/ laser; an intelligent vision controller for circuits card lead inspection; and noncontacting optical measurement and inspection systems are presented. Topics discussed include optical sensing techniques for three-dimensional machine vision; the performance analysis of a three-dimensional sensor based on time-of-flight measurements; triangulation with large dynamical range; and recognition for three-dimensional surface shape using multiple distance features. Consideration is given to Raman spectroscopy applied to polymer analysis; an optical approach to the measurement of the lignin content of kraft pulps and of delignification in kraft pulping; diagnostics from imaging inside gas turbine combustors; and environmental-noise analysis in active-vision systems for adaptive welding.

  1. MOSAIC - A space-multiplexing technique for optical processing of large images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athale, Ravindra A.; Astor, Michael E.; Yu, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    A technique for Fourier processing of images larger than the space-bandwidth products of conventional or smart spatial light modulators and two-dimensional detector arrays is described. The technique involves a spatial combination of subimages displayed on individual spatial light modulators to form a phase-coherent image, which is subsequently processed with Fourier optical techniques. Because of the technique's similarity with the mosaic technique used in art, the processor used is termed an optical MOSAIC processor. The phase accuracy requirements of this system were studied by computer simulation. It was found that phase errors of less than lambda/8 did not degrade the performance of the system and that the system was relatively insensitive to amplitude nonuniformities. Several schemes for implementing the subimage combination are described. Initial experimental results demonstrating the validity of the mosaic concept are also presented.

  2. Burst-mode gain switched technique for high peak and average optical energy extraction.

    PubMed

    Nikumb, S K; Seguin, H J; Seguin, V A; Willis, R J; Cheng, Z; Reshef, H

    1989-05-01

    The optical performance of a cw PIE CO(2) laser has been substantially improved through the adoption of a burst-mode gain switching technique. The approach has provided a doubling of the average beam power extractable from the device. With appropriate optimization, the process could possibly permit the attainment of pulsed energy extraction in the kilohertz range, and with average optical powers within the several tens of kilowatt category. PMID:20548716

  3. Interaction mechanics of embedded single-ended optical fibre sensors using novel in situ measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Michel Joseph

    This thesis presents an investigation of the mechanics of axial strain transfer and interfacial failure for optical fibre strain sensors embedded within a host material. This study focuses on single-ended embedded optical fibre sensors: In this configuration, the optical fibre is terminated within the host material and the region near the embedded end is an area where large interfacial radial and shear stresses are present. Our investigation is both theoretical and experimental. For the theory, finite element as well as analytical models are used. In particular, a fracture-mechanics-based model of the debonding of the embedded optical fibre is proposed. Experimentally, two new techniques are developed to study the sensor/host interaction. Both involve using an optical fibre to make measurements of its own interaction with the host material in which it is embedded. In the first approach, the Fabry-Prot gap measurement technique, the displacement of the embedded optical fibre end is measured as a function of applied load. Information concerning the sensor/host interaction is gained from its analysis. In the second approach, the Bragg distributed strain sensing technique, the strain profile along the optical fibre from its tip to a distance 2 to 6 mm further along the optical fibre is obtained by the analysis of the full reflection spectrum of the grating. Several types of samples are tested. The results obtained show that the silica/epoxy and polyimide/epoxy interfaces are stronger than the silica/polyimide interface. Yielding of materials (plastic failure) is observed as an important failure mode and it is also observed that debonding of the silica/polyimide interface strongly depends on the state of residual radial stress in the optical fibre. This crucial effect of radial stress on the failure mechanism is also a key result of the theoretical modeling.

  4. Strategies for active alignment of lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Wilde, Chrisitan; Hahne, Felix; Ler, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Today's optical systems require up-to-date assembly and joining technology. The trend of keeping dimensions as small as possible while maintaining or increasing optical imaging performance leaves little to no room for mechanical lens adjustment equipment that may remain in the final product. In this context active alignment of optical elements opens up possibilities for the fast and cost-economic manufacturing of lenses and lens assemblies with highest optical performance. Active alignment for lens manufacturing is the precise alignment of the optical axis of a lens with respect to an optical or mechanical reference axis (e.g. housing) including subsequent fixation by glue. In this contribution we will describe different approaches for active alignment and outline strengths and limitations of the different methods. Using the SmartAlign principle, highest quality cemented lenses can be manufactured without the need for high precision prealignment, while the reduction to a single alignment step greatly reduces the cycle time. The same strategies can also be applied to bonding processes. Lenses and lens groups can be aligned to both mechanical and optical axes to maximize the optical performance of a given assembly. In hybrid assemblies using both mechanical tolerances and active alignment, SmartAlign can be used to align critical lens elements anywhere inside the system for optimized total performance. Since all geometrical parameters are re-measured before each alignment, this process is especially suited for complex and time-consuming production processes where the stability of the reference axis would otherwise be critical. For highest performance, lenses can be actively aligned using up to five degrees of freedom. In this way, SmartAlign enables the production of ultra-precise mounted lenses with an alignment precision below 1 ?m.

  5. Optical properties of surface modified polypropylene by plasma immersion ion implantation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Sk. Faruque; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Kim, Chansoo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Jang, Yong-Jun; Han, Seonghee; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Won-Woong

    2010-08-23

    The optical band gap and activation energy of polypropylene (PP) induced by an Ar plasma immersion ion implantation technique were studied in detail. It was revealed that the structural alternation with an increase in polymer chain cross-linking in the ion beam affected layer enhanced the optical properties of PP. The optical band gap, calculated from the transmittance spectra, decreased from 3.44 to 2.85 eV with the Ar plasma ion energy from 10 to 50 keV. The activation energy, determined from the band tail of the transmittance spectra, decreased while the electrical conductivity increased with the Ar plasma ion energy.

  6. Diode pumping of a solid state laser using evanescent field fiber optic coupling - A proposed technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howerton, Phillip H.; Cordray, D. M.

    1991-05-01

    The use of optical fibers to evanescently couple pump energy from laser diodes to a solid state laser rod is proposed. This technique involves placing a series of optical fibers side-by-side around the barrel portion of a laser rod, parallel to the laser resonator mode. A large index difference between the core region of the optical fibers and the solid state material facilitates evanescent coupling of pump light into the laser rod. Efficient operation will be possible due to a high overlap between the laser resonating mode and the pumped volume.

  7. PAPR reduction in optical OFDM systems using asymmetrically clipping and signal scrambling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Fang, Yong; Huang, Qinghua; Sun, Yanzan

    2015-08-01

    Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) is a promising technology in the next generation of high-speed and long-haul optical transmission, due to its high spectral efficiency, high speed of data transmission and strong ability of anti-dispersion. But optical OFDM system has a very high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). High PAPR will bring instantaneous high optical power to the optical OFDM system. Asymmetrically clipping and signal scrambling based on fast Hartley transform for PAPR reduction is proposed in optical OFDM system. Firstly, IFFT/FFT module in each sub-block of traditional signal scrambling technique is replaced with inverse fast Hartley transform (IFHT) and fast Hartley transform (FHT) module, which yield to the real signal in OOFDM system. Then, asymmetrically clipping technique is applied to turn it into a positive and real signal. Finally, the signal with the minimum PAPR is selected for transmission in the fiber channel. The PAPR of the optical OFDM signal can be reduced effectively. And without the Hermitian symmetry, the space and computational complexity are reduced accordingly.

  8. From superresolution to nanodetection: overview of far field optical nanoscopy techniques for nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, P. C.; Leong-Hoi, A.; Anstotz, F.; Mitev, D.; Pramatarova, L.; Haeberlé, O.

    2016-02-01

    Far field optical nanoscopy has been brought to the forefront with the 2014 Nobel Prize for chemistry in fluorescent nanoscopy for revealing intra-cellular details of tens of nm. In this review, we present an improved classification scheme that summarizes the many optical nanoscopy techniques that exist. We place particular emphasis on unlabelledsuperresolution techniques that provide real improved resolving power and unlabellednanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Superresolution is illustrated with sub-100 nm imaging of diatoms with tomographic diffractive microscopyand adenoviruseswith submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy. Three sub-categories of nanodetectionare then presented. Contrast enhancement is illustrated with surface enhanced ellipsometric contrast microscopy for the study of bacterial motility and strobed phase contrast microscopy for measuring the mechanical properties of vesicle membranes. High sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy demonstrates how nanostructured surfaces and structures can be characterized in biomaterials, laser textured stainless steel and defects within thin polymer films. Finally, deconvolution is illustrated with the use of through-focus scanning optical microscopy in critical dimension measurement and characterization of 40 nm linewidths in microelectronic devices. In this way we show how new far field optical nanoscopy techniques are being developed for unlabelled characterization of nano and biomaterials.

  9. Implementation of pulse interval modulation based on dualmapping technique for optical wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tie-Ying; Wang, Hong-Xing; Hu, Hao; Cong, Pei-Sheng

    2009-11-01

    Aiming at implementing the digital pulse interval modulation (DPIM) for optical wireless communications (OWC), a dualmapping technique is presented. The scheme of DPIM train based upon the dual-mapping technique is given. Its slot error rate is derived for the avalanche photonic diode (APD) receiver model, and is compared with that of classical DPIM. Simulation results show that the dual-mapping DPIM (D-DPIM), which has a fixed slot length, only has marginally inferior error performance, but can solve waiting slots or buffer overflowing in comparison with DPIM. Hence, it is suitable for the optical wireless communication systems.

  10. Film fabrication of Fe or Fe3O4 nanoparticles mixed with palmitic acid for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth using Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kentaro; Kuriyama, Naoki; Takagiwa, Shota; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) were studied as a new catalyst support for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Controlling the number density and the diameter of VA-CNTs may be necessary to optimize PEFC performance. As the catalyst for CNT growth, we fabricated Fe or Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP) films by the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The catalyst Fe or Fe3O4 NPs were widely separated by mixing with filler molecules [palmitic acid (C16)]. The number density of VA-CNTs was controlled by varying the ratio of catalyst NPs to C16 filler molecules. The VA-CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst NP–C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using acetylene gas as the carbon source. The developing solvents used in the LB technique and the hydrogen reduction conditions of CVD were optimized to improve the VA-CNT growth rate. We demonstrate that the proposed method can independently control both the density and the diameter of VA-CNTs.

  11. Alignment maps of tissues: I. Microscopic elliptical polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Tower, T T; Tranquillo, R T

    2001-11-01

    An automated method for generating a fiber alignment map in tissues, tissue-equivalents, and other fibrillar materials exhibiting linear and circular optical properties and scattering is presented. This method consists of interrogating the sample with elliptically polarized light from a rotated quarter-wave plate and an effective circular analyzer, and implementing nonlinear regression techniques to estimate parameters defining the optical properties of the optic train and the sample. Thus, an account is made for imperfect and misaligned optic elements. The optic train was modeled using the Mueller matrix representation and the combined sample properties by an exponential matrix. Because a sample's Mueller matrix does not uniquely determine the linear, circular, or scattering properties, the circular properties and effective scattering are estimated for a matched isotropic sample to determine and correct for the linear birefringence of an aligned sample. The method's utility is demonstrated by generating an alignment map of an arterial media-equivalent, a relevant test case because of its circumferential alignment and thus showing the method's sample orientation independence. PMID:11606305

  12. Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the nematic phase of thermotropic bent-core liquid crystal A131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyuk, B.; Wonderly, H.; Mathews, M.; Li, Q.; Shiyanovskii, S. V.; Lavrentovich, O. D.

    2010-10-01

    We study optical, structural, and surface anchoring properties of thermotropic nematic bent-core material A131. The focus is on the features associated with orientational order as the material has been reported to exhibit not only the usual uniaxial nematic but also the biaxial nematic phase. We demonstrate that A131 experiences a surface anchoring transition from a perpendicular to tilted alignment when the temperature decreases. The features of the tilted state are consistent with surface-induced birefringence associated with smectic layering near the surface and a molecular tilt that changes along the normal to the substrates. The surface-induced birefringence is reduced to zero by a modest electric field that establishes a uniform uniaxial nematic state. Both refractive and absorptive optical properties of A131 are consistent with the uniaxial order. We found no evidence of the polycrystalline biaxial behavior in the cells placed in crossed electric and magnetic fields. We observe stable topological point defects (boojums and hedgehogs) and nonsingular escaped disclinations pertinent only to the uniaxial order. Finally, freely suspended films of A131 show uniaxial nematic and smectic textures; a decrease in the film thickness expands the temperature range of stability of smectic textures, supporting the idea of surface-induced smectic layering. Our conclusion is that A131 features only a uniaxial nematic phase and that the apparent biaxiality is caused by subtle surface effects rather than by the bulk biaxial phase.

  13. Nonlinear error signal extraction technique for real-time digital automatic control of optical interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Fabrizio; Calloni, Enrico; DiFiore, Luciano; Grado, Aniello; Milano, Leopoldo; Russo, G.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper we describe the non linear error signal extraction, which is an efficient and robust technique for the automatic control of optical interferometers. It represents a global solution to the problem of the longitudinal error signal extraction also when the uncontrolled optical system spans hundreds of fringes. This technique basically uses classic modulation techniques (phase modulation, mechanical modulation, etc.), but extends their range of validity using also the information available at the output photodiode. We have digitally implemented such technique following modular hardware and software architectures. In fact, the hardware consists of commercial VME boards for A/D and D/A conversion and processing, housed in standard VME crates, while the software algorithm is written in standard C language for portability and easy integration within digital control architectures.

  14. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprintmore » that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.« less

  15. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  16. A comparison of image processing techniques for optical interference fringe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Aslam, Aasma; Hussain, Babar; Hussain, Ghazanfar; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-12-01

    We present a comparison of different techniques for the analysis of the shift and tilt in optical interference fringes. Fringe center, Radon transform, and Gaussian approximation methods are used for fringe analysis. We have measured the tilt and shift between two relevant fringe patterns. The error in tilt measurement was about 2%, and the displacement of the order of few nanometers was measured by the fringe shift analysis. The comparison between the techniques is analyzed with respect to percentage error.

  17. Ultrabroadband phased-array radio frequency (RF) receivers based on optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overmiller, Brock M.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Schneider, Garrett; Murakowski, Janusz; Prather, Dennis W.

    2014-03-01

    Military operations require the ability to locate and identify electronic emissions in the battlefield environment. However, recent developments in radio detection and ranging (RADAR) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify such emissions. Phased array systems aid in discriminating emitters in the scene by virtue of their relatively high-gain beam steering and nulling capabilities. For the purpose of locating emitters, we present an approach realize a broadband receiver based on optical processing techniques applied to the response of detectors in conformal antenna arrays. This approach utilizes photonic techniques that enable us to capture, route, and process the incoming signals. Optical modulators convert the incoming signals up to and exceeding 110 GHz with appreciable conversion efficiency and route these signals via fiber optics to a central processing location. This central processor consists of a closed loop phase control system which compensates for phase fluctuations induced on the fibers due to thermal or acoustic vibrations as well as an optical heterodyne approach for signal conversion down to baseband. Our optical heterodyne approach uses injection-locked paired optical sources to perform heterodyne downconversion/frequency identification of the detected emission. Preliminary geolocation and frequency identification testing of electronic emissions has been performed demonstrating the capabilities of our RF receiver.

  18. Study on adjustment technique of optical-axis parallelism in multibeam axes optoelectronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Jing; Chen, Wen-jiang; Yu, Xun

    2009-05-01

    A kind of adjustment on the complicated Optoelectronic system with visible, laser, and rotative mechanical axis is discussed in this paper. This is the adjustment of multispectral spatial rotation optical axis, the characteristics is not only the parallelism adjustment of optical axis where relative rotaton movement occurs, but also the danger of invisible highenergy laser, the harmful invisible laser is simulated by the visible light camera aimed at the danger; the principle and method of the optical axis calibration finely with dual-optical wedge for guaranteeing the high parallelism depth between laser and visible optical axis in the discretional azimuth is introduced in this paper: the special rotative adjustment pedestal and the reference light source is designed and processed, the error of the different spatial relative position between camera axis and visual axis is detected by turning the rotative pedestal; In this work, the mathematical model aiming at the dual-optical wedge adjustment technique is constructed ,in which the rationality is confirmed by MATLAB program, and the convenience, the maneuverability and the useful value of the adjustment technique is also illustrated for the parallel precision of 0.1mrad in between laser and visible light axis.

  19. [Optical coherence tomography. Bases and applications of a new intravascular imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Macías, Enrico; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Gonzalo, Nieves; del Angel, Juan; Escaned, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the reference technique for the diagnosis of coronary disease. However, the majority of acute coronary syndromes involve angiographically non-significant lesions. It is also the technique of choice for guiding the implantation of endovascular prostheses and their later monitoring. Optical coherence tomography is an interferometric imaging technique that penetrates tissue approximately 2-3mm and provides axial and lateral resolution. It is able to distinguish different tissue types, such as fibrous, lipid-rich, necrotic, or calcified tissue. Optical coherence tomography is able to recognize a variety of features of atherosclerotic plaques that have been associated with rapid lesion progression and clinical events, such as thin cap fibroatheroma, fibrous cap thickness, dense macrophage infiltration, and thrombus formation. Currently, there is growing interest in the value of optical coherence tomography in the area of coronary intervention, where the technique offers significant advantages over more widespread intravascular diagnostic techniques such as intravascular ultrasound. Its higher resolution permits to recognize periprocedural complications, such as microdissection of the coronary artery, stent malapposition, and neointimal hyperplasia, making this tool one of the most promising techniques in the intravascular diagnosis. PMID:23648202

  20. Characterization and Processing of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials using Ellipsometric, Waveguiding, and Absorption Spectroscopy Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbricht, Benjamin C.

    The first focus of this work is to describe methods for characterizing organic electro-optic materials. Teng-Man Ellipsometry and Attenuated Total Internal Reflection are reviewed. Experimental techniques for these instruments are described and the calculation of an electro-optic activity is derived. The two techniques are compared; it has been found that in Situ Teng-Man ellipsometry is useful to determine poling conditions but not for reliably evaluating electro-optic activity. Attenuated Total Internal Reflection is found to provide very reliable and precise measurements of electro-optic activity and linear optical constants. As a reference, many materials systems have been evaluated and their electro-optic activities are recorded herein. Methods for fabricating devices for test by Teng-Man ellipsometry and Attenuated Total Internal Reflection are presented. A process for inducing Pockel's response via contact-geometry electric field poling is also described, along with modifications to the simple slab dielectric device to enhance the efficacy of poling. An additional method for enhancing the efficiency of poling is presented. This technique relies on the photoisomerization of azobenzene dyes under 532nm radiation to reduce the dimensionality accessible to chromophores doped into the azobenzene matrix. This effect is known as "Laser Assisted Poling" and is shown to increase poling efficiency by more than two fold. The second purpose of this work is to present an experimental technique to measure the order parameter = 3cos 2q -12 . This method is known as Variable-Angle Polarization-Referenced Absorption Spectroscopy (VAPRAS). The experimental apparatus used for VAPRAS introduces small alterations to a UV/Vis Spectrophotometer and an order parameter is derived by exclusively using classical models for transmittance. VAPRAS provides an effective refractive index for the electro-optic material film which is used to calculate the order of absorbers in the film. The results of the VAPRAS method are compared with rigorous (Jones Matrix) simulations of absorbance and Monte Carlo simulations of poling. Both comparisons conclude that the order is low, ? 0.05, and their agreement with theory is within experimental error. Theoretical simulations of poling are employed to relate the results of VAPRAS to a noncentrosymmetric order parameter . Finally, a solid-state first molecular hyperpolarizability is calculated from these values, measurements of electro-optic activity, linear optical constants and other secondary properties of the electro-optic material.

  1. An optical fiber sensing technique for temperature distribution measurements in microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Daichi; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Zushi, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an optical fiber sensing technique that can measure the temperature distributions along a fiber during microwave heating. We used a long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as an electromagnetic-immune sensor and interrogated temperature distributions along the FBG by an optical frequency domain reflectometry. Water in a glass tube with a length of 820 mm was heated in a microwave oven, and its temperature distribution along the glass tube was measured using the sensing system. The temperature distribution was obtained in 5 mm intervals. Infrared radiometry was also used to compare the temperature measurement results. Time and spatial variations of the temperature distribution profiles were monitored for several microwave input powers. The results clearly depict inhomogeneous temperature profiles. The applicability and effectiveness of the optical fiber distributed measurement technique in microwave heating are demonstrated.

  2. Electrical and Optical Properties of Copper Oxide Thin Films by Sol-Gel Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, H.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Saad, P. S. M.; Ridah, H. A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Copper oxide were prepared by sol-gel technique and deposited onto quartz substrates as thin films using spin coating method. The aim of this research was to study the effects of different spin coating speeds of copper oxide thin films on the electrical and optical properties of the thin films. Five samples of copper oxide thin films with different spin coating speeds of 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 rpm were annealed at 600°C for 30 minutes. UV-Vis spectrophotometer and two-point probe technique were used to characterize the optical and electrical properties of the deposited films. Based on the results obtained, it revealed that the electrical conductivity of the copper oxide thin films reduce as the spin coating speeds increase. The calculated optical band gap and the resistivity of the copper oxide thin films also decrease when the spin coating speeds are increased.

  3. Iterative deconvolution technique for measurements of diffraction-limited images on optical microscopes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenlong; Chang, Ming; Chen, Po-Cheng; Luo, Wun-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Diffraction limit is usually a thorny problem in an optical inspection system. In this investigation, a model-based deconvolution technique was developed to recover diffraction-limited images, where images with sizes smaller than the diffraction limit could be recognized. Experiments were carried out with a traditional microscope at 200× magnification coupled with a halogen light source for a series of line width samples. The point spread function of the imaging optics was first obtained from an estimated model and then combined with a nonlinear deconvolution algorithm to calculate the full width at half maximum and reconstruct the line widths. Experimental results indicate that a measurement error below one pixel size of the measurement system is achievable. Accordingly, the target of nanoscale line width inspection based on a low cost and real-time image processing technique can be fulfilled, which greatly increases the ability of nanoscaling on optical microscopes. PMID:25774075

  4. Optical techniques for studying atmospheric properties by means of rocket-borne UV light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, A.; Lundin, A.; Witt, G.

    1983-06-01

    Rocket and balloon-borne techniques for in-situ measurement of the vertical distribution of neutral gas constituents are reviewed. The Selective Optical Atmospheric Probe (SOAP) for middle atmosphere studies is introduced. The first version of SOAP was instrumented for noctilucent cloud studies and carried a pair of polarization photometers. Ionization chambers for observing direct solar UV radiation were used to extend the density measurements upward. The UV experiments failed due to contamination of optical surfaces during countdown. Purging with dry N2 solved this problem for SOAP 2. Optical active techniques prove useful in the measurement of minor constituents with high accuracy and precision. Study of the resonance scattering of air with a Kr line source indicates that with instrumental difficulties overcome, neutral density probes can deliver high resolution density profiles between 50 and 80 km.

  5. Novel failure analysis techniques using photon probing with a scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Rife, J.L.; Barton, D.L.; Henderson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Three new failure analysis techniques for integrated circuits (ICs) have been developed using localized photon probing with a scanning optical microscope (SOM). The first two are light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) imaging techniques that (1) localize open-circuited and damaged junctions and (2) image transistor logic states. The third technique uses the SOM to control logic states optically from the IC backside. LIVA images are produced by monitoring the voltage fluctuations of a constant current power supply as a laser beam is scanned over the IC. High selectivity for localizing defects has been demonstrated using the LIVA approach. Logic state mapping results, similar to previous work using biased optical beam induced current (OBIC) and laser probing approaches have also been produced using LIVA. Application of the two LIVA based techniques to backside failure analysis has been demonstrated using an infrared laser source. Optical logic state control is based upon earlier work examining transistor response to photon injection. The physics of each method and their applications for failure analysis are described.

  6. Optical transduction technique utilizing gratings with a potential application towards biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeley, David G.

    2003-07-01

    There is a need for technology capable of providing unique, sensitive, and rapid detection against threats posed by biological weapons, infectious diseases, and environmental pathogens. A potential solution presented herein is a photonic-based biosensor that utilizes a pair of diffractive phase gratings. This concept is merged with the ability to use surface chemistry techniques to precisely immobilize receptors at specific locations to create optical grating structures out of biological materials. The sensor is configured such that a change in the optical phase of diffracted laser light results when the refractive index profile of the 'bio-grating' is altered upon analyte binding to the molecular receptors within the grating structure. Because of the phase nature of the detection technique and the noise reduction nature of the grating geometry, the method is inherently sensitive with a potential for detecting small amounts of the unlabeled analyte. The optical transduction technique utilizing the gratings is described in detail. Data is presented addressing the analyte detection sensitivity from results generated from ideal optical glass gratings of varying etch depth. The fabrication techniques for creating gratings out of biological materials are discussed.

  7. Simple, generalizable route to highly aligned block copolymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Zhe; Cavicchi, Kevin; Vogt, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    Macroscopic alignment of block copolymer domains in thin films is desired for many applications, such as cell responsive surfaces or optical polarizers. Alignment generally requires specialized tools that apply external fields, shear force gradient, or produce topological patterned substrates. This requirement limits the broad academic application of aligned BCPs. Here, we describe a simple modification of commonly utilized solvent vapor annealing (SVA) process for macroscopic alignment of BCPs. Adhering a flat, crosslinked elastomer pad to the BCP film leads to differential swelling between the elastomer pad and BCP to produce a shear force that aligns the ordered BCP domains. The role of elastomer properties, solvent quality, drying rate and degree of segregation of the block copolymer will be discussed to provide generalized rules for alignment with this technique. Cylindrical nanostructures formed in polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane can be transformed into arrays of silica lines and increasing the thickness from a monolayer to bilayer can effectively halve the spacing of the lines. These results illustrate a generalized method for BCP alignment and a potential route for the generation of complex hierarchical assembled structures.

  8. Self-normalized photoacoustic technique for thermo-optical characterization of samples mounted between transparent media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Díaz-Reyes, J.; Jaime-Fonseca, M. R.; Martínez-Pérez, L.; Pescador-Rojas, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A self-normalized photoacoustic technique for thermo-optical characterization of materials, mounted between transparent media, is presented. It involves a complex ratio of photoacoustic signals in transmission and front configurations, taking the modulation frequency as the only variable. The analytical solutions for the corresponding 1D heat diffusion problems are analyzed to provide suitable methodologies for measuring the optical absorption coefficients and thermal diffusivity of such samples. This methodology was tested by measuring the optical absorption coefficient, at 660 nm, of methylene blue solutions at various concentrations and the thermal diffusivity of a black drawing ink sample. In addition, an approximated range of optical absorption coefficients, where this photoacoustic methodology is adequate, was established.

  9. A new technique for the determination of stress-optical constants using the shadow spot method

    SciTech Connect

    Younis, N.T.; Zachary, L.W. )

    1989-03-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine both the transmitted and the reflected stress-optical constants. The reflected optical constant is associated with the light reflected from the rear face of a transparent material. The stress-optical constant related to the light reflected from the front surface is not considered in this paper since it is equal to Poisson's ratio divided by Young's modulus. In this new method, a monochromatic light beam emitted from an He-Ne laser impinges on the area surrounding a circular hole under load in a plate. A digital image-analysis system, EYECOM III, is used to determine the points of the highest light intensity of the caustic that results from the light transmitted or reflected from the rear face of the plate. The effect of the hole size in optically isotropic materials is investigated. 9 refs.

  10. Practical and cost-effective high-fidelity optical carrier dissemination using coherent communication techniques.

    PubMed

    Sooudi, Ehsan; O'Gorman, James; Gunning, Paul; Ellis, Andrew D; Gunning, Fatima C Garcia; Manning, Robert J

    2015-08-24

    We report a unidirectional frequency dissemination scheme for high-fidelity optical carriers deployable over telecommunication networks. For the first time, a 10 Gb/s Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) signal from an ultra-narrow linewidth laser was transmitted through a field-installed optical fibre with round-trip length of 124 km between Cork City and town of Clonakilty, without inline optical amplification. At the receiver, using coherent communication techniques and optical injection-locking the carrier was recovered with noise suppression. The beat signal between the original carrier at the transmitter and recovered carrier at the receiver shows a linewidth of 2.8 kHz. Long term stability measurements revealed fractional instabilities (True Allan deviation) of 3.3 10(-14) for 1 s averaging time, prior to phase noise cancellation. PMID:26368147

  11. Hardware Implementation of Multiple Fan Beam Projection Technique in Optical Fibre Process Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Fazalul Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz; Leong, Lai Chen; Chan, Kok San; Pang, Jon Fea

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to implement the multiple fan beam projection technique using optical fibre sensors with the aim to achieve a high data acquisition rate. Multiple fan beam projection technique here is defined as allowing more than one emitter to transmit light at the same time using the switch-mode fan beam method. For the thirty-two pairs of sensors used, the 2-projection technique and 4-projection technique are being investigated. Sixteen sets of projections will complete one frame of light emission for the 2-projection technique while eight sets of projection will complete one frame of light emission for the 4-projection technique. In order to facilitate data acquisition process, PIC microcontroller and the sample and hold circuit are being used. This paper summarizes the hardware configuration and design for this project.

  12. Alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Grover C. (Norris, TN); Gibson, O. Theodore (Lenoir City, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.

  13. Curriculum Alignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Ronald; Tissot, Paula

    Curriculum alignment (CA) refers to the congruence of all the elements of a school's curriculum: curriculum goals; instructional program--what is taught and the materials used; and tests used to judge outcomes. CA can be a very powerful can be a very powerful factor in improving schools. Although further research is needed on CA, there is

  14. A precise technique for measurement of optical-fiber hole concentricity in the ferrule of an optical connector

    SciTech Connect

    Klingsporn, P.E.

    1996-12-01

    A precise optical method was developed for measuring the concentricity of a longitudinal hole in a cylinder relative to the outer cylindrical surface. The work was done to provide improved accuracy over existing methods for measuring the concentricity ofan optical fiber relative to the outer ferrule diameter in an optical connector. Fiber concentricity is very important for reliable coupling of high optical power densities from one connectorized fiber cable to another. The technique involves the use of a laser interferometer to measure the passage of the ferrule into and out of a light beam whose attenuated energy is measured simultaneously to high precision. Combined measurements of the passage of a precisely fit pin or fiber in the ferrule hole through the light beam allow the concentricity of the fiber hole to be measured relative to the outer ferrule diameter. Repeatability measurements were made under different experimental arrangements, with both a collimated light beam and a slightly convergent light beam. Depending on the particular arrangement, the standard deviation for concentricity measurement in a given plane of the ferrule ranged from 2.37 microinches to 4.19 microinches.

  15. Fan-out routing and optical splitting techniques for compact optical interconnects using single-mode polymer waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Kevin L.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer waveguide (WG) S-bends are necessary for fan-out routing techniques and optical splitting in high-density optical interconnects. Designing and manufacturing of optimal S-bends are critical for minimizing optical link loss while maintaining overall size and layout constraints. Complete structural loss analysis is demonstrated theoretically and shown experimentally utilizing both radial and transitional loss in single-mode (SM) polymer WG radial arc, cosine, and raised-sine S-bend profiles. SM polymer WG straights were first fabricated to measure standard propagation loss. SM WG S-bends were fabricated incorporating straight lead-in and lead-out sections to incorporate transitional loss present in workable designs. S-bend designs were measured at different dimensions and matched to theoretical losses. Compact cosine and radial arc S-bends exhibited the lowest structure loss for low and high NA WGs, respectively. High-speed performance of SM WG straights and S-bends was measured at 10 Gbit/s demonstrating low error rate. Optical splitters designed with S-bends and tapers were also evaluated and fabricated. Trade-off between optimal loss and minimal device size is discussed. PMID:25892851

  16. Study on the absorption uniformity of optical thin films based on the photothermal detuning technique.

    PubMed

    Hao, Honggang; Zhou, Ao; Rao, Min

    2012-10-01

    Absorption loss in optical components, particularly in optical coatings, is a limiting factor in high-power laser applications. The uniformity of optical coatings becomes more and more important as large-diameter optical devices are used widely. In this paper, the photothermal detuning technique used for absorption uniformity measurement of optical thin films is developed for the first time. Experiments are conducted with a highly reflective coating used in 514 nm to measure the photothermal detuning signal and to evaluate the absorption at 514 nm by detecting the spectral shift with a probe beam at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The relative absorption at different points on the sample surface can be measured by moving the sample two-dimensionally, and we use the measured data to make the absorption image. The results show that the designed experimental system can be used to analyze the absorption uniformity of optical coatings. The obtained images reflect the absorption uniformity of the sample well. The absorption uniformities of the two samples analyzed in this experiment are different. The film coated on fused silica is better. The research provides a powerful and convenient tool for absorption uniformity measurement of optical thin film. PMID:23033101

  17. Dynamic optical aberration correction with adaptive coded apertures techniques in conformal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Pengbin; Zhang, Binglong

    2015-02-01

    Conformal imaging systems are confronted with dynamic aberration in optical design processing. In classical optical designs, for combination high requirements of field of view, optical speed, environmental adaption and imaging quality, further enhancements can be achieved only by the introduction of increased complexity of aberration corrector. In recent years of computational imaging, the adaptive coded apertures techniques which has several potential advantages over more traditional optical systems is particularly suitable for military infrared imaging systems. The merits of this new concept include low mass, volume and moments of inertia, potentially lower costs, graceful failure modes, steerable fields of regard with no macroscopic moving parts. Example application for conformal imaging system design where the elements of a set of binary coded aperture masks are applied are optimization designed is presented in this paper, simulation results show that the optical performance is closely related to the mask design and the reconstruction algorithm optimization. As a dynamic aberration corrector, a binary-amplitude mask located at the aperture stop is optimized to mitigate dynamic optical aberrations when the field of regard changes and allow sufficient information to be recorded by the detector for the recovery of a sharp image using digital image restoration in conformal optical system.

  18. Precoding techniques for PAPR reduction in asymmetrically clipped OFDM based optical wireless system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Bilal; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed different precoding based Peak-to-Average-Power (PAPR) reduction techniques for asymmetrically-clipped Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) optical wireless communication systems. Intensity Modulated Direct Detection (IM/DD) technique is among the popular techniques for optical wireless communication systems. OFDM cannot be directly applied to IM systems because of the bipolar nature of the output signal. Therefore some variants of OFDM systems have been proposed for (IM/DD) optical wireless systems. Among them are DC-biased-OFDM, Asymmetrically-Clipped Optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) [2] and Pulse Amplitude Modulated Discrete Multitone (PAM-DMT) [3]. Both ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT require low average power and thus are very attractive for optical wireless systems. OFDM systems suffer from high PAPR problem that can limit its performance due to non-linear characteristics of LED. Therefore PAPR reduction techniques have to be employed. This paper analyzes precoding based PAPR reduction methods for ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT. We have used Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) coding, Zadoff-Chu Transform (ZCT) [8] and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for ACOOFDM and only DCT for PAM-DMT since the modulating symbols are real. We have compared the performance of these precoding techniques using different QAM modulation schemes. Simulation results have shown that both DFT and ZCT offer more PAPR reduction than DCT in ACO-OFDM. For PAM-DMT, DCT precoding yields significant PAPR reduction compared to conventional PAM-DMT signal. These precoding schemes also offer the advantage of zero signaling overhead.

  19. VIRUS spectrograph assembly and alignment procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Boster, Emily; DePoy, D. L.; Herbig, Benjamin; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martin, Emily C.; Meador, William; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the mechanical assembly and optical alignment processes used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the instrument's manufacturing constraints, a production line will be set up to build subassemblies in parallel. To aid in the instrument's assembly and alignment, specialized fixtures and adjustment apparatuses have been developed. We describe the design and operations of the various optics alignment apparatuses, as well as the mirrors' alignment and bonding fixtures.

  20. MROI's Automated Alignment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtromberg, Alisa V.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Paz, M. T.; Steenson, J. M.; Berger, L.

    2007-12-01

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) will be a reconfigurable (7.5-345 meter baselines) 10 element optical/near-infrared imaging interferometer atop Magdalena Ridge, 30 miles west of Socorro, NM. Depending on the location of each unit telescope, light can travel distances ranging from 460 to 660 meters via several reflections that redirect the beam's path through the beam relay trains, delay lines, beam reducing telescope, switchyards and finally to the beam combiners. All of these sub-systems comprise the three major optical axes of the MROI defined by the unit telescope (UT), the delay lines and the beam reducer (DL/BR), and the beam combiners (BC). The purpose of the alignment system is to provide a method of coaligning these three axes. One major obstacle in designing the automated alignment system (AAS) is the required simultaneous measurements from the visible through near-IR wavelengths. Another difficulty is making it fully automated, which has not been accomplished at other optical/near-IR interferometers. The conceptual design of the AAS has been completed and is currently in its preliminary design phase with some prototyping already commenced. Here is presented the current outline and progress of MROI's automated alignment system design and some results of the prototyping.

  1. Techniques for generation of control and guidance signals derived from optical fields, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemami, H.; Mcghee, R. B.; Gardner, S. R.

    1971-01-01

    The development is reported of a high resolution technique for the detection and identification of landmarks from spacecraft optical fields. By making use of nonlinear regression analysis, a method is presented whereby a sequence of synthetic images produced by a digital computer can be automatically adjusted to provide a least squares approximation to a real image. The convergence of the method is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation for both elliptical and rectangular patterns. Statistical simulation studies with elliptical and rectangular patterns show that the computational techniques developed are able to at least match human pattern recognition capabilities, even in the presence of large amounts of noise. Unlike most pattern recognition techniques, this ability is unaffected by arbitrary pattern rotation, translation, and scale change. Further development of the basic approach may eventually allow a spacecraft or robot vehicle to be provided with an ability to very accurately determine its spatial relationship to arbitrary known objects within its optical field of view.

  2. Neutron, fluorescence, and optical imaging: An in situ combination of complementary techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Brgardts, M.; Grnzweig, C.; Lehmann, E.; Mller, T. J. J.; Egelhaaf, S. U.; Hermes, H. E.

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus which enables the simultaneous combination of three complementary imaging techniques, optical imaging, fluorescence imaging, and neutron radiography, is presented. While each individual technique can provide information on certain aspects of the sample and their time evolution, a combination of the three techniques in one setup provides a more complete and consistent data set. The setup can be used in transmission and reflection modes and thus with optically transparent as well as opaque samples. Its capabilities are illustrated with two examples. A polymer hydrogel represents a transparent sample and the diffusion of fluorescent particles into and through this polymer matrix is followed. In reflection mode, the absorption of solvent by a nile red-functionalized mesoporous silica powder and the corresponding change in fluorescent signal are studied.

  3. Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Rasmussen, John C.

    2010-01-01

    We compare and contrast the development of optical molecular imaging techniques with nuclear medicine with a didactic emphasis for initiating readers into the field of molecular imaging. The nuclear imaging techniques of gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography are first briefly reviewed. The molecular optical imaging techniques of bioluminescence and fluorescence using gene reporter/probes and gene reporters are described prior to introducing the governing factors of autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. The use of dual-labeled, near-infrared excitable and radio-labeled agents are described with comparative measurements between planar fluorescence and nuclear molecular imaging. The concept of time-independent and -dependent measurements is described with emphasis on integrating time-dependent measurements made in the frequency domain for 3-D tomography. Finally, we comment on the challenges and progress for translating near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging agents for personalized medicine. PMID:19021311

  4. Neutron, fluorescence, and optical imaging: An in situ combination of complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Wagner, D; Brgardts, M; Grnzweig, C; Lehmann, E; Mller, T J J; Egelhaaf, S U; Hermes, H E

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus which enables the simultaneous combination of three complementary imaging techniques, optical imaging, fluorescence imaging, and neutron radiography, is presented. While each individual technique can provide information on certain aspects of the sample and their time evolution, a combination of the three techniques in one setup provides a more complete and consistent data set. The setup can be used in transmission and reflection modes and thus with optically transparent as well as opaque samples. Its capabilities are illustrated with two examples. A polymer hydrogel represents a transparent sample and the diffusion of fluorescent particles into and through this polymer matrix is followed. In reflection mode, the absorption of solvent by a nile red-functionalized mesoporous silica powder and the corresponding change in fluorescent signal are studied. PMID:26429447

  5. Parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon display based optical set-up for the generation of polarization spatial distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estvez, Irene; Lizana, Angel; Zheng, Xuejie; Peinado, Alba; Ramrez, Claudio; Martnez, Jose Luis; Mrquez, Andrs.; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Liquid Crystals on Silicon (LCOS) displays are a type of LCDs that work in reflection. Such devices, due to the double pass that the light beam performs through the LC cells, lead to larger phase modulation than transmissive LCDs with the same thickness. By taking advantage of this modulation capability exhibited by LCOS displays, we propose a new experimental set-up which is able to provide customized state of polarization spatial distributions just by means of a single LCOS display. To this aim, a double reflection on different halves of the display is properly performed. This fact is achieved by including a compact optical system that steers the light and performs a proper polarization plane rotation. The set-up has been experimentally implemented and some experimental concerns are discussed. The suitability of the system is provided by generating different experimental spatial distributions of polarization. In this regard, well-known polarization distributions, as axial, azimuthal or spiral linear polarization patterns are here provided. Based on the excellent results obtained, the suitability of the system to generate different spatially variant distributions of polarization is validated.

  6. Layer-to-layer alignment for step and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung J.; Meissl, Mario J.; Colburn, Matthew; Bailey, Todd C.; Ruchhoeft, Paul; Sreenivasan, S. V.; Prins, F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Ekerdt, John G.; Willson, C. Grant

    2001-08-01

    The Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL) process is a low-cost, high-throughput patterning technique with a sub- 100 nm resolution capability. Investigation by this group and others indicates that the resolution of replication by imprint lithography is limited only by the size of the structures that can be created on the template. It has also been demonstrated that the SFIL process is capable of eliminating contaminants from the template (master) during a step and repeat imprinting process. The low pressure, room temperature nature of SFIL and the transparent imprint templates make it particularly attractive for high- resolution layer-to-layer alignment. Another aspect of SFIL that assists in the layer to layer alignment is the presence of a thin layer of low viscosity liquid between the template and wafer prior to UV curing. The liquid maintains a small gap (~0.2 micrometers ) and acts as lubrication and damping agents, which allows for accurate in situ error measurement and compensation. In this paper, we present results from overlay alignment experiments using the SFIL process. A Canon mask aligner was modified to implement a layer-to-layer alignment scheme for SFIL. The objective of this research was to achieve alignment accuracy of about 0.5 micrometers , which is the practical limit of the X-Y stage in the mask aligner. The overlay alignment error measurements and the corresponding corrections in X,Y and Theta were performed using the modified mask aligner. In its current state, the alignment resolution appears to be limited by the resolution of the mask aligner stage. It is expected that other high resolution alignment techniques have been developed for optical projection lithography and X-ray lithography processes can be adapted to the SFIL process to significantly improve the alignment resolution.

  7. Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Optical brain imaging has seen 30 years of intense development, and has grown into a rich and diverse field. In-vivo imaging using light provides unprecedented sensitivity to functional changes through intrinsic contrast, and is rapidly exploiting the growing availability of exogenous optical contrast agents. Light can be used to image microscopic structure and function in vivo in exposed animal brain, while also allowing noninvasive imaging of hemodynamics and metabolism in a clinical setting. This work presents an overview of the wide range of approaches currently being applied to in-vivo optical brain imaging, from animal to man. Techniques include multispectral optical imaging, voltage sensitive dye imaging and speckle-flow imaging of exposed cortex, in-vivo two-photon microscopy of the living brain, and the broad range of noninvasive topography and tomography approaches to near-infrared imaging of the human brain. The basic principles of each technique are described, followed by examples of current applications to cutting-edge neuroscience research. In summary, it is shown that optical brain imaging continues to grow and evolve, embracing new technologies and advancing to address ever more complex and important neuroscience questions. PMID:17994863

  8. Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques (OPASI-T)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Astronomical dust is observed in a variety of astrophysical environments and plays an important role in radiative processes and chemical evolution in the galaxy. Depending upon the environment, dust can be either carbon-rich or oxygen-rich (silicate grains). Both astronomical observations and ground-based data show that the optical properties of silicates can change dramatically with the crystallinity of the material, and recent laboratory research provides evidence that the optical properties of silicate dust vary as a function of temperature as well. Therefore, correct interpretation of a vast array of astronomical data relies on the understanding of the properties of silicate dust as functions of wavelength, temperature, and crystallinity. The OPASI-T (Optical Properties of Astronomical Silicates with Infrared Techniques) project addresses the need for high quality optical characterization of metal-enriched silicate condensates using a variety of techniques. A combination of both new and established experiments are used to measure the extinction, reflection, and emission properties of amorphous silicates across the infrared (near infrared to millimeter wavelengths), providing a comprehensive data set characterizing the optical parameters of dust samples. We present room temperature measurements and the experimental apparatus to be used to investigate and characterize additional metal-silicate materials.

  9. Application of nondestructive optical techniques in the detection of surface and subsurface defects in sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akwani, Ikerionwu A.; Hibbard, Douglas L.; Jacoby, Keith T.

    2007-04-01

    Advancements in optical manufacturing and testing technologies for sapphire material are required to support the increasing use of large aperture sapphire panels as windscreens for various electro-optical system applications. It is well known that the grinding and polishing operations employed to create optical surfaces leads to the introduction of surface stress and sub-surface damage which can affect critical opto-mechanical performance characteristics such as strength and durability. Traditional methods for measuring these defects are destructive and, therefore, unsuitable as in-process, high volume inspection tools. A number of non-destructive optical techniques were investigated at Exotic Electro-Optics under funding by the Office of Naval Research and the Air Force Research Laboratory including Raman spectroscopy, laser polarimetry and the Twyman effect to characterize process-induced defects in sapphire panels. Preliminary experimental results using these techniques have shown that surface stress and sub-surface damage may be non-destructively measured. Raman spectroscopy has shown promise in quantifying surface stress, laser polarimetry is of questionable utility and the Twyman effect may be used qualitatively to monitor relative stress and sub-surface damage. This information will ultimately provide a better understanding of the overall manufacturing process leading to optimized process time and cost.

  10. Optical Super-Resolution Imaging of ?-Amyloid Aggregation In Vitro and In Vivo: Method and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Pinotsi, Dorothea; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy has emerged as a powerful and non-invasive tool for the study of molecular processes both in vitro and in live cells. In particular, super-resolution microscopy has proven valuable for research studies in protein aggregation. In this chapter we present details of recent advances in this method and the specific techniques, enabling the study of amyloid beta aggregation optically, both in vitro and in cells. First, we show that variants of optical super-resolution microscopy provide a capability to visualize oligomeric and fibrillar structures directly, providing detailed information on species morphology in vitro and even in situ, in the cellular environment. We focus on direct Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy, dSTORM, which provides morphological detail on spatial scales below 20 nm, and provide detailed protocols for its implementation in the context of amyloid beta research. Secondly, we present a range of optical techniques that offer super-resolution indirectly, which we call multi-parametric microscopy. The latter offers molecular scale information on self-assembly reactions via changes in protein or fluorophore spectral signatures. These techniques are empowered by our recent discovery that disease related amyloid proteins adopt intrinsic energy states upon fibrilisation. We show that fluorescence lifetime imaging provides a particularly sensitive readout to report on the aggregation state, which is robustly quantifiable for experiments performed either in vitro or in vivo. PMID:26235063

  11. Precise rotational alignment of x-ray transmission diffraction gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.L.

    1988-03-28

    Gold transmission diffraction gratings used for x-ray spectroscopy must sometimes be rotationally aligned to the axis of a diagnostic instrument to within sub-milliradian accuracy. We have fabricated transmission diffraction gratings with high line-densities (grating period of 200 and 300 nm) using uv holographic and x-ray lithography. Since the submicron features of the gratings are not optically visible, precision alignment is time consuming and difficult to verify in situ. We have developed a technique to write an optically visible alignment pattern onto these gratings using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). At high magnification (15000 X) several submicron lines of the grating are observable in the SEM, making it possible to write an alignment pattern parallel to the grating lines in an electron-beam-sensitive coating that overlays the grating. We create an alignment pattern by following a 1-cm-long grating line using the SEM's joystick-controlled translation stage. By following the same grating line we are assured the traveled direction of the SEM electron beam is parallel to the grating to better than 10 ..mu..radian. The electron-beam-exposed line-width can be large (5 to 15 ..mu..m wide) depending on the SEM magnification, and is therefore optically visible. The exposed pattern is eventually made a permanent feature of the grating by ion beam etching or gold electroplating. The pattern can be used to accurately align the grating to the axis of a diagnostic instrument. More importantly, the alignment of the grating can be quickly verified in situ.

  12. USE OF DIFFERENT MORPHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO ANALYZE THE CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE ADULT ZEBRAFISH OPTIC TECTUM

    PubMed Central

    Corbo, Christopher P.; Othman, Nidaa A.; Gutkin, Michael C.; Alonso, Alejandra del C.; Fulop, Zoltan L.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular composition of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) optic tectal cortex was examined in this study. Morphological techniques such as 1µm thick serial plastic sections stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue, modified rapid Golgi silver impregnation, GFAP immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used. Neuronal and glial components are described and the layers of the cortex are revisited. Specific neuronal arrangements as well as unique glial/ependymal cells are described. A three dimensional rendering of the astrocytic fiber arrangement in the marginal zone is presented and a composite drawing summarizes the cellular composition of the optic tectum. PMID:21823204

  13. Digital error-signal extraction technique for real-time automatic control of optical interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, F.; Grado, A.; Milano, L.; Russo, G.; Calloni, E.; di Fiore, L.

    1995-12-01

    We describe an efficient and robust method for the extraction of the longitudinal error signal for the automatic control of optical interferometers, which can also be applied when the uncontrolled optical system spans hundreds of fringes. The method is based on classic modulation techniques (phase modulation, mechanical modulation, etc.), but extends their performances by the use of the information available only at the output photodiode. We digitally implemented such a method by following modular hardware and software architectures. We then tested the whole procedure in the automatic control of a suspended Michelson interferometer, showing its feasibility and the good performances.

  14. Optical detection of middle ear infection using spectroscopic techniques: phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jing; Li, Tianqi; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina

    2015-05-01

    A noninvasive optical technique, which is based on a combination of reflectance spectroscopy and gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy, is demonstrated. It has the potential to improve diagnostics of middle ear infections. An ear phantom prepared with a tissue cavity, which was covered with scattering material, was used for spectroscopic measurements. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the phantom eardrum were measured with a reflectance probe. The presence of oxygen and water vapor as well as gas exchange in the phantom cavity were studied with a specially designed fiber-optic probe for backscattering detection geometry. The results suggest that this method can be developed for improved clinical detection of middle ear infection.

  15. A fiber-optic cure monitoring technique with accuracy improvement of distorted embedded sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Umesh; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Dae-gil; Song, Minho

    2015-07-01

    A fiber-optic epoxy cure monitoring technique for efficient wind turbine blade manufacturing and monitoring is presented. To optimize manufacturing cycle, fiber-optic sensors are embedded in composite materials of wind turbine blades. The reflection spectra of the sensors indicate the onset of gelification and the completion of epoxy curing. After manufacturing process, the same sensors are utilized for in-field condition monitoring. Because of residual stresses and strain gradients from the curing process, the embedded sensors may experience distortions in reflection spectra, resulting in measurement errors. We applied a Gaussian curve-fitting algorithm to the distorted spectra, which substantially improved the measurement accuracy.

  16. Identification of cataract and post-cataract surgery optical images using artificial intelligence techniques.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Rajendra Udyavara; Yu, Wenwei; Zhu, Kuanyi; Nayak, Jagadish; Lim, Teik-Cheng; Chan, Joey Yiptong

    2010-08-01

    Human eyes are most sophisticated organ, with perfect and interrelated subsystems such as retina, pupil, iris, cornea, lens and optic nerve. The eye disorder such as cataract is a major health problem in the old age. Cataract is formed by clouding of lens, which is painless and developed slowly over a long period. Cataract will slowly diminish the vision leading to the blindness. At an average age of 65, it is most common and one third of the people of this age in world have cataract in one or both the eyes. A system for detection of the cataract and to test for the efficacy of the post-cataract surgery using optical images is proposed using artificial intelligence techniques. Images processing and Fuzzy K-means clustering algorithm is applied on the raw optical images to detect the features specific to three classes to be classified. Then the backpropagation algorithm (BPA) was used for the classification. In this work, we have used 140 optical image belonging to the three classes. The ANN classifier showed an average rate of 93.3% in detecting normal, cataract and post cataract optical images. The system proposed exhibited 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity, which indicates that the results are clinically significant. This system can also be used to test the efficacy of the cataract operation by testing the post-cataract surgery optical images. PMID:20703916

  17. The Optics and Alignment of the Divergent Beam Laboratory X-ray Powder Diffractometer and its Calibration Using NIST Standard Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cline, James P.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Black, David; Windover, Donald; Henins, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory X-ray powder diffractometer is one of the primary analytical tools in materials science. It is applicable to nearly any crystalline material, and with advanced data analysis methods, it can provide a wealth of information concerning sample character. Data from these machines, however, are beset by a complex aberration function that can be addressed through calibration with the use of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Laboratory diffractometers can be set up in a range of optical geometries; considered herein are those of Bragg-Brentano divergent beam configuration using both incident and diffracted beam monochromators. We review the origin of the various aberrations affecting instruments of this geometry and the methods developed at NIST to align these machines in a first principles context. Data analysis methods are considered as being in two distinct categories: those that use empirical methods to parameterize the nature of the data for subsequent analysis, and those that use model functions to link the observation directly to a specific aspect of the experiment. We consider a multifaceted approach to instrument calibration using both the empirical and model based data analysis methods. The particular benefits of the fundamental parameters approach are reviewed. PMID:26958446

  18. Image alignment

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  19. Alignment of the MINOS FD

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.; Boehnlein, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    The results and procedure of the alignment of the MINOS Far Detector are presented. The far detector has independent alignments of SM1 and SM2. The misalignments have an estimated uncertainty of {approx}850 {micro}m for SM1 and {approx}750 {micro}m for SM2. The alignment has as inputs the average rotations of U and V as determined by optical survey and strip positions within modules measured from the module mapper. The output of this is a module-module correction for transverse mis-alignments. These results were verified by examining an independent set of data. These alignment constants on average contribute much less then 1% to the total uncertainty in the transverse strip position.

  20. Using Complementary Acoustic and Optical Techniques for Quantitative Monitoring of Biomolecular Adsorption at Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Konradi, Rupert; Textor, Marcus; Reimhult, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The great wealth of different surface sensitive techniques used in biosensing, most of which claim to measure adsorbed mass, can at first glance look unnecessary. However, with each technique relying on a different transducer principle there is something to be gained from a comparison. In this tutorial review, different optical and acoustic evanescent techniques are used to illustrate how an understanding of the transducer principle of each technique can be exploited for further interpretation of hydrated and extended polymer and biological films. Some of the most commonly used surface sensitive biosensor techniques (quartz crystal microbalance, optical waveguide spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance) are briefly described and five case studies are presented to illustrate how different biosensing techniques can and often should be combined. The case studies deal with representative examples of adsorption of protein films, polymer brushes and lipid membranes, and describe e.g., how to deal with strongly vs. weakly hydrated films, large conformational changes and ordered layers of biomolecules. The presented systems and methods are compared to other representative examples from the increasing literature on the subject. PMID:25586027

  1. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Amur Margaryan

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  2. Dynamic interferometer alignment and its utility in UV Fourier transform spectrometer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorval, Rick K.; Engel, James R.; Wyntjes, Geert J.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic alignment has been demonstrated as a practical approach to alignment maintenance for systems in the infrared region of the spectrum. On the basis of work done by OPTRA, this technique was introduced in commercial Fourier transform spectrometer systems in 1982 and in various forms is now available from a number of manufacturers. This paper reports on work by OPTRA to extend the basic technique to systems operating in the ultraviolet. In addition, this paper reports the preliminary results of the development of an alignment system using a laser diode in place of a gas laser normally found in dynamic alignment systems. A unique optical system and spatial heterodyne technique allows for achievement of a metrology system with characteristics that fully satisfy the requirements of an ultraviolet spectrometer system.

  3. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success of the MUSE alignment is demonstrated by the excellent results obtained onto MUSE image quality and throughput directly onto the sky.

  4. A simple reflection-type two-dimensional refractive index profile measurement technique for optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youk, Youngchun; Kim, Dug Young

    2006-06-01

    We report a new configuration of a reflection-type confocal scanning optical microscope system for measuring the refractive index profile of an optical waveguide. Several improvements on the earlier design are proposed; a light emitting diode at 650 nm wavelength instead of a laser diode or He-Ne laser is used as a light source for better index precision, and a simple longitudinal linear scanning and a curve fitting techniques are adapted instead of a servo control for maintaining an optical confocal arrangement. We have obtained spatial resolution of 800 nm and an index precision of 2 × 10-4. To verify the system's capability, the refractive index profiles of a conventional multimode fiber and a home-made four-mode fiber were examined with our proposed measurement method.

  5. A Simple Technique Based on a Single Optical Trap for the Determination of Bacterial Swimming Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Martnez, Ignacio A.; Campoy, Susana; Tort, Meritxell; Llagostera, Montserrat; Petrov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial motility is associated to a wide range of biological processes and it plays a key role in the virulence of many pathogens. Here we describe a method to distinguish the dynamic properties of bacteria by analyzing the statistical functions derived from the trajectories of a bacterium trapped by a single optical beam. The approach is based on the model of the rotation of a solid optically trapped sphere. The technique is easily implemented in a biological laboratory, since with only a small number of optical and electronic components a simple biological microscope can be converted into the required analyzer. To illustrate the functionality of this method, we probed several serovar Typhimurium mutants that differed from the wild-type with respect to their swimming patterns. In a further application, the motility dynamics of the Typhimurium mutant were characterized. PMID:23637869

  6. Preventing Technique of Metal Deposition on Optical Devices in Space Diode Laser Welding for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suita, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Kenji; Ohtani, Masato; Shobako, Shinichiro; Terajima, Noboru; Hiraoka, Nobuaki

    In future space developments, the welding in space may be required for the repairs of the ISS and the constructions of lunar base and space structures. The authors have studied the space Gas Hollow Tungsten Arc (GHTA) welding process since 1993. This paper describes the results for space applying the space Diode Laser (DL) welding process which the authors proposed in 2002. It is necessary to prevent the metal deposition on optical devices in order to utilize the space DL welding process in space. The authors studied the preventing technique of metal deposition which covered optical devices with the nozzle and blew the shielding gas out from nozzle outlet. The metal deposition can be reduced by supplying the nozzle with inert gas and blowing the gas out from nozzle outlet. The shielding gas argon perfectly prevents the metal deposition on optical devices when argon pressurizes the nozzle to over 19.9 Pa and spouts out from the nozzle outlet.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of natural laccaic acid dye studied using Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongo, S.; Sanusi, K.; Britton, J.; Mthunzi, P.; Nyokong, T.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated the nonlinear optical properties, including the optical limiting behaviour for five different concentrations of laccaic acid dye in solution and a thin film obtained through doping in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. The experiments were performed by using single beam Z-scan technique at 532 nm with 10 ns, 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses excitation. From the open-aperture Z-scan data, we derived that the laccaic dye samples exhibit strong two photon absorption (2PA). The nonlinear refractive index was determined through the closed aperture Z-scan data. The estimated absorption coefficient ?2, nonlinear refractive index n2 and second order hyperpolarizability ? were found to be of the order of 10-10 m/W, 10-9 esu and 10-32 esu, respectively. The Z-scan study reveals that the natural laccaic acid dye emerges as a promising material for third order nonlinear optical devices application.

  8. Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merthe, Daniel J.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; McKinney, Wayne R.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Anderson, Erik H.; Smith, Brian V.; Domning, Edward E.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a comprehensive and broadly applicable methodology for the optimal in situ configuration of bendable soft x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The mirrors used for this application are preset at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory prior to beamline installation. The in situ methodology consists of a new technique for simultaneously setting the height and pitch angle of each mirror. The benders of both mirrors were then optimally tuned in order to minimize ray aberrations to a level below the diffraction-limited beam waist size of 200 nm (horizontal)100 nm (vertical). After applying this methodology, we measured a beam waist size of 290 nm (horizontal)130 nm (vertical) with 1 nm light using the Foucault knife-edge test. We also discuss the utility of using a grating-based lateral shearing interferometer with quantitative wavefront feedback for further improvement of bendable optics.

  9. Methodology for optimal in situ alignment and setting of bendable optics for diffraction-limited focusing of soft x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merthe, Daniel J.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; McKinney, Wayne R.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Anderson, Erik; Smith, Brian V.; Domning, Edward E.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate a comprehensive and broadly applicable methodology for the optimal in situ configuration of bendable soft x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The mirrors used for this application are preset at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory prior to beamline installation. The in situ methodology consists of a new technique for simultaneously setting the height and pitch angle of each mirror. The benders of both mirrors were then optimally tuned in order to minimize ray aberrations to a level below the diffraction-limited beam waist size of 200 nm (horizontal) 100 nm (vertical). After applying this methodology, we measured a beam waist size of 290 nm (horizontal) 130 nm (vertical) with 1 nm light using the Foucault knife-edge test. We also discuss the utility of using a grating-based lateral shearing interferometer with quantitative wavefront feedback for further improvement of bendable optics.

  10. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  11. New techniques for manufacturing optical-fiber-based fiber Fabry-Perot sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuck, Christopher J.; Fernando, Gerard F.

    2002-07-01

    Optical fiber-based extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensors have been extensively deployed for sensing a number of measurands including temperature, strain, vibration and pressure. Their circular cross-section has made it relatively simple and attractive to embed them in advanced fibre reinforced composites (AFRCs) such as glass and carbon fibers. However, a typical construction of an EFPI consists of two optical fibers that are positioned and secured within a precision bore capillary. The relative outer diameters of the various key components are as follows: capillary = 300 micrometers ; optical fibre = 125 micrometers ; carbon and glass fibers = 8 and 14 micrometers respectively. This mismatch in relative diameters of the reinforcing and the sensor fibers can result in significant spatial distortion of the former. The location of the embedded sensing fibre in relation to the reinforcing fibre layers can also lead to the formation of resin-rich regions in the AFRC. These factors can have a detrimental effect on the compressive properties of the material. Therefore, there is significant attraction in reducing the overall diameter of the sensor. In this current paper, the feasibility of reducing the diameter of EFPI sensor design to that of the optical fibre is demonstrated via two techniques. The first technique involved the use of hydrofluoric acid to etch and create the Fabry-Perot cavity. In the second technique, the feasibility of using laser ablation to fabricate the Fabry-Perot cavity in silica and sapphire substrates is presented. The optical fibre-based Fabry-Perot cavity produced via acid etching was interrogated using white light interferometry.

  12. A Wafer-Bonded, Floating Element Shear-Stress Sensor Using a Geometric Moire Optical Transduction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Stephen; Chen, Tai-An; Chandrasekaran, Venkataraman; Tedjojuwono, Ken; Cattafesta, Louis; Nishida, Toshikazu; Sheplak, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a geometric Moir optical-based floating-element shear stress sensor for wind tunnel turbulence measurements. The sensor was fabricated using an aligned wafer-bond/thin-back process producing optical gratings on the backside of a floating element and on the top surface of the support wafer. Measured results indicate a static sensitivity of 0.26 microns/Pa, a resonant frequency of 1.7 kHz, and a noise floor of 6.2 mPa/(square root)Hz.

  13. Binocular collimation vs conditional alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, William J.

    2012-10-01

    As binocular enthusiasts share their passion, topics related to collimation abound. Typically, we find how observers, armed only with a jeweler's screwdriver, can "perfectly collimate" his or her binocular, make it "spot on," or other verbiage of similar connotation. Unfortunately, what most are addressing is a form of pseudo-collimation I have referred to since the mid-1970s as "Conditional Alignment." Ignoring the importance of the mechanical axis (hinge) in the alignment process, this "condition," while having the potential to make alignment serviceable, or even outstanding—within a small range of IPD (Interpupillary Distance) settings relative to the user's spatial accommodation (the ability to accept small errors in parallelism of the optical axes)—may take the instrument farther from the 3-axis collimation conscientious manufacturers seek to implement. Becoming more optically savvy—and especially with so many mechanically inferior binoculars entering the marketplace— the consumer contemplating self-repair and alignment has a need to understand the difference between clinical, 3-axis "collimation" (meaning both optical axes are parallel with the axis of the hinge) and "conditional alignment," as differentiated in this paper. Furthermore, I believe there has been a long-standing need for the term "Conditional Alignment," or some equivalent, to be accepted as part of the vernacular of those who use binoculars extensively, whether for professional or recreational activities. Achieving that acceptance is the aim of this paper.

  14. Phased-array beam steering using optical true time delay technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-Hua; Lin, Wen-Piao

    2015-09-01

    An optical dispersion technique for phased-array beam steering is proposed and analyzed. Optical true time delay using a high-dispersion compensation fiber (HDCF) and a phased array antenna (PAA) can provide a continuous radio-frequency squint-free beam scanning. When the dispersion of the fabricated DCF-C band is as high as -102031 ps/nm/km, the laser wavelength can be tuned from 1549.95 to 1550.2 nm. The experimental results confirmed that the scanning angle of far field radiation patterns for proposed technique can be tuned to have a range 51 (from -22 to +29) at frequency of 5.9, 12.7 and 17 GHz.

  15. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Meglinski, I V

    2011-04-30

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  16. An optical authentication system based on encryption technique and multimodal biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Mingtang

    2013-12-01

    A major concern nowadays for a biometric credential management system is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources. To prevent a genuine user's templates from both internal and external threats, a novel and simple method combined optical encryption with multimodal biometric authentication technique is proposed. In this method, the standard biometric templates are generated real-timely by the verification keys owned by legal user so that they are unnecessary to be stored in a database. Compared with the traditional recognition algorithms, storage space and matching time are greatly saved. In addition, the verification keys are difficult to be forged due to the utilization of optical encryption technique. Although the verification keys are lost or stolen, they are useless for others in absence of the legal owner's biometric. A series of numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this method.

  17. Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for optical information hiding (encryption) of two-dimensional images by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional Fourier domains. The image is initially randomly shifted using the jigsaw transform algorithm, and then a pixel scrambling technique based on the Arnold transform (ART) is applied. The scrambled image is then encrypted in a randomly chosen fractional Fourier domain. These processes can then be iteratively repeated. The parameters of the architecture, including the jigsaw permutation indices, Arnold frequencies, and fractional Fourier orders, form a very large key space enhancing the security level of the proposed encryption system. Optical implementations are discussed as numerical implementation algorithms. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the system's flexibility and robustness.

  18. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D.V.G.L.N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy. PMID:18458764

  19. An Approximate Numerical Technique for Characterizing Optical Pulse Propagation in Inhomogeneous Biological Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Handapangoda, Chintha C.; Premaratne, Malin

    2008-01-01

    An approximate numerical technique for modeling optical pulse propagation through weakly scattering biological tissue is developed by solving the photon transport equation in biological tissue that includes varying refractive index and varying scattering/absorption coefficients. The proposed technique involves first tracing the ray paths defined by the refractive index profile of the medium by solving the eikonal equation using a Runge-Kutta integration algorithm. The photon transport equation is solved only along these ray paths, minimizing the overall computational burden of the resulting algorithm. The main advantage of the current algorithm is that it enables to discretise the pulse propagation space adaptively by taking optical depth into account. Therefore, computational efficiency can be increased without compromising the accuracy of the algorithm. PMID:18317526

  20. A novel technique for estimating aerosol optical thickness trends using meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, Moses E.; Akinyemi, M. L.; Akin-Ojo, O.

    2016-02-01

    Estimating aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over regions can be tasking if satellite data set over such region is very scanty. Therefore a technique whose application captures real-time events is most appropriate for adequate monitoring of risk indicators. A new technique i.e. arithmetic translation of pictorial model (ATOPM) was developed. The ATOPM deals with the use mathematical expression to compute other meteorological parameters obtained from satellite or ground data set. Six locations within 335 × 230 Km2 area of a selected portion of Nigeria were chosen and analyzed -using the meteorological data set (1999-2012) and MATLAB. The research affirms the use of some parameters (e.g. minimum temperature, cloud cover, relative humidity and rainfall) to estimate the aerosol optical thickness. The objective of the paper was satisfied via the use of other meteorological parameters to estimate AOT when the satellite data set over an area is scanty.