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Sample records for optical computers

  1. Optical computing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroke, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Applications of the optical computer include an approach for increasing the sharpness of images obtained from the most powerful electron microscopes and fingerprint/credit card identification. The information-handling capability of the various optical computing processes is very great. Modern synthetic-aperture radars scan upward of 100,000 resolvable elements per second. Fields which have assumed major importance on the basis of optical computing principles are optical image deblurring, coherent side-looking synthetic-aperture radar, and correlative pattern recognition. Some examples of the most dramatic image deblurring results are shown.

  2. Scalable optical quantum computer

    SciTech Connect

    Manykin, E A; Mel'nichenko, E V

    2014-12-31

    A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr{sup 3+}, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

  3. Optical computer motherboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Xu, Guoda; Bartha, John M.; Gruntman, Michael A.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the application of precision plastic optics into a communication/computer sub-system, such as a hybrid computer motherboard. We believe that using optical waveguides for next-generation computer motherboards can provide a high performance alternative for present multi-layer printed circuit motherboards. In response to this demand, we suggest our novel concept of a hybrid motherboard based on an internal-fiber-coupling (IFC) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical backplane. The IFC/WDM backplane provides dedicated Tx/Rx connections, and applies low-cost, high-performance components, including CD LDs, GRIN plastic fibers, molding housing, and nonimaging optics connectors. Preliminary motherboard parameters are: speed 100 MHz/100 m, or 1 GHz/10 m; fiber loss approximately 0.01 dB/m; almost zero fan-out/fan-in optical power loss, and eight standard wavelength channels. The proposed hybrid computer motherboard, based on innovative optical backplane technology, should solve low-speed, low-parallelism bottlenecks in present electric computer motherboards.

  4. Optical computer switching network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  5. Optical Computing: Childhood's End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John; Goodman, Joseph W.; Guenther, Bob D.; Hendrickson, Brian M.; Neff, John A.; Rhodes, William T.; Turpin, Terry M.

    1990-02-01

    For the quarter of a century I have been involved in optical computing we have put forward a rather consistent set of arguments and beliefs which have led to a great increase in our numbers, knowledge, funding, and capabilities. I believe we must now challenge these basic tenants of our faith in the name of honesty and in the hope of a brighter future.

  6. Optical Computers and Space Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Paley, Mark S.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis; Hicks, Rosilen; Shields, Angela

    1995-01-01

    The rapidly increasing demand for greater speed and efficiency on the information superhighway requires significant improvements over conventional electronic logic circuits. Optical interconnections and optical integrated circuits are strong candidates to provide the way out of the extreme limitations imposed on the growth of speed and complexity of nowadays computations by the conventional electronic logic circuits. The new optical technology has increased the demand for high quality optical materials. NASA's recent involvement in processing optical materials in space has demonstrated that a new and unique class of high quality optical materials are processible in a microgravity environment. Microgravity processing can induce improved orders in these materials and could have a significant impact on the development of optical computers. We will discuss NASA's role in processing these materials and report on some of the associated nonlinear optical properties which are quite useful for optical computers technology.

  7. Computational Ion Optics Design Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Shane P.; Soulas, George C.

    2004-01-01

    Ion optics computational models are invaluable tools in the design of ion optics systems. In this study a new computational model developed by an outside vendor for use at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presented. This computational model is a gun code that has been modified to model the plasma sheaths both upstream and downstream of the ion optics. The model handles multiple species (e.g. singly and doubly-charged ions) and includes a charge-exchange model to support erosion estimations. The model uses commercially developed solid design and meshing software to allow high flexibility in ion optics geometric configurations. The results from this computational model are applied to the NEXT project to investigate the effects of crossover impingement erosion seen during the 2000-hour wear test.

  8. Optical design using computer graphics.

    PubMed

    Howard, J M

    2001-07-01

    For decades the computer has been the primary tool used for optical design. Typical tasks include performing numerical calculations for ray tracing and analysis and rendering graphics for system drawings. As machines become faster with each new generation, the time needed for a particular design task has greatly reduced, allowing multiple assignments to be performed with little noticeable delay. This lets the designer modify a system and then immediately see the results rendered in graphics with a single motion. Such visual design methods are discussed here, where graphics of systems and plots relating to their performance are produced in real time, permitting the optical designer to design by pictures. Three examples are given: an educational tutorial for designing a simple microscope objective, an unobstructed reflective telescope composed of three spherical mirrors, and a modified Offner relay with an accessible pupil. PMID:11958264

  9. Hybrid (optical/electronic) computing and digital computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sing H.

    1988-06-01

    The program consists of two areas of optical information processing: (1) optical-analog/electronic hybrid computing for optical image processing, optical pattern recognition and solution of partial differential equations, and (2) nonlinear optical devices and digital optical computing. The optical-analog/electronic digital hybrid system consist of an analog optical processor with input/output interfaces to a microcomputer. The analog optical processor is employed to perform time consuming computations, while the logical decisions and controls are provided by an electronic microcomputer. For image processing we have implemented, with hybrid systems, numerous space-variant transformations (e.g., Hough transform for detection of high-order parametric curves, coordinate transform for rotation and scale invariant feature extraction, etc.).

  10. Recent advances in optical computing in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Satoshi

    The results of recent Japanese research in optical and hybrid computer systems and components are summarized and illustrated with drawings and diagrams, and the organizational structure of the research efforts is outlined. Topics addressed include optical logic devices, spatial light modulators, two-dimensional lasers, optical bistable devices, device theory, optically controlled array processing, an optical bus for a multiprocessor system, real-time multiple-matrix-product processing, optical numerical processing, optical parallel-array logic systems, optical associative memory, and neural-network computation. Consideration is given to the roles of the Optical Computer Group of the Japan Society of Applied Physics, industry, and government (through the universities and Ministry of Education and through the Ministry of International Trade and Industry).

  11. Optical Interconnection Via Computer-Generated Holograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Zhou, Shaomin

    1995-01-01

    Method of free-space optical interconnection developed for data-processing applications like parallel optical computing, neural-network computing, and switching in optical communication networks. In method, multiple optical connections between multiple sources of light in one array and multiple photodetectors in another array made via computer-generated holograms in electrically addressed spatial light modulators (ESLMs). Offers potential advantages of massive parallelism, high space-bandwidth product, high time-bandwidth product, low power consumption, low cross talk, and low time skew. Also offers advantage of programmability with flexibility of reconfiguration, including variation of strengths of optical connections in real time.

  12. Digital optical computers at the optoelectronic computing systems center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    The Digital Optical Computing Program within the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Opto-electronic Computing Systems has as its specific goal research on optical computing architectures suitable for use at the highest possible speeds. The program can be targeted toward exploiting the time domain because other programs in the Center are pursuing research on parallel optical systems, exploiting optical interconnection and optical devices and materials. Using a general purpose computing architecture as the focus, we are developing design techniques, tools and architecture for operation at the speed of light limit. Experimental work is being done with the somewhat low speed components currently available but with architectures which will scale up in speed as faster devices are developed. The design algorithms and tools developed for a general purpose, stored program computer are being applied to other systems such as optimally controlled optical communication networks.

  13. Lower bounds on the computational efficiency of optical computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Richard; Reif, John

    1987-03-01

    A general model for determining the computational efficiency of optical computing systems, termed the VLSIO model, is described. It is a 3-dimensional generalization of the wire model of a 2-dimensional VLSI with optical beams (via Gabor's theorem) replacing the wires as communication channels. Lower bounds (in terms of simultaneous volume and time) on the computational resources of the VLSIO are obtained for computing various problems such as matrix multiplication.

  14. Optical computing at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Bualat, Maria G.; Downie, John D.; Galant, David; Gary, Charles K.; Hine, Butler P.; Ma, Paul W.; Pryor, Anna H.; Spirkovska, Lilly

    1991-01-01

    Optical computing research at NASA Ames Research Center seeks to utilize the capability of analog optical processing, involving free-space propagation between components, to produce natural implementations of algorithms requiring large degrees of parallel computation. Potential applications being investigated include robotic vision, planetary lander guidance, aircraft engine exhaust analysis, analysis of remote sensing satellite multispectral images, control of space structures, and autonomous aircraft inspection.

  15. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Brown, N.A.; Babcock, R.C.; Martono, H.; Carey, D.C. |

    1997-02-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, George H.; Hill, Barrey W.; Brown, Nathan A.; Babcock, R. Chris; Martono, Hendy; Carey, David C.

    1997-02-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is an educational software concept to aid students and professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab is being developed as a cross-platform application and includes four key elements. The first is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. The second is a knowledge database containing information on electric and magnetic optics transport elements. The knowledge database provides interactive tutorials on the fundamental physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware. The third element is a graphical construction kit that provides tools for students to interactively and visually construct optical beamlines. The final element is a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute trajectories, transport beam envelopes, fit parameters to optical constraints and carry out similar calculations for the student designed beamlines. The primary computational engine is provided by the third-order TRANSPORT code. Augmenting TRANSPORT is the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE and a first-order matrix program that includes a space charge model and support for calculating single particle trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. This paper describes progress on the development of the PBO Lab.

  17. Exploiting data redundancy in computational optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Munro, Peter R T

    2015-11-30

    We present an algorithm which exploits data redundancy to make computational, coherent, optical imaging more computationally efficient. This algorithm specifically addresses the computation of how light scattered by a sample is collected and coherently detected. It is of greatest benefit in the simulation of broadband optical systems employing coherent detection, such as optical coherence tomography. Although also amenable to time-harmonic data, the algorithm is designed to be embedded within time-domain electromagnetic scattering simulators such as the psuedo-spectral and finite-difference time domain methods. We derive the algorithm in detail as well as criteria which ensure accurate execution of the algorithm. We present simulations that verify the developed algorithm and demonstrate its utility. We expect this algorithm to be important to future developments in computational imaging. PMID:26698693

  18. Optically intraconnected computer employing dynamically reconfigurable holographic optical element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An optically intraconnected computer and a reconfigurable holographic optical element employed therein. The basic computer comprises a memory for holding a sequence of instructions to be executed; logic for accessing the instructions in sequence; logic for determining for each the instruction the function to be performed and the effective address thereof; a plurality of individual elements on a common support substrate optimized to perform certain logical sequences employed in executing the instructions; and, element selection logic connected to the logic determining the function to be performed for each the instruction for determining the class of each function and for causing the instruction to be executed by those the elements which perform those associated the logical sequences affecting the instruction execution in an optimum manner. In the optically intraconnected version, the element selection logic is adapted for transmitting and switching signals to the elements optically.

  19. Silicon Photonic Devices for Optical Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ciyuan

    The requirement for high performance computer will be significantly increased by the fast development of the internet. However, traditional CMOS computer will meet its bottleneck due to the miniaturization problem. Optical computer comes to be the leading candidate to solve this issue. Silicon photonic technology has tremendous developments and thus it becomes an ideal platform to implement optical computing system. In Chapter 1, I will first show the development of the optical computing and silicon photonic technology. I will also discuss some key nonlinear optical effects of silicon photonic devices. Based on the current silicon photonic technology, I will then make a brief introduction on the optical direct logic for the 2D optical computing and spatial light modulator for the 3D optical computing, both of which will be discussed in detail in the followed chapters. In Chapter 2, I will discuss micro-ring resonator which is the key element of optical directed logic circuit discussed in Chapter 3. I will give the analytical model based on photonic circuit to explain the performance of the micro-ring resonator. The group delay and the loss of the micro-ring resonator will be analyzed. And I will also show the active tuning of the transmission spectrum by using the nonlinear effect of silicon. In Chapter 3, I will show a revised optical direct-logic (DL) circuit for 2D optical computer that is well suited for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon photonics. It can significantly reduce the latency compared with traditional CMOS computers. For proof of concept, I demonstrated a scalable and reconfigurable optical directed-logic architecture consisting of a regular array of micro-ring resonator based optical on-off switches. The switches are controlled by electrical input logic signals through embedded p-i-n junctions. The circuit can be reconfigured to perform any 2x2 combinational logic operations by thermally tuning the operation modes of

  20. Fast blur removal via optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Jinli; Yue, Tao; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Non-uniform image blur caused by camera shake or lens aberration is a common degradation in practical capture. Different from the uniform blur, non-uniform one is hard to deal with for its extremely high computation complexity as the blur model computation cannot be accelerated by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). We propose to compute the most computational consuming operation, i.e. blur model calculation, by an optical computing system to realize fast and accurate non-uniform image deblur. A prototype system composed by a projector-camera system as well as a high dimensional motion platform (for motion blur) or original camera lens (for optics aberrations) is implemented. Our method is applied on a series of experiments, either on synthetic or real captured images, to verify its effectiveness and efficient.

  1. Role of optical computers in aeronautical control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The role that optical computers play in aircraft control is determined. The optical computer has the potential high speed capability required, especially for matrix/matrix operations. The optical computer also has the potential for handling nonlinear simulations in real time. They are also more compatible with fiber optic signal transmission. Optics also permit the use of passive sensors to measure process variables. No electrical energy need be supplied to the sensor. Complex interfacing between optical sensors and the optical computer is avoided if the optical sensor outputs can be directly processed by the optical computer.

  2. Role of optical disk at computing centers

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Mass storage plays an increasingly important part in the changing role of the traditional open-shop computing center precipitation by the trend toward decentralization. A large number of mass storage applications are of the write-once type, for which the emerging optical disk technology is well suited. Some of the broad application areas are experiment data capture, shared reference data bases, program and documentation libraries, and medical studies requiring individual patient data. The utility of currently available optical disk products is being investigated for these applications for a variety of computing environments including those of IBM/sup tm/, DEC-VAX/sup tm/, and UNIX/sup tm/ products.

  3. Computational adaptive optics of the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that patient-specific ocular aberrations limit imaging resolution in the human retina. Previously, hardware adaptive optics (HAO) has been employed to measure and correct these aberrations to acquire high-resolution images of various retinal structures. While the resulting aberration-corrected images are of great clinical importance, clinical use of HAO has not been widespread due to the cost and complexity of these systems. We present a technique termed computational adaptive optics (CAO) for aberration correction in the living human retina without the use of hardware adaptive optics components. In CAO, complex interferometric data acquired using optical coherence tomography (OCT) is manipulated in post-processing to adjust the phase of the optical wavefront. In this way, the aberrated wavefront can be corrected. We summarize recent results in this technology for retinal imaging, including aberration-corrected imaging in multiple retinal layers and practical considerations such as phase stability and image optimization.

  4. Real-time computed optical interferometric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Ahmad, Adeel; Adie, Steven G.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-03-01

    High-resolution tomography is of great importance to many areas of biomedical imaging, but with it comes several apparent tradeoffs such as a narrowing depth-of-field and increasing optical aberrations. Overcoming these challenges has attracted many hardware and computational solutions. Hardware solutions, though, can become bulky or expensive and computational approaches can require high computing power or large processing times. This study demonstrates memory efficient implementations of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) - two computational approaches for overcoming the depthof- field limitation and the effect of optical aberrations in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Traditionally requiring lengthy post processing, here we report implementations of ISAM and CAO on a single GPU for real-time in vivo imaging. Real-time, camera-limited ISAM processing enabled reliable acquisition of stable data for in vivo imaging, and CAO processing on the same GPU is shown to quickly correct static aberrations. These algorithmic advances hold the promise for high-resolution volumetric imaging in time-sensitive situations as well as enabling aberrationfree cellular-level volumetric tomography.

  5. Analog optical computing primitives in silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunshan; DeVore, Peter T. S.; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    Optical computing accelerators may help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide.

  6. Analog optical computing primitives in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunshan; DeVore, Peter T S; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-03-15

    Optical computing accelerators help alleviate bandwidth and power consumption bottlenecks in electronics. We show an approach to implementing logarithmic-type analog co-processors in silicon photonics and use it to perform the exponentiation operation and the recovery of a signal in the presence of multiplicative distortion. The function is realized by exploiting nonlinear-absorption-enhanced Raman amplification saturation in a silicon waveguide. PMID:26977687

  7. Optics Program Modified for Multithreaded Parallel Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, John; Bedding, Dave; Basinger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    A powerful high-performance computer program for simulating and analyzing adaptive and controlled optical systems has been developed by modifying the serial version of the Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems (MACOS) program to impart capabilities for multithreaded parallel processing on computing systems ranging from supercomputers down to Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) personal computers. The modifications included the incorporation of OpenMP, a portable and widely supported application interface software, that can be used to explicitly add multithreaded parallelism to an application program under a shared-memory programming model. OpenMP was applied to parallelize ray-tracing calculations, one of the major computing components in MACOS. Multithreading is also used in the diffraction propagation of light in MACOS based on pthreads [POSIX Thread, (where "POSIX" signifies a portable operating system for UNIX)]. In tests of the parallelized version of MACOS, the speedup in ray-tracing calculations was found to be linear, or proportional to the number of processors, while the speedup in diffraction calculations ranged from 50 to 60 percent, depending on the type and number of processors. The parallelized version of MACOS is portable, and, to the user, its interface is basically the same as that of the original serial version of MACOS.

  8. Parallel Algormiivls For Optical Digital Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Alan

    1983-04-01

    Conventional computers suffer from several communication bottlenecks which fundamentally limit their performance. These bottlenecks are characterized by an address-dependent sequential transfer of information which arises from the need to time-multiplex information over a limited number of interconnections. An optical digital computer based on a classical finite state machine can be shown to be free of these bottlenecks. Such a processor would be unique since it would be capable of modifying its entire state space each cycle while conventional computers can only alter a few bits. New algorithms are needed to manage and use this capability. A technique based on recognizing a particular symbol in parallel and replacing it in parallel with another symbol is suggested. Examples using this parallel symbolic substitution to perform binary addition and binary incrementation are presented. Applications involving Boolean logic, functional programming languages, production rule driven artificial intelligence, and molecular chemistry are also discussed.

  9. Computational algorithms for simulations in atmospheric optics.

    PubMed

    Konyaev, P A; Lukin, V P

    2016-04-20

    A computer simulation technique for atmospheric and adaptive optics based on parallel programing is discussed. A parallel propagation algorithm is designed and a modified spectral-phase method for computer generation of 2D time-variant random fields is developed. Temporal power spectra of Laguerre-Gaussian beam fluctuations are considered as an example to illustrate the applications discussed. Implementation of the proposed algorithms using Intel MKL and IPP libraries and NVIDIA CUDA technology is shown to be very fast and accurate. The hardware system for the computer simulation is an off-the-shelf desktop with an Intel Core i7-4790K CPU operating at a turbo-speed frequency up to 5 GHz and an NVIDIA GeForce GTX-960 graphics accelerator with 1024 1.5 GHz processors. PMID:27140113

  10. Parallel algorithms for optical digital computers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, A.

    1983-01-01

    Conventional computers suffer from several communication bottlenecks which fundamentally limit their performance. These bottlenecks are characterised by an address-dependent sequential transfer of information which arises from the need to time-multiplex information over a limited number of interconnections. An optical digital computer based on a classical finite state machine can be shown to be free of these bottlenecks. Such a processor would be unique since it would be capable of modifying its entire state space each cycle while conventional computers can only alter a few bits. New algorithms are needed to manage and use this capability. A technique based on recognising a particular symbol in parallel and replacing it in parallel with another symbol is suggested. Examples using this parallel symbolic substitution to perform binary addition and binary incrementation are presented. Applications involving Boolean logic, functional programming languages, production rule driven artificial intelligence, and molecular chemistry are also discussed. 12 references.

  11. Integrated optical circuits for numerical computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Kenan, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    The development of integrated optical circuits (IOC) for numerical-computation applications is reviewed, with a focus on the use of systolic architectures. The basic architecture criteria for optical processors are shown to be the same as those proposed by Kung (1982) for VLSI design, and the advantages of IOCs over bulk techniques are indicated. The operation and fabrication of electrooptic grating structures are outlined, and the application of IOCs of this type to an existing 32-bit, 32-Mbit/sec digital correlator, a proposed matrix multiplier, and a proposed pipeline processor for polynomial evaluation is discussed. The problems arising from the inherent nonlinearity of electrooptic gratings are considered. Diagrams and drawings of the application concepts are provided.

  12. Sensitivity of volume holographic optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yao; Cao, Liang-cai; Zheng, Tian-xiang; Guo, Wei; He, Qing-sheng; Jin, Guo-fan

    2013-08-01

    Volume holographic correlator (VHC) calculates the inner product between two data pages through parallel optical correlation. It has great potential in the field of information processing and real-time identification because of its high storage density, integration of storing and computing, and multi-channel parallel processing ability. Current studies on the improvements of VHC mainly focus on the processing speed and channel uniformity. However, the accuracy of the VHC is mainly related to the minimum output intensity varying with the spatial light modulator (SLM) pixel intensity, which is the sensitivity of the VHC. In this work, the Minimum Pixel Block Size (MPBS) is proposed to characterize the sensitivity of the VHC. The Effective Number of Pixels (ENP) is employed to evaluate the optical computing ability, which is more accurate compared with traditional calculating method based on the pixel number of the SLM. The theoretical and experimental results are instructive in the system design. Desired system performance can be achieved by optimizing the system parameters.

  13. Computing Temperatures in Optically Thick Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capuder, Lawrence F.. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We worked with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the transfer of energy through protoplanetary disks, where planet formation occurs. The code tracks photons from the star into the disk, through scattering, absorption and re-emission, until they escape to infinity. High optical depths in the disk interior dominate the computation time because it takes the photon packet many interactions to get out of the region. High optical depths also receive few photons and therefore do not have well-estimated temperatures. We applied a modified random walk (MRW) approximation for treating high optical depths and to speed up the Monte Carlo calculations. The MRW is implemented by calculating the average number of interactions the photon packet will undergo in diffusing within a single cell of the spatial grid and then updating the packet position, packet frequencies, and local radiation absorption rate appropriately. The MRW approximation was then tested for accuracy and speed compared to the original code. We determined that MRW provides accurate answers to Monte Carlo Radiative transfer simulations. The speed gained from using MRW is shown to be proportional to the disk mass.

  14. Computational methods for optical molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei; Cong, Wen-Xiang; Wang, Ge

    2010-01-01

    Summary A new computational technique, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method, is presented to model the photon propagation in biological tissue for the optical molecular imaging. Optical properties have significant differences in different organs of small animals, resulting in discontinuous coefficients in the diffusion equation model. Complex organ shape of small animal induces singularities of the geometric model as well. The MIB method is designed as a dimension splitting approach to decompose a multidimensional interface problem into one-dimensional ones. The methodology simplifies the topological relation near an interface and is able to handle discontinuous coefficients and complex interfaces with geometric singularities. In the present MIB method, both the interface jump condition and the photon flux jump conditions are rigorously enforced at the interface location by using only the lowest-order jump conditions. This solution near the interface is smoothly extended across the interface so that central finite difference schemes can be employed without the loss of accuracy. A wide range of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed MIB method. The second-order convergence is maintained in all benchmark problems. The fourth-order convergence is also demonstrated for some three-dimensional problems. The robustness of the proposed method over the variable strength of the linear term of the diffusion equation is also examined. The performance of the present approach is compared with that of the standard finite element method. The numerical study indicates that the proposed method is a potentially efficient and robust approach for the optical molecular imaging. PMID:20485461

  15. A short history of optical computing: rise, decline, and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambs, Pierre

    2009-10-01

    This paper gives a brief historical review of the development of optical computing from the early years, 60 years ago, until today. All the major inventions in the field were made in the sixties, generating a lot of enthusiasm. However it is between 1980 and 2000, that optical computing had its golden age with numerous new technologies and innovating optical processors been designed and constructed for real applications. Today the field of optical computing has evolved and its results benefit to new research topics such as nanooptics, biophotonics, or communication systems.

  16. Computer-controlled optical scanning tile microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Shumyatsky, P; Zeng, F; Zevallos, M; Alfano, R R

    2006-02-20

    A new type of computer-controlled optical scanning, high-magnification imaging system with a large field of view is described that overcomes the commonly believed incompatibility of achieving both high magnification and a large field of view. The new system incorporates galvanometer scanners, a CCD camera, and a high-brightness LED source for the fast acquisition of a large number of a high-resolution segmented tile images with a magnification of 800x for each tile. The captured segmented tile images are combined to create an effective enlarged view of a target totaling 1.6 mm x 1.2 mm in area. The speed and sensitivity of the system make it suitable for high-resolution imaging and monitoring of a small segmented area of 320 microm x 240 microm with 4 microm resolution. Each tile segment of the target can be zoomed up without loss of the high resolution. This new microscope imaging system gives both high magnification and a large field of view. This microscope can be utilized in medicine, biology, semiconductor inspection, device analysis, and quality control. PMID:16523776

  17. Computational design of an optic fiber temperature sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo Caicedo, Damián Andrés

    2012-06-01

    I will present a computational method for the analysis and design of a temperature sensor based on optical fiber. I will combine symbolic and numerical computations using the following software: Maple, for symbolic computation; Ansys: and Quick-Field for the numerical-graph computation of temperature profiles; Opticfiber for the numerical-graph computation of the electromagnetic modes in the fiber optics. The design strategy is to convert the patterns of temperature in changes of the refractive index of the fiber and the detection of changes in the electro-optical normal modes in the fiber. The proposed method has many advantages for the design of optical fiber sensors nowadays, for temperature measurements as well for other physical variables. We will use many special functions of Mathematical Physics such as the error function, Bessel functions, Kummer functions, Heun functiions, Whittaker functions and Laguerre functions. We will use Maple to make very complex computations with such functions.

  18. Hybrid (optical/electronic) computing and digital optical computing. Final report, 1 September 1985-31 August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.

    1988-08-31

    Hybrid optical-analog/electronic computing is performed for optical image processing, optical pattern recognition, and optical solution of partial differential equations. For example, image processing designed and fabricated space-variant filters to optically implement numerous space-variant transformation (e.g., Hough transform for detection of high-order parametric curves, coordinate transforms to detect rotation and scale-invariant features of images, etc.). For spike removal from noisy images, one can develop a new parallel algorithm suitable for optical/analog/electronic hybrid implementation. This parallel algorithm is space-variant and performs better than the space-invariant low-pass filter and the time-consuming median filter. Digital optical computing research develops nonlinear optical devices and studies their uses in parallel architectures for implementation of parallel algorithms. The nonlinear optical devices are based on integrating silicon with PLZT. LPCVD techniques to deposit polycrystalline Si onto the electro-optic PLZT substrate and then recrystallizing the polysilicon using an Ar+ laser are used to produce single crystal silicon grains, to fabricate and test a 12 x 12 electrically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) array and a 16 x 16 optically addressed SLM array. Optical parallel computing architectures are investigated by different interconnection topologies and holographic optical elements are generated to implement fully interconnected and hypercube interconnected topologies.

  19. Spin-wave based realization of optical computing primitives

    SciTech Connect

    Csaba, G. Papp, A.; Porod, W.

    2014-05-07

    We use micromagnetic simulations to demonstrate that spin waves can perform optically inspired, non-Boolean computing algorithms. We propose and design coherent spin-wave sources and phase shifters, which act akin to the key components of an optical signal processing system. We show that the functionality of the proposed on-chip spin-wave based signal processing system is similar to known optical computing devices. We argue that such computing system can serve as a practical, energy efficient, and integrated component of nanoscale image processing systems.

  20. A virtual network computer's optical storage virtualization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianzong; Hu, Huaixiang; Wan, Jiguang; Wang, Peng

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the architecture and implementation of a virtual network computers' (VNC) optical storage virtualization scheme called VOSV. Its task is to manage the mapping of virtual optical storage to physical optical storage, a technique known as optical storage virtualization. The design of VOSV aims at the optical storage resources of different clients and servers that have high read-sharing patterns. VOSV uses several schemes such as a two-level Cache mechanism, a VNC server embedded module and the iSCSI protocols to improve the performance. The results measured on the prototype are encouraging, and indicating that VOSV provides the high I/O performance.

  1. Photonic temporal integrator for all-optical computing.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Radan; Park, Yongwoo; Ayotte, Nicolas; Doucet, Serge; Ahn, Tae-Jung; LaRochelle, Sophie; Azaña, José

    2008-10-27

    We report the first experimental realization of an all-optical temporal integrator. The integrator is implemented using an all-fiber active (gain-assisted) filter based on superimposed fiber Bragg gratings made in an Er-Yb co-doped optical fiber that behaves like an 'optical capacitor'. Functionality of this device was tested by integrating different optical pulses, with time duration down to 60 ps, and by integration of two consecutive pulses that had different relative phases, separated by up to 1 ns. The potential of the developed device for implementing all-optical computing systems for solving ordinary differential equations was also experimentally tested. PMID:18958098

  2. Electron Optics Cannot Be Taught through Computation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how certain concepts basic to electron optics may be introduced to undergraduate physics students by calculating trajectories of charged particles through electrostatic fields which can be evaluated on minicomputers with a minimum of programing effort. (Author/SA)

  3. Optical computing based on neuronal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Nabil H.

    1987-10-01

    Ever since the fit between what neural net models can offer (collective, iterative, nonlinear, robust, and fault-tolerant approach to information processing) and the inherent capabilities of optics (parallelism and massive interconnectivity) was first pointed out and the first optical associative memory demonstrated in 1985, work and interest in neuromorphic optical signal processing has been growing steadily. For example, work in optical associative memories is currently being conducted at several academic institutions (e.g., California Institute of Technology, University of Colorado, University of California-San Diego, Stanford University, University of Rochester, and the author's own institution the University of Pennsylvania) and at several industrial and governmental laboratories (e.g., Hughes Research Laboratories - Malibu, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory). In these efforts, in addition to the vector matrix multiplication with thresholding and feedback scheme utilized in early implementations, an arsenal of sophisticated optical tools such as holographic storage, phase conjugate optics, and wavefront modulation and mixing are being drawn on to realize associative memory functions.

  4. Computed tomographic identification of calcified optic nerve drusen

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, H.; Blatt, E.S.; Hibri, N.S.

    1983-07-01

    Four cases of optic disk drusen were accurately diagnosed with orbital computed tomography (CT). The radiologist should be aware of the characteristic CT finding of discrete calcification within an otherwise normal optic disk. This benign process is easily differentiated from lesions such as calcific neoplastic processes of the posterior globe. CT identification of optic disk drusen is essential in the evaluation of visual field defects, migraine-like headaches, and pseudopapilledema.

  5. Optical computed tomography liquid calibration phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, K.

    2013-06-01

    Fluorinated ethylene propylene tubing is investigated as a method of preparing a contrast-resolution phantom for quantitative characterization of optical CT scanners and hydrogel dosimeters. Two sizes of tubing were examined: 6 and 13 mm inner diameter with 0.75 and 0.5 mm wall thicknesses, respectively. Water solutions of carbon black, nanoparticles in micelles provided continuously adjustable absorption contrast. Cross-sectional slices from two phantoms scanned with two different optical CT scanners are presented. Reconstructions from these simple phantoms can be used to identify scanner artefacts and improve instrument design. These phantoms represent a more reproducible approach than casting "gel fingers" into gel phantoms for system characterization. The thinner walled tubes have fewer optical artefacts.

  6. Applied study of optical interconnection link in computer cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ge; Tian, Jindong; Zhang, Nan; Jing, Wencai; Li, Haifeng

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, some study results to apply fiber link to a computer cluster are presented. The research is based on a ring network topology for a cluster system, which is connected by gigabit/s virtual parallel optical fiber link (VPOFLink) and its driver is for Linux Operating System, the transmission protocol of VPOFLink is compliant with Ethernet standard. We have studied the effect of different types of motherboard on transmission rate of the VPOFLink, and have analyzed the influence of optical interconnection network topology and computer networks protocol on the performance of this optical interconnection computer cluster. The round-trip transmission bandwidth of the VPOFLink have been tested, and the factors that limit transmission bandwidth, such as modes of forwarding data packets in the optical interconnection ring networks, and the size of the link buffer etc., are investigated.

  7. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    PubMed

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-01

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers. PMID:24921786

  8. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory for Personal Computers and Workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, G. H.; Hill, B.; Brown, N.; Martono, H.; Moore, J.; Babcock, C.

    1997-05-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) is a new software concept to aid both students and professionals in modeling charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. The PBO Lab has been designed to run on several computer platforms and includes four key elements: a graphic user interface shell; (2) a knowledge database on electric and magnetic optics elements, including interactive tutorials on the physics of charged particle optics and on the technology used in particle optics hardware; (3) a graphic construction kit for users to interactively and visually construct optical beam lines; and (4) a set of charged particle optics computational engines that compute transport matrices, beam envelopes and trajectories, fit parameters to optical constraints, and carry out similar calculations for the graphically-defined beam lines. The primary computational engines in the first generation PBO Lab are the third-order TRANSPORT code, the multiple ray tracing program TURTLE, and a new first-order matrix code that includes an envelope space charge model with support for calculating single trajectories in the presence of the beam space charge. Progress on the PBO Lab development is described and a demonstration will be given.

  9. Computing Temperatures In Optically Pumped Laser Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrukh, Usamah O.

    1991-01-01

    Computer program presents new model solving temperature-distribution problem for laser rods of finite length and calculates both radial and axial components of temperature distributions in these rods. Contains several self-checking schemes to prevent over-writing of memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  10. Recent Advances in Photonic Devices for Optical Computing and the Role of Nonlinear Optics-Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis E.; Paley, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The twentieth century has been the era of semiconductor materials and electronic technology while this millennium is expected to be the age of photonic materials and all-optical technology. Optical technology has led to countless optical devices that have become indispensable in our daily lives in storage area networks, parallel processing, optical switches, all-optical data networks, holographic storage devices, and biometric devices at airports. This chapters intends to bring some awareness to the state-of-the-art of optical technologies, which have potential for optical computing and demonstrate the role of nonlinear optics in many of these components. Our intent, in this Chapter, is to present an overview of the current status of optical computing, and a brief evaluation of the recent advances and performance of the following key components necessary to build an optical computing system: all-optical logic gates, adders, optical processors, optical storage, holographic storage, optical interconnects, spatial light modulators and optical materials.

  11. REVIEW: Optical neural computers based on photorefractive crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel'dyugin, Igor'M.; Zolotarev, M. V.; Sviridov, K. A.

    1992-05-01

    The results are given of recent investigations of the feasibility of using photorefractive crystals in the construction of optical neural computers and of associative memories. The physical basis of the interaction of laser radiation with photorefractive crystals is given and the principles governing the formation of an all-optical neuron and of links (synapses) between neurons in such crystals are discussed. An analysis is made of the learning capabilities of various models of neural networks (Boltzmann machine, perceptron, associatron, neural networks with competition, etc.) and optical systems implementing these models with the aid of photorefractive crystals are described. Extensive experimental data are reported and the results are given of modeling of various tasks (multidimensional optimization, image recognition, etc.) by optical neural computers.

  12. CALL FOR PAPERS: Optical implementation of quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rarity, John; Weinfurter, Harald

    2004-09-01

    A topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will be devoted to recent advances in optical implementation of quantum computers. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bullet Linear optics quantum gates bullet Progress towards nonlinear optics quantum gates bullet Interface between optical qubits and atomic/solid state qubits bullet Novel architectures bullet Single-photon sources and detectors bullet Photonic quantum networks bullet Few-qubit applications The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 15 January 2005 to allow the topical issue to be published in about October 2005. All contributions will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the normal refereeing procedures and standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. Submissions should preferably be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. Advice on publishing your work in the journal may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb. There are no page charges for publication. The corresponding author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Contributions to the topical issue should preferably be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb or by e-mail to jopb@iop.org. Authors unable to submit online or by e-mail may send hard copy contributions (enclosing the electronic code) to: Dr Claire Bedrock (Publisher), Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics, Institute of Physics Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. All contributions should be accompanied by a readme file or covering letter, quoting `JOPB Topical Issue - Optical implementation of quantum computers', giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. Any subsequent change of address should be notified to the publishing office. We look forward to receiving your contribution to this topical issue.

  13. Optical processing for future computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, A.; Haugen, P. R.; Hutcheson, L. D.; Warrior, J.; Murray, N.; Beatty, M.

    1986-01-01

    In the development of future data management systems, such as the NASA Space Station, a major problem represents the design and implementation of a high performance communication network which is self-correcting and repairing, flexible, and evolvable. To obtain the goal of designing such a network, it will be essential to incorporate distributed adaptive network control techniques. The present paper provides an outline of the functional and communication network requirements for the Space Station data management system. Attention is given to the mathematical representation of the operations being carried out to provide the required functionality at each layer of communication protocol on the model. The possible implementation of specific communication functions in optics is also considered.

  14. An optical pattern classification using computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiki, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Kenji; Shimizu, Eiji

    1990-07-01

    An optical pattern classification system is proposed which performs weighting and summation by the optical system using computer-generated holograms (CGHs). The system makes it possible to simplify the structure and to improve the processing speed. A trainable pattern classification system which performs weight modification by using a CGH matrix and a dot matrix liquid crystal display (LCD) as a shutter array is proposed. The trainable pattern classifier using a CGH matrix and LCD is described, and the experimental results are presented.

  15. Optical signal processing using photonic reservoir computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Dehyadegari, Louiza

    2014-10-01

    As a new approach to recognition and classification problems, photonic reservoir computing has such advantages as parallel information processing, power efficient and high speed. In this paper, a photonic structure has been proposed for reservoir computing which is investigated using a simple, yet, non-partial noisy time series prediction task. This study includes the application of a suitable topology with self-feedbacks in a network of SOA's - which lends the system a strong memory - and leads to adjusting adequate parameters resulting in perfect recognition accuracy (100%) for noise-free time series, which shows a 3% improvement over previous results. For the classification of noisy time series, the rate of accuracy showed a 4% increase and amounted to 96%. Furthermore, an analytical approach was suggested to solve rate equations which led to a substantial decrease in the simulation time, which is an important parameter in classification of large signals such as speech recognition, and better results came up compared with previous works.

  16. Morphing for faster computations in transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Aznavourian, Ronald; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2014-11-17

    We propose to use morphing algorithms to deduce some approximate wave pictures of scattering by cylindrical invisibility cloaks of various shapes deduced from the exact computation (e.g. using a finite element method) of scattering by cloaks of two given shapes, say circular and elliptic ones, thereafter called the source and destination images. The error in L(2) norm between the exact and approximate solutions deduced via morphing from the source and destination images is typically less than 2 percent if control points are judiciously chosen. Our approach works equally well for rotators and concentrators, and also unveils some device which we call rotacon since it both rotates and concentrates electromagnetic fields. However, it breaks down for superscatterers (deduced from non-monotonic transforms): the error in L(2) norm is about 25 percent. We stress that our approach might greatly accelerate numerical studies of 2D and 3D cloaks. PMID:25402072

  17. A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Milburn, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computers promise to increase greatly the efficiency of solving problems such as factoring large integers, combinatorial optimization and quantum physics simulation. One of the greatest challenges now is to implement the basic quantum-computational elements in a physical system and to demonstrate that they can be reliably and scalably controlled. One of the earliest proposals for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two optical modes containing one photon. The proposal is appealing because of the ease with which photon interference can be observed. Until now, it suffered from the requirement for non-linear couplings between optical modes containing few photons. Here we show that efficient quantum computation is possible using only beam splitters, phase shifters, single photon sources and photo-detectors. Our methods exploit feedback from photo-detectors and are robust against errors from photon loss and detector inefficiency. The basic elements are accessible to experimental investigation with current technology.

  18. High energy charged particle optics computer programs

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.

    1980-09-01

    The computer programs TRANSPORT and TURTLE are described, with special emphasis on recent developments. TRANSPORT is a general matrix evaluation and fitting program. First and second-order transfer matrix elements, including those contributing to time-of-flight differences can be evaluated. Matrix elements of both orders can be fit, separately or simultaneously. Floor coordinates of the beam line may be calculated and included in any fits. Tables of results of misalignments, including effects of bilinear terms can be produced. Fringe fields and pole face rotation angles of bending magnets may be included and also adjusted automatically during the fitting process to produce rectangular magnets. A great variety of output options are available. TURTLE is a Monte Carlo program used to simulate beam line performance. It includes second-order terms and aperture constraints. Replacable subroutines allow an unliminated variety of input beam distributions, scattering algorithms, variables which can be histogrammed, and aperture shapes. Histograms of beam loss can also be produced. Rectangular zero-gradient bending magnets with proper circular trajectories, sagitta offsets, pole face rotation angles, and aperture constraints can be included. The effect of multiple components of quadrupoles up to 40 poles can be evaluated.

  19. Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution real-time tomography of biological tissues is important for many areas of biological investigations and medical applications. Cellular level optical tomography, however, has been challenging because of the compromise between transverse imaging resolution and depth-of-field, the system and sample aberrations that may be present, and the low imaging sensitivity deep in scattering tissues. The use of computed optical imaging techniques has the potential to address several of these long-standing limitations and challenges. Two related techniques are interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO). Through three-dimensional Fourierdomain resampling, in combination with high-speed OCT, ISAM can be used to achieve high-resolution in vivo tomography with enhanced depth sensitivity over a depth-of-field extended by more than an order-of-magnitude, in realtime. Subsequently, aberration correction with CAO can be performed in a tomogram, rather than to the optical beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on principles of Fourier optics, aberration correction with CAO is performed on a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials, offering the potential to augment or even replace the more complicated and expensive adaptive optics hardware with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer. Interferometric tomographic reconstructions are characterized with tissue phantoms containing sub-resolution scattering particles, and in both ex vivo and in vivo biological tissue. This review will collectively establish the foundation for high-speed volumetric cellular-level optical interferometric tomography in living tissues.

  20. RADIAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF AIR CONTAMINANTS USING OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the application of an optical remote-sensing (ORS) system to map air contaminants and locate fugitive emissions. Many ORD systems may utilize radial non-overlapping beam geometry and a computed tomography (CT) algorithm to map the concentrations in a plane. In...

  1. QNIX: A Linear Optical Architecture for Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno-Segovia, Mercedes; Shadbolt, Peter J.; Rudolph, Terry G.; Browne, Dan E.; Mendoza, Gabriel; Russell, Nicholas J.; Silverstone, Joshua W.; Santamato, Alberto; Carolan, Jacques; O'Brien, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    There is currently a great deal of effort to develop a large-scale quantum computer, and one of the most promising platforms to do so is integrated linear optics. We present a proposal for a dynamical scheme for an integrated linear optics implementation of a one-way quantum computer. We go beyond the purely theoretical work and address practical issues in order to create a physically realistic design. We describe every step of cluster state construction and processing, showing the outstanding issues left to be addressed and our contributions to the different stages of the dynamical process. These include optimised interferometers for the generation of GHZ states, a universal and scalable architecture which requires entangled sources of no more than 3 photons with no active feed-forward, and loss-tolerant and fault-tolerant strategies specifically tailored to our proposed architecture. Our work demonstrates that building a linear optical quantum computer need be less challenging than previously thought, and brings large-scale switch-free linear optical architectures for quantum computing much closer to experimental realisation.

  2. Beam steering by computer generated hologram for optical switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Joji

    2016-02-01

    We describe a computer generated hologram (CGH) method for application to a multiple input and multiple output (MxN) optical switch based on a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS). The conventional MxN optical switch needs multiple spatial light modulations. However, the CGH method realizes an MxN optical switch simply with a one-time spatial light modulation, resulting in fewer optical elements and better cost efficiency. Moreover, the intrinsic loss of the proposed MxN switch resulting from beam splitting can be reduced by routing multiple signals with a single knob control, which is called a multi-pole multi-throw switch. In this paper, we demonstrate a 5x5 wavelength selective switch (WSS) and a 2-degree ROADM that we realized using the above CGH method. The experimental results indicate that these switches work well with a crosstalk of < -14.9 dB.

  3. Toward optical signal processing using photonic reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dierckx, Wouter; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Verstraeten, David; Baets, Roel; Bienstman, Peter; Van Campenhout, Jan

    2008-07-21

    We propose photonic reservoir computing as a new approach to optical signal processing in the context of large scale pattern recognition problems. Photonic reservoir computing is a photonic implementation of the recently proposed reservoir computing concept, where the dynamics of a network of nonlinear elements are exploited to perform general signal processing tasks. In our proposed photonic implementation, we employ a network of coupled Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) as the basic building blocks for the reservoir. Although they differ in many key respects from traditional software-based hyperbolic tangent reservoirs, we show using simulations that such a photonic reservoir can outperform traditional reservoirs on a benchmark classification task. Moreover, a photonic implementation offers the promise of massively parallel information processing with low power and high speed. PMID:18648434

  4. Fiber Optics For High Speed Computer Input/Output Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, J. D.; Comerford, L. D.; Johnson, M.; Lynch, R. T.; Rogers, D. L.; Widmer, A. X.

    1982-10-01

    In a mainframe computing system, the transfer of data between the processor/memory and the input/output/storage subsystems is done on the I/O channel links. With the demands for computing power increasing at above 40% per year, there is an ever increasing demand for more channel links and more performance on the link. Recent enhancements of the channel protocols make it possible to push the data transfer rate to the hardware limit due to the skew of bits on the parallel lines of the current link. The serialization of the interface with a fiber optic implementation would offer the potential of even more performance from the I/O Channel. For fiber optics to be attractive, the components must offer performance in the hundreds of Mbits/sec, with high reliability (less than 10-12 BER), low power consumption, small packaging profile, and low cost. To date, such components are not commercially available. At IBM Research, a 200 Mbit/sec, 1 km prototype serial subsystem has been built with emphasis on the development of attractive electro-optic components. Laser packaging was done using a Si chip as the substrate for both laser and fiber. A single chip, high sensitivity receiver was built with a digital IBM logic gate array chip. A monolithic dual laser chip and package were developed to enhance the availability of the transmitter. This talk will discuss the features of these developments and the possibilities for fiber optics in a large computer system.

  5. Computational Modeling of Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Optical Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There is an emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. rib build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. Accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Here, the computer simulations are made by solving the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, coupled with the semiconductor Bloch equations, without any approximations. The carrier is retained in the description of the optical pulse, (i.e. the envelope approximation is not made in the Maxwell's equations), and the rotating wave approximation is not made in the Bloch equations. These coupled equations are solved to simulate the propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductor materials. The simulations describe the dynamics of the optical pulses, as well as the interband and intraband.

  6. Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Weng, Jiantong; Sakurai, Takahiro; Okada, Naohisa; Nishitsuji, Takashi; Takada, Naoki; Shiraki, Atsushi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Diffraction calculations, such as the angular spectrum method and Fresnel diffractions, are used for calculating scalar light propagation. The calculations are used in wide-ranging optics fields: for example, Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), digital holography, diffractive optical elements, microscopy, image encryption and decryption, three-dimensional analysis for optical devices and so on. However, increasing demands made by large-scale diffraction calculations have rendered the computational power of recent computers insufficient. We have already developed a numerical library for diffraction calculations using a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU), which was named the GWO library. However, this GWO library is not user-friendly, since it is based on C language and was also run only on a GPU. In this paper, we develop a new C++ class library for diffraction and CGH calculations, which is referred to as a CWO++ library, running on a CPU and GPU. We also describe the structure, performance, and usage examples of the CWO++ library. Program summaryProgram title: CWO++ Catalogue identifier: AELL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 109 809 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 181 911 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: General computers and general computers with NVIDIA GPUs Operating system: Windows XP, Vista, 7 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. 1 core processor used in CPU and many cores in GPU. RAM: 256 M bytes Classification: 18 External routines: CImg, FFTW Nature of problem: The CWO++ library provides diffraction calculations which are useful for Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), digital holography, diffractive

  7. Computational analysis of endometrial photocoagulation with diffusing optical device

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jinhee; Lee, Chang-Yong; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2013-01-01

    A balloon-catheter optical diffuser for endometrial treatment was evaluated with computational thermal analysis. Various catheter materials and dimensions were implemented to identify the optimal design for the device. Spatial and temporal development of temperature during 30-sec irradiation of 532-nm light demonstrated thermal insulation effects of polyurethane on temperature increase up to 384 K, facilitating the irreversible denaturation. The current model revealed the degree of thermal coagulation 13% thicker than experimental results possibly due to lack of tissue dynamics and light intensity distribution. In combination with photon distribution, the analytical simulation can be a feasible tool to optimize the new optical diffuser for efficient and safe endometrial treatment. PMID:24298406

  8. Note: Computer controlled rotation mount for large diameter optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakonjac, Ana; Roberts, Kris O.; Deb, Amita B.; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2013-02-01

    We describe the construction of a motorized optical rotation mount with a 40 mm clear aperture. The device is used to remotely control the power of large diameter laser beams for a magneto-optical trap. A piezo-electric ultrasonic motor on a printed circuit board provides rotation with a precision better than 0.03° and allows for a very compact design. The rotation unit is controlled from a computer via serial communication, making integration into most software control platforms straightforward.

  9. Cooperative integration of stereopsis and optic flow computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, G.; Banerjee, Subhashis; Biswas, K. K.; Bahl, R.

    1995-12-01

    A cooperative integration of stereopsis and optic flow computation is presented. Central to our approach is the modeling of the visual processes as a sequence of coupled Markov random fields by definition of suitable interprocess interactions based on some natural constraints. The integration makes each of the individual processes better constrained and more reliable. Further, as a result of the integration, it becomes possible to obtain accurately the discontinuities in both the flow and the disparity fields along with the regions of stereo occlusion. Results on both noisy synthetic image data and real images are presented. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  10. Validation of a Prototype Optical Computed Tomography System

    PubMed Central

    Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Molazadeh, Mikaeil; Takavar, Abbas; Shirazi, Alireza; Mesbahi, Asghar; Zeinali, Ahad

    2015-01-01

    In radiation cancer treatments, the most of the side effects could be minimized using a proper dosimeter. Gel dosimeter is the only three-dimensional dosimeter and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard method for gel dosimeter readout. Because of hard accessibility and high cost of sample reading by MRI systems, some other alternative methods were developed. The optical computed tomography (OCT) method could be considered as the most promising alternative method that has been studied widely. In the current study, gel dosimeter scanning using a prototype optical scanner and validation of this optical scanner was performed. Optical absorbance of the irradiated gel samples was determined by both of conventional spectrophotometer and the fabricated OCT system at 632 nm. Furthermore, these irradiated vials were scanned by a 1.5 T MRI. The slope of the curves was extracted as the dose-response sensitivity. The R2-dose sensitivity measured by MRI method was 0.1904 and 0.113 for NIPAM and PAGAT gels, respectively. The optical dose sensitivity obtained by conventional spectrophotometer and the fabricated optical scanner was 0.0453 and 0.0442 for NIPAM gels and 0.0244 and 0.0242 for PAGAT gels, respectively. The scanning results of the absorbed dose values showed that the new OCT and conventional spectrophotometer were in fair agreement. From the results, it could be concluded that the fabricated system is able to quantize the absorbed dose values in polymer gel samples with acceptable accuracy. PMID:26120572

  11. Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.

  12. Parallel multithread computing for spectroscopic analysis in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, Michal; Kraszewski, Maciej; Strakowski, Marcin; Pluciński, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) is an extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). It allows gathering spectroscopic information from individual scattering points inside the sample. It is based on time-frequency analysis of interferometric signals. Such analysis requires calculating hundreds of Fourier transforms while performing a single A-scan. Additionally, further processing of acquired spectroscopic information is needed. This significantly increases the time of required computations. During last years, application of graphical processing units (GPU's) was proposed to reduce computation time in OCT by using parallel computing algorithms. GPU technology can be also used to speed-up signal processing in SOCT. However, parallel algorithms used in classical OCT need to be revised because of different character of analyzed data. The classical OCT requires processing of long, independent interferometric signals for obtaining subsequent A-scans. The difference with SOCT is that it requires processing of multiple, shorter signals, which differ only in a small part of samples. We have developed new algorithms for parallel signal processing for usage in SOCT, implemented with NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). We present details of the algorithms and performance tests for analyzing data from in-house SD-OCT system. We also give a brief discussion about usefulness of developed algorithm. Presented algorithms might be useful for researchers working on OCT, as they allow to reduce computation time and are step toward real-time signal processing of SOCT data.

  13. A Degenerate Optical Parametric Oscillator Network for Coherent Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Marandi, Alireza; Takata, Kenta; Byer, Robert L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    Laws of physics have proved useful for solving combinatorial optimization problems. This chapter introduces a network of degenerate optical parametric oscillators which takes advantage of principles of quantum optics to tackle NP-hard problems. The underlying mechanism originates from the bistability of the output phase of each oscillator, coherent interactions between coupled oscillators, and the inherent preference of the network for oscillating in a mode with the minimum photon loss. Computational experiments have been extensively performed using instances of an NP-hard problem in graph theory with the number of vertices ranging from 4 to 20000. The numerical results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the network. In addition, the network can be physically implemented on a single ring cavity with multiple trains of femtosecond pulses and configurable mutual couplings. The implementation has been realized for the instance on the cubic graph with 4 vertices, and no computational error is detected in 1000 runs.

  14. Digital optical computing II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 17-19, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Arrathoon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on digital optical computing are presented. Individual topics addressed include: complexity of networks realized by fiber optic logic elements, optoelectric arrays for hybrid optical/electronic computing, monolithic model-locked laser arrays in optical computing, three-dimensional multistage interconnection networks, optical fiber crossbar switch, multidimensional optical interconnection networks, high-speed photodetectors, disorder-delineated semiconductor waveguides, quantum well structures for integrated optoelectronics, electrooptic polymers for optical interconnects, hybrid content-addressable memory MSD arithmetic, new concept for a photonic switch, digital fiber optic-delay-line memory, optical neural networks using smectic liquid crystals, speech recognition using optical neural networks, solid optical correlators, hybrid optical/digital neural network, unified optical symbolic substitution processor, hybrid higher-order optical symbolic recognition, optoelectronic multilayer network.

  15. Optical computing and image processing using photorefractive gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Duncan T. H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent experimental results on matrix-vector multiplication and multiple four-wave mixing using GaAs are presented. Attention is given to a simple concept of using two overlapping holograms in GaAs to do two matrix-vector multiplication processes operating in parallel with a common input vector. This concept can be used to construct high-speed, high-capacity, reconfigurable interconnection and multiplexing modules, important for optical computing and neural-network applications.

  16. Optical design and characterization of an advanced computational imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, R. Hamilton; Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Raskar, Ramesh; Shi, Boxin; Barsi, Christopher; Zhao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    We describe an advanced computational imaging system with an optical architecture that enables simultaneous and dynamic pupil-plane and image-plane coding accommodating several task-specific applications. We assess the optical requirement trades associated with custom and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) optics and converge on the development of two low-cost and robust COTS testbeds. The first is a coded-aperture programmable pixel imager employing a digital micromirror device (DMD) for image plane per-pixel oversampling and spatial super-resolution experiments. The second is a simultaneous pupil-encoded and time-encoded imager employing a DMD for pupil apodization or a deformable mirror for wavefront coding experiments. These two testbeds are built to leverage two MIT Lincoln Laboratory focal plane arrays - an orthogonal transfer CCD with non-uniform pixel sampling and on-chip dithering and a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) with advanced on-chip per-pixel processing capabilities. This paper discusses the derivation of optical component requirements, optical design metrics, and performance analyses for the two testbeds built.

  17. A Simple Physical Optics Algorithm Perfect for Parallel Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Cwik, T.

    1993-01-01

    One of the simplest reflector antenna computer programs is based upon a discrete approximation of the radiation integral. This calculation replaces the actual reflector surface with a triangular facet representation so that the reflector resembles a geodesic dome. The Physical Optics (PO) current is assumed to be constant in magnitude and phase over each facet so the radiation integral is reduced to a simple summation. This program has proven to be surprisingly robust and useful for the analysis of arbitrary reflectors, particularly when the near-field is desired and surface derivatives are not known. Because of its simplicity, the algorithm has proven to be extremely easy to adapt to the parallel computing architecture of a modest number of large-grain computing elements such as are used in the Intel iPSC and Touchstone Delta parallel machines.

  18. Non-diffusing photochromic gel for optical computed tomography phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, K.

    2013-06-01

    This study examines photochromic response in radiation sensitive hydrogels. Genipin, crosslinked, gelatin gel can support high resolution images because the chromophores do not diffuse. A low power, 633 nm He-Ne laser was used to write lines into the gels by a photobleaching reaction. Optical cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans mapped the high resolution images in 3D with 0.25 mm voxel resolution. A straight line was written into a deformed gel and then readout in its relaxed, initial shape. The curved, photo-bleached line demonstrated deformable 3D dosimetry is possible with this system to the balloon edge. High resolution, photochromic images provide key information for characterizing optical CT scanners and 3D dosimeters. Many, ionizing radiation, dosimeter materials demonstrate either a photochromic or photothermal response, allowing this approach to be widely used in quantitative 3D scanning.

  19. Performance of latex balloons for optical computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, K.; Walsh, A.; Peng, M.; Battista, J.

    2013-06-01

    Latex balloons filled with radiation sensitive hydrogels were evaluated as 3D dosimeters with optical computed tomography (CT) readout. Custom balloons, with less than 10 cm diameters, were made from latex sheets. Commercial, 13 cm diameter, clear balloons were investigated for larger volumes. Ferrous-xylenol orange and genipin gelatin gels selected for 1 and 30 Gy experiments, respectively. The thin stretched latex membrane allowed optical imaging to within 1 mm of the interior balloon edge. Reconstructed dose distributions demonstrated valid measurements to within 2 mm of the balloon surface. The rubber membrane provides a hybrid approach to deforming hydrogels. Uniform irradiation of a deformed gel resulted in a uniform dose being measured when scanned in the relaxed, initial balloon shape. The 13 cm diameter balloons were also effective and inexpensive vessels for hydrogels due to their high clarity, thinness and mechanical strength. Latex balloons represent an inexpensive method to obtain useful information from nearly the entire dosimeter volume.

  20. Reconfigurable optical interconnections via dynamic computer-generated holograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor); Zhou, Shaomin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system is proposed for optically providing one-to-many irregular interconnections, and strength-adjustable many-to-many irregular interconnections which may be provided with strengths (weights) w(sub ij) using multiple laser beams which address multiple holograms and means for combining the beams modified by the holograms to form multiple interconnections, such as a cross-bar switching network. The optical means for interconnection is based on entering a series of complex computer-generated holograms on an electrically addressed spatial light modulator for real-time reconfigurations, thus providing flexibility for interconnection networks for largescale practical use. By employing multiple sources and holograms, the number of interconnection patterns achieved is increased greatly.

  1. Reconfigurable Optical Interconnections Via Dynamic Computer-Generated Holograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor); Zhou, Shao-Min (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system is presented for optically providing one-to-many irregular interconnections, and strength-adjustable many-to-many irregular interconnections which may be provided with strengths (weights) w(sub ij) using multiple laser beams which address multiple holograms and means for combining the beams modified by the holograms to form multiple interconnections, such as a cross-bar switching network. The optical means for interconnection is based on entering a series of complex computer-generated holograms on an electrically addressed spatial light modulator for real-time reconfigurations, thus providing flexibility for interconnection networks for large-scale practical use. By employing multiple sources and holograms, the number of interconnection patterns achieved is increased greatly.

  2. Fault tolerance in parity-state linear optical quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A. J. F.; Ralph, T. C.; Haselgrove, H. L.; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2010-08-15

    We use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to calculate the noise threshold and resource requirements for a linear optical quantum computing scheme based on parity-state encoding. Parity-state encoding is used at the lowest level of code concatenation in order to efficiently correct errors arising from the inherent nondeterminism of two-qubit linear-optical gates. When combined with teleported error-correction (using either a Steane or Golay code) at higher levels of concatenation, the parity-state scheme is found to achieve a saving of approximately three orders of magnitude in resources when compared to the cluster state scheme, at a cost of a somewhat reduced noise threshold.

  3. Multi-aperture optics as a universal platform for computational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanida, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Computational imaging is a novel imaging framework based on optical encoding and computational decoding. To avoid a heuristic design that depends on the particular problem to be solved, multi-aperture optics is useful as a universal platform for optical encoding. In this paper, the fundamental properties of multi-aperture optics are summarized. Then some examples of interesting functions implemented by multi-aperture optics are explained, together with some effective applications.

  4. GPU-based computational adaptive optics for volumetric optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Han; Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Untracht, Gavrielle R.; Zhang, Xihao; Adie, Steven G.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that measures reflectance from within biological tissues. Current higher-NA optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technologies with near cellular resolution have limitations on volumetric imaging capabilities due to the trade-offs between resolution vs. depth-of-field and sensitivity to aberrations. Such trade-offs can be addressed using computational adaptive optics (CAO), which corrects aberration computationally for all depths based on the complex optical field measured by OCT. However, due to the large size of datasets plus the computational complexity of CAO and OCT algorithms, it is a challenge to achieve high-resolution 3D-OCM reconstructions at speeds suitable for clinical and research OCM imaging. In recent years, real-time OCT reconstruction incorporating both dispersion and defocus correction has been achieved through parallel computing on graphics processing units (GPUs). We add to these methods by implementing depth-dependent aberration correction for volumetric OCM using plane-by-plane phase deconvolution. Following both defocus and aberration correction, our reconstruction algorithm achieved depth-independent transverse resolution of 2.8 um, equal to the diffraction-limited focal plane resolution. We have translated the CAO algorithm to a CUDA code implementation and tested the speed of the software in real-time using two GPUs - NVIDIA Quadro K600 and Geforce TITAN Z. For a data volume containing 4096×256×256 voxels, our system's processing speed can keep up with the 60 kHz acquisition rate of the line-scan camera, and takes 1.09 seconds to simultaneously update the CAO correction for 3 en face planes at user-selectable depths.

  5. Deblurring for spatial and temporal varying motion with optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiao; Xue, Dongfeng; Hui, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    A way to estimate and remove spatially and temporally varying motion blur is proposed, which is based on an optical computing system. The translation and rotation motion can be independently estimated from the joint transform correlator (JTC) system without iterative optimization. The inspiration comes from the fact that the JTC system is immune to rotation motion in a Cartesian coordinate system. The work scheme of the JTC system is designed to keep switching between the Cartesian coordinate system and polar coordinate system in different time intervals with the ping-pang handover. In the ping interval, the JTC system works in the Cartesian coordinate system to obtain a translation motion vector with optical computing speed. In the pang interval, the JTC system works in the polar coordinate system. The rotation motion is transformed to the translation motion through coordinate transformation. Then the rotation motion vector can also be obtained from JTC instantaneously. To deal with continuous spatially variant motion blur, submotion vectors based on the projective motion path blur model are proposed. The submotion vectors model is more effective and accurate at modeling spatially variant motion blur than conventional methods. The simulation and real experiment results demonstrate its overall effectiveness.

  6. Multiscale modeling and computation of optically manipulated nano devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Gang; Liu, Di; Luo, Songting

    2016-07-01

    We present a multiscale modeling and computational scheme for optical-mechanical responses of nanostructures. The multi-physical nature of the problem is a result of the interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) field, the molecular motion, and the electronic excitation. To balance accuracy and complexity, we adopt the semi-classical approach that the EM field is described classically by the Maxwell equations, and the charged particles follow the Schrödinger equations quantum mechanically. To overcome the numerical challenge of solving the high dimensional multi-component many-body Schrödinger equations, we further simplify the model with the Ehrenfest molecular dynamics to determine the motion of the nuclei, and use the Time-Dependent Current Density Functional Theory (TD-CDFT) to calculate the excitation of the electrons. This leads to a system of coupled equations that computes the electromagnetic field, the nuclear positions, and the electronic current and charge densities simultaneously. In the regime of linear responses, the resonant frequencies initiating the out-of-equilibrium optical-mechanical responses can be formulated as an eigenvalue problem. A self-consistent multiscale method is designed to deal with the well separated space scales. The isomerization of azobenzene is presented as a numerical example.

  7. Computer-assisted optics teaching at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboleva, Natalia N.; Kozel, Stanislav M.; Lockshin, Gennady R.; Entin, M. A.; Galichsky, K. V.; Lebedinsky, P. L.; Zhdanovich, P. M.

    1995-10-01

    Traditional methods used in optics teaching lack clarity and vividness when illustrating abstract notions such as polarization or interference. Here's where computer models may help, but they usually show only a single phenomenon or process and don't let the student see the entire picture. For this reason at Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology was developed the courseware 'Wave Optics on the Computer' consisting of a number of related simulations. It is intended for students studying optics at the Universities. Recently we have developed different simulations in optics for secondary school level. They are included as part of large computer courseware 'Physics by Pictures'. The courseware 'Wave Optics on the Computer' consists of nine large simulation programs and the textbook. The programs are simulating basic phenomena of wave optics. parameters of optical systems can be varied by the user. The textbook contains theoretical considerations on studied optical phenomena, recommendations concerning work with computer programs, and, especially for those wishing to deeper understand wave optics, original problems for individual solution. At the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology the course 'Wave Optics on the Computer' is used for teaching optics in the course of general physics. The course provides both the computer assisted teaching for lectures support and computer assisted learning for students during seminars in the computer classroom.

  8. Analysis of an Atom-Optical Architecture for Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, Simon J.; Stephens, Ashley M.; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

    Quantum technology based on photons has emerged as one of the most promising platforms for quantum information processing, having already been used in proof-of-principle demonstrations of quantum communication and quantum computation. However, the scalability of this technology depends on the successful integration of experimentally feasible devices in an architecture that tolerates realistic errors and imperfections. Here, we analyse an atom-optical architecture for quantum computation designed to meet the requirements of scalability. The architecture is based on a modular atom-cavity device that provides an effective photon-photon interaction, allowing for the rapid, deterministic preparation of a large class of entangled states. We begin our analysis at the physical level, where we outline the experimental cavity quantum electrodynamics requirements of the basic device. Then, we describe how a scalable network of these devices can be used to prepare a three-dimensional topological cluster state, sufficient for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation. We conclude at the application level, where we estimate the system-level requirements of the architecture executing an algorithm compiled for compatibility with the topological cluster state.

  9. Computational Nanophotonics: Model Optical Interactions and Transport in Tailored Nanosystem Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, Mark; Gray, Steven

    2014-02-21

    The program is directed toward development of new computational approaches to photoprocesses in nanostructures whose geometry and composition are tailored to obtain desirable optical responses. The emphasis of this specific program is on the development of computational methods and prediction and computational theory of new phenomena of optical energy transfer and transformation on the extreme nanoscale (down to a few nanometers).

  10. High-fidelity linear optical quantum computing with polarization encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Spedalieri, Federico M.; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-15

    We show that the KLM scheme [Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001)] can be implemented using polarization encoding, thus reducing the number of path modes required by half. One of the main advantages of this new implementation is that it naturally incorporates a loss detection mechanism that makes the probability of a gate introducing a non-detected error, when non-ideal detectors are considered, dependent only on the detector dark-count rate and independent of its efficiency. Since very low dark-count rate detectors are currently available, a high-fidelity gate (probability of error of order 10{sup -6} conditional on the gate being successful) can be implemented using polarization encoding. The detector efficiency determines the overall success probability of the gate but does not affect its fidelity. This can be applied to the efficient construction of optical cluster states with very high fidelity for quantum computing.

  11. What can quantum optics say about computational complexity theory?

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Lund, Austin P; Ralph, Timothy C

    2015-02-13

    Considering the problem of sampling from the output photon-counting probability distribution of a linear-optical network for input Gaussian states, we obtain results that are of interest from both quantum theory and the computational complexity theory point of view. We derive a general formula for calculating the output probabilities, and by considering input thermal states, we show that the output probabilities are proportional to permanents of positive-semidefinite Hermitian matrices. It is believed that approximating permanents of complex matrices in general is a #P-hard problem. However, we show that these permanents can be approximated with an algorithm in the BPP^{NP} complexity class, as there exists an efficient classical algorithm for sampling from the output probability distribution. We further consider input squeezed-vacuum states and discuss the complexity of sampling from the probability distribution at the output. PMID:25723196

  12. User-friendly computer-aided integrated optics simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Guido; Petazzi, Diego; Montrosset, Ivo

    1993-04-01

    We have developed a user friendly program to analyze the electromagnetic behavior of general integrated optics circuits with a two-dimensional Beam Propagation Method. As a graphical interface for the description of the circuit under analysis we used a file produced by the optical layout generator Sigraph-Optik (copyright by Siemens-Nixdorf), while we acquire all the parameters necessary for the simulation via pop-up menus or a command file. The electromagnetic analysis is at the moment performed with the Beam Propagation Method based on FFT but we are working to extend it to a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme with transparent boundary conditions to minimize the computational window. The program final output are color maps and data files containing the effective refractive index and the field amplitude and phase. It is then possible to carry out a post processing on such files to make three dimensional graphs that summarize the circuit performance, to extract two dimensional plots at particular circuit sections and to project the field on the local normal modes of the waveguides. Examples of the simulation capabilities are given.

  13. Automated interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics for improved optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we introduce an algorithm framework for the automation of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). Under this framework, common processing steps such as dispersion correction, Fourier domain resampling, and computational adaptive optics aberration correction are carried out as metrics-assisted parameter search problems. We further present the results of this algorithm applied to phantom and biological tissue samples and compare with manually adjusted results. With the automated algorithm, near-optimal ISAM reconstruction can be achieved without manual adjustment. At the same time, the technical barrier for the nonexpert using ISAM imaging is also significantly lowered. PMID:26974799

  14. Optical and hybrid computing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Leesburg, VA, Mar. 24-27, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.

    The design, operation, and applications of optical and hybrid computer systems are discussed in reviews and reports of recent theoretical and experimental investigations. Topics examined include algorithms for linear and nonlinear systems, architectures based on bistable and molecular devices, neural networks for computing, and application-driven devices and system developments. Consideration is given to optical-computing advances in Japan, one-dimensional signal processing using the optical transfer function, parallel logic by spatial filtering, molecular computing and chemical logic, and optical pattern recognition and AI for scene analysis.

  15. Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Adeel; Shemonski, Nathan D; Adie, Steven G; Kim, Hee-Seok; Hwu, Wen-Mei W; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2013-06-01

    High-resolution real-time tomography of scattering tissues is important for many areas of medicine and biology(1-6). However, the compromise between transverse resolution and depth-of-field in addition to low sensitivity deep in tissue continue to impede progress towards cellular-level volumetric tomography. Computed imaging has the potential to solve these long-standing limitations. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM)(7-9) is a computed imaging technique enabling high-resolution volumetric tomography with spatially invariant resolution. However, its potential for clinical diagnostics remains largely untapped since full volume reconstructions required lengthy postprocessing, and the phase-stability requirements have been difficult to satisfy in vivo. Here we demonstrate how 3-D Fourier-domain resampling, in combination with high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT), can achieve high-resolution in vivo tomography. Enhanced depth sensitivity was achieved over a depth-of-field extended in real time by more than an order of magnitude. This work lays the foundation for high-speed volumetric cellular-level tomography. PMID:23956790

  16. Optical imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography and synchrotron radiation computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cânjǎu, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Duma, Virgil; Mǎnescu, Adrian; Topalǎ, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2013-06-01

    The efforts aimed at early diagnosis of oral cancer should be prioritized towards developing a new screening instrument, based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), to be used directly intraorally, able to perform a fast, real time, 3D and non-invasive diagnosis of oral malignancies. The first step in this direction would be to optimize the OCT image interpretation of oral tissues. Therefore we propose plastination as a tissue preparation method that better preserves three-dimensional structure for study by new optical imaging techniques. The OCT and the synchrotron radiation computed microtomography (micro-CT) were employed for tissue sample analyze. For validating the OCT results we used the gold standard diagnostic procedure for any suspicious lesion - histopathology. This is a preliminary study of comparing features provided by OCT and Micro-CT. In the conditions of the present study, OCT proves to be a highly promising imaging modality. The use of x-ray based topographic imaging of small biological samples has been limited by the low intrinsic x-ray absorption of non-mineralized tissue and the lack of established contrast agents. Plastination can be used to enhance optical imagies of oral soft tissue samples.

  17. Optimization of removal function in computer controlled optical surfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Peiji; Ren, Jianfeng

    2010-10-01

    The technical principle of computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) and the common method of optimizing removal function that is used in CCOS are introduced in this paper. A new optimizing method time-sharing synthesis of removal function is proposed to solve problems of the removal function being far away from Gaussian type and slow approaching of the removal function error that encountered in the mode of planet motion or translation-rotation. Detailed time-sharing synthesis of using six removal functions is discussed. For a given region on the workpiece, six positions are selected as the centers of the removal function; polishing tool controlled by the executive system of CCOS revolves around each centre to complete a cycle in proper order. The overall removal function obtained by the time-sharing process is the ratio of total material removal in six cycles to time duration of the six cycles, which depends on the arrangement and distribution of the six removal functions. Simulations on the synthesized overall removal functions under two different modes of motion, i.e., planet motion and translation-rotation are performed from which the optimized combination of tool parameters and distribution of time-sharing synthesis removal functions are obtained. The evaluation function when optimizing is determined by an approaching factor which is defined as the ratio of the material removal within the area of half of the polishing tool coverage from the polishing center to the total material removal within the full polishing tool coverage area. After optimization, it is found that the optimized removal function obtained by time-sharing synthesis is closer to the ideal Gaussian type removal function than those by the traditional methods. The time-sharing synthesis method of the removal function provides an efficient way to increase the convergence speed of the surface error in CCOS for the fabrication of aspheric optical surfaces, and to reduce the intermediate- and high

  18. Computational adaptive optics for broadband interferometric tomography of tissues and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adie, Steven G.; Mulligan, Jeffrey A.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) can shape aberrated optical wavefronts to physically restore the constructive interference needed for high-resolution imaging. With access to the complex optical field, however, many functions of optical hardware can be achieved computationally, including focusing and the compensation of optical aberrations to restore the constructive interference required for diffraction-limited imaging performance. Holography, which employs interferometric detection of the complex optical field, was developed based on this connection between hardware and computational image formation, although this link has only recently been exploited for 3D tomographic imaging in scattering biological tissues. This talk will present the underlying imaging science behind computational image formation with optical coherence tomography (OCT) -- a beam-scanned version of broadband digital holography. Analogous to hardware AO (HAO), we demonstrate computational adaptive optics (CAO) and optimization of the computed pupil correction in 'sensorless mode' (Zernike polynomial corrections with feedback from image metrics) or with the use of 'guide-stars' in the sample. We discuss the concept of an 'isotomic volume' as the volumetric extension of the 'isoplanatic patch' introduced in astronomical AO. Recent CAO results and ongoing work is highlighted to point to the potential biomedical impact of computed broadband interferometric tomography. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HAO vs. CAO for the effective shaping of optical wavefronts, and highlight opportunities for hybrid approaches that synergistically combine the unique advantages of hardware and computational methods for rapid volumetric tomography with cellular resolution.

  19. The Need for Optical Means as an Alternative for Electronic Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adbeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald; Witherow, William; Paley, Steve; Penn, Benjamin; Bank, Curtis; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An increasing demand for faster computers is rapidly growing to encounter the fast growing rate of Internet, space communication, and robotic industry. Unfortunately, the Very Large Scale Integration technology is approaching its fundamental limits beyond which the device will be unreliable. Optical interconnections and optical integrated circuits are strongly believed to provide the way out of the extreme limitations imposed on the growth of speed and complexity of nowadays computations by conventional electronics. This paper demonstrates two ultra-fast, all-optical logic gates and a high-density storage medium, which are essential components in building the future optical computer.

  20. Simulations of an Optical Tactile Sensor Based on Computer Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohka, Masahiro; Sawamoto, Yasuhiro; Zhu, Ning

    In order to create a robotic tactile sensor of thin shape, a new optical tactile sensor is developed by applying a CT (Computer Tomography) algorithm. The present tactile sensor is comprised of infrared emitting diode arrays, receiving phototransistor arrays and a transparent acrylic plate and a black rubber sheet with projections. Infrared rays emitted from the diode array are directed into one end of the plate and their intensity distribution is measured by the phototransistor array mounted on the other end. If the CT algorithm is directly applied to the tactile sensor, there are two shortcomings: the shape of the sensing area is limited to a circular region and there is a long calculation time. Thus, a new CT algorithm oriented to tactile sensing is proposed for overcoming these problems. In the present algorithm, a square sensing area is divided into an N-by-N array and algebraic equations are derived from the relationship between the input and output light intensities on the assumed light projections. Several reconstruction methods are considered for obtaining pressure values caused in the squares. In the present study, the ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) and LU decomposition methods were employed, and these methods were compared to select the best reconstruction method. In a series of simulations, it was found that the LU decomposition method held an advantage for the present type of tactile sensor because of its robustness against disturbance and short calculation time.

  1. Computer-automated program for calibration of optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, C. D.; Foley, T. W.; Chang, A. N.; Mowa, S.; Burris, J. L.; Hester, B. C.

    2012-10-01

    An optical tweezers (OT) system uses focused laser light to contain and manipulate nano-scale to micro-scale particles. Trap stiffness is the quantitative measurement of the ability to trap a particle. For some techniques, this measurement depends on an accurate knowledge of the particle's position in time. A position sensing detector (PSD) is used to track particle motion by detecting laser light from the trapping region. The PSD outputs voltages corresponding to the x- and y-coordinates of particle motion, providing a means of knowing the location of the particle in time. An OT system requires a calibration to convert the measured voltages into accurate distances. This process is time-consuming and frequently needs to be repeated, however, with the growing availability of computer-aided data acquisition and control, the complete process can now be automated, reducing time spent by researchers and increasing level of accuracy of future measurements. We have developed a program written in LabVIEW that will, after initialization, 1) via image processing, calibrate the pixel size of the camera, 2) calibrate the optical tweezer position detector by controlling a motorized mirror to move a trapped bead through a detection laser with simultaneous position detector signal measurements, 3) re-align the trap beam and the detection beam by motorized mirror control, 4) measure position data for the same trapped particle being illuminated by the detection beam, and 5) analyze the position signal via the power spectrum method and equipartition method to give two trap stiffness values for comparison. Previous automated calibration methods require additional and sometimes costly equipment as well as some precalibration of stage motion or pixel size. Here, the user only needs to input the known size of the bead (provided by the manufacturer) into the program, insert their prepared slide into their microscope, input some parameters and make selections, and click "start" in order

  2. Fault tolerant topologies for fiber optic networks and computer interconnects operating in the severe avionics environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glista, Andrew S., Jr.

    1991-02-01

    The history of fiber optics technology development for naval aircraft is reviewed, and the current status of network and fly-by-light flight control development is examined. Fiber-optic component selection for aircraft is addressed, covering fiber and cables, optical sources, couplers, and connectors. Novel fault-tolerant network topologies for both analog and digital fiber optic transmission, which will permit both packet- and circuit-switched operation of robust fiber optic networks are discussed. The application of smart skin technology, i.e., fibers embedded in composite materials, to optical computer backplanes is briefly considered.

  3. COMPUTER MODEL OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN OPTICALLY PUMPED LASER RODS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrukh, U. O.

    1994-01-01

    Managing the thermal energy that accumulates within a solid-state laser material under active pumping is of critical importance in the design of laser systems. Earlier models that calculated the temperature distribution in laser rods were single dimensional and assumed laser rods of infinite length. This program presents a new model which solves the temperature distribution problem for finite dimensional laser rods and calculates both the radial and axial components of temperature distribution in these rods. The modeled rod is either side-pumped or end-pumped by a continuous or a single pulse pump beam. (At the present time, the model cannot handle a multiple pulsed pump source.) The optical axis is assumed to be along the axis of the rod. The program also assumes that it is possible to cool different surfaces of the rod at different rates. The user defines the laser rod material characteristics, determines the types of cooling and pumping to be modeled, and selects the time frame desired via the input file. The program contains several self checking schemes to prevent overwriting memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Output for the program consists of 1) an echo of the input file, 2) diffusion properties, radius and length, and time for each data block, 3) the radial increments from the center of the laser rod to the outer edge of the laser rod, and 4) the axial increments from the front of the laser rod to the other end of the rod. This program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN77 and implemented on a Tandon AT with a 287 math coprocessor. The program can also run on a VAX 750 mini-computer. It has a memory requirement of about 147 KB and was developed in 1989.

  4. Predictors of Incomplete Optical Colonoscopy Using Computed Tomographic Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Reetika; Tsai, Salina D.; El Zein, Mohamad H.; Tieu, Alan A.; Abdelgelil, Ahmed; Besharati, Sepideh; Khashab, Mouen A.; Kalloo, Anthony N.; Kumbhari, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Optical colonoscopy (OC) is the primary modality for investigation of colonic pathology. Although there is data on demographic factors for incomplete OC, paucity of data exists for anatomic variables that are associated with an incomplete OC. These anatomic variables can be visualized using computed tomographic colonography (CTC). We aim to retrospectively identify variables associated with incomplete OC using CTC and develop a scoring method to predict the outcome of OC. Patients and Methods: In this case–control study, 70 cases (with incomplete OC) and 70 controls (with complete OC) were identified. CTC images of cases and controls were independently reviewed by a single CTC radiologist. Demographic and anatomical parameters were recorded. Data was examined using descriptive linear statistics and multivariate logistic regression model. Results: On analysis, female gender (80% vs 58.6% P = 0.007), prior abdominal/pelvic surgeries (51.4% vs 14.3% P < 0.001), colonic length (187.6 ± 30.0 cm vs 163.8 ± 27.2 cm P < 0.001), and number of flexures (11.4 ± 3.1 vs 8.4 ± 2.9 P < 0.001) increased the risk for incomplete OC. No significant association was observed for increasing age (P = 0.881) and history of severe diverticulosis (P = 0.867) with incomplete OC. A scoring system to predict the outcome of OC is proposed based on CTC findings. Conclusion: Female gender, prior surgery, and increasing colonic length and tortuosity were associated with incomplete OC, whereas increasing age and history of severe diverticulosis were not. These factors may be used in the future to predict those patients who are at risk of incomplete OC. PMID:26831606

  5. Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, S.; Kajita, M.; Kasahara, K.; Kubota, K.; Kurihara, K.; Redmond, I.; Schenfeld, E.; Suzaki, T.

    1996-03-01

    A free-space optical interconnection scheme is described for massively parallel processors based on the interconnection-cached network architecture. The optical network operates in a circuit-switching mode. Combined with a packet-switching operation among the circuit-switched optical channels, a high-bandwidth, low-latency network for massively parallel processing results. The design and assembly of a 64-channel experimental prototype is discussed, and operational results are presented.

  6. A Simple Physical Optics Algorithm Perfect for Parallel Computing Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Cwik, T.

    1994-01-01

    A reflector antenna computer program based upon a simple discreet approximation of the radiation integral has proven to be extremely easy to adapt to the parallel computing architecture of the modest number of large-gain computing elements such as are used in the Intel iPSC and Touchstone Delta parallel machines.

  7. Electron Optics: A Topic of a Computer Applications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romagnoli, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Using elementary principles of electron optics, the student gains greater understanding of the classical similarities between particles and waves. A method of solution is illustrated, and the results appear more reliable than those existing in prior literature. (Author/TS)

  8. Exploration of operator method digital optical computers for application to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Digital optical computer design has been focused primarily towards parallel (single point-to-point interconnection) implementation. This architecture is compared to currently developing VHSIC systems. Using demonstrated multichannel acousto-optic devices, a figure of merit can be formulated. The focus is on a figure of merit termed Gate Interconnect Bandwidth Product (GIBP). Conventional parallel optical digital computer architecture demonstrates only marginal competitiveness at best when compared to projected semiconductor implements. Global, analog global, quasi-digital, and full digital interconnects are briefly examined as alternative to parallel digital computer architecture. Digital optical computing is becoming a very tough competitor to semiconductor technology since it can support a very high degree of three dimensional interconnect density and high degrees of Fan-In without capacitive loading effects at very low power consumption levels.

  9. A technique for computation of star magnitudes relative to an optical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The theory and techniques used to compute star magnitudes relative to any optical detector (such as the Mariner Mars 1971 Canopus star tracker) are described. Results are given relative to various star detectors.

  10. Three-dimensional motion correction using speckle and phase for in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Ahn, Shawn S.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, many computed optical interferometric techniques have been developed to perform high-resolution volumetric tomography. By utilizing the phase and amplitude information provided with interferometric detection, post-acquisition corrections for defocus and optical aberrations can be performed. The introduction of the phase, though, can dramatically increase the sensitivity to motion (most prominently along the optical axis). In this paper, we present two algorithms which, together, can correct for motion in all three dimensions with enough accuracy for defocus and aberration correction in computed optical interferometric tomography. The first algorithm utilizes phase differences within the acquired data to correct for motion along the optical axis. The second algorithm utilizes the addition of a speckle tracking system using temporally- and spatially-coherent illumination to measure motion orthogonal to the optical axis. The use of coherent illumination allows for high-contrast speckle patterns even when imaging apparently uniform samples or when highly aberrated beams cannot be avoided. PMID:25574426

  11. Deterministic linear-optics quantum computing based on a hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2014-12-04

    We suggest a scheme for all-optical quantum computation using hybrid qubits. It enables one to efficiently perform universal linear-optical gate operations in a simple and near-deterministic way using hybrid entanglement as off-line resources.

  12. Half a century of optics in computing--a personal perspective [Invited].

    PubMed

    Shamir, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Optical signal processing and computing was triggered by the invention of the laser. Starting practically in 1960, it really took off with the introduction of the spatial-matched filter in 1964. Almost half a century later, research and engineering activity in the field continues unabated but in directions that could not have been anticipated in those early days. This paper presents an overview of the developments in the field, discussing the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of optics in computing paradigms to indicate where and how optics can be exploited in this area. Initially, optical methods were introduced for processing analog signals. Early attempts to extend optical methods toward digital processing failed because the differences between photons and electrons were not properly appreciated. In the last part of the paper we show that some novel concepts and advanced technology may revitalize also optical processes within the digital computing world. This latter development is demonstrated by digital logic functions implemented on simple electro-optic networks. (My personal perspective on the role of optics in computing is deeply rooted in many years of collaboration with my late friend, H. John Caulfield, and I dedicate this paper to his memory.). PMID:23385897

  13. Computational investigation on tunable optical band gap in armchair polyacenes

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mousumi

    2015-08-14

    Polyacenes in their armchair geometry (phenacenes) have recently been found to possess appealing electronic and optical properties with higher chemical stability and comparatively larger band gap as compared to linear polyacenes. They also behave as high-temperature superconductors upon alkali metal doping. Moreover, the optical properties of crystalline picene can be finely tuned by applying external pressure. We investigated the variation of optical gap as a function of altering the interplanar distances between parallel cofacial phenacene dimers. We employed both time-dependent density functional theory and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) technique to investigate the lowest singlet excitations in phenacene dimer. Our study showed that the lowest singlet excitation in these systems evolved as a function of interplanar separation. The optical excitation energy gap decreases as a function of inverse interplanar separation of the phenacene dimer. The distant dependent variation of optical absorption at the dimer level may be comparable with experimental observation in picene crystal under pressure. DMRG study also demonstrates that besides picene, electronic properties of higher phenacenes can also be tunable by altering interplanar separation.

  14. Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part I): Stability requirements

    PubMed Central

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Adie, Steven G.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    As imaging systems become more advanced and acquire data at faster rates, increasingly dynamic samples can be imaged without concern of motion artifacts. For optical interferometric techniques such as optical coherence tomography, it often follows that initially, only amplitude-based data are utilized due to unstable or unreliable phase measurements. As systems progress, stable phase maps can also be acquired, enabling more advanced, phase-dependent post-processing techniques. Here we report an investigation of the stability requirements for a class of phase-dependent post-processing techniques – numerical defocus and aberration correction with further extensions to techniques such as Doppler, phase-variance, and optical coherence elastography. Mathematical analyses and numerical simulations over a variety of instabilities are supported by experimental investigations. PMID:25321004

  15. Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

  16. Reducing the phase sensitivity of laser-based optical reservoir computing systems.

    PubMed

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy

    2016-01-25

    Optical implementations of reservoir computing systems are very promising because of their high processing speeds and the possibility to process several tasks in parallel. These systems can be implemented using semiconductor lasers subject to optical delayed feedback and optical injection. While the amount of the feedback/injection can be easily controlled, it is much more difficult to control the optical feedback/injection phase. We present extensive numerical investigations of the influence of the feedback/injection phases on laser-based reservoir computing systems with feedback. We show that a change in the phase can lead to a strong reduction in the reservoir computing system performance. We introduce a new readout layer design that -at least for some tasks- reduces this sensitivity to changes in the phase. It consists in optimizing the readout weights from a coherent combination of the reservoir's readout signal and its delayed version rather than only from the reservoir's readout signal as is usually done. PMID:26832506

  17. The earliest history of computer-aided optical design on large computers: the previously classified work by James G. Baker 1945-1954

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Kevin P.

    2007-09-01

    Optical design has always been conducted on the leading edge of computing hardware. In fact, the first significant run on the first large scale computer was made by James G. Baker, in 1945. Recently, a rare, complete set of reports on the earliest work to adapt optical design to large computers surfaced. This paper discusses specifically the early work aimed at automated optical design that is documented in these reports.

  18. Computation and validation of two-dimensional PSF simulation based on physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayabaly, K.; Spiga, D.; Sironi, G.; Canestrari, R.; Lavagna, M.; Pareschi, G.

    2015-09-01

    The Point Spread Function (PSF) is a key figure of merit for specifying the angular resolution of optical systems and, as the demand for higher and higher angular resolution increases, the problem of surface finishing must be taken seriously even in optical telescopes. From the optical design of the instrument, reliable ray-tracing routines allow computing and display of the PSF based on geometrical optics. However, such an approach does not directly account for the scattering caused by surface micro-roughness, which is interferential in nature. Although the scattering effect can be separately modeled, its inclusion in the ray-tracing routine requires assumptions that are difficult to verify. In that context, a purely physical optics approach is more appropriate as it remains valid regardless of the shape and size of the defects appearing on the optical surface. Such a computation, when performed in two-dimensional consideration, is memory and time consuming because it requires one to process a surface map with a few micron resolution, and the situation becomes even more complicated in case of optical systems characterized by more than one reflection. Fortunately, the computation is significantly simplified in far-field configuration, since the computation involves only a sequence of Fourier Transforms. In this paper, we provide validation of the PSF simulation with Physical Optics approach through comparison with real PSF measurement data in the case of ASTRI-SST M1 hexagonal segments. These results represent a first foundation stone for future development in a more advanced computation taking into account micro-roughness and multiple reflection in optical systems.

  19. Computational modeling of femtosecond optical solitons from Maxwell's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Taflove, Allen; Joseph, Rose M.; Hagness, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm is developed that permits the direct time integration of full-vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations. This capability permits the modeling of both linear and nonlinear instantaneous and dispersive effects in the electric polarization in material media. The modeling of the optical carrier is retained. The fundamental innovation is to notice that it is possible to treat the linear and nonlinear convolution integrals, which describe the dispersion, as new dependent variables. A coupled system of nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations can then be derived for the linear and nonlinear convolution integrals, by differentiating them in the time domain. These equations, together with Maxwell's equations, are solved to determine the electromagnetic fields in nonlinear dispersive media. Results are presented of calculations in one dimension of the propagation and collision of femtosecond electromagnetic solitons that retain the optical carrier, taking into account as the Kerr and Raman interactions.

  20. Comparison of computer-based and optical face recognition paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alorf, Abdulaziz A.

    The main objectives of this thesis are to validate an improved principal components analysis (IPCA) algorithm on images; designing and simulating a digital model for image compression, face recognition and image detection by using a principal components analysis (PCA) algorithm and the IPCA algorithm; designing and simulating an optical model for face recognition and object detection by using the joint transform correlator (JTC); establishing detection and recognition thresholds for each model; comparing between the performance of the PCA algorithm and the performance of the IPCA algorithm in compression, recognition and, detection; and comparing between the performance of the digital model and the performance of the optical model in recognition and detection. The MATLAB(c) software was used for simulating the models. PCA is a technique used for identifying patterns in data and representing the data in order to highlight any similarities or differences. The identification of patterns in data of high dimensions (more than three dimensions) is too difficult because the graphical representation of data is impossible. Therefore, PCA is a powerful method for analyzing data. IPCA is another statistical tool for identifying patterns in data. It uses information theory for improving PCA. The joint transform correlator (JTC) is an optical correlator used for synthesizing a frequency plane filter for coherent optical systems. The IPCA algorithm, in general, behaves better than the PCA algorithm in the most of the applications. It is better than the PCA algorithm in image compression because it obtains higher compression, more accurate reconstruction, and faster processing speed with acceptable errors; in addition, it is better than the PCA algorithm in real-time image detection due to the fact that it achieves the smallest error rate as well as remarkable speed. On the other hand, the PCA algorithm performs better than the IPCA algorithm in face recognition because it offers

  1. Computational Study of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Single Molecules and Clusters of Organic Electro-Optic Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Kerry

    Organic electro-optic (OEO) materials integrated into silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices afford significant improvements in size, weight, power, and bandwidth (SWAP) performance of integrated electronic/photonic systems critical for current and next generation telecommunication, computer, sensor, transportation, and defense technologies. Improvement in molecular first hyperpolarizability, and in turn electro-optic activity, is crucial to further improvement in the performance of SOH devices. The timely preparation of new chromophores with improved molecular first hyperpolarizability requires theoretical guidance; however, common density functional theory (DFT) methods often perform poorly for optical properties in systems with substantial intramolecular charge transfer character. The first part of this dissertation describes the careful evaluation of popular long-range correction (LC) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) density functional theory (DFT) for definition of structure/function relationships crucial for the optimization of molecular first hyperpolarizability, beta. In particular, a benchmark set of well-characterized OEO chromophores is used to compare calculated results with the corresponding experimentally measured linear and nonlinear optical properties; respectively, the wavelength of the peak one-photon absorption energy, lambdamax, and beta. A goal of this work is to systematically determine the amount of exact exchange in LC/RSH-DFT methods required for accurately computing these properties for a variety OEO chromophores. High-level electron correlation (post-Hartree-Fock) methods are also investigated and compared with DFT. Included are results for the computation of beta using second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and the double-hybrid method, B2PLYP. The second part of this work transitions from single-molecule studies to computing bulk electronic and nonlinear optical properties of molecular crystals and isotropic ensembles of a

  2. Computer generated holograms design in null testing of optical freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Rihong; Shen, Hua

    2013-06-01

    Optical freeform surfaces are complex surfaces with non-rotational symmetry that break through the limitations of conventional optical element, and are widely used in advanced optics application for system configuration simplifying and performance enhancing. Due to the geometrical complexity and optical particularity of optical freeform surfaces, there is, as yet, a lack of precision freeform surfaces testing. Computer generated hologram (CGH) null testing method are discussed in this paper to test the optical freeform surfaces such as off-axis aspheric surfaces. CGH design based on ray tracing and NURBS interpolation are included. Simuation in Zemax is given to verify the result of calculation. The alignment and fiducial sections are added to the CGH to lead the alignment of the freeform surface and CGH with sixdimensional adjustment. The CGH was designed and fabricated to test an off-axis aspheric with Fizeau configuration.

  3. Optical Design Methods: Your Head As A Personal Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1985-07-01

    Several design approaches are described which feature the use of your head as a design tool. This involves thinking about the design task at hand, trying to break it into separate, easily understood subtasks, and approaching these in a creative and intelligent fashion, as only humans can do. You and your computer can become a very powerful team when this design philosophy is adopted.

  4. Characterization of photochromic computer-generated holograms for optical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariani, Giorgio; Bertarelli, Chiara; Bianco, Andrea; Schaal, Frederik; Pruss, Christof

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the possibility to produce photochromic CGHs with maskless lithography methods. For this purpose, optical properties and requirements of photochromic materials will be shown. A diarylethene-based polyurethane is developed and characterized. The resolution limit and the in uence of the writing parameters on the produced patterns, namely speed rate and light power, have been determined. After the optimization of the writing process, gratings and Fresnel Zone Plates are produced on the photochromic layer and diraction eciencies are measured. Improvements and perspectives will be discussed.

  5. A computational toolbox for quantum and atomic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sze M.

    1999-08-01

    A collection of routines is described which largely automates the process of generating the quantum mechanical equations of motion for problems involving systems with relatively few degrees of freedom. Their use allows the user to adopt a high-level approach to writing simulation programs which concentrates on the physics of the problem, rather than on the details of the solution. Examples are taken from the fields of quantum and atomic optics, but the toolbox is also useful for problems involving quantum information and in teaching quantum mechanics. The toolbox has been implemented using the Matlab programming language, but the ideas may be applied to any other object-oriented language.

  6. Synthesis of photochromic oligophenylenimines: optical and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Armando I Martínez; Alonso, Oscar Coreño; Borbolla, Julián Cruz; Vásquez-Pérez, José M; Alonso, Juan Coreño; Ayala, Karina Alemán; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; Pandiyan, Thangarasu; García, Rosa A Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Phenyleneimine oligomers 4,4'-(((1E,1'E)-(((1E,1'E)-(1,4-phenylenebis-(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(2,5-bis(octyloxy)-4,1-phenylene))bis(methanylyl-idene))-bis(azanylylidene))dianiline (OIC1MS) and 7,7'-(((1E,1'E)-(((1E,1'E)-((9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis(azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(2,5-bis(octyloxy)-4,1phenylene))bis- (methanylylidene))bis(azanylylidene))bis(9H-fluoren-2-amine) (OIC2MS) were prepared by means of conventional and mechanochemical synthesis and characterized by FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques. The optical properties of the compounds were studied in solution by using UV-visible spectroscopy, and the optical effects were analyzed as a function of solvent. The results show that OIC2MS exhibits interesting photochromic properties. Furthermore, the structural and electronic properties of the compounds were analyzed by TD-DFT. It was found that the mechanosynthesis is an efficient method for the synthesis of both tetraimines. PMID:25826785

  7. Optical image hiding based on computational ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan; Chen, Hanwu

    2016-05-01

    Imaging hiding schemes play important roles in now big data times. They provide copyright protections of digital images. In the paper, we propose a novel image hiding scheme based on computational ghost imaging to have strong robustness and high security. The watermark is encrypted with the configuration of a computational ghost imaging system, and the random speckle patterns compose a secret key. Least significant bit algorithm is adopted to embed the watermark and both the second-order correlation algorithm and the compressed sensing (CS) algorithm are used to extract the watermark. The experimental and simulation results show that the authorized users can get the watermark with the secret key. The watermark image could not be retrieved when the eavesdropping ratio is less than 45% with the second-order correlation algorithm, whereas it is less than 20% with the TVAL3 CS reconstructed algorithm. In addition, the proposed scheme is robust against the 'salt and pepper' noise and image cropping degradations.

  8. Optical quantum computation with cavities in the intermediate coupling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, F.; Yu, Y. F.; Feng, X. L.; Zhu, S. L.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2010-07-01

    Large-scale quantum computation is currently a hot area of research. The scalable quantum computation scheme with cavities originally proposed by Duan and Kimble (Phys. Rev. Lett., 92 (2004) 127902) is further developed here to operate in the intermediate coupling region, which not only greatly relaxes experimental demands on the Purcell factor, but also eliminates the need to consider internal trade-off between cavity quality and efficiency. In our scheme, by controlling the reflectivity of the input single-photon pulse in the cavity, we can realize local atom-photon and nonlocal atom-atom controlled phase-flip (CPF) gates. We also introduce a theoretical model to analyze the performance of our scheme under practical noise. Furthermore, we show that the nonlocal CPF gate can be used to realize a quantum repeater.

  9. Bragg optics computer codes for neutron scattering instrument design

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Berliner, R.R.; Stoica, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Computer codes for neutron crystal spectrometer design, optimization and experiment planning are described. Phase space distributions, linewidths and absolute intensities are calculated by matrix methods in an extension of the Cooper-Nathans resolution function formalism. For modeling the Bragg reflection on bent crystals the lamellar approximation is used. Optimization is done by satisfying conditions of focusing in scattering and in real space, and by numerically maximizing figures of merit. Examples for three-axis and two-axis spectrometers are given.

  10. Simultaneous Computation of Two Independent Tasks Using Reservoir Computing Based on a Single Photonic Nonlinear Node With Optical Feedback.

    PubMed

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy

    2015-12-01

    In this brief, we numerically demonstrate a photonic delay-based reservoir computing system, which processes, in parallel, two independent computational tasks even when the two tasks have unrelated input streams. Our approach is based on a single-longitudinal mode semiconductor ring laser (SRL) with optical feedback. The SRL emits in two directional optical modes. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk. We illustrate the feasibility of our scheme by analyzing the performance on two benchmark tasks: 1) chaotic time series prediction and 2) nonlinear channel equalization. We identify some feedback configurations for which the results for simultaneous prediction/classification indicate a good performance, but with slight degradation (as compared with the performance obtained for single task processing) due to nonlinear and linear interactions between the two directional modes of the laser. In these configurations, the system performs well on both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. PMID:25751880

  11. Imaging study on the optic canal using sixty four-slice spiral computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng-Fei; Dai, Xiu-Yu; Lv, Yongbin; Liu, Shaoyi; Mu, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapid advances in multislice computed tomography (MSCT) technology facilitate accurate clinical imaging. The newly developed 64-slice CT increases temporal and spatial resolution efficiently. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of 64 slice spiral computed tomography (CT) on the imaging of the normal optics canal. Methods and materials: 100 healthy adults were investigated using 64 slice spiral CT. The optics canal was scanned, reconstructed and examined. Results: Among the four walls of the optic canal, the medial wall is the longest one. The upper wall and outer wall are inferior to the medial wall while the inferior wall is the shortest one. All the data accomplished by the 64 slice CT was consistent with the results of previous reports using other methods. Conclusion: The results suggested that the 64 slice spiral CT could be a valuable and accurate method for measuring the length of optics canal walls. PMID:26885062

  12. Stability in computed optical interferometric tomography (Part II): in vivo stability assessment

    PubMed Central

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Ahmad, Adeel; Adie, Steven G.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Stability is of utmost importance to a wide range of phase-sensitive processing techniques. In Doppler optical coherence tomography and optical coherence elastography, in addition to defocus and aberration correction techniques such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational/digital adaptive optics, a precise understanding of the system and sample stability helps to guide the system design and choice of imaging parameters. This article focuses on methods to accurately and quantitatively measure the stability of an imaging configuration in vivo. These methods are capable of partially decoupling axial from transverse motion and are compared against the stability requirements for computed optical interferometric tomography laid out in the first part of this article. PMID:25321016

  13. Optical scattering by biological aerosols: experimental and computational results on spore simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindoni, Orazio I.; Saija, Rosalba; Iatì, Maria Antonia; Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Fernandes, Gustavo E.; Pan, Yong-Le; Chang, Richard K.

    2006-07-01

    We present both a computational and an experimental approach to the problem of biological aerosol characterization, joining the expertises reached in the field of theoretical optical scattering by complex, arbitrary shaped particles (multipole expansion of the electromagnetic fields and Transition Matrix), and a novel experimental technique based on two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS). The good agreement between experimental and computational results, together with the possibility for a laboratory single-particle angle-resolved investigation, opens a new scenario in biological particle modelling, and might have major implications for a rapid discrimination of airborne particles.

  14. Optical testing of cylindrical surfaces with computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Pei-ji

    2013-08-01

    Increasing demands for highly accurate cylinders require more high-precision testing techniques. The existing methods of testing cylindrical surfaces can not ensure the highly-accuracy, efficiency, convenience and the overall cost. In order to acquire highly accurate cylindrical surfaces conveniently at a low cost, a new Fizeau interferometric optical testing utilizing CGH which is fabricated onto a wedge-shaped substrate is designed. In this test, a slit filter is placed in the center of the cylindrical curvature to filter out the undesired diffraction orders which occur when the beam hits the CGH. Meanwhile, the front side of the wedge-shaped substrate is as the reference flat, and the CGH is written onto the inclined surface, so that the real fringe pattern can not be affected by its reflected beam. Moreover, the design of cylindrical surfaces under test tilting and off-center relative to the diffraction surface of the CGH results that the required rays for interference can be obtained effectively from the pinhole filter in the interferometer. Furthermore, high-accuracy CGH in this test can be processed by conventional microlithography equipments. Corresponding to a cylindrical surface with 60mm in diameter and f-number of 1/7, the test has been successfully designed and optimized in Zemax whose testing accuracy is prior to 0.0019λ. Better interference pattern can be obtained because all the other disturbing rays image outside of aperture in a radius of 2mm. Experiment shows the method is efficient and predominant.

  15. Assignment of absolute stereochemistry by computation of optical rotation angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondru, Rama Krishna

    We have developed simple wire and molecular orbital models to qualitatively and quantitatively understand optical rotation angles of molecules. We reported the first ab initio theoretical approach to determine the absolute stereochemistry of a complex natural product by calculating molar rotation angles, [M]D. We applied this method for an unambiguous assignment of the absolute stereochemistry of the hennoxazole A. A protocol analogous to population analysis was devised to analyze atomic contributions to the rotation angles for oxiranes, orthoesters, and other organic compounds. The molar rotations for an indoline, an indonone, menthol and menthone were calculated using ab inito methods and compared with experimental values. We reported the first prediction of the absolute configuration of a natural product, i.e. an a priori assignment of the relative and absolute stereochemistry of pitiamide A. Furthermore, we described a strategy that may help to establish structure-function relations for rotation angles by visualizing the electric and magnetic-field perturbations to a molecule's molecular orbitals.

  16. DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION OF OPTICAL SWITCH MATRIX PERFORMANCE IN COMPUTER NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, Neena; Poole, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present application of a Discrete Event Simulator (DES) for performance modeling of optical switching devices in computer networks. Network simulators are valuable tools in situations where one cannot investigate the system directly. This situation may arise if the system under study does not exist yet or the cost of studying the system directly is prohibitive. Most available network simulators are based on the paradigm of discrete-event-based simulation. As computer networks become increasingly larger and more complex, sophisticated DES tool chains have become available for both commercial and academic research. Some well-known simulators are NS2, NS3, OPNET, and OMNEST. For this research, we have applied OMNEST for the purpose of simulating multi-wavelength performance of optical switch matrices in computer interconnection networks. Our results suggest that the application of DES to computer interconnection networks provides valuable insight in device performance and aids in topology and system optimization.

  17. Optical quantum computing with photons of arbitrarily low fidelity and purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Peter P.

    2012-11-01

    Linear optics quantum computing (LOQC) is a leading candidate for the implementation of large scale quantum computers. Here quantum information is encoded into the quantum states of light and computation proceeds via a linear optics network. It is well known that in such schemes there are stringent requirements on the spatiotemporal structure of photons—they must be completely indistinguishable and of very high purity. We show that in the boson-sampling model for LOQC these conditions may be significantly relaxed. We present evidence that by increasing the size of the system we can implement a computationally hard algorithm even if our photons have arbitrarily low fidelity and purity. These relaxed conditions may make boson-sampling LOQC within reach of present-day technology.

  18. Considerations for the extension of coherent optical processors into the quantum computing regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Rupert C. D.; Birch, Philip M.; Chatwin, Chris R.

    2016-04-01

    Previously we have examined the similarities of the quantum Fourier transform to the classical coherent optical implementation of the Fourier transform (R. Young et al, Proc SPIE Vol 87480, 874806-1, -11). In this paper, we further consider how superposition states can be generated on coherent optical wave fronts, potentially allowing coherent optical processing hardware architectures to be extended into the quantum computing regime. In particular, we propose placing the pixels of a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) individually in a binary superposition state and illuminating them with a coherent wave front from a conventional (but low intensity) laser source in order to make a so-called `interaction free' measurement. In this way, the quantum object, i.e. the individual pixels of the SLM in their superposition states, and the illuminating wavefront would become entangled. We show that if this were possible, it would allow the extension of coherent processing architectures into the quantum computing regime and we give an example of such a processor configured to recover one of a known set of images encrypted using the well-known coherent optical processing technique of employing a random Fourier plane phase encryption mask which classically requires knowledge of the corresponding phase conjugate key to decrypt the image. A quantum optical computer would allow interrogation of all possible phase masks in parallel and so immediate decryption.

  19. Solving System Of Linear Equations Using The Bimodal Optical Computer (Experimental Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habli, M. A.; Abushagur, M. A. G.; Caulfield, H. J.

    1988-08-01

    Hardware and software design of the Bimodal Optical Computer (BOC) and its implementations are presented. Experimental results of the BOC for solving a system of linear equations Ax = b is reported. The effect of calibration, the convergence reliability of the BOC, and the convergence of problems with singular matrices are studied.

  20. SIMULATION STUDY FOR GASEOUS FLUXES FROM AN AREA SOURCE USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents a new approach to quantifying emissions from fugitive gaseous air pollution sources. Computed tomography (CT) and path-integrated optical remote sensing (PI-ORS) concentration data are combined in a new field beam geometry. Path-integrated concentrations are ...

  1. Demonstration of Deutsch's algorithm on a stable linear optical quantum computer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Pei; Liu Ruifeng; Gao Hong; Li Fuli; Huang Yunfeng

    2010-12-15

    We report an experimental demonstration of quantum Deutsch's algorithm using a linear-optical system. By employing photon polarization and spatial modes, we implement all balanced and constant functions for a quantum computer. The experimental system is very stable, and the experimental data are in excellent accordance with the theoretical results.

  2. Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

  3. A Neural Model of How the Brain Computes Heading from Optic Flow in Realistic Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, N. Andrew; Grossberg, Stephen; Mingolla, Ennio

    2009-01-01

    Visually-based navigation is a key competence during spatial cognition. Animals avoid obstacles and approach goals in novel cluttered environments using optic flow to compute heading with respect to the environment. Most navigation models try either explain data, or to demonstrate navigational competence in real-world environments without regard…

  4. Online object oriented Monte Carlo computational tool for the needs of biomedical optics

    PubMed Central

    Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual engineering design and optimization of laser-based imaging techniques and optical diagnostic systems used in the field of biomedical optics requires a clear understanding of the light-tissue interaction and peculiarities of localization of the detected optical radiation within the medium. The description of photon migration within the turbid tissue-like media is based on the concept of radiative transfer that forms a basis of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. An opportunity of direct simulation of influence of structural variations of biological tissues on the probing light makes MC a primary tool for biomedical optics and optical engineering. Due to the diversity of optical modalities utilizing different properties of light and mechanisms of light-tissue interactions a new MC code is typically required to be developed for the particular diagnostic application. In current paper introducing an object oriented concept of MC modeling and utilizing modern web applications we present the generalized online computational tool suitable for the major applications in biophotonics. The computation is supported by NVIDEA CUDA Graphics Processing Unit providing acceleration of modeling up to 340 times. PMID:21991540

  5. Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Adie, Steven G.; Scott Carney, P.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-07-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging is of great importance for the fields of biology and medicine. The introduction of hardware-based adaptive optics (HAO) has pushed the limits of optical imaging, enabling high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of previously unresolvable structures. In ophthalmology, when combined with optical coherence tomography, HAO has enabled a detailed three-dimensional visualization of photoreceptor distributions and individual nerve fibre bundles in the living human retina. However, the introduction of HAO hardware and supporting software adds considerable complexity and cost to an imaging system, limiting the number of researchers and medical professionals who could benefit from the technology. Here we demonstrate a fully automated computational approach that enables high-resolution in vivo ophthalmic imaging without the need for HAO. The results demonstrate that computational methods in coherent microscopy are applicable in highly dynamic living systems.

  6. Concentrator optical characterization using computer mathematical modelling and point source testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, E. W.; John, S. L.; Trentelman, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The optical characteristics of a paraboloidal solar concentrator are analyzed using the intercept factor curve (a format for image data) to describe the results of a mathematical model and to represent reduced data from experimental testing. This procedure makes it possible not only to test an assembled concentrator, but also to evaluate single optical panels or to conduct non-solar tests of an assembled concentrator. The use of three-dimensional ray tracing computer programs to calculate the mathematical model is described. These ray tracing programs can include any type of optical configuration from simple paraboloids to array of spherical facets and can be adapted to microcomputers or larger computers, which can graphically display real-time comparison of calculated and measured data.

  7. Computational chemistry modeling and design of photoswitchable alignment materials for optically addressable liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, K. L.; Sekera, E. R.; Xiao, K.

    2015-09-01

    Photoalignment technology based on optically switchable "command surfaces" has been receiving increasing interest for liquid crystal optics and photonics device applications. Azobenzene compounds in the form of low-molar-mass, watersoluble salts deposited either directly on the substrate surface or after dispersion in a polymer binder have been almost exclusively employed for these applications, and ongoing research in the area follows a largely empirical materials design and development approach. Recent computational chemistry advances now afford unprecedented opportunities to develop predictive capabilities that will lead to new photoswitchable alignment layer materials with low switching energies, enhanced bistability, write/erase fatigue resistance, and high laser-damage thresholds. In the work described here, computational methods based on the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory were employed to study the impact of molecular structure on optical switching properties in photoswitchable methacrylate and acrylamide polymers functionalized with azobenzene and spiropyran pendants.

  8. Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina

    PubMed Central

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Adie, Steven G.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging is of great importance for the fields of biology and medicine. The introduction of hardware-based adaptive optics (HAO) has pushed the limits of optical imaging, enabling high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of previously unresolvable structures1,2. In ophthalmology, when combined with optical coherence tomography, HAO has enabled a detailed three-dimensional visualization of photoreceptor distributions3,4 and individual nerve fibre bundles5 in the living human retina. However, the introduction of HAO hardware and supporting software adds considerable complexity and cost to an imaging system, limiting the number of researchers and medical professionals who could benefit from the technology. Here we demonstrate a fully automated computational approach that enables high-resolution in vivo ophthalmic imaging without the need for HAO. The results demonstrate that computational methods in coherent microscopy are applicable in highly dynamic living systems. PMID:26877761

  9. Passive Optical Bistability in Etalons with Diffusive Nonlinearities with Applications to Optical Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsalve, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A theoretical study of optical bistability in passive nonlinear Fabry-Perot etalons is presented. The emphasis is on thermal nonlinearities. The analysis is also applied to etalons with competing thermal and electronic nonlinearities. Thermo-optic bistability is studied for liquid crystal filled etalons, and ZnSe interference filters. Electronic bistability and regenerative oscillations are modelled for InSb etalons. At the core of the thesis is a collection of analytical solutions for the time-dependent and steady-state diffusion equations. These are in cylindrical coordinates, and a large collection of boundary conditions are applied. This includes boundary conditions for combinations of highly conducting and poorly conducting thin films. On using a constant phase approximation of the illuminated area, switching dynamics are calculated through a Volterra equation after finding the appropriate Green's function. A fast numerical method is developed, and a way to extend the method to include the spatial variation in the phase is outlined. It is predicted that optically pixelated arrays of liquid-crystal switches larger than 64 x 64 could operate at 10kHz, and at 4muW power levels. Force cooling at 10kWm^{-1} must be used to achieve this. For optically pixelated ZnSe filters, 64 x 64 arrays could also operate at 10kHz, but at 4mW power levels. Again, force cooling at 10kWm^{-1} must be used, and the filter must be separated from a sapphire substrate by a polyimide or SiO_2 layer. If material pixelation is used, in combination with micro-bore forced cooling and thick spacer layers, switch energies as low as 500pJ are predicted for a 5 μm pixel radius. The switch powers can be as low as 10muW. Array sizes of 512 x 512 would require ~2W of laser power, and would operate at 10kHz. Taking the restricted power levels available for SEED array into account, it is predicted that thermo-optic switches could equal

  10. Optical computer aided tomography measurements of plasma uniformity in an inductively coupled discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Benck, E. C.; Roberts, J. R.

    1998-11-24

    Optical computer aided tomography (CAT) is being investigated as a potential in situ diagnostic for measuring plasma uniformity without making assumptions concerning the plasma symmetry. The presence of an opaque vacuum chamber wall severely limits the different directions from which optical emission measurements can be made of the plasma. The tomographic inversion problem with restricted optical access is being solved using Tikhonov regularization. The accuracy of this inversion process is investigated for several different observation geometries using theoretical test data generated from known distributions. Optical CAT is applied to an ICP-GEC plasma source, with all the measurements made through a single large 152 mm diameter window. Axially asymmetric plasma distributions are demonstrated as a function of gas flow rate and gas composition.

  11. Adaptive information interchange system of the fiber-optic measuring networks with the computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Igor V.; Drozdov, Roman S.; Sedov, Victor A.

    2005-06-01

    In the present paper the characteristics and opportunities of application of the system of parallel input-output of information from the fiber-optical measuring network into computer are considered. The system consists of two pars: on manframe and several expansion blocks. The first part is internal, is connected directly in the socket of the motherboard of the personal computer. It is designed for buffering system signals and development of cojmands of controlling by the system for input-output of signals into personal computer and signals generation onto expansion blocks. The second part is external, connects to the mainframe by means of cables. It designed for transformation of information from the fiber-optical measuring network into signalsof rthe mainframe and instrument settings adaptation. The analysis of speed of procesing of analog and digital data by system is presented. The possible schemes of use of the system for processing quasistationary and dynamic fields are considered.

  12. Optical Shared Memory Computing and Multiple Access Protocols for Photonic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuang-Yu.

    In this research we investigate potential applications of optics in massively parallel computer systems, especially focusing on design issues in three-dimensional optical data storage and free-space photonic networks. An optical implementation of a shared memory uses a single photorefractive crystal and can realize the set of memory modules in a digital shared memory computer. A complete instruction set consists of R sc EAD, W sc RITE, S sc ELECTIVE E sc RASE, and R sc EFRESH, which can be applied to any memory module independent of (and in parallel with) instructions to the other memory modules. In addition, a memory module can execute a sequence of R sc EAD operations simultaneously with the execution of a W sc RITE operation to accommodate differences in optical recording and readout times common to optical volume storage media. An experimental shared memory system is demonstrated and its projected performance is analyzed. A multiplexing technique is presented to significantly reduce both grating- and beam-degeneracy crosstalk in volume holographic systems, by incorporating space, angle, and wavelength as the multiplexing parameters. In this approach, each hologram, which results from the interference between a single input node and an object array, partially overlaps with the other holograms in its neighborhood. This technique can offer improved interconnection density, optical throughput, signal fidelity, and space-bandwidth product utilization. Design principles and numerical simulation results are presented. A free-space photonic cellular hypercube parallel computer, with emphasis on the design of a collisionless multiple access protocol, is presented. This design incorporates wavelength-, space-, and time-multiplexing to achieve multiple access, wavelength reuse, dense connectivity, collisionless communications, and a simple control mechanism. Analytic models based on semi-Markov processes are employed to analyze this protocol. The performance of the

  13. The symmetric MSD encoder for one-step adder of ternary optical computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Song; LiPing, Yan

    2016-08-01

    The symmetric Modified Signed-Digit (MSD) encoding is important for achieving the one-step MSD adder of Ternary Optical Computer (TOC). The paper described the symmetric MSD encoding algorithm in detail, and developed its truth table which has nine rows and nine columns. According to the truth table, the state table was developed, and the optical-path structure and circuit-implementation scheme of the symmetric MSD encoder (SME) for one-step adder of TOC were proposed. Finally, a series of experiments were designed and performed. The observed results of the experiments showed that the scheme to implement SME was correct, feasible and efficient.

  14. Generation of optical vortex based on computer-generated holographic gratings by photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaoxiang; Wang, Zhenwei

    2013-09-01

    The Laguerre-Gaussian beam is a typical example of the optical vortices, which can be generated by computer-generated holograms (CGHs) with the topological charge controlled. Here, we fabricated transmission-amplitude CGH gratings (up to 100 lines per millimeter) on metal film by photolithography technique. Such CGH grating grooves feature high resolution and fine smoothness, so that the gratings can be used to generate Laguerre-Gaussian beam with perfect mode. They are also applicable for the generation of femtosecond optical vortices due to the high damage threshold of the metal film.

  15. Measurement of two-dimensional optical system MTF by computation of second order speckle statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, G.; Azouit, M.

    1980-04-01

    An interferometric approach to the calculation of the two-dimensional MTF of an optical system is proposed. The technique, in some ways analogous to that of speckle interferometry used in astronomical situations, is based on the computation of the second-order spatio-temporal statistics of a fluctuating speckle pattern. The theorum of Van Cittert-Zernike is invoked to relate the speckle, due to the illumination of a perfect diffuser by the point spread function of an optical system, to the two-dimensional MTF of the system. The computed MTF is displayed in the form of a contour map and can also be represented in the conventional form of a one-dimensional vertical cut. Preliminary measurements have yielded qualitatively useful results and clearly illustrate the suitability of two-dimensional maps for the detection of transfer function anisotropies.

  16. Parallel Photonic Quantum Computation Assisted by Quantum Dots in One-Side Optical Microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-07-01

    Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we investigate the possibility of parallel quantum computations dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gates operating on the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of two-photon or one-photon systems by exploring the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. These hyper-CNOT gates show that the quantum states of two DOFs can be viewed as independent qubits without requiring auxiliary DOFs in theory. This result can reduce the quantum resources by half for quantum applications with large qubit systems, such as the quantum Shor algorithm.

  17. Matrix-vector multiplication using digital partitioning for more accurate optical computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    Digital partitioning offers a flexible means of increasing the accuracy of an optical matrix-vector processor. This algorithm can be implemented with the same architecture required for a purely analog processor, which gives optical matrix-vector processors the ability to perform high-accuracy calculations at speeds comparable with or greater than electronic computers as well as the ability to perform analog operations at a much greater speed. Digital partitioning is compared with digital multiplication by analog convolution, residue number systems, and redundant number representation in terms of the size and the speed required for an equivalent throughput as well as in terms of the hardware requirements. Digital partitioning and digital multiplication by analog convolution are found to be the most efficient alogrithms if coding time and hardware are considered, and the architecture for digital partitioning permits the use of analog computations to provide the greatest throughput for a single processor.

  18. Parallel photonic quantum computation assisted by quantum dots in one-side optical microcavities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we investigate the possibility of parallel quantum computations dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gates operating on the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of two-photon or one-photon systems by exploring the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. These hyper-CNOT gates show that the quantum states of two DOFs can be viewed as independent qubits without requiring auxiliary DOFs in theory. This result can reduce the quantum resources by half for quantum applications with large qubit systems, such as the quantum Shor algorithm. PMID:25030424

  19. 1980 International Optical Computing Conference, Washington, DC, April 8-11, 1980, Proceedings. Books 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Topics related to radio astronomy are discussed, taking into account Fourier reconstruction techniques in radio astronomy, methods of using closure phases in radio aperture synthesis, adaptive calibration of radio interferometer data, processing of three-dimensional data, acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy, and an optical processor for the very large array radiotelescope. Other subjects reported are related to iterative methods for reconstructing images from incomplete data, holography and inverse scattering, and tomography. Attention is given to noise properties of images reconstructed from Fourier modulus, a numerical algorithm for 2-D wavefront reconstruction from intensity measurements in a single plane, computer simulation comparisons of speckle image reconstruction techniques, iterative coherent processor for bandlimited signal extrapolation, iterative reconstruction of space-limited images, image reconstruction from projections using circular harmonic expansion, polar sampling theorems and their application to computer-aided tomography, and Fourier multiaperture emission tomography.

  20. Time-Of-Flight Camera, Optical Tracker and Computed Tomography in Pairwise Data Registration

    PubMed Central

    Badura, Pawel; Juszczyk, Jan; Pietka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A growing number of medical applications, including minimal invasive surgery, depends on multi-modal or multi-sensors data processing. Fast and accurate 3D scene analysis, comprising data registration, seems to be crucial for the development of computer aided diagnosis and therapy. The advancement of surface tracking system based on optical trackers already plays an important role in surgical procedures planning. However, new modalities, like the time-of-flight (ToF) sensors, widely explored in non-medical fields are powerful and have the potential to become a part of computer aided surgery set-up. Connection of different acquisition systems promises to provide a valuable support for operating room procedures. Therefore, the detailed analysis of the accuracy of such multi-sensors positioning systems is needed. Methods We present the system combining pre-operative CT series with intra-operative ToF-sensor and optical tracker point clouds. The methodology contains: optical sensor set-up and the ToF-camera calibration procedures, data pre-processing algorithms, and registration technique. The data pre-processing yields a surface, in case of CT, and point clouds for ToF-sensor and marker-driven optical tracker representation of an object of interest. An applied registration technique is based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Results The experiments validate the registration of each pair of modalities/sensors involving phantoms of four various human organs in terms of Hausdorff distance and mean absolute distance metrics. The best surface alignment was obtained for CT and optical tracker combination, whereas the worst for experiments involving ToF-camera. Conclusion The obtained accuracies encourage to further develop the multi-sensors systems. The presented substantive discussion concerning the system limitations and possible improvements mainly related to the depth information produced by the ToF-sensor is useful for computer aided surgery developers

  1. DOC II 32-bit digital optical computer: optoelectronic hardware and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Richard V.; Zeise, Frederick F.; Guilfoyle, Peter S.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes current electronic hardware subsystems and software code which support OptiComp's 32-bit general purpose digital optical computer (DOC II). The reader is referred to earlier papers presented in this section for a thorough discussion of theory and application regarding DOC II. The primary optoelectronic subsystems include the drive electronics for the multichannel acousto-optic modulators, the avalanche photodiode amplifier, as well as threshold circuitry, and the memory subsystems. This device utilizes a single optical Boolean vector matrix multiplier and its VME based host controller interface in performing various higher level primitives. OptiComp Corporation wishes to acknowledge the financial support of the Office of Naval Research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Rome Air Development Center, and the Strategic Defense Initiative Office for the funding of this program under contracts N00014-87-C-0077, N00014-89-C-0266 and N00014-89-C- 0225.

  2. A computer model for the evaluation of the effect of corneal topography on optical performance.

    PubMed

    Camp, J J; Maguire, L J; Cameron, B M; Robb, R A

    1990-04-15

    We developed a method that models the effect of irregular corneal surface topography on corneal optical performance. A computer program mimics the function of an optical bench. The method generates a variety of objects (single point, standard Snellen letters, low contrast Snellen letters, arbitrarily complex objects) in object space. The lens is the corneal surface evaluated by a corneal topography analysis system. The objects are refracted by the cornea by using raytracing analysis to produce an image, which is displayed on a video monitor. Optically degraded images are generated by raytracing analysis of selected irregular corneal surfaces, such as those from patients with keratoconus and those from patients having undergone epikeratophakia for aphakia. PMID:2330940

  3. Scalable photonic quantum computing assisted by quantum-dot spin in double-sided optical microcavity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2013-07-29

    We investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing by the giant optical circular birefringence induced by a quantum-dot spin in a double-sided optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We construct a deterministic controlled-not gate on two photonic qubits by two single-photon input-output processes and the readout on an electron-medium spin confined in an optical resonant microcavity. This idea could be applied to multi-qubit gates on photonic qubits and we give the quantum circuit for a three-photon Toffoli gate. High fidelities and high efficiencies could be achieved when the side leakage to the cavity loss rate is low. It is worth pointing out that our devices work in both the strong and the weak coupling regimes. PMID:23938640

  4. Photoinduced dichroism in Bacteriorhodopsin and its application to optical computing and information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Kevin; Aranda, Francisco J.

    1998-03-01

    The intensity dependence of the photoinduced dichroism in Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) films has potential application in optical image processing and optical computing. Under the illumination of linearly polarized actinic light of 570 nm wavelength, the photoinduced dichroism in a Bacteriorhodopsin film induces polarization rotation for a probe beam of the same wavelength. This behavior is a function of the life time of the M state in the Bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. We studied the dependence of the photoinduced dichroism on the pH environment in which the bR molecules are and on genetic mutation by replacement of the Aspartic amino acid in position 96 by Asparagine. The photoinduced probe polarization rotation can be exploited for optical Fourier processing and logic operations. The intensity dependence of the photoinduced dichroism in the different films has important implications on the applications for which they are suitable.

  5. Symbolic-computation study of bright solitons in the optical waveguides and Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Po; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Ruo; Sun, Ya; Cai, Hui-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We investigate solitons in optical waveguides and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) governed by a (3+1)-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii system, which describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the optical waveguides and ground-state wave functions of the BECs. We use the symbolic computation and Hirota method to derive analytic bright one- and two-soliton solutions under certain conditions. Soliton amplitude/width amplification and the influence of time-modulated dispersion on the bright-soliton shape are studied via graphic analysis. Through the analysis of bright solitons in optical waveguides and BECs, we find that both the amplitude and the width of bright solitons can become larger during propagation with certain choices of time-modulated dispersion, and that the shape of the bright soliton can also be affected by the time-modulated dispersion; when the time-modulated dispersion is different, we can obtain bright parabolic-like and periodic-type solitons.

  6. Physics education through computational tools: the case of geometrical and physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Y.; Santana, A.; Mendoza, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, with the development of more powerful and accurate computational tools, the inclusion of new didactic materials in the classroom is known to have increased. However, the form in which these materials can be used to enhance the learning process is still under debate. Many different methodologies have been suggested for constructing new relevant curricular material and, among them, just-in-time teaching (JiTT) has arisen as an effective and successful way to improve the content of classes. In this paper, we will show the implemented pedagogic strategies for the courses of geometrical and optical physics for students of optometry. Thus, the use of the GeoGebra software for the geometrical optics class and the employment of new in-house software for the physical optics class created using the high-level programming language Python is shown with the corresponding activities developed for each of these applets.

  7. A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; MacKenzie, P.D.

    1993-08-03

    The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).

  8. Computed optical interferometric tomography for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Shemonski, Nathan D; Adie, Steven G; Ahmad, Adeel; Bower, Andrew J; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging methods are important for cellular-level research. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a low-coherence-based interferometry technology for cellular imaging with both high axial and lateral resolution. Using a high-numerical-aperture objective, OCM normally has a shallow depth of field and requires scanning the focus through the entire region of interest to perform volumetric imaging. With a higher-numerical-aperture objective, the image quality of OCM is affected by and more sensitive to aberrations. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) are computed imaging techniques that overcome the depth-of-field limitation and the effect of optical aberrations in optical coherence tomography (OCT), respectively. In this work we combine OCM with ISAM and CAO to achieve high-speed volumetric cellular imaging. Experimental imaging results of ex vivo human breast tissue, ex vivo mouse brain tissue, in vitro fibroblast cells in 3D scaffolds, and in vivo human skin demonstrate the significant potential of this technique for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging. PMID:25401012

  9. Computed optical interferometric tomography for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Adie, Steven G.; Ahmad, Adeel; Bower, Andrew J.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging methods are important for cellular-level research. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a low-coherence-based interferometry technology for cellular imaging with both high axial and lateral resolution. Using a high-numerical-aperture objective, OCM normally has a shallow depth of field and requires scanning the focus through the entire region of interest to perform volumetric imaging. With a higher-numerical-aperture objective, the image quality of OCM is affected by and more sensitive to aberrations. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) are computed imaging techniques that overcome the depth-of-field limitation and the effect of optical aberrations in optical coherence tomography (OCT), respectively. In this work we combine OCM with ISAM and CAO to achieve high-speed volumetric cellular imaging. Experimental imaging results of ex vivo human breast tissue, ex vivo mouse brain tissue, in vitro fibroblast cells in 3D scaffolds, and in vivo human skin demonstrate the significant potential of this technique for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging. PMID:25401012

  10. Computational method for correcting complex optical distortion based on FOV division.

    PubMed

    Li, An; Wu, Yisi; Xia, Xinxing; Huang, Yuejin; Feng, Chaoqi; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2015-03-20

    We propose a computational method for correcting complex optical distortion in off-axis optical systems, such as the optical systems found in head-mounted and head-up displays. The proposed method divides the wide field of view (FOV) into subsections, thereby allowing the distortion to be calculated for each small FOV. Instead of applying the conventional distortion model, the distortion coefficients for each small FOV can be calculated using a simple linear polynomial. In addition, in contrast to the conventional distortion coefficients that refer to the deviation between the real and paraxial image, the distortion coefficients employed by this method directly characterize the relationship between the object and its image. Thus, using the polynomial in the reverse manner repeatedly for each small FOV with the corresponding distortion coefficients, a pixel lookup table is obtained, which can be used to accurately compensate for the distortion in the optical system. This method avoids complicated computations, and there are no requirements for intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Our experiments verified the effectiveness of the method where the root-mean-square deviation of the projected distorted straight lines was corrected from 23 to 65 pixels to approximately 1 pixel. PMID:25968533

  11. Optical computed tomography of radiochromic gels for accurate three-dimensional dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Steven

    In this thesis, three-dimensional (3-D) radiochromic Ferrous Xylenol-orange (FX) and Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) micelles gels were imaged by laser and cone-beam (Vista(TM)) optical computed tomography (CT) scanners. The objective was to develop optical CT of radiochromic gels for accurate 3-D dosimetry of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and small field techniques used in modern radiotherapy. First, the cause of a threshold dose response in FX gel dosimeters when scanned with a yellow light source was determined. This effect stems from a spectral sensitivity to multiple chemical complexes that are at different dose levels between ferric ions and xylenol-orange. To negate the threshold dose, an initial concentration of ferric ions is needed in order to shift the chemical equilibrium so that additional dose results in a linear production of a coloured complex that preferentially absorbs at longer wavelengths. Second, a low diffusion leuco-based radiochromic gel consisting of Triton X-100 micelles was developed. The diffusion coefficient of the LCV micelle gel was found to be minimal (0.036 + 0.001 mm2 hr-1 ). Although a dosimetric characterization revealed a reduced sensitivity to radiation, this was offset by a lower auto-oxidation rate and base optical density, higher melting point and no spectral sensitivity. Third, the Radiological Physics Centre (RPC) head-and-neck IMRT protocol was extended to 3-D dose verification using laser and cone-beam (Vista(TM)) optical CT scans of FX gels. Both optical systems yielded comparable measured dose distributions in high-dose regions and low gradients. The FX gel dosimetry results were crossed checked against independent thermoluminescent dosimeter and GAFChromicRTM EBT film measurements made by the RPC. It was shown that optical CT scanned FX gels can be used for accurate IMRT dose verification in 3-D. Finally, corrections for FX gel diffusion and scattered stray light in the Vista(TM) scanner were developed to

  12. Prehistological evaluation of benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions with optical computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokolakis, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis; Krasagakis, Konstantin; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Favicchio, Rosy; Spiliopoulos, George; Giannikaki, Elpida; Ripoll, Jorge; Tosca, Androniki

    2012-06-01

    Discrimination of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions is a major issue in clinical dermatology. Assessment of the thickness of melanoma is critical for prognosis and treatment selection. We aimed to evaluate a novel optical computed tomography (optical-CT) system as a tool for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of melanocytic lesions and its ability to discriminate benign from malignant melanocytic lesions while simultaneously determining the thickness of invasive melanoma. Seventeen melanocytic lesions, one hemangioma, and normal skin were assessed immediately after their excision by optical-CT and subsequently underwent histopathological examination. Tomographic reconstructions were performed with a back-propagation algorithm calculating a 3-D map of the total attenuation coefficient (AC). There was a statistically significant difference between melanomas, dysplastic nevi, and non-dysplastic nevi, as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis test. Median AC values were higher for melanomas compared with dysplastic and non-dysplastic nevi. No statistically significant difference was observed when thickness values obtained by optical-CT were compared with histological thickness using a Wilcoxon sighed rank test. Our results suggest that optical-CT can be important for the immediate prehistological evaluation of biopsies, assisting the physician for a rapid assessment of malignancy and of the thickness of a melanocytic lesion.

  13. Graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing. We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. An approach to implementing modulo 4 operations of three-input hybrid addition and subtraction of quaternary base numbers in the optical domain using multiple non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in graphene coated optical fiber device and (differential) quadrature phase-shift keying ((D)QPSK) signals is presented. We demonstrate 10-Gbaud modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B - C, A + C - B, B + C - A) in the experiment. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B - C, A + C - B, B + C - A) are measured to be less than 7 dB at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10(-3). The BER performance as a function of the relative time offset between three signals (signal offset) is also evaluated showing favorable performance. PMID:27604866

  14. Graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Zhu, Long; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing. We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. An approach to implementing modulo 4 operations of three-input hybrid addition and subtraction of quaternary base numbers in the optical domain using multiple non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in graphene coated optical fiber device and (differential) quadrature phase-shift keying ((D)QPSK) signals is presented. We demonstrate 10-Gbaud modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B − C, A + C − B, B + C − A) in the experiment. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for modulo 4 operations of three-input quaternary hybrid addition and subtraction (A + B − C, A + C − B, B + C − A) are measured to be less than 7 dB at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10−3. The BER performance as a function of the relative time offset between three signals (signal offset) is also evaluated showing favorable performance. PMID:27604866

  15. Computational Optical Imaging Systems for Spectroscopy and Wide Field-of-View Gigapixel Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittle, David Scott

    This dissertation explores computational optical imaging methods to circumvent the physical limitations of classical sensing. An ideal imaging system would maximize resolution in time, spectral bandwidth, three-dimensional object space, and polarization. Practically, increasing any one parameter will correspondingly decrease the others. Spectrometers strive to measure the power spectral density of the object scene. Traditional pushbroom spectral imagers acquire high resolution spectral and spatial resolution at the expense of acquisition time. Multiplexed spectral imagers acquire spectral and spatial information at each instant of time. Using a coded aperture and dispersive element, the coded aperture snapshot spectral imagers (CASSI) here described leverage correlations between voxels in the spatial-spectral data cube to compressively sample the power spectral density with minimal loss in spatial-spectral resolution while maintaining high temporal resolution. Photography is limited by similar physical constraints. Low f/# systems are required for high spatial resolution to circumvent diffraction limits and allow for more photon transfer to the film plain, but require larger optical volumes and more optical elements. Wide field systems similarly suffer from increasing complexity and optical volume. Incorporating a multi-scale optical system, the f/#, resolving power, optical volume and wide field of view become much less coupled. This system uses a single objective lens that images onto a curved spherical focal plane which is relayed by small micro-optics to discrete focal planes. Using this design methodology allows for gigapixel designs at low f/# that are only a few pounds and smaller than a one-foot hemisphere. Computational imaging systems add the necessary step of forward modeling and calibration. Since the mapping from object space to image space is no longer directly readable, post-processing is required to display the required data. The CASSI system uses

  16. Modern numerical techniques and software for photo- and thermoemission electron optical systems computer-aided design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrski, Mikhail A.; Andreev, Sergei V.; Gaidukova, Inna S.; Tarasov, Victor A.; Filachev, Anatoly M.

    1997-09-01

    The paper is devoted to software development for simulation, optimization, and computer-aided design of photo/thermo- emission electron optical systems and units. The first part of the paper presents the applied program package (APP) 'ELIMDYNAMICS\\ intended for computer-aided design of dynamic photo-emission image tubes with electro/magnetostatic focusing and deflection (streak tubes). The developed software allows highly precise computation of basic image quality characteristics both in static and streak modes. One of the main advantages of the new program version presented is that 'through' electron beam computation from the photocathode to image receiver is available with regard to dynamic aberrations caused by scattering fields located nearby the edges of deflecting plates. In the second part, the possibility is shown to generalize some numerical techniques being effectively applied in photo-emission imaging electron optics (namely, the (tau) -variation - and the first kind integral equations techniques) to simulation of the thermo-emission electron beam technology units. Functions of the new APP 'CHARGE' are presented, and some numerical aspects of the self-coordinated problem are discussed.

  17. Linear-phase approximation in the triangular facet near-field physical optics computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Hodges, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of reflector antenna surfaces use a computer program based on a discrete approximation of the radiation integral. The calculation replaces the actual surface with a triangular facet representation; the physical optics current is assumed to be constant over each facet. Described here is a method of calculation using linear-phase approximation of the surface currents of parabolas, ellipses, and shaped subreflectors and compares results with a previous program that used a constant-phase approximation of the triangular facets. The results show that the linear-phase approximation is a significant improvement over the constant-phase approximation, and enables computation of 100 to 1,000 lambda reflectors within a reasonable time on a Cray computer.

  18. Computational optical palpation: micro-scale force mapping using finite-element methods (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate quantification of forces, applied to, or generated by, tissue, is key to understanding many biomechanical processes, fabricating engineered tissues, and diagnosing diseases. Many techniques have been employed to measure forces; in particular, tactile imaging - developed to spatially map palpation-mimicking forces - has shown potential in improving the diagnosis of cancer on the macro-scale. However, tactile imaging often involves the use of discrete force sensors, such as capacitive or piezoelectric sensors, whose spatial resolution is often limited to 1-2 mm. Our group has previously presented a type of tactile imaging, termed optical palpation, in which the change in thickness of a compliant layer in contact with tissue is measured using optical coherence tomography, and surface forces are extracted, with a micro-scale spatial resolution, using a one-dimensional spring model. We have also recently combined optical palpation with compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify stiffness. A main limitation of this work, however, is that a one-dimensional spring model is insufficient in describing the deformation of mechanically heterogeneous tissue with uneven boundaries, generating significant inaccuracies in measured forces. Here, we present a computational, finite-element method, which we term computational optical palpation. In this technique, by knowing the non-linear mechanical properties of the layer, and from only the axial component of displacement measured by phase-sensitive OCE, we can estimate, not only the axial forces, but the three-dimensional traction forces at the layer-tissue interface. We use a non-linear, three-dimensional model of deformation, which greatly increases the ability to accurately measure force and stiffness in complex tissues.

  19. Computational Electromagnetic Modeling of Optical Responses in Plasmonically Enhanced Nanoscale Devices Fabricated with Nanomasking Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Eric; Debu, Desalegn; Saylor, Cameron; Herzog, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    This work computationally explores plasmonic nanoscale devices fabricated with a recently developed nanomasking technique that is based on the self-aligned process. Computational electromagnetic modeling has determined enhancement factors and the plasmonic and optical properties of these structures. The nanomasking technique is a new process that is employed to overcome the resolution limits of traditional electron beam lithography and can also be used to increase resolution in photolithography fabrication as well. This technique can consistently produce accurate features with nanostructures and gaps smaller than 10 nm. These smaller dimensions can allow for increased and more localized plasmonically enhanced electric fields. These unique metal devices encompass tunable, enhanced plasmonic and optical properties that can be useful in a wide range of applications. Finite element methods are used to approximate the electromagnetic responses, giving the ability to alter the designs and dimensions in order to optimize the enhancement. Ultimately, we will fabricate devices and characterize the plasmonic properties with optical techniques, including dark-field spectroscopy, to confirm the properties with the goal of generating more efficient devices.

  20. High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shengmei; Wang, Le; Liang, Wenqiang; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a high performance optical encryption (OE) scheme based on computational ghost imaging (GI) with QR code and compressive sensing (CS) technique, named QR-CGI-OE scheme. N random phase screens, generated by Alice, is a secret key and be shared with its authorized user, Bob. The information is first encoded by Alice with QR code, and the QR-coded image is then encrypted with the aid of computational ghost imaging optical system. Here, measurement results from the GI optical system's bucket detector are the encrypted information and be transmitted to Bob. With the key, Bob decrypts the encrypted information to obtain the QR-coded image with GI and CS techniques, and further recovers the information by QR decoding. The experimental and numerical simulated results show that the authorized users can recover completely the original image, whereas the eavesdroppers can not acquire any information about the image even the eavesdropping ratio (ER) is up to 60% at the given measurement times. For the proposed scheme, the number of bits sent from Alice to Bob are reduced considerably and the robustness is enhanced significantly. Meantime, the measurement times in GI system is reduced and the quality of the reconstructed QR-coded image is improved.

  1. Precision alignment and calibration of optical systems using computer generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Laura Elizabeth

    As techniques for manufacturing and metrology advance, optical systems are being designed with more complexity than ever before. Given these prescriptions, alignment and calibration can be a limiting factor in their final performance. Computer generated holograms (CGHs) have several unique properties that make them powerful tools for meeting these demanding tolerances. This work will present three novel methods for alignment and calibration of optical systems using computer generated holograms. Alignment methods using CGHs require that the optical wavefront created by the CGH be related to a mechanical datum to locate it space. An overview of existing methods is provided as background, then two new alignment methods are discussed in detail. In the first method, the CGH contact Ball Alignment Tool (CBAT) is used to align a ball or sphere mounted retroreflector (SMR) to a Fresnel zone plate pattern with micron level accuracy. The ball is bonded directly onto the CGH substrate and provides permanent, accurate registration between the optical wavefront and a mechanical reference to locate the CGH in space. A prototype CBAT was built and used to align and bond an SMR to a CGH. In the second method, CGH references are used to align axi-symmetric optics in four degrees of freedom with low uncertainty and real time feedback. The CGHs create simultaneous 3D optical references where the zero order reflection sets tilt and the first diffracted order sets centration. The flexibility of the CGH design can be used to accommodate a wide variety of optical systems and maximize sensitivity to misalignments. A 2-CGH prototype system was aligned multiplied times and the alignment uncertainty was quantified and compared to an error model. Finally, an enhanced calibration method is presented. It uses multiple perturbed measurements of a master sphere to improve the calibration of CGH-based Fizeau interferometers ultimately measuring aspheric test surfaces. The improvement in the

  2. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  3. Computer modeling and analysis of thermal link performance for an optical refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byram, Kevin; Mar, David; Parker, John; Von der Porten, Steven; Hankinson, John; Lee, Chris; Mayeda, Kai; Haskell, Richard C.; Yang, Qimin; Greenfield, Scott R.; Epstein, Richard I.

    2008-02-01

    We have used the thermal modeling tool in COMSOL Multiphysics to investigate factors that affect the thermal performance of the optical refrigerator. Assuming an ideal cooling element and a non-absorptive dielectric trapping mirror, the three dominant heating factors are blackbody radiation from the surrounding environment, conductive heat transfer through mechanical supports, and the absorption of fluoresced photons transmitted through the thermal link. Laboratory experimentation coupled with computer modeling using Code V optical software have resulted in link designs capable of reducing the transmission to 0.04% of the fluoresced photons emitted toward the thermal link. The ideal thermal link will have minimal surface area, provide complete optical isolation for the load, and possess high thermal conductivity. Modeling results imply that a 1cm 3 load can be chilled to 102 K with currently available cooling efficiencies using a 100 W pump laser on a YB:ZBLANP system, and using an ideal link that has minimal surface area and no optical transmission. We review the simulated steady-state cooling temperatures reached by the heat load for several link designs and system configurations as a comparative measure of how well particular configurations perform.

  4. MODA: a new algorithm to compute optical depths in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, Albino; Gafton, Emanuel; Cabezón, Rubén; Rosswog, Stephan; Liebendörfer, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We introduce the multidimensional optical depth algorithm (MODA) for the calculation of optical depths in approximate multidimensional radiative transport schemes, equally applicable to neutrinos and photons. Motivated by (but not limited to) neutrino transport in three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers, our method makes no assumptions about the geometry of the matter distribution, apart from expecting optically transparent boundaries. Methods: Based on local information about opacities, the algorithm figures out an escape route that tends to minimize the optical depth without assuming any predefined paths for radiation. Its adaptivity makes it suitable for a variety of astrophysical settings with complicated geometry (e.g., core-collapse supernovae, compact binary mergers, tidal disruptions, star formation, etc.). We implement the MODA algorithm into both a Eulerian hydrodynamics code with a fixed, uniform grid and into an SPH code where we use a tree structure that is otherwise used for searching neighbors and calculating gravity. Results: In a series of numerical experiments, we compare the MODA results with analytically known solutions. We also use snapshots from actual 3D simulations and compare the results of MODA with those obtained with other methods, such as the global and local ray-by-ray method. It turns out that MODA achieves excellent accuracy at a moderate computational cost. In appendix we also discuss implementation details and parallelization strategies.

  5. Organization of the channel-switching process in parallel computer systems based on a matrix optical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golomidov, Y. V.; Li, S. K.; Popov, S. A.; Smolov, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    After a classification and analysis of electronic and optoelectronic switching devices, the design principles and structure of a matrix optical switch is described. The switching and pair-exclusion operations in this type of switch are examined, and a method for the optical switching of communication channels is elaborated. Finally, attention is given to the structural organization of a parallel computer system with a matrix optical switch.

  6. Optical binary de Bruijn networks for massively parallel computing: design methodology and feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louri, Ahmed; Sung, Hongki

    1995-10-01

    The interconnection network structure can be the deciding and limiting factor in the cost and the performance of parallel computers. One of the most popular point-to-point interconnection networks for parallel computers today is the hypercube. The regularity, logarithmic diameter, symmetry, high connectivity, fault tolerance, simple routing, and reconfigurability (easy embedding of other network topologies) of the hypercube make it a very attractive choice for parallel computers. Unfortunately the hypercube possesses a major drawback, which is the links per node increases as the network grows in size. As an alternative to the hypercube, the binary de Bruijn (BdB) network has recently received much attention. The BdB not only provides a logarithmic diameter, fault tolerance, and simple routing but also requires fewer links than the hypercube for the same network size. Additionally, a major advantage of the BdB edges per node is independent of the network size. This makes it very desirable for large-scale parallel systems. However, because of its asymmetrical nature and global connectivity, it poses a major challenge for VLSI technology. Optics, owing to its three-dimensional and global-connectivity nature, seems to be very suitable for implementing BdB networks. We present an implementation methodology for optical BdB networks. The distinctive feature of the proposed implementation methodology is partitionability of the network into a few primitive operations that can be implemented efficiently. We further show feasibility of the

  7. Optical tomographic detection of rheumatoid arthritis with computer-aided classification schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2009-02-01

    A recent research study has shown that combining multiple parameters, drawn from optical tomographic images, leads to better classification results to identifying human finger joints that are affected or not affected by rheumatic arthritis RA. Building up on the research findings of the previous study, this article presents an advanced computer-aided classification approach for interpreting optical image data to detect RA in finger joints. Additional data are used including, for example, maximum and minimum values of the absorption coefficient as well as their ratios and image variances. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and area under the curve AUC. Results were compared to different benchmarks ("gold standard"): magnet resonance, ultrasound and clinical evaluation. Maximum accuracies (AUC=0.88) were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratios and image variances and using ultrasound as gold standard.

  8. A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Runxiang; Cheung, Stanley; Li, Yuliang; Okamoto, Katsunari; Proietti, Roberto; Yin, Yawei; Yoo, S J B

    2013-12-30

    This paper discusses the architecture and provides performance studies of a silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for scalable interconnect network in high performance computing systems. The proposed switch exploits optical wavelength parallelism and wavelength routing characteristics of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR) to allow contention resolution in the wavelength domain. Simulation results from a cycle-accurate network simulator indicate that, even with only two transmitter/receiver pairs per node, the switch exhibits lower end-to-end latency and higher throughput at high (>90%) input loads compared with electronic switches. On the device integration level, we propose to integrate all the components (ring modulators, photodetectors and AWGR) on a CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform to ensure a compact, energy efficient and cost-effective device. We successfully demonstrate proof-of-concept routing functions on an 8 × 8 prototype fabricated using foundry services provided by OpSIS-IME. PMID:24514859

  9. Monitoring of facial stress during space flight: Optical computer recognition combining discriminative and generative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinges, David F.; Venkataraman, Sundara; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Metaxas, Dimitris N.

    2007-02-01

    Astronauts are required to perform mission-critical tasks at a high level of functional capability throughout spaceflight. Stressors can compromise their ability to do so, making early objective detection of neurobehavioral problems in spaceflight a priority. Computer optical approaches offer a completely unobtrusive way to detect distress during critical operations in space flight. A methodology was developed and a study completed to determine whether optical computer recognition algorithms could be used to discriminate facial expressions during stress induced by performance demands. Stress recognition from a facial image sequence is a subject that has not received much attention although it is an important problem for many applications beyond space flight (security, human-computer interaction, etc.). This paper proposes a comprehensive method to detect stress from facial image sequences by using a model-based tracker. The image sequences were captured as subjects underwent a battery of psychological tests under high- and low-stress conditions. A cue integration-based tracking system accurately captured the rigid and non-rigid parameters of different parts of the face (eyebrows, lips). The labeled sequences were used to train the recognition system, which consisted of generative (hidden Markov model) and discriminative (support vector machine) parts that yield results superior to using either approach individually. The current optical algorithm methods performed at a 68% accuracy rate in an experimental study of 60 healthy adults undergoing periods of high-stress versus low-stress performance demands. Accuracy and practical feasibility of the technique is being improved further with automatic multi-resolution selection for the discretization of the mask, and automated face detection and mask initialization algorithms.

  10. Spin-based all-optical quantum computation with quantum dots: Understanding and suppressing decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Calarco, T.; Datta, A.; Fedichev, P.; Zoller, P.; Pazy, E.

    2003-07-01

    We present an all-optical implementation of quantum computation using semiconductor quantum dots. Quantum memory is represented by the spin of an excess electron stored in each dot. Two-qubit gates are realized by switching on trion-trion interactions between different dots. State selectivity is achieved via conditional laser excitation exploiting Pauli exclusion principle. Read out is performed via a quantum-jump technique. We analyze the effect on our scheme's performance of the main imperfections present in real quantum dots: exciton decay, hole mixing, and phonon decoherence. We introduce an adiabatic gate procedure that allows one to circumvent these effects and evaluate quantitatively its fidelity.

  11. Computer-originated polarizing holographic optical element recorded in photopolymerizable layers.

    PubMed

    Carré, C; Habraken, S; Roose, S

    1993-05-01

    The photosensitive system that is used in most cases to produce holographic optical holograms is dichromated gelatin. Other materials may be used, in particular, photopolymerizable layers. In the present investigation, we set out to use the polymer developed in the Laboratoire de Photochimie Générale in Mulhouse in order to duplicate a computer-generated hologram. Our technique is intended to generate polarizing properties. We took into account the fact that no wet chemistry processing is required; grating fringe spacings are not distorted through chemical development. PMID:19802257

  12. Approximate Bayesian computation for estimating number concentrations of monodisperse nanoparticles in suspension by optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röding, Magnus; Zagato, Elisa; Remaut, Katrien; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    We present an approximate Bayesian computation scheme for estimating number concentrations of monodisperse diffusing nanoparticles in suspension by optical particle tracking microscopy. The method is based on the probability distribution of the time spent by a particle inside a detection region. We validate the method on suspensions of well-controlled reference particles. We illustrate its usefulness with an application in gene therapy, applying the method to estimate number concentrations of plasmid DNA molecules and the average number of DNA molecules complexed with liposomal drug delivery particles.

  13. Multivariate optical computing using a digital micromirror device for fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachary J; Strombom, Sven; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2011-08-29

    A multivariate optical computer has been constructed consisting of a spectrograph, digital micromirror device, and photomultiplier tube that is capable of determining absolute concentrations of individual components of a multivariate spectral model. We present experimental results on ternary mixtures, showing accurate quantification of chemical concentrations based on integrated intensities of fluorescence and Raman spectra measured with a single point detector. We additionally show in simulation that point measurements based on principal component spectra retain the ability to classify cancerous from noncancerous T cells. PMID:21935055

  14. Unicursal random maze tool path for computer-controlled optical surfacing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Qiao

    2015-12-01

    A novel unicursal random maze tool path is proposed in this paper, which can not only implement uniform coverage of the polishing surfaces, but also possesses randomness and multidirectionality. The simulation experiments along with the practical polishing experiments are conducted to make the comparison of three kinds of paths, including maze path, raster path, and Hilbert path. The experimental results validate that the maze path can warrant uniform polishing and avoid the appearance of the periodical structures in the polished surface. It is also more effective than the Hilbert path in restraining the mid-spatial frequency error in computer-controlled optical surfacing process. PMID:26836670

  15. A hybrid optical switch architecture to integrate IP into optical networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users. As a consequence, the nature of the Internet traffic has been fundamentally transformed from a pure packet-based pattern to today's predominantly flow-based pattern. Cloud computing has also brought about an unprecedented growth in the Internet traffic. In this paper, a hybrid optical switch architecture is presented to deal with the flow-based Internet traffic, aiming to offer flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand to improve fiber capacity utilization. The hybrid optical switch is capable of integrating IP into optical networks for cloud-based traffic with predictable performance, for which the delay performance of the electronic module in the hybrid optical switch architecture is evaluated through simulation.

  16. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm-1. For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm-1. With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  17. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm(-1). For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm(-1). With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements. PMID:26988107

  18. Small field dose delivery evaluations using cone beam optical computed tomography-based polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Olding, Timothy; Holmes, Oliver; DeJean, Paul; McAuley, Kim B.; Nkongchu, Ken; Santyr, Giles; Schreiner, L. John

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the combination of cone beam optical computed tomography with an N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based polymer gel dosimeter for three-dimensional dose imaging of small field deliveries. Initial investigations indicate that cone beam optical imaging of polymer gels is complicated by scattered stray light perturbation. This can lead to significant dosimetry failures in comparison to dose readout by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For example, only 60% of the voxels from an optical CT dose readout of a 1 l dosimeter passed a two-dimensional Low's gamma test (at a 3%, 3 mm criteria, relative to a treatment plan for a well-characterized pencil beam delivery). When the same dosimeter was probed by MRI, a 93% pass rate was observed. The optical dose measurement was improved after modifications to the dosimeter preparation, matching its performance with the imaging capabilities of the scanner. With the new dosimeter preparation, 99.7% of the optical CT voxels passed a Low's gamma test at the 3%, 3 mm criteria and 92.7% at a 2%, 2 mm criteria. The fitted interjar dose responses of a small sample set of modified dosimeters prepared (a) from the same gel batch and (b) from different gel batches prepared on the same day were found to be in agreement to within 3.6% and 3.8%, respectively, over the full dose range. Without drawing any statistical conclusions, this experiment gives a preliminary indication that intrabatch or interbatch NIPAM dosimeters prepared on the same day should be suitable for dose sensitivity calibration. PMID:21430853

  19. Optoelectronic array that computes error and weight modification for a bipolar optical neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, C. C.; Johnson, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and results of an optoelectronic device that computes the weight changes required by the delta-rule learning algorithm and encodes the result on a pair of optical beams are presented. This very-large-scale-integrated ferroelectric liquid-crystal array was designed specifically to permit bipolar optoelectronic neural network to learn without the limitations of an external controlling computer. The device contains 64 smart pixels, which represent the processing elements in an artificial neural network. Each processing element consists of two photodetectors, a current-to-voltage converter, two comparators, two switches, and two output liquid-crystal modulating pads. The device has a measured contrast ratio of 10:1, a 10-to-90-percent rise time of 350 microsec and a 90-to-10-percent fall time of 150 microsec.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast MRI with high accuracy optical flow estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Baese, Anke; Barbu, Adrian; Lobbes, Marc; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Burgeth, Bernhard; Kleefeld, Andreas; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    Non-mass enhancing lesions represent a challenge for the radiological reading. They are not well-defined in both morphology (geometric shape) and kinetics (temporal enhancement) and pose a problem to lesion detection and classification. To enhance the discriminative properties of an automated radiological workflow, the correct preprocessing steps need to be taken. In an usual computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, motion compensation plays an important role. To this end, we employ a new high accuracy optical flow based motion compensation algorithm with robustification variants. An automated computer-aided diagnosis system evaluates the atypical behavior of these lesions, and additionally considers the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

  1. Computational studies on linear, second and third-order nonlinear optical properties of novel styrylquinolinium dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, A.; Karakaya, M.; Taser, M.; Ceylan, Y.; Gozutok, A.; Arof, A. K.; El Kouari, Y.; Sahraoui, B.

    2016-03-01

    The electric dipole moments (μ), static dipole polarizabilities (α) and first hyperpolarizabilities (β) of styrylquinolinium dyes, D8 and D21, have been computed by density functional theory (DFT). The one-photon absorption (OPA) characterizations have been investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and further interpreted using computational chemistry. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method has been used to describe the dynamic dipole polarizabilities, dynamic second-order and also static and dynamic third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. D8-D21 have rather high β and second hyperpolarizabilities (γ). The highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) and the HOMO-LUMO band gaps for D8-D21 have been evaluated by DFT.

  2. Methods to improve the bus throughput of node computer in optical interconnection network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Feng; Jing, Wencai; Zhang, Yimo; Zhou, Ge; Jia, Dagong; Kong, Fanmin; Sun, Zhixiang

    2005-02-01

    Both hardware and software are optimized simultaneously to improve the bus throughput of node computer in cluster computing network. A cost effective optical interconnection ring network is established using off-the-shelf PCs with windows operating system. A network adapter card ONIC is developed. Using ETDM and field program technique, the full bandwidth of the 32bit×33MHz PCI bus is reached in physical layer. In order to overcome the hardware and software data bottlenecks induced by using of general purpose platform such as PCs and Windows 2000 system, several methods are adopted to maximum the bus throughput of node computer. A user-level interface is designed to blur the kernel/user mode boundary of the software system, and bypass the OS overhead. Zero-copy DMA is realized. The bandwidth in application level using PIO and DMA transfer mode is improved 17 and 26 times respectively. The sustained bandwidth in application layer can reach 437.6Mbit/s. It"s also shown theoretically and experimentally that the selection of main board chipset, using memory space map, reasonable using of PIO and DMA transfer mode, using polling and large MTU will also improve the bus throughput of node computer considerably.

  3. Fast computation of an optimal controller for large-scale adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Massioni, Paolo; Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François; Conan, Jean-Marc

    2011-11-01

    The linear quadratic Gaussian regulator provides the minimum-variance control solution for a linear time-invariant system. For adaptive optics (AO) applications, under the hypothesis of a deformable mirror with instantaneous response, such a controller boils down to a minimum-variance phase estimator (a Kalman filter) and a projection onto the mirror space. The Kalman filter gain can be computed by solving an algebraic Riccati matrix equation, whose computational complexity grows very quickly with the size of the telescope aperture. This "curse of dimensionality" makes the standard solvers for Riccati equations very slow in the case of extremely large telescopes. In this article, we propose a way of computing the Kalman gain for AO systems by means of an approximation that considers the turbulence phase screen as the cropped version of an infinite-size screen. We demonstrate the advantages of the methods for both off- and on-line computational time, and we evaluate its performance for classical AO as well as for wide-field tomographic AO with multiple natural guide stars. Simulation results are reported. PMID:22048298

  4. Design and Construction of an Optical Computed Tomography Scanner for Polymer Gel Dosimetry Application

    PubMed Central

    Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mesbahi, Asghar; Keshtkar, Ahmad; Azimirad, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeter is the only accurate three dimensional (3D) dosimeter that can measure the absorbed dose distribution in a perfect 3D setting. Gel dosimetry by using optical computed tomography (OCT) has been promoted by several researches. In the current study, we designed and constructed a prototype OCT system for gel dosimetry. First, the electrical system for optical scanning of the gel container using a Helium-Neon laser and a photocell was designed and constructed. Then, the mechanical part for two rotational and translational motions was designed and step motors were assembled to it. The data coming from photocell was grabbed by the home-built interface and sent to a personal computer. Data processing was carried out using MATLAB software. To calibrate the system and tune up the functionality of it, different objects was designed and scanned. Furthermore, the spatial and contrast resolution of the system was determined. The system was able to scan the gel dosimeter container with a diameter up to 11 cm inside the water phantom. The standard deviation of the pixels within water flask image was considered as the criteria for image uniformity. The uniformity of the system was about ±0.05%. The spatial resolution of the system was approximately 1 mm and contrast resolution was about 0.2%. Our primary results showed that this system is able to obtain two-dimensional, cross-sectional images from polymer gel samples. PMID:24761377

  5. Optic nerve sheath diameters in healthy adults measured by computer tomography

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, Michael; Abuita, Rani; Bekerman, Inessa

    2015-01-01

    AIM To measure optic nerve sheath diameters (ONSD) in different locations by computer tomography (CT) and to recommend the best location for cases when ONSD is used for intracranial pressure monitoring. METHODS In a prospective cohort study, CT data of 300 healthy adults were analyzed (600 eyes). In all cases, the CT investigation was performed at the Emergency Department because of the various conditions that proved not to be connected with ophthalmological or neurological pathology. The ONSD were measured at 3 mm and 8 mm distance from the globe, and 3 mm from the anterior opening of the optic canal. The correlation analysis was performed with gender, age, and ethnic background. RESULTS The right/left ONSD are 4.94±1.51/5.17±1.34 mm at 3 mm, 4.35±0.76/4.45±0.62 mm at 8 mm from the globe, and 3.55±0.82/3.65±0.7 mm at 3 mm from the optic canal. No significant differences correlated with gender of the patients, their age, and ethnic background were found. CONCLUSION In healthy persons, the ONSD varies from 5.17±1.34 mm to 3.55±0.82 mm in different locations within the intraorbital space. The most stable results with lesser standard deviation can be obtained if it is measured 8-10 mm from the globe. PMID:26682181

  6. Small-Field Measurements of 3D Polymer Gel Dosimeters through Optical Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Cheng-Ting; Lee, Yao-Ting; Wu, Shin-Hua; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    With advances in therapeutic instruments and techniques, three-dimensional dose delivery has been widely used in radiotherapy. The verification of dose distribution in a small field becomes critical because of the obvious dose gradient within the field. The study investigates the dose distributions of various field sizes by using NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter. The dosimeter consists of 5% gelatin, 5% monomers, 3% cross linkers, and 5 mM THPC. After irradiation, a 24 to 96 hour delay was applied, and the gel dosimeters were read by a cone beam optical computed tomography (optical CT) scanner. The dose distributions measured by the NIPAM gel dosimeter were compared to the outputs of the treatment planning system using gamma evaluation. For the criteria of 3%/3 mm, the pass rates for 5 × 5, 3 × 3, 2 × 2, 1 × 1, and 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 were as high as 91.7%, 90.7%, 88.2%, 74.8%, and 37.3%, respectively. For the criteria of 5%/5 mm, the gamma pass rates of the 5 × 5, 3 × 3, and 2 × 2 cm2 fields were over 99%. The NIPAM gel dosimeter provides high chemical stability. With cone-beam optical CT readouts, the NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter has potential for clinical dose verification of small-field irradiation. PMID:26974434

  7. Sophisticated test objects for the quality assurance of optical computed tomography scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. T. Abdul; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Brochard, Thierry; Adamovics, John; Clowes, S. K.; Bradley, David; Doran, Simon J.

    2011-07-01

    Optical computed tomography (CT), in conjunction with radiochromic gels and plastics, shows great potential for radiation therapy dose verification in 3D. However, an effective quality assurance (QA) regime for the various scanners currently available still remains to be developed. We show how the favourable properties of the PRESAGE® radiochromic polymer may be exploited to create highly sophisticated QA phantoms. Five 60 mm diameter cylindrical PRESAGE® samples were irradiated using the x-ray microbeam radiation therapy facility on the ID-17 biomedical beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Samples were then imaged on the University of Surrey parallel-beam optical CT scanner. The sample irradiations were designed to allow a variety of tests to be performed, including assessments of linearity, modulation transfer function (three independent measurements), geometric distortion and the effect of treatment fractionation. It is clear that, although the synchrotron method produces extremely high-quality test objects, it is not practical on a routine basis, because of its reliance on a highly specialized radiation source. Hence, we investigated a second possibility: three PRESAGE® samples were illuminated with ultraviolet light of wavelength 365 nm, using cheap masks created by laser-printing patterns onto overhead projector acetate sheets. There was good correlation between optical densities measured by the CT scanner and the expected UV 'dose' delivered. The results are encouraging and a proposal is made for a scanner test regime based on calibrated and well-characterized PRESAGE® samples.

  8. Comparison of computed tomography- and optical image-based assessment of liposome distribution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huang; Dunne, Michael; Lo, John; Jaffray, David A; Allen, Christine

    2013-05-01

    The use of multimodal imaging as a tool to assess the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanocarriers is important in understanding the nature of their in vivo transport. The current study reports the development of a nano-sized liposomal computed tomographic (CT)/optical imaging probe carrying iohexol and Cy5.5 and its use in micro-CT and optical imaging to quantitatively assess the whole-body (macroscopic), intratumoral, and microscopic distribution over a period of 8 days. These multimodal liposomes have a vascular half-life of 30.3 ± 8.9 hours in mice bearing subcutaneous H520 non-small cell lung cancer tumors, with the maximum liposome accumulation in tumor achieved 48 hours postinjection. The in vivo liposome distribution and stability were quantitatively assessed using both micro-CT and fluorescence molecular tomography. The combination of CT and optical imaging enables visualization of the liposomes at the whole-body, tumor, and cellular scales with high sensitivity. Such noninvasive tracking of therapeutic vehicles at the macro- and microscale is important for informed and rational development of novel nanocarrier systems. PMID:23490441

  9. Experimental and computational analysis of Doppler cooling and the magneto-optic trap.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, J. A., Jr.; Cline, R. A.

    1997-04-01

    Cold, dense clouds of cesium atoms have been produced in an undergraduate research lab using Doppler cooling and a vapor cell magneto-optic trap (MOT). Measurements of temperature, density, and filling of a MOT will be reported. In conjunction with this experiment, Windows-based software has been developed to simulate laser cooling and trapping. The program graphically depicts the position and velocity of a variable number of atoms in two dimensions as they are cooled and trapped. The algorithm accounts for absorption, spontaneous and stimulated emission, Doppler and Zeeman shifts, and radiation trapping. The user can adjust time step, atom velocity, laser intensity and detuning, and magnetic field gradient. The program can demonstrate optical molasses, a MOT, and a dark MOT. Simulations can be recorded and played back in the same graphical environment, along with movies from the actual experiment. The simulation is a useful educational tool for explaining and investigating Doppler cooling and the magneto-optic trap. The program allows anyone to obtain computational results and compare them with published experimental results. A beta version of Cool Simulation is downloadable off the World Wide Web.

  10. Computational hydrodynamics and optical performance of inductively-coupled plasma adaptive lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, M.; Urzay, J.; Mani, A.

    2015-06-01

    This study addresses the optical performance of a plasma adaptive lens for aero-optical applications by using both axisymmetric and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Plasma adaptive lenses are based on the effects of free electrons on the phase velocity of incident light, which, in theory, can be used as a phase-conjugation mechanism. A closed cylindrical chamber filled with Argon plasma is used as a model lens into which a beam of light is launched. The plasma is sustained by applying a radio-frequency electric current through a coil that envelops the chamber. Four different operating conditions, ranging from low to high powers and induction frequencies, are employed in the simulations. The numerical simulations reveal complex hydrodynamic phenomena related to buoyant and electromagnetic laminar transport, which generate, respectively, large recirculating cells and wall-normal compression stresses in the form of local stagnation-point flows. In the axisymmetric simulations, the plasma motion is coupled with near-wall axial striations in the electron-density field, some of which propagate in the form of low-frequency traveling disturbances adjacent to vortical quadrupoles that are reminiscent of Taylor-Görtler flow structures in centrifugally unstable flows. Although the refractive-index fields obtained from axisymmetric simulations lead to smooth beam wavefronts, they are found to be unstable to azimuthal disturbances in three of the four three-dimensional cases considered. The azimuthal striations are optically detrimental, since they produce high-order angular aberrations that account for most of the beam wavefront error. A fourth case is computed at high input power and high induction frequency, which displays the best optical properties among all the three-dimensional simulations considered. In particular, the increase in induction frequency prevents local thermalization and leads to an axisymmetric distribution of electrons even after introduction of

  11. Computational hydrodynamics and optical performance of inductively-coupled plasma adaptive lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Mortazavi, M.; Urzay, J. Mani, A.

    2015-06-15

    This study addresses the optical performance of a plasma adaptive lens for aero-optical applications by using both axisymmetric and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Plasma adaptive lenses are based on the effects of free electrons on the phase velocity of incident light, which, in theory, can be used as a phase-conjugation mechanism. A closed cylindrical chamber filled with Argon plasma is used as a model lens into which a beam of light is launched. The plasma is sustained by applying a radio-frequency electric current through a coil that envelops the chamber. Four different operating conditions, ranging from low to high powers and induction frequencies, are employed in the simulations. The numerical simulations reveal complex hydrodynamic phenomena related to buoyant and electromagnetic laminar transport, which generate, respectively, large recirculating cells and wall-normal compression stresses in the form of local stagnation-point flows. In the axisymmetric simulations, the plasma motion is coupled with near-wall axial striations in the electron-density field, some of which propagate in the form of low-frequency traveling disturbances adjacent to vortical quadrupoles that are reminiscent of Taylor-Görtler flow structures in centrifugally unstable flows. Although the refractive-index fields obtained from axisymmetric simulations lead to smooth beam wavefronts, they are found to be unstable to azimuthal disturbances in three of the four three-dimensional cases considered. The azimuthal striations are optically detrimental, since they produce high-order angular aberrations that account for most of the beam wavefront error. A fourth case is computed at high input power and high induction frequency, which displays the best optical properties among all the three-dimensional simulations considered. In particular, the increase in induction frequency prevents local thermalization and leads to an axisymmetric distribution of electrons even after introduction of

  12. Hybrid system of optics and computer for 3-D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.; He, Anzhi

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, a hybrid system of optics and computer for 3D object recognition is presented. The system consists of a Twyman-Green interferometer, a He-Ne laser, a computer, a TV camera, and an image processor. The structured light produced by a Twyman-Green interferometer is split in and illuminates objects in two directions at the same time. Moire contour is formed on the surface of object. In order to delete unwanted patterns in moire contour, we don't utilize the moire contour on the surface of object. We place a TV camera in the middle of the angle between two illuminating directions and take two groups of deformed fringes on the surface of objects. Two groups of deformed fringes are processed using the digital image processing system controlled and operated by XOR logic in the computer, moire fringes are then extracted from the complicated environment. 3D coordinates of points of the object are obtained after moire fringe is followed, and points belonging to the same fringe are given the same altitude. The object is described by its projected drawings in three coordinate planes. The projected drawings in three coordinate planes of the known objects are stored in the library of judgment. The object can be recognized by inquiring the library of judgment.

  13. Characterization of ion-assisted induced absorption in A-Si thin-films used for multivariate optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Aditya B.; Price, James M.; Dai, Bin; Perkins, David; Chen, Ding Ding; Jones, Christopher M.

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate optical computing (MOC), an optical sensing technique for analog calculation, allows direct and robust measurement of chemical and physical properties of complex fluid samples in high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) downhole environments. The core of this MOC technology is the integrated computational element (ICE), an optical element with a wavelength-dependent transmission spectrum designed to allow the detector to respond sensitively and specifically to the analytes of interest. A key differentiator of this technology is it uses all of the information present in the broadband optical spectrum to determine the proportion of the analyte present in a complex fluid mixture. The detection methodology is photometric in nature; therefore, this technology does not require a spectrometer to measure and record a spectrum or a computer to perform calculations on the recorded optical spectrum. The integrated computational element is a thin-film optical element with a specific optical response function designed for each analyte. The optical response function is achieved by fabricating alternating layers of high-index (a-Si) and low-index (SiO2) thin films onto a transparent substrate (BK7 glass) using traditional thin-film manufacturing processes (e.g., ion-assisted e-beam vacuum deposition). A proprietary software and process are used to control the thickness and material properties, including the optical constants of the materials during deposition to achieve the desired optical response function. The ion-assisted deposition is useful for controlling the densification of the film, stoichiometry, and material optical constants as well as to achieve high deposition growth rates and moisture-stable films. However, the ion-source can induce undesirable absorption in the film; and subsequently, modify the optical constants of the material during the ramp-up and stabilization period of the e-gun and ion-source, respectively. This paper characterizes the unwanted

  14. Simulation of radiation effects on three-dimensional computer optical memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moscovitch, M.; Emfietzoglou, D.

    1997-01-01

    A model was developed to simulate the effects of heavy charged-particle (HCP) radiation on the information stored in three-dimensional computer optical memories. The model is based on (i) the HCP track radial dose distribution, (ii) the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature in the track, (iii) the matrix-specific radiation-induced changes that will affect the response, and (iv) the kinetics of transition of photochromic molecules from the colored to the colorless isomeric form (bit flip). It is shown that information stored in a volume of several nanometers radius around the particle's track axis may be lost. The magnitude of the effect is dependent on the particle's track structure.

  15. Analysis of the disturbing diffraction orders of computer-generated holograms used for testing optical aspherics.

    PubMed

    Lindlein, N

    2001-06-01

    Aspheric surfaces are increasingly used in the design of high-quality optical imaging systems. Therefore accurate testing methods for aspherics are also necessary. One possibility is to use a computer-generated hologram (CGH) as a part of a null lens in an interferometric testing device. However, CGHs normally have more than one diffraction order, thus causing disturbing areas in the interferogram. Here a simple approximative analytical expression is given for the spatial frequencies of the disturbing light in the interferogram coming from the different diffraction orders of the CGH. This expression also enables one to calculate the size and the shape of the disturbing areas in the interferogram. Some design examples for CGHs are given in an application of the expression. PMID:18357287

  16. Simulation of radiation effects on three-dimensional computer optical memories

    SciTech Connect

    Moscovitch, M.; Emfietzoglou, D.

    1997-01-01

    A model was developed to simulate the effects of heavy charged-particle (HCP) radiation on the information stored in three-dimensional computer optical memories. The model is based on (i) the HCP track radial dose distribution, (ii) the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature in the track, (iii) the matrix-specific radiation-induced changes that will affect the response, and (iv) the kinetics of transition of photochromic molecules from the colored to the colorless isomeric form (bit flip). It is shown that information stored in a volume of several nanometers radius around the particle{close_quote}s track axis may be lost. The magnitude of the effect is dependent on the particle{close_quote}s track structure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Optically driven nanostructures as the basis for large-scale quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukanov, Alexander V.

    2008-03-01

    We propose a large-scale quantum computer architecture based upon the regular arrays of dopant atoms implanted into the semiconductor host matrix. The singly-ionized pairs of donors represent charge qubits on which arbitrary quantum operations can be achieved by application of two strongly detuned laser pulses. The implementation of two-qubit operations as well as the qubit read-out utilize the intermediate circuit containing a probe electron that is able to shuttle along the array of ionized ancilla donors providing the indirect conditional coupling between the qubits. The quantum bus strategy enables us to handle the qubits connected in parallel and enhances the efficiency of the quantum information processing. We demonstrate that non-trivial multi-qubit operations in the quantum register (e.g., an entanglement generation) can be accomplished by the sequence of the optical pulses combined with an appropriate voltage gate pattern.

  18. Development of a Computer-Controlled Polishing Process for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The future X-ray observatory missions require grazing-incidence x-ray optics with angular resolution of < 5 arcsec half-power diameter. The achievable resolution depends ultimately on the quality of polished mandrels from which the shells are replicated. With an aim to fabricate better shells, and reduce the cost/time of mandrel production, a computer-controlled polishing machine is developed for deterministic and localized polishing of mandrels. Cylindrical polishing software is also developed that predicts the surface residual errors under a given set of operating parameters and lap configuration. Design considerations of the polishing lap are discussed and the effects of nonconformance of the lap and the mandrel are presented.

  19. Development of a computer-controlled polishing process for x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian

    2009-08-01

    Future X-ray observatory missions require grazing-incidence X-ray optics with angular resolution of < 5 arcsec half power diameter. For X-ray mirrors fabricated using replication processes, the achievable resolution depends ultimately on the quality of the polished replication mandrels. With an aim to fabricate better mirror shells, and also to reduce the cost/time of mandrel production, a computer-controlled machine is being developed for deterministic and localized polishing of mandrels. A key component in this is software that predicts the surface residual errors under a given set of operating parameters and lap configuration. Design considerations of the polishing lap are discussed and the effects of nonconformance of the lap and the mandrel are presented.

  20. Cryptanalysis and security enhancement of optical cryptography based on computational ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yao, Jianbin; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Xin; Li, Zhongyang

    2016-04-01

    Optical cryptography based on computational ghost imaging (CGI) has attracted much attention of researchers because it encrypts plaintext into a random intensity vector rather than complexed-valued function. This promising feature of the CGI-based cryptography reduces the amount of data to be transmitted and stored and therefore brings convenience in practice. However, we find that this cryptography is vulnerable to chosen-plaintext attack because of the linear relationship between the input and output of the encryption system, and three feasible strategies are proposed to break it in this paper. Even though a large number of plaintexts need to be chosen in these attack methods, it means that this cryptography still exists security risks. To avoid these attacks, a security enhancement method utilizing an invertible matrix modulation is further discussed and the feasibility is verified by numerical simulations.

  1. Computationally efficient autoregressive method for generating phase screens with frozen flow and turbulence in optical simulations.

    PubMed

    Srinath, Srikar; Poyneer, Lisa A; Rudy, Alexander R; Ammons, S Mark

    2015-12-28

    We present a sample-based, autoregressive (AR) method for the generation and time evolution of atmospheric phase screens that is computationally efficient and uses a single parameter per Fourier mode to vary the power contained in the frozen flow and stochastic components. We address limitations of Fourier-based methods such as screen periodicity and low spatial frequency power content. Comparisons of adaptive optics (AO) simulator performance when fed AR phase screens and translating phase screens reveal significantly elevated residual closed-loop temporal power for small increases in added stochastic content at each time step, thus displaying the importance of properly modeling atmospheric "boiling". We present preliminary evidence that our model fits to AO telemetry are better reflections of real conditions than the pure frozen flow assumption. PMID:26831998

  2. Field applications of stand-off sensing using visible/NIR multivariate optical computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, DeLyle; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Karunamuni, Jeevanandra; Zhang, Lixia; Li, Hongli; Myrick, Michael L.

    2001-02-01

    12 A novel multivariate visible/NIR optical computing approach applicable to standoff sensing will be demonstrated with porphyrin mixtures as examples. The ultimate goal is to develop environmental or counter-terrorism sensors for chemicals such as organophosphorus (OP) pesticides or chemical warfare simulants in the near infrared spectral region. The mathematical operation that characterizes prediction of properties via regression from optical spectra is a calculation of inner products between the spectrum and the pre-determined regression vector. The result is scaled appropriately and offset to correspond to the basis from which the regression vector is derived. The process involves collecting spectroscopic data and synthesizing a multivariate vector using a pattern recognition method. Then, an interference coating is designed that reproduces the pattern of the multivariate vector in its transmission or reflection spectrum, and appropriate interference filters are fabricated. High and low refractive index materials such as Nb2O5 and SiO2 are excellent choices for the visible and near infrared regions. The proof of concept has now been established for this system in the visible and will later be extended to chemicals such as OP compounds in the near and mid-infrared.

  3. 3-Phenylpyridinium hydrogen squarate: Experimental and computational study of a nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Ufuk; Bulut, Ahmet; Bulut, İclal

    2015-04-01

    The detailed investigation of an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) squarate salt of 3-phenylpyridinium hydrogen squarate (1), C11H10N+·C4HO4-, was reported in this study. The XRD data indicates that the crystal structure of the title compound is in the triclinic P-1 space group. In the asymmetric unit, the 3-phenylpyridine molecule is protonated by one hydrogen atom donation of squaric acid molecule, forming the salt (1). The X-ray analysis shows that the crystal packing has hydrogen bonding ring pattern of D22 (10) (α-dimer) through Nsbnd H···O interactions. The structural and vibrational properties of the compound were also studied by computational methods of ab initio at DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) (2) and HF/6-31++G(d,p) (3) levels of theory. The calculation results on the basis of two models for both the optimized molecular structure and vibrational properties for the 1 are presented and compared with the experimental results. Non-linear optical properties (NLO) of the title compound together with the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), electronic absorption spectrum, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and conformational flexibility were also studied at the 2 level and the results were reported. In order to evaluate the suitability for NLO applications thermal analysis (TG, DTA and DTG) data of 1 were also obtained.

  4. 3-Phenylpyridinium hydrogen squarate: experimental and computational study of a nonlinear optical material.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Ufuk; Bulut, Ahmet; Bulut, İclal

    2015-04-01

    The detailed investigation of an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) squarate salt of 3-phenylpyridinium hydrogen squarate (1), C11H10N+·C4HO4(-), was reported in this study. The XRD data indicates that the crystal structure of the title compound is in the triclinic P-1 space group. In the asymmetric unit, the 3-phenylpyridine molecule is protonated by one hydrogen atom donation of squaric acid molecule, forming the salt (1). The X-ray analysis shows that the crystal packing has hydrogen bonding ring pattern of D2(2)(10) (α-dimer) through NH···O interactions. The structural and vibrational properties of the compound were also studied by computational methods of ab initio at DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) (2) and HF/6-31++G(d,p) (3) levels of theory. The calculation results on the basis of two models for both the optimized molecular structure and vibrational properties for the 1 are presented and compared with the experimental results. Non-linear optical properties (NLO) of the title compound together with the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), electronic absorption spectrum, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and conformational flexibility were also studied at the 2 level and the results were reported. In order to evaluate the suitability for NLO applications thermal analysis (TG, DTA and DTG) data of 1 were also obtained. PMID:25590828

  5. Holographic memory optical system based on computer-generated Fourier holograms.

    PubMed

    Betin, A Yu; Bobrinev, V I; Odinokov, S B; Evtikhiev, N N; Starikov, R S; Starikov, S N; Zlokazov, E Yu

    2013-11-20

    Holography is known to be a prospective tool for storing large amounts of digital information, providing long lasting safety and high speed data access. In this paper, we present a new approach to holographic memory system design. Our method is based on an application of discrete Fourier-transform calculations to encode two-dimensional binary data pages as computer-generated amplitude Fourier holograms (CGFHs). These CGFHs, represented as grayscale raster images, can be displayed with the use of a high resolution amplitude spatial light modulator (SLM) in an optical projection system and exposed on holographic medium with multiple reduction. The optical scheme required for the technical realization of this method appears significantly simpler compared with known holographic memory recording devices; moreover, it can be built using either coherent or incoherent light sources. Coding of data pages by precise pseudorandom phase masks during CGFH synthesis allows us to achieve about 3% of the recorded microholograms diffraction efficiency. The experimental results of CGFH projection recorded with a 20× reduction on photosensitive holographic medium and its reconstruction are presented. PMID:24513770

  6. A fast inverse consistent deformable image registration method based on symmetric optical flow computation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua; Low, Daniel A; Deasy, Joseph O; Naqa, Issam El

    2014-01-01

    Deformable image registration is widely used in various radiation therapy applications including daily treatment planning adaptation to map planned tissue or dose to changing anatomy. In this work, a simple and efficient inverse consistency deformable registration method is proposed with aims of higher registration accuracy and faster convergence speed. Instead of registering image I to a second image J, the two images are symmetrically deformed toward one another in multiple passes, until both deformed images are matched and correct registration is therefore achieved. In each pass, a delta motion field is computed by minimizing a symmetric optical flow system cost function using modified optical flow algorithms. The images are then further deformed with the delta motion field in the positive and negative directions respectively, and then used for the next pass. The magnitude of the delta motion field is forced to be less than 0.4 voxel for every pass in order to guarantee smoothness and invertibility for the two overall motion fields that are accumulating the delta motion fields in both positive and negative directions, respectively. The final motion fields to register the original images I and J, in either direction, are calculated by inverting one overall motion field and combining the inversion result with the other overall motion field. The final motion fields are inversely consistent and this is ensured by the symmetric way that registration is carried out. The proposed method is demonstrated with phantom images, artificially deformed patient images and 4D-CT images. Our results suggest that the proposed method is able to improve the overall accuracy (reducing registration error by 30% or more, compared to the original and inversely inconsistent optical flow algorithms), reduce the inverse consistency error (by 95% or more) and increase the convergence rate (by 100% or more). The overall computation speed may slightly decrease, or increase in most cases

  7. Optical diagnostics of a single evaporating droplet using fast parallel computing on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubczyk, D.; Migacz, S.; Derkachov, G.; Woźniak, M.; Archer, J.; Kolwas, K.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the first application of the graphics processing units (GPUs) accelerated computing technology to improve performance of numerical methods used for the optical characterization of evaporating microdroplets. Single microdroplets of various liquids with different volatility and molecular weight (glycerine, glycols, water, etc.), as well as mixtures of liquids and diverse suspensions evaporate inside the electrodynamic trap under the chosen temperature and composition of atmosphere. The series of scattering patterns recorded from the evaporating microdroplets are processed by fitting complete Mie theory predictions with gradientless lookup table method. We showed that computations on GPUs can be effectively applied to inverse scattering problems. In particular, our technique accelerated calculations of the Mie scattering theory on a single-core processor in a Matlab environment over 800 times and almost 100 times comparing to the corresponding code in C language. Additionally, we overcame problems of the time-consuming data post-processing when some of the parameters (particularly the refractive index) of an investigated liquid are uncertain. Our program allows us to track the parameters characterizing the evaporating droplet nearly simultaneously with the progress of evaporation.

  8. Single Layer Bismuth Iodide: Computational Exploration of Structural, Electrical, Mechanical and Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fengxian; Zhou, Mei; Jiao, Yalong; Gao, Guoping; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun

    2015-12-01

    Layered graphitic materials exhibit new intriguing electronic structure and the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer is of importance for the fabrication of next generation miniature electronic and optoelectronic devices. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we investigated in detail the structural, electronic, mechanical and optical properties of the single-layer bismuth iodide (BiI3) nanosheet. Monolayer BiI3 is dynamically stable as confirmed by the computed phonon spectrum. The cleavage energy (Ecl) and interlayer coupling strength of bulk BiI3 are comparable to the experimental values of graphite, which indicates that the exfoliation of BiI3 is highly feasible. The obtained stress-strain curve shows that the BiI3 nanosheet is a brittle material with a breaking strain of 13%. The BiI3 monolayer has an indirect band gap of 1.57 eV with spin orbit coupling (SOC), indicating its potential application for solar cells. Furthermore, the band gap of BiI3 monolayer can be modulated by biaxial strain. Most interestingly, interfacing electrically active graphene with monolayer BiI3 nanosheet leads to enhanced light absorption compared to that in pure monolayer BiI3 nanosheet, highlighting its great potential applications in photonics and photovoltaic solar cells.

  9. Optimization of compute unified device architecture for real-time ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-hyun; Aum, Jaehong; Han, Jae-Ho; Jeong, Jichai

    2015-01-01

    We propose an optimized signal processing scheme that utilizes the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) for real-time spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Because linear spline interpolation and the direct spectral reshaping method have low data and control dependencies, these algorithms maximally utilize graphic processing unit (GPU) resources for dispersion control. In addition, data transfer between main memory and GPU, regarded as one of the most wasteful and time-consuming processes in GPU computing, is executed in parallel with the signal processing by overlapping kernel execution and data transfers. Experimental results obtained from application of the proposed scheme to a laboratory constructed OCT system comprising five spectrally shifted SLDs indicate that the OCT system has an axial resolution of 4.8 μm and transverse resolution of 13 μm in air. Further, coherence artifacts are reduced by 3-14 dB over the side-lobes in the point spread function. The optimization of CUDA enables OCT imaging rates up to 350 kHz (A-lines/sec) with a single GTX680 GPU.

  10. Single Layer Bismuth Iodide: Computational Exploration of Structural, Electrical, Mechanical and Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fengxian; Zhou, Mei; Jiao, Yalong; Gao, Guoping; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Layered graphitic materials exhibit new intriguing electronic structure and the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer is of importance for the fabrication of next generation miniature electronic and optoelectronic devices. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we investigated in detail the structural, electronic, mechanical and optical properties of the single-layer bismuth iodide (BiI3) nanosheet. Monolayer BiI3 is dynamically stable as confirmed by the computed phonon spectrum. The cleavage energy (Ecl) and interlayer coupling strength of bulk BiI3 are comparable to the experimental values of graphite, which indicates that the exfoliation of BiI3 is highly feasible. The obtained stress-strain curve shows that the BiI3 nanosheet is a brittle material with a breaking strain of 13%. The BiI3 monolayer has an indirect band gap of 1.57 eV with spin orbit coupling (SOC), indicating its potential application for solar cells. Furthermore, the band gap of BiI3 monolayer can be modulated by biaxial strain. Most interestingly, interfacing electrically active graphene with monolayer BiI3 nanosheet leads to enhanced light absorption compared to that in pure monolayer BiI3 nanosheet, highlighting its great potential applications in photonics and photovoltaic solar cells. PMID:26626797

  11. Rapid computation of the amplitude and phase of tightly focused optical fields distorted by scattering particles.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C; Hayakawa, Carole K; Davis, Mitchell A; Dunn, Andrew K; Potma, Eric O; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2014-07-01

    We develop an efficient method for accurately calculating the electric field of tightly focused laser beams in the presence of specific configurations of microscopic scatterers. This Huygens-Fresnel wave-based electric field superposition (HF-WEFS) method computes the amplitude and phase of the scattered electric field in excellent agreement with finite difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions of Maxwell's equations. Our HF-WEFS implementation is 2-4 orders of magnitude faster than the FDTD method and enables systematic investigations of the effects of scatterer size and configuration on the focal field. We demonstrate the power of the new HF-WEFS approach by mapping several metrics of focal field distortion as a function of scatterer position. This analysis shows that the maximum focal field distortion occurs for single scatterers placed below the focal plane with an offset from the optical axis. The HF-WEFS method represents an important first step toward the development of a computational model of laser-scanning microscopy of thick cellular/tissue specimens. PMID:25121440

  12. Rapid computation of the amplitude and phase of tightly focused optical fields distorted by scattering particles

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C.; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Davis, Mitchell A.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Potma, Eric O.; Venugopalan, Vasan

    2014-01-01

    We develop an efficient method for accurately calculating the electric field of tightly focused laser beams in the presence of specific configurations of microscopic scatterers. This Huygens–Fresnel wave-based electric field superposition (HF-WEFS) method computes the amplitude and phase of the scattered electric field in excellent agreement with finite difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions of Maxwell’s equations. Our HF-WEFS implementation is 2–4 orders of magnitude faster than the FDTD method and enables systematic investigations of the effects of scatterer size and configuration on the focal field. We demonstrate the power of the new HF-WEFS approach by mapping several metrics of focal field distortion as a function of scatterer position. This analysis shows that the maximum focal field distortion occurs for single scatterers placed below the focal plane with an offset from the optical axis. The HF-WEFS method represents an important first step toward the development of a computational model of laser-scanning microscopy of thick cellular/tissue specimens. PMID:25121440

  13. Single Layer Bismuth Iodide: Computational Exploration of Structural, Electrical, Mechanical and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengxian; Zhou, Mei; Jiao, Yalong; Gao, Guoping; Gu, Yuantong; Bilic, Ante; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Layered graphitic materials exhibit new intriguing electronic structure and the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer is of importance for the fabrication of next generation miniature electronic and optoelectronic devices. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we investigated in detail the structural, electronic, mechanical and optical properties of the single-layer bismuth iodide (BiI3) nanosheet. Monolayer BiI3 is dynamically stable as confirmed by the computed phonon spectrum. The cleavage energy (Ecl) and interlayer coupling strength of bulk BiI3 are comparable to the experimental values of graphite, which indicates that the exfoliation of BiI3 is highly feasible. The obtained stress-strain curve shows that the BiI3 nanosheet is a brittle material with a breaking strain of 13%. The BiI3 monolayer has an indirect band gap of 1.57 eV with spin orbit coupling (SOC), indicating its potential application for solar cells. Furthermore, the band gap of BiI3 monolayer can be modulated by biaxial strain. Most interestingly, interfacing electrically active graphene with monolayer BiI3 nanosheet leads to enhanced light absorption compared to that in pure monolayer BiI3 nanosheet, highlighting its great potential applications in photonics and photovoltaic solar cells. PMID:26626797

  14. Improving the quantitative accuracy of optical-emission computed tomography by incorporating an attenuation correction: application to HIF1 imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Bowsher, J.; Thomas, A. S.; Sakhalkar, H.; Dewhirst, M.; Oldham, M.

    2008-10-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical-emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques for imaging the 3D structure and function (including gene expression) of whole unsectioned tissue samples. This work presents a method of improving the quantitative accuracy of optical-ECT by correcting for the 'self'-attenuation of photons emitted within the sample. The correction is analogous to a method commonly applied in single-photon-emission computed tomography reconstruction. The performance of the correction method was investigated by application to a transparent cylindrical gelatin phantom, containing a known distribution of attenuation (a central ink-doped gelatine core) and a known distribution of fluorescing fibres. Attenuation corrected and uncorrected optical-ECT images were reconstructed on the phantom to enable an evaluation of the effectiveness of the correction. Significant attenuation artefacts were observed in the uncorrected images where the central fibre appeared ~24% less intense due to greater attenuation from the surrounding ink-doped gelatin. This artefact was almost completely removed in the attenuation-corrected image, where the central fibre was within ~4% of the others. The successful phantom test enabled application of attenuation correction to optical-ECT images of an unsectioned human breast xenograft tumour grown subcutaneously on the hind leg of a nude mouse. This tumour cell line had been genetically labelled (pre-implantation) with fluorescent reporter genes such that all viable tumour cells expressed constitutive red fluorescent protein and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 transcription-produced green fluorescent protein. In addition to the fluorescent reporter labelling of gene expression, the tumour microvasculature was labelled by a light-absorbing vasculature contrast agent delivered in vivo by tail-vein injection. Optical-CT transmission images yielded high-resolution 3D images of the absorbing contrast agent, and

  15. Experimental, computational, and analytical techniques for diagnosing breast cancer using optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Gregory M.

    This dissertation presents the results of an investigation into experimental, computational, and analytical methodologies for diagnosing breast cancer using fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. First, the optimal experimental methodology for tissue biopsy studies was determined using an animal study. It was found that the use of freshly excised tissue samples preserved the original spectral line shape and magnitude of the fluorescence and diffuse reflectance. Having established the optimal experimental methodology, a clinical study investigating the use of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer was undertaken. In addition, Monte Carlo-based models of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence were developed and validated to interpret these data. These models enable the extraction of physically meaningful information from the measured spectra, including absorber concentrations, and scattering and intrinsic fluorescence properties. The model was applied to the measured spectra, and using a support vector machine classification algorithm based on physical features extracted from the diffuse reflectance spectra, it was found that breast cancer could be diagnosed with a cross-validated sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 92%, respectively, which are substantially better than that obtained using a conventional, empirical algorithm. It was found that malignant tissues had lower hemoglobin oxygen saturation, were more scattering, and had lower beta-carotene concentration, relative to the non-malignant tissues. It was also found that the fluorescence model could successfully extract the intrinsic fluorescence line shape from tissue samples. One limitation of the previous study is that a priori knowledge of the tissue's absorbers and scatterers is required. To address this limitation, and to improve upon the method with which fiber optic probes are designed, an alternate approach was developed. This method used a

  16. Computational optical-sectioning microscopy for 3D quantization of cell motion: results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, James G.

    1994-09-01

    How cells move and navigate within a 3D tissue mass is of central importance in such diverse problems as embryonic development, wound healing and metastasis. This locomotion can now be visualized and quantified by using computation optical-sectioning microscopy. In this approach, a series of 2D images at different depths in a specimen are stacked to construct a 3D image, and then with a knowledge of the microscope's point-spread function, the actual distribution of fluorescent intensity in the specimen is estimated via computation. When coupled with wide-field optics and a cooled CCD camera, this approach permits non-destructive 3D imaging of living specimens over long time periods. With these techniques, we have observed a complex diversity of motile behaviors in a model embryonic system, the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. To understand the mechanisms which control these various behaviors, we are examining motion in various Dictyostelium mutants with known defects in proteins thought to be essential for signal reception, cell-cell adhesion or locomotion. This application of computational techniques to analyze 3D cell locomotion raises several technical challenges. Image restoration techniques must be fast enough to process numerous 1 Gbyte time-lapse data sets (16 Mbytes per 3D image X 60 time points). Because some cells are weakly labeled and background intensity is often high due to unincorporated dye, the SNR in some of these images is poor. Currently, the images are processed by a regularized linear least- squares restoration method, and occasionally by a maximum-likelihood method. Also required for these studies are accurate automated- tracking procedures to generate both 3D trajectories for individual cells and 3D flows for a group of cells. Tracking is currently done independently for each cell, using a cell's image as a template to search for a similar image at the next time point. Finally, sophisticated visualization techniques are needed to view the

  17. FORTRAN programs for computation of optical properties of the sea from radiation data collected by in situ spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathe, P. V.; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    Measurement of spectral composition of the radiation field pervading above and below the seasurface is gaining increasing importance in recent years. It plays a significant role in ocean remote sensing to determine the constituents of seawater. An accurate description of the radiation field inside the waterbody also holds the key to solving problems of radiation transfer in the ocean. This paper presents computer programs in FORTRAN 77 which process the radiation data collected in the sea by in situ spectrometers, apply the necessary corrections to them and compute optical properties of the sea at spectral intervals of 4 nm each, within the entire visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. The programs compute the solar zenith and azimuth angles at a given location in the sea from astronomical considerations for use in computing the optical properties. The programs are useful in computing the spectral quality of upwelling light emerging out from within the sea, which forms the basic signal in remote sensing of ocean color. They also may be used by marine biologists to compute the vertical diffuse attenuation coefficients and absorption coefficients for different water types in studies on marine productivity requiring the amount of energy available for photosynthesis in different optical channels at different depths in the sea.

  18. A computational approach to high-resolution imaging of the living human retina without hardware adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Adie, Steven G.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; South, Fredrick A.; Carney, P. S.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution imaging of the living human retina by computationally correcting highorder ocular aberrations. These corrections are performed post-acquisition and without the need for a deformable mirror or wavefront sensor that are commonly employed in hardware adaptive optics (HAO) systems. With the introduction of HAO to ophthalmic imaging, high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of the living human retina has become possible. The combination of a deformable mirror, wavefront sensor, and supporting hardware/software, though, can more than double the cost of the underlying imaging modality, in addition to significantly increasing the system complexity and sensitivity to misalignment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows 3-D imaging in addition to naturally providing the complex optical field of backscattered light. This is unlike a scanning laser ophthalmoscope which measures only the intensity of the backscattered light. Previously, our group has demonstrated the utility of a technique called computational adaptive optics (CAO) which utilizes the complex field measured with OCT to computationally correct for optical aberrations in a manner similar to HAO. Until now, CAO has been applied to ex vivo imaging and in vivo skin imaging. Here, we demonstrate in vivo imaging of cone photoreceptors using CAO. Additional practical considerations such as imaging speed, and stability are discussed.

  19. Towards athermal optically-interconnected computing system using slotted silicon microring resonators and RF-photonic comb generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Linjie; Kashiwagi, Ken; Okamoto, Katsunari; Scott, R. P.; Fontaine, N. K.; Ding, Dan; Akella, Venkatesh; Yoo, S. J. B.

    2009-06-01

    We report that completely athermal design of a slotted silicon waveguide is possible by combining the negative thermo-optic (TO) coefficient of, for example, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with the positive TO coefficient of silicon. When used in a microring resonator structure, the filled overcladding slotted waveguide and the unfilled (air-filled) overcladding slotted waveguide can both achieve athermal characteristics. Simulations indicate a wide range of realizations with proper design parameters of the slotted waveguides, namely, the silicon strip and slot widths. Preliminary experimental results on fabricated devices demonstrate that the temperature dependence is reduced from 91 pm/°C for a regular microring resonator to 52 pm/°C for the PMMA-clad microring resonator. Completely athermal realization is expectable in similar devices with improved fabrication techniques. For the external optical source, we demonstrate a stable 3.5 THz wide (175 modes×20 GHz) optical comb source with nearly flat spectral phase. Adjustable mode spacing and wavelength tunability across the C-band are maintained so that comb lines can be matched to the specified wavelength grid of the computing system. With such schemes, temperature controls of individual optical components in the optically interconnected computing chips become unnecessary, greatly reducing the complexity of the computing system.

  20. A first principle approach using Maximally Localized Wannier Functions for computing and understanding elasto-optic reponse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    Strain-induced changes of optical properties are of use in the design and functioning of devices that couple photons and phonons. The elasto-optic (or photo-elastic) effect describes a general materials property where strain induces a change in the dielectric tensor. Despite a number of experimental and computational works, it is fair to say that a basic physical understanding of the effect and its materials dependence is lacking: e.g., we know of no materials design rule for enhancing or suppressing elasto-optic response. Based on our previous work, we find that a real space representation, as opposed to a k-space description, is a promising way to understand this effect. We have finished the development of a method of computing the dielectric and elasto-optic tensors using Maximally Localized Wannier Functions (MLWFs). By analyzing responses to uniaxial strain, we find that both tensors respond in a localized manner to the perturbation: the dominant optical transitions are between local electronic states on nearby bonds. We describe the method, the resulting physical picture and computed results for semiconductors. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF DMR-1104974.

  1. A 250-Mbit/s ring local computer network using 1.3-microns single-mode optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, S. T.; Tell, R.; Andersson, T.; Eng, B.

    1985-01-01

    A 250-Mbit/s three-station fiber-optic ring local computer network was built and successfully demonstrated. A conventional token protocol was employed for bus arbitration to maximize the bus efficiency under high loading conditions, and a non-return-to-zero (NRS) data encoding format was selected for simplicity and maximum utilization of the ECL-circuit bandwidth.

  2. Impairments Computation for Routing Purposes in a Transparent-Access Optical Network Based on Optical CDMA and WDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Optical access networks are becoming more widespread and the use of multiple services might require a transparent optical network (TON). Multiplexing and privacy could benefit from the combination of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical coding (OC) and wavelength conversion in optical switches. The routing process needs to be cognizant of different resource types and characteristics such as fiber types, fiber linear impairments such as attenuation, dispersion, etc. as well as fiber nonlinear impairments such as four-wave mixing, cross-phase modulation, etc. Other types of impairments, generated by optical nodes or photonic switches, also affect the signal quality (Q) or the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR), which is related to the bit error rate (BER). Therefore, both link and switch impairments must be addressed and somehow incorporated into the routing algorithm. However, it is not practical to fully integrate all photonic-specific attributes in the routing process. In this study, new routing parameters and constraints are defined that reflect the distinct characteristics of photonic networking. These constraints are applied to the design phase of TON and expressed as a cost or metric form that will be used in the network routing algorithm.

  3. Recent advances in the application of computer-controlled optical finishing to produce very high-quality transmissive optical elements and windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel; Estrin, Aleksandr; Green, Alan; Turner, Aaron N.

    2003-09-01

    Large aperture (20-inch diameter) sapphire optical windows have been identified as a key element of new and/or upgraded airborne electro-optical systems. These windows typically require a transmitted wave front error of much less than 0.1 waves rms @ 0.63 microns over 7 inch diameter sub-apertures. Large aperture (14-inch diameter by 4-inch thick) sapphire substrates have also been identified as a key optical element of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). This project is under joint development by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under cooperative agreement with the National Science foundation (NSF). These substrates are required to have a transmitted wave front error of 20 nm (0.032 waves) rms @ 0.63 microns over 6-inch sub-apertures with a desired error of 10 nm (0.016 waves) rms. Owing to the spatial variations in the optical index of refraction potentially anticipated within 20-inch diameter sapphire, thin (0.25 - 0.5-inch) window substrates, as well as within the 14-inch diameter by 4-inch thick substrates for the LIGO application, our experience tells us that the required transmitted wave front errors can not be achieved with standard optical finishing techniques as they can not readily compensate for errors introduced by inherent material characteristics. Computer controlled optical finishing has been identified as a key technology likely required to enable achievement of the required transmitted wave front errors. Goodrich has developed this technology and has previously applied it to finish high quality sapphire optical windows with a range of aperture sizes from 4-inch to 13-inch to achieve transmitted wavefront errors comparable to these new requirements. This paper addresses successful recent developments and accomplishments in the application of this optical finishing technology to sequentially larger aperture and thicker sapphire windows to achieve the

  4. 2-Pyridinium propanol hydrogen squarate: experimental and computational study of a nonlinear optical material.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Ufuk; Bulut, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical investigation of a novel organic nonlinear optical (NLO) squarate salt of 2-pyridinium propanol hydrogen squarate (1), C8H12ON(+)·C4HO4(-), were reported in this study. The crystal structure of the title compound was found to crystallize in the triclinic P-1 space group. In the asymmetric unit each squaric acid molecules have donated one H atom to the pyridines N1 and N2 atoms of a 2-pyridine propanol molecule, forming the salt (1). The X-ray analysis clearly indicated that the crystal packing has shown the hydrogen bonding ring pattern of D2(2)(10) (α-dimer) through N-H⋯O interactions. The structural and vibrational properties of the compound were also studied by computational methods of ab initio performed on the compound at DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) (2) and HF/6-31++G(d,p) (3) level of theory. The calculation results on the basis of two models for both the optimized molecular structure and vibrational properties for the 1 are presented and compared with the X-ray analysis result. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), electronic absorption spectra, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), conformational flexibility and non-linear optical properties (NLO) of the title compound were also studied at the 2 level and the results are reported. In order to evaluate the suitability for NLO applications thermal analysis (TG, DTA and DTG) data of 1 were also obtained. PMID:25459503

  5. 2-Pyridinium propanol hydrogen squarate: Experimental and computational study of a nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Ufuk; Bulut, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical investigation of a novel organic nonlinear optical (NLO) squarate salt of 2-pyridinium propanol hydrogen squarate (1), C8H12ON+ ·C4HO4-, were reported in this study. The crystal structure of the title compound was found to crystallize in the triclinic P-1 space group. In the asymmetric unit each squaric acid molecules have donated one H atom to the pyridines N1 and N2 atoms of a 2-pyridine propanol molecule, forming the salt (1). The X-ray analysis clearly indicated that the crystal packing has shown the hydrogen bonding ring pattern of D22 (10) (α-dimer) through Nsbnd H⋯O interactions. The structural and vibrational properties of the compound were also studied by computational methods of ab initio performed on the compound at DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) (2) and HF/6-31++G(d,p) (3) level of theory. The calculation results on the basis of two models for both the optimized molecular structure and vibrational properties for the 1 are presented and compared with the X-ray analysis result. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), electronic absorption spectra, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), conformational flexibility and non-linear optical properties (NLO) of the title compound were also studied at the 2 level and the results are reported. In order to evaluate the suitability for NLO applications thermal analysis (TG, DTA and DTG) data of 1 were also obtained.

  6. Optical computed tomography utilizing a rotating mirror and Fresnel lenses: operating principles and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2013-02-01

    The performance of a fast optical computed tomography (CT) scanner based on a point laser source, a small area photodiode detector, and two optical-grade Fresnel lenses is evaluated. The OCTOPUS™-10× optical CT scanner (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT) is an upgrade of the OCTOPUS™ research scanner with improved design for faster motion of the laser beam and faster data acquisition process. The motion of the laser beam in the new configuration is driven by the rotational motion of a scanning mirror. The center of the scanning mirror and the center of the photodiode detector are adjusted to be on the focal points of two coaxial Fresnel lenses. A glass water tank is placed between the two Fresnel lenses to house gel phantoms and matching liquids. The laser beam scans over the water tank in parallel beam geometry for projection data as the scanning mirror rotates at a frequency faster than 0.1 s per circle. Signal sampling is performed independently of the motion of the scanning mirror, to reduce the processing time for the synchronization of the stepper motors and the data acquisition board. An in-house developed reference image normalization mechanism is added to the image reconstruction program to correct the non-uniform light transmitting property of the Fresnel lenses. Technical issues with regard to the new design of the scanner are addressed, including projection data extraction from raw data samples, non-uniform pixel averaging and reference image normalization. To evaluate the dosimetric accuracy of the scanner, the reconstructed images from a 16 MeV, 6 cm × 6 cm electron field irradiation were compared with those from the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Corporation, Palo Alto, CA). The spatial resolution of the scanner is demonstrated to be of sub-millimeter accuracy. The effectiveness of the reference normalization method for correcting the non-uniform light transmitting property of the Fresnel lenses is analyzed. A sub-millimeter accuracy of

  7. Computational Code to Determinate the Optical Constants of Materials with Atrophysical Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    Several environments in the interstellar medium (ISM) are composed by dust grains (e.g. silicates), that in somewhere can be covered by astrophysical ices (frozen molecular species). The presence of this materials inside dense and cold regions in space such as molecular clouds and circumstellar disks around young stars is proven by space telescopes (e. g. Herschel, Spitzer, ISO) using infrared spectroscopy. In such environments, molecules such as H _{2}O, CO, CO _{2}, NH _{3}, CH _{3}OH among others, may exist in the solid phase and constitute what we call as the interstellar ices. In this work we present a code called NKABS (acronym for “N and K determination from ABSorbance data”) to calculate the optical constants of materials with astrophysical importance directly from absorbance data in the infrared. It is a free code, developed in Python Programing Language, available for Windows (®) operating system. The parameters obtained using the NKABS code are essentials to perform studies involving computational modeling of star forming regions in the infrared. The experimental data have been obtained using a high vacuum portable chamber from the Laboratorio de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP). The samples used to calculate the optical constants presented here, were obtained from the condensation of pure gases (e.g. CO, CO _{2} , NH _{3} , SO _{2}), from the sublimation in vacuum of pure liquids (e.g. water, acetone, acetonitrile, acetic acid, formic acid, ethanol and methanol) and from mixtures of different species (e.g. H _{2}O:CO _{2}, H _{2}O:CO:NH _{3}, H _{2}O:CO _{2}:NH _{3}:CH _{4}). Additionally films of solid biomolecules samples of astrochemistry/astrobiology interest (e.g. glycine, adenine) were probed. The NKABS code may also calculate the optical constants of materials processed by the radiation, a scenario very common in star forming regions. Authors would like to thanks the agencies FAPESP (JP#2009/18304-0 and PHD#2013/07657-5), FVE

  8. Computing approximate blocking probability of inverse multiplexing and sub-band conversion in the flexible-grid optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yamei; You, Shanhong

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid growth of data rate, the optical network is evolving from fixed-grid to flexible-grid to provide spectrum-efficient and scalable transport of 100 Gb/s services and beyond. Also, the deployment of wavelength converter in the existing network can increase the flexibility of routing and wavelength allocation (RWA) and improve blocking performance of the optical networks. In this paper, we present a methodology for computing approximate blocking probabilities of the provision of multiclass services in the flexible-grid optical networks with sub-band spectrum conversion and inverse multiplexing respectively. Numerical calculation results based on the model are compared to the simulation results for the different cases. It is shown that the calculation results match well with the simulation results for the flexible-grid optical networks at different scenarios.

  9. 25th anniversary article: Design of polymethine dyes for all-optical switching applications: guidance from theoretical and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Gieseking, Rebecca L; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Risko, Chad; Marder, Seth R; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    All-optical switching--controlling light with light--has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demand for data transmission bandwidth. The development of organic π-conjugated molecular materials with the requisite properties for all-optical switching applications has long proven to be a significant challenge. However, recent advances demonstrate that polymethine dyes have the potential to meet the necessary requirements. In this review, we explore the theoretical underpinnings that guide the design of π-conjugated materials for all-optical switching applications. We underline, from a computational chemistry standpoint, the relationships among chemical structure, electronic structure, and optical properties that make polymethines such promising materials. PMID:24302357

  10. Observation of the pulp horn by swept source optical coherence tomography and cone beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Yoshiko; Yoshioka, Toshihiko; Hanada, Takahiro; Ebihara, Arata; Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sumi, Yasunori; Suda, Hideaki

    2015-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is one of the most useful diagnostic techniques in dentistry but it involves ionizing radiation, while swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) has been introduced recently as a nondestructive, real-time, high resolution imaging technique using low-coherence interferometry, which involves no ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of SS-OCT to detect the pulp horn (PH) in comparison with that of CBCT. Ten extracted human mandibular molars were used. After horizontally removing a half of the tooth crown, the distance from the cut dentin surface to PH was measured using microfocus computed tomography (Micro CT) (SL) as the gold standard, by CBCT (CL) and by SS-OCT (OL). In the SS-OCT images, only when PH was observed beneath the overlying dentin, the distance from the cut dentin surface to PH was recorded. If the pulp was exposed, it was defined as pulp exposure (PE). The results obtained by the above three methods were statistically analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at a significance level of p < 0.01. SS-OCT detected the presence of PH when the distance from the cut dentin surface to PH determined by SL was 2.33 mm or less. Strong correlations of the measured values were found between SL and CL (r=0.87), SL and OL (r=0.96), and CL and OL (r=0.86). The results showed that SS-OCT images correlated closely with CBCT images, suggesting that SS-OCT can be a useful tool for the detection of PH.

  11. Computing the total atmospheric refraction for real-time optical imaging sensor simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Richard F.

    2015-05-01

    Fast and accurate computation of light path deviation due to atmospheric refraction is an important requirement for real-time simulation of optical imaging sensor systems. A large body of existing literature covers various methods for application of Snell's Law to the light path ray tracing problem. This paper provides a discussion of the adaptation to real time simulation of atmospheric refraction ray tracing techniques used in mid-1980's LOWTRAN releases. The refraction ray trace algorithm published in a LOWTRAN-6 technical report by Kneizys (et. al.) has been coded in MATLAB for development, and in C-language for simulation use. To this published algorithm we have added tuning parameters for variable path segment lengths, and extensions for Earth grazing and exoatmospheric "near Earth" ray paths. Model atmosphere properties used to exercise the refraction algorithm were obtained from tables published in another LOWTRAN-6 related report. The LOWTRAN-6 based refraction model is applicable to atmospheric propagation at wavelengths in the IR and visible bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. It has been used during the past two years by engineers at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) in support of several advanced imaging sensor simulations. Recently, a faster (but sufficiently accurate) method using Gauss-Chebyshev Quadrature integration for evaluating the refraction integral was adopted.

  12. Error in the Sampling Area of an Optical Disdrometer: Consequences in Computing Rain Variables

    PubMed Central

    Fraile, R.; Castro, A.; Fernández-Raga, M.; Palencia, C.; Calvo, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the estimation of the characteristic uncertainties of optic disdrometers in an attempt to calculate the efficient sampling area according to the size of the drop and to study how this influences the computation of other parameters, taking into account that the real sampling area is always smaller than the nominal area. For large raindrops (a little over 6 mm), the effective sampling area may be half the area indicated by the manufacturer. The error committed in the sampling area is propagated to all the variables depending on this surface, such as the rain intensity and the reflectivity factor. Both variables tend to underestimate the real value if the sampling area is not corrected. For example, the rainfall intensity errors may be up to 50% for large drops, those slightly larger than 6 mm. The same occurs with reflectivity values, which may be up to twice the reflectivity calculated using the uncorrected constant sampling area. The Z-R relationships appear to have little dependence on the sampling area, because both variables depend on it the same way. These results were obtained by studying one particular rain event that occurred on April 16, 2006. PMID:23844393

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Of Optical Payload For Lasercomm Science (OPALS) sealed enclosure module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kevin R.; Zayas, Daniel; Turner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) using the commercial CFD package CFDesign has been performed at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in support of the Phaeton Early Career Hire Program's Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) mission. The OPALS project is one which involves an International Space Station payload that will be using forced convection cooling in a hermetically sealed enclosure at 1 atm of air to cool "off-the-shelf" vendor electronics. The CFD analysis was used to characterize the thermal and fluid flow environment within a complicated labyrinth of electronics boards, fans, instrumentation, harnessing, ductwork and heat exchanger fins. The paradigm of iteratively using CAD/CAE tools and CFD was followed in order to determine the optimum flow geometry and heat sink configuration to yield operational convective film coefficients and temperature survivability limits for the electronics payload. Results from this current CFD analysis and correlation of the CFD model against thermal test data will be presented. Lessons learned and coupled thermal / flow modeling strategies will be shared in this paper.

  14. A doubly logarithmic communication algorithm for the Completely Connected Optical Communication Parallel Computer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; Leighton, T.; Rao, S.

    1993-01-20

    In this paper we consider the problem of interprocessor communication on a Completely Connected Optical Communication Parallel Computer (OCPC). The particular problem we study is that of realizing an h-relation. In this problem, each processor has at most h messages to send and at most h messages to receive. It is clear that any 1-relation can be realized in one communication step on an OCPC. However, the best known p-processor OCPC algorithm for realizing an arbitrary h-relation for h > 1 requires {Theta}(h + log p) expected communication steps. (This algorithm is due to Valiant and is based on earlier work of Anderson and Miller.) Valiant`s algorithm is optimal only for h = {Omega}(log p) and it is an open question of Gereb-Graus and Tsantilas whether there is a faster algorithm for h = o(log p). In this paper we answer this question in the affirmative by presenting a {Theta} (h + log log p) communication step algorithm that realizes an arbitrary h-relation on a p-processor OCPC. We show that if h {le} log p then the failure probability can be made as small as p{sup -{alpha}} for any positive constant {alpha}.

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure, conformational analysis, nonlinear optical property and computational study of novel pregnane derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranvijay Pratap; kant, Rajni; Singh, Kuldeep; Sharma, Sonia; Sethi, Arun

    2015-09-01

    The molecular structure and detailed spectroscopic analysis of some novel newly synthesized pregnane derivatives have been performed using experimental techniques like 1H, 13C NMR, NOESY, FT-IR, UV-visible spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, crystallography, as well as theoretical calculations. The structure and stereochemistry of 3β-benzoyloxy 16α-methoxy pregn-5-ene-20-one (3) has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, which crystallized in orthorhombic form having P212121 space group with unit cell parameters a = 6.395(5) Å, b = 19.872(17) Å, c = 19.898(16) Å and Z = 4. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-31G (d,p) basis set. The electronic properties such as frontier orbitals and band gap energies have been calculated using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The strength and nature of weak intramolecular interactions have been studied by AIM approach. The vibrational wavenumbers have been calculated using DFT method and assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED). Global and local reactivity descriptors have been computed to predict reactivity and reactive sites in the molecule. First hyperpolarizability values have been calculated to describe the nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the synthesized compounds. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis has also been carried out.

  16. Computational model of bladder tissue based on its measured optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Ilya E.; Dremin, Victor V.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2016-02-01

    Urinary bladder diseases are a common problem throughout the world and often difficult to accurately diagnose. Furthermore, they pose a heavy financial burden on health services. Urinary bladder tissue from male pigs was spectrophotometrically measured and the resulting data used to calculate the absorption, transmission, and reflectance parameters, along with the derived coefficients of scattering and absorption. These were employed to create a "generic" computational bladder model based on optical properties, simulating the propagation of photons through the tissue at different wavelengths. Using the Monte-Carlo method and fluorescence spectra of UV and blue excited wavelength, diagnostically important biomarkers were modeled. Additionally, the multifunctional noninvasive diagnostics system "LAKK-M" was used to gather fluorescence data to further provide essential comparisons. The ultimate goal of the study was to successfully simulate the effects of varying excited radiation wavelengths on bladder tissue to determine the effectiveness of photonics diagnostic devices. With increased accuracy, this model could be used to reliably aid in differentiating healthy and pathological tissues within the bladder and potentially other hollow organs.

  17. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response in Silver Nanoclusters: Insight from a Computational Investigation.

    PubMed

    Day, Paul N; Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A; Bigioni, Terry P

    2016-02-01

    We report a density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) investigation of the thiolated silver nanoclusters [Ag44(SR)30](4-), Ag14(SR)12(PR'3)8, Ag31(SG)19, Ag32(SG)19, and Ag15(SG)11, which were synthesized and for which one-photon absorption (OPA) characterization is available. Our computational investigation based on careful examination of the exchange-correlation functional used in DFT geometry optimization and for the linear optical properties predictions by TDDFT, demonstrated good agreement with the measured linear absorption spectra, however dependent on the applied functional. Following the benchmarking, we evaluated the two-photon absorption (TPA) response using TDDFT, noting that accurate prediction of OPA is important for suppositions on the spectral range for TPA enhancement because of the sensitivity to the excitation energies. Although the TPA cross-section results are complicated by resonance effects and quantifying TPA cross sections for these systems is difficult, our results indicate that the nanoclusters Ag15 and Ag31/32 are likely to have large TPA cross sections. The spherical symmetry of the Ag44 and Ag14 nanoclusters leads to applicability of superatom theory, while it is not as useful for the more oblate geometries of the Ag15 and Ag31/32 systems. PMID:26730764

  18. New computational solution to quantify synthetic material porosity from optical microscopic images.

    PubMed

    De Albuquerque, V H C; Filho, P P Rebouças; Cavalcante, T S; Tavares, J M R S

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new computational solution to quantify the porosity of synthetic materials from optical microscopic images. The solution is based on an artificial neuronal network of the multilayer perceptron type and a backpropagation algorithm is used for training. To evaluate this new solution, 40 sample images of a synthetic material were analysed and the quality of the results was confirmed by human visual analysis. In addition, these results were compared with ones obtained with a commonly used commercial system confirming their superior quality and the shorter time needed. The effect of images with noise was also studied and the new solution showed itself to be more reliable. The training phase of the new solution was analysed confirming that it can be performed in a very easy and straightforward manner. Thus, the new solution demonstrated that it is a valid and adequate option for researchers, engineers, specialists and other professionals to quantify the porosity of materials from microscopic images in an automatic, fast, efficient and reliable manner. PMID:21050213

  19. Heading recovery from optic flow: comparing performance of humans and computational models

    PubMed Central

    Foulkes, Andrew J.; Rushton, Simon K.; Warren, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Human observers can perceive their direction of heading with a precision of about a degree. Several computational models of the processes underpinning the perception of heading have been proposed. In the present study we set out to assess which of four candidate models best captured human performance; the four models we selected reflected key differences in terms of approach and methods to modelling optic flow processing to recover movement parameters. We first generated a performance profile for human observers by measuring how performance changed as we systematically manipulated both the quantity (number of dots in the stimulus per frame) and quality (amount of 2D directional noise) of the flow field information. We then generated comparable performance profiles for the four candidate models. Models varied markedly in terms of both their performance and similarity to human data. To formally assess the match between the models and human performance we regressed the output of each of the four models against human performance data. We were able to rule out two models that produced very different performance profiles to human observers. The remaining two shared some similarities with human performance profiles in terms of the magnitude and pattern of thresholds. However none of the models tested could capture all aspect of the human data. PMID:23801946

  20. SPIP: A computer program implementing the Interaction Picture method for simulation of light-wave propagation in optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balac, Stéphane; Fernandez, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    The computer program SPIP is aimed at solving the Generalized Non-Linear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE), involved in optics e.g. in the modelling of light-wave propagation in an optical fibre, by the Interaction Picture method, a new efficient alternative method to the Symmetric Split-Step method. In the SPIP program a dedicated costless adaptive step-size control based on the use of a 4th order embedded Runge-Kutta method is implemented in order to speed up the resolution.

  1. Looking for Speed!! Go Optical Ultra-Fast Photonic Logic Gates for the Future Optical Communication and Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Paley, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we developed two ultra-fast all-optical switches in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes. The picosecond switch is made of a polydiacetylene thin film coated on the interior wall of a hollow capillary of approximately 50 micron diameter by a photo-polymerization process. In the setup a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 10 Hz and at 532 nm with a pulse duration of approximately 40 ps was sent collinearly along a cw He-Ne laser beam and both were waveguided through the hollow capillary. The setup functioned as an Exclusive OR gate. On the other hand, the material used in the nanosecond switch is a phthalocyanine thin film, deposited on a glass substrate by a vapor deposition technique. In the setup a nanosecond, 10 Hz, Nd:YAG laser of 8 ns pulse duration was sent collinearly along a cw He-Ne laser beam and both were wave-guided through the phthalocyanine thin film. The setup in this case functioned as an all-optical AND logic gate. The characteristic table of the ExOR gate in polydiacetylene film was attributed to an excited state absorption process, while that of the AND gate was attributed to a saturation process of the first excited state. Both mechanisms were thoroughly investigated theoretically and found to agree remarkably well with the experimental results. An all-optical inverter gate has been designed but has not yet been demonstrated. The combination of all these three gates form the foundation for building all the necessary gates needed to build a prototype of an all-optical system.

  2. Optical computer recognition of facial expressions associated with stress induced by performance demands.

    PubMed

    Dinges, David F; Rider, Robert L; Dorrian, Jillian; McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Rogers, Naomi L; Cizman, Ziga; Goldenstein, Siome K; Vogler, Christian; Venkataraman, Sundara; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2005-06-01

    Application of computer vision to track changes in human facial expressions during long-duration spaceflight may be a useful way to unobtrusively detect the presence of stress during critical operations. To develop such an approach, we applied optical computer recognition (OCR) algorithms for detecting facial changes during performance while people experienced both low- and high-stressor performance demands. Workload and social feedback were used to vary performance stress in 60 healthy adults (29 men, 31 women; mean age 30 yr). High-stressor scenarios involved more difficult performance tasks, negative social feedback, and greater time pressure relative to low workload scenarios. Stress reactions were tracked using self-report ratings, salivary cortisol, and heart rate. Subjects also completed personality, mood, and alexithymia questionnaires. To bootstrap development of the OCR algorithm, we had a human observer, blind to stressor condition, identify the expressive elements of the face of people undergoing high- vs. low-stressor performance. Different sets of videos of subjects' faces during performance conditions were used for OCR algorithm training. Subjective ratings of stress, task difficulty, effort required, frustration, and negative mood were significantly increased during high-stressor performance bouts relative to low-stressor bouts (all p < 0.01). The OCR algorithm was refined to provide robust 3-d tracking of facial expressions during head movement. Movements of eyebrows and asymmetries in the mouth were extracted. These parameters are being used in a Hidden Markov model to identify high- and low-stressor conditions. Preliminary results suggest that an OCR algorithm using mouth and eyebrow regions has the potential to discriminate high- from low-stressor performance bouts in 75-88% of subjects. The validity of the workload paradigm to induce differential levels of stress in facial expressions was established. The paradigm also provided the basic stress

  3. Optical computed tomography utilizing a rotating mirror and Fresnel lenses: operating principles and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2013-02-01

    The performance of a fast optical computed tomography (CT) scanner based on a point laser source, a small area photodiode detector, and two optical-grade Fresnel lenses is evaluated. The OCTOPUS™-10× optical CT scanner (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT) is an upgrade of the OCTOPUS™ research scanner with improved design for faster motion of the laser beam and faster data acquisition process. The motion of the laser beam in the new configuration is driven by the rotational motion of a scanning mirror. The center of the scanning mirror and the center of the photodiode detector are adjusted to be on the focal points of two coaxial Fresnel lenses. A glass water tank is placed between the two Fresnel lenses to house gel phantoms and matching liquids. The laser beam scans over the water tank in parallel beam geometry for projection data as the scanning mirror rotates at a frequency faster than 0.1 s per circle. Signal sampling is performed independently of the motion of the scanning mirror, to reduce the processing time for the synchronization of the stepper motors and the data acquisition board. An in-house developed reference image normalization mechanism is added to the image reconstruction program to correct the non-uniform light transmitting property of the Fresnel lenses. Technical issues with regard to the new design of the scanner are addressed, including projection data extraction from raw data samples, non-uniform pixel averaging and reference image normalization. To evaluate the dosimetric accuracy of the scanner, the reconstructed images from a 16 MeV, 6 cm × 6 cm electron field irradiation were compared with those from the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Corporation, Palo Alto, CA). The spatial resolution of the scanner is demonstrated to be of sub-millimeter accuracy. The effectiveness of the reference normalization method for correcting the non-uniform light transmitting property of the Fresnel lenses is analyzed. A sub

  4. Computer-assisted polyp matching between optical colonoscopy and CT colonography: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Holger R.; Hampshire, Thomas E.; Helbren, Emma; Hu, Mingxing; Vega, Roser; Halligan, Steve; Hawkes, David J.

    2014-03-01

    Potentially precancerous polyps detected with CT colonography (CTC) need to be removed subsequently, using an optical colonoscope (OC). Due to large colonic deformations induced by the colonoscope, even very experienced colonoscopists find it difficult to pinpoint the exact location of the colonoscope tip in relation to polyps reported on CTC. This can cause unduly prolonged OC examinations that are stressful for the patient, colonoscopist and supporting staff. We developed a method, based on monocular 3D reconstruction from OC images, that automatically matches polyps observed in OC with polyps reported on prior CTC. A matching cost is computed, using rigid point-based registration between surface point clouds extracted from both modalities. A 3D printed and painted phantom of a 25 cm long transverse colon segment was used to validate the method on two medium sized polyps. Results indicate that the matching cost is smaller at the correct corresponding polyp between OC and CTC: the value is 3.9 times higher at the incorrect polyp, comparing the correct match between polyps to the incorrect match. Furthermore, we evaluate the matching of the reconstructed polyp from OC with other colonic endoluminal surface structures such as haustral folds and show that there is a minimum at the correct polyp from CTC. Automated matching between polyps observed at OC and prior CTC would facilitate the biopsy or removal of true-positive pathology or exclusion of false-positive CTC findings, and would reduce colonoscopy false-negative (missed) polyps. Ultimately, such a method might reduce healthcare costs, patient inconvenience and discomfort.

  5. Scalable quantum computing based on stationary spin qubits in coupled quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low. PMID:25518899

  6. Real-time optical correlator using computer-generated holographic filter on a liquid crystal light valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Limitations associated with the binary phase-only filter often used in optical correlators are presently circumvented in the writing of complex-valued data on a gray-scale spatial light modulator through the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH) algorithm. The CGH encodes complex-valued data into nonnegative real CGH data in such a way that it may be encoded in any of the available gray-scale spatial light modulators. A CdS liquid-crystal light valve is used for the complex-valued CGH encoding; computer simulations and experimental results are compared, and the use of such a CGH filter as the synapse hologram in a holographic optical neural net is discussed.

  7. Scalable quantum computing based on stationary spin qubits in coupled quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low. PMID:25518899

  8. A Micro-Computed Tomography Technique to Study the Quality of Fibre Optics Embedded in Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Voet, Eli; Lammens, Nicolas; Van Paepegem, Wim; Degrieck, Joris; Dierick, Manuel; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vanderniepen, Pieter; Sulejmani, Sanne; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Quality of embedment of optical fibre sensors in carbon fibre-reinforced polymers plays an important role in the resultant properties of the composite, as well as for the correct monitoring of the structure. Therefore, availability of a tool able to check the optical fibre sensor-composite interaction becomes essential. High-resolution 3D X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography, or Micro-CT, is a relatively new non-destructive inspection technique which enables investigations of the internal structure of a sample without actually compromising its integrity. In this work the feasibility of inspecting the position, the orientation and, more generally, the quality of the embedment of an optical fibre sensor in a carbon fibre reinforced laminate at unit cell level have been proven. PMID:25961383

  9. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  10. Image reconstruction of optical computed tomography by using the algebraic reconstruction technique for dose readouts of polymer gel dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng-Ting; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chang, Shu-Jun; Wu, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical CT) has been proven to be a useful tool for dose readouts of polymer gel dosimeters. In this study, the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) for image reconstruction of gel dosimeters was used to improve the image quality of optical CT. Cylindrical phantoms filled with N-isopropyl-acrylamide polymer gels were irradiated using a medical linear accelerator. A circular dose distribution and a hexagonal dose distribution were produced by applying the VMAT technique and the six-field dose delivery, respectively. The phantoms were scanned using optical CT, and the images were reconstructed using the filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm and the ART. For the circular dose distribution, the ART successfully reduced the ring artifacts and noise in the reconstructed image. For the hexagonal dose distribution, the ART reduced the hot spots at the entrances of the beams and increased the dose uniformity in the central region. Within 50% isodose line, the gamma pass rates for the 2 mm/3% criteria for the ART and FBP were 99.2% and 88.1%, respectively. The ART could be used for the reconstruction of optical CT images to improve image quality and provide accurate dose conversion for polymer gel dosimeters. PMID:26165178

  11. Development of electro-optical PCBs with embedded waveguides for data center and high performance computing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immonen, M.; Wu, J.; Yan, H. J.; Zhu, L. X.; Chen, P.; Rapala-Virtanen, T.

    2014-03-01

    Power consumption and scaling the performance and quantity of electrical interconnects for data traffic inside boards and backplanes are one of the critical barriers envisaged in next-generation Data Center (DC) and High-Performance Computing (HPC) applications. In this paper, we report developments of electro-optical PCBs (EO-PCB) with embedded polymer waveguide layers. We show results for fabricating realistic product emulator test vehicles that comprise of reasonable form factor PCBs with optical and electrical layers. The optical layer comprise of multiple waveguides exhibiting a full range of geometric configurations required to meet practical optical routing functions. Test patterns include varied cross-sectional sizes, 90° bends of varying radii (40mm - 2mm), cascaded bends with varying radii, waveguide crossings with varied crossing angles (90° - 20°), splitters, tapered waveguides and waveguide interconnect to midboard interface slots. Moreover, results for fabricating electrical interconnect structures (e.g. tracing layers, vias, plated vias) top/bottom and through optical layers in OE-PCB stack are shown. The purpose of the complex routed copper layers is to enable the crucial demonstration of the fabrication and thermal robustness challenges inherent to electro-optical PCBs with optical layers. Process compatibility with accepted practices and challenges in production scale up for high volumes are key concerns to meet the yield target and cost efficiency. Results include waveguide characterization, waveguide transmission loss, misalignment tolerance, and effect of lamination. Moreover, we show results on waveguide termination by in-plane edge connector and with 90° out-of-plane couplers.

  12. Diffractive optics in large sizes: computer-generated holograms (CGH) based on Bayfol HX photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Kleinschmidt, Tim Patrick; Orselli, Enrico; Rewitz, Christian; Rölle, Thomas; Walze, Günther

    2015-03-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOE) offer angular and spectral Bragg selectivity that can be tuned by film thickness and holographic recording conditions. With the option to integrate complex optical function in a very thin plastic layer formerly heavy refractive optics can be made thin and lightweight especially for large area applications like liquid crystal displays, projection screens or photovoltaic. Additionally their Bragg selectivity enables the integration of several completely separated optical functions in the same film. The new instant developing photopolymer film (Bayfol® HX) paves the way towards new cost effective diffractive large optics, due to its easy holographic recording and environmental stability. A major bottleneck for large area applications has been the master hologram recording which traditionally needs expensive, large high precision optical equipment and high power laser with long coherence length. Further the recording setup needs to be rearranged for a change in optical design. In this paper we describe an alternative method for large area holographic master recording, using standard optics and low power lasers in combination with an x, y-translation stage. In this setup small sub-holograms generated by a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM) are recorded next to each other to generate a large size vHOE. The setup is flexible to generate various types of HOEs without the need of a change in the mechanical and optical construction by convenient SLM programming. One Application example and parameter studies for printed vHOEs based on Bayfol® HX Photopolymer will be given.

  13. Nonlinear tunneling of optical soliton in 3 coupled NLS equation with symbolic computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani Rajan, M. S.; Mahalingam, A.; Uthayakumar, A.

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the soliton solution for N coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations. These equations are coupled due to the cross-phase-modulation (CPM). Lax pair of this system is obtained via the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) scheme and the corresponding Darboux transformation is constructed to derive the soliton solution. One and two soliton solutions are generated. Using two soliton solutions of 3 CNLS equation, nonlinear tunneling of soliton for both with and without exponential background has been discussed. Finally cascade compression of optical soliton through multi-nonlinear barrier has been discussed. The obtained results may have promising applications in all-optical devices based on optical solitons, study of soliton propagation in birefringence fiber systems and optical soliton with distributed dispersion and nonlinearity management.

  14. Computer program TRACK_VISION for simulating optical appearance of etched tracks in CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.

    2008-04-01

    A computer program called TRACK_VISION for determining the optical appearances of tracks in nuclear track materials resulted from light-ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching was described. A previously published software, TRACK_TEST, was the starting point for the present software TRACK_VISION, which contained TRACK_TEST as its subset. The programming steps were outlined. Descriptions of the program were given, including the built-in V functions for the commonly employed nuclear track material commercially known as CR-39 (polyallyldiglycol carbonate) irradiated by alpha particles. Program summaryProgram title: TRACK_VISION Catalogue identifier: AEAF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4084 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 71 117 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Pentium PC Operating system: Windows 95+ RAM: 256 MB Classification: 17.5, 18 External routines: The entire code must be linked with the MSFLIB library. MSFLib is a collection of C and C++ modules which provides a general framework for processing IBM's AFP datastream. MSFLIB is specific to Visual Fortran (Digital, Compaq or Intel flavors). Nature of problem: Nuclear track detectors are commonly used for radon measurements through studying the tracks generated by the incident alpha particles. Optical microscopes are often used for this purpose but the process is relatively tedious and time consuming. Several automatic and semi-automatic systems have been developed in order to facilitate determination of track densities. In all these automatic systems, the optical appearance of the tracks is important. However, not much has been done so far to obtaining the

  15. Ceramic and polymeric dental onlays evaluated by photo-elasticity, optical coherence tomography, and micro-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Topala, Florin; Ionita, Ciprian; Negru, Radu; Fabriky, Mihai; Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Marsavina, Liviu; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    Dental onlays are restorations used to repair rear teeth that have a mild to moderate amount of decay. They can also be used to restore teeth that are cracked or fractured if the damage is not severe enough to require a dental crown. The use of onlays requires less tooth reduction than does the use of metal fillings. This allows dentists to conserve more of a patient's natural tooth structure in the treatment process. The aims of this study are to evaluate the biomechanical comportment of the dental onlays, by using the 3D photo elasticity method and to investigate the integrity of the structures and their fitting to the dental support. For this optical coherence tomography and micro-computed tomography were employed. Both methods were used to investigate 37 dental onlays, 17 integral polymeric and 20 integral ceramic. The results permit to observe materials defects inside the ceramic or polymeric onlays situate in the biomechanically tensioned areas that could lead to fracture of the prosthetic structure. Marginal fitting problems of the onlays related to the teeth preparations were presented in order to observe the possibility of secondary cavities. The resulted images from the optical coherence tomography were verified by the micro-computed tomography. In conclusion, the optical coherence tomography can be used as a clinical method in order to evaluate the integrity of the dental ceramic and polymeric onlays and to investigate the quality of the marginal fitting to the teeth preparations.

  16. Fully Integrated Approach to Compute Vibrationally Resolved Optical Spectra: From Small Molecules to Macrosystems.

    PubMed

    Barone, Vincenzo; Bloino, Julien; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2009-03-10

    A general and effective time-independent approach to compute vibrationally resolved electronic spectra from first principles has been integrated into the Gaussian computational chemistry package. This computational tool offers a simple and easy-to-use way to compute theoretical spectra starting from geometry optimization and frequency calculations for each electronic state. It is shown that in such a way it is straightforward to combine calculation of Franck-Condon integrals with any electronic computational model. The given examples illustrate the calculation of absorption and emission spectra, all in the UV-vis region, of various systems from small molecules to large ones, in gas as well as in condensed phases. The computational models applied range from fully quantum mechanical descriptions to discrete/continuum quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical/polarizable continuum models. PMID:26610221

  17. Controlling light with freeform optics: recent progress in computational methods for optical design of freeform lenses with prescribed irradiance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliker, Vladimir I.; Cherkasskiy, Boris

    2014-09-01

    Structural color is produced when nanostructures called schemochromes alter light reflected from a surface through different optic principles, in contrast with other types of colors that are produced when pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Research on biogenic photonic nanostructures has focused primarily on bird feathers, butterfly wings and beetle elytra, ignoring other diverse groups such as spiders. We argue that spiders are a good model system to study the functions and evolution of colors in nature for the following reasons. First, these colors clearly function in spiders such as the tarantulas outside of sexual selection, which is likely the dominant driver of the evolution of structural colors in birds and butterflies. Second, within more than 44,000 currently known spider species, colors are used in every possible way based on the same sets of relatively simple materials. Using spiders, we can study how colors evolve to serve different functions under a variety of combinations of driving forces, and how those colors are produced within a relatively simple system. Here, we first review the different color-producing materials and mechanisms (i.e., light absorbing, reflecting and emitting) in birds, butterflies and beetles, the interactions between these different elements, and the functions of colors in different organisms. We then summarize the current state of knowledge of spider colors and compare it with that of birds and insects. We then raise questions including: 1. Could spiders use fluorescence as a mechanism to protect themselves from UV radiation, if they do not have the biosynthetic pathways to produce melanins? 2. What functions could color serve for nearly blind tarantulas? 3. Why are only multilayer nanostructures (thus far) found in spiders, while birds and butterflies use many diverse nanostructures? And, does this limit the diversity of structural colors found in spiders? Answering any of these questions in the future

  18. Use of a speckle reduction technique to improve the reconstruction image quality of CCD-based optical computed tomography scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2015-06-01

    This study proposed a speckle reduction technique (SRT) that employs a rotating diffuser in the parallel beam optical computed tomography (CT). Results showed that the mean and standard deviation of the gray level are 89.79±4.53 and 89.16±2.88 for reconstruction images without SRT and with SRT, respectively. The proposed SRT effectively removed ring artifacts. In addition, two image processing techniques, namely, the mean and Wiener filters, were also used to improve the reconstructed images. The image processing technique alone effectively reduced ring artifacts, but some fluctuations were still observed in the line profiles of the reconstructed images. Results proved that the proposed SRT is a simple method that is easily implemented to improve image quality for parallel beam optical CT. The combination of SRT and image filters was suggested to achieve the best image reconstruction quality through the full removal of ring artifacts.

  19. Computer simulations of a new three rods ion optic (TRIPOLE) with high focusing and mass filtering capabilities.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Gary Abdiel; Masujima, Tsutomu

    2007-03-01

    A novel three rod (tripole) ion optic to which three AC voltages with symmetrically delayed phase shifts were applied to each electrode. We studied its ion guiding, focusing, and mass filtering capabilities by SIMION ver. 7.0 computer simulations. An electric field mathematical model was developed to calculate the pseudopotential of the tripole radial AC force. The tripole showed stable ion guiding for wide ranges of AC amplitude; better collisional focusing than hexapole and octapole and similar focusing as quadrupole (rod pole). Also, the ion optic clearly showed interesting mass filtering potential when the phase shift was asymmetrically delayed. The symmetric shape of the pseudopotential field explained the tripole ion guiding and focusing capabilities. For mass filtering, the pseudopotential was asymmetric and its effect was balanced with DC voltage to separate the ions, depending in their masses. The resolution was much lower than quadrupole but useful when rough filtering was required. PMID:17142055

  20. Application of optical distributed sensing and computation to control of a large flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Welch, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in real-time holography make possible the development of new distributed optical sensors and processors that may have application to the control of flexible structures. This paper presents the analytic evaluation of control system concepts utilizing this new technology on realistic spacecraft. The design of a distributed estimator based on this new optical sensing technique is targeted to vibration control of a complex spacecraft with multiple optical sensors, each of which views a portion of the spacecraft. A simulation of a complex truss structure that was flown in the Solar Array Flight Experiment is utilized to evaluate the performance of the estimator. It is shown that good performance can be obtained from a distributed estimator even in the presence of significant sensor noise.

  1. An Optical Computed Tomography by Means of the Simplified Collimator in Near-infrared Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, Iwao; Odake, Sotoji; Mashiko, Shinro; Suzuki, Nobutaka

    The optical CT unit which was assembled with the laser diode working at the wavelength of 1.3 μm, and a glass optical fiber and a pin-hole with a diameter of the 100 μm yields the collimated near-infrared light through a scattering medium. Because the spatial collimator system needs no fast response time, a high sensitive Ge-PIN photodetector was employed the CT system. The optical CT image is allowed by use of near-infrared absorption characteristic. When the image construction of a grape was performed using projection data, so the comparatively good experimental results was obtained. The places of a grape seed was found without cutting. By means of the difference in characteristics of near-infrared absorption, the image of a cylindrical oil phantom in gelatin was reproduced.

  2. The role of robotics in computer controlled polishing of large and small optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David; Dunn, Christina; Yu, Guoyu; Bibby, Matt; Zheng, Xiao; Wu, Hsing Yu; Li, Hongyu; Lu, Chunlian

    2015-08-01

    Following formal acceptance by ESO of three 1.4m hexagonal off-axis prototype mirror segments, one circular segment, and certification of our optical test facility, we turn our attention to the challenge of segment mass-production. In this paper, we focus on the role of industrial robots, highlighting complementarity with Zeeko CNC polishing machines, and presenting results using robots to provide intermediate processing between CNC grinding and polishing. We also describe the marriage of robots and Zeeko machines to automate currently manual operations; steps towards our ultimate vision of fully autonomous manufacturing cells, with impact throughout the optical manufacturing community and beyond.

  3. All-optical electron spin quantum computer with ancilla bits for operations in each coupled-dot cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2000-12-01

    A cellular quantum computer with a spin qubit and ancilla bits in each cell is proposed. The whole circuit works only with the help of external optical pulse sequences. In the operation, some of the ancilla bits are activated, and autonomous single-and two-qubit operations are made. In the sleep mode of a cell, the decoherence of the qubit is negligibly small. Since only two cells at most are active at once, the coherence can be maintained for a sufficiently long time for practical purposes. A device structure using a coupled-quantum-dot array with possible operation and measurement schemes is also proposed.

  4. A computer graphics based model for scattering from objects of arbitrary shapes in the optical region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Rozehnal, Ivan; Thompson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-graphics-based model, named DIANA, is presented for generation of objects of arbitrary shape and for calculating bidirectional reflectances and scattering from them, in the visible and infrared region. The computer generation is based on a modified Lindenmayer system approach which makes it possible to generate objects of arbitrary shapes and to simulate their growth, dynamics, and movement. Rendering techniques are used to display an object on a computer screen with appropriate shading and shadowing and to calculate the scattering and reflectance from the object. The technique is illustrated with scattering from canopies of simulated corn plants.

  5. Improved T-matrix computations for large, nonabsorbing and weakly absorbing nonspherical particles and comparison with geometrical-optics approximation.

    PubMed

    Wielaard, D J; Mishchenko, M I; Macke, A; Carlson, B E

    1997-06-20

    We show that the use of a matrix inversion scheme based on a special lower triangular-upper triangular factorization rather than on the standard Gaussian elimination significantly improves the numerical stability of T-matrix computations for nonabsorbing and weakly absorbing nonspherical particles. As a result, the maximum convergent size parameter for particles with small or zero absorption can increase by a factor of several and can exceed 100. We describe an improved scheme for evaluating Clebsch-Gordon coefficients with large quantum numbers, which allowed us to extend the analytical orientational averaging method developed by Mishchenko [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 871 (1991)] to larger size parameters. Comparisons of T-matrix and geometrical optics computations for large, randomly oriented spheroids and finite circular cylinders show that the applicability range of the ray-tracing approximation depends on the imaginary part of the refractive index and is different for different elements of the scattering matrix. PMID:18253460

  6. A collision-aware backward recursive PCE-based computation algorithm in multi-domain optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jianchao; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Cao, Xuping; Wang, Dajiang; Gu, Wanyi

    2011-12-01

    The traditional approach for inter-domain Traffic Engineering Label Switching Path (TE-LSP) computation like BRPC could provide a shortest inter-domain constrained TE-LSP, but under wavelength continuity constraint, it couldn't guarantee the success of the resources reservation for the shortest path. In this paper, a Collision-aware Backward Recursive PCE-based Computation Algorithm (CA-BRPC) in multi-domain optical networks under wavelength continuity constraint is proposed, which is implemented based on Hierarchical PCE (H-PCE) architecture, could provide an optimal inter-domain TE-LSP and avoid resources reservation conflict. Numeric results show that the CA-BRPC could reduce the blocking probability of entire network.

  7. Computational simulations of the influence of noise in optical CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves

    2015-01-01

    In 3D radiation dosimetry with optical CT scanning readout, projections of transmitted light are recorded in either lines or planar. The projections are then transferred to optical density maps by use of filtered back-projection. Absolute dose maps can be derived from the optical density maps by calibration of the optical absorption coefficient to dose values. The transmission profiles will be subject to a certain level of detector noise and noise arriving from fluctuations in the light source. Different reconstruction filters in the frequency domain can be applied in the image reconstruction procedure. The noise level in the final reconstructed images is determined by the noise in the projections, the spatial resolution and the reconstruction algorithm. The reconstruction filters may also have an effect on the geometrical precision as a spatial frequency filter may also affect the spatial resolution. We here propose an easy method to assess both the noise sensitivity and the performance in terms of mapping dose distributions with various theoretical dose gradients.

  8. Nonlinear tunneling of optical soliton in 3 coupled NLS equation with symbolic computation

    SciTech Connect

    Mani Rajan, M.S.; Mahalingam, A.; Uthayakumar, A.

    2014-07-15

    We investigated the soliton solution for N coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations. These equations are coupled due to the cross-phase-modulation (CPM). Lax pair of this system is obtained via the Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) scheme and the corresponding Darboux transformation is constructed to derive the soliton solution. One and two soliton solutions are generated. Using two soliton solutions of 3 CNLS equation, nonlinear tunneling of soliton for both with and without exponential background has been discussed. Finally cascade compression of optical soliton through multi-nonlinear barrier has been discussed. The obtained results may have promising applications in all-optical devices based on optical solitons, study of soliton propagation in birefringence fiber systems and optical soliton with distributed dispersion and nonlinearity management. -- Highlights: •We consider the nonlinear tunneling of soliton in birefringence fiber. •3-coupled NLS (CNLS) equation with variable coefficients is considered. •Two soliton solutions are obtained via Darboux transformation using constructed Lax pair. •Soliton tunneling through dispersion barrier and well are investigated. •Finally, cascade compression of soliton has been achieved.

  9. Computer Simulations as Tools for Teaching and Learning: Using a Simulation Environment in Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eylon, Bat-Sheva; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the potential of the RAY learning environment in improving learning about optics. Results indicate that this environment, which includes a flexible ray-tracing simulation, had a significant effect on the spontaneous and correct use of the model by students in solving problems and a limited effect on conceptual understanding, but promoted…

  10. Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat plug-on-top optics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Ekman, Jeremy T.; Wang, Xiaoqing; Marchand, Philippe J.; Spaanenburg, Henk; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2000-05-01

    We report about ongoing work on a free-space optical interconnect system, which will demonstrate a Fast Fourier Transformation calculation, distributed among six processor chips. Logically, the processors are arranged in two linear chains, where each element communicates optically with its nearest neighbors. Physically, the setup consists of a large motherboard, several multi-chip carrier modules, which hold the processor/driver chips and the optoelectronic chips (arrays of lasers and detectors), and several plug-on-top optics modules, which provide the optical links between the chip carrier modules. The system design tries to satisfy numerous constraints, such as compact size, potential for mass-production, suitability for large arrays (up to 1024 parallel channels), compatibility with standard electronics fabrication and packaging technology, potential for active misalignment compensation by integration MEMS technology, and suitability for testing different imaging topologies. We present the system architecture together with details of key components and modules, and report on first experiences with prototype modules of the setup.

  11. Excitation spectroscopy in multispectral optical fluorescence tomography: methodology, feasibility, and computer simulation studies

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Ahn, Sangtae; Levenson, Richard; Badawi, Ramsey D; Cherry, Simon R; Leahy, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Molecular probes used for in vivo Optical Fluorescence Tomography (OFT) studies in small animals are typically chosen such that their emission spectra lie in the 680–850 nm wavelength range. This is because tissue attenuation in this spectral band is relatively low, allowing optical photons even from deep sites in tissue to reach the animal surface, and consequently be detected by a CCD camera. The wavelength dependence of tissue optical properties within the 680–850 nm band can be exploited for emitted light by measuring fluorescent data via multispectral approaches and incorporating the spectral dependence of these optical properties into the OFT inverse problem - that of reconstructing underlying 3D fluorescent probe distributions from optical data collected on the animal surface. However, in the aforementioned spectral band, due to only small variations in the tissue optical properties, multispectral emission data, though superior for image reconstruction compared to achromatic data, tend to be somewhat redundant. A different spectral approach for OFT is to capitalize on the larger variations in the optical properties of tissue for excitation photons than for the emission photons by using excitation at multiple wavelengths as a means of decoding source depth in tissue. The full potential of spectral approaches in OFT can be realized by a synergistic combination of these two approaches, that is, exciting the underlying fluorescent probe at multiple wavelengths and measuring emission data multispectrally. In this paper, we describe a method that incorporates both excitation as well as emission spectral information into the OFT inverse problem. We describe a linear algebraic formulation of the multiple wavelength illumination - multispectral detection (MWI-MD) forward model for OFT and compare it to models that use only excitation at multiple wavelengths or those that use only multispectral detection techniques. This study is carried out in a realistic

  12. Deterministic Computer-Controlled Polishing Process for High-Energy X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A deterministic computer-controlled polishing process for large X-ray mirror mandrels is presented. Using tool s influence function and material removal rate extracted from polishing experiments, design considerations of polishing laps and optimized operating parameters are discussed

  13. In-situ imaging of articular cartilage of the first carpometacarpal joint using co-registered optical coherence tomography and computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Paul; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van Herk, Marcel; Bras, Johannes; Faber, Dirk J.; Strackee, Simon D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2012-06-01

    Conventional imaging modalities are unable to depict the early degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis, especially in small joints. Optical coherence tomography has previously been used successfully in high-resolution imaging of cartilage tissue. This pilot cadaver study demonstrates the use of intra-articular optical coherence tomography in imaging of articular cartilage of the first carpometacarpal joint, producing high resolution images of the articular surface in which cartilage thickness and surface characteristics were assessed. Findings on optical coherence tomography were confirmed with histology. Furthermore, co-registration of optical coherence tomography and computed tomography was used to accurately determine the scanned trajectory and reconstruct a true-scale image overlay.

  14. Optical interconnection network for parallel access to multi-rank memory in future computing systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Gu, Huaxi; Yang, Yintang; Wang, Kun

    2015-08-10

    With the number of cores increasing, there is an emerging need for a high-bandwidth low-latency interconnection network, serving core-to-memory communication. In this paper, aiming at the goal of simultaneous access to multi-rank memory, we propose an optical interconnection network for core-to-memory communication. In the proposed network, the wavelength usage is delicately arranged so that cores can communicate with different ranks at the same time and broadcast for flow control can be achieved. A distributed memory controller architecture that works in a pipeline mode is also designed for efficient optical communication and transaction address processes. The scaling method and wavelength assignment for the proposed network are investigated. Compared with traditional electronic bus-based core-to-memory communication, the simulation results based on the PARSEC benchmark show that the bandwidth enhancement and latency reduction are apparent. PMID:26367901

  15. Numerical method to compute optical conductivity based on pump-probe simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Can; Tohyama, Takami; Luo, Hong-Gang; Lu, Hantao

    2016-05-01

    A numerical method to calculate optical conductivity based on a pump-probe setup is presented. Its validity and limits are tested and demonstrated via concrete numerical simulations on the half-filled one-dimensional extended Hubbard model both in and out of equilibrium. By employing either a steplike or a Gaussian-like probing vector potential, it is found that in nonequilibrium, the method in the narrow-probe-pulse limit can be identified with variant types of linear-response theory, which, in equilibrium, produce identical results. The observation reveals the underlying probe-pulse dependence of the optical conductivity calculations in nonequilibrium, which may have applications in the theoretical analysis of ultrafast spectroscopy measurements.

  16. Highly reliable optical interconnection network on printed circuit board for distributed computer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhihua; Luo, Fengguang; Di, Xu; Zhou, Weilin; Li, Bin; Wang, Guangjun; Chen, Jun

    2010-11-01

    A highly reliable interchip optical interconnection network on a printed circuit board (PCB) was designed and realized, and experiments confirmed that the data rate in each channel could reach above 3.125 Gbps and the bit error rate (BER) could be up to 1.27×10 -18, which would be a good solution to the problem of communication bottlenecks between high-speed VLSI chips.

  17. Optical tracking of contrast medium bolus to optimize bolus shape and timing in dynamic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisa, Fabian; Brauweiler, Robert; Peetz, Alexander; Hupfer, Martin; Nowak, Tristan; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is the optimal synchronization of scan start and duration with contrast medium administration in order to optimize image contrast and to reduce the amount of contrast medium. We present a new optically based approach, which was developed to investigate and optimize bolus timing and shape. The time-concentration curve of an intravenously injected test bolus of a dye is measured in peripheral vessels with an optical sensor prior to the diagnostic CT scan. The curves can be used to assess bolus shapes as a function of injection protocols and to determine contrast medium arrival times. Preliminary results for phantom and animal experiments showed the expected linear behavior between dye concentration and absorption. The kinetics of the dye was compared to iodinated contrast medium and was found to be in good agreement. The contrast enhancement curves were reliably detected in three mice with individual bolus shapes and delay times of 2.1, 3.5 and 6.1 s, respectively. The optical sensor appears to be a promising approach to optimize injection protocols and contrast enhancement timing and is applicable to all modalities without implying any additional radiation dose. Clinical tests are still necessary.

  18. Neurons Forming Optic Glomeruli Compute Figure–Ground Discriminations in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Aptekar, Jacob W.; Keleş, Mehmet F.; Lu, Patrick M.; Zolotova, Nadezhda M.

    2015-01-01

    Many animals rely on visual figure–ground discrimination to aid in navigation, and to draw attention to salient features like conspecifics or predators. Even figures that are similar in pattern and luminance to the visual surroundings can be distinguished by the optical disparity generated by their relative motion against the ground, and yet the neural mechanisms underlying these visual discriminations are not well understood. We show in flies that a diverse array of figure–ground stimuli containing a motion-defined edge elicit statistically similar behavioral responses to one another, and statistically distinct behavioral responses from ground motion alone. From studies in larger flies and other insect species, we hypothesized that the circuitry of the lobula—one of the four, primary neuropiles of the fly optic lobe—performs this visual discrimination. Using calcium imaging of input dendrites, we then show that information encoded in cells projecting from the lobula to discrete optic glomeruli in the central brain group these sets of figure–ground stimuli in a homologous manner to the behavior; “figure-like” stimuli are coded similar to one another and “ground-like” stimuli are encoded differently. One cell class responds to the leading edge of a figure and is suppressed by ground motion. Two other classes cluster any figure-like stimuli, including a figure moving opposite the ground, distinctly from ground alone. This evidence demonstrates that lobula outputs provide a diverse basis set encoding visual features necessary for figure detection. PMID:25972183

  19. Computational methodology study of the optical and thermochemical properties of a molecular photoswitch.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Stine T; Elm, Jonas; Storm, Freja Eilsø; Gejl, Aske Nørskov; Hansen, Anne S; Hansen, Mia Harring; Nikolajsen, Jens Rix; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2015-02-01

    We assess how the utilization of different DFT functionals for obtaining the equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies affect the description of the thermochemistry and subsequent calculation of the optical properties of a dihydroazulene-vinylheptafulvene photoswitch. The assessment covers nine popular DFT functionals (BLYP, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, M06-L, M06, M06-2X, PBE, PBE0, and ωB97X-D) in conjugation with five different Pople style basis sets (6-31+G(d), 6-31++G(d,p), 6-311+G(d), 6-311++G(d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd)). It is identified that only CAM-B3LYP, M06-2X, and PBE0 are able to quantitatively describe the correct trends in the thermochemical properties. The subsequent calculation of the optical properties using the CAM-B3LYP functional shows that there is little difference in whether the CAM-B3LYP, M06-2X, or PBE0 functionals have been used to calculate the equilibrium geometries. Utilizing the identified functionals, we investigate how the number of electron withdrawing cyano substituents influence the thermochemistry and optical properties of the molecular photoswitch. PMID:25569127

  20. FPGA-based slope computation for ELTs adaptive optics wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ramos, L. F.; Díaz Garcia, J. J.; Piqueras Meseguer, J. J.; Martin Hernando, Y.; Rodríguez Ramos, J. M.

    2008-07-01

    ELTs laser guide stars wavefront sensors are planned to have specifically developed sensor chips, which will probably include readout logic and D/A conversion, followed by a powerful FPGA slope computer located very close to it, but not inside for flexibility and simplicity reasons. This paper presents the architecture of an FPGA-based wavefront slope computer, capable of handling the sensor output stream in a massively parallel approach. It will feature the ability of performing dark and flat field correction, the flexibility needed for allocating complex processing schemes, the capability of undertaking all computations expected to be performed at maximum speed, even though they were not strictly related to the calculation of the slopes, and the necessary housekeeping controls to properly command it and evaluate its behaviour. Feasibility using today's technology is evaluated, clearly showing its viability, together with an analysis of the amount of external memory, power consumption and printed circuit board space needed.

  1. Computer driven optical keratometer and method of evaluating the shape of the cornea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, Edmund C. (Inventor); Mouneimme, Samih A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the shape of the cornea utilize only one reticle to generate a pattern of rings projected onto the surface of a subject's eye. The reflected pattern is focused onto an imaging device such as a video camera and a computer compares the reflected pattern with a reference pattern stored in the computer's memory. The differences between the reflected and stored patterns are used to calculate the deformation of the cornea which may be useful for pre-and post-operative evaluation of the eye by surgeons.

  2. Smart-phone based computational microscopy using multi-frame contact imaging on a fiber-optic array

    PubMed Central

    Navruz, Isa; Coskun, Ahmet F.; Wong, Justin; Mohammad, Saqib; Tseng, Derek; Nagi, Richie; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a cellphone based contact microscopy platform, termed Contact Scope, which can image highly dense or connected samples in transmission mode. Weighing approximately 76 grams, this portable and compact microscope is installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone using an opto-mechanical add-on, where planar samples of interest are placed in contact with the top facet of a tapered fiber-optic array. This glass-based tapered fiber array has ∼9 fold higher density of fiber optic cables on its top facet compared to the bottom one and is illuminated by an incoherent light source, e.g., a simple light-emitting-diode (LED). The transmitted light pattern through the object is then sampled by this array of fiber optic cables, delivering a transmission image of the sample onto the other side of the taper, with ∼3× magnification in each direction. This magnified image of the object, located at the bottom facet of the fiber array, is then projected onto the CMOS image sensor of the cellphone using two lenses. While keeping the sample and the cellphone camera at a fixed position, the fiber-optic array is then manually rotated with discrete angular increments of e.g., 1-2 degrees. At each angular position of the fiber-optic array, contact images are captured using the cellphone camera, creating a sequence of transmission images for the same sample. These multi-frame images are digitally fused together based on a shift-and-add algorithm through a custom-developed Android application running on the smart-phone, providing the final microscopic image of the sample, visualized through the screen of the phone. This final computation step improves the resolution and also gets rid of spatial artefacts that arise due to non-uniform sampling of the transmission intensity at the fiber optic array surface. We validated the performance of this cellphone based Contact Scope by imaging resolution test charts and blood smears. PMID:23939637

  3. A Practical Deconvolution Computation Algorithm to Extract 1D Spectra from 2D Images of Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangwei, Li; Haotong, Zhang; Zhongrui, Bai

    2015-06-01

    Bolton & Schlegel presented a promising deconvolution method to extract one-dimensional (1D) spectra from a two-dimensional (2D) optical fiber spectral CCD (charge-coupled device) image. The method could eliminate the PSF (point-spread function) difference between fibers, extract spectra to the photo noise level, as well as improve the resolution. But the method is limited by its huge computation requirement and thus can not be implemented in actual data reduction. In this article, we develop a practical computation method to solve the computation problem. The new computation method can deconvolve a 2D fiber spectral image of any size with actual PSFs, which may vary with positions. Our method does not require large amounts of memory and can extract a 4 k × 4 k noise-free CCD image with 250 fibers in 2 hr. To make our method more practical, we further consider the influence of noise, which is thought to be an intrinsic ill-posed problem in deconvolution algorithms. We modify our method with a Tikhonov regularization item to depress the method induced noise. We do a series of simulations to test how our method performs under more real situations with Poisson noise and extreme cross talk. Compared with the results of traditional extraction methods, i.e., the Aperture Extraction Method and the Profile Fitting Method, our method has the least residual and influence by cross talk. For the noise-added image, the computation speed does not depend very much on fiber distance, the signal-to-noise ratio converges in 2-4 iterations, and the computation times are about 3.5 hr for the extreme fiber distance and about 2 hr for nonextreme cases. A better balance between the computation time and result precision could be achieved by setting the precision threshold similar to the noise level. Finally, we apply our method to real LAMOST (Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope; a.k.a. Guo Shou Jing Telescope) data. We find that the 1D spectrum extracted by our

  4. Computationally efficient analysis of extraordinary optical transmission through infinite and truncated subwavelength hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Miguel; Boix, Rafael R.; Medina, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    The authors present a computationally efficient technique for the analysis of extraordinary transmission through both infinite and truncated periodic arrays of slots in perfect conductor screens of negligible thickness. An integral equation is obtained for the tangential electric field in the slots both in the infinite case and in the truncated case. The unknown functions are expressed as linear combinations of known basis functions, and the unknown weight coefficients are determined by means of Galerkin's method. The coefficients of Galerkin's matrix are obtained in the spatial domain in terms of double finite integrals containing the Green's functions (which, in the infinite case, is efficiently computed by means of Ewald's method) times cross-correlations between both the basis functions and their divergences. The computation in the spatial domain is an efficient alternative to the direct computation in the spectral domain since this latter approach involves the determination of either slowly convergent double infinite summations (infinite case) or slowly convergent double infinite integrals (truncated case). The results obtained are validated by means of commercial software, and it is found that the integral equation technique presented in this paper is at least two orders of magnitude faster than commercial software for a similar accuracy. It is also shown that the phenomena related to periodicity such as extraordinary transmission and Wood's anomaly start to appear in the truncated case for arrays with more than 100 (10 ×10 ) slots.

  5. Physics Education through Computational Tools: The Case of Geometrical and Physical Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Y.; Santana, A.; Mendoza, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, with the development of more powerful and accurate computational tools, the inclusion of new didactic materials in the classroom is known to have increased. However, the form in which these materials can be used to enhance the learning process is still under debate. Many different methodologies have been suggested for constructing new…

  6. Semi-analytic ray tracing method for time-efficient computing of transmission behavior of PCB level optical interconnects with varying core cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stübbe, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Optical interconnects on printed circuit board level are a promising choice to support high bandwidth for short distance interconnects. These interconnects consists of highly multimode step index waveguides with rectangular core cross sections. Therefore ray tracing is an excellent method to determine the optical path parameters, e.g. optical power, ray path lengths and local ray directions. Based on these parameters the step response, the transient transfer function and the coupling behavior can be calculated. Classical ray tracing methods calculates the optical path parameters of each ray by successively computing internal reflections until a termination condition is reached. Therefore the computing time depends on the number of internal reflections. If the optical waveguide consists of cascaded straight and curved segments, e. g. point-to-point interconnects, one can use the analytic ray tracing method to determine the optical path parameters. The whole path parameters of each ray are determined by one analytical computation. The computing time depends on the number of segments. The analytic ray tracing method is unusable to determine ray path parameters of segments with varying core cross sections, e.g. tapers, crossings, splitters and combiners.

  7. A computational study on the electronic and nonlinear optical properties of graphyne subunit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahat, Mehmet; Güney, Merve Nurhan; Özbay, Akif

    2016-03-01

    After discovery of graphene, it has been considered as basic material for the future nanoelectronic devices. Graphyne is a two- dimensional carbon allotropes as graphene which expected that its electronic properties is potentialy superior to graphene. The compound C24H12 (tribenzocyclyne; TBC) is a substructure of graphyne. The electronic, and nonlinear optical properties of the C24H12 and its some fluoro derivatives were calculated. The calculated properties are electric dipole moment, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies, polarizability and first hyperpolarizability. All calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level.

  8. An Optical and Computational Investigation on the Effects of Transient Fuel Injections in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Nicholas

    The effects of transient rate-of-injection profiles on high-pressure fuel jets have been studied in an optically accessible internal combustion engine. High-speed optical imaging measurements were applied over a range of ambient conditions, fuel types, and injection parameters. The optical data demonstrate that during the early part of the injection, while the liquid core of the jet is disintegrating, penetration is functionally linked to the orifice exit velocity up until a downstream distance hypothesized to be the jet breakup length. The jets then transition to a mixing dominated penetration behavior further downstream. Therefore, for cases that exhibit transient rate-of-injection (ROI) profiles, quasi-steady correlations for penetration have poor agreement with the empirical data. The lack of agreement between models using quasi-steady approximations and the high-speed experimental data, and the experimental evidence of liquid core physics impacting the transient jet penetration, motivated the development of a new 1-D model that integrates liquid core penetration physics and eliminates quasi-steady approximations. The new 1-D modeling methodology couples the transport equations for the evolution of the liquid core of the jet and the surrounding sheath of droplets resulting from breakup. The results of the model are validated against the aforementioned optical transient jet measurements. Finally, experimental results for two jet fuels and a diesel fuel are studied with the aid of the model. Differences in fuel properties cause the diesel fuel jet to transition from an incomplete spray to a complete spray later than the jet fuels during the transient injection process. Increasing ambient density causes the transition to happen earlier during the injection transient for all three fuels. The ignition delay and liftoff length appeared to be relatively unaffected by the late transition from incomplete to complete spray at low ambient density and low injection

  9. Space-frequency analysis with parallel computing in a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer distributed sensor.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaonan; Ye, Taihang; Zheng, Shilie; Zhou, Jinhai; Chi, Hao; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2014-10-01

    For a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (ϕ-OTDR) distributed sensor system, space-frequency analysis can reduce the false alarm by analyzing the frequency distribution compared with the traditional difference value method. We propose a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based parallel computing method to perform multichannel fast Fourier transform (FFT) and realize the real-time space-frequency analysis. The experiment results show that the time taken by the multichannel FFT decreased considerably based on this GPU parallel computing. The method can be completed with a sensing fiber up to 16 km long and an entry-level GPU. Meanwhile, the GPU can reduce the computing load of the central processing unit from 70% down to less than 20%. We carried out an experiment on a two-point space-frequency analysis, and the results clearly and simultaneously show the vibration point locations and frequency components. The sensor system outputs the real-time space-frequency spectra continuously with a spatial resolution of 16.3 m and frequency resolution of 2.25 Hz. PMID:25322248

  10. Nonlinear optical properties for a class of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene chromophores: a computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ting; Guo, Jing-Fu; Ren, Ai-Min; Huang, Shuang; Feng, Ji-Kang

    2012-10-28

    The systematic investigation of the linear and nonlinear optical properties on such a class of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) chromophores is of significance for rationally designing two-photon absorption (TPA) materials. The results indicate that increasing the strength of electron-donating or accepting terminal groups leads to bathochromic-shift of the absorption band and enhancement of the TPA cross section (δ(max)). For the molecules with fluorinated methylene and cyano substituents, replacement of a double bond by a triple bond in the conjugated linker produces the increase of δ(max), owing to the lower bond-length alternation and better rigidity of phenylene-ethynylene. In contrast, for the molecules with nitro groups, the similar replacement results in a slight decrease of δ(max) because N-HBC-E-NO2 has excellent planarity architecture and effective electronic coupling. The TPA spectra are red-shifted and the δ(max) values are enhanced as the number of branches increases. Thus, a solvatochromism effect has a positive influence on the TPA response of the nitryl compounds due to larger polarization of the nitro moiety. We have shed light on the linear relationship between the first hyperpolarizability and δ(max). These HBC derivatives hold potential as high-performance nonlinear optical materials. PMID:22940778

  11. The ESO adaptive optics real-time computer platform: a step toward the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedrigo, Enrico; Donaldson, Robert; Soenke, Christian; Hubin, Norbert N.

    2004-10-01

    ESO now operates several AO systems in the Paranal observatory. Most of them are the outcome of different and independent efforts resulting in different and incompatible systems with all the problems of maintaining and evolving them. At the same time, industry is now proposing powerful embedded computers and new standard technologies that enable the construction of massive real time parallel computers, with a technology roadmap that looks extremely promising. The ESO AO Platform initiative aims at taking this unique opportunity of gathering all the experience accumulated so far in building and operating AO system and the recent advances offered by the industry to define and build a standard hardware and software platform able to run every AO system of the near future of the VLT with an eye towards OWL. We review the key technologies that enable the design of a common AO-RTC and we discuss the main choices of the AO Platform initiative.

  12. Computational studies of optical textures of twist disclination loops in liquid-crystal films by using the finite-difference time-domain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Dae Kun; Rey, Alejandro D.

    2006-02-01

    Optical images of textured liquid-crystal films containing various types of twist disclination loops are computed using an approximate matrix method and a direct numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The selected defects introduce large multidirectional spatial gradients in the optic axis, mimicking the orientation textures that arise in the construction and use of biosensors based on liquid-crystal vision. It is shown that under these experimentally relevant conditions, the matrix method fails to capture important signatures in the transmitted light intensity under crossed polarizers. The differences between the predictions by the two methods are analyzed with respect to gradients in the optic axis. We show that the FDTD method is a useful tool to perform computational optics of textured liquid-crystal films.

  13. Application of optical distributed sensing and computation to control of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    A real time holographic sensing technique is introduced and its advantages are investigated from the filtering and control point of view. A feature of holographic sensing is its capability to make distributed measurements of the position and velocity of moving objects, such as a vibrating flexible space structure. This work is based upon the distributed parameter models of linear time invariant systems, particularly including the linear oscillator equations describing the vibration of large flexible space structures. The general conclusion is that application of optical distributed sensors bring gains in the situation where Kalman filtering is necessary for state estimation. In this case, both steady state and transient filtering error covariance become smaller. This in turn results in smaller cost in the LQG problem.

  14. Computational identification of single-layer CdO for electronic and optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2013-11-18

    The search for single-layer materials is an active research field. Using a first-principles design approach focusing on formation energy and bandgap, we search the family of II-VI oxides for metastable single-layer semiconductor materials. We discover a single-layer CdO phase that exhibits a small formation energy and a direct bandgap of 2.1 eV. The phonon spectrum confirms the dynamical stability of single-layer CdO. Calculations of the optical properties show a similar absorption to that of graphene. Estimates of the tunneling barrier of a graphene/CdO/graphene heterostructure reveal that CdO might be a potential dielectric for applications of graphene in electronic devices.

  15. Application Of Computer-Aided Evaluation For Holographic Vibration Analysis And Optical Contouring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbichler, H.

    1989-01-01

    Holographic interferometry is applied sucessfully in vibration analysis. As the resulting characteristic fringe pattern, the interferograms, are so complicated and can only be evaluated by an expert eye, there is a clear desire for automated evaluation and a lucidly arranged exposition. Therefore, the problem in image processing in interferometry lies in automatically recognizing and evaluating lines, as well as in differentiating the lines from object contours, shadows, etc. This kind of image processing then also makes it possible to evaluate other, non-holographic line systems. The application is not only limited to the automatic evaluation of holographic interferograms, but also in the optical measuring of the form any kind of objects using contour lines projected onto them, in the evaluation of speckle and photoelasticitic diagrams and Moire diagrams.

  16. Computer-Generated Hologram Design For A Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himes, Glenn S.; Mait, Joseph N.

    1990-02-01

    A magneto-optic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) has been proposed for use as a Fourier plane filter in a coherent optical correlator. Its binary nature and limited, presently small, space-bandwidth product constrain any filter design. Although binary quantization allows a maximum number of Fourier values to be coded, quantization and reconstruction error is high except in a few cases. To reduce these errors, a cell-oriented binary coding technique, the delayed-sample method, is used. Three cell sizes are considered: 2 x 1 pixels, 3 x 1 pixels, and 4 x 1 pixels. Through coding, a 2 x 1 cell can realize three real values {-1,0,1} as opposed to only two {4,1} for binary quantization; however, there is a trade-off in the number of Fourier values that can be coded. For a 2 x 1 cell the number is reduced by one-half. A 3 x 1 cell can realize seven complex values, but with a one-third reduction in the number of coded Fourier values. Finally, a 4 x 1 cell is capable of realizing nine complex values with a one-fourth reduction in the number of coded values. The trade-off between quantization error and number of Fourier values coded is examined qualitatively using a 128 x 128 MOSLM. Reconstructions from coding using different cell sizes are compared to reconstructions from binary quantization. In addition to coding, hologram replication is used to improve reconstruction error. Sampling issues relating to the size of the filter response are also discussed.

  17. Coronary optical coherence tomography: minimally invasive virtual histology as part of targeted post-mortem computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Adlam, David; Joseph, Shiju; Robinson, Claire; Rousseau, Clement; Barber, Jade; Biggs, Mike; Morgan, Bruno; Rutty, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Social, cultural and practical barriers to conventional invasive autopsy have led to considerable interest in the development of minimally invasive radiological techniques as an alternative to the invasive autopsy for determining the cause of death. Critical to accurate diagnosis in this context is detailed examination of coronary anatomy and pathology. Current computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging approaches have significantly advanced minimally invasive autopsy practice but have limited spatial resolution. This prohibits assessment at a microscopic level, meaning that histological assessment is still required for detailed analysis of, for example, coronary plaque rupture or dissection. Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in the living during percutaneous coronary interventions to provide high-resolution coronary imaging, but this technique for obtaining virtual histology has not, to date, been translated into minimally invasive autopsy practice. We present a first description of minimally invasive post-mortem coronary OCT and discuss the potential for this technique to advance current practice. PMID:23455719

  18. Application of color image processing and low-coherent optical computer tomography in evaluation of adhesive interfaces of dental restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Shlyapnikova, Olga A.; Venig, Sergey B.; Genina, Elina A.; Sadovnikov, Alexandr V.

    2015-03-01

    Durability of bonded interfaces between dentin and a polymer material in resin-based composite restorations remains a clinical dentistry challenge. In the present study the evolution of bonded interfaces in biological active environment is estimated in vivo. A novel in vivo method of visual diagnostics that involves digital processing of color images of composite restorations and allows the evaluation of adhesive interface quality over time, has been developed and tested on a group of volunteers. However, the application of the method is limited to the analysis of superficial adhesive interfaces. Low-coherent optical computer tomography (OCT) has been tested as a powerful non-invasive tool for in vivo, in situ clinical diagnostics of adhesive interfaces over time. In the long-term perspective adhesive interface monitoring using standard methods of clinical diagnostics along with colour image analysis and OCT could make it possible to objectivise and prognosticate the clinical longevity of composite resin-based restorations with adhesive interfaces.

  19. Computed tomography and optical remote sensing: Development for the study of indoor air pollutant transport and dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, A.C.

    1995-06-01

    This thesis investigates the mixing and dispersion of indoor air pollutants under a variety of conditions using standard experimental methods. It also extensively tests and improves a novel technique for measuring contaminant concentrations that has the potential for more rapid, non-intrusive measurements with higher spatial resolution than previously possible. Experiments conducted in a sealed room support the hypothesis that the mixing time of an instantaneously released tracer gas is inversely proportional to the cube root of the mechanical power transferred to the room air. One table-top and several room-scale experiments are performed to test the concept of employing optical remote sensing (ORS) and computed tomography (CT) to measure steady-state gas concentrations in a horizontal plane. Various remote sensing instruments, scanning geometries and reconstruction algorithms are employed. Reconstructed concentration distributions based on existing iterative CT techniques contain a high degree of unrealistic spatial variability and do not agree well with simultaneously gathered point-sample data.

  20. Integrability aspects and soliton solutions for the inhomogeneous reduced Maxwell-Bloch system in nonlinear optics with symbolic computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Jian-Wen

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the inhomogeneous reduced Maxwell-Bloch system, which describes the propagation of the intense ultra-short optical pulses through an inhomogeneous two-level dielectric medium. Through symbolic computation, the integrability aspects including the Painlevé integrable condition, Lax pair and infinite conservation laws are derived. By virtue of the Darboux transformation method, one- and two-soliton solutions are generated on the nonvanishing background, including the bright solitons, dark solitons, periodic solutions and some two-soliton solutions. The asymptotic analysis method is performed to verify the elastic interaction between two solitons. Furthermore, by virtue of some figures, the dynamic properties of those solitons are discussed. The results may be useful in the study of the ultrashort pulses propagation in such situations as the model of the two-level dielectric media.

  1. Quasi-phase-matched concurrent nonlinearities in periodically poled KTiOPO(4) for quantum computing over the optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Pysher, Matthew; Bahabad, Alon; Peng, Peng; Arie, Ady; Pfister, Olivier

    2010-02-15

    We report the successful design and experimental implementation of three coincident nonlinear interactions, namely ZZZ (type 0), ZYY (type I), and YYZ/YZY (type II) second-harmonic generation of 780 nm light from a 1560 nm pump beam in a single, multigrating, periodically poled KTiOPO(4) crystal. The resulting nonlinear medium is the key component for making a scalable quantum computer over the optical frequency comb of a single optical parametric oscillator. PMID:20160819

  2. Computational characterization of optical and thermodynamic properties of bulk zinc stannate (Zn2 SnO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Grigory

    2014-03-01

    Zn2 SnO4 (ZTO) is an important material with a wide band gap. It is often used in novel device designs such as quantum dot- and die-sensitized solar cells. The crystal structure of ZTO is inverse spinel, with the general formula AB2O4 . In inverse spinel A and B atoms share the occupation of octahedral sites 0.5/0.5, while the exact occupation is often unknown. Here we study configuration space of ZTO with DFT and derive cluster expansion model. We find temperature dependence for the occupation of octahedral sites and demonstrate that the lowest energy ground state configuration is stable at the normal range of temperatures. Because of the large unit cell (56 atoms) the calculation of optical properties with many-body methods appeared to be impractical and we compute band structure with DFT using Tran-Blaha correlation functional. The optical band gap we obtain with this method matches experimental value. This work was supported by University of Wyoming School of Energy Resources.

  3. Light-field-characterization in a continuous hydrogen-producing photobioreactor by optical simulation and computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krujatz, Felix; Illing, Rico; Krautwer, Tobias; Liao, Jing; Helbig, Karsten; Goy, Katharina; Opitz, Jörg; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Bley, Thomas; Weber, Jost

    2015-12-01

    Externally illuminated photobioreactors (PBRs) are widely used in studies on the use of phototrophic microorganisms as sources of bioenergy and other photobiotechnology research. In this work, straightforward simulation techniques were used to describe effects of varying fluid flow conditions in a continuous hydrogen-producing PBR on the rate of photofermentative hydrogen production (rH2 ) by Rhodobacter sphaeroides DSM 158. A ZEMAX optical ray tracing simulation was performed to quantify the illumination intensity reaching the interior of the cylindrical PBR vessel. 24.2% of the emitted energy was lost through optical effects, or did not reach the PBR surface. In a dense culture of continuously producing bacteria during chemostatic cultivation, the illumination intensity became completely attenuated within the first centimeter of the PBR radius as described by an empirical three-parametric model implemented in Mathcad. The bacterial movement in chemostatic steady-state conditions was influenced by varying the fluid Reynolds number. The "Computational Fluid Dynamics" and "Particle Tracing" tools of COMSOL Multiphysics were used to visualize the fluid flow pattern and cellular trajectories through well-illuminated zones near the PBR periphery and dark zones in the center of the PBR. A moderate turbulence (Reynolds number = 12,600) and fluctuating illumination of 1.5 Hz were found to yield the highest continuous rH2 by R. sphaeroides DSM 158 (170.5 mL L(-1) h(-1) ) in this study. PMID:26037711

  4. Analog optical computing based on a dielectric meta-reflect array.

    PubMed

    Chizari, Ata; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A

    2016-08-01

    In this Letter, we realize the concept of analog computing using an engineered gradient dielectric meta-reflect-array. The proposed configuration consists of individual subwavelength silicon nanobricks, in combination with a fused silica spacer and silver ground plane, realizing a reflection beam with full phase coverage of 2π degrees, as well as an amplitude range of 0 to 1. Spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances, such high-index dielectric metasurfaces can locally and independently manipulate the amplitude and phase of the incident electromagnetic wave. This practically feasible structure overcomes substantial limitations imposed by plasmonic metasurfaces such as absorption losses and low polarization conversion efficiency in the visible range. Using such CMOS-compatible and easily integrable platforms promises highly efficient ultrathin planar wave-based computing systems that circumvent the drawbacks of conventional bulky lens-based signal processors. Based on these key properties and the general concept of spatial Fourier transformation, we design and realize broadband mathematical operators such as the differentiator and integrator in the telecommunication wavelengths. PMID:27472591

  5. An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

  6. Computation of Domain-Averaged Shortwave Irradiance by a One-Dimensional Algorithm Incorporating Correlations between Optical Thickness and Direct Incident Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional radiative transfer algorithm that accounts for correlations between the optical thickness and the incident direct solar radiation is developed to compute the domain-averaged shortwave irradiance profile. It divides the direct irradiance into four components and treats the direct irradiance in two separate, clear and cloudy columns to account for the fact that clouds attenuate the direct irradiance more than clear-sky. The horizontal inhomogeneity of clouds in the cloudy column is treated by the gamma weighted two-stream approximation, which assumes that the optical thickness of clouds follows a gamma distribution. The algorithm inputs the cloud fraction, cumulative cloud fraction as a function of height, and a parameter expressing the shape of the probability density function of the cloud optical thickness distribution in addition to inputs required for a two-stream radiative transfer model. These cloud property inputs can be obtained using ground- and satellite-based instruments. Therefore, the algorithm can treat realistic cloud overlap features and horizontal inhomogeneity of clouds in a framework of one- dimensional radiative transfer. Heating rates computed by the algorithm using cloud fields generated by cloud resolving models agree with those computed with a Monte Carlo model. If optical properties in computational layers that divide a vertically extensive cloud are correlated, the irradiance profile computed by the algorithm further improves.

  7. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and computer aided diagnosis of human cervical tissue specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazant-Hegemark, F.; Stone, N.; Read, M. D.; McCarthy, K.; Wang, R. K.

    2007-07-01

    The keyword for management of cervical cancer is prevention. The present program within the UK, the 'National Health Service (NHS) cervical screening programme' (NHSCSP), is based on cytology. Although the program has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, this program requires patient follow ups and relies on diagnostic biopsying. There is potential for reducing costs and workload within the NHS, and relieving anxiety of patients. In this study, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was investigated for its capability to improve this situation. Our time domain bench top system used a superluminescent diode (Superlum), centre wave length ~1.3 μm, resolution (air) ~15 μm. Tissue samples were obtained according to the ethics approval by Gloucestershire LREC, Nr. 05/Q2005/123. 1387 images of 199 participants have been compared with histopathology results and categorized accordingly. Our OCT images do not reach the clarity and resolution of histopathology. Further, establishing and recognizing features of diagnostic significance seems difficult. Automated classification would allow one to take decision-making to move from the subjective appraisal of a physician to an objective assessment. Hence we investigated a classification algorithm for its ability in recognizing pre-cancerous stages from OCT images. The initial results show promise.

  8. Closing the gap: The approach of optical and computational microscopy to uncover biomembrane organization.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, Christian; Honigmann, Alf

    2016-10-01

    Biological membranes are complex composites of lipids, proteins and sugars, which catalyze a myriad of vital cellular reactions in a spatiotemporal tightly controlled manner. Our understanding of the organization principles of biomembranes is limited mainly by the challenge to measure distributions and interactions of lipids and proteins within the complex environment of living cells. With the recent advent of super-resolution optical microscopy (or nanoscopy) one now has approached the molecular scale regime with non-invasive live cell fluorescence observation techniques. Since in silico molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques are also improving to study larger and more complex systems we can now start to integrate live-cell and in silico experiments to develop a deeper understanding of biomembranes. In this review we summarize recent progress to measure lipid-protein interactions in living cells and give examples how MD simulations can complement and upgrade the experimental data. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:27039279

  9. A computational tool to highlight anomalies on shearographic images in optical flaw detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin, A. V.; Willemann, D. P.; Viotti, M.; Albertazzi, A.

    2013-04-01

    Shearography is an optical and nondestructive technique that has been largely used for damage detection in layered composite materials where delaminations and debondings are found among the most common flaws. Shearography is a relative measurement on which two images are recorded for different loading conditions of the sample. The applied loading induces some deformations into the sample generating a displacement field on its surface. The absolute difference between two phase maps recorded at two different loading instances produces an interference fringe pattern which is directly correlated to the displacements produced on the material surface. In some cases, depending on the loading level and mainly on the sample geometry, interference patterns will contain fringes resulting from geometry changes. This will mask those fringes correlated to flaws presented into the material, resulting in an image misinterpretation. This phenomenon takes place mainly when the sample has curved geometries, as for example pipe or vessel surfaces. This paper presents an algorithm which uses a mathematical processing to improve the visualization of flaws in shearographic images. The mathematical processing is based on divergent calculation. This algorithm highlights defected regions and eliminates fringes caused by geometry changes, providing an easier interpretation for complex shearographic images. This paper also shows the principle and the algorithm used for the processing. Results, advantages and difficulties of the method are presented and discussed by using simulated fringe maps as well as real ones.

  10. Novel method for computing reference wave error in optical surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Paul E.; Fleig, Jon; Forbes, Greg; Dumas, Paul

    2003-05-01

    Despite advances in various metrology tools, interferometry remains the method of choice for measurements of optical surfaces. Fizeau interferometers can achieve precisions of λ/100 PV (and better) with proper environmental control. The quality of the reference surface, however, usually limits the uncalibrated accuracy to merely λ/10 PV or so. Various methods have been developed for "absolute" (unbiased) surface testing, including the N-position, 3-flat, 2-sphere, and random average tests. The basic principle of these tests is that the reference wave error remains invariant when the part is moved. These tests as a rule require multiple parts and/or measurements at different positions. Sub-aperture stitching requires measurements at multiple positions, and thus in principle can measure reference wave error. QED"s stitching algorithm exploits this possibility to produce a measurement of the reference surface along with the stitched full-aperture phase. The precision mechanics of QED"s stitching workstation make it an excellent platform for performing conventional reference wave calibrations as well. Results obtained from the QED stitching algorithm are compared with other calibration methods performed on the same workstation. The mean results and uncertainties of the various methods are evaluated, and limitations discussed.

  11. Electronic, optical, and computational studies of a redox-active napthalenediimide-based coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Leong, Chanel F; Chan, Bun; Faust, Thomas B; Turner, Peter; D'Alessandro, Deanna M

    2013-12-16

    The new one-dimensional coordination framework (Zn(DMF)NO3)2(NDC)(DPMNI), where NDC = 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate and DPMNI = N,N'-bis(4-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxydiimide, which has been crystallographically characterized, exhibits two redox-accessible states due to the successive reduction of the naphthalenediimide (NDI) ligand core. Solid-state electrochemical and vis-near-IR spectroelectrochemical measurements coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations enabled the origins of the optical transitions in the spectra of the monoradical anion and dianion states of the material to be assigned. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed that the paramagnetic radical anion state of the DPMNI core could be accessed upon broad-spectrum white light irradiation of the material, revealing a long-lived excited state, possibly stabilized by charge delocalization which arises from extensive π-π* stacking interactions between alternating NDC and NDI aromatic cores which are separated by a distance of 3.580(2) Å. PMID:24283401

  12. L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C.; Silva, A. M.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p-carboxyl, C 2p-side chain, and C 2p-carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical anisotropy for the

  13. L-asparagine crystals with wide gap semiconductor features: Optical absorption measurements and density functional theory computations

    SciTech Connect

    Zanatta, G.; Gottfried, C.; Silva, A. M.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Sales, F. A. M.; Freire, V. N.

    2014-03-28

    Results of optical absorption measurements are presented together with calculated structural, electronic, and optical properties for the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal. Density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) including dispersion effects (TS, Grimme) was employed to perform the calculations. The optical absorption measurements revealed that the anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystal is a wide band gap material with 4.95 eV main gap energy. DFT-GGA+TS simulations, on the other hand, produced structural parameters in very good agreement with X-ray data. The lattice parameter differences Δa, Δb, Δc between theory and experiment were as small as 0.020, 0.051, and 0.022 Å, respectively. The calculated band gap energy is smaller than the experimental data by about 15%, with a 4.23 eV indirect band gap corresponding to Z → Γ and Z → β transitions. Three other indirect band gaps of 4.30 eV, 4.32 eV, and 4.36 eV are assigned to α3 → Γ, α1 → Γ, and α2 → Γ transitions, respectively. Δ-sol computations, on the other hand, predict a main band gap of 5.00 eV, just 50 meV above the experimental value. Electronic wavefunctions mainly originating from O 2p–carboxyl, C 2p–side chain, and C 2p–carboxyl orbitals contribute most significantly to the highest valence and lowest conduction energy bands, respectively. By varying the lattice parameters from their converged equilibrium values, we show that the unit cell is less stiff along the b direction than for the a and c directions. Effective mass calculations suggest that hole transport behavior is more anisotropic than electron transport, but the mass values allow for some charge mobility except along a direction perpendicular to the molecular layers of L-asparagine which form the crystal, so anhydrous monoclinic L-asparagine crystals could behave as wide gap semiconductors. Finally, the calculations point to a high degree of optical

  14. Optical computing and neural networks; Proceedings of the Meeting, National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan, Dec. 16, 17, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Ken-Yuh (Editor); Liu, Hua-Kuang (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses optical neural networks, photorefractive nonlinear optics, optical pattern recognition, digital and analog processors, and holography and its applications. Attention is given to bifurcating optical information processing, neural structures in digital halftoning, an exemplar-based optical neural net classifier for color pattern recognition, volume storage in photorefractive disks, and microlaser-based compact optical neuroprocessors. Also treated are the optical implementation of a feature-enhanced optical interpattern-associative neural network model and its optical implementation, an optical pattern binary dual-rail logic gate module, a theoretical analysis for holographic associative memories, joint transform correlators, image addition and subtraction via the Talbot effect, and optical wavelet-matched filters. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  15. Automated X-ray and Optical Analysis of the Virtual Observatory and Grid Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptak, A.; Krughoff, S.; Connolly, A.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a system to combine the Web Enabled Source Identification with X-Matching (WESIX) web service, which emphasizes source detection on optical images,with the XAssist program that automates the analysis of X-ray data. XAssist is continuously processing archival X-ray data in several pipelines. We have established a workflow in which FITS images and/or (in the case of X ray data) an X-ray field can be input to WESIX. Intelligent services return available data (if requested fields have been processed) or submit job requests to a queue to be performed asynchronously. These services will be available via web services (for non-interactive use by Virtual Observatory portals and applications) and through web applications (written in the Django web application framework). We are adding web services for specific XAssist functionality such as determining .the exposure and limiting flux for a given position on the sky and extracting spectra and images for a given region. We are improving the queuing system in XAssist to allow for "watch lists" to be specified by users, and when X-ray fields in a user's watch list become publicly available they will be automatically added to the queue. XAssist is being expanded to be used as a survey planning 1001 when coupled with simulation software, including functionality for NuStar, eRosita, IXO, and the Wide Field Xray Telescope (WFXT), as part of an end to end simulation/analysis system. We are also investigating the possibility of a dedicated iPhone/iPad app for querying pipeline data, requesting processing, and administrative job control.

  16. Automated X-ray and Optical Analysis of the Virtual Observatory and Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, A.; Krughoff, S.; Connolly, A.

    2011-07-01

    We are developing a system to combine the Web Enabled Source Identification with X-Matching (WESIX) web service, which emphasizes source detection on optical images,with the XAssist program that automates the analysis of X-ray data. XAssist is continuously processing archival X-ray data in several pipelines. We have established a workflow in which FITS images and/or (in the case of X-ray data) an X-ray field can be input to WESIX. Intelligent services return available data (if requested fields have been processed) or submit job requests to a queue to be performed asynchronously. These services will be available via web services (for non-interactive use by Virtual Observatory portals and applications) and through web applications (written in the Django web application framework). We are adding web services for specific XAssist functionality such as determining the exposure and limiting flux for a given position on the sky and extracting spectra and images for a given region. We are improving the queuing system in XAssist to allow for "watch lists" to be specified by users, and when X-ray fields in a user's watch list become publicly available they will be automatically added to the queue. XAssist is being expanded to be used as a survey planning tool when coupled with simulation software, including functionality for NuStar, eRosita, IXO, and the Wide-Field Xray Telescope (WFXT), as part of an end-to-end simulation/analysis system. We are also investigating the possibility of a dedicated iPhone/iPad app for querying pipeline data, requesting processing, and administrative job control. This work was funded by AISRP grant NNG06GE59G.

  17. Development of a Computer Architecture to Support the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1996-01-01

    The NASA OPAD spectrometer system relies heavily on extensive software which repetitively extracts spectral information from the engine plume and reports the amounts of metals which are present in the plume. The development of this software is at a sufficiently advanced stage where it can be used in actual engine tests to provide valuable data on engine operation and health. This activity will continue and, in addition, the OPAD system is planned to be used in flight aboard space vehicles. The two implementations, test-stand and in-flight, may have some differing requirements. For example, the data stored during a test-stand experiment are much more extensive than in the in-flight case. In both cases though, the majority of the requirements are similar. New data from the spectrograph is generated at a rate of once every 0.5 sec or faster. All processing must be completed within this period of time to maintain real-time performance. Every 0.5 sec, the OPAD system must report the amounts of specific metals within the engine plume, given the spectral data. At present, the software in the OPAD system performs this function by solving the inverse problem. It uses powerful physics-based computational models (the SPECTRA code), which receive amounts of metals as inputs to produce the spectral data that would have been observed, had the same metal amounts been present in the engine plume. During the experiment, for every spectrum that is observed, an initial approximation is performed using neural networks to establish an initial metal composition which approximates as accurately as possible the real one. Then, using optimization techniques, the SPECTRA code is repetitively used to produce a fit to the data, by adjusting the metal input amounts until the produced spectrum matches the observed one to within a given level of tolerance. This iterative solution to the original problem of determining the metal composition in the plume requires a relatively long period of time

  18. Computational Nanophotonics: modeling optical interactions and transport in tailored nanosystem architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, George; Ratner, Mark

    2014-02-27

    This report describes research by George Schatz and Mark Ratner that was done over the period 10/03-5/09 at Northwestern University. This research project was part of a larger research project with the same title led by Stephen Gray at Argonne. A significant amount of our work involved collaborations with Gray, and there were many joint publications as summarized later. In addition, a lot of this work involved collaborations with experimental groups at Northwestern, Argonne, and elsewhere. The research was primarily concerned with developing theory and computational methods that can be used to describe the interaction of light with noble metal nanoparticles (especially silver) that are capable of plasmon excitation. Classical electrodynamics provides a powerful approach for performing these studies, so much of this research project involved the development of methods for solving Maxwell’s equations, including both linear and nonlinear effects, and examining a wide range of nanostructures, including particles, particle arrays, metal films, films with holes, and combinations of metal nanostructures with polymers and other dielectrics. In addition, our work broke new ground in the development of quantum mechanical methods to describe plasmonic effects based on the use of time dependent density functional theory, and we developed new theory concerned with the coupling of plasmons to electrical transport in molecular wire structures. Applications of our technology were aimed at the development of plasmonic devices as components of optoelectronic circuits, plasmons for spectroscopy applications, and plasmons for energy-related applications.

  19. Trianguleniums as Optical Probes for G‐Quadruplexes: A Photophysical, Electrochemical, and Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Shivalingam, Arun; Vyšniauskas, Aurimas; Albrecht, Tim; White, Andrew J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nucleic acids can adopt non‐duplex topologies, such as G‐quadruplexes in vitro. Yet it has been challenging to establish their existence and function in vivo due to a lack of suitable tools. Recently, we identified the triangulenium compound DAOTA‐M2 as a unique fluorescence probe for such studies. This probe's emission lifetime is highly dependent on the topology of the DNA it interacts with opening up the possibility of carrying out live‐cell imaging studies. Herein, we describe the origin of its fluorescence selectivity for G‐quadruplexes. Cyclic voltammetry predicts that the appended morpholino groups can act as intra‐ molecular photo‐induced electron transfer (PET) quenchers. Photophysical studies show that a delicate balance between this effect and inter‐molecular PET with nucleobases is key to the overall fluorescence enhancement observed upon nucleic acid binding. We utilised computational modelling to demonstrate a conformational dependence of intra‐molecular PET. Finally, we performed orthogonal studies with a triangulenium compound, in which the morpholino groups were removed, and demonstrated that this change inverts triangulenium fluorescence selectivity from G‐quadruplex to duplex DNA, thus highlighting the importance of fine tuning the molecular structure not only for target affinity, but also for fluorescence response. PMID:26880483

  20. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization signal detection by computing intensity variance along the optical axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bin; Ren, Liqiang; Liu, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization technology is a commonly used tool to detect chromosome aberrations, which are often pathologically significant. Since manual FISH analysis is a tedious and time-consuming procedure, reliable and robust automated image acquisition and analysis are in demand. Under high magnification objective lenses such as 60x and 100x, the depth of field will often be too small and the FISH probes may not always lie in the same focal plane. A statistical variance based automated FISH analysis method is developed in order to address this problem. On a stack of slices at consecutive image planes with a step size d, the statistical variance alone the z-axis is calculated to form a 2-D matrix. Since pixels shift dramatically to high intensity at FISH probe location, the probes will manifest high peak values in the matrix. A computer-aided detection scheme based on top-hat transform is applied to the matrix to detect FISH probe signals. This study demonstrates a simple and robust method for FISH probe detection as well as a way of 2- D representation of 3-D data.

  1. Synthesis, an experimental and quantum chemical computational study of a new nonlinear optical material: 2-picolinium hydrogensquarate.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Ufuk; Bulut, Ahmet

    2014-09-15

    The experimental and theoretical investigation results of a novel organic non-linear optical (NLO) organic squarate salt of 2-Picolinium hydrogensquarate (1), C6H8N+·C4HO4-, were reported in this study. The space group of the title compound was found in the monoclinic C2/c space group. It was found that the asymmetric unit consists of one monohydrogen squarate anion together with mono protonated 2-Picolinium, forming the (1) salt. The X-ray analysis clearly indicated that the crystal packing has shown the hydrogen bonding ring pattern of D2(2)(10) (α-dimer) through NH⋯O interactions. The hydrogensquarate anions form α-dimer, while 2-Picolinium molecule interacts through NH⋯O and CH⋯O with the hydrogensquarate anion. The structural and vibrational properties of the compound were also studied by computational methods of ab initio performed on the compound at DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) (2) and HF/6-31++G(d,p) (3) level of theory. The calculation results on the basis of two models for both the optimized molecular structure and vibrational properties for the 1 obtained are presented and compared with the X-ray analysis result. On the other the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), electronic absorption spectra, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), conformational flexibility and non-linear optical properties (NLO) of the title compound were also studied at the 2 level and the results are reported. In order to evaluate the suitability for NLO applications thermal analysis (TG, DTA and DTG) data of 1 were also obtained. PMID:24813271

  2. Numerical simulation of a novel all-optical flip-flop based on a chirped nonlinear distributed feedback semiconductor laser structure using GPGPU computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoweil, H.

    2015-05-01

    A novel all-optical flip-flop based on a chirped nonlinear distributed feedback laser structure is proposed. The flip-flop does not require a holding beam. The optical gain is provided by a current injection into an active layer. The nonlinear wave-guiding layer consists of a chirped phase shifted grating accompanied with a negative nonlinear refractive index coefficient that increases in magnitude along the wave-guide. In the 'OFF' state, the chirped grating does not provide the required optical feedback to start lasing. An optical pulse switches the device 'ON' by reducing the chirp due to the negative nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The reduced chirp grating provides enough feedback to sustain a laser mode. The device is switched 'OFF' by cross gain modulation. GPGPU computing allows for long simulation time of multiple SET-RESET operations. The 'ON/OFF' transitions delays are in nanoseconds time scale.

  3. Ab-initio and DFT methodologies for computing hyperpolarizabilities and susceptibilities of highly conjugated organic compounds for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, A.; Karakaya, M.; Ceylan, Y.; El Kouari, Y.; Taboukhat, S.; Boughaleb, Y.; Sofiani, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this talk, after a short introduction on the methodologies used for computing dipole polarizability (α), second and third-order hyperpolarizability and susceptibility; the results of theoretical studies performed on density functional theory (DFT) and ab-initio quantum mechanical calculations of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties for a few selected organic compounds and polymers will be explained. The electric dipole moments (μ) and dispersion-free first hyperpolarizabilities (β) for a family of azo-azulenes and a styrylquinolinium dye have been determined by DFT at B3LYP level. To reveal the frequency-dependent NLO behavior, the dynamic α, second hyperpolarizabilities (γ), second (χ(2)) and third-order (χ(3)) susceptibilites have been evaluated using time-dependent HartreeFock (TDHF) procedure. To provide an insight into the third-order NLO phenomena of a series of pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene-based molecules and pushpull azobenzene polymers, two-photon absorption (TPA) characterizations have been also investigated by means of TDHF. All computed results of the examined compounds are compared with their previous experimental findings and the measured data for similar structures in the literature. The one-photon absorption (OPA) characterizations of the title molecules have been theoretically obtained by configuration interaction (CI) method. The highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) and the HOMO-LUMO band gaps have been revealed by DFT at B3LYP level for azo-azulenes, styrylquinolinium dye, push-pull azobenzene polymers and by parametrization method 6 (PM6) for pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene-based molecules.

  4. A block-based forward imaging model for improved sample volume representation in computational optical sectioning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sreya; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2015-03-01

    In typical fluorescence imaging systems the refractive index (RI) variability between the immersion medium of the objective lens, the coverslip, and the specimen, changes the spherical wave-front of the emitted light and introduces spherical aberrations (SA) in the acquired 3D image. In existing computational optical sectioning algorithms (COSM) to simplify the complexity of the problem, the specimen is either assumed to be thin or in the case of depth-variant algorithms to have a constant RI which is an invalid assumption for biological samples. Accurate modeling of biological samples requires a space variant (SV) imaging system i.e. a different point spread functions (PSF) for each pixel. To reduce the computational load an approximate block-based forward model is introduced in this study. The entire object space is divided into a collection of small 3D blocks where the PSFs at the faces of the blocks are known. An optimized combination of overlap-save and overlap-add methods of interpolation are used to obtain the final SV (axially and laterally variant) image. Simulated SV images using the new imaging model, of a numerical object comprising of similar structures dispersed in a medium with spatially variant RI are discussed. Images of fluorescent microspheres (6-μm in diameter) dispersed in a controlled sample with two distinct RIs are compared to simulated images of a numerical object subjected to the same imaging condition, to evaluate the new model. The accuracy of the block-based forward model to model the effect of space variance within a specimen was assessed using intensity profiles through the microspheres. The qualitative similarities in the appearance of the experimental and simulated image indicate the validity of the blockbased forward model to appropriately model samples with lateral variability in RI.

  5. Development of a software interface for optical disk archival storage for a new life sciences flight experiments computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartram, Peter N.

    1989-01-01

    The current Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment (LSLE) microcomputer for life sciences experiment data acquisition is now obsolete. Among the weaknesses of the current microcomputer are small memory size, relatively slow analog data sampling rates, and the lack of a bulk data storage device. While life science investigators normally prefer data to be transmitted to Earth as it is taken, this is not always possible. No down-link exists for experiments performed in the Shuttle middeck region. One important aspect of a replacement microcomputer is provision for in-flight storage of experimental data. The Write Once, Read Many (WORM) optical disk was studied because of its high storage density, data integrity, and the availability of a space-qualified unit. In keeping with the goals for a replacement microcomputer based upon commercially available components and standard interfaces, the system studied includes a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) for interfacing the WORM drive. The system itself is designed around the STD bus, using readily available boards. Configurations examined were: (1) master processor board and slave processor board with the SCSI interface; (2) master processor with SCSI interface; (3) master processor with SCSI and Direct Memory Access (DMA); (4) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board; and (5) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board with DMA.

  6. Assessment of natural enamel lesions with optical coherence tomography in comparison with microfocus x-ray computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Espigares, Jorge; Sadr, Alireza; Hamba, Hidenori; Shimada, Yasushi; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A technology to characterize early enamel lesions is needed in dentistry. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method that provides high-resolution cross-sectional images. The aim of this study is to compare OCT with microfocus x-ray computed tomography (μCT) for assessment of natural enamel lesions in vitro. Ten human teeth with visible white spot-like changes on the enamel smooth surface and no cavitation (ICDAS code 2) were subjected to imaging by μCT (SMX-100CT, Shimadzu) and 1300-nm swept-source OCT (Dental SS-OCT, Panasonic Health Care). In μCT, the lesions appeared as radiolucent dark areas, while in SS-OCT, they appeared as areas of increased signal intensity beneath the surface. An SS-OCT attenuation coefficient based on Beer–Lambert law could discriminate lesions from sound enamel. Lesion depth ranged from 175 to 606  μm in SS-OCT. A correlation between μCT and SS-OCT was found regarding lesion depth (R=0.81, p<0.001) and also surface layer thickness (R=0.76, p<0.005). The images obtained clinically in real time using the dental SS-OCT system are suitable for the assessment of natural subsurface lesions and their surface layer, providing comparable images to a laboratory high-resolution μCT without the use of x-ray. PMID:26158079

  7. Assessment of natural enamel lesions with optical coherence tomography in comparison with microfocus x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Espigares, Jorge; Sadr, Alireza; Hamba, Hidenori; Shimada, Yasushi; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    A technology to characterize early enamel lesions is needed in dentistry. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method that provides high-resolution cross-sectional images. The aim of this study is to compare OCT with microfocus x-ray computed tomography ([Formula: see text]) for assessment of natural enamel lesions in vitro. Ten human teeth with visible white spot-like changes on the enamel smooth surface and no cavitation (ICDAS code 2) were subjected to imaging by μCT (SMX-100CT, Shimadzu) and 1300-nm swept-source OCT (Dental SS-OCT, Panasonic Health Care). In [Formula: see text], the lesions appeared as radiolucent dark areas, while in SS-OCT, they appeared as areas of increased signal intensity beneath the surface. An SS-OCT attenuation coefficient based on Beer-Lambert law could discriminate lesions from sound enamel. Lesion depth ranged from 175 to [Formula: see text] in SS-OCT. A correlation between [Formula: see text] and SS-OCT was found regarding lesion depth ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and also surface layer thickness ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The images obtained clinically in real time using the dental SS-OCT system are suitable for the assessment of natural subsurface lesions and their surface layer, providing comparable images to a laboratory high-resolution [Formula: see text] without the use of x-ray. PMID:26158079

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Performance with Phantom-Based Test Methods And Computational Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Anant

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful medical imaging modality that uniquely produces high-resolution cross-sectional images of tissue using low energy light. Its clinical applications and technological capabilities have grown substantially since its invention about twenty years ago, but efforts have been limited to develop tools to assess performance of OCT devices with respect to the quality and content of acquired images. Such tools are important to ensure information derived from OCT signals and images is accurate and consistent, in order to support further technology development, promote standardization, and benefit public health. The research in this dissertation investigates new physical and computational models which can provide unique insights into specific performance characteristics of OCT devices. Physical models, known as phantoms, are fabricated and evaluated in the interest of establishing standardized test methods to measure several important quantities relevant to image quality. (1) Spatial resolution is measured with a nanoparticle-embedded phantom and model eye which together yield the point spread function under conditions where OCT is commonly used. (2) A multi-layered phantom is constructed to measure the contrast transfer function along the axis of light propagation, relevant for cross-sectional imaging capabilities. (3) Existing and new methods to determine device sensitivity are examined and compared, to better understand the detection limits of OCT. A novel computational model based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which simulates the physics of light behavior at the sub-microscopic level within complex, heterogeneous media, is developed to probe device and tissue characteristics influencing the information content of an OCT image. This model is first tested in simple geometric configurations to understand its accuracy and limitations, then a highly realistic representation of a biological cell, the retinal

  9. Optical Micromachining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) with Marshall Space Flight Center, Potomac Photonics, Inc., constructed and demonstrated a unique tool that fills a need in the area of diffractive and refractive micro-optics. It is an integrated computer-aided design and computer-aided micro-machining workstation that will extend the benefits of diffractive and micro-optic technology to optical designers. Applications of diffractive optics include sensors and monitoring equipment, analytical instruments, and fiber optic distribution and communication. The company has been making diffractive elements with the system as a commercial service for the last year.

  10. Computerized design and generation of space-variant holographic filters. II - Applications of space-variant filters to optical computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambs, P.; Fainman, Y.; Esener, S.; Lee, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) of space-variant impulse response have been designed and generated using a computerized optical system. HOEs made of dichromated gelatin have been produced and used for spatial light modulator defect removal and optical interconnects. Experimental performance and characteristics are presented.

  11. 200Gb/s 10-channel miniature optical interconnect transmitter module for high-performance computing (HPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Edris; Au, Hinmeng

    2010-02-01

    A major breakthrough to alleviating the interconnect bottleneck in intra cabinet system in HPC may happen by bringing optics directly to the processor package. In order to do so efficient and compact optical interconnect subassembly modules that utilize simple optical and electrical interfacing schemes are needed. In our current work the development of a novel 10-channel, miniature 7mm(W)x1.8mm(L)x3mm(H), optical interconnect transmitter subassembly module is described. The module consists of a high precision molded optical alignment unit with integrated microlens arrays, highspeed coplanar waveguide (CPW) electrical interfaces and a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array chip which is flip chip mounted. The module is designed to uniquely interface vertically with high-speed electrical I/O lines on a microprocessor style package or a motherboard to convert electrical signals to optical for transmission to other similar units using a standard (Multi-Terminal) MT style optical connector. We report on optical coupling efficiency, misalignment tolerance and high-speed electrical and optical measurements of the module. We have measured 40Gb/s electrical eye for the CPW interfaces on the module and 20Gb/s clear optical eyes for VCSEL assembled module from all the 10 channels to produce an aggregate transmitter bandwidth of 200Gb/s. We also measured 30Gb/s electrical and 20Gb/s optical eyes for the optical subassembly module that is bonded onto a microprocessor style package substrate.

  12. Evaluation of an X-Ray Dose Profile Derived from an Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter during Computed Tomographic Fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Sato, Masanori; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate scatter radiation dose to the subject surface during X-ray computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy using the integrated dose ratio (IDR) of an X-ray dose profile derived from an optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeter. We aimed to obtain quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during previous CT fluoroscopy. A multislice CT scanner was used to perform this study. OSL dosimeters were placed on the top and the lateral side of the chest phantom so that the longitudinal direction of dosimeters was parallel to the orthogonal axis-to-slice plane for measurement of dose profiles in CT fluoroscopy. Measurement of fluoroscopic conditions was performed at 120 kVp and 80 kVp. Scatter radiation dose was evaluated by calculating the integrated dose determined by OSL dosimetry. The overall percent difference of the integrated doses between OSL dosimeters and ionization chamber was 5.92%. The ratio of the integrated dose of a 100-mm length area to its tails (-50 to -6 mm, 50 to 6 mm) was the lowest on the lateral side at 80 kVp and the highest on the top at 120 kVp. The IDRs for different measurement positions were larger at 120 kVp than at 80 kVp. Similarly, the IDRs for the tube voltage between the primary X-ray beam and scatter radiation was larger on the lateral side than on the top of the phantom. IDR evaluation suggested that the scatter radiation dose has a high dependence on the position and a low dependence on tube voltage relative to the primary X-ray beam for constant dose rate fluoroscopic conditions. These results provided quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during CT fluoroscopy in previous studies. PMID:26151914

  13. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: I. Measurement and reduction strategies with planar diffuse source.

    PubMed

    Granton, Patrick V; Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scanning of 3D radiochromic dosimeters may provide a practical method for 3D dose verification in radiation therapy. However, in cone-beam geometry stray light contaminates the projection images, degrading the accuracy of reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients. Stray light was measured using a beam pass aperture array (BPA) and structured illumination methods. The stray-to-primary ray ratio (SPR) along the central axis was found to be 0.24 for a 5% gelatin hydrogel, representative of radiochromic hydrogels. The scanner was modified by moving the spectral filter from the detector to the source, changing the light's spatial fluence pattern and lowering the acceptance angle by extending distance between the source and object. These modifications reduced the SPR significantly from 0.24 to 0.06. The accuracy of the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients for uniform carbon black liquids was compared to independent spectrometer measurements. Reducing the stray light increased the range of accurate transmission readings. In order to evaluate scanner performance for the more challenging application to small field dosimetry, a carbon black finger gel phantom was prepared. Reconstructions of the phantom from CBCT and fan-beam CT scans were compared. The modified source resulted in improved agreement. Subtraction of residual stray light, measured with BPA or structured illumination from each projection further improved agreement. Structured illumination was superior to BPA for measuring stray light for the smaller 1.2 and 0.5 cm diameter phantom fingers. At the costs of doubling the scanner size and tripling the number of scans, CBCT reconstructions of low-scattering hydrogel dosimeters agreed with those of fan-beam CT scans. PMID:26988028

  14. Characterization of a commercially-available, optically-stimulated luminescent dosimetry system for use in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Lindsey; Ghita, Monica; Brateman, Libby; Arreola, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Optically-stimulated luminescent (OSL) nanoDot dosimeters, commercially available from Landauer, Inc. (Glenwood, IL), were assessed for use in computed tomography (CT) for erasure and reusability, linearity and reproducibility of response, and angular and energy response in different scattering conditions. Following overnight exposure to fluorescent room light, the residual signal on the dosimeters was 2%. The response of the dosimeters to identical exposures was consistent, and reported doses were within 4% of each other. The dosimeters responded linearly with dose up to 1 Gy. The dosimeter response to the CT beams decreased with increased tube voltage, showing up to a -16% difference when compared to a 0.6-cm(3) NIST-traceable calibrated ionization chamber for a 135 kVp CT beam. The largest range in percent difference in dosimeter response to scatter at central and peripheral positions inside CTDI phantoms was 14% at 80 kVp CT tube voltage, when compared to the ionization chamber. The dosimeters responded uniformly to x-ray tube angle over the ranges of increments of 0° to 75° and 105° to 180° when exposed in air, and from 0° to 360° when exposed inside a CTDI phantom. While energy and scatter correction factors should be applied to dosimeter readings for the purpose of determining absolute doses, these corrections are straightforward but depend on the accuracy of the ionization chamber used for cross-calibration. The linearity and angular responses, combined with the ability to reuse the dosimeters, make this OSL system an excellent choice for clinical CT dose measurements. PMID:21799346

  15. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: I. Measurement and reduction strategies with planar diffuse source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granton, Patrick V.; Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scanning of 3D radiochromic dosimeters may provide a practical method for 3D dose verification in radiation therapy. However, in cone-beam geometry stray light contaminates the projection images, degrading the accuracy of reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients. Stray light was measured using a beam pass aperture array (BPA) and structured illumination methods. The stray-to-primary ray ratio (SPR) along the central axis was found to be 0.24 for a 5% gelatin hydrogel, representative of radiochromic hydrogels. The scanner was modified by moving the spectral filter from the detector to the source, changing the light’s spatial fluence pattern and lowering the acceptance angle by extending distance between the source and object. These modifications reduced the SPR significantly from 0.24 to 0.06. The accuracy of the reconstructed linear attenuation coefficients for uniform carbon black liquids was compared to independent spectrometer measurements. Reducing the stray light increased the range of accurate transmission readings. In order to evaluate scanner performance for the more challenging application to small field dosimetry, a carbon black finger gel phantom was prepared. Reconstructions of the phantom from CBCT and fan-beam CT scans were compared. The modified source resulted in improved agreement. Subtraction of residual stray light, measured with BPA or structured illumination from each projection further improved agreement. Structured illumination was superior to BPA for measuring stray light for the smaller 1.2 and 0.5 cm diameter phantom fingers. At the costs of doubling the scanner size and tripling the number of scans, CBCT reconstructions of low-scattering hydrogel dosimeters agreed with those of fan-beam CT scans.

  16. Covisualization by computational optical-sectioning microscopy of integrin and associated proteins at the cell membrane of living onion protoplasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gens, J. S.; Reuzeau, C.; Doolittle, K. W.; McNally, J. G.; Pickard, B. G.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Using higher-resolution wide-field computational optical-sectioning fluorescence microscopy, the distribution of antigens recognized by antibodies against animal beta 1 integrin, fibronectin, and vitronectin has been visualized at the outer surface of enzymatically protoplasted onion epidermis cells and in depectinated cell wall fragments. On the protoplast all three antigens are colocalized in an array of small spots, as seen in raw images, in Gaussian filtered images, and in images restored by two different algorithms. Fibronectin and vitronectin but not beta 1 integrin antigenicities colocalize as puncta in comparably prepared and processed images of the wall fragments. Several control visualizations suggest considerable specifity of antibody recognition. Affinity purification of onion cell extract with the same anti-integrin used for visualization has yielded protein that separates in SDS-PAGE into two bands of about 105-110 and 115-125 kDa. These bands are again recognized by the visualization antibody, which was raised against the extracellular domain of chicken beta 1 integrin, and are also recognized by an antibody against the intracellular domain of chicken beta 1 integrin. Because beta 1 integrin is a key protein in numerous animal adhesion sites, it appears that the punctate distribution of this protein in the cell membranes of onion epidermis represents the adhesion sites long known to occur in cells of this tissue. Because vitronectin and fibronection are matrix proteins that bind to integrin in animals, the punctate occurrence of antigenically similar proteins both in the wall (matrix) and on enzymatically prepared protoplasts reinforces the concept that onion cells have adhesion sites with some similarity to certain kinds of adhesion sites in animals.

  17. Evaluation of an X-Ray Dose Profile Derived from an Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter during Computed Tomographic Fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Sato, Masanori; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate scatter radiation dose to the subject surface during X-ray computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy using the integrated dose ratio (IDR) of an X-ray dose profile derived from an optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeter. We aimed to obtain quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during previous CT fluoroscopy. A multislice CT scanner was used to perform this study. OSL dosimeters were placed on the top and the lateral side of the chest phantom so that the longitudinal direction of dosimeters was parallel to the orthogonal axis-to-slice plane for measurement of dose profiles in CT fluoroscopy. Measurement of fluoroscopic conditions was performed at 120 kVp and 80 kVp. Scatter radiation dose was evaluated by calculating the integrated dose determined by OSL dosimetry. The overall percent difference of the integrated doses between OSL dosimeters and ionization chamber was 5.92%. The ratio of the integrated dose of a 100-mm length area to its tails (−50 to −6 mm, 50 to 6 mm) was the lowest on the lateral side at 80 kVp and the highest on the top at 120 kVp. The IDRs for different measurement positions were larger at 120 kVp than at 80 kVp. Similarly, the IDRs for the tube voltage between the primary X-ray beam and scatter radiation was larger on the lateral side than on the top of the phantom. IDR evaluation suggested that the scatter radiation dose has a high dependence on the position and a low dependence on tube voltage relative to the primary X-ray beam for constant dose rate fluoroscopic conditions. These results provided quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during CT fluoroscopy in previous studies. PMID:26151914

  18. Dental image replacement on cone beam computed tomography with three-dimensional optical scanning of a dental cast, occlusal bite, or bite tray impression.

    PubMed

    Kang, S-H; Lee, J-W; Lim, S-H; Kim, Y-H; Kim, M-K

    2014-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the accuracy of dental image replacement on a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image using digital image data from three-dimensional (3D) optical scanning of a dental cast, occlusal bite, and bite tray impression. A Bracket Typodont dental model was used. CBCT of the dental model was performed and the data were converted to stereolithography (STL) format. Three experimental materials, a dental cast, occlusal bite, and bite tray impression, were optically scanned in 3D. STL files converted from the CBCT of the Typodont model and the 3D optical-scanned STL files of the study materials were image-registered. The error range of each methodology was measured and compared with a 3D optical scan of the Typodont. For the three materials, the smallest error observed was 0.099±0.114mm (mean error±standard deviation) for registering the 3D optical scan image of the dental cast onto the CBCT dental image. Although producing a dental cast can be laborious, the study results indicate that it is the preferred method. In addition, an occlusal bite is recommended when bite impression materials are used. PMID:25015906

  19. Atomistic tight-binding computations in structural and optical properties of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS core/multi-shell nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukkabot, Worasak

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, I attempt to theoretically describe, analyze and compare the structural and optical properties in the core/multi-shell nanocrystal structure of a cadmium selenide (CdSe) core surrounded by zinc selenide (ZnSe) inner and zinc sulphide (ZnS) external growth shells. The atomistic tight-binding model (TB) and a configuration interaction method (CI) are implemented to calculate the single-particle spectra, optical band gaps, ground-state wave function overlaps, ground-state oscillation strengths, ground-state coulomb energies, ground-state exchange energies and Stokes shift as a function of ZnS external growth shell thicknesses. I underline that these computations are principally sensitive with the ZnS external growth shell thickness. The reduction of the optical band gaps, overlaps of ground electron-hole wave function, electron-hole interactions and Stokes shift is realized with the increasing ZnS external growth shell thickness. The improvement of the optical intensities is mainly achieved by including the ZnS exterior growth shell encapsulation. Importantly, the optical band gaps based on atomistic tight-binding theory are in a good agreement with the experiment. Finally, this emphasizes that the external passivation shell can now be engineered in a defined way, thus leading to manipulate the natural behaviors of nanodevices based on the scrutinized core/multi-shell nanocrystals.

  20. Evaluation of the aero-optical properties of the SOFIA cavity by means of computional fluid dynamics and a super fast diagnostic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engfer, Christian; Pfüller, Enrico; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen; Lutz, Thorsten; Krämer, Ewald; Röser, Hans-Peter

    2012-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5 m reflecting telescope housed in an open cavity on board of a Boeing 747SP. During observations, the cavity is exposed to transonic flow conditions. The oncoming boundary layer evolves into a free shear layer being responsible for optical aberrations and for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic disturbances within the cavity. While the aero-acoustical excitation of an airborne telescope can be minimized by using passive flow control devices, the aero-optical properties of the flow are difficult to improve. Hence it is important to know how much the image seen through the SOFIA telescope is perturbed by so called seeing effects. Prior to the SOFIA science fights Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations using URANS and DES methods were carried out to determine the flow field within and above the cavity and hence in the optical path in order to provide an assessment of the aero-optical properties under baseline conditions. In addition and for validation purposes, out of focus images have been taken during flight with a Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC). Depending on the binning factor and the sub-array size, the SFDC is able to take and to read out images at very high frame rates. The paper explains the numerical approach based on CFD to evaluate the aero-optical properties of SOFIA. The CFD data is then compared to the high speed images taken by the SFDC during flight.

  1. Characterizing energy dependence and count rate performance of a dual scintillator fiber-optic detector for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, Matthew R. Stepusin, Elliott J.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage (kV) x-rays pose a significant challenge for radiation dosimetry. In the kV energy range, even small differences in material composition can result in significant variations in the absorbed energy between soft tissue and the detector. In addition, the use of electronic systems in light detection has demonstrated measurement losses at high photon fluence rates incident to the detector. This study investigated the feasibility of using a novel dual scintillator detector and whether its response to changes in beam energy from scatter and hardening is readily quantified. The detector incorporates a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, which has a higher sensitivity to scatter x-rays. Methods: The detector was constructed by coupling two scintillators: (1) small cylindrical plastic scintillator, 500 μm in diameter and 2 mm in length, and (2) 100 micron sheet of gadolinium oxysulfide 500 μm in diameter, each to a 2 m long optical fiber, which acts as a light guide to transmit scintillation photons from the sensitive element to a photomultiplier tube. Count rate linearity data were obtained from a wide range of exposure rates delivered from a radiological x-ray tube by adjusting the tube current. The data were fitted to a nonparalyzable dead time model to characterize the time response. The true counting rate was related to the reference free air dose air rate measured with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} Radcal{sup ®} thimble chamber as described in AAPM Report No. 111. Secondary electron and photon spectra were evaluated using Monte Carlo techniques to analyze ionization quenching and photon energy-absorption characteristics from free-in-air and in phantom measurements. The depth/energy dependence of the detector was characterized using a computed tomography dose index QA phantom consisting of nested adult head and body segments. The phantom provided up to 32 cm of acrylic with a compatible 0.6 cm{sup 3} calibrated

  2. Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip H.; Maragò, Onofrio M.; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    1. Introduction; Part I. Theory: 2. Ray optics; 3. Dipole approximation; 4. Optical beams and focusing; 5. Electromagnetic theory; 6. Computational methods; 7. Brownian motion; Part II. Practice: 8. Building an optical tweezers; 9. Data acquisition and optical tweezers calibration; 10. Photonic force microscope; 11. Wavefront engineering and holographic optical tweezers; 12. Advanced techniques; Part III. Applications: 13. Single molecule biophysics; 14. Cell biology; 15. Spectroscopy; 16. Optofluidics and lab on a chip; 17. Colloid science; 18. Microchemistry; 19. Aerosol science; 20. Statistical physics; 21. Nanothermodynamics; 22. Plasmonics; 23. Nanostructures; 24. Laser cooling and trapping of atoms; 25. Towards the quantum regime at the mesoscale; Index.

  3. Simple distortion-invariant optical identification tag based on encrypted binary-phase computer-generated hologram for real-time vehicle identification and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Su

    2010-11-01

    A simple distortion-invariant optical identification (ID) tag is presented for real-time vehicle identification and verification. The proposed scheme is composed of image encryption, ID tag creation, image decryption, and optical correlation for verification. To create the ID tag, a binary-phase computer-generated hologram (BPCGH) of a symbol image representing a vehicle is created using a simulated annealing algorithm. The BPCGH is then encrypted using an XOR operation and enlargement transformed into polar coordinates. The resulting ID tag is then attached to the vehicle. As the BPCGH consists of only binary phase values, it is robust to external distortions. To identify and verify the vehicle, several reverse processes are required, such as capturing the ID tag with a camera, extracting the ID tag from the captured image, transformation of the ID tag into rectangular coordinates, decryption, an inverse Fourier transform, and correlation. Computer simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed optical ID tag is secure and robust to such distortions as scaling, rotation, cropping (scratches), and random noise. The ID tag can also be easily implemented, as it consists of only binary phase components.

  4. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  5. Theoretical, experimental, and computational aspects of optical property determination of turbid media by using frequency-domain laser infrared photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, L; Chen, Y; Mandelis, A; Vitkin, I A

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the optical and thermal properties of tissuelike materials are measured by using frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry. This technique is better suited for quantitative multiparameter optical measurements than the widely used pulsed-laser photothermal radiometry (PPTR) because of the availability of two independent signal channels, amplitude and phase, and the superior signal-to-noise ratio provided by synchronous lock-in detection. A rigorous three-dimensional (3-D) thermal-wave formulation with a 3-D diffuse and coherent photon-density-wave source is applied to data from model phantoms. The combined theoretical, experimental, and computational methodology shows good promise with regard to its analytical ability to measure optical properties of turbid media uniquely, as compared with PPTR, which exhibits uniqueness problems. From data sets obtained by using calibrated test phantoms, the reduced optical scattering and absorption coefficients were found to be within 20% and 10%, respectively, of the values independently derived by using Mie theory and spectrophotometric measurements. PMID:11583272

  6. User's manual for DELSOL2: a computer code for calculating the optical performance and optimal system design for solar-thermal central-receiver plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.; Fish, M.J.; Yang, C.L.

    1981-08-01

    DELSOL2 is a revised and substantially extended version of the DELSOL computer program for calculating collector field performance and layout, and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants. The code consists of a detailed model of the optical performance, a simpler model of the non-optical performance, an algorithm for field layout, and a searching algorithm to find the best system design. The latter two features are coupled to a cost model of central receiver components and an economic model for calculating energy costs. The code can handle flat, focused and/or canted heliostats, and external cylindrical, multi-aperture cavity, and flat plate receivers. The program optimizes the tower height, receiver size, field layout, heliostat spacings, and tower position at user specified power levels subject to flux limits on the receiver and land constraints for field layout. The advantages of speed and accuracy characteristic of Version I are maintained in DELSOL2.

  7. The influence of glass fibers on elongational viscosity studied by means of optical coherence tomography and X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, M. Köpplmayr, T. E-mail: Christian.lang@jku.at; Lang, C. E-mail: Christian.lang@jku.at; Burzic, I. E-mail: juergen.miethlinger@jku.at; Miethlinger, J. E-mail: juergen.miethlinger@jku.at; Salaberger, D.; Buchsbaum, A. Leitner, M.; Heise, B.; Schausberger, S. E. Stifter, D.

    2014-05-15

    We report on the flow characteristics of glass-fiber-reinforced polymers in elongational rheometry. Unlike polymers with geometrically isotropic fillers, glass-fiber-reinforced polymers exhibit flow behavior and rheology that depend heavily on the orientation, the length distribution and the content of the fibers. One of the primary objectives of this study was to determine the effect of fiber orientation, concentration and distribution on the entrance pressure drop by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Both pressure drop and melt flow were analyzed using a special elongation die (Thermo Scientific X-Die [3]) for inline measurements. Samples with a variety of fiber volume fractions, fiber lengths and processing temperatures were measured.

  8. Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Rannou, Fernando R.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2005-09-01

    The feasibility and limits in performing tomographic bioluminescence imaging with a combined optical-PET (OPET) system were explored by simulating its image formation process. A micro-MRI based virtual mouse phantom was assigned appropriate tissue optical properties to each of its segmented internal organs at wavelengths spanning the emission spectrum of the firefly luciferase at 37 °C. The TOAST finite-element code was employed to simulate the diffuse transport of photons emitted from bioluminescence sources in the mouse. OPET measurements were simulated for single-point, two-point and distributed bioluminescence sources located in different organs such as the liver, the kidneys and the gut. An expectation maximization code was employed to recover the intensity and location of these simulated sources. It was found that spectrally resolved measurements were necessary in order to perform tomographic bioluminescence imaging. The true location of emission sources could be recovered if the mouse background optical properties were known a priori. The assumption of a homogeneous optical property background proved inadequate for describing photon transport in optically heterogeneous tissues and led to inaccurate source localization in the reconstructed images. The simulation results pointed out specific methodological challenges that need to be addressed before a practical implementation of OPET-based bioluminescence tomography is achieved.

  9. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  10. Computation of the Fluid and Optical Fields About the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the Coupling of Fluids, Dynamics, and Control Laws on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    The June 1992 to May 1993 grant NCC-2-677 provided for the continued demonstration of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) as applied to the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). While earlier grant years allowed validation of CFD through comparison against experiments, this year a new design proposal was evaluated. The new configuration would place the cavity aft of the wing, as opposed to the earlier baseline which was located immediately aft of the cockpit. This aft cavity placement allows for simplified structural and aircraft modification requirements, thus lowering the program cost of this national astronomy resource. Three appendices concerning this subject are presented.

  11. High security and robust optical image encryption approach based on computer-generated integral imaging pickup and iterative back-projection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.

  12. Geometrical Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindlein, Norbert; Leuchs, Gerd

    This chapter shall discuss the basics and the applications of geometrical optical methods in modern optics. Geometrical optics has a long tradition and some ideas are many centuries old. Nevertheless, the invention of modern personal computers which can perform several million floating-point operations in a second also revolutionized the methods of geometrical optics and so several analytical methods lost importance whereas numerical methods such as ray tracing became very important. Therefore, the emphasis in this chapter is also on modern numerical methods such as ray tracing and some other systematic methods such as the paraxial matrix theory.

  13. Automatic calibration of an optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality applications in computer-assisted interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Ede, Christopher; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Hummel, Johann; Seemann, Rudolf; Bergmann, Helmar

    2004-05-01

    We are developing an optical see through head mounted display in which preoperative planning data provided by a computer aided surgery system is overlaid to the optical image of the patient. In order to cope with head movements of the surgeon the device has to be calibrated for a wide zoom and focus range. For such a calibration accurate and robust localization of a huge amount of calibration points is of utmost importance. Because of the negligible radial distortion of the optics in our device, we were able to use projective invariants for stable detection of the calibration fiducials on a planar grid. The pattern at the planar grid was designed using a different cross ratio for four consecutive points in x respectively y direction. For automated image processing we put a CCD camera behind the eye piece of the device. The resulting image was thresholded and segmented, after deleting the artefacts a Sobel edge detector was applied and the image was Hough transformed to detect the x and y axes. Then the world coordinates of fiducial points on the grid could be detected. A series of six camera calibrations with two zoom settings was done. The mean values of the errors for the two calibrations were 0.08 mm respectively 0.3 mm.

  14. Neutron detection and characterization for non-proliferation applications using 3D computer optical memories [Use of 3D optical computer memory for radiation detectors/dosimeters. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gary W. Phillips

    2000-12-20

    We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials.

  15. A geometric optics method for high-frequency electromagnetic fields computations near fold caustics--Part II. The energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamou, J.-D.; Lafitte, O.; Solliec, I.; Sentis, R.

    2004-05-01

    We present the computation of the amplitudes needed to evaluate the energy deposited by the laser wave in a plasma when a fold caustic forms. We first recall the Eulerian method designed in Benamou et al. (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 156 (2003) 93) to compute the caustic location and the phases associated to the two ray branches on its illuminated side. We then turn to the computation of the amplitudes needed to evaluate the energy. We use the classical geometrical form of the amplitudes to avoid the blow up problem at the caustic. As our proposed method is Eulerian we have to consider transport equations for these geometrical quantities where the advection field depends on the ray flow. The associated vector field structurally vanishes like the square root of the distance to the caustic when approaching the caustic. This introduces an additional difficulty as traditional finite difference scheme do not retain their accuracy for such advection fields. We propose a new scheme which remains of order 1 at the caustic and present a partial theoretical analysis as well as a numerical validation. We also test the capability of our Eulerian geometrical algorithm to produce numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation and attempt to check their frequency asymptotic accuracy.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope COSTAR asphere verification with a modified computer-generated hologram interferometer. [Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, L.; Wilson, M.

    1993-01-01

    To correct for the spherical aberration in the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror, five anamorphic aspheric mirrors representing correction for three scientific instruments have been fabricated as part of the development of the corrective-optics space telescope axial-replacement instrument (COSTAR). During the acceptance tests of these mirrors at the vendor, a quick and simple method for verifying the asphere surface figure was developed. The technique has been used on three of the aspheres relating to the three instrument prescriptions. Results indicate that the three aspheres are correct to the limited accuracy expected of this test.

  17. High-speed all-optical pattern recognition of dispersive Fourier images through a photonic reservoir computing subsystem.

    PubMed

    Mesaritakis, Charis; Bogris, Adonis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2015-07-15

    In this Letter, we present and fully model a photonic scheme that allows the high-speed identification of images acquired through the dispersive Fourier technique. The proposed setup consists of a photonic reservoir-computing scheme that is based on the nonlinear response of randomly interconnected InGaAsP microring resonators. This approach allowed classification errors of 0.6%, whereas it alleviates the need for complex high-cost optoelectronic sampling and digital processing. PMID:26176483

  18. Hybrid centralized pre-computing/local distributed optimization of shared disjoint-backup path approach to GMPLS optical mesh network intelligent restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qian; Xu, Rong; Lin, Jintong

    2004-04-01

    Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) networks that route optical connections using intelligent optical cross-connects (OXCs) is firmly established as the core constituent of next generation networks. Rapid failure recovery is fundamental to building reliable transport networks. Mesh restoration promises cost effective failure recovery compared with legacy ring networks, and is now seeing large-scale deployment. Many carriers are migrating away from SONET ring restoration for their core transport networks and replacing it with mesh restoration through "intelligent" O-E-O cross-connects (XC). The mesh restoration is typically provided via two fiber-disjoint paths: a service path and a restoration path. this scheme can restore any single link failure or node failure. And by used shared mesh restoration, although every service route is assigned a restoration route, no dedicated capacity needs to be reserved for the restoration route, resulting in capacity savings. The restoration approach we propose is Centralized Pre-computing, Local Distributed Optimization, and Shared Disjoint-backup Path. This approach combines the merits of centralized and distributed solutions. It avoids the scalability issues of centralized solutions by using a distributed control plane for disjoint service path computation and restoration path provisioning. Moreover, if the service routes of two demands are disjoint, no single failure will affect both demands simultaneously. This means that the restoration routes of these two demands can share link capacities, because these two routes will not be activated at the same time. So we can say, this restoration capacity sharing approach achieves low restoration capacity and fast restoration speed, while requiring few control plane changes.

  19. Characterization and modelling of the spatially- and spectrally-varying point-spread function in hyperspectral imaging systems for computational correction of axial optical aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špiclin, Žiga; Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-03-01

    Spatial resolution of hyperspectral imaging systems can vary significantly due to axial optical aberrations that originate from wavelength-induced index-of-refraction variations of the imaging optics. For systems that have a broad spectral range, the spatial resolution will vary significantly both with respect to the acquisition wavelength and with respect to the spatial position within each spectral image. Variations of the spatial resolution can be effectively characterized as part of the calibration procedure by a local image-based estimation of the pointspread function (PSF) of the hyperspectral imaging system. The estimated PSF can then be used in the image deconvolution methods to improve the spatial resolution of the spectral images. We estimated the PSFs from the spectral images of a line grid geometric caliber. From individual line segments of the line grid, the PSF was obtained by a non-parametric estimation procedure that used an orthogonal series representation of the PSF. By using the non-parametric estimation procedure, the PSFs were estimated at different spatial positions and at different wavelengths. The variations of the spatial resolution were characterized by the radius and the fullwidth half-maximum of each PSF and by the modulation transfer function, computed from images of USAF1951 resolution target. The estimation and characterization of the PSFs and the image deconvolution based spatial resolution enhancement were tested on images obtained by a hyperspectral imaging system with an acousto-optic tunable filter in the visible spectral range. The results demonstrate that the spatial resolution of the acquired spectral images can be significantly improved using the estimated PSFs and image deconvolution methods.

  20. Concept for Inclusion of Analytical and Computational Capability in Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) for Measurement of Neutron Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, M. Clinton; Cooper, Anita E.; Powers, W. T.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers are working on many konts to make possible high speed, automated classification and quantification of constituent materials in numerous environments. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a system for rocket engine flow fields/plumes; the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system was designed to utilize emission and absorption spectroscopy for monitoring molecular and atomic particulates in gas plasma. An accompanying suite of tools and analytical package designed to utilize information collected by OPAD is known as the Engine Diagnostic Filtering System (EDIFIS). The current combination of these systems identifies atomic and molecular species and quantifies mass loss rates in H2/O2 rocket plumes. Additionally, efforts are being advanced to hardware encode components of the EDIFIS in order to address real-time operational requirements for health monitoring and management. This paper addresses the OPAD with its tool suite, and discusses what is considered a natural progression: a concept for migrating OPAD towards detection of high energy particles, including neutrons and gamma rays. The integration of these tools and capabilities will provide NASA with a systematic approach to monitor space vehicle internal and external environment.

  1. Concept for Inclusion of Analytical and Computational Capability in Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) for Measurement of Neutron Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Marshall Clint; Cooper, Anita E.; Powers, W. T.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers are working on many fronts to make possible high-speed, automated classification and quantification of constituent materials in numerous environments. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a system for rocket engine flowfields/plumes. The Optical Plume Anomaly Detector (OPAD) system was designed to utilize emission and absorption spectroscopy for monitoring molecular and atomic particulates in gas plasma. An accompanying suite of tools and analytical package designed to utilize information collected by OPAD is known as the Engine Diagnostic Filtering System (EDiFiS). The current combination of these systems identifies atomic and molecular species and quantifies mass loss rates in H2/O2 rocket plumes. Capabilities for real-time processing are being advanced on several fronts, including an effort to hardware encode components of the EDiFiS for health monitoring and management. This paper addresses the OPAD with its tool suites, and discusses what is considered a natural progression: a concept for taking OPAD to the next logical level of high energy physics, incorporating fermion and boson particle analyses in measurement of neutron flux.

  2. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Pulse Amplification in Dispersion-Decreasing Fibers with Symbolic Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Tian, Bo; Xu, Tao; Cai, Ke-Jie; Zhang, Huan

    2009-12-01

    The pulse amplification in the dispersion-decreasing fiber (DDF) is investigated via symbolic computation to solve the variable-coefficient higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the effects of third-order dispersion, self-steepening, and stimulated Raman scattering. The analytic one-soliton solution of this model is obtained with a set of parametric conditions. Based on this solution, the fundamental soliton is shown to be amplified in the DDF. The comparison of the amplitude of pulses for different dispersion profiles of the DDF is also performed through the graphical analysis. The results of this paper would be of certain value to the study of signal amplification and pulse compression.

  3. Enhancement of photoacoustic tomography by ultrasonic computed tomography based on optical excitation of elements of a full-ring transducer array

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jun; Huang, Chao; Maslov, Konstantin; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a hybrid technique that combines optical excitation and ultrasonic detection to provide high resolution images in deep tissues. In the image reconstruction, a constant speed of sound (SOS) is normally assumed. This assumption, however, is often not strictly satisfied in deep tissue imaging, due to acoustic heterogeneities within the object and between the object and coupling medium. If these heterogeneities are not accounted for, they will cause distortions and artifacts in the reconstructed images. In this paper, we incorporated ultrasonic computed tomography (USCT), which measures the SOS distribution within the object, into our full-ring array PACT system. Without the need for ultrasonic transmitting electronics, USCT was performed using the same laser beam as for PACT measurement. By scanning the laser beam on the array surface, we can sequentially fire different elements. As a first demonstration of the system, we studied the effect of acoustic heterogeneities on photoacoustic vascular imaging. We verified that constant SOS is a reasonable approximation when the SOS variation is small. When the variation is large, distortion will be observed in the periphery of the object, especially in the tangential direction. PMID:24104670

  4. Taxonomic classification of phytoplankton with multivariate optical computing, part II: design and experimental protocol of a shipboard fluorescence imaging photometer.

    PubMed

    Swanstrom, Joseph A; Bruckman, Laura S; Pearl, Megan R; Abernathy, Elizabeth; Richardson, Tammi L; Shaw, Timothy J; Myrick, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    Differential pigmentation between phytoplankton allows use of fluorescence excitation spectroscopy for the discrimination and classification of different taxa. Here, we describe the design and performance of a fluorescence imaging photometer that exploits taxonomic differences for discrimination and classification. The fluorescence imaging photometer works by illuminating individual phytoplankton cells through an asynchronous spinning filter wheel, which produces bar code-like streaks in a fluorescence image. A filter position is covered with an opaque filter to create a reference dark position in the filter wheel rotation that is used to match each fluorescence streak with the corresponding filter. Fluorescence intensities of the imaged streaks are then analyzed for the purpose of spectral analysis, which allows taxonomic classification of the organism that produced the streaks. The theoretical performance and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) specifications of these MOEs are described in Part I of this series. This report describes optical layout, flow cell design, magnification, depth of field, constraints on filter wheel and flow velocities, procedures for blank subtraction and flat-field correction, the measurement scheme of the instrument, and measurement of SNR as a measurement of filter wheel frequency. This is followed by an analysis of the sources of variance in measurements made by the photometer on the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. We conclude that the SNR of E. huxleyi measurements is not limited by the sensitivity or noise attributes of the measurement system, but by dynamics in the fluorescence efficiency of the E. huxleyi cells. Even so, the minimum SNR requirements given in Part I for the instrument are met. PMID:23735248

  5. Red Emitting Coumarin-Azo Dyes : Synthesis, Characterization, Linear and Non-linear Optical Properties-Experimental and Computational Approach.

    PubMed

    Tathe, Abhinav B; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2016-07-01

    The coumarin molecules with 7-(N,N-diethylamino) substitution and aryl azo (Ar-N=N-) at 3-position were synthesized, by reacting diazonium salt of substituted amines and 7-(N, N-diethylamino)-4-hydroxy coumarin under basic conditions. They were found to be fluorescent despite the presence of azo group. The azo group rotation was blocked by complexing with -BF2, so as to get a red shift in absorption. The azo molecules show charge transfer, whereas BF2-complexes do not. The dipole moment ratios between the ground and excited states calculated suggest highly polar excited state and an intra-molecular charge transfer at the excited state in the case of azo dyes. The NLO properties were calculated by solvatochromic method and computationally. Second order hyperpolarizability was found to be 46 to 1083 times more than urea. DFT and TDTDF calculations were performed to understand the electronic properties of the molecules at the ground as well as excited states. PMID:27155862

  6. Computed Tomography and Optical Imaging of Osteogenesis-angiogenesis Coupling to Assess Integration of Cranial Bone Autografts and Allografts.

    PubMed

    Cohn Yakubovich, Doron; Tawackoli, Wafa; Sheyn, Dmitriy; Kallai, Ilan; Da, Xiaoyu; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan; Gazit, Zulma

    2015-01-01

    A major parameter determining the success of a bone-grafting procedure is vascularization of the area surrounding the graft. We hypothesized that implantation of a bone autograft would induce greater bone regeneration by abundant blood vessel formation. To investigate the effect of the graft on neovascularization at the defect site, we developed a micro-computed tomography (µCT) approach to characterize newly forming blood vessels, which involves systemic perfusion of the animal with a polymerizing contrast agent. This method enables detailed vascular analysis of an organ in its entirety. Additionally, blood perfusion was assessed using fluorescence imaging (FLI) of a blood-borne fluorescent agent. Bone formation was quantified by FLI using a hydroxyapatite-targeted probe and µCT analysis. Stem cell recruitment was monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of transgenic mice that express luciferase under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. Here we describe and demonstrate preparation of the allograft, calvarial defect surgery, µCT scanning protocols for the neovascularization study and bone formation analysis (including the in vivo perfusion of contrast agent), and the protocol for data analysis. The 3D high-resolution analysis of vasculature demonstrated significantly greater angiogenesis in animals with implanted autografts, especially with respect to arteriole formation. Accordingly, blood perfusion was significantly higher in the autograft group by the 7(th) day after surgery. We observed superior bone mineralization and measured greater bone formation in animals that received autografts. Autograft implantation induced resident stem cell recruitment to the graft-host bone suture, where the cells differentiated into bone-forming cells between the 7(th) and 10(th) postoperative day. This finding means that enhanced bone formation may be attributed to the augmented vascular feeding that characterizes autograft implantation. The methods depicted may serve

  7. Fabrication of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blalock, Todd; Medicus, Kate; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    Freeform surfaces on optical components have become an important design tool for optical designers. Non-rotationally symmetric optical surfaces have made solving complex optical problems easier. The manufacturing and testing of these surfaces has been the technical hurdle in freeform optic's wide-spread use. Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) optics manufacturing technology has made the fabrication of optical components more deterministic and streamlined for traditional optics and aspheres. Optimax has developed a robust freeform optical fabrication CNC process that includes generation, high speed VIBE polishing, sub-aperture figure correction, surface smoothing and testing of freeform surfaces. Metrology of freeform surface is currently achieved with coordinate measurement machines (CMM) for lower resolution and interferometry with computer generated holograms (CGH) for high resolution irregularity measurements.

  8. BerkeleyGW: A massively parallel computer package for the calculation of the quasiparticle and optical properties of materials and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deslippe, Jack; Samsonidze, Georgy; Strubbe, David A.; Jain, Manish; Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2012-06-01

    BerkeleyGW is a massively parallel computational package for electron excited-state properties that is based on the many-body perturbation theory employing the ab initio GW and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation methodology. It can be used in conjunction with many density-functional theory codes for ground-state properties, including PARATEC, PARSEC, Quantum ESPRESSO, SIESTA, and Octopus. The package can be used to compute the electronic and optical properties of a wide variety of material systems from bulk semiconductors and metals to nanostructured materials and molecules. The package scales to 10 000s of CPUs and can be used to study systems containing up to 100s of atoms. Program summaryProgram title: BerkeleyGW Catalogue identifier: AELG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Open source BSD License. See code for licensing details. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 576 540 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 110 608 809 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, C, C++, Python, Perl, BASH Computer: Linux/UNIX workstations or clusters Operating system: Tested on a variety of Linux distributions in parallel and serial as well as AIX and Mac OSX RAM: (50-2000) MB per CPU (Highly dependent on system size) Classification: 7.2, 7.3, 16.2, 18 External routines: BLAS, LAPACK, FFTW, ScaLAPACK (optional), MPI (optional). All available under open-source licenses. Nature of problem: The excited state properties of materials involve the addition or subtraction of electrons as well as the optical excitations of electron-hole pairs. The excited particles interact strongly with other electrons in a material system. This interaction affects the electronic energies, wavefunctions and lifetimes. It is well known that ground-state theories, such as standard methods

  9. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  10. Computational Analysis of the Optical and Charge Transport Properties of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis-Grown Zinc Oxide/Graphene Hybrid Structures.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amgad Ahmed; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate a systematic computational analysis of the measured optical and charge transport properties of the spray pyrolysis-grown ZnO nanostructures, i.e. nanosphere clusters (NSCs), nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs) for the first time. The calculated absorbance spectra based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) shows very close similarity with the measured behaviours under UV light. The atomic models and energy level diagrams for the grown nanostructures were developed and discussed to explain the structural defects and band gap. The induced stresses in the lattices of ZnO NSCs that formed during the pyrolysis process seem to cause the narrowing of the gap between the energy levels. ZnO NWs and NRs show homogeneous distribution of the LUMO and HOMO orbitals all over the entire heterostructure. Such distribution contributes to the reduction of the band gap down to 2.8 eV, which has been confirmed to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. ZnO NWs and NRs exhibited better emission behaviours under the UV excitation as compared to ZnO NSCs and thin film as their visible range emissions are strongly quenched. Based on the electrochemical impedance measurement, the electrical models and electrostatic potential maps were developed to calculate the electron lifetime and to explain the mobility or diffusion behaviours in the grown nanostructure, respectively. PMID:27173675

  11. Computational Analysis of the Optical and Charge Transport Properties of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis-Grown Zinc Oxide/Graphene Hybrid Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amgad Ahmed; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a systematic computational analysis of the measured optical and charge transport properties of the spray pyrolysis-grown ZnO nanostructures, i.e. nanosphere clusters (NSCs), nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs) for the first time. The calculated absorbance spectra based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) shows very close similarity with the measured behaviours under UV light. The atomic models and energy level diagrams for the grown nanostructures were developed and discussed to explain the structural defects and band gap. The induced stresses in the lattices of ZnO NSCs that formed during the pyrolysis process seem to cause the narrowing of the gap between the energy levels. ZnO NWs and NRs show homogeneous distribution of the LUMO and HOMO orbitals all over the entire heterostructure. Such distribution contributes to the reduction of the band gap down to 2.8 eV, which has been confirmed to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. ZnO NWs and NRs exhibited better emission behaviours under the UV excitation as compared to ZnO NSCs and thin film as their visible range emissions are strongly quenched. Based on the electrochemical impedance measurement, the electrical models and electrostatic potential maps were developed to calculate the electron lifetime and to explain the mobility or diffusion behaviours in the grown nanostructure, respectively.

  12. How does the increment of hetero-cyclic conjugated moieties affect electro-optical and charge transport properties of novel naphtha-difuran derivatives? A computational approach.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Aijaz Rasool; Ahmed, R; Irfan, Ahmad; Muhammad, Shabbir; Shaari, A; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated computationally the effects of π-conjugation extension on naphtha[2,1-b:6,5-b'] difuran (DPNDF); where we increase the number of fused NDF (central core) and furan rings in the parent molecule. The molecular structures of all analogues have been optimized at the ground (S0) and first excited (S1) states using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), respectively. Then highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs), photophysical properties, adiabatic/vertical electron affinities (EAa)/(EAv), adiabatic/vertical ionization potentials (IPa)/(IPv), and hole/electron reorganization energies λh/λe have been investigated. The effect of NDF and furan rings on structural and electro-optical properties has also been studied. Our calculated reorganization energies of 1a, 1b, and 2c reveal them, materials with balanced hole/electron charge transport, whereas 2a and 2b are good hole-transport materials. By increasing the number of furan rings; the photostability was augmented in 2a, 2b, and 2c. PMID:25503703

  13. Optical biosensors for environmental monitoring based on computational and biotechnological tools for engineering the photosynthetic D1 protein of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Rea, Giuseppina; Rodio, Giuseppe; Antonacci, Amina; Lambreva, Maya; Pezzotti, Gianni; Johanningmeier, Udo

    2009-10-15

    Homology-based protein modelling and computational screening followed by virtual mutagenesis analyses were used to identify functional amino acids in the D1 protein of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain interacting with herbicides. A library of functional mutations in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for preparing biomediators was built and their interactions with herbicides were calculated. D1 proteins giving the lowest and highest binding energy with herbicides were considered as suitable for preparing the environmental biosensors for detecting specific herbicide classes. Arising from the results of theoretical calculations, three mutants were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and characterized by fluorescence analysis. Their adsorption and selective recognition ability were studied by an equilibrium-adsorption method. The S268C and S264K biomediators showed high sensitivity and resistance, respectively, to both triazine and urea classes of herbicides. When immobilized on a silicon septum, the biomediators were found to be highly stable, remaining so for at least 1-month at room temperature. The fluorescence properties were exploited and a reusable and portable multiarray optical biosensor for environmental monitoring was developed with limits of detection between 0.8 x 10(-11) and 3.0 x 10(-9), depending on the target analyte. In addition, biomediator regeneration without obvious deterioration in performance was demonstrated. PMID:19674888

  14. Examination of the effect of the fibrous structure of a lens on the optical characteristics of the human eye: a computer-simulated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ahdali, Issam H.; El-Messiery, M. A.

    1995-09-01

    We introduce a model of the human eye for which we take into consideration the laminated nature of lens fibers. The thickness of each lamina is 5.6 mu m; thus the lens comprises 300 eccentric lenses of minute dimensions. The index gradient of the lens is such that the index of refraction increases exponentially from the lens core to its peripheral zone. A vector ray-tracing technique is employed to study the optical characteristics of the system. Both paraxial and marginal rays are simulated, and the angles of incidence vary from 0 deg to +/-20 deg. Special attention is given to the meridional caustic surfaces as well as the wave-front distortion of the refracted rays. A quasi-Newton optimization technique is employed to obtain the best parameters for the system. A computer modeling program, written in fortran 77, is used to simulate a ray's refraction through the multisurfaces of the eye. The results show full agreement with previous data and that the cornea is responsible for eliminating possible spherical aberration of the system.

  15. Optical Disk Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, George L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This special feature focuses on recent developments in optical disk technology. Nine articles discuss current trends, large scale image processing, data structures for optical disks, the use of computer simulators to create optical disks, videodisk use in training, interactive audio video systems, impacts on federal information policy, and…

  16. Optical scanning cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a technique called optical scanning cryptography (OSC). The technique can perform encryption on-the-fly using laser beams and can be implemented using an optical heterodyne scanning. We shall first describe the optical heterodyne scanning system and then provide some computer simulations to clarify and confirm the idea of encryption and decryption.

  17. Nicholas Metropolis Award for Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Work in Computational Physics: Quantum many-body physics of ultracold molecules in optical lattices: models and simulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Experimental progress in generating and manipulating synthetic quantum systems, such as ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices, has revolutionized our understanding of quantum many-body phenomena and posed new challenges for modern numerical techniques. Ultracold molecules, in particular, feature long-range dipole-dipole interactions and a complex and selectively accessible internal structure of rotational and hyperfine states, leading to many-body models with long range interactions and many internal degrees of freedom. Additionally, the many-body physics of ultracold molecules is often probed far from equilibrium, and so algorithms which simulate quantum many-body dynamics are essential. Numerical methods which are to have significant impact in the design and understanding of such synthetic quantum materials must be able to adapt to a variety of different interactions, physical degrees of freedom, and out-of-equilibrium dynamical protocols. Matrix product state (MPS)-based methods, such as the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG), have become the de facto standard for strongly interacting low-dimensional systems. Moreover, the flexibility of MPS-based methods makes them ideally suited both to generic, open source implementation as well as to studies of the quantum many-body dynamics of ultracold molecules. After introducing MPSs and variational algorithms using MPSs generally, I will discuss my own research using MPSs for many-body dynamics of long-range interacting systems. In addition, I will describe two open source implementations of MPS-based algorithms in which I was involved, as well as educational materials designed to help undergraduates and graduates perform research in computational quantum many-body physics using a variety of numerical methods including exact diagonalization and static and dynamic variational MPS methods. Finally, I will mention present research on ultracold molecules in optical lattices, such as the exploration of

  18. Optics in complex systems; Proceedings of the 15th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Federal Republic of Germany, Aug. 5-10, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzl, F.; Weigelt, G.; Preuss, H.-J.

    Various papers on optics in complex systems are presented. The general topics addressed include: physical optics, quantum optics, lasers, statistical optics, nonlinear optics, nonlinear effects in fibers, guided waves and integrated optics, interconnects, optical storage and memories, optical computing, neural networks, interferometry, holography, metrology, periodical structures, 3D sensing, image processing, astronomical optics and methods, microscopy, microoptics, spectroscopy, fiber optics and methods, X-ray optics, atmospheric optics, scattering, rough surfaces, optical properties of materials, optical design and testing, remote sensing.

  19. Modules and methods for all photonic computing

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, David R.; Ma, Chao Hung

    2001-01-01

    A method for all photonic computing, comprising the steps of: encoding a first optical/electro-optical element with a two dimensional mathematical function representing input data; illuminating the first optical/electro-optical element with a collimated beam of light; illuminating a second optical/electro-optical element with light from the first optical/electro-optical element, the second optical/electro-optical element having a characteristic response corresponding to an iterative algorithm useful for solving a partial differential equation; iteratively recirculating the signal through the second optical/electro-optical element with light from the second optical/electro-optical element for a predetermined number of iterations; and, after the predetermined number of iterations, optically and/or electro-optically collecting output data representing an iterative optical solution from the second optical/electro-optical element.

  20. Improving image segmentation performance and quantitative analysis via a computer-aided grading methodology for optical coherence tomography retinal image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Debuc, Delia; Salinas, Harry M.; Ranganathan, Sudarshan; Tátrai, Erika; Gao, Wei; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua; Somfai, Gábor M.; Puliafito, Carmen A.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate quantitative analysis and error correction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal images by using a custom-built, computer-aided grading methodology. A total of 60 Stratus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California) B-scans collected from ten normal healthy eyes are analyzed by two independent graders. The average retinal thickness per macular region is compared with the automated Stratus OCT results. Intergrader and intragrader reproducibility is calculated by Bland-Altman plots of the mean difference between both gradings and by Pearson correlation coefficients. In addition, the correlation between Stratus OCT and our methodology-derived thickness is also presented. The mean thickness difference between Stratus OCT and our methodology is 6.53 μm and 26.71 μm when using the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction and outer segment/retinal pigment epithelium (OS/RPE) junction as the outer retinal border, respectively. Overall, the median of the thickness differences as a percentage of the mean thickness is less than 1% and 2% for the intragrader and intergrader reproducibility test, respectively. The measurement accuracy range of the OCT retinal image analysis (OCTRIMA) algorithm is between 0.27 and 1.47 μm and 0.6 and 1.76 μm for the intragrader and intergrader reproducibility tests, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrate R2>0.98 for all Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) regions. Our methodology facilitates a more robust and localized quantification of the retinal structure in normal healthy controls and patients with clinically significant intraretinal features.

  1. Personal Computers on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, M. Mitchell

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues involving the use of on-line databases, magnetic and optical data storage, digital telecommunications, and microcomputers on college campuses. These issues include access to computers and computer networking, and educational uses of the computers. Examples of efforts at four universities are included. (JN)

  2. The Computer Bulletin Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Russell H., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Four applications of microcomputers in the chemical laboratory are presented. Included are "Mass Spectrometer Interface with an Apple II Computer,""Interfacing the Spectronic 20 to a Computer,""A pH-Monitoring and Control System for Teaching Laboratories," and "A Computer-Aided Optical Melting Point Device." Software, instrumentation, and uses are…

  3. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  4. Boson sampling with displaced single-photon Fock states versus single-photon-added coherent states: The quantum-classical divide and computational-complexity transitions in linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Olson, Jonathan P.; Motes, Keith R.; Rohde, Peter P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2015-02-01

    Boson sampling is a specific quantum computation, which is likely hard to implement efficiently on a classical computer. The task is to sample the output photon-number distribution of a linear-optical interferometric network, which is fed with single-photon Fock-state inputs. A question that has been asked is if the sampling problems associated with any other input quantum states of light (other than the Fock states) to a linear-optical network and suitable output detection strategies are also of similar computational complexity as boson sampling. We consider the states that differ from the Fock states by a displacement operation, namely the displaced Fock states and the photon-added coherent states. It is easy to show that the sampling problem associated with displaced single-photon Fock states and a displaced photon-number detection scheme is in the same complexity class as boson sampling for all values of displacement. On the other hand, we show that the sampling problem associated with single-photon-added coherent states and the same displaced photon-number detection scheme demonstrates a computational-complexity transition. It transitions from being just as hard as boson sampling when the input coherent amplitudes are sufficiently small to a classically simulatable problem in the limit of large coherent amplitudes.

  5. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  6. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  7. Digital optical conversion module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1988-07-01

    A digital optical conversion module is used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and MRA) Computed Tomography (CT) Scan Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Echocardiography Electrocardiogram ... Ultrasound Nuclear Stress Test Nuclear Ventriculography Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Stress ... Optical Coherence Tomography | ...

  9. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  10. Spatial-light-modulator interconnected computers

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Aulay, A.D.

    1987-10-01

    Optical technologies perform the basic computer operations of communications, switching, and storage, have already proven superior to electronics for many communications situations, and advances in devices and materials suggest that optics are important for switching and storage. The spatial light modulator (SLM) is one of the devices expected to play an important role in optical computing. An SLM acts as a piece of film whose transmittance or reflectance may be varied spatially and temporally by electronic or optical means. Types of SLMs, the use of optics for computation and three proposed, as well as diverse optical computing systems that use SLMs for interconnections are described in this article.

  11. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  12. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking.

  13. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking.

  14. Apollo Ring Optical Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Maestas, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

  15. Optical Interconnection Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Keren; Hughes, Gary

    2004-07-01

    In current high-performance computing and communications systems an emerging need for ultra-high-capacity, low-latency interconnection networks has led investigators to consider insertion of optical-domain switching fabrics. The use of optical technology for the physical switching layer within data communication systems is clearly advantageous in providing maximum bandwidth per cable particularly through the exploitation of DWDM. Furthermore, the transparency offered in the optical domain allows potentially wide flexibility in the data encoding and protocols. However, many key challenges remain to the successful implementation of optical packet routing, as optical signals cannot be processed efficiently or buffered for an arbitrary time. Clearly, innovative architectures, switching fabrics, and packet processing subsystems that employ optical technologies in synergetic fashions with powerful electronic techniques would be poised to harvest the immense transmission bandwidth of optics creating the ultimate "unlimited-capacity" interconnection network.

  16. Optical Interconnection Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Keren; Hughes, Gary

    2004-05-01

    In current high-performance computing and communications systems an emerging need for ultra-high-capacity, low-latency interconnection networks has led investigators to consider insertion of optical-domain switching fabrics. The use of optical technology for the physical switching layer within data communication systems is clearly advantageous in providing maximum bandwidth per cable particularly through the exploitation of DWDM. Furthermore, the transparency offered in the optical domain allows potentially wide flexibility in the data encoding and protocols. However, many key challenges remain to the successful implementation of optical packet routing, as optical signals cannot be processed efficiently or buffered for an arbitrary time. Clearly, innovative architectures, switching fabrics, and packet processing subsystems that employ optical technologies in synergetic fashions with powerful electronic techniques would be poised to harvest the immense transmission bandwidth of optics creating the ultimate "unlimited-capacity" interconnection network.

  17. Optical Interconnection Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Keren; Hughes, Gary

    2004-06-01

    In current high-performance computing and communications systems an emerging need for ultra-high-capacity, low-latency interconnection networks has led investigators to consider insertion of optical-domain switching fabrics. The use of optical technology for the physical switching layer within data communication systems is clearly advantageous in providing maximum bandwidth per cable particularly through the exploitation of DWDM. Furthermore, the transparency offered in the optical domain allows potentially wide flexibility in the data encoding and protocols. However, many key challenges remain to the successful implementation of optical packet routing, as optical signals cannot be processed efficiently or buffered for an arbitrary time. Clearly, innovative architectures, switching fabrics, and packet processing subsystems that employ optical technologies in synergetic fashions with powerful electronic techniques would be poised to harvest the immense transmission bandwidth of optics creating the ultimate "unlimited-capacity" interconnection network.

  18. The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorials in Fourier Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, George O.; And Others

    This is a textbook of Fourier optics for the classroom or self-study. Major topics included in the 38 chapters are: Huygens' principle and Fourier transforms; image formation; optical coherence theory; coherent imaging; image analysis; coherent noise; interferometry; holography; communication theory techniques; analog optical computing; phase…

  19. Optical logic gates employing liquid crystal optical switches.

    PubMed

    Khan, A H; Nejib, U R

    1987-01-15

    This paper describes very simple optical logic gates consisting of liquid crystal optical switches. This technique was used to implement all possible 2-operand Boolean functions. The importance of these systems in making optical computers is discussed in terms of a binary half-adder and a flip-flop. A new algebra governing the function of these systems is also proposed. PMID:20454123

  20. Organic Materials For Optical Switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    1993-01-01

    Equations predict properties of candidate materials. Report presents results of theoretical study of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. Such materials used in optical switching devices for computers and telecommunications, replacing electronic switches. Optical switching potentially offers extremely high information throughout in compact hardware.

  1. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  2. Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  3. Optical parallel selectionist systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    1993-01-01

    There are at least two major classes of computers in nature and technology: connectionist and selectionist. A subset of connectionist systems (Turing Machines) dominates modern computing, although another subset (Neural Networks) is growing rapidly. Selectionist machines have unique capabilities which should allow them to do truly creative operations. It is possible to make a parallel optical selectionist system using methods describes in this paper.

  4. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  5. Optical sine transformation.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Zhang, J; Gong, J; Chen, J; Ho, Y

    1987-10-15

    The phase mask distribution of optical sine transformation (OST) has been calculated according to the optical general transformation theory. To avoid the diffraction loss of the phase mask, the optical waveguide method is used. Computation shows that the optical sine transformation is possible with only one phase mask, i.e., one-half of a cylindrical lens in the 1-D case and one-quarter of a spherical lens in the 2-D case. Experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction. Image compression by OST is also given. PMID:20523380

  6. Optical Data Library {number_sign}5 for use with the WINDOW 4.1 computer program including NFRC certified data

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains additional data for 783 glazing products that can be used with the Window 4.1 energy analysis program. The NFRC requires that all simulations must be carried out using NFRC-certified optical data only. Solar heat gain coefficient and visible transmittance must be calculated using spectral transmittance and reflectance in the solar range. U-factor calculations must use spectral or integrated emittance. NFRC-certified data within the Window 4.1 program is indicated.

  7. A users manual for a computer program which calculates time optical geocentric transfers using solar or nuclear electric and high thrust propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackett, L. L.; Edelbaum, T. N.; Malchow, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    This manual is a guide for using a computer program which calculates time optimal trajectories for high-and low-thrust geocentric transfers. Either SEP or NEP may be assumed and a one or two impulse, fixed total delta V, initial high thrust phase may be included. Also a single impulse of specified delta V may be included after the low thrust state. The low thrust phase utilizes equinoctial orbital elements to avoid the classical singularities and Kryloff-Boguliuboff averaging to help insure more rapid computation time. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 in double precision for use on an IBM 360 computer. The manual includes a description of the problem treated, input/output information, examples of runs, and source code listings.

  8. Computational Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartak, Marek S.

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Basic facts from optics; 3. Basic facts from electromagnetism; 4. Slab waveguides; 5. Linear optical fibre and signal degradation; 6. Propagation of linear pulses; 7. Optical sources; 8. Optical amplifiers and EDFA; 9. Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA); 10. Optical receivers; 11. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) formulation; 12. Solar cells; 13. Metamaterials; Appendices; Index.

  9. Early science from the Pan-STARRS1 Optical Galaxy Survey (POGS): Maps of stellar mass and star formation rate surface density obtained from distributed-computing pixel-SED fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilker, David A.; Vinsen, K.; Galaxy Properties Key Project, PS1

    2014-01-01

    To measure resolved galactic physical properties unbiased by the mask of recent star formation and dust features, we are conducting a citizen-scientist enabled nearby galaxy survey based on the unprecedented optical (g,r,i,z,y) imaging from Pan-STARRS1 (PS1). The PS1 Optical Galaxy Survey (POGS) covers 3π steradians (75% of the sky), about twice the footprint of SDSS. Whenever possible we also incorporate ancillary multi-wavelength image data from the ultraviolet (GALEX) and infrared (WISE, Spitzer) spectral regimes. For each cataloged nearby galaxy with a reliable redshift estimate of z < 0.05 - 0.1 (dependent on donated CPU power), publicly-distributed computing is being harnessed to enable pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, which in turn provides maps of key physical parameters such as the local stellar mass surface density, crude star formation history, and dust attenuation. With pixel SED fitting output we will then constrain parametric models of galaxy structure in a more meaningful way than ordinarily achieved. In particular, we will fit multi-component (e.g. bulge, bar, disk) galaxy models directly to the distribution of stellar mass rather than surface brightness in a single band, which is often locally biased. We will also compute non-parametric measures of morphology such as concentration, asymmetry using the POGS stellar mass and SFR surface density images. We anticipate studying how galactic substructures evolve by comparing our results with simulations and against more distant imaging surveys, some of which which will also be processed in the POGS pipeline. The reliance of our survey on citizen-scientist volunteers provides a world-wide opportunity for education. We developed an interactive interface which highlights the science being produced by each volunteer’s own CPU cycles. The POGS project has already proven popular amongst the public, attracting about 5000 volunteers with nearly 12,000 participating computers, and is

  10. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  11. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-07-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  12. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  13. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-08-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  14. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities

  15. Optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. Scope of Submission The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Optical Ethernet feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions

  16. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  17. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  18. Optical clearing of unsectioned specimens for three-dimensional imaging via optical transmission and emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Mark; Sakhalkar, Harshad; Oliver, Tim; Johnson, G. Allan; Dewhirst, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques that enable unprecedented high-resolution 3-D multimodal imaging of tissue structure and function. Applications include imaging macroscopic gene expression and microvasculature structure in unsectioned biological specimens up to 8 cm3. A key requisite for these imaging techniques is effective sample preparation including optical clearing, which enables light transport through the sample while preserving the signal (either light absorbing stain or fluorescent proteins) in representative form. We review recent developments in optical-CT and optical-ECT, and compatible “fluorescence-friendly” optical clearing protocols. PMID:18465962

  19. Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuangyan; Fischer, Jürgen; Schaale, Michael; He, Ming-xia

    2014-03-01

    An optical closure study on bio-optical relationships was carried out using radiative transfer model matrix operator method developed by Freie Universität Berlin. As a case study, the optical closure of bio-optical relationships empirically parameterized with in situ data for the East China Sea was examined. Remote-sensing reflectance ( R rs) was computed from the inherent optical properties predicted by these biooptical relationships and compared with published in situ data. It was found that the simulated R rs was overestimated for turbid water. To achieve optical closure, bio-optical relationships for absorption and scattering coefficients for suspended particulate matter were adjusted. Furthermore, the results show that the Fournier and Forand phase functions obtained from the adjusted relationships perform better than the Petzold phase function. Therefore, before bio-optical relationships are used for a local sea area, the optical closure should be examined.

  20. Laser beam modeling in optical storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treptau, J. P.; Milster, T. D.; Flagello, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model has been developed that simulates light propagating through an optical data storage system. A model of a laser beam that originates at a laser diode, propagates through an optical system, interacts with a optical disk, reflects back from the optical disk into the system, and propagates to data and servo detectors is discussed.

  1. Deformation and collapse of the higher-order optical vortices obtained by large-angle diffraction in computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekshaev, Aleksandr; Orlinska, Oksana

    2009-10-01

    Spatial characteristics of the optical-vortex (OV) beams created during the Gaussian beam diffraction by a grating with groove bifurcation are analyzed theoretically and numerically. In contrast to previous works, condition of small-angle diffraction is no longer required and the diffracted beam can be strongly deformed. This causes the intensity profile rotation and the high-order OV decomposition into a set of secondary single-charged OVs. These effects are studied quantitatively and confronted with similar properties of a Laguerre-Gaussian beam that undergoes astigmatic telescopic transformation. In contrast to the latter case, the secondary OVs do not lie on a single straight line within the beam cross section, and morphology parameters of the individual secondary OVs carried by the same beam are, in general, different. The results can be used for practical generation of OV beams and OV arrays with prescribed properties.

  2. Optically compensated zoom lens design in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Arthur; Kane, Jonathan S.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper the construction of both mechanically and optically compensated zoom lenses is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the Computer Optics Inc. Infrared Optically Compensated Zoom Lens.

  3. Adaptive optical processors.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A

    1989-06-15

    There are two different approaches for improving the accuracy of analog optical associative processors: postprocessing with a bimodal system and preprocessing with a preconditioner. These two approaches can be combined to develop an adaptive optical multiprocessor that can adjust the computational steps depending on the data and produce solutions of linear algebra problems with a specified accuracy in a given amount of time. PMID:19752909

  4. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Modeling and Computing Example for Effective Electromagnetic Parameters of Multiphase Composite Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei-Li; Yuan, Jie; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2009-05-01

    A method using strong fluctuation theory (SFT) to compute the effective electromagnetic parameters of multiphase composite media, and common materials used to design radar-absorbing materials, is demonstrated. The effective electromagnetic parameters of ultrafine carbonyl-iron (DT-50) and fiber fabric, which are both multiphase composite media and represent coated and structured radar absorbing materials, respectively, are investigated, and the corresponding equations of electromagnetic parameters by using the SFT are attained. Moreover, we design a program to simplify the solutions, and the results are discussed.

  5. User's guide to HELIOS: A computer program for modeling the optical behavior of reflecting solar concentrators. Part 1: Introduction and code input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittitoe, C. N.; Biggs, F.

    1981-08-01

    HELIOS is a flexible computer code for evaluating designs for central receiver, parabolic dish, and other reflecting solar energy collector systems, for safety calculations on the threat to personnel and to the facility itself, for determination of how various input parameters alter the power collected, for design trade offs, and for heliostat evaluations. Input variables include atmospheric transmission effects, reflector shape and surface errors, suntracking errors, focusing and alignment strategies, receiver design, placement positions of the tower and mirrors, and time of day and day of the year for the calculation. Complete input instructions and a description of the code structure are given.

  6. Computers and Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary

    1980-01-01

    This resource directory provides brief evaluative descriptions of six popular home computers and lists selected sources of educational software, computer books, and magazines. For a related article on microcomputers in the schools, see p53-58 of this journal issue. (SJL)

  7. Optical pulse generator using liquid crystal light valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical optical computing is discussed. A design for an optical pulse generator using a Hughes Liquid crystal light valve and intended for application as an optical clock in a numerical optical computer is considered. The pulse generator is similar in concept to the familiar electronic multivibrator, having a flip-flop and delay units.

  8. Single layer lead iodide: computational exploration of structural, electronic and optical properties, strain induced band modulation and the role of spin-orbital-coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mei; Duan, Wenhui; Chen, Ying; Du, Aijun

    2015-09-01

    Graphitic like layered materials exhibit intriguing electronic structures and thus the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer materials is of great interest for developing novel nano-devices. By using density functional theory (DFT) method, here we for the first time investigate the structure, stability, electronic and optical properties of monolayer lead iodide (PbI2). The stability of PbI2 monolayer is first confirmed by phonon dispersion calculation. Compared to the calculation using generalized gradient approximation, screened hybrid functional and spin-orbit coupling effects can not only predicts an accurate bandgap (2.63 eV), but also the correct position of valence and conduction band edges. The biaxial strain can tune its bandgap size in a wide range from 1 eV to 3 eV, which can be understood by the strain induced uniformly change of electric field between Pb and I atomic layer. The calculated imaginary part of the dielectric function of 2D graphene/PbI2 van der Waals type hetero-structure shows significant red shift of absorption edge compared to that of a pure monolayer PbI2. Our findings highlight a new interesting 2D material with potential applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.Graphitic like layered materials exhibit intriguing electronic structures and thus the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer materials is of great interest for developing novel nano-devices. By using density functional theory (DFT) method, here we for the first time investigate the structure, stability, electronic and optical properties of monolayer lead iodide (PbI2). The stability of PbI2 monolayer is first confirmed by phonon dispersion calculation. Compared to the calculation using generalized gradient approximation, screened hybrid functional and spin-orbit coupling effects can not only predicts an accurate bandgap (2.63 eV), but also the correct position of valence and conduction band edges. The biaxial strain can tune its

  9. Optic flow and autonomous navigation.

    PubMed

    Campani, M; Giachetti, A; Torre, V

    1995-01-01

    Many animals, especially insects, compute and use optic flow to control their motion direction and to avoid obstacles. Recent advances in computer vision have shown that an adequate optic flow can be computed from image sequences. Therefore studying whether artificial systems, such as robots, can use optic flow for similar purposes is of particular interest. Experiments are reviewed that suggest the possible use of optic flow for the navigation of a robot moving in indoor and outdoor environments. The optic flow is used to detect and localise obstacles in indoor scenes, such as corridors, offices, and laboratories. These routines are based on the computation of a reduced optic flow. The robot is usually able to avoid large obstacles such as a chair or a person. The avoidance performances of the proposed algorithm critically depend on the optomotor reaction of the robot. The optic flow can be used to understand the ego-motion in outdoor scenes, that is, to obtain information on the absolute velocity of the moving vehicle and to detect the presence of other moving objects. A critical step is the correction of the optic flow for shocks and vibrations present during image acquisition. The results obtained suggest that optic flow can be successfully used by biological and artificial systems to control their navigation. Moreover, both systems require fast and accurate optomotor reactions and need to compensate for the instability of the viewed world. PMID:7617428

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic characterization and nonlinear optical properties of manganese (II) complex of picolinate: A combined experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf; Çoşut, Bünyemin; Zorlu, Yunus; Erkovan, Mustafa; Yerli, Yusuf

    2016-02-01

    A novel manganese (II) complex with picolinic acid (pyridine 2-carboxylic acid, Hpic), namely, [Mn(pic)2(H2O)2] was prepared and its crystal structure was fully characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Picolinate (pic) ligands were coordinated to the central manganese(II) ion as bidentate N,O-donors through the nitrogen atoms of pyridine rings and the oxygen atoms of carboxylate groups forming five-membered chelate rings. The spectroscopic characterization of Mn(II) complex was performed by the applications of FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis and EPR techniques. In order to support these studies, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out by using B3LYP level. IR and Raman spectra were simulated at B3LYP level, and obtained results indicated that DFT calculations generally give compatible results to the experimental ones. The electronic structure of the Mn(II) complex was predicted using time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method with polarizable continuum model (PCM). Molecular stability, hyperconjugative interactions, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and bond strength were investigated by applying natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Nonlinear optical properties of Mn(II) complex were investigated by the determining of molecular polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) parameters.

  11. Single layer lead iodide: computational exploration of structural, electronic and optical properties, strain induced band modulation and the role of spin-orbital-coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei; Duan, Wenhui; Chen, Ying; Du, Aijun

    2015-10-01

    Graphitic like layered materials exhibit intriguing electronic structures and thus the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer materials is of great interest for developing novel nano-devices. By using density functional theory (DFT) method, here we for the first time investigate the structure, stability, electronic and optical properties of monolayer lead iodide (PbI2). The stability of PbI2 monolayer is first confirmed by phonon dispersion calculation. Compared to the calculation using generalized gradient approximation, screened hybrid functional and spin-orbit coupling effects can not only predicts an accurate bandgap (2.63 eV), but also the correct position of valence and conduction band edges. The biaxial strain can tune its bandgap size in a wide range from 1 eV to 3 eV, which can be understood by the strain induced uniformly change of electric field between Pb and I atomic layer. The calculated imaginary part of the dielectric function of 2D graphene/PbI2 van der Waals type hetero-structure shows significant red shift of absorption edge compared to that of a pure monolayer PbI2. Our findings highlight a new interesting 2D material with potential applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. PMID:26312757

  12. Single layer lead iodide: computational exploration of structural, electronic and optical properties, strain induced band modulation and the role of spin-orbital-coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mei; Duan, Wenhui; Chen, Ying; Du, Aijun

    Graphitic like layered materials exhibit intriguing electronic structures and the search for new types of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer materials is of great interest for developing novel nano-devices. By using density functional theory method, we investigate the structure, stability, electronic and optical properties of monolayer lead iodide (PbI2) . The stability of PbI2 monolayer is first confirmed by phonon dispersion calculation. Compared to the calculation using generalized gradient approximation, screened hybrid functional and spin-orbit coupling effects can predicts an accurate band gap (2.63 eV). The biaxial strain can tune its band gap size in a wide range from 1 eV to 3 eV, which can be understood by the strain induced uniformly change of electric field between Pb and I atomic layer. The calculated imaginary part of the dielectric function of 2D graphene/PbI2 van der Waals type hetero-structure shows significant red shift of absorption edge compared to that of a pure monolayer PbI2. Our findings highlight a new interesting 2D material with potential applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

  13. Applying a new computational method for biological tissue optics based on the time-dependent two-dimensional radiative transfer equation.

    PubMed

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Fumeron, Sebastien

    2012-07-01

    Optical tomography is a medical imaging technique based on light propagation in the near infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum. We present a new way of predicting the short-pulsed NIR light propagation using a time-dependent two-dimensional-global radiative transfer equation in an absorbing and strongly anisotropically scattering medium. A cell-vertex finite-volume method is proposed for the discretization of the spatial domain. The closure relation based on the exponential scheme and linear interpolations was applied for the first time in the context of time-dependent radiative heat transfer problems. Details are given about the application of the original method on unstructured triangular meshes. The angular space (4πSr) is uniformly subdivided into discrete directions and a finite-differences discretization of the time domain is used. Numerical simulations for media with physical properties analogous to healthy and metastatic human liver subjected to a collimated short-pulsed NIR light are presented and discussed. As expected, discrepancies between the two kinds of tissues were found. In particular, the level of light flux was found to be weaker (inside the medium and at boundaries) in the healthy medium than in the metastatic one. PMID:22894479

  14. User's guide to HELIOS: A computer program for modeling the optical behavior of reflecting solar concentrators. Part 3: Appendices concerning HELIOS-code details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittitoe, C. N.; Biss, F.

    1981-09-01

    HELIOS is a flexible computer code for evaluating designs for central-receiver, parabolic-dish, and other reflecting solar-energy collector systems; for safety calculations on the threat to personnel and to the facility itself; for determination of how various input parameters alter the power collected; for design trade-offs; and for heliostat evaluations. Input variables include atmospheric transmission effects; reflector shape, surface, and suntracking errors; focusing and alignment strategies; receiver design; placement positions of the tower and mirrors; time-of-day and day-of-year for the calculation. Part III is a series of appendices giving code details for subroutine and function descriptions, how common blocks are used, sample jobstreams, and magnetic tape use within the code.

  15. Universal quantum computation with Majorana fermion edge modes through microwave spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional cold gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Mueller, Erich J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe how microwave spectroscopy of cold fermions in quasi-1D traps can be used to detect, manipulate, and entangle exotic nonlocal qubits associated with "Majorana" edge modes. We present different approaches to generate the p-wave superfluidity which is responsible for these topological zero-energy edge modes. We find that the edge modes have clear signatures in the microwave spectrum and that the line shape distinguishes between the degenerate states of a qubit encoded in these edge modes. Moreover, the microwaves rotate the system in its degenerate ground-state manifold. We use these rotations to implement a set of universal quantum gates, allowing the system to be used as a universal quantum computer.

  16. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other common upper respiratory tract infections Multiple sclerosis ... have optic neuritis without a disease such as multiple sclerosis have a good chance of recovery. Optic neuritis ...

  17. Personal computers on campus.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, M M

    1985-04-26

    Colleges and universities are becoming test beds for the much-heralded "information society" as they incorporate a new series of information technologies. These include on-line databases, magnetic and optical data storage, digital telecommunications, computer networks, and, most visibly and dramatically, personal computers. The transition is presenting administrators and faculty with major challenges, however. This article discusses some of the issues involved, including access to computers and to computer networking, managing the transition, and the educational uses of personal computers. A final section discusses efforts at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Brown University, and Camegie-Mellon University to shape a new-generation personal computer, the so-called "scholar's workstation." PMID:17746874

  18. Nonlinear optical properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, Joseph W.; Inguva, Ramarao

    1991-01-01

    The optical properties of a new class of composite nonlinear materials composed of coated grains, such as cadmium sulfide with a silver coating, are examined. These materials exhibit intrinsic optical bistability and resonantly enhanced conjugate reflectivity. The threshold for intrinsic optical bistability is low enough for practical applications in optical communications and optical computing. Some problems associated with the fabrication of these materials are addressed. Based on preliminary results, switching times are expected to be in the subpicosecond range.

  19. Films Containing Optically Nonlinear Diacetylene Monomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S.; Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1993-01-01

    Solid films exhibiting nonlinear optical properties prepared as mixtures of poly(methyl methacrylate) with various amounts of diacetylene monomer called "compound 1" in article, "Synthesizing Diacetylenes With Nonlinear Optical Properties" (MFS-26186). Useful as phase-conjugate mirrors in laser-beam communications and as optical switches in optical computers. This particular diacetylene monomer exhibits strong third-order nonlinear optical properties, both in pure form and in solution.

  20. Investigation of the flow field inside the manifold of a real operated fuel cell stack using optical measurements and Computational Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Felix; Kinaci, Mustafa E.; Wartmann, Jens; König, Jörg; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen; Burgmann, Sebastian; Heinzel, Angelika

    2016-02-01

    The versatility of fuel cells enables a wide range of applications. Usually fuel cells are combined to stacks such that the reactant supply of the single cells is achieved via a pipe branching system, the manifold. The overall performance significantly depends on cell flow rates which are related to the fluidic interaction of the manifold and the cells. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, which are often used to find a suitable design, lack experimental flow data for validation of the numerical results. To enable flow measurements within the small geometries of the manifold and to provide reliable velocity information inside a real fuel cell stack, a low-coherence Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) is applied, which uses multi-mode laser light to achieve a spatial resolution of <100 μm. The use of fluorescent particles and backward scatter mode make the sensor highly suitable for the application in small manifold geometries like in fuel cell stacks. Sensor and measurement technique are validated in simplified stack models and the applicability to air flows is demonstrated. Finally, for the first time, velocity profiles with high spatial resolution inside an operated fuel cell stack are presented, which serve as benchmark for CFD to find an optimal geometry.

  1. Computational Modeling of the Class I Low-Mass Protostar Elias 29 Applying Optical Constants of Ices Processed By High Energy Cosmic Ray Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, W. R. M.; Pilling, S.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study of the effects of high energy cosmic rays (CRs) over the astrophysical ices, observed toward the embedded class I protostar Elias 29, by using computational modeling and laboratory data. Its spectrum was observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) covering 2.3-190 μm. The modeling employed the three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC-3D and laboratory data of bombarded ice grains by CR analogs and unprocessed ices (not bombarded). We are assuming that Elias 29 has a self-irradiated disk with inclination i = 60.°0, surrounded by an envelope with a bipolar cavity. The results show that absorption features toward Elias 29 are better reproduced by assuming a combination between unprocessed astrophysical ices at low temperature (H2O, CO, CO2) and bombarded ices (H2O:CO2) by high energy CRs. Evidences of the ice processing around Elias 29 can be observed by the good fitting around 5.5-8.0 μm, by polar and apolar ice segregation in 15.15-15.25 μm, and by the presence of the CH4 and HCOOH ices. Given that non-nitrogen compounds were employed in this work, we assume that absorption around 5.5-8.0 μm should not be associated with the NH4+ ion (see the 2003 work of Shutte & Khanna ), but more probably with aliphatic ethers (e.g., R1-OCH2-R2), CH3CHO, and related species. The results obtained in this paper are important because they show that the environment around protostars is better modeled considering processed samples and, consequently, demonstrate the chemical evolution of the astrophysical ices.

  2. Computers for the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes adaptive technology for personal computers that accommodate disabled users and may require special equipment including hardware, memory, expansion slots, and ports. Highlights include vision aids, including speech synthesizers, magnification, braille, and optical character recognition (OCR); hearing adaptations; motor-impaired…

  3. Computers and Copyrights: Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotlas, Carolyn, Comp.

    This bibliography lists sources of information to help college and university computer center staff to interpret copyright law as it relates to software, optical disks and other formats used in multimedia development and classroom presentations. The document is designed to be useful in answering faculty and student questions, formulating campus…

  4. Optical microspectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  5. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  6. Fiber optic photoplethysmograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokun, Leszek J.; Domanski, Andrzej W.

    1991-07-01

    Using a very well known characteristic of infrared radiation absorbance by human skin versus the length of radiation wave and by application of the newest achievements of radiation detecting techniques and very fast computing techniques - the authors have designed and manufactured the complete computer system for noninvasive diagnosis of blood vessels in legs. As the basic unit in this system, fiber-optic photoplethysmograph was applied. The measurement method used here was very well described by V. Blazek and some other scientists. This article presents photoplethysmograph and all features of the computer system.

  7. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of

  8. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Radiation optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, L.B.; Kim, J.Y.; Ceballos, R.

    1985-08-01

    Following surgery for pituitary adenoma, radiation therapy is an accepted treatment in reducing tumor recurrence. However, a potential therapeutic complication is delayed radionecrosis of perisellar neural structures, including the optic nerves and chiasm. This particular cause of visual loss, radiation optic neuropathy (RON), has not been emphasized in the ophthalmologic literature. Four cases of RON seen in the past five years are reported. Diagnostic criteria include: (1) acute visual loss (monocular or binocular), (2) visual field defects indicating optic nerve or chiasmal dysfunction, (3) absence of optic disc edema, (4) onset usually within three years of therapy (peak: 1-1 1/2 years), and (5) no computed tomographic evidence of visual pathway compression. Pathologic findings, differential diagnosis and therapy will be discussed in outlining the clinical profile of RON.

  10. LISA Optics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The LISA experiment has six telescopes, in three spacecraft, in orbit about the sun. There is a continuous laser link between all of the spacecraft. Because of the large, 5 million kilometer distances, between the spacecraft and the need to perform picometer level interferometry and the fact that the optical system is dynamic precludes the use of standard optical codes in the design and analysis of this optical system. A detailed description of the approach used to model all of the optics, in the spacecraft in orbit, is presented and the ability of this model to analyze requirements is discussed. A dynamic computer simulation will be shown to illustrate the laser link and the effects of this dynamic environment on the interferometry.

  11. Synthesis, vapor growth, polymerization, and characterization of thin films of novel diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole. The use of computer modeling to predict chemical and optical properties of these diacetylenes and poly(diacetylenes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abeledeyem, H.; Mcmanus, S. P.; Zutaut, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work two diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole which are predicted by semiempirical AM1 calculations to have very different properties, are synthesized; the polymerizability of these diacetylenes in the solid state is determined, and the results are compared to the computer predictions. Diacetylene 1 is novel in that the monomer is a liquid at room temperature; this may allow for the possibility of polymerization in the liquid state as well as the solid state. Thin poly(diacetylene) films are obtained from compound 1 by growing films of the monomer using vapor deposition and polymerizing with UV light; these films are then characterized. Interestingly, while the poly(diacetylene) from 1 does not possess good nonlinear optical properties, the monomer exhibits very good third-order effects (phase conjugation) in solution. Dilute acetone solutions of the monomer 1 give intensity-dependent refractive indices on the order of 10 exp -6 esu; these are 10 exp 6 times better than for CS2.

  12. Optical to optical interface device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, D. S.; Vohl, P.; Nisenson, P.

    1972-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and testing of a preliminary model of an optical-to-optical (noncoherent-to-coherent) interface device for use in coherent optical parallel processing systems are described. The developed device demonstrates a capability for accepting as an input a scene illuminated by a noncoherent radiation source and providing as an output a coherent light beam spatially modulated to represent the original noncoherent scene. The converter device developed under this contract employs a Pockels readout optical modulator (PROM). This is a photosensitive electro-optic element which can sense and electrostatically store optical images. The stored images can be simultaneously or subsequently readout optically by utilizing the electrostatic storage pattern to control an electro-optic light modulating property of the PROM. The readout process is parallel as no scanning mechanism is required. The PROM provides the functions of optical image sensing, modulation, and storage in a single active material.

  13. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  14. Optical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Matt

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and operational problems of optical waveguides, and concludes that the wide use of optical communications can be expected if difficulties in commercial production of components can be eliminated. (CC)

  15. Optical keyboard

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  16. The Optics Option: Preparing For A Career In Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Rudolf

    1989-04-01

    . Exciting new fields, such as optical communication, optical computing, Phase conjugation, adaptive optics, and holography, are expanding the scope of optics technologies. Development of sophisticated military EO systems presents one of the greatest opportunities and challenges in the optics world today.

  17. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  18. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.). Although most people would think that analog synthesizers and electronic music substantially predate the use of computers in music, many experiments and complete computer music systems were being constructed and used as early as the 1950s.

  19. Universal Linear Optics: A Testbed for Optical Quantum Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Chris; Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Russell, Nicholas; Marshall, Graham; Silverstone, Joshua; Thompson, Mark; Matthews, Jonathan; O'Brien, Jeremy; Laing, Anthony; Martin-Lopez, Enrique; Shadbolt, Peter; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Hashimoto, Toshikazu

    Linear optics is a promising platform for scalable quantum information processing. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up the size of the circuit [Carolan et al., Science, 349, (2015)]. The system is an ideal testbed for rapidly prototyping new linear optical quantum gates, and testing known protocols in experimentally realistic scenarios. We use the device to perform a series of postselected and heralded quantum logic gates including a new scheme for heralded bell state generation, a key primitive in measurement-based linear optical quantum computation. We propose and demonstrate techniques for efficiently and accurately characterising and verifying these gates' operation. The ability to rapidly reprogram linear optical devices promises to replace a multitude of existing and future prototype systems, pointing the way to applications across quantum technologies.

  20. Measuring Interfractional and Intrafractional Motion With Cone Beam Computed Tomography and an Optical Localization System for Lower Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients Treated With Preoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dickie, Colleen I.; Parent, Amy L.; Chung, Peter W.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Craig, Tim; Griffin, Anthony M.; Panzarella, Tony; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; Sharpe, Michael B.; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate inter- and intrafractional motion and rotational error for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma patients by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and an optical localization system. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one immobilized patients received CBCT image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Setup deviations of >3 mm from the planned isocenter were corrected. A second CBCT acquired before treatment delivery was registered to the planning CT to estimate interfractional setup error retrospectively. Interfractional error and rotational error were calculated in the left-right (LR), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) dimensions. Intrafractional motion was assessed by calculating the maximum relative displacement of optical localization system reflective markers placed on the patient's surface, combined with pre- and postfraction CBCT performed for 17 of the 31 patients once per week. The overall systematic error (SE) and random error (RE) were calculated for the interfractional and intrafractional motion for planning target volume margin calculation. Results: The standard deviation (SD) of the interfractional RE was 1.9 mm LR, 2.1 mm SI, and 1.8 mm AP, and the SE SD was 0.6 mm, 1.2 mm, and 0.7 mm in each dimension, respectively. The overall rotation (inter- and intrafractional) had an RE SD of 0.8{sup o} LR, 1.7{sup o} SI, and 0.7{sup o} AP and an SE SD of 1.1{sup o} LR, 1.3{sup o} SI, and 0.3{sup o} AP. The SD of the overall intrafractional RE was 1.6 mm LR, 1.6 mm SI, and 1.4 mm AP, and the SE SD was 0.7 mm AP, 0.6 mm SI, and 0.6 mm AP. Conclusions: A uniform 5-mm planning target volume margin was quantified for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma patients and has been implemented clinically for image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

  1. Systolic acousto-optic binary convolver

    SciTech Connect

    Guilfoyle, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    A novel high speed array processing optical architecture is described. A multichannel acousto-optic binary convolver is architecturally configured as a systolic array processor. The architecture provides a high speed means of matrix/vector multiplications using the digital multiplication via an analog convolution algorithm. This algorithm and a systolic acousto-optic implementation permit the speed of optics to be combined with the accuracy of digital computation. 15 references.

  2. An approach to the optical MSD adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hideya; Matsushita, Kenji; Shimizu, Eiji

    1990-07-01

    The intrinsic parallelism of optical elements for computation is presently taken fuller advantage of than heretofore possible through an optical implementation of the modified signed digit (MSD) number system, which yields carry-free addition and subtraction. In the present optical implementation of the MSD system, optical phase data are used to preclude negative value representation. Attention is given to an MSD adder array for addition operations on two n-digit trinary numbers; the output is composed of n + 1 trinary digits.

  3. Optic nerve hypoplasia: septo-optic-pituitary dysplasia syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Acers, T E

    1981-01-01

    Forty-five patients with the common clinical factor of optic nerve hypoplasia are analyzed regarding their clinical appearance, echographic and computed tomographic measurements of the optic nerves, and the correlation of anatomic size with visual function. Computed axial tomographic studies of the midline brain were performed on all 45 patients to determine the incidence of correlated structural defects, especially the septum pellucidum, and neuroendocrine dysfunction. Review of the spectrum of septo-optic-pituitary syndrome is separately developed to include historical background, embryogenesis, histopathology, and pathogenesis of the three major components of the syndrome. In summary, 45 patients had optic nerve hypoplasia, 32 with evidence of segmental or partial hypoplasia and 13 with evidence of complete or diffuse hypoplasia--the optic nerve hypoplasia syndrome. Twelve of these patients demonstrated absence of the septum pellucidum by computed axial tomography--the septo-optic dysplasia syndrome. Of these 12 patients with partial or complete absence of the septum pellucidum, six demonstrated evidence of pituitary hypofunction--the septo-optic-pituitary dysplasia syndrome. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 a FIGURE 3 b FIGURE 4 a FIGURE 4 b FIGURE 4 c FIGURE 4 d PMID:7043865

  4. UltraScale Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, , Jr.

    1997-08-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Information Technology Office (DARPA/ITO) supports research in technology for defense-critical applications. Defense Applications are always insatiable consumers of computing. Futuristic applications such as automated image interpretation/whole vehicle radar-cross-section/real-time prototyping/faster-than-real-time simulation will require computing capabilities orders-of-magnitude beyond the best performance that can be projected from contemporary scalable parallel processors. To reach beyond the silicon digital paradigm, DARPA has initiated a program in UltraScale Computing to explore the domain of innovative computational models, methods, and mechanisms. The objective is to encourage a complete re-thinking of computing. Novel architectures, program synthesis, and execution environments are needed as well as alternative underlying physical mechanisms including molecular, biological, optical and quantum mechanical processes. Development of these advanced computing technologies will offer spectacular performance and cost improvements beyond the threshold of traditional materials and processes. The talk will focus on novel approaches for employing vastly more computational units than shrinking transistors will enable and exploration of the biological options for solving computationally difficult problems.

  5. Highly Non-Linear Optical (NLO) organic crystals and films. Electrooptical organic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Rosenberger, Franz; Matthews, John

    1987-01-01

    Devices employing nonlinear optics (NLO) hold great promise for important applications in integrated optics, optical information processing and telecommunications. Properly designed organics possess outstanding optical and electrooptical properties which will substantially advance many technologies including electrooptical switching, optical amplification for communications, and parallel processing for hybrid optical computers. A brief comparison of organic and inorganic materials is given.

  6. Pygmalion's Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peelle, Howard A.

    Computers have undoubtedly entered the educational arena, mainly in the areas of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and artificial intelligence, but whether educators should embrace computers and exactly how they should use them are matters of great debate. The use of computers in support of educational administration is widely accepted.…

  7. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  8. Optical logic array processor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanida, J.; Ichioka, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A simple method for optically implementing digital logic gates in parallel has been developed. Parallel logic gates can be achieved by using a lensless shadow-casting system with a light emitting diode array as an incoherent light source. All the sixteen logic functions for two binary variables, which are the fundamental computations of Boolean algebra, can be simply realised in parallel with these gates by changing the switching modes of a led array. Parallel computation structures of the developed optical digital array processor are demonstrated by implementing pattern logics for two binary images with high space-bandwidth product. Applications of the proposed method to parallel shift operation of the image, differentiation, and processing of gray-level image are shown. 9 references.

  9. Optical transient monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernas, Martin; Páta, Petr; Hudec, René; Soldán, Jan; Rezek, Tomáš; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.

    1998-05-01

    Although there are several optical GRB follow-up systems in operation and/or in development, some of them with a very short response time, they will never be able to provide true simultaneous (no delay) and pre-burst optical data for GRBs. We report on the development and tests of a monitoring experiment expected to be put into test operation in 1998. The system should detect Optical Transients down to mag 6-7 (few seconds duration assumed) over a wide field of view. The system is based on the double CCD wide-field cameras ST8. For the real time evaluation of the signal from both cameras, two TMS 320C40 processors are used. Using two channels differing in spectral sensitivity and processing of temporal sequence of images allows us to eliminate man-made objects and defects of the CCD electronics. The system is controlled by a standard PC computer.

  10. Towards Quantum Computing With Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pysher, Matthew

    This thesis presents experimental progress towards the realization of an optical quantum computer. Quantum computers replace the bits used in classical computing with quantum systems and promise an exponential speedup over their classical counterparts for certain tasks such as integer factoring and the simulation of quantum systems. A recently proposed quantum computing protocol known as one-way quantum computing has paved the way for the use of light in a functional quantum computer. One-way quantum computing calls for the generation of a large (consisting of many subsystems) entangled state known as a cluster state to serve as a quantum register. Entangled states are comprised of subsystems linked in such a way that the state cannot be separated into individual components. A recent proposal has shown that is possible to make arbitrarily large cluster states by linking the resonant frequency modes of a single optical parametric oscillator (OPO). In this thesis, we present two major steps towards the creation of such a cluster state. Namely, we successfully design and test the exotic nonlinear crystal needed in this proposal and use a slight variation on this proposal to simultaneously create over 15 four-mode cluster states in a single OPO. We also explore the possibility of scaling down the physical size of an optical quantum computer by generating squeezed states of light in a compact optical waveguide. Additionally, we investigate photon-number-resolving measurements on continuous quantum light sources, which will be necessary to obtain the desired speedups for a quantum computer over a classical computer.

  11. Optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Block, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Since their invention just over 20 years ago, optical traps have emerged as a powerful tool with broad-reaching applications in biology and physics. Capabilities have evolved from simple manipulation to the application of calibrated forces on—and the measurement of nanometer-level displacements of—optically trapped objects. We review progress in the development of optical trapping apparatus, including instrument design considerations, position detection schemes and calibration techniques, with an emphasis on recent advances. We conclude with a brief summary of innovative optical trapping configurations and applications. PMID:16878180

  12. Wavefront sensing applications of binary optics

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Warren, M.E.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1994-02-01

    The advent of micro- or binary optics technology has made possible the fabrication of a variety of new optical devices. Optical fabrication is no longer limited by surfaces that can be made by grinding and polishing, or even diamond turning. In fact, optics with no symmetry, no smooth surfaces, and that perform multiple functions can be readily fabricated. While these optics have a large number of applications, they are extremely useful for systems that require arrays of small optics or aperture multiplexing, since these are fabricated using computer controlled photo-lithography and etching processes. We have applied binary optics technology to construct various wavefront sensing using four mask processes to create 16 level optics. They are binary in the sense that they use discrete phase levels, not in the sense of using only two levels (they might more properly be called digital optics). We have found that 16 levels is adequate for most systems, giving greater than 99% of efficiency.

  13. QUANTUM OPTICS. Universal linear optics.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Sparrow, Chris; Martín-López, Enrique; Russell, Nicholas J; Silverstone, Joshua W; Shadbolt, Peter J; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony

    2015-08-14

    Linear optics underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons, and their measurement with a 12-single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with an average fidelity of 0.999 ± 0.001. Our system can be rapidly reprogrammed to implement these and any other linear optical protocol, pointing the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies. PMID:26160375

  14. Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.

  15. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  16. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last several years, there has been increased pressure to utilize novel technologies derived from computational chemistry, molecular biology and systems biology in toxicological risk assessment. This new area has been referred to as "Computational Toxicology". Our resear...

  17. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  18. Computer Recreations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewdney, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the performance of computer programs for writing poetry and prose, including MARK V. SHANEY, MELL, POETRY GENERATOR, THUNDER THOUGHT, and ORPHEUS. Discusses the writing principles of the programs. Provides additional information on computer magnification techniques. (YP)

  19. Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational toxicology’ is a broad term that encompasses all manner of computer-facilitated informatics, data-mining, and modeling endeavors in relation to toxicology, including exposure modeling, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, dose-response modeling, ...

  20. Optical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyant, James; Hochberg, Eric; Breault, Robert; Greivenkamp, John; Hunt, Gary; Mason, Pete; Mcguire, James; Meinel, Aden; Morris, Mike; Scherr, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Optical testing is one of the most vital elements in the process of preparing an optical instrument for launch. Without well understood, well controlled, and well documented test procedures, current and future mission goals will be jeopardized. We should keep in mind that the reason we test is to provide an opportunity to catch errors, oversights, and problems on the ground, where solutions are possible and difficulties can be rectified. Consequently, it is necessary to create tractable test procedures that truly provide a measure of the performance of all optical elements and systems under conditions which are close to those expected in space. Where testing is not feasible, accurate experiments are required in order to perfect models that can exactly predict the optical performance. As we stretch the boundaries of technology to perform more complex space and planetary investigations, we must expand the technology required to test the optical components and systems which we send into space. As we expand the observational wavelength ranges, so must we expand our range of optical sources and detectors. As we increase resolution and sensitivity, our understanding of optical surfaces to accommodate more stringent figure and scatter requirements must expand. Only with research and development in these areas can we hope to achieve success in the ever increasing demands made on optical testing by the highly sophisticated missions anticipated over the next two decades. Technology assessment and development plan for surface figure, surface roughness, alignment, image quality, radiometric quantities, and stray light measurement are presented.