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Sample records for optimized background rejection

  1. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas; Cuore Collaboration

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and Cherenkov radiation vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Quantum dot based liquid scintillator is similarly bombarded to produce a background induced scintillation light. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. These findings are extrapolated to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications to bolometer searches. Effects of these techniques on experiment duration and signal-background ratio are discussed.

  2. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and scintillating bolometer vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Modified Zinc Molybdate Bolometers are used to produce scintillation light when stimulated by alpha background. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. Results are used to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications on bolometer searches.

  3. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuestra, Clara; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  4. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-08-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40- kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νβ β-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  5. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40- kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νβ β-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR’s germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  6. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  7. Film Vetoes for Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas; Bucci, Carlo; Canonica, Lucia; Divacri, Marialaura; Cuore Collaboration; Absurd Team

    2015-04-01

    This study characterizes the effectiveness of encasing bolometer detectors in scintillator, metal ionization, and more exotic films to veto alpha radiation background. Bolometers are highly susceptible to alpha background and a successful veto should boost the statistical strength, speed, and signal-background ratio of bolometer particle searches. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4 MeV to 6.0 MeV alpha particles representative of detector conditions. Photomultipliers detect the keV range scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Also, layered films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased with 0.1V to 100V to produce a current signal when incident 1.4 MeV to 6.0 MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Veto signals are characterized by their affect on bolometer detection of 865 keV target signals. Similar methods are applied to more exotic films. Early results show scintillator films raise target signal count rate and suppress counts above target energy by at least a factor of 10. This indicates scintillation vetoes are effective and that metal ionization and other films under study will also be effective.

  8. Background rejection of n+ surface events in GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta (0vββ) decay in 76Ge using an array of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment uses 30 new broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors with superior pulse shape discrimination capabilities compared to the previously used semi-coaxial detector design. By far the largest background component for BEGe detectors in GERDA are n+-surface events from 42K β decays which are intrinsic in LAr. The β particles with up to 3.5 MeV can traverse the 0.5 to 0.9 mm thick electrode and deposit energy within the region of interest for the 0vββ decay. However, those events have particular pulse shape features allowing for a strong discrimination. The understanding and simulation of this background, showing a reduction by up to a factor 145 with pulse shape discrimination alone, is presented in this work.

  9. Segmentation and pulse shape discrimination techniques for rejecting background in germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J.; Primbsch, J. H.; Lin, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of rejecting the internal beta-decay background in coaxial germanium detectors by distinguishing between the multi-site energy losses characteristic of photons and the single-site energy losses of electrons in the range 0.2 - 2 MeV is examined. The photon transport was modeled with a Monte Carlo routine. Background rejection by both multiple segmentation and pulse shape discrimination techniques is investigated. The efficiency of a six 1 cm-thick segment coaxial detector operating in coincidence mode alone is compared to that of a two-segment (1 cm and 5 cm) detector employing both front-rear coincidence and PSD in the rear segment to isolate photon events. Both techniques can provide at least 95 percent rejection of single-site events while accepting at least 80 percent of the multi-site events above 500 keV.

  10. Rejection of Alpha Surface Background in Non-scintillating Bolometric Detectors: The ABSuRD Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; di Vacri, M. L.; Gorla, P.; Pavan, M.; Yeh, M.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their excellent energy resolution values and the vast choice of possible materials, bolometric detectors are currently widely used in the physics of rare events. A limiting aspect for bolometers rises from their inability to discriminate among radiation types or surface from bulk events. It has been demonstrated that the main limitation to sensitivity for purely bolometric detectors is represented by surface alpha contaminations, causing a continuous background that cannot be discriminated. A new scintillation-based technique for the rejection of surface alpha background in non-scintillating bolometric experiments is proposed in this work. The idea is to combine a scintillating and a high sensitivity photon detector with a non-scintillating absorber. We present results showing the possibility to reject events due to alpha decay at or nearby the surface of the crystal.

  11. Optimization of background subtraction for image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetsky, Larry; Boczar, Ross; Lee-Own, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of foreground objects in scenery via image processing often involves a background subtraction process. This process aims to improve blob (connected component) content in the image. Quality blob content is often needed for defining regions of interest for object recognition and tracking. Three techniques are examined which optimize the background to be subtracted - genetic algorithm, an analytic solution based on convex optimization, and a related application of the CVX solver toolbox. These techniques are applied to a set of images and the results are compared. Additionally, a possible implementation architecture that uses multiple optimization techniques with subsequent arbitration to produce the best background subtraction is considered.

  12. Pulse-shape analysis for gamma background rejection in thermal neutron radiation using CVD diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavrigin, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Jericha, E.; Pappalardo, A.; Weiss, C.

    2015-09-01

    A novel technique for the rejection of gamma background from charged-particle spectra was demonstrated using a CVD diamond detector with a 6Li neutron converter installed at a thermal neutron beamline of the TRIGA research reactor at the Atominstitut (Vienna University of Technology). Spectra of the alpha particles and tritons of 6Li(n,T)4He thermal neutron capture reaction were separated from the gamma background by a new algorithm based on pulse-shape analysis. The thermal neutron capture in 6Li is already used for neutron flux monitoring, but the ability to remove gamma background allows using a CVD diamond detector for thermal neutron counting. The pulse-shape analysis can equally be applied to all cases where the charged products of an interaction are absorbed in the diamond and to other background particles that fully traverse the detector.

  13. Pulse shape discrimination for background rejection in germanium gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feffer, P. T.; Smith, D. M.; Campbell, R. D.; Primbsch, J. H.; Lin, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    A pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) technique is developed to reject the beta-decay background resulting from activation of Ge gamma-ray detectors by cosmic-ray secondaries. These beta decays are a major source of background at 0.2-2 MeV energies in well shielded Ge detector systems. The technique exploits the difference between the detected current pulse shapes of single- and multiple-site energy depositions within the detector: beta decays are primarily single-site events, while photons at these energies typically Compton scatter before being photoelectrically absorbed to produce multiple-site events. Depending upon the amount of background due to sources other than beta decay, PSD can more than double the detector sensitivity.

  14. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  15. Human energy - optimal control of disturbance rejection during constrained standing.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, M; Munih, M; Ponikvar, M

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control system that enables a subject to stand without hand support in the sagittal plane was designed. The subject was considered as a double inverted pendulum structure with a voluntarily controlled degree of freedom in the upper trunk and artificially controlled degree of freedom in the ankle joints. The control system design was based on a minimization of cost function that estimated the effort of the ankle joint muscles through observation of the ground reaction force position relative to the ankle joint axis. By maintaining the centre of pressure close to the ankle joint axis the objective of the upright stance is fulfilled with minimal ankle muscle energy cost. The performance of the developed controller was evaluated in a simulation-based study. The results were compared with the responses of an unimpaired subject to different disturbances in the sagittal plane. The proposed cost function was shown to produce a reasonable approximation of human natural behaviour. PMID:12936049

  16. Asymptotically optimal data analysis for rejecting local realism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanbao; Glancy, Scott; Knill, Emanuel

    2011-12-15

    Reliable experimental demonstrations of violations of local realism are highly desirable for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. One can quantify the violation witnessed by an experiment in terms of a statistical p value, which can be defined as the maximum probability according to local realism of a violation at least as high as that witnessed. Thus, high violation corresponds to small p value. We propose a prediction-based-ratio (PBR) analysis protocol whose p values are valid even if the prepared quantum state varies arbitrarily and local realistic models can depend on previous measurement settings and outcomes. It is therefore not subject to the memory loophole [J. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. A 66, 042111 (2002)]. If the prepared state does not vary in time, the p values are asymptotically optimal. For comparison, we consider protocols derived from the number of standard deviations of violation of a Bell inequality and from martingale theory [R. Gill, e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0110137]. We find that the p values of the former can be too small and are therefore not statistically valid, while those derived from the latter are suboptimal. PBR p values do not require a predetermined Bell inequality and can be used to compare results from different tests of local realism independent of experimental details.

  17. Asymptotically optimal data analysis for rejecting local realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanbao; Glancy, Scott; Knill, Emanuel

    2011-12-01

    Reliable experimental demonstrations of violations of local realism are highly desirable for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. One can quantify the violation witnessed by an experiment in terms of a statistical p value, which can be defined as the maximum probability according to local realism of a violation at least as high as that witnessed. Thus, high violation corresponds to small p value. We propose a prediction-based-ratio (PBR) analysis protocol whose p values are valid even if the prepared quantum state varies arbitrarily and local realistic models can depend on previous measurement settings and outcomes. It is therefore not subject to the memory loophole [J. Barrett , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.66.042111 66, 042111 (2002)]. If the prepared state does not vary in time, the p values are asymptotically optimal. For comparison, we consider protocols derived from the number of standard deviations of violation of a Bell inequality and from martingale theory [R. Gill, e-print arXiv:quant-ph/0110137]. We find that the p values of the former can be too small and are therefore not statistically valid, while those derived from the latter are suboptimal. PBR p values do not require a predetermined Bell inequality and can be used to compare results from different tests of local realism independent of experimental details.

  18. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Cervera, A.; Hernando, J. A.; Imzaylov, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Nygren, D.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay experiments using a high-pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0νββ decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0νββ decay (0Qββ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign of the curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0νββ) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (single-electron) events producing a track that should spiral in a single direction. Due to electron multiple scattering, this strategy is not perfectly efficient on an event-by-event basis, but a statistical estimator can be constructed which can be used to reject background events by one order of magnitude at a moderate cost (about 30%) in signal efficiency. Combining this estimator with the excellent energy resolution and topological signature identification characteristic of the HPXe TPC, it is possible to reach a background rate of less than one count per ton-year of exposure. Such a low background rate is an essential feature of the next generation of 0νββ experiments, aiming to fully explore the inverse hierarchy of neutrino masses.

  19. Acoustic studies for alpha background rejection in dark matter bubble chamber detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Cabo, M.; Felis, I.; Ardid, M.; Collaboration: COUPP Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics) is an experiment with bubble chambers able to detect dark matter directly either with Spin-Dependent or with Spin-Independent interactions. The target material is a superheated liquid (usually CF3I) that can be bubble nucleated due to nuclear recoils produced by elastic collisions of dark matter particles. The bubble growth inside the chamber is accompanied with an acoustic signature. The acoustic technique has been successfully used to have a good alpha discrimination (about 99%). In this paper, we present different studies and results related with the characterization of the acoustic properties of the detector and the different phenomena involved in the acoustic measurements of the bubble growth, such as sound generation, sound transmission and optimization of piezoelectric transducers.

  20. Topology optimization of 3D compliant actuators by a sequential element rejection and admission method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansola, R.; Veguería, E.; Alonso, C.; Querin, O. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents a sequential element rejection and admission (SERA) method for optimum topology design of three dimensional compliant actuators. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to several topology optimization problems, but most investigations for compliant devices design have been focused on planar systems. This investigation aims to progress on this line, where a generalization of the method for three dimensional topology optimization is explored. The methodology described in this work is useful for the synthesis of high performance flexure based micro and nano manipulation applications demanding for both sensing and control of motion and force trajectories. In this case the goal of the topology optimization problem is to design an actuator that transfers work from the input point to the output port in a structurally efficient way. Here we will use the classical formulation where the displacement performed on a work piece modelled by a spring is maximized. The technique implemented works with two separate criteria for the rejection and admission of elements to efficiently achieve the optimum design and overcomes problems encountered by other evolutionary methods when dealing with compliant mechanisms design. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  1. Fiber background rejection and crystal over-response compensation for GaN based in vivo dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pittet, P; Ismail, A; Ribouton, J; Wang, R; Galvan, J-M; Chaikh, A; Lu, G-N; Jalade, P; Giraud, J-Y; Balosso, J

    2013-09-01

    For dosimetric measurements using an implantable optical fiber probe with GaN (Gallium Nitride) scintillator as radioluminescence (RL) transducer, a bi-channel method is proposed to reject the background contribution of the irradiated fiber segment. It is based on spectral differences between the narrow-band light emission from GaN and the large-band background from the irradiated optical fiber. Experimental validation of this method using 6 MV photon beam has shown that the remaining background contribution after subtraction is below 1.2% for square field sizes ranging from 3 cm to 20 cm. Furthermore, a compensation method for the over-response of GaN is also proposed, since GaN is not tissue equivalent. The over-response factor of GaN exhibits a linear increase with square field aperture and depends on depth from phantom surface. This behaviour is modelled to allow compensation in specific conditions. The proposed method has been evaluated and has shown a maximum deviation of 3% for a 6 MV photon beam and 1% for an 18 MV photon beam at a depth beyond the build-up region. PMID:23317814

  2. Nonlinear Optimization-Based Device-Free Localization with Outlier Link Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wendong; Song, Biao; Yu, Xiting; Chen, Peiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Device-free localization (DFL) is an emerging wireless technique for estimating the location of target that does not have any attached electronic device. It has found extensive use in Smart City applications such as healthcare at home and hospitals, location-based services at smart spaces, city emergency response and infrastructure security. In DFL, wireless devices are used as sensors that can sense the target by transmitting and receiving wireless signals collaboratively. Many DFL systems are implemented based on received signal strength (RSS) measurements and the location of the target is estimated by detecting the changes of the RSS measurements of the wireless links. Due to the uncertainty of the wireless channel, certain links may be seriously polluted and result in erroneous detection. In this paper, we propose a novel nonlinear optimization approach with outlier link rejection (NOOLR) for RSS-based DFL. It consists of three key strategies, including: (1) affected link identification by differential RSS detection; (2) outlier link rejection via geometrical positional relationship among links; (3) target location estimation by formulating and solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Experimental results demonstrate that NOOLR is robust to the fluctuation of the wireless signals with superior localization accuracy compared with the existing Radio Tomographic Imaging (RTI) approach. PMID:25853406

  3. Nonlinear optimization-based device-free localization with outlier link rejection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wendong; Song, Biao; Yu, Xiting; Chen, Peiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Device-free localization (DFL) is an emerging wireless technique for estimating the location of target that does not have any attached electronic device. It has found extensive use in Smart City applications such as healthcare at home and hospitals, location-based services at smart spaces, city emergency response and infrastructure security. In DFL, wireless devices are used as sensors that can sense the target by transmitting and receiving wireless signals collaboratively. Many DFL systems are implemented based on received signal strength (RSS) measurements and the location of the target is estimated by detecting the changes of the RSS measurements of the wireless links. Due to the uncertainty of the wireless channel, certain links may be seriously polluted and result in erroneous detection. In this paper, we propose a novel nonlinear optimization approach with outlier link rejection (NOOLR) for RSS-based DFL. It consists of three key strategies, including: (1) affected link identification by differential RSS detection; (2) outlier link rejection via geometrical positional relationship among links; (3) target location estimation by formulating and solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Experimental results demonstrate that NOOLR is robust to the fluctuation of the wireless signals with superior localization accuracy compared with the existing Radio Tomographic Imaging (RTI) approach. PMID:25853406

  4. NuLat: 3D Event Reconstruction of a ROL Detector for Neutrino Detection and Background Rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokley, Zachary; NuLat Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    NuLat is a proposed very-short baseline reactor antineutrino experiment that employs a unique detector design, a Ragahavan Optical Lattice (ROL), developed for the LENS solar neutrino experiment. The 3D lattice provides high spatial and temporal resolution and allows for energy deposition in each voxel to be determined independently of other voxels, as well as the time sequence associated with each voxel energy deposition. This unique feature arises from two independent means to spatially locate energy deposits: via timing and via optical channeling. NuLat, the first application of a ROL detector targeting physics results, will measure the reactor antineutrino flux at very short baselines via inverse beta decay (IBD). The ROL design of NuLat makes possible the reconstruction of positron energy with little contamination due to the annihilation gammas which smear the positron energy resolution in a traditional detector. IBD events are cleanly tagged via temporal and spatial coincidence of neutron capture in the vertex voxel or nearest neighbors. This talk will present work on IBD event reconstruction in NuLat and its likely impact on sterile neutrino detection via operation in higher background locations enabled by its superior rejection of backgrounds. This research has been funded in part by the National Science Foundation on Award Numbers 1001394 and 1001078.

  5. Evaluation of radioactive background rejection in 76Ge neutrino-lessdouble-beta decay experiments using a highly segmented HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Yuen-Dat; Campbell, D.B.; Vetter, K.; Henning, R.; Lesko, K.; Chan, Y.D.; Poon, A.W.P.; Perry, M.; Hurley, D.; Smith, A.R.

    2007-02-05

    A highly segmented coaxial HPGe detector was operated in a low background counting facility for over 1 year to experimentally evaluate possible segmentation strategies for the proposed Majorana neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment. Segmentation schemes were evaluated on their ability to reject multi-segment events while retaining single-segment events. To quantify a segmentation scheme's acceptance efficiency the percentage of peak area due to single segment events was calculated for peaks located in the energy region 911-2614 keV. Single interaction site events were represented by the double-escape peak from the 2614 keV decay in {sup 208}Tl located at 1592 keV. In spite of its prototypical nature, the detector performed well under realistic operating conditions and required only minimal human interaction. Though the energy resolution for events with interactions in multiple segments was impacted by inter-segment cross-talk, the implementation of a cross-talk correlation matrix restored acceptable resolution. Additionally, simulations utilizing the MaGe simulation package were performed and found to be in good agreement with experimental observations verifying the external nature of the background radiation.

  6. Optimal disturbance rejection for PI controller with constraints on relative delay margin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Li, Donghai; Lee, Kwang Y

    2016-07-01

    Performance optimization with robustness constraints is frequently encountered in process control. Motivated by the analytical difficulties in dealing with the conventional robustness index, e.g., maximum sensitivity, we introduce the relative delay margin as a good alternative, which gives much simpler robust analysis. This point is illustrated by designing an optimal PI controller for the first-order-plus-dead-time (FOPDT) model. It is first shown that the PI controller parameters can be analytically derived in terms of a new pair of parameters, i.e., the phase margin and gain crossover frequency. The stability region of PI controller is subsequently obtained with a much simpler procedure than the existing approaches. It is further shown that a certain relative delay margin can represent the robustness level well and the contour can be sketched with a simpler procedure than the one using maximum sensitivity index. With constraints on the relative delay margin, an optimal disturbance rejection problem is then formulated and analytically solved. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed methodology is better than that of other PI tuning rules. In this paper, the relative delay margin is shown as a promising robustness measure to the analysis and design of other advanced controllers. PMID:27038886

  7. Simplified analysis and optimization of space base and space shuttle heat rejection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulff, W.

    1972-01-01

    A simplified radiator system analysis was performed to predict steady state radiator system performance. The system performance was found to be describable in terms of five non-dimensional system parameters. The governing differential equations are integrated numerically to yield the enthalpy rejection for the coolant fluid. The simplified analysis was extended to produce the derivatives of the coolant exit temperature with respect to the governing system parameters. A procedure was developed to find the optimum set of system parameters which yields the lowest possible coolant exit temperature for either a given projected area or a given total mass. The process can be inverted to yield either the minimum area or the minimum mass, together with the optimum geometry, for a specified heat rejection rate.

  8. Monte Carlo optimization of sample dimensions of an 241Am Be source-based PGNAA setup for water rejects analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Beddek, S.; Amokrane, A.; Azbouche, A.

    2007-07-01

    The present paper describes the optimization of sample dimensions of a 241Am-Be neutron source-based Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup devoted for in situ environmental water rejects analysis. The optimal dimensions have been achieved following extensive Monte Carlo neutron flux calculations using MCNP5 computer code. A validation process has been performed for the proposed preliminary setup with measurements of thermal neutron flux by activation technique of indium foils, bare and with cadmium covered sheet. Sensitive calculations were subsequently performed to simulate real conditions of in situ analysis by determining thermal neutron flux perturbations in samples according to chlorine and organic matter concentrations changes. The desired optimal sample dimensions were finally achieved once established constraints regarding neutron damage to semi-conductor gamma detector, pulse pile-up, dead time and radiation hazards were fully met.

  9. Background rejection capabilities of a Compton imaging telescope setup with a DSSD Ge planar detector and AGATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doncel, M.; Quintana, B.; Gadea, A.; Recchia, F.; Farnea, E.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we show the first Monte Carlo results about the performance of the Ge array which we propose for the DESPEC experiment at FAIR, when the background algorithm developed for AGATA is applied. The main objective of our study is to characterize the capabilities of the γ-spectroscopy system, made up of AGATA detectors in a semi-spherical distribution covering a 1π solid angle and a set of planar Ge detectors in a daisy configuration, to discriminate between γ sources placed at different locations.

  10. Measurement of θ 13 in Double Chooz using neutron captures on hydrogen with novel background rejection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Appel, S.; Abrahão, T.; Almazan, H.; Alt, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J. C.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bergevin, M.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Brugière, T.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Collin, A. P.; Conrad, J. M.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crum, K.; Cucoanes, A. S.; Damon, E.; Dawson, J. V.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, D.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Felde, J.; Fernandes, S. M.; Fischer, V.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Göger-Neff, M.; Gomez, H.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Haag, N.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hellwig, D.; Hofmann, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kaether, F.; Kalousis, L. N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaneda, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C. E.; Lasserre, T.; Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H. P.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lucht, S.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Martino, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Novella, P.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Osborn, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I. M.; Perasso, S.; Porta, A.; Pronost, G.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reinhold, B.; Röhling, M.; Roncin, R.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schilithz, A. C.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Sharankova, R.; Shrestha, D.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smith, E.; Soiron, M.; Spitz, J.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, R.; Terao, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Thi, H. H. Trinh; Valdiviesso, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; Wagner, S.; Walsh, N.; Watanabe, H.; Wiebusch, C.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2016-01-01

    The Double Chooz collaboration presents a measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 using reactor overline{νe} observed via the inverse beta decay reaction in which the neutron is captured on hydrogen. This measurement is based on 462.72 live days data, approximately twice as much data as in the previous such analysis, collected with a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties. Accidental coincidences, the dominant background in this analysis, are suppressed by more than an order of magnitude with respect to our previous publication by a multi-variate analysis. These improvements demonstrate the capability of precise measurement of reactor overline{νe} without gadolinium loading. Spectral distortions from the overline{νe} reactor flux predictions previously reported with the neutron capture on gadolinium events are confirmed in the independent data sample presented here. A value of sin2 2 θ 13 = 0.095 - 0.039 + 0.038 (stat+syst) is obtained from a fit to the observed event rate as a function of the reactor power, a method insensitive to the energy spectrum shape. A simultaneous fit of the hydrogen capture events and of the gadolinium capture events yields a measurement of sin2 2 θ 13 = 0 .088 ± 0 .033(stat+syst). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Bayesian signal processing of pulse shapes for background rejection in the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, Benjamin; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the p-type point contact (PPC) geometry to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) in 76Ge. Due to the unique electric potential created within the PPC geometry, the detailed pulse shape depends on the number of energy depositions contained within a given event. Pulse shape analysis (PSA) techniques can be used to estimate the number of separate depositions which combine to form a single pulse. This information can be used to discriminate between 0 νββ candidate events, which deposit energy at a single detector site, and gamma ray background, which can scatter and deposit energy in multiple locations. The problem of determining whether a pulse is single- or multi-site is well suited to Bayesian classifiers. Once trained via supervised machine learning, these algorithms can perform nonlinear cuts against multi-site events using the estimated probability function as a discriminator. The Bayesian approach can also be naturally extended to incorporate a model of the physical process responsible for signal generation within the detector. Presented here is an overview of the Bayesian classifier developed for use on the Demonstrator. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  12. Tacrolimus in preventing transplant rejection in Chinese patients – optimizing use

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. PMID:25609922

  13. Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Susan B.

    2010-09-01

    Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

  14. Fisher Matrix Optimization of Cosmic Microwave Background Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haonan; Bunn, Emory F.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method for forecasting errors in interferometric measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, based on the use of the Fisher matrix calculated from the visibility covariance and relation matrices. In addition to noise and sample variance, the method can account for many kinds of systematic error by calculating an augmented Fisher matrix, including parameters that characterize the instrument along with the cosmological parameters to be estimated. The method is illustrated with examples of gain errors and errors in polarizer orientation. The augmented Fisher matrix approach is applicable to a much wider range of problems beyond CMB interferometry.

  15. Fisher matrix optimization of cosmic microwave background interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haonan; Bunn, Emory F.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method for forecasting errors in interferometric measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, based on the use of the Fisher matrix calculated from the visibility covariance and relation matrices. In addition to noise and sample variance, the method can account for many kinds of systematic error by calculating an augmented Fisher matrix, including parameters that characterize the instrument along with the cosmological parameters to be estimated. The method is illustrated with examples of gain errors and errors in polarizer orientation. The augmented Fisher-matrix approach is applicable to a much wider range of problems beyond CMB interferometry.

  16. Multi-channel lock-in amplifier assisted femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy with efficient rejection of superfluorescence background

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Pengcheng; Wang, Zhuan; Dang, Wei; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-12-15

    Superfluorescence appears as an intense background in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence noncollinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy, which severely interferes the reliable acquisition of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra especially for an optically dilute sample. Superfluorescence originates from the optical amplification of the vacuum quantum noise, which would be inevitably concomitant with the amplified fluorescence photons during the optical parametric amplification process. Here, we report the development of a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectrometer assisted with a 32-channel lock-in amplifier for efficient rejection of the superfluorescence background. With this spectrometer, the superfluorescence background signal can be significantly reduced to 1/300–1/100 when the seeding fluorescence is modulated. An integrated 32-bundle optical fiber is used as a linear array light receiver connected to 32 photodiodes in one-to-one mode, and the photodiodes are further coupled to a home-built 32-channel synchronous digital lock-in amplifier. As an implementation, time-resolved fluorescence spectra for rhodamine 6G dye in ethanol solution at an optically dilute concentration of 10{sup −5}M excited at 510 nm with an excitation intensity of 70 nJ/pulse have been successfully recorded, and the detection limit at a pump intensity of 60 μJ/pulse was determined as about 13 photons/pulse. Concentration dependent redshift starting at 30 ps after the excitation in time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this dye has also been observed, which can be attributed to the formation of the excimer at a higher concentration, while the blueshift in the earlier time within 10 ps is attributed to the solvation process.

  17. Multi-channel lock-in amplifier assisted femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy with efficient rejection of superfluorescence background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Pengcheng; Wang, Zhuan; Dang, Wei; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-12-01

    Superfluorescence appears as an intense background in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence noncollinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy, which severely interferes the reliable acquisition of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra especially for an optically dilute sample. Superfluorescence originates from the optical amplification of the vacuum quantum noise, which would be inevitably concomitant with the amplified fluorescence photons during the optical parametric amplification process. Here, we report the development of a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectrometer assisted with a 32-channel lock-in amplifier for efficient rejection of the superfluorescence background. With this spectrometer, the superfluorescence background signal can be significantly reduced to 1/300-1/100 when the seeding fluorescence is modulated. An integrated 32-bundle optical fiber is used as a linear array light receiver connected to 32 photodiodes in one-to-one mode, and the photodiodes are further coupled to a home-built 32-channel synchronous digital lock-in amplifier. As an implementation, time-resolved fluorescence spectra for rhodamine 6G dye in ethanol solution at an optically dilute concentration of 10-5M excited at 510 nm with an excitation intensity of 70 nJ/pulse have been successfully recorded, and the detection limit at a pump intensity of 60 μJ/pulse was determined as about 13 photons/pulse. Concentration dependent redshift starting at 30 ps after the excitation in time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this dye has also been observed, which can be attributed to the formation of the excimer at a higher concentration, while the blueshift in the earlier time within 10 ps is attributed to the solvation process.

  18. Multi-channel lock-in amplifier assisted femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy with efficient rejection of superfluorescence background.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pengcheng; Wang, Zhuan; Dang, Wei; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-12-01

    Superfluorescence appears as an intense background in femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence noncollinear optical parametric amplification spectroscopy, which severely interferes the reliable acquisition of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra especially for an optically dilute sample. Superfluorescence originates from the optical amplification of the vacuum quantum noise, which would be inevitably concomitant with the amplified fluorescence photons during the optical parametric amplification process. Here, we report the development of a femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence non-collinear optical parametric amplification spectrometer assisted with a 32-channel lock-in amplifier for efficient rejection of the superfluorescence background. With this spectrometer, the superfluorescence background signal can be significantly reduced to 1/300-1/100 when the seeding fluorescence is modulated. An integrated 32-bundle optical fiber is used as a linear array light receiver connected to 32 photodiodes in one-to-one mode, and the photodiodes are further coupled to a home-built 32-channel synchronous digital lock-in amplifier. As an implementation, time-resolved fluorescence spectra for rhodamine 6G dye in ethanol solution at an optically dilute concentration of 10(-5)M excited at 510 nm with an excitation intensity of 70 nJ/pulse have been successfully recorded, and the detection limit at a pump intensity of 60 μJ/pulse was determined as about 13 photons/pulse. Concentration dependent redshift starting at 30 ps after the excitation in time-resolved fluorescence spectra of this dye has also been observed, which can be attributed to the formation of the excimer at a higher concentration, while the blueshift in the earlier time within 10 ps is attributed to the solvation process. PMID:26724012

  19. Detection of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy with Milagro Using a New Background Rejection Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.

    2006-10-27

    Milagro is a TeV gamma-ray observatory that utilizes a large water Cherenkov detector to observe extensive air showers (EAS) produced by high energy particles impacting the Earth's atmosphere. Milagro's distinct advantage compared to other TeV gamma-ray detectors is that it views a wide field (2 steradian overhead sky) and it continuously operates (> 90% live time ). These factors give Milagro the potential for discovery of new sources with unknown positions and times, such as gamma-ray bursts, flaring AGNs, and observation of diffuse and extended sources like the Galactic plane or large supernova remnants. Here we present a new technique for improving background rejection in Milagro as well as a gamma-ray image of the Cygnus region at energies near 12.5 TeV. We report the detection of both an extended source and a large area of diffuse gamma-ray emission from this region of the galaxy. This new extended source has an extent of 0.32 {+-} 0.12 degrees and an integral flux above 12.5 TeV of (1.71 {+-} 0.24stat {+-} 0.34sys) x 10-13cm-2s-1 assuming a differential source spectrum of E-2.6. The best-fit location for the source is RA = 304.66 {+-} 0.13stat {+-} 0.25sys degrees and declination 36.96 {+-} 0.08stat {+-} 0.2sys degrees.

  20. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  1. Optimal strategies for gravitational wave stochastic background searches in pulsar timing data

    SciTech Connect

    Anholm, Melissa; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Ballmer, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    A low frequency stochastic background of gravitational waves may be detected by pulsar timing experiments in the next 5 to 10 yr. Using methods developed to analyze interferometric gravitational wave data, in this paper we lay out the optimal techniques to detect a background of gravitational waves using a pulsar timing array. We show that for pulsar distances and gravitational wave frequencies typical of pulsar timing experiments, neglecting the effect of the metric perturbation at the pulsar does not result in a significant deviation from optimality. We discuss methods for setting upper limits using the optimal statistic, show how to construct skymaps using the pulsar timing array, and consider several issues associated with realistic analysis of pulsar timing data.

  2. Improved Fuzzy C-Means based Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) initialization and outlier rejection with level set methods for MR brain image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Mekhmoukh, Abdenour; Mokrani, Karim

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a new image segmentation method based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and outlier rejection combined with level set is proposed. A traditional approach to the segmentation of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. The membership function of this conventional algorithm is sensitive to the outlier and does not integrate the spatial information in the image. The algorithm is very sensitive to noise and in-homogeneities in the image, moreover, it depends on cluster centers initialization. To improve the outlier rejection and to reduce the noise sensitivity of conventional FCM clustering algorithm, a novel extended FCM algorithm for image segmentation is presented. In general, in the FCM algorithm the initial cluster centers are chosen randomly, with the help of PSO algorithm the clusters centers are chosen optimally. Our algorithm takes also into consideration the spatial neighborhood information. These a priori are used in the cost function to be optimized. For MR images, the resulting fuzzy clustering is used to set the initial level set contour. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26299609

  3. Optimal coherent control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: Signal enhancement and background elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fang; Shuang, Feng; Shi, Junhui; Rabitz, Herschel; Wang, Haifeng; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2012-04-01

    The ability to enhance resonant signals and eliminate the non-resonant background is analyzed for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The analysis is done at a specific frequency as well as for broadband excitation using femtosecond pulse-shaping techniques. An appropriate objective functional is employed to balance resonant signal enhancement against non-resonant background suppression. Optimal enhancement of the signal and minimization of the background can be achieved by shaping the probe pulse alone while keeping the pump and Stokes pulses unshaped. In some cases analytical forms for the probe pulse can be found, and numerical simulations are carried out for other circumstances. It is found that a good approximate optimal solution for resonant signal enhancement in two-pulse CARS is a superposition of linear and arctangent-type phases for the pump. The well-known probe delay method is shown to be a quasi-optimal scheme for broadband background suppression. The results should provide a basis to improve the performance of CARS spectroscopy and microscopy.

  4. Optimization of the SiD concept in the presence of ILC backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strube, Jan; Markiewicz, Thomas; Milke, Christopher; Schuetz, Anne; Schumm, Bruce; Stanitzki, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    The International Linear Collider is a high-energy e+e- machine, planned to be built in Japan in the next decade. Its physics program features precision measurements of the top and Electroweak sectors and a discovery potential of Physics beyond the Standard Model complementary to that of the LHC. We present studies of machine-related background processes in the context of detector optimization. For each of the dominant background processes, we will present its main signature in the detector, impact on physics measurements, and strategies for mitigation in detector design and reconstruction algorithms. The studies are based on a detailed simulation of the SiD detector concept.

  5. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  6. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Ritz, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2007-07-12

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  7. Optimization of low-background alpha spectrometers for analysis of thick samples.

    PubMed

    Misiaszek, M; Pelczar, K; Wójcik, M; Zuzel, G; Laubenstein, M

    2013-11-01

    Results of alpha spectrometric measurements performed deep underground and above ground with and without active veto show that the underground measurement of thick samples is the most sensitive method due to significant reduction of the muon-induced background. In addition, the polonium diffusion requires for some samples an appropriate selection of an energy region in the registered spectrum. On the basis of computer simulations the best counting conditions are selected for a thick lead sample in order to optimize the detection limit. PMID:23628514

  8. Background optimization for the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer NEAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, G.; Russina, M.

    2016-08-01

    The neutron time-of-flight spectrometer NEAT at BER II is currently undergoing a major upgrade where an important aspect is the prevention of parasitic scattering to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we discuss the impact of shielding to suppress parasitic scattering from two identified sources of background: the sample environment and detector tubes. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and a modification of the analytical model of Copley et al. [Copley and Cook, 1994], the visibility functions of instrument parts are computed for different shielding configurations. According to three selection criteria, namely suppression of background, transmission and detection limit, the parameters of an oscillating radial collimator are optimized for NEAT's default setup. Moreover, different configurations of detector shielding are discussed to prevent cross-talk within the radial detector system.

  9. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  10. Construction of an Optimal Background Profile for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky Equation using Semidefinite Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Andrew; Fantuzzi, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    The Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation has been derived in many physical contexts to describe systems whose dynamics are characterised by long-wavelength instability, for example flame-front instabilities or flow stability for thin liquid films on inclined planes. It is known that the KS equation has chaotic solutions if the governing parameter (typically the length L of the domain) is sufficiently large. Furthermore, numerical evidence suggests that the asymptotic energy of the solution scales according to L1/2 although, despite much effort, it has not yet been possible to prove such a bound analytically. We present a novel method of proving bounds on the asymptotic energy of the KS equation, by constructing a `background profile' using Semidefinite Programming. The advantage of the method is that the background profile may be searched for automatically by solving a standard optimization problem, while coupling the numerics to a careful mathematical analysis of the PDE ensures that the bounds hold analytically. The obtained scaling of L3/2 agrees with the previous best results using the background profile method. Interestingly, the obtained profiles closely resemble the `viscous shock' solutions which are known to exist for destabilized KS equations.

  11. Design optimization and background modeling of the HEX experiment on Chandrayaan-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Manju; Sreekumar, P.

    2012-11-01

    Spacecraft and their subsystem components are subject to a very hazardous radiation environment in both near-Earth and deep space orbits. Knowledge of the effects of this high energy particle and electromagnetic radiation is essential in designing sensors, electronic circuits and living habitats for humans in near Earth orbit, en route to and on the Moon and Mars. This paper discusses the use of Monte Carlo simulations to optimize system design, radiation source modeling, and determination of background in sensors due to galactic cosmic rays and radiation from the Moon. The results demonstrate the use of Monte Carlo particle transport toolkits to predict secondary production, determine dose rates in space and design required shielding geometry.

  12. Space vehicle thermal rejection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, Herbert J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A space vehicle thermal heat rejection system 10 utilizing separate optimized heat pipe components for the functions of heat acquisition, heat transport, and heat rejection. A honeycomb panel heat pipe evaporator section 20 performs the function of heat acquisition, and forms a closed thermodynamic system with a dual channel heat pipe transport section 30, which performs the function of heat transport. A plurality of truss or channel core heat pipe rejection fins 41 form the condenser section 40, which performs the function of heat rejection. A common wall 32 separates the condenser section 40 from the transport section 30. Using the above heat pipe components and having efficient interfacing between them results in high performance factors for the overall system.

  13. Optimization of signal versus background in liquid xenon detectors used for dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcangelo, Francesca D.

    2010-02-01

    The discovery of cosmic acceleration twelve years ago implies that our universe is dominated by dark energy, which is either a tiny cosmological constant or a mysterious fluid with large negative pressure, or that Einstein's successful theory of gravity needs to be modified at large scales/low energies. Since then, independent evidence of a number of cosmological probes has firmly established the picture of a universe where dark energy (or the effective contribution from a modification of gravity) makes up about 72% of the total energy density. Whichever of the options mentioned above will turn out to be the right one, a satisfying explanation for cosmic acceleration will likely lead to important new insights in fundamental physics. The question of the physics behind cosmic acceleration is thus one of the most intriguing open questions in modern physics. In this thesis, we calculate current constraints on dark energy and study how to optimally use the cosmological tools at our disposal to learn about its nature. We will first present constraints from a host of recent data on the dark energy sound speed and equation of state for different dark energy models including early dark energy. We then study the observational properties of purely kinetic k-essence models and show how they can in principle be straightforwardly distinguished from quintessence models by their equation of state behavior. We next consider a large, representative set of dark energy and modified gravity models and show that they can be divided into a small set of observationally distinct classes. We also find that all non-early dark energy models we consider can be modeled extremely well by a simple linear equation of state form. We will then go on to discuss a number of alternative, model independent parametrizations of dark energy properties. Among other things, we find that principal component analysis is not as model-independent as one would like it to be and that assuming a fixed value for the

  14. DIPS organic rankine cycle heat rejection system

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an optimization study performed on the heat rejection system for a space based ORC power system using an isotope heat source. The radiator sizing depends on the heat rejection temperature, radiator configuration, and radiator properties such as the fin effectiveness, emissivity, and absorptivity. The optimization analysis to evaluate the effect of each of these parameters on the system weight and area is presented.

  15. Common-mode rejection in Martin-Puplett spectrometers for astronomical observations at millimeter wavelengths.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia; Schillaci, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The Martin-Puplett interferometer (MPI) is a differential Fourier transform spectrometer that measures the difference between spectral brightness at two input ports. This unique feature makes the MPI an optimal zero instrument, able to detect small brightness gradients embedded in a large common background. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the common-mode rejection achievable in the MPI at millimeter wavelengths, and discuss the use of the instrument to measure the spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropy. PMID:26560581

  16. Optimization of thermal ghost imaging: high-order correlations vs. background subtraction.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kam Wai C; O'Sullivan, Malcolm N; Boyd, Robert W

    2010-03-15

    We compare the performance of high-order thermal ghost imaging with that of conventional (that is, lowest-order) thermal ghost imaging for different data processing methods. Particular attention is given to high-order thermal ghost imaging with background normalization and conventional ghost imaging with background subtraction. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the ghost image is used as the figure of merit for the comparison.We find analytically that the CNR of the normalized high-order ghost image is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of transmitting pixels of the object. This scaling law is independent of the exponents used in calculating the high-order correlation and is the same as that of conventional ghost imaging with background subtraction. We find that no data processing procedure performs better than lowest-order ghost imaging with background subtraction. Our results are found to be able to explain the observations of a recent experiment [Chen et al., arXiv:0902.3713v3 [quant-ph

  17. Development of optimized detector/spectrophotometer technology for low background space astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, B.

    1985-01-01

    This program was directed towards a better understanding of some of the important factors in the performance of infrared detector arrays at low background conditions appropriate for space astronomy. The arrays were manufactured by Aerojet Electrosystems Corporation, Azusa. Two arrays, both bismuth doped silicon, were investigated: an AMCID 32x32 Engineering mosiac Si:Bi accumulation mode charge injection device detector array and a metal oxide semiconductor/field effect transistor (MOS-FET) switched array of 16x32 pixels.

  18. Detection of Foreign Matter in Transfusion Solution Based on Gaussian Background Modeling and an Optimized BP Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuqiang; Su, Zhen; Chai, Xinghua; Chen, Lipeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to detect and identify foreign matter mixed in a plastic bottle filled with transfusion solution. A spin-stop mechanism and mixed illumination style are applied to obtain high contrast images between moving foreign matter and a static transfusion background. The Gaussian mixture model is used to model the complex background of the transfusion image and to extract moving objects. A set of features of moving objects are extracted and selected by the ReliefF algorithm, and optimal feature vectors are fed into the back propagation (BP) neural network to distinguish between foreign matter and bubbles. The mind evolutionary algorithm (MEA) is applied to optimize the connection weights and thresholds of the BP neural network to obtain a higher classification accuracy and faster convergence rate. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect visible foreign matter in 250-mL transfusion bottles. The misdetection rate and false alarm rate are low, and the detection accuracy and detection speed are satisfactory. PMID:25347581

  19. Optimal Combination of Neural Temporal Envelope and Fine Structure Cues to Explain Speech Identification in Background Noise

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Il Joon; Won, Jong Ho; Ives, D. Timothy; Nie, Kaibao; Heinz, Michael G.; Lorenzi, Christian; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    The dichotomy between acoustic temporal envelope (ENV) and fine structure (TFS) cues has stimulated numerous studies over the past decade to understand the relative role of acoustic ENV and TFS in human speech perception. Such acoustic temporal speech cues produce distinct neural discharge patterns at the level of the auditory nerve, yet little is known about the central neural mechanisms underlying the dichotomy in speech perception between neural ENV and TFS cues. We explored the question of how the peripheral auditory system encodes neural ENV and TFS cues in steady or fluctuating background noise, and how the central auditory system combines these forms of neural information for speech identification. We sought to address this question by (1) measuring sentence identification in background noise for human subjects as a function of the degree of available acoustic TFS information and (2) examining the optimal combination of neural ENV and TFS cues to explain human speech perception performance using computational models of the peripheral auditory system and central neural observers. Speech-identification performance by human subjects decreased as the acoustic TFS information was degraded in the speech signals. The model predictions best matched human performance when a greater emphasis was placed on neural ENV coding rather than neural TFS. However, neural TFS cues were necessary to account for the full effect of background-noise modulations on human speech-identification performance. PMID:25186758

  20. Countering Rejection Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Peggy Riley

    1989-01-01

    Outlines a step-by-step approach for guidance counselors in holding a preliminary college planning conference with high school juniors and their families in order to help students subsequently deal with possible rejection from a college. (TE)

  1. SOC REJECTION BY NANOFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to evaluate the rejection of six synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) from a potable water source by a nanofiltration membrane process. The S0Cs were ethylene dibromide (EDB), dibromochloropropane (DBCP), chlordane, heptachlor, methoxychlor and alachlor. To in...

  2. "Science" Rejects Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report, "Scientific Research in Education," claims to present an inclusive view of sciences in responding to federal attempts to legislate educational research. This article asserts that it narrowly defines science as positivism and methodology as quantitative, rejecting postmodernism and omitting other theories. Uses…

  3. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane. PMID:26098556

  4. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Pei; Liang, Hai-Ping; Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane. PMID:26098556

  5. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. Purpose To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. Material and Methods All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Results Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. Conclusion The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality. PMID:26500784

  6. Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry--optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2014-08-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm. PMID:24956779

  7. Soothing the Sting of Rejection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Joan Daniels

    1990-01-01

    Preventing rejection of a student by his/her peers and helping the child to cope with such rejection are ever-present challenges for teachers. Suggestions are given by teachers who have successfully dealt with students who were rejected by classmates. (IAH)

  8. Detecting multi-hit events in a CdZnTe coplanar grid detector using pulse shape analysis: A method for improving background rejection in the COBRA 0νββ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Joshi, P.; Davies, P.; Muenstermann, D.; Schulz, O.; Zuber, K.; Freer, M.

    2010-03-01

    A number of experiments are underway to search for a rare form of radioactivity, neutrinoless double beta decay, as a measurement of the half-life would enable the neutrino mass to be determined. The COBRA collaboration [1,2] (Zuber, 2001; Dawson, 2009) employs CdZnTe detectors in such a search. This paper describes techniques using pulse shape analysis for identifying two-centre events in a coplanar grid CdZnTe detector. This enables Compton scatter events to be identified and so suppressing the background present within the COBRA detectors.

  9. Heat rejection system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  10. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  11. Optical communication noise rejection using corelated photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, D.; Hockney, G. M.; Dowling, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new way to perform noise rejection using photons correlated through quantum entanglement to improve an optical communications link in the presence of uncorrelated noise. In particular, a detailed analysis is made of the case where a classical link would be saturated by an intense background, such as when a satellite is in front of the sun, and identifies where the quantum correlating system has superior performance.

  12. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  13. Transplant rejection and paradigms lost

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Terry B.

    2013-01-01

    During transplant rejection, migrating T cells infiltrate the grafted organ, but the signals that direct this migration are incompletely understood. In this issue of the JCI, Walch et al. debunk two classical paradigms concerning transplant rejection, with important consequences for the design of antirejection therapeutics. PMID:23676457

  14. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization.

    PubMed

    Thfoin, I; Reverdin, C; Hulin, S; Szabo, C I; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Batani, D; Brambrink, E; Koenig, M; Duval, A; Leboeuf, X; Lecherbourg, L; Rossé, B; Morace, A; Santos, J J; Vaisseau, X; Fourment, C; Giuffrida, L; Nakatsutsumi, M

    2014-11-01

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromètre PETAL à Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding. PMID:25430191

  15. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Thfoin, I. Reverdin, C.; Duval, A.; Leboeuf, X.; Lecherbourg, L.; Rossé, B.; Hulin, S.; Batani, D.; Santos, J. J.; Vaisseau, X.; Fourment, C.; Giuffrida, L.; Szabo, C. I.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Brambrink, E.; Koenig, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Morace, A.

    2014-11-15

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromètre PETAL à Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding.

  16. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  17. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  18. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  19. Development and application of a channelized Hotelling observer for DBT optimization on structured background test images with mass simulating targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Dimitar; Michielsen, Koen; Cockmartin, Lesley; Zhang, Gouzhi; Young, Kenneth; Marshall, Nicholas; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D mammography technique that promises better visualization of low contrast lesions than conventional 2D mammography. A wide range of parameters influence the diagnostic information in DBT images and a systematic means of DBT system optimization is needed. The gold standard for image quality assessment is to perform a human observer experiment with experienced readers. Using human observers for optimization is time consuming and not feasible for the large parameter space of DBT. Our goal was to develop a model observer (MO) that can predict human reading performance for standard detection tasks of target objects within a structured phantom and subsequently apply it in a first comparative study. The phantom consists of an acrylic semi-cylindrical container with acrylic spheres of different sizes and the remaining space filled with water. Three types of lesions were included: 3D printed spiculated and non-spiculated mass lesions along with calcification groups. The images of the two mass lesion types were reconstructed with 3 different reconstruction methods (FBP, FBP with SRSAR, MLTRpr) and read by human readers. A Channelized Hotelling model observer was created for the non-spiculated lesion detection task using five Laguerre-Gauss channels, tuned for better performance. For the non-spiculated mass lesions a linear relation between the MO and human observer results was found, with correlation coefficients of 0.956 for standard FBP, 0.998 for FBP with SRSAR and 0.940 for MLTRpr. Both the MO and human observer percentage correct results for the spiculated masses were close to 100%, and showed no difference from each other for every reconstruction algorithm.

  20. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  1. Organ transplant tissue rejection: detection and staging by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum E.; Whitehead, Peter D.; McManus, Bruce; Zeng, Haishan; Wilson-McManus, Janet; MacKinnon, Nick; Morgan, David C.; Dong, Chunming; Gerla, Paul; Kenyon, Jennifer

    1998-07-01

    Patients receiving heart or other organ transplants usually require some level of anti-rejection drug therapy, most commonly cyclosporine. The rejection status of the organ must be monitored to determine the optimal anti-rejection drug therapy. The current method for monitoring post-transplant rejection status of heart transplant patients consists of taking biopsies from the right ventricle. In this work we have developed a system employing optical and signal-processing techniques that will allow a cardiologist to measure spectral changes associated with tissue rejection using an optical catheter probe. The system employs time gated illumination and detection systems to deal with the dynamic signal acquisition problems associated with in vivo measurements of a beating heart. Spectral data processing software evaluates and processes the data to produce a simple numerical score. Results of measurements made on 100 excised transplanted isograft and allograft rat hearts have demonstrated the ability of the system to detect the presence of rejection and to accurately correlate the spectroscopic results with the ISHLT (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation) stage of rejection determined by histopathology. In vivo measurements using a pig transplant model are now in process.

  2. Limits, discovery and cut optimization for a Poisson process with uncertainty in background and signal efficiency: TRolke 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, J.; Conrad, J.; Rolke, W.; Lopez, A.

    2010-03-01

    A C++ class was written for the calculation of frequentist confidence intervals using the profile likelihood method. Seven combinations of Binomial, Gaussian, Poissonian and Binomial uncertainties are implemented. The package provides routines for the calculation of upper and lower limits, sensitivity and related properties. It also supports hypothesis tests which take uncertainties into account. It can be used in compiled C++ code, in Python or interactively via the ROOT analysis framework. Program summaryProgram title: TRolke version 2.0 Catalogue identifier: AEFT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: MIT license No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3431 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 21 789 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: ISO C++. Computer: Unix, GNU/Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux 2.6 (Scientific Linux 4 and 5, Ubuntu 8.10), Darwin 9.0 (Mac-OS X 10.5.8). RAM:˜20 MB Classification: 14.13. External routines: ROOT ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: The problem is to calculate a frequentist confidence interval on the parameter of a Poisson process with statistical or systematic uncertainties in signal efficiency or background. Solution method: Profile likelihood method, Analytical Running time:<10 seconds per extracted limit.

  3. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  4. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity. PMID:27563887

  5. Augmented orbiter heat rejection study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Spacecraft radiator concepts are presented that relieve attitude restrictions required by the shuttle orbiter space radiator for baseline and extended capability STS missions. Cost effective heat rejection kits are considered which add additional capability in the form of attached spacelab radiators or a deployable radiator module.

  6. Collimator optimization in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer and realistic background variability for lesion detection and joint detection and localization tasks.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Michael; Du, Yong; Links, Jonathan M; Frey, Eric C

    2016-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, collimators are a major factor limiting image quality and largely determine the noise and resolution of SPECT images. In this paper, we seek the collimator with the optimal tradeoff between image noise and resolution with respect to performance on two tasks related to myocardial perfusion SPECT: perfusion defect detection and joint detection and localization. We used the Ideal Observer (IO) operating on realistic background-known-statistically (BKS) and signal-known-exactly (SKE) data. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC (LROC) curves (AUCd, AUCd+l), respectively, were used as the figures of merit for both tasks. We used a previously developed population of 54 phantoms based on the eXtended Cardiac Torso Phantom (XCAT) that included variations in gender, body size, heart size and subcutaneous adipose tissue level. For each phantom, organ uptakes were varied randomly based on distributions observed in patient data. We simulated perfusion defects at six different locations with extents and severities of 10% and 25%, respectively, which represented challenging but clinically relevant defects. The extent and severity are, respectively, the perfusion defect's fraction of the myocardial volume and reduction of uptake relative to the normal myocardium. Projection data were generated using an analytical projector that modeled attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response effects, a 9% energy resolution at 140 keV, and a 4 mm full-width at half maximum (FWHM) intrinsic spatial resolution. We investigated a family of eight parallel-hole collimators that spanned a large range of sensitivity-resolution tradeoffs. For each collimator and defect location, the IO test statistics were computed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 540 pairs of defect-present and -absent images that included the aforementioned anatomical and uptake variability. Sets of test statistics were computed

  7. Collimator optimization in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer and realistic background variability for lesion detection and joint detection and localization tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaly, Michael; Du, Yong; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, collimators are a major factor limiting image quality and largely determine the noise and resolution of SPECT images. In this paper, we seek the collimator with the optimal tradeoff between image noise and resolution with respect to performance on two tasks related to myocardial perfusion SPECT: perfusion defect detection and joint detection and localization. We used the Ideal Observer (IO) operating on realistic background-known-statistically (BKS) and signal-known-exactly (SKE) data. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC (LROC) curves (AUCd, AUCd+l), respectively, were used as the figures of merit for both tasks. We used a previously developed population of 54 phantoms based on the eXtended Cardiac Torso Phantom (XCAT) that included variations in gender, body size, heart size and subcutaneous adipose tissue level. For each phantom, organ uptakes were varied randomly based on distributions observed in patient data. We simulated perfusion defects at six different locations with extents and severities of 10% and 25%, respectively, which represented challenging but clinically relevant defects. The extent and severity are, respectively, the perfusion defect’s fraction of the myocardial volume and reduction of uptake relative to the normal myocardium. Projection data were generated using an analytical projector that modeled attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response effects, a 9% energy resolution at 140 keV, and a 4 mm full-width at half maximum (FWHM) intrinsic spatial resolution. We investigated a family of eight parallel-hole collimators that spanned a large range of sensitivity-resolution tradeoffs. For each collimator and defect location, the IO test statistics were computed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 540 pairs of defect-present and -absent images that included the aforementioned anatomical and uptake variability. Sets of test statistics were

  8. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  9. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  10. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  11. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  12. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  13. Social Causes and Consequences of Rejection Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Bonita; Downey, Geraldine; Bonica, Cheryl; Paltin, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Predictions from the Rejection Sensitivity (RS) model concerning the social causes and consequences of RS were examined in a longitudinal study of 150 middle school students. Peer nominations of rejection, self-report measures of anxious and angry rejection expectations, and social anxiety, social withdrawal, and loneliness were assessed at two…

  14. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  15. Molecular analysis of transplant rejection: marching onward

    PubMed Central

    Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of organ transplants is increasingly defining the biological pathways responsible for graft rejection at the molecular level and identifying gene transcripts that diagnose or predict rejection. These advances hold significant promise for the treatment of organ rejection and for improving clinical outcomes after transplantation, but hurdles remain. PMID:24145950

  16. Treating humoral rejection after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Jef; Vermeulen, Tom; Janssen Van Doorn, Karin; Vrints, Christiaan; Conraads, Viviane

    2011-04-01

    Whereas effective strategies are available to treat acute cellular cardiac rejection, humoral rejection, also called vascular or antibody-mediated rejection, is more difficult to manage. Antibody-mediated (non-cellular) rejections (AMR) are rare and few successfully treated cases have been described in the literature. We report on a female patient, diagnosed with humoral rejection, leading to severe ventricular dysfunction and haemodynamic compromise, two months after transplantation. The patient received a combination therapy, consisting of plasmapheresis and immunoglobulins, which resulted in complete resolution of immunohistochemical signs of AMR. In this report, we will overview AMR and discuss several treatment modalities. PMID:21591590

  17. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  18. Are You Being Rejected or Excluded? Insights from Neuroimaging Studies Using Different Rejection Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity is the heightened tendency to perceive or anxiously expect disengagement from others during social interaction. There has been a recent wave of neuroimaging studies of rejection. The aim of the current review was to determine key brain regions involved in social rejection by selectively reviewing neuroimaging studies that employed one of three paradigms of social rejection, namely social exclusion during a ball-tossing game, evaluating feedback about preference from peers and viewing scenes depicting rejection during social interaction. Across the different paradigms of social rejection, there was concordance in regions for experiencing rejection, namely dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual ACC and ventral ACC. Functional dissociation between the regions for experiencing rejection and those for emotion regulation, namely medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and ventral striatum, was evident in the positive association between social distress and regions for experiencing rejection and the inverse association between social distress and the emotion regulation regions. The paradigms of social exclusion and scenes depicting rejection in social interaction were more adept at evoking rejection-specific neural responses. These responses were varyingly influenced by the amount of social distress during the task, social support received, self-esteem and social competence. Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene. PMID:23430682

  19. Haptoglobin Enhances Cardiac Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Heuzey, Elizabeth; Mori, Daniel; Wong, Christine; Colangelo, Christopher; Chung, Lisa M.; Bruce, Can; Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Booth, Carmen J.; Kreisel, Daniel; Goldstein, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Early graft inflammation enhances both acute and chronic rejection of heart transplants, but it is unclear how this inflammation is initiated. Objective To identify specific inflammatory modulators and determine their underlying molecular mechanisms after cardiac transplantation. Methods and Results We used a murine heterotopic cardiac transplant model to identify inflammatory modulators of early graft inflammation. Unbiased mass spectrometric analysis of cardiac tissue before and up to 72 hours after transplantation revealed that 22 proteins including haptoglobin, a known anti-oxidant, are significantly upregulated in our grafts. Through the use of haptoglobin deficient mice, we show that 80% of haptoglobin deficient recipients treated with peri-operative administration of the costimulatory blocking agent CTLA4 immunoglobulin exhibited > 100 days survival of full major histocompatibility complex mismatched allografts, whereas all similarly treated wild type recipients rejected their transplants by 21 days post transplantation. We found that haptoglobin modifies the intra-allograft inflammatory milieu by enhancing levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the chemokine MIP-2 but impair levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. Haptoglobin also enhances dendritic cell graft recruitment and augments anti-donor T cell responses. Moreover, we confirmed that the protein is present in human cardiac allograft specimens undergoing acute graft rejection. Conclusions Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation after cardiac transplantation and suggest that, in contrast to its prior reported anti-oxidant function in vascular inflammation, haptoglobin is an enhancer of inflammation after cardiac transplantation. Haptoglobin may also be a key component in other sterile inflammatory conditions. PMID:25801896

  20. Diagnosis of Rejection by Analyzing Ventricular Late Potentials in Heart Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Vítor Nogueira; Pereira, Telmo Santos; Matos, Vítor Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart transplant rejection originates slow and fragmented conduction. Signal-averaged ECG (SAECG) is a stratification method in the risk of rejection. Objective To develop a risk score for rejection, using SAECG variables. Methods We studied 28 transplant patients. First, we divided the sample into two groups based on the occurrence of acute rejection (5 with rejection and 23 without). In a second phase, we divided the sample considering the existence or not of rejection in at least one biopsy performed on the follow-up period (rejection pm1: 18 with rejection and 10 without). Results On conventional ECG, the presence of fibrosis was the only criterion associated with acute rejection (OR = 19; 95% CI = 1.65-218.47; p = 0.02). Considering the rejection pm1, an association was found with the SAECG variables, mainly with RMS40 (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99; p = 0.03) and LAS40 (OR = 1.06; 95% IC = 1.01-1.11; p = 0.03). We formulated a risk score including those variables, and evaluated its discriminative performance in our sample. The presence of fibrosis with increasing of LAS40 and decreasing of RMS40 showed a good ability to distinguish between patients with and without rejection (AUC = 0.82; p < 0.01), assuming a cutoff point of sensitivity = 83.3% and specificity = 60%. Conclusion The SAECG distinguished between patients with and without rejection. The usefulness of the proposed risk score must be demonstrated in larger follow-up studies. PMID:26815311

  1. A retrospective clinical study of Xinjiang Uygur patients with corneal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Maimaitiming, Reziwan; Yang, Xin; Wupuer, Kelala; Ye, Nan; Kong, Na; Gu, Baoyu; Fan, Yuanyuan; Shao, Lan; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: To explore the causes of corneal allograft rejection in Xinjiang Uygur patients and the factors that affect rejection through a retrospective clinical analysis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 126 Uygur cases from January 2010 to November 2014 in which corneal transplantation had been performed at the Xinjiang Urumqi ENT hospital. Of the treated patients, 85 eyes belonged to male patients and 41 eyes belonged to female patients. Patients were aged 10-77 years (mean age 46.14 ± 8.20 years). Surgical methods included penetrating keratoplasty (75 eyes) and lamellar keratoplasty (38 eyes). Follow-up time ranged from 0.5 to 3 years and a total of seven pre-operative keratopathies were observed: walleye, corneal ulcer, bullous keratopathy, corneal degeneration. Eye changes included 72 cases of limbal vascularization and 15 cases of high intraocular pressure. Allograft rejection was observed in 25 eyes. Results: The pre-operative keratopathies associated with the highest incidences of allograft rejection were: viral corneal ulcer, bullous keratopathy, adhesive walleye, and fungal corneal ulcers. The rate of allograft rejection using avascular corneal tissue was 10%, while the rate was 36% with severly-vascularized cornea. The earliest time of rejection was 20 days after surgery, while the latest was 16.4 months after surgery. Heavy corneal vascularization is associated with more rapid post-operative rejection. The rate of allograft rejection was higher after combined surgery when compared to penetrating keratoplasty or lamellar keratoplasty alone, while the rate was higher with penetrating keratoplasty than with lamellar keratoplasty. With increasing graft diameter, there was an increase in post-operative allograft rejection. Allograft rejection was significantly increased when graft diameter was above 7.75 mm. Conclusion: The major cause of corneal allograft rejection is viral corneal ulcers. High corneal vascularization, combined surgical methods

  2. Comparing reports of peer rejection: associations with rejection sensitivity, victimization, aggression, and friendship.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Nesdale, Drew; McGregor, Leanne; Mastro, Shawna; Goodwin, Belinda; Downey, Geraldine

    2013-12-01

    Perceiving that one is rejected is an important correlate of emotional maladjustment. Yet, self-perceptions can substantially differ from classmate-reports of who is rejected. In this study, discrepancies between self- and classmate-reports of rejection were identified in 359 Australian adolescents (age 10-12 years). As expected, adolescents who overestimated rejection reported more rejection sensitivity and felt more victimized by their peers, but were not seen by peers as more victimized. Adolescents who underestimated rejection identified themselves as high in overt aggression, and their peers identified them as high in overt and relational aggression and low in prosocial behavior. Yet, underestimators' feelings of friendship satisfaction did not seem to suffer and they reported low rejection sensitivity. Results suggest that interventions to promote adolescent health should explicitly recognize the different needs of those who do and do not seem to perceive their high rejection, as well as adolescents who overestimate their rejection. PMID:24215970

  3. Renal allograft rejection: sonography and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Cohen, W.N.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 30 renal allograft patients who had sonographic B scanning and radionuclide studies of the transplant was studied as to whether: (1) the allograft rejection was associated with any consistent and reliable sonographic features and (2) the sonograms complemented the radionuclide studies. Focal areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistent sonographic finding in chymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistens sonographic finding in allograft rejection. This was observed in most of the patients exhibiting moderate or severe rejection, but was frequently absent with mild rejection. Areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were not seen during episodes of acute tubular necrosis. Therefore, sonography showing zones of decreased parenchymal echogenicity was complementary to radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of allograft rejection versus acute tubular necrosis. Corticomedullary demarcation was difficult to interpret because of technical variables, and was inconsistently related to rejection in this series.

  4. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  5. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  6. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  7. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  8. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    PubMed

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:26928516

  9. Sensitized recipients exhibit accelerated but not hyperacute rejection of vascularized composite tissue allografts1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengli; Xu, Hong; Chen, Bo; Wen, Yujie; Ikusika, Olayemi M; Ocker, Ashley; Zhao, Hong; Ildstad, Suzanne T

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, the donor-recipient matching process for vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation (VCTA) closely follows the standard practices for solid organ transplantation. Sensitization is considered a contraindication to VCTA. However, the role of sensitization in VCTA rejection is largely unstudied. Methods Major histocompatibility-mismatched ACI (RT1a) donors and WF (RT1u) recipients were used to determine if sensitization would lead to hyperacute rejection in VCTA as in other organs, such as kidneys. WF rats were presensitized to ACI antigens by skin transplantation and received heterotopic osteomyocutaneous VCTA flaps. Kidney transplants served as controls. Results Production of anti-donor antibody was detected in WF recipients after rejection of the ACI skin grafts. Sensitized WF rats rejected VCTA grafts from ACI rats significantly faster (P < 0.05) than unsensitized recipients, but not hyperacutely. Rejection in the sensitized recipients was not prevented by immunosuppression with FK506 and mycophenolate mofetil. In contrast, kidney allografts from ACI rats were hyperacutely rejected within 30 minutes by sensitized recipients. To confirm the role of antibody-mediated rejection in the sensitized recipients, serum from presensitized rats was adoptively transferred into naïve WF rats. Hyperacute rejection occurred only in transplanted kidneys but not VCTA. Histological examination of tissues from acceleratedly rejected VCTA showed dense lymphocytic infiltrates, and no antibody deposition. Conclusions VCTA are rejected in an accelerated fashion but not hyperacutely in the presence of allosensitization and preformed anti-donor antibody. The rejection of VCTA in sensitized recipients is mainly cell-mediated and differs mechanistically from that for renal transplants. PMID:21822173

  10. 21 CFR 1230.47 - Rejected containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejected containers. 1230.47 Section 1230.47 Food... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.47 Rejected containers. (a) In all cases where the containers... notification to the importer that the containers must be exported under customs supervision within 3...

  11. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  12. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  13. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  14. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  15. 47 CFR 61.69 - Rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection. 61.69 Section 61.69 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.69 Rejection. When a...

  16. Self-excitation in Francis runner during load rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisan, É.; Giacobbi, D.-B.; Gagnon, M.; Léonard, F.

    2014-03-01

    Typically, transients such as load rejection generate only a few high vibration cycles in Francis runners. However, in the cases presented in this study, a sustained vibration around a natural frequency was observed on three (3) homologous Francis runners of different sizes during such events. The first two (2) runners were equipped with strain gauges on the blades and displacement sensors positioned circumferentially in the bottom ring and head cover around the runner labyrinth seals. The third runner was monitored only with displacement sensors on non-rotating components. The data from the first two (2) runners provided a better understanding of the parameters influencing the appearance of the high amplitude vibrations and allowed the implementation of a test plan to circumvent the phenomenon during commissioning of the third runner. Based on the measured data, the distributor's closing parameters were optimized to eliminate the vibration observed during load rejection on most of the operating range and reduce it significantly at full load.

  17. Antibody-Mediated Lung Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Hachem, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation remains enigmatic. However, emerging evidence over the past several years suggests that humoral immunity plays an important role in allograft rejection. Indeed, the development of donor-specific antibodies after transplantation has been identified as an independent risk factor for acute cellular rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Furthermore, cases of acute antibody-mediated rejection resulting in severe allograft dysfunction have been reported, and these demonstrate that antibodies can directly injure the allograft. However, the incidence and toll of antibody-mediated rejection are unknown because there is no widely accepted definition and some cases may be unrecognized. Clearly, humoral immunity has become an important area for research and clinical investigation. PMID:23002428

  18. 43 CFR 3425.1-8 - Rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of applications. 3425.1-8... § 3425.1-8 Rejection of applications. (a) An application for a lease shall be rejected in total or in... rejection under paragraph (a) of this section shall not be rejected until the applicant is given...

  19. 43 CFR 3430.5-1 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of application. 3430.5-1 Section... Leases § 3430.5-1 Rejection of application. (a) The authorized officer shall reject the application if... will be rejected; (ii) Of the reasons for the proposed rejection; (iii) That the applicant has 60...

  20. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  1. 43 CFR 3430.5-1 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of application. 3430.5-1 Section... Leases § 3430.5-1 Rejection of application. (a) The authorized officer shall reject the application if... will be rejected; (ii) Of the reasons for the proposed rejection; (iii) That the applicant has 60...

  2. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  3. 43 CFR 3430.5-1 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of application. 3430.5-1 Section... Leases § 3430.5-1 Rejection of application. (a) The authorized officer shall reject the application if... will be rejected; (ii) Of the reasons for the proposed rejection; (iii) That the applicant has 60...

  4. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  5. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  6. 14 CFR 221.111 - Notification of rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of rejection. 221.111 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.111 Notification of rejection... writing that the tariff is rejected and of the reason for such rejection....

  7. 43 CFR 3425.1-8 - Rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of applications. 3425.1-8... § 3425.1-8 Rejection of applications. (a) An application for a lease shall be rejected in total or in... rejection under paragraph (a) of this section shall not be rejected until the applicant is given...

  8. 43 CFR 3430.5-1 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of application. 3430.5-1 Section... Leases § 3430.5-1 Rejection of application. (a) The authorized officer shall reject the application if... will be rejected; (ii) Of the reasons for the proposed rejection; (iii) That the applicant has 60...

  9. 43 CFR 3425.1-8 - Rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of applications. 3425.1-8... § 3425.1-8 Rejection of applications. (a) An application for a lease shall be rejected in total or in... rejection under paragraph (a) of this section shall not be rejected until the applicant is given...

  10. 43 CFR 3425.1-8 - Rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of applications. 3425.1-8... § 3425.1-8 Rejection of applications. (a) An application for a lease shall be rejected in total or in... rejection under paragraph (a) of this section shall not be rejected until the applicant is given...

  11. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xue; Shan, Junhong; Wang, Can; Wei, Jing; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2012-08-15

    Rejection of four pharmaceutical compounds, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen, by forward osmosis (FO) membranes was investigated in this study. For the first time, the rejection efficiency of the pharmaceutical compounds was compared between commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) based membranes and thin film composite (TFC) polyamide based membranes. The rejection behavior was related to membrane interfacial properties, physicochemical characteristics of the pharmaceutical molecules and feed solution pH. TFC polyamide membranes exhibited excellent overall performance, with high water flux, excellent pH stability and great rejection of all pharmaceuticals investigated (>94%). For commercial CTA based FO membranes, hydrophobic interaction between the compounds and membranes exhibited strong influence on their rejection under acidic conditions. The pharmaceuticals rejection was well correlated to their hydrophobicity (log D). Under alkaline conditions, both electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion contributed to the removal of deprotonated molecules. The pharmaceuticals rejection by CTA-HW membrane at pH 8 followed the order: diclofenac (99%)>carbamazepine (95%)>ibuprofen (93%) ≈ naproxen (93%). These results can be important for FO membrane synthesis, modification and their application in water purification. PMID:22640821

  12. Corneal Allograft Rejection: Immunopathogenesis to Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Yureeda; Hamrah, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is among the most successful solid organ transplants. However, despite low rejection rates of grafts in the ‘low-risk’ setting, rejection can be as high as 70% when grafted into ‘high-risk’ recipient beds. Under normal homeostatic conditions, the avascular cornea provides a unique environment that facilitates immune and angiogenic privilege. An imbalance in pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and lymphangiogenic mediators leads to a breakdown in corneal immune privilege with a consequent host response against the donor graft. Recent developments in lamellar and endothelial keratoplasties have reduced the rates of graft rejection even more, while providing improved visual outcomes. The corneal layer against which an immune response is initiated, largely determines reversibility of the acute episode. While epithelial and stromal graft rejection may be treated with topical corticosteroids with higher success, acute endothelial rejection mandates a more aggressive approach to therapy due to the lack of regenerative capacity of this layer. However, current immunosuppressive regimens come with the caveat of ocular and systemic side effects, making prolonged aggressive treatment undesirable. With the advent of biologics, efficacious therapies with a superior side effect profile are on the horizon. In our review we discuss the mediators of ocular immune privilege, the roles of cellular and molecular immune players in graft rejection, with a focus on human leukocyte antigen and antigen presenting cells. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical risk factors for graft rejection and compare rates of rejection in lamellar and endothelial keratoplasties to traditional penetrating keratoplasty. Lastly, we present the current and upcoming measures of therapeutic strategies to manage and treat graft rejection, including an overview of biologics and small molecule therapy. PMID:24634796

  13. The experimental study on heat rejection equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Toshihiko; Atsumi, Masahiro; Tokue, Rinzo

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the concept study and the experimental work for development of the advanced style expendable heat rejection device. Emphasis is laid on minimizing the hardware weight and using innocuous coolant. Empirical heat transfer characteristics of water spray cooling were obtained and applied to the mathematical model to evaluate the performance. Besides the development of spray nozzle, prototype model of 4 kW class evaporator was fabricated and tested. Heat rejection rate of 3.2-4.5 kW was attained at both (high/low altitude) modes of operation, and feasibility of this heat rejection device was assured.

  14. Pericytes, microvasular dysfunction and chronic rejection

    PubMed Central

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z.; Li, Xian C.; Ghobrial, Rafik M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rejection of transplanted organs remains the main obstacle in the long-term success of organ transplantation. Thus, there is a persistent quest for development of anti-chronic rejection therapies and identification of novel molecular and cellular targets. One of the potential targets is the pericytes, the mural cells of microvessels, which regulate microvascular permeability, development and maturation by controlling endothelial cell functions and regulating tissue fibrosis and inflammatory response. In this review we discuss the potential of targeting pericytes in development of microvasular dysfunction and the molecular pathways involved in regulation of pericyte activities for anti-chronic rejection intervention. PMID:25793439

  15. Extracorporeal photopheresis in heart transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh; Klapper, Ellen; Shafi, Hedyeh; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2015-04-01

    Up to 25% of heart transplant recipients develop rejection requiring intervention. While the majority respond to augmentation of immunomodulatory drug therapy, a subset of patients will remain refractory. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) appears particularly useful in the management of select heart transplant recipients at risk of rejection, with recurrent rejection, or rejection associated with hemodynamic compromise. This chapter summarizes the current clinical experience of ECP in heart transplantation. ECP appears to favorably affect both the cellular and humoral arms of the immune response to the allograft and promote a tolerogenic profile. These immunomodulatory effects also appear to decrease development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. ECP is generally well tolerated with few adverse effects and low infection risk. PMID:25748232

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux and Altered Motility in Lung Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Castor, John M; Wood, Richard K.; Muir, Andrew J.; Palmer, Scott M.; Shimpi, Rahul A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung transplantation has become an effective therapeutic option for selected patients with end stage lung disease. Long-term survival is limited by chronic rejection manifest as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). The aspiration of gastric contents has been implicated as a causative or additive factor leading to BOS. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and altered foregut motility are common both before and after lung transplantation. Further, the normal defense mechanisms against reflux are impaired in the allograft. Recent studies using biomarkers of aspiration have added to previous association studies to provide a growing body of evidence supporting the link between rejection and GER. Further, the addition of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and impedance technology to characterize bolus transit and the presence and extent of reflux regardless of pH might better identify at-risk patients. Although additional prospective studies are needed, fundoplication appears useful in the prevention or treatment of post-transplant BOS. Purpose This review will highlight the existing literature on the relationship of gastroesophageal reflux and altered motility to lung transplant rejection, particularly BOS. The article will conclude with a discussion of the evaluation and management of patients undergoing lung transplantation at our center. PMID:20507544

  17. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection.

  18. Clutter rejection limitations from ambiguous range clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick

    Limitations on achievable clutter rejection due to ambiguous range clutter are described. The profile of clutter power versus range is shown to limit achievable clutter rejection. Ambiguous range effects are discussed in the context of sea clutter, using a model that includes propagation conditions, and rain clutter. Limitations in moving target indication systems are illustrated for sea clutter, where propagation is subject to evaporation ducts. Benefits of fill pulses are illustrated for rain and sea clutter.

  19. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; NG, Yolanda; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-05

    Background: Urine exosomes, vesicles exocytosed into urine by all renal epithelial cell types, occur under normal physiologic and disease states. Exosome contents may mirror disease-specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed and for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration from mid-stream, second morning void, urine samples collected from kidney transplant recipients with and without biopsy matched acute rejection. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Uexo) underwent mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR). Results: Identifications of 1018 and 349 proteins, Uw and Uexo fractions, respectively, demonstrated a 279 protein overlap between the two urinary compartments with 25%(70) of overlapping proteins unique to Uexoand represented membrane bound proteins (p=9.31e-7). Of 349 urine exosomal proteins identified in transplant patients 220 were not previously identified in the normal urine exosomal fraction. Uexo proteins (11), functioning in the inflammatory / stress response, were more abundant in patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, 3 of which were exclusive to Uexo. Uexo AR-specific biomarkers (8) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusions: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Uexo proteins was applied. Urine proteins specific to the exosomal fraction were detected either in unfractionated urine (at low abundances) or by Uexo fraction analysis. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were

  20. The fate of triaged and rejected manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Amodeo, Daniela; Argiles, Angel; Arici, Mustafa; D'arrigo, Graziella; Evenepoel, Pieter; Fliser, Danilo; Fox, Jonathan; Gesualdo, Loreto; Jadoul, Michel; Ketteler, Markus; Malyszko, Jolanta; Massy, Ziad; Mayer, Gert; Ortiz, Alberto; Sever, Mehmet; Vanholder, Raymond; Vinck, Caroline; Wanner, Christopher; Więcek, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (NDT) established a more restrictive selection process for manuscripts submitted to the journal, reducing the acceptance rate from 25% (2008-2009) to currently about 12-15%. To achieve this goal, we decided to score the priority of manuscripts submitted to NDT and to reject more papers at triage than in the past. This new scoring system allows a rapid decision for the authors without external review. However, the risk of such a restrictive policy may be that the journal might fail to capture important studies that are eventually published in higher-ranked journals. To look into this problem, we analysed random samples of papers (∼10%) rejected by NDT in 2012. Of the papers rejected at triage and those rejected after regular peer review, 59 and 61%, respectively, were accepted in other journals. A detailed analysis of these papers showed that only 4 out of 104 and 7 out of 93 of the triaged and rejected papers, respectively, were published in journals with an impact factor higher than that of NDT. Furthermore, for all these papers, independent assessors confirmed the evaluation made by the original reviewers. The number of citations of these papers was similar to that typically obtained by publications in the corresponding journals. Even though the analyses seem reassuring, previous observations made by leading journals warn that the risk of 'big misses', resulting from selective editorial policies, remains a real possibility. We will therefore continue to maintain a high degree of alertness and will periodically track the history of manuscripts rejected by NDT, particularly papers that are rejected at triage by our journal. PMID:26597920

  1. Role of interleukin-17A in early graft rejection after orthotopic lung transplantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi-Rui; Wang, Li-Feng; Xia, Si-Si; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Xu, Jiang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Background The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying lung allograft rejection remain poorly understood. We investigated the potential role of interleukin (IL)-17A in lung transplant rejection in a mouse model, because previous studies in clinical and rodent models have implicated IL-17A in both acute and chronic rejection. Methods To generate an orthotopic lung transplantation model, lungs from C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice were transplanted into C57BL/6 mice (isograft and allograft models, respectively). The effects of anti-IL-17A treatment in allograft recipients were investigated. The histological features and rejection status of isografts and allografts were assessed at 3, 7, and 28 days after transplantation, and differences in graft infiltrating cells and mRNA expression of relevant cytokines were quantified at 3 and 7 days after transplantation. Results As expected, isografts showed no obvious signs of rejection, whereas allografts exhibited minimal-to-mild rejection (grade A1–A2) by day 3 and moderate-to-severe rejection (grade A3–A4) by day 7, without evidence of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). However, by 28 days, evidence of OB was observed in 67% (2/3) of allografts and severe rejection (grade A4) was observed in all. IL-17 mRNA expression in allografts was increased with rejection, and interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-6 mRNA expression levels followed a similar pattern. In contrast, IL-22 expression in allografts was only slightly increased. Antibody (Ab) neutralization of IL-17A diminished the signs of acute rejection at 7 days after transplantation in allografts, and this early protection was accompanied by a decrease in cellular stress according to histological evaluation, suggesting the involvement of IL-17A in the development of early post-transplantation lesions. Conclusions Our data indicate that IL-17A is important in the pathophysiology of allograft rejection, and neutralization of IL-17A is a potential therapeutic strategy to preventing lung

  2. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  3. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  4. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  5. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  6. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  7. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  8. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  9. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  10. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  11. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  12. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of rejections. 540.13... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons...

  13. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  14. 7 CFR 70.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejection of application. 70.35 Section 70.35... Service § 70.35 Rejection of application. (a) Any application for grading service may be rejected by the... Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each such applicant shall be promptly notified...

  15. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  16. 9 CFR 354.35 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejection of application. 354.35... Inspection Service § 354.35 Rejection of application. Any application for inspection service may be rejected.... Each such applicant shall be promptly notified by registered mail of the reasons for the rejection....

  17. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration (NF) membranes: Effect of fouling on rejection behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlangu, T. O.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Verliefde, A. R. D.; Mamba, B. B.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of membrane fouling by sodium alginate, latex and a combination of alginate + latex on the rejection behaviour of salts and organics. Sodium chloride and caffeine were selected to represent salts and organics, respectively. The effects of the presence of calcium chloride on the fouling behaviour and rejection of solutes were investigated. The results revealed that the salt rejection by virgin membranes was 47% while that of caffeine was 85%. Fouling by alginate, latex and combined alginate-latex resulted in flux decline of 25%, 37% and 17%, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ aggravated fouling and resulted in further flux decline to 37%. Fouling decreased salt rejection, an observation that was further aggravated by the addition on Ca2+. However, it was also observed that fouling with alginate and calcium and with latex and calcium minimised salt rejection by 30% and 31%, respectively. This reduction in salt rejection was attributed to the decrease in permeate flux (since rejection is a function of flux). There was a slight increase in caffeine rejection when the membrane was fouled with latex particles. Moreover, the presence of foulants on the membrane resulted in a decrease in the surface charge of the membrane. The results of this study have shown that the NF 270 membrane can be used to treat water samples contaminated with caffeine and other organic compounds that have physicochemical properties similar to those of caffeine.

  18. 19F MRI detection of acute allograft rejection with in vivo perfluorocarbon labeling of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Hitchens, T Kevin; Ye, Qing; Eytan, Danielle F; Janjic, Jelena M; Ahrens, Eric T; Ho, Chien

    2011-04-01

    Current diagnosis of organ rejection following transplantation relies on tissue biopsy, which is not ideal due to sampling limitations and risks associated with the invasive procedure.We have previously shown that cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of iron-oxide labeled immune-cell infiltration can provide a noninvasive measure of rejection status by detecting areas of hypointensity on T 2*-weighted images. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using a fluorine-based cellular tracer agent to detect macrophage accumulation in rodent models of acute allograft rejection by fluorine-19 ((19) F) MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This study used two rat models of acute rejection, including abdominal heterotopic cardiac transplant and orthotopic kidney transplant models. Following in vivo labeling of monocytes and macrophages with a commercially available agent containing perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether, we observed (19) F-signal intensity in the organs experiencing rejection by (19) F MRI, and conventional (1) H MRI was used for anatomical context. Immunofluorescence and histology confirmed macrophage labeling. These results are consistent with our previous studies and show the complementary nature of the two cellular imaging techniques. With no background signal, (19) F MRI/magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide unambiguous detection of fluorine labeled cells, and may be a useful technique for detecting and quantifying rejection grade in patients. PMID:21305593

  19. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  20. Materialistic Values among Chinese Adolescents: Effects of Parental Rejection and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Xinyuan; Kou, Yu; Yang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background: Materialistic values among today's adolescents have been a concern around the world, yet few studies concerning Chinese adolescents' materialistic values have been conducted. Additionally, the joint effects of parental rejection and self-esteem on materialistic values remain unclear. Objective: We examined materialistic…

  1. A novel robust disturbance rejection anti-windup framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang; Herrmann, Guido; Stoten, David P.; Tu, Jiaying; Turner, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we propose a novel anti-windup (AW) framework for coping with input saturation in the disturbance rejection problem of stable plant systems. This framework is based on the one developed by Weston and Postlethwaite (W&P) (Weston, P.F., and Postlethwaite, I. (2000), 'Linear Conditioning for Systems Containing Saturating Actuators', Automatica, 36, 1347-1354). The new AW-design improves the disturbance rejection performance over the design framework usually suggested for the coprime-factorisation based W&P-approach. Performance improvement is achieved by explicitly incorporating a transfer function, which represents the effect of the disturbance on the nonlinear loop, into the AW compensator synthesis. An extra degree of freedom is exploited for the coprime factorisation, resulting in an implicitly computed multivariable algebraic loop for the AW-implementation. Suggestions are made to overcome the algebraic loop problem via explicit computation. Furthermore, paralleling the results of former work (Turner, M.C., Herrmann, G., and Postlethwaite, I. (2007), 'Incorporating Robustness Requirements into Antiwindup Design', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 52, 1842-1855), the additive plant uncertainty is incorporated into the AW compensator synthesis, by using a novel augmentation for the disturbance rejection problem. In this new framework, it is shown that the internal model control (IMC) scheme is optimally robust, as was the case in Turner, Herrmann, and Postlethwaite (2007) and Zheng and Morari (Zheng, A., and Morari, M. (1994), 'Anti-windup using Internal Model Control', International Journal of Control, 60, 1015-1024). The new AW approach is applied to the control of dynamically substructured systems (DSS) subject to external excitation signals and actuator limits. The benefit of this approach is demonstrated in the simulations for a small-scale building mass damper DSS and a quasi-motorcycle DSS.

  2. Changes in Self-Definition Impede Recovery From Rejection.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research highlights how adept people are at emotional recovery after rejection, but less research has examined factors that can prevent full recovery. In five studies, we investigate how changing one's self-definition in response to rejection causes more lasting damage. We demonstrate that people who endorse an entity theory of personality (i.e., personality cannot be changed) report alterations in their self-definitions when reflecting on past rejections (Studies 1, 2, and 3) or imagining novel rejection experiences (Studies 4 and 5). Further, these changes in self-definition hinder post-rejection recovery, causing individuals to feel haunted by their past, that is, to fear the recurrence of rejection and to experience lingering negative affect from the rejection. Thus, beliefs that prompt people to tie experiences of rejection to self-definition cause rejection's impact to linger. PMID:26498977

  3. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  4. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.; Adel, G.; Richardson, P.E.

    1993-03-23

    Research at Virginia Tech led to two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from much of the Eastern US coals. One controls the surface properties of coal pyrite (FeS[sub 2]) by electrochemical-.potential control, referred to as the Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) Process: The second controls the flotation of middlings, i.e., particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions by using polymeric reagents to react with pyrite and convert the middlings to hydrophilic particles, and is termed the Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) Process. These new concepts are based on recent research establishing the two main reasons why flotation fails to remove more than about 50% of the pyritic sulfur from coal: superficial oxidization of liberated pyrite to form polysulfide oxidation products so that a part of the liberated pyrite floats with the coal; and hydrophobic coal inclusions in the middlings dominating their flotation so that the middlings also float with the coal. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications of existing coal preparation facilities, enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that they can be used simultaneously to achieve both free pyrite and locked pyrite rejection.

  5. Nutrition: rejection is the fly's protection.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Samantha L; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-03-31

    Animals need to ingest a full set of essential amino acids through their diet. A new study in Drosophila larvae describes how activation of the kinase GCN2 in three dopaminergic neurons mediates the rejection of amino-acid-imbalanced food. PMID:24698377

  6. A Developmental Interpretation of Help Rejection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Sharon; Juhasz, Anne M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of factors accounting for low levels of student participation in academic assistance programs, based on case studies of eight university students on academic probation who had rejected offers of academic assistance, using structured interviews and the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory and the Mooney Problem Checklist. Includes…

  7. The biology of acute transplant rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Tilney, N L; Kupiec-Weglinski, J W

    1991-01-01

    An intriguing and increasingly understood facet of immune responses is the ability of a recipient to destroy a foreign tissue or organ graft. The phenomenon of acute rejection of an allograft involves a series of complex and inter-related cellular and humoral events, culminating in graft death. Some of the current thinking surrounding this phenomenon is reviewed. PMID:1867525

  8. Examining Social Acceptance & Rejection. FPG Snapshot #44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This FPG Snapshot summarizes the findings of a study, published in the November 2006 issue of the "Journal of Educational Psychology," that examined whether children with disabilities are accepted or rejected by their classmates in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, the study examined two sets of related questions: (1) Are individual children…

  9. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Cannon, P.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references.

  10. Guidelines for proposals to conserve or reject

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scientific journal Taxon is the medium for the publication of proposals to conserve or reject scientific names of plants based on the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). The first formal guidelines for the preparation of such proposals appeared in 1994; these were updated in 200...

  11. Background investigation in EDELWEISS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    Protection from and rejection of backgrounds is a key issue for the EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter detection experiment which aims at exploring the 10-9 pb cross-section region for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction. The detector is located in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory and consists of 36 advanced FID germanium detectors operating at 18 mK in a dilution refrigerator in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. I will discuss the background and the methods of rejecting it with the FID detectors. Detector performances and the first analysis of data acquired in a long-term campaign will be presented as well. The FID detector technology is not limited to EDELWEISS-III but can further be employed in the next generation of cryogenic detector experiments.

  12. Background investigation in EDELWEISS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, Silvia

    2015-08-17

    Protection from and rejection of backgrounds is a key issue for the EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter detection experiment which aims at exploring the 10{sup −9} pb cross-section region for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction. The detector is located in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory and consists of 36 advanced FID germanium detectors operating at 18 mK in a dilution refrigerator in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. I will discuss the background and the methods of rejecting it with the FID detectors. Detector performances and the first analysis of data acquired in a long-term campaign will be presented as well. The FID detector technology is not limited to EDELWEISS-III but can further be employed in the next generation of cryogenic detector experiments.

  13. Heat Rejection Concepts for Lunar Fission Surface Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for lunar surface Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for surface power applications. Surface reactors may be used for the moon to power human outposts enabling extended stays and closed loop life support. The Brayton Heat Rejection System (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Space Brayton conversion system designs tend to optimize at efficiencies of about 20 to 25 percent with radiator temperatures in the 400 K to 600 K range. A notional HRS was developed for a 100 kWe-class Brayton power system that uses a pumped water heat transport loop coupled to a water heat pipe radiator. The radiator panels employ a tube and fin construction consisting of regularly-spaced circular heat pipes contained within two composite facesheets. The water heat pipes interface to the coolant through curved sections partially contained within the cooling loop. The paper evaluates various design parameters including radiator panel orientation, coolant flow path, and facesheet thickness. Parameters were varied to compare design options on the basis of H2O pump pressure rise and required power, heat pipe unit power and radial flux, radiator area, radiator panel areal mass, and overall HRS mass.

  14. Heat Rejection Concepts for Brayton Power Conversion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee; Beach, Duane; Yuko, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) applications. The Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Space Brayton conversion system designs tend to optimize at efficiencies of about 20 to 25 percent with radiator temperatures in the 400 to 600 K range. A notional HRS was developed for a 100 kWe-class Brayton power system that uses a pumped sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport loop coupled to a water heat pipe radiator. The radiator panels employ a sandwich construction consisting of regularly-spaced circular heat pipes contained within two composite facesheets. Heat transfer from the NaK fluid to the heat pipes is accomplished by inserting the evaporator sections into the NaK duct channel. The paper evaluates various design parameters including heat pipe diameter, heat pipe spacing, and facesheet thickness. Parameters were varied to compare design options on the basis of NaK pump pressure rise and required power, heat pipe unit power and radial flux, radiator panel areal mass, and overall HRS mass.

  15. Parallel Batch Scheduling of Deteriorating Jobs with Release Dates and Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Juan; Miao, Cuixia

    2014-01-01

    We consider the unbounded parallel batch scheduling with deterioration, release dates, and rejection. Each job is either accepted and processed on a single batching machine, or rejected by paying penalties. The processing time of a job is a simple linear increasing function of its starting time. The objective is to minimize the sum of the makespan of the accepted jobs and the total penalty of the rejected jobs. First, we show that the problem is NP-hard in the ordinary sense. Then, we present two pseudopolynomial time algorithms and a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme to solve this problem. Furthermore, we provide an optimal O(nlog⁡n) time algorithm for the case where jobs have identical release dates. PMID:25143969

  16. Long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed after dexamethasone intravitreal implant.

    PubMed

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Pazzaglia, Alberto; Versura, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Graft rejection is the most significant complication corneal transplantation and the leading indication for overall corneal transplantation. Corticosteroid therapy represents the mainstay of graft rejection treatment; however, the optimal route of administration of corticosteroid remains uncertain. We report herein for the first time the multimodal imaging of a case of long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed 3 months after dexamethasone intravitreal implant. A 29-year-old Asian female presented with a long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection in her left phakic eye. She underwent penetrating keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus 24 months before presentation. Hourly dexamethasone eyedrops, daily intravenous methylprednisolone, and one parabulbar injection of methylprednisolone acetate were administered during the 5 days of hospitalization. However, the clinical picture remained approximately unchanged despite therapy. By mutual agreement, we opted for the off-label injection of dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant in order to provide therapeutic concentrations of steroid for a period of ~6 months. No other concomitant therapies were prescribed to the patient. Visual acuity measurement, slit lamp biomicroscopy, anterior segment photography, confocal microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, laser cell flare meter, intraocular pressure measurement, and ophthalmoscopy were performed monthly for the first postoperative 6 months. Three months after injection, both clinical and subclinical signs of rejection disappeared with a full recovery of visual acuity to 20/30 as before the episode. Currently, at the 12-month follow-up visit, the clinical picture remains stable without any sign of rejection, recurrence, or graft failure. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant seems to be a new potential effective treatment for corneal graft rejection, particularly in case of poor compliance or lack of response to conventional

  17. Long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed after dexamethasone intravitreal implant

    PubMed Central

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Pazzaglia, Alberto; Versura, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Graft rejection is the most significant complication corneal transplantation and the leading indication for overall corneal transplantation. Corticosteroid therapy represents the mainstay of graft rejection treatment; however, the optimal route of administration of corticosteroid remains uncertain. We report herein for the first time the multimodal imaging of a case of long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed 3 months after dexamethasone intravitreal implant. A 29-year-old Asian female presented with a long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection in her left phakic eye. She underwent penetrating keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus 24 months before presentation. Hourly dexamethasone eyedrops, daily intravenous methylprednisolone, and one parabulbar injection of methylprednisolone acetate were administered during the 5 days of hospitalization. However, the clinical picture remained approximately unchanged despite therapy. By mutual agreement, we opted for the off-label injection of dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant in order to provide therapeutic concentrations of steroid for a period of ~6 months. No other concomitant therapies were prescribed to the patient. Visual acuity measurement, slit lamp biomicroscopy, anterior segment photography, confocal microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, laser cell flare meter, intraocular pressure measurement, and ophthalmoscopy were performed monthly for the first postoperative 6 months. Three months after injection, both clinical and subclinical signs of rejection disappeared with a full recovery of visual acuity to 20/30 as before the episode. Currently, at the 12-month follow-up visit, the clinical picture remains stable without any sign of rejection, recurrence, or graft failure. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant seems to be a new potential effective treatment for corneal graft rejection, particularly in case of poor compliance or lack of response to conventional

  18. Rejection Sensitivity Moderates the Impact of Rejection on Self-Concept Clarity

    PubMed Central

    Ayduk, Özlem; Gyurak, Anett; Luerssen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. Research shows that SCC can be undermined by failures in valued goal domains. Because preventing rejection is an important self-relevant goal for people high in rejection sensitivity (RS), it is hypothesized here that failures to attain this goal would cause them to experience diminished SCC. Study 1, an experimental study, showed that high-RS people’s SCC was undermined following rejection but not following an aversive experience unrelated to rejection. Study 2, a daily diary study of couples in relationships, used occurrence of partner conflicts to operationalize rejection. Replicating the findings in Study 1, having a conflict on any given diary day predicted a greater reduction in the SCC of high- compared to low-RS people on the following day. The implications for understanding the conditions under which rejection negatively affects the self-concept are discussed. PMID:19713567

  19. Family Background and Optimal Schooling Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazear, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines whether variations in the levels of attained schooling across groups can be explained by a model that assumes that captial markets are perfect and that individuals maximize wealth. Available from Editorial Office, Review of Economics and Statistics, M-8 Littauer Center, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  20. The Role of Conspiracist Ideation and Worldviews in Predicting Rejection of Science

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Among American Conservatives, but not Liberals, trust in science has been declining since the 1970's. Climate science has become particularly polarized, with Conservatives being more likely than Liberals to reject the notion that greenhouse gas emissions are warming the globe. Conversely, opposition to genetically-modified (GM) foods and vaccinations is often ascribed to the political Left although reliable data are lacking. There are also growing indications that rejection of science is suffused by conspiracist ideation, that is the general tendency to endorse conspiracy theories including the specific beliefs that inconvenient scientific findings constitute a “hoax.” Methodology/Principal findings We conducted a propensity weighted internet-panel survey of the U.S. population and show that conservatism and free-market worldview strongly predict rejection of climate science, in contrast to their weaker and opposing effects on acceptance of vaccinations. The two worldview variables do not predict opposition to GM. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, predicts rejection of all three scientific propositions, albeit to greatly varying extents. Greater endorsement of a diverse set of conspiracy theories predicts opposition to GM foods, vaccinations, and climate science. Conclusions Free-market worldviews are an important predictor of the rejection of scientific findings that have potential regulatory implications, such as climate science, but not necessarily of other scientific issues. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, is associated with the rejection of all scientific propositions tested. We highlight the manifold cognitive reasons why conspiracist ideation would stand in opposition to the scientific method. The involvement of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science has implications for science communicators. PMID:24098391

  1. Autoindexing with outlier rejection and identification of superimposed lattices

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Nicholas K.; Poon, Billy K.

    2010-01-01

    Constructing a model lattice to fit the observed Bragg diffraction pattern is straightforward for perfect samples, but indexing can be challenging when artifacts are present, such as poorly shaped spots, split crystals giving multiple closely aligned lattices and outright superposition of patterns from aggregated microcrystals. To optimize the lattice model against marginal data, refinement can be performed using a subset of the observations from which the poorly fitting spots have been discarded. Outliers are identified by assuming a Gaussian error distribution for the best-fitting spots and points diverging from this distribution are culled. The set of remaining observations produces a superior lattice model, while the rejected observations can be used to identify a second crystal lattice, if one is present. The prevalence of outliers provides a potentially useful measure of sample quality. The described procedures are implemented for macromolecular crystallography within the autoindexing program labelit.index (http://cci.lbl.gov/labelit). PMID:20502598

  2. MONITORING WASTE HEAT REJECTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT VIA REMOTE SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A

    2009-01-13

    Nuclear power plants typically use waste heat rejection systems such as cooling lakes and natural draft cooling towers. These systems are designed to reduce cooling water temperatures sufficiently to allow full power operation even during adverse meteorological conditions. After the power plant is operational, the performance of the cooling system is assessed. These assessments usually rely on measured temperatures of the cooling water after it has lost heat to the environment and is being pumped back into the power plant (cooling water inlet temperature). If the cooling system performance is not perceived to be optimal, the utility will collect additional data to determine why. This paper discusses the use of thermal imagery collected from aircraft and satellites combined with numerical simulation to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of nuclear power plant waste heat dissipation systems. The ANS meeting presentation will discuss analyses of several power plant cooling systems based on a combination of remote sensing data and hydrodynamic modeling.

  3. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  4. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  5. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  7. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... Rejection of bids....

  8. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  9. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  10. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  11. 48 CFR 2414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 2414.404 Section 2414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... 2414.404 Rejection of bids....

  12. Mechanisms of allograft rejection of corneal endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Tagawa, Y.; Silverstein, A.M.; Prendergast, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    The local intraocular graft-vs.-host (GVH) reaction, involving the destruction of the corneal endothelial cells of the rabbit host by sensitized donor lymphoid cells, has been used to study the mechanism of corneal allograft rejection. Pretreatment of donor cells with a specific mouse monoclonal hybridoma anti-T cell antibody and complement suppresses the destructive reaction, suggesting that a cellular-immune mechanism is primarily involved. Pretreatment of donor cells with mitomycin-C completely abolishes the local GVH reaction, indicating that the effector lymphocytes must undergo mitosis within the eye before they can engage in target cell destruction. Finally, studies of the local GVH reaction in irradiated leukopenic recipients or in preinflamed rabbit eyes suggest that host leukocytes may contribute nonspecifically to enhance the destructive process. These studies show that the local ocular GVH reaction may provide a useful model for the study of the mechanisms involved in the rejection of corneal allografts.

  13. A new rejection of moral expertise.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There seem to be two clearly-defined camps in the debate over the problem of moral expertise. On the one hand are the "Professionals", who reject the possibility entirely, usually because of the intractable diversity of ethical beliefs. On the other hand are the "Ethicists", who criticise the Professionals for merely stipulating science as the most appropriate paradigm for discussions of expertise. While the subject matter and methodology of good ethical thinking is certainly different from that of good clinical thinking, they argue, this is no reason for rejecting the possibility of a distinctive kind of expertise in ethics, usually based on the idea of good justification. I want to argue that both are incorrect, partly because of the reasons given by one group against the other, but more importantly because both neglect what is most distinctive about ethics: that it is personal in a very specific way, without collapsing into relativism. PMID:16283489

  14. Funding for NSF underground laboratory is rejected

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, David

    2011-02-15

    The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which proponents hope could provide a niche for the US particle-physics community, faces a shutdown as early as 1 April; the National Science Board (NSB) has rejected $19 million in funding needed to keep the project going through the fall of this year. The lab is housed in a disused gold mine in South Dakota's Black Hills.

  15. Noninvasive detection of graft rejection by in vivo (19) F MRI in the early stage.

    PubMed

    Flögel, U; Su, S; Kreideweiss, I; Ding, Z; Galbarz, L; Fu, J; Jacoby, C; Witzke, O; Schrader, J

    2011-02-01

    Diagnosis of transplant rejection requires tissue biopsy and entails risks. Here, we describe a new (19) F MRI approach for noninvasive visualization of organ rejection via the macrophage host response. For this, we employed biochemically inert emulsified perfluorocarbons (PFCs), known to be preferentially phagocytized by monocytes and macrophages. Isografts from C57BL/6 or allografts from C57B10.A mice were heterotopically transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients. PFCs were applied intravenously followed by (1) H/(19) F MRI at 9.4 T 24 h after injection. (1) H images showed a similar position and anatomy of the graft in the abdomen for both cases. However, corresponding (19) F signals were only observed in allogenic tissue. (1) H/(19) F MRI enabled us to detect the initial immune response not later than 3 days after surgery, when conventional parameters did not reveal any signs of rejection. In allografts, the observed (19) F signal strongly increased with time and correlated with the extent of rejection. In separate experiments, rapamycin was used to demonstrate the ability of (19) F MRI to monitor immunosuppressive therapy. Thus, PFCs can serve as positive contrast agent for the early detection of transplant rejection by (19) F MRI with high spatial resolution and an excellent degree of specificity due to lack of any (19) F background. PMID:21214858

  16. HLA-G Polymorphism (rs16375) and Acute Rejection in Liver Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Azarpira, Negar; Aghdaie, Mahdokht H.; Kazemi, Kurosh; Darai, Masumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background. HLA-G molecules exhibit immunomodulatory properties that can delay graft rejection. The 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (INDEL) (rs16375) influences the stability of final HLA-G mRNA and its soluble isoforms. Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the possible association between this polymorphism and the incidence of acute rejection in Iranian liver transplant recipients. Methods. Different genotypes were evaluated by PCR. The patients who had acute rejection within 6 months after transplantation were classified as acute rejection (AR) group, while others were considered as nonacute rejection (NAR) group. Results. Among the recipients, 21 patients (21%) had at least one episode of AR, while the other 79 patients (79%) had normal liver function. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding sex, MELD score, and primary liver disease. Also, no difference was observed concerning rs16375 genotype and allele frequency (P = 0.44, OR: 0.69; CI: 0.21–2.10). Conclusion. The study results revealed no significant difference between the AR and the NAR groups regarding the 14 bp INDEL genotypes and alleles. Further studies are recommended to be conducted on other polymorphic sites as well as monitoring of serum HLA-G concentration in order to ascertain the potential implications of this marker in our population. PMID:24591768

  17. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Autophagy in allografts rejection: A new direction?

    PubMed

    Sun, Hukui; Cheng, Dayan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huaiquan; Liang, Ting; Hou, Guihua

    2016-03-18

    Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection is still a major risk for graft survival. Modulating the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs is not a good choice for all patients, new rejection mechanisms discovery are crucial to limit the inflammatory process and preserve the function of the transplant. Autophagy, a fundamental cellular process, can be detected in all subsets of lymphocytes and freshly isolated naive T lymphocytes. It is required for the homeostasis and function of T lymphocytes, which lead to cell survival or cell death depending on the context. T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and costimulator signals induce strong autophagy, and autophagy deficient T cells leads to rampant apoptosis upon TCR stimulation. Autophagy has been proved to be activated during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with grafts dysfunction. Furthermore, Autophagy has also emerged as a key mechanism in orchestrating innate and adaptive immune response to self-antigens, which relates with negative selection and Foxp3(+) Treg induction. Although, the role of autophagy in allograft rejection is unknown, current data suggest that autophagy indeed sweeps across both in the graft organs and recipients lymphocytes after transplantation. This review presents the rationale for the hypothesis that targeting the autophagy pathway could be beneficial in promoting graft survival after transplantation. PMID:26876576

  19. Effect of Heat Rejection Conditions on Cryocooler Operational Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Johnson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that cryocooler thermal efficiency is a strong function of heat rejection temperature, roughly following the dependency described by carnot. An equally important and generally overlooked implication of cryocooler heat-rejection thermodynamics is the effect of the heat rejection temparature control mode on cyrocooler performance and operational stability.

  20. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  1. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejection of application. 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  2. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  3. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Conditions § 154.5 Rejection of filings. A filing that fails to comply with this part may be rejected by...

  4. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  5. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  6. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Conditions § 154.5 Rejection of filings. A filing that fails to comply with this part may be rejected by...

  7. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Conditions § 154.5 Rejection of filings. A filing that fails to comply with this part may be rejected by...

  8. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  9. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  10. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  11. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  12. 18 CFR 154.5 - Rejection of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rejection of filings. 154.5 Section 154.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Conditions § 154.5 Rejection of filings. A filing that fails to comply with this part may be rejected by...

  13. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  14. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejection of application. 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  15. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  16. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final rejection or action. 1... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent examination or consideration by the examiner the rejection or other action may be made final,...

  17. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  18. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  19. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  20. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final rejection or action. 1... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent examination or consideration by the examiner the rejection or other action may be made final,...

  1. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  2. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  3. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  4. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  5. When Is Peer Rejection Justifiable? Children's Understanding across Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonjung; Killen, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how Korean (N = 397) and U.S. (N = 333) children and adolescents (10 and 13 years of age) evaluated personality (aggression, shyness) and group (gender, nationality) characteristics as a basis for peer rejection in three contexts (friendship rejection, group exclusion, victimization). Overall, peer rejection based on "group…

  6. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will be... chapter. This rejection is without prejudice to an applicant's refiling a complete application....

  7. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  8. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  10. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 1104.10 - Rejection of a deficient document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of a deficient document. 1104.10 Section 1104.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION...-PLEADINGS, GENERALLY § 1104.10 Rejection of a deficient document. (a) The Board may reject a...

  13. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404-2 Rejection... rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition. (l) After submitting a bid,...

  14. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejection of application. 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  15. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejection of application 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  16. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... properly evaluate an offer is a compelling reason for rejection; however, the contracting officer...

  17. 7 CFR 1956.84 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Housing § 1956.84 Approval or rejection. (a)-(d) (e) Appeal rights. A debtor whose debt settlement offer is rejected will be notified of appeal rights pursuant to 7 CFR part 11. ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Approval or rejection. 1956.84 Section...

  18. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejection of application 56.24 Section 56.24... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application (a) An... Administrator that prior commitments of the Department necessitate rejection of the application. (b) Each...

  19. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final rejection or action. 1... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent examination or consideration by the examiner the rejection or other action may be made final,...

  20. 7 CFR 1423.8 - Approval or rejection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval or rejection. 1423.8 Section 1423.8... WAREHOUSES § 1423.8 Approval or rejection. (a) CCC will notify warehouse operators approved under this part.... (b) CCC will notify the warehouse operator of rejection under this part in writing. The...

  1. Children's Coping with "In Vivo" Peer Rejection: An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Telch, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined children's behavioral coping in response to an "in vivo" peer rejection manipulation. Participants (N = 186) ranging between 10 and 13 years of age, played a computer game based on the television show "Survivor" and were randomized to either peer rejection (i.e., being voted out of the game) or non-rejection control. During a five-min.…

  2. Paying to belong: when does rejection trigger ingratiation?

    PubMed

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Downey, Geraldine; Reddy, Kavita S; Rodriguez, Sylvia; Cavanaugh, Timothy J; Pelayo, Rosemary

    2010-11-01

    Societies and social scientists have long held the belief that exclusion induces ingratiation and conformity, an idea in contradiction to robust empirical evidence linking rejection with hostility and aggression. The classic literatures on ingratiation and conformity help resolve this contradiction by identifying circumstances under which rejection may trigger efforts to ingratiate. Jointly, findings from these literatures suggest that when people are given an opportunity to impress their rejecters, ingratiation is likely after rejection experiences that are harsh and that occur in important situations that threaten the individual's self-definition. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people high in rejection sensitivity and therefore dispositionally concerned about rejection will utilize opportunities to ingratiate after harsh rejection in situations that are self-defining. In 3 studies of situations that are particularly self-defining for men, rejection predicted ingratiation among men (but not women) who were high in rejection sensitivity. In a 4th study, harsh rejection in a situation particularly self-defining for women predicted ingratiation among highly rejection-sensitive women (but not men). These findings help identify the specific circumstances under which people are willing to act in socially desirable ways toward those who have rejected them harshly. PMID:20649367

  3. Paying To Belong: When Does Rejection Trigger Ingratiation?

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Downey, Geraldine; Reddy, Kavita S.; Rodriguez, Sylvia; Cavanaugh, Timothy J.; Pelayo, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Societies and social scientists have long held the belief that exclusion induces ingratiation and conformity, an idea in contradiction with robust empirical evidence linking rejection with hostility and aggression. The classic literatures on ingratiation and conformity help resolve this contradiction by identifying circumstances under which rejection may trigger efforts to ingratiate. Jointly, findings from these literatures suggest that when people are given an opportunity to impress their rejecters, ingratiation is likely after rejection experiences that are harsh and that occur in important situations that threaten the individual’s self-definition. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people high in rejection sensitivity, and therefore dispositionally concerned about rejection, will utilize opportunities to ingratiate after harsh rejection in situations that are self-defining. In three studies of situations that are particularly self-defining for men, rejection predicted ingratiation among men (but not women) who were high in rejection sensitivity. In a fourth study, harsh rejection in a situation particularly self-defining for women predicted ingratiation among highly rejection-sensitive women (but not men). These findings help identify the specific circumstances under which people are willing to act in socially desirable ways toward those who have rejected them harshly. PMID:20649367

  4. 48 CFR 19.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) If the contracting officer rejects a...

  5. 48 CFR 19.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) If the contracting officer rejects a...

  6. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Thomas James

    2014-10-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed effective fiducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection sufficient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125--128 were analyzed for the first time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel "mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have significant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them difficult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent fiducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for

  7. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  8. What I see when I think it's about me: people low in rejection-sensitivity downplay cues of rejection in self-relevant interpersonal situations.

    PubMed

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Downey, Geraldine

    2013-02-01

    Gauging one's impression on a potential mate is challenging. There is a need to make reasonably accurate inferences from subtle, dynamic facial expressions and to maintain motivation to connect despite the risk of rejection. The interpersonal optimism of people low in rejection sensitivity (RS), people who confidently expect acceptance rather than anxiously expect rejection, as do their high RS counterparts, suggests that they may strategically underestimate social threat cues when inferring the impression they have made on others. To test this hypothesis, participants viewed the videotaped reactions of individuals said to have read the participant's own or someone else's biographical sketch in an online dating context, and then estimated the emotions of the targets. Estimates of negativity were unrelated to RS when participants believed the videos captured the reactions to someone else's biographical sketch. However, to the extent that participants were low in RS, they made lower estimates of negativity when they believed the videos showed reactions to their biographical sketch compared to when they believed the videos captured the reactions to someone else's biographical sketch. The tracking accuracy of participants estimating negativity was unrelated to RS under either condition, but increased with trait empathy. RS was unrelated to estimates of positivity. Supporting functional perspectives on interpersonal perception, results show that interpersonal optimism shapes impressions of others' reactions to the self in ways that can foster relationship initiation. PMID:22985341

  9. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; DUCATTI, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were analyzed demographics, immunosuppression, rejection, infection and graft and patient survival rates. Results: Late acute rejection in liver transplantation showed poor results mainly regarding patient and graft survival. Almost all of these cohort studies were retrospective and descriptive. The incidence of late acute rejection varied from 7-40% in these studies. Late acute rejection was one cause for graft loss and resulted in different outcomes with worse patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Late acute rejection has been variably defined and may be a cause of chronic rejection with worse prognosis. Late acute rejection occurs during a period in which the goal is to maintain lower immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Conclusion: The current articles show the importance of late acute rejection. The real benefit is based on early diagnosis and adequate treatment at the onset until late follow up after liver transplantation. PMID:26537150

  10. Rejection of Bromide and Bromate Ions by a Ceramic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Mohammadreza; Davies, Simon H.; Masten, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Effects of pH and the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on bromate (BrO3−) and bromide (Br−) rejection by a ceramic membrane were investigated. Rejection of both ions increased with pH. At pH 8, the rejection of BrO3− and Br− was 68% and 63%, respectively. Donnan exclusion appears to play an important role in determining rejection of BrO3− and Br−. In the presence of CaCl2, rejection of BrO3− and Br− ions was greatly reduced, confirming the importance of electrostatic interactions in determining rejection of BrO3− and Br−. The effect of Ca2+ is so pronounced that in most natural waters, rejection of both BrO3− and Br− by the membrane would be extremely small. PMID:23236251

  11. States Must Reject National Education Standards while There Is Still Time. Backgrounder, No. 2680

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2012-01-01

    For four and a half decades, the federal role in education has been growing. Costly in terms of taxpayer dollars spent and local control of education lost, this expanding federal control has failed to improve outcomes for America's children. National standards will further expand Washington's role--and will remove parents from decisions about the…

  12. Monte Carlo Simulations of Background Spectra in Integral Imager Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Dietz, K. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Predictions of the expected gamma-ray backgrounds in the ISGRI (CdTe) and PiCsIT (Csl) detectors on INTEGRAL due to cosmic-ray interactions and the diffuse gamma-ray background have been made using a coupled set of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes (HETC, FLUKA, EGS4, and MORSE) and a detailed, 3-D mass model of the spacecraft and detector assemblies. The simulations include both the prompt background component from induced hadronic and electromagnetic cascades and the delayed component due to emissions from induced radioactivity. Background spectra have been obtained with and without the use of active (BGO) shielding and charged particle rejection to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoincidence counting on background rejection.

  13. Oedipal shame, rejection, and adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Caparrotta, Luigi

    2003-12-01

    The definition of oedipal shame, dramatized in Sophocles' tragedy, is the painful affect resulting from accepting the reality of one's origins. A clinical example focusing on shame arising from adoption links oedipal shame to the theme of rejection. Furthermore, in adolescence the revival of the oedipal conflict may reactivate oedipal shame in which unconscious idealized fantasies of personal perfection and the object carried over from childhood have to be renegotiated. This process, illustrated by two clinical vignettes, may reveal entrenched masochistic defenses. An examination of a final scene from a film underscores the significance of oedipal shame in clinical practice. PMID:14703298

  14. Confidence and rejection in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, Larry Don

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is performed imperfectly by computers. For some designated part (e.g., word or phrase) of the ASR output, rejection is deciding (yes or no) whether it is correct, and confidence is the probability (0.0 to 1.0) of it being correct. This thesis presents new methods of rejecting errors and estimating confidence for telephone speech. These are also called word or utterance verification and can be used in wordspotting or voice-response systems. Open-set or out-of-vocabulary situations are a primary focus. Language models are not considered. In vocabulary-dependent rejection all words in the target vocabulary are known in advance and a strategy can be developed for confirming each word. A word-specific artificial neural network (ANN) is shown to discriminate well, and scores from such ANNs are shown on a closed-set recognition task to reorder the N-best hypothesis list (N=3) for improved recognition performance. Segment-based duration and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) features are shown to perform well for such ANNs. The majority of the thesis concerns vocabulary- and task-independent confidence and rejection based on phonetic word models. These can be computed for words even when no training examples of those words have been seen. New techniques are developed using phoneme ranks instead of probabilities in each frame. These are shown to perform as well as the best other methods examined despite the data reduction involved. Certain new weighted averaging schemes are studied but found to give no performance benefit. Hierarchical averaging is shown to improve performance significantly: frame scores combine to make segment (phoneme state) scores, which combine to make phoneme scores, which combine to make word scores. Use of intermediate syllable scores is shown to not affect performance. Normalizing frame scores by an average of the top probabilities in each frame is shown to improve performance significantly. Perplexity of the wrong

  15. Swing-Leg Trajectory of Running Guinea Fowl Suggests Task-Level Priority of Force Regulation Rather than Disturbance Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Yvonne; Vejdani, Hamid R.; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve robust and stable legged locomotion in uneven terrain, animals must effectively coordinate limb swing and stance phases, which involve distinct yet coupled dynamics. Recent theoretical studies have highlighted the critical influence of swing-leg trajectory on stability, disturbance rejection, leg loading and economy of walking and running. Yet, simulations suggest that not all these factors can be simultaneously optimized. A potential trade-off arises between the optimal swing-leg trajectory for disturbance rejection (to maintain steady gait) versus regulation of leg loading (for injury avoidance and economy). Here we investigate how running guinea fowl manage this potential trade-off by comparing experimental data to predictions of hypothesis-based simulations of running over a terrain drop perturbation. We use a simple model to predict swing-leg trajectory and running dynamics. In simulations, we generate optimized swing-leg trajectories based upon specific hypotheses for task-level control priorities. We optimized swing trajectories to achieve i) constant peak force, ii) constant axial impulse, or iii) perfect disturbance rejection (steady gait) in the stance following a terrain drop. We compare simulation predictions to experimental data on guinea fowl running over a visible step down. Swing and stance dynamics of running guinea fowl closely match simulations optimized to regulate leg loading (priorities i and ii), and do not match the simulations optimized for disturbance rejection (priority iii). The simulations reinforce previous findings that swing-leg trajectory targeting disturbance rejection demands large increases in stance leg force following a terrain drop. Guinea fowl negotiate a downward step using unsteady dynamics with forward acceleration, and recover to steady gait in subsequent steps. Our results suggest that guinea fowl use swing-leg trajectory consistent with priority for load regulation, and not for steadiness of gait. Swing

  16. The 'fine line' of heat rejection.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Phillip

    2010-09-01

    Selection of heat rejection equipment has traditionally entailed a choice between the higher energy consumption of an air-cooled solution, and the high water consumption of a water-cooled solution. This paper examines advancement in heat rejection technology and the way it can be applied to air conditioning and refrigeration plant in healthcare and other facilities. It also examines field difficulties encountered in pipework design as the knowledge and experience levels of engineers designing systems with remote condensers diminish. With plant larger than 1,000 kW, the only option previously has been water-cooled solutions using an array of cooling towers, or perhaps an evaporative condenser, since air-cooled plant involved massive volumes of chemical refrigerant, which posed a problem ecologically. An additional hurdle was problems associated with limitations on pipe lengths for refrigeration plant. The advent of adiabatically pre-cooled closed circuit coolers and air-cooled condensers has introduced an alternative to cooling towers that offers the potential for "water-cooled performance" from an air-cooled solution with no serious threat of Legionella contamination. However, each application needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis. The paper examines, in detail, the impact of adiabatic pre-cooling, with recent examples of its application in sub-tropical Brisbane providing evidence of the potential performance achievable. PMID:20882904

  17. Graft rejection after hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Masmas, Tania N; Petersen, Søren L; Madsen, Hans O; Ryder, Lars P; Kornblit, Brian; Svejgaard, Arne; Andersen, Pernille; Dickmeiss, Ebbe; Vindeløv, Lars L

    2008-07-01

    Graft rejection after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with nonmyeloablative conditioning is a rare but serious clinical problem. Graft rejection and salvage therapy in eight patients in a retrospective analysis of 124 consecutive patients is reported. The patients were conditioned with low-dose fludarabine and total body irradiation (TBI). The association of pretransplantation risk factors with rejection and the effect of chimerism and graft-versus-host disease on rejection were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were compared between patients with and without rejection. Retransplantation was performed with increased TBI conditioning for all patients, and with increased mycophenolate mofetil doses for recipients with HLA-identical sibling donors. No known pretransplantation risk factors were confirmed in this study. Rejection episodes were unevenly distributed over time. The storage temperature of the apheresis products was identified as a risk factor for rejection. Storage of the apheresis products at 5 degrees C diminished the risk of rejection. Low donor T cell chimerism at Day +14 significantly increased the risk of rejection. Seven patients were retransplanted. All but one engrafted successfully, but with decreased OS and PFS. Two patients received pentostatin infusion prior to donor lymphocyte infusions in unsuccessful attempts at reversing rejection. Storage temperature and donor chimerism had a significant effect on rejection. Following rejection, patients are at greater risk of dying from infections and progression/relapse of their malignancy. Retransplantation is feasible and well tolerated after HCT with nonmyeloablative conditioning and should be performed without delay in patients with imminent and manifest graft rejection. PMID:18383319

  18. The Parental "Acceptance-Rejection Syndrome": Universal Correlates of Perceived Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews theory, methods, and evidence supporting the concept of a relational diagnosis here called the parental acceptance-rejection syndrome. This syndrome is composed of 2 complementary sets of factors. First, 4 classes of behaviors appear universally to convey the symbolic message that "my parent (or other attachment…

  19. Adding insult to injury: effects of interpersonal rejection types, rejection sensitivity, and self-regulation on obsessive relational intrusion.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, H Colleen; Ladny, Roshni T; Lyndon, Amy E

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the I(3) model [Finkel, 2007; 2008] of intimate partner violence as applied to obsessive relational intrusion (ORI) to assess the relation among self-regulation, rejection, rejection sensitivity (RS), and stalking-related aggression. In Study 1, participants (N=221) read one of three vignettes: no relationship termination, an "internal" rejection (involves an internal attribution to the rejected as cause of relationship ending), or an "external" rejection (external attributions for relationship demise). Next, participants experienced one of two conditions manipulating self-regulation (no depletion vs. depletion). Finally, participants rated their likelihood of engaging in ORI (e.g. unwanted pursuit and/or aggression). Consistent with predictions, participants receiving an internal rejection reported higher aggression than participants experiencing an external rejection, especially when depleted of self-regulation. Study 2 extended the design of Study 1 by adding in a screening survey of RS. Internal rejections still yielded more aggression than other conditions, but this was especially so when rejection-sensitive persons were depleted of self-regulation. In addition to providing support for the I(3) model of aggression, this research shows that not all types of rejection are created equal. PMID:21932334

  20. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multi-reporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents’ social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a three-year period, even after accounting for teens’ baseline level of social competence. Additionally, reciprocal relationships emerged between rejection sensitivity and internalizing symptoms. Rejection sensitivity was also linked to relative decreases in peer-reports of teens’ social competence over a three-year period. Consistent with research on gendered socialization, males reported higher levels of rejection sensitivity than females at age 16 and 17. Results are interpreted as highlighting the importance of rejection sensitivity in understanding late adolescent social and emotional development. PMID:21113326

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  2. The Rejection-Rage Contingency in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Kathy R.; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Coifman, Karin; Leventhal, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Though longstanding clinical observation reflected in the DSM-IV suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role of perceived rejection in triggering rage in BPD has never been empirically tested. Extending basic personality research on rejection sensitivity to a clinical sample, a priming-pronunciation experiment and a 21-day experience-sampling diary examined the contingent relationship between perceived rejection and rage in participants diagnosed with BPD compared to healthy controls. Despite the differences in these two assessment methods, the indices of rejection-contingent rage that they produced were both elevated in the BPD group, and were strongly interrelated. They provide corroborating evidence that reactions to perceived rejection significantly explain the rage seen in BPD. PMID:21500875

  3. The relations between secrecy, rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness.

    PubMed

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; Van Assen, Marcel A L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two attachment-related variables on secrecy: rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness. We hypothesized that rejection sensitivity is positively associated with secrecy, and autonomy-connectedness negatively with rejection sensitivity and secrecy. These hypotheses were generally corroborated in a sample of 303 university students. Moreover, we found that autonomy-connectedness at least partly explained the association between rejection sensitivity and secrecy. Self-awareness was negatively related to secrecy, suggesting that being aware of what one needs and thinks and being able to realize one's needs in social interactions reduce the tendency to keep secrets. In addition, interesting gender effects were found suggesting that men have a higher tendency to have secrets than women after controlling for the effects of autonomy-connectedness and rejection sensitivity. Our findings deepen the insight into possible reasons behind established associations between rejection sensitivity and secrecy, and may have clinical implications. PMID:24846784

  4. Cellular and Functional Imaging of Cardiac Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yijen L.; Ye, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Heart transplantation is now an established treatment for patients suffering from end-stage heart diseases. With the advances in immunosuppressive treatment, the survival rate for transplant patients has improved greatly. However, allograft rejection, both acute and chronic, after heart transplantation is still a limitation leading to morbidity and mortality. The current clinical gold standard for screening rejection is endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), which is not only invasive, but also error-prone, due to the limited sample size and the site location of sampling. It would be highly desirable to have reliable and noninvasive alternatives for EMB in monitoring cardiac allograft rejection. The objective of this review is to highlight how cardiovascular imaging can contribute to noninvasively detecting and to evaluating both acute and chronic allograft rejection after heart transplantation, in particular, cardiovascular MRI (CMRI); and how CMRI can assess both immune cell infiltration at the rejecting organ, and the cardiac dysfunctions resulting from allograft rejection. PMID:21359095

  5. Comparison of Speech Perception in Background Noise with Acceptance of Background Noise in Aided and Unaided Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Tampas, Joanna W.; Burchfield, Samuel B.

    2004-01-01

    l, speech perception in noiseBackground noise is a significant factor influencing hearing-aid satisfaction and is a major reason for rejection of hearing aids. Attempts have been made by previous researchers to relate the use of hearing aids to speech perception in noise (SPIN), with an expectation of improved speech perception followed by an…

  6. Peer Rejection and Friendships in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions to Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Even after evidence-based treatment, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor long-term outcomes. These outcomes may be partly explained by difficulties in peer functioning, which are common among children with ADHD and which do not respond optimally to standard ADHD treatments. We examined whether peer rejection and…

  7. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  8. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, W. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. K.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  9. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  10. Maritime infrared background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.

    1996-06-01

    The detection of small targets in maritime infrared surveillance is hampered by the presence of clutter. Sea surface structure, reflection and emission changes related to incident angle variations and surface effects are standard features governing the clutter behavior. Also special effects as sun glint and horizon effects play an important role for clutter. In order to optimize the detection process, quantitative clutter estimates are of use for filter settings. We have recorded a large amount of infrared backgrounds in the last few years, during common NATO trials. A large amount of different meteorological conditions took place during the various experiments. A first set of these data have been analyzed to obtain statistical data that represent the infrared scene. We have derived vertical temperature profiles, vertical fluctuation profiles, horizontal correlation coefficients and temporal correlation functions. In this paper we present the first analysis of these data. We are in the process of obtaining a condensed database of information to regenerate clutter images from bulk meteo parameters, and clutter parameters. The clutter and meteo parameters have been used to simulate various infrared scenes. Examples of this simulation process are shown in the presentation. The simulated images are statistically similar to the original images that were used to derive the parameters. A description of the image- generation is presented. Future expansions of the model are discussed.

  11. Questions of Degree? Middle-Class Rejection of Higher Education and Intra-Class Differences in Educational Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article is an analysis of middle-class rejection of higher education. The author uses accounts of the educational decision-making of three female students, all identified to be from broadly middle-class backgrounds, from within full-time vocational further education in the United Kingdom, as a means to consider two issues. First, the author…

  12. Nitric oxide formation in acutely rejecting cardiac allografts correlates with GTP cyclohydrolase I activity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a prominent component of the complex array of mediators in acute graft rejection. While NO production is determined by iNOS expression, BH4 (tetrahydrobiopterin), a cofactor of iNOS synthesized by GTP cyclohydrolase I, has been considered critical in sustaining NO production. In the present study, we examined time-dependent changes in iNOS and GTP cyclohydrolase I in rat cardiac allografts. The increase in iNOS protein and mRNA in allografts was similar at POD4 (post-operative day 4) and POD6. However, the peak increase in intragraft NO level at POD4 was not sustained at POD6. This disparity could not be explained by any decrease in iNOS enzyme activity measured ex vivo with optimal amounts of substrate and cofactors. Lower iNOS activity could be explained by changes in total biopterin levels in allografts at POD4 that was decreased to baseline at POD6. Changes in biopterin production correlated with lower GTP cyclohydrolase I protein levels but not by any change in GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA. Functionally, allografts displayed bradycardia and distended diastolic and systolic dimensions at POD6 but not at POD4. Likewise, histological rejection scores were increased at POD4 but with a secondary increased stage at POD6. It is hypothesized that the dissimilar amounts of NO at early and later stages of rejection is due to uncoupling of iNOS arising from disproportionate synthesis of BH4. These findings provide insight into a potential pathway regulating NO bioactivity in graft rejection. Such knowledge may potentially assist in the design of newer strategies to prevent acute graft rejection. PMID:16000090

  13. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  14. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of applications. 50.8 Section 50.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will...

  15. 18 CFR 50.8 - Acceptance/rejection of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance/rejection of applications. 50.8 Section 50.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.8 Acceptance/rejection of applications. (a) Applications will...

  16. Social Reasoning, Anxiety, and Collaboration with Rejected and Average Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Kimberly A.; Rose, Marcy D.; Fireman, Gary D.

    The current study examined peer nominated non-aggressive rejected children on their levels of social reasoning, anxiety, goals and perceptions of self-efficacy, and communication styles when collaborating with another peer. Sociometric measures were used to identify 15 average and 10 non-aggressive rejected 5th and 6th grade children. Pre- and…

  17. Peer Rejection in Preschool: Foregrounding Children’s Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay-Lim, Joanna; Gan, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on peer rejection are predominantly quantitative in nature and do not adequately engage children’s voices and provide a comprehensive view of the peer rejection phenomenon. There are also limited studies at the preschool level, especially in the Singapore context. This study addresses these limitations by presenting insights into…

  18. Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor in Human Acute Cardiac Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Arbustini, Eloisa; Grasso, Maurizia; Diegoli, Marta; Bramerio, Manuela; Foglieni, Andrea Scotti; Albertario, Marco; Martinelli, Luigi; Gavazzi, Antonello; Goggi, Claudio; Campana, Carlo; Vigano, Mario

    1991-01-01

    The authors performed an immunohistochemical study on expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in endomyocardial biopsies from human cardiac allografts. TNFα immunoreactivity was found in 45% biopsies with mild acute rejection, in 83% biopsies with focal moderate rejection, in 80% biopsies with diffuse moderate rejection. Biopsies with absent rejection did not show immunoreactive cells. In mild rejection, positive cells were few and scanty monocytes and macrophages (MAC-387 and LN5 positive cells) and T lymphocytes (UCHL-1/CD45 RO positive cells) (up to 20% of all infiltrating cells). Expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens on infiltrating and endothelial cells occurred earlier and independent of TNFα reactivity. Number of immunoreactive cells increased in moderate rejection (up to 50%). Immunoreactivity was also present in nonpigmented macrophages in part of the biopsies with resolving rejection (45%). The authors conclude that TNFα is expressed in acute cardiac rejection by immunologically activated inflammatory cells. Immunoreactive cells increase in number with increasing severity of the reaction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:1928295

  19. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  20. Social Rejection and ADHD in Young Adults: An Analogue Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Buermeyer, Curt; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.

    2005-01-01

    Poor outcomes in ADHD may be related to problematic social functioning and consequences of social rejection. This study examines how ADHD symptom expression affects mood and social rejection. Working from findings in depression that describe maintenance through negative interpersonal interactions, the authors seek to examine this theory's…

  1. Selecting Social Intervention Techniques for Aggressive Rejected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Schwartz, Lori A.

    Based upon evidence that peer rejection is a marker variable asociated with maladaptive social-emotional development and the risk of later maladjustment, psychologists have focused both on understanding the factors contributing to peer rejection and on preventive interventions designed to remediate social adjustment problems evident in grade…

  2. 25 CFR 81.24 - Approval, disapproval, or rejection action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Approval, disapproval, or rejection action. 81.24 Section 81.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.24 Approval, disapproval, or rejection action. (a) Action to...

  3. 28 CFR 4.16 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rejection of application. 4.16 Section 4.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.16 Rejection of application. No application for a Certificate...

  4. 48 CFR 214.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 214.404 Section 214.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contract 214.404 Rejection of bids....

  5. 48 CFR 214.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 214.404 Section 214.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contract 214.404 Rejection of bids....

  6. 32 CFR 274.8 - Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. 274.8 Section 274.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... EXPORT LOAN AGREEMENTS § 274.8 Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. The Secretary of Defense or...

  7. 48 CFR 614.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 614.404 Section 614.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 614.404 Rejection of bids....

  8. 48 CFR 1414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1414.404 Section 1414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1414.404 Rejection of bids....

  9. 14 CFR 221.110 - Department's authority to reject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department's authority to reject. 221.110 Section 221.110 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.110 Department's authority...

  10. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  11. 48 CFR 814.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 814.404 Section 814.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 814.404 Rejection of bids....

  12. 25 CFR 81.24 - Approval, disapproval, or rejection action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval, disapproval, or rejection action. 81.24 Section 81.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.24 Approval, disapproval, or rejection action. (a) Action to...

  13. 48 CFR 814.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 814.404 Section 814.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 814.404 Rejection of bids....

  14. 14 CFR 221.110 - Department's authority to reject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department's authority to reject. 221.110 Section 221.110 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.110 Department's authority...

  15. 14 CFR 221.110 - Department's authority to reject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department's authority to reject. 221.110 Section 221.110 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.110 Department's authority...

  16. 48 CFR 614.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 614.404 Section 614.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 614.404 Rejection of bids....

  17. 48 CFR 314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 314.404 Section 314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 314.404 Rejection of bids....

  18. 48 CFR 1314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1314.404 Section 1314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Awards of Contracts 1314.404 Rejection of bids....

  19. 40 CFR 53.10 - Appeal from rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal from rejection of application. 53.10 Section 53.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Appeal from rejection of application. Any applicant whose application for a reference or...

  20. 49 CFR 176.52 - Rejections of shipments in violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejections of shipments in violation. 176.52 Section 176.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL General Operating Requirements § 176.52 Rejections of shipments in violation. (a) A carrier...

  1. 48 CFR 1414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1414.404 Section 1414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1414.404 Rejection of bids....

  2. 48 CFR 214.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 214.404 Section 214.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contract 214.404 Rejection of bids....

  3. 48 CFR 314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 314.404 Section 314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 314.404 Rejection of bids....

  4. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  5. 14 CFR 221.110 - Department's authority to reject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department's authority to reject. 221.110 Section 221.110 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.110 Department's authority...

  6. 48 CFR 314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 314.404 Section 314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 314.404 Rejection of bids....

  7. 25 CFR 81.24 - Approval, disapproval, or rejection action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval, disapproval, or rejection action. 81.24 Section 81.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.24 Approval, disapproval, or rejection action. (a) Action to...

  8. 48 CFR 614.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 614.404 Section 614.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 614.404 Rejection of bids....

  9. 48 CFR 614.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 614.404 Section 614.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 614.404 Rejection of bids....

  10. 40 CFR 53.10 - Appeal from rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeal from rejection of application. 53.10 Section 53.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Appeal from rejection of application. Any applicant whose application for a reference or...

  11. 28 CFR 4.16 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rejection of application. 4.16 Section 4.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.16 Rejection of application. No application for a Certificate...

  12. 48 CFR 1414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1414.404 Section 1414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1414.404 Rejection of bids....

  13. 48 CFR 314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 314.404 Section 314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 314.404 Rejection of bids....

  14. 48 CFR 414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 414.404 Section 414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 414.404 Rejection of bids....

  15. 40 CFR 53.10 - Appeal from rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeal from rejection of application. 53.10 Section 53.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Appeal from rejection of application. Any applicant whose application for a reference or...

  16. 48 CFR 1314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1314.404 Section 1314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Awards of Contracts 1314.404 Rejection of bids....

  17. 48 CFR 1414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1414.404 Section 1414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1414.404 Rejection of bids....

  18. Self-Silencing and Rejection Sensitivity in Adolescent Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Melinda S.; Dickson, Joseph W.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the link between rejection sensitivity, self-silencing behaviors, and depressive symptomatology among adolescent dating couples. Self-silencing was hypothesized to be the process mediating the association between rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms. Our sample included 211 couples between 14 and 21 who were dating at…

  19. 49 CFR 176.52 - Rejections of shipments in violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejections of shipments in violation. 176.52 Section 176.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL General Operating Requirements § 176.52 Rejections of shipments in violation. (a) A carrier...

  20. 48 CFR 414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 414.404 Section 414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 414.404 Rejection of bids....

  1. 48 CFR 414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 414.404 Section 414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 414.404 Rejection of bids....

  2. 48 CFR 1314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1314.404 Section 1314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Awards of Contracts 1314.404 Rejection of bids....

  3. 48 CFR 814.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 814.404 Section 814.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 814.404 Rejection of bids....

  4. 48 CFR 814.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 814.404 Section 814.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 814.404 Rejection of bids....

  5. 48 CFR 214.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 214.404 Section 214.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contract 214.404 Rejection of bids....

  6. 48 CFR 414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 414.404 Section 414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 414.404 Rejection of bids....

  7. 48 CFR 314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 314.404 Section 314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 314.404 Rejection of bids....

  8. 48 CFR 614.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 614.404 Section 614.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 614.404 Rejection of bids....

  9. 32 CFR 274.8 - Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. 274.8 Section 274.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... EXPORT LOAN AGREEMENTS § 274.8 Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. The Secretary of Defense or...

  10. 28 CFR 4.16 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rejection of application. 4.16 Section 4.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.16 Rejection of application. No application for a Certificate...

  11. 14 CFR 221.110 - Department's authority to reject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department's authority to reject. 221.110 Section 221.110 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Rejection of Tariff Publications § 221.110 Department's authority...

  12. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  13. 48 CFR 14.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 14.404 Section 14.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404 Rejection of bids....

  14. 48 CFR 14.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 14.404 Section 14.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404 Rejection of bids....

  15. 48 CFR 1414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1414.404 Section 1414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1414.404 Rejection of bids....

  16. 40 CFR 53.10 - Appeal from rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeal from rejection of application. 53.10 Section 53.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Appeal from rejection of application. Any applicant whose application for a reference or...

  17. 48 CFR 814.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 814.404 Section 814.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 814.404 Rejection of bids....

  18. 48 CFR 414.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 414.404 Section 414.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 414.404 Rejection of bids....

  19. 40 CFR 53.10 - Appeal from rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeal from rejection of application. 53.10 Section 53.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Appeal from rejection of application. Any applicant whose application for a reference or...

  20. 48 CFR 14.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 14.404 Section 14.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404 Rejection of bids....

  1. 28 CFR 4.16 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rejection of application. 4.16 Section 4.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.16 Rejection of application. No application for a Certificate...

  2. 32 CFR 274.8 - Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. 274.8 Section 274.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... EXPORT LOAN AGREEMENTS § 274.8 Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. The Secretary of Defense or...

  3. 48 CFR 14.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 14.404 Section 14.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404 Rejection of bids....

  4. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  5. 25 CFR 81.24 - Approval, disapproval, or rejection action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval, disapproval, or rejection action. 81.24 Section 81.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.24 Approval, disapproval, or rejection action. (a) Action to...

  6. 48 CFR 1314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1314.404 Section 1314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Awards of Contracts 1314.404 Rejection of bids....

  7. 32 CFR 274.8 - Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. 274.8 Section 274.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... EXPORT LOAN AGREEMENTS § 274.8 Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. The Secretary of Defense or...

  8. 32 CFR 274.8 - Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. 274.8 Section 274.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... EXPORT LOAN AGREEMENTS § 274.8 Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. The Secretary of Defense or...

  9. 28 CFR 4.16 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rejection of application. 4.16 Section 4.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROCEDURE GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF... INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.16 Rejection of application. No application for a Certificate...

  10. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  11. 48 CFR 1314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1314.404 Section 1314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Awards of Contracts 1314.404 Rejection of bids....

  12. 48 CFR 214.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 214.404 Section 214.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contract 214.404 Rejection of bids....

  13. 48 CFR 14.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 14.404 Section 14.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.404 Rejection of bids....

  14. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Rejected Students: An Analysis of Their Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Olaizola, Juan Herrero; Ferrer, Belen Martinez; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze differences between aggressive and nonaggressive rejected students in four sets of variables: personal, family, school, and social. Participants in the study were 843 Spanish adolescents ranging in age from 11 to 16 years old, of whom 47% were boys. Results indicated that these two subgroups of rejected students…

  15. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898

  16. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 1419.505 Section 1419.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the...

  17. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 1419.505 Section 1419.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the...

  18. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  19. 49 CFR 176.52 - Rejections of shipments in violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., marking, invoice, shipping paper or other declaration, or without the shipper furnishing written... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejections of shipments in violation. 176.52... VESSEL General Operating Requirements § 176.52 Rejections of shipments in violation. (a) A carrier...

  20. 49 CFR 176.52 - Rejections of shipments in violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., marking, invoice, shipping paper or other declaration, or without the shipper furnishing written... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejections of shipments in violation. 176.52... VESSEL General Operating Requirements § 176.52 Rejections of shipments in violation. (a) A carrier...

  1. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent... in the case of rejection of any claim (§ 41.31 of this title), or to amendment as specified in §...

  2. 37 CFR 1.113 - Final rejection or action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicant and Further Consideration § 1.113 Final rejection or action. (a) On the second or any subsequent... in the case of rejection of any claim (§ 41.31 of this title), or to amendment as specified in §...

  3. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Set-Asides for Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the...

  4. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Rejecting Small Business... LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Set-Asides for Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the...

  5. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Set-Asides for Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the...

  6. 48 CFR 1514.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rejection of bids. 1514.404 Section 1514.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1514.404 Rejection of...

  7. 48 CFR 1514.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1514.404 Section 1514.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1514.404 Rejection of...

  8. 48 CFR 1514.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 1514.404 Section 1514.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 1514.404 Rejection of...

  9. 48 CFR 219.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (b)...

  10. 48 CFR 619.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 619.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. The Procurement Executive is the agency head for...

  11. 48 CFR 1319.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) The designee authorized to render a decision on...

  12. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1419.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the...

  13. 48 CFR 219.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (b)...

  14. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1419.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the...

  15. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Set-Asides for Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the...

  16. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Set-Asides for Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the...

  17. 48 CFR 1319.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) The designee authorized to render a decision on...

  18. 48 CFR 619.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business... STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 619.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. The Procurement Executive is the agency head for...

  19. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  20. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  1. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  2. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  3. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  4. Compton rejection for HPGe detectors via real-time pulse shape analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beckedahl, D; Blair, J J; Friensehner, A; Kammeraad, J E; Kreek, S A; Payne, B; Schmid, G J

    1998-07-31

    A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-developed pulse shape analysis (PSA) technique which performs real-time Compton suppression in High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors without the use of anti-coincidence detectors is described. Some preliminary measurements of a variety of sources with a standard HPGe detector system and our prototype PSA algorithm have been made and indicate that a reduction in Compton continuum can be achieved via PSA. These measurements represent an initial assessment of the effectiveness of the prototype PSA system for the improvement of spectral quality and future improvements are expected. Additional work is progressing to optimize the effectiveness of the algorithm for Compton rejection in standard HPGe detectors. Work is also progressing to extend the methodology to segmented HPGe detectors which could potentially yield significantly better Compton rejection and gamma-ray ima

  5. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  6. Segmented Ge detector rejection of internal beta activity produced by neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnell, L. S.; Callas, J. L.; Mahoney, W. A.; Pehl, R. H.; Landis, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Future Ge spectrometers flown in space to observe cosmic gamma-ray sources will incorporate segmented detectors to reduce the background from radioactivity produced by energetic particle reactions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of a segmented Ge detector in rejecting background events due to the beta decay of internal radioactivity, a laboratory experiment has been carried out in which radioactivity was produced in the detector by neutron irradiation. A Cf-252 source of neutrons was used to produce, by neutron capture on Ge-74 (36.5 percent of natural Ge) in the detector itself, Ge-75 (t sub 1/2 = 82.78 min), which decays by beta emission with a maximum electron kinetic energy of 1188 keV. By requiring that an ionizing event deposit energy in two or more of the five segments of the detector, each about 1-cm thick, the beta particles, which have a range of about 1-mm, are rejected, while most external gamma rays incident on the detector are counted. Analysis of this experiment indicates that over 85 percent of the beta events from the decay of Ge-75 are rejected, which is in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations.

  7. Brine rejection and cascades in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, C.; Luneva, M.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of sea ice is accompanied by brine rejection, where the ice releases much of its salt into the underlying water. This causes densification of the seawater which consequently sinks. On the continental shelf the dense plume may reach all the way to the sea bed. If the horizontal density gradient is sufficient, a dense water cascade can occur, transporting the brine down the continental slope and ultimately into the deep ocean. The fate of this brine is poorly represented in ocean models because (1) the coarse horizontal resolution does not capture the small scale over which brine release occurs and (2) the coarse vertical resolution cannot resolve the dense water cascades that transport the dense brine from the continental shelf into the deep ocean. This work focuses on exploring ways of altering the vertical grid of an ocean model in order to allow the transport of brine from the Arctic Shelf to Arctic Basin via dense cascades. We present results from a 7 km and 18km resolution pan-Arctic ocean/sea ice model (NEMO SHELF - LIM2). Idealised model experiments indicate that using a hybrid vertical grid enables the model to resolve dense water flows down and along the Arctic continental slope. The hybrid coordinates include stretching the vertical grid to align with the seabed topography in shallow shelf waters (sigma coordinates) and allowing it to be horizontal when the water depth is greater (z coordinates). It also involves limiting how steep the grid cells can slope when there is steep topography. A passive tracer that tracks the salt introduced to the ocean when ice forms and brine is rejected was included in the model. Initial pan-Arctic experiments using realistic forcing and initial conditions suggest that with the improved vertical grid the brine tracer crosses the shelf break but the locations where the tracer enters the deep Arctic Basin are limited. As the Arctic moves towards being seasonally ice covered, brine transport pathways are likely to

  8. Target detection in desert backgrounds: infrared hyperspectral measurements and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eismann, Michael T.; Seldin, John H.; Schwartz, Craig R.; Maxwell, James R.; Ellis, Kenneth K.; Cederquist, Jack N.; Stocker, Alan D.; Oshagan, Ara; Johnson, Ray O.; Shaffer, William A.; Surette, Marc R.; McHugh, Martin J.; Schaum, Alan P.; Stotts, Larry B.

    1995-09-01

    Infrared multispectral sensors are being investigated as a means for day and night target detection. Infrared multispectral sensors would exploit high spectral band-to-band correlation to reject high background clutter. An infrared Fourier transform spectrometer-based field measurement system was used to collect spectral signature data of targets and desert scrub and sand backgrounds from a 100 foot tower at White Sands Missile Range. The measurements include target-to-background spectral contrast, subpixel targets, background spectral correlation, and background spatial power spectra. The measurements have been analyzed to determine multispectral signal-to-clutter ratios versus target, background, diurnal, and weather variations, background correlation versus temperature clutter variations, and spectral correlation versus spatial scale. These measurements contribute to the expanding target and background infrared hyperspectral signature database. The results of the analysis demonstrate the utility and robustness of infrared multispectral techniques for target detection.

  9. Rejection sensitivity and adolescents' perceptions of romantic interactions.

    PubMed

    Norona, Jerika C; Salvatore, Joseph F; Welsh, Deborah P; Darling, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Rejection sensitivity - the tendency to expect, perceive, and overreact to rejection by others - is linked with individuals' expectations that their romantic partners' behaviors have negative intent, even if, perhaps, such behaviors could be considered neutral when observed by another. The aim of the present study was to test this proposition, derived from rejection sensitivity theory, using a Video-Recall Procedure with adolescent couples in the US (N = 386 adolescents, 50% girls). We examined whether adolescents who were more sensitive to rejection perceived their romantic partners' behaviors as more conflictual than when viewed by trained, third-party observers. Findings suggest that, at the micro-analytic level, higher rejection sensitivity is associated with adolescents' heightened perception of their romantic partners as conflictual when compared to observers, who more often coded the same behaviors as neutral rather than conflictual. Implications for adolescent mental health and well-being are discussed. PMID:25282535

  10. Rejection Sensitivity and Adolescents’ Perceptions of Romantic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Norona, Jerika C.; Salvatore, Joseph F.; Welsh, Deborah P.; Darling, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity – the tendency to expect, perceive, and overreact to rejection by others – is linked with individuals’ expectations that their romantic partners’ behaviors have negative intent, even if, perhaps, such behaviors could be considered neutral when observed by another. The aim of the present study was to test this proposition, derived from rejection sensitivity theory, using a Video-Recall Procedure with adolescent couples in the US (N = 386 adolescents, 50% girls). We examined whether adolescents who were more sensitive to rejection perceived their romantic partners’ behaviors as more conflictual than when viewed by trained, third-party observers. Findings suggest that, at the micro-analytic level, higher rejection sensitivity is associated with adolescents’ heightened perception of their romantic partners as conflictual when compared to observers, who more often coded the same behaviors as neutral rather than conflictual. Implications for adolescent mental health and well-being are discussed. PMID:25282535

  11. Imaging-based diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Kentrup, Dominik; Pawelski, Helga; Reuter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best available treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. Despite the introduction of effective immunosuppressant drugs, episodes of acute allograft rejection still endanger graft survival. Since efficient treatment of acute rejection is available, rapid diagnosis of this reversible graft injury is essential. For diagnosis of rejection, invasive core needle biopsy of the graft is the “gold-standard”. However, biopsy carries the risk of significant graft injury and is not immediately feasible in patients taking anticoagulants. Therefore, a non-invasive tool assessing the whole organ for specific and fast detection of acute allograft rejection is desirable. We herein review current imaging-based state of the art approaches for non-invasive diagnostics of acute renal transplant rejection. We especially focus on new positron emission tomography-based as well as targeted ultrasound-based methods. PMID:27011915

  12. Uptake of myocardial imaging agents by rejected hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A.; Carroll, M.; Wright, J.W.; Feldman, M.J.; Massucci, J.; Bhayana, J.N.; Gona, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, Gallium 67 and Thallium 201 uptakes were measured in heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Five days after transplantation, Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, and Gallium 67 uptakes were significantly higher in allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts. At an early stage of rejection (three days after transplantation), only Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate uptake in the left ventricle of allogeneic grafts showed a significant difference (p less than 0.04). At five days, Thallium 201 uptake was significantly lower in allo- than syngeneic grafts. There was a positive correlation between radionuclide uptake and histologic degree of rejection for Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate and Gallium 67 while Thallium 201 uptake correlated negatively. Analysis of variance revealed that hearts with no or minimal rejection had statistically different uptakes than hearts with mild to moderate rejection. These results suggest that uptake of imaging agents might be useful in the diagnosis of rejection of the transplanted heart.

  13. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 1: System concept development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Eric; Carlson, Albert W.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a concept development study of heat rejection systems for Space Station solar dynamic power systems. The heat rejection concepts are based on recent developments in high thermal transport capacity heat pipe radiators. The thermal performance and weights of each of the heat rejection subsystems is addressed in detail, and critical technologies which require development tests and evaluation for successful demonstration are assessed and identified. Baseline and several alternate heat rejection system configurations and optimum designs are developed for both Brayton and Rankine cycles. The thermal performance, mass properties, assembly requirements, reliability, maintenance requirements and life cycle cost are determined for each configuration. A specific design was then selected for each configuration which represents an optimum design for that configuration. The final recommendations of heat rejection system configuration for either the Brayton or Rankine cycles depend on the priorities established for the evaluation criteria.

  14. A rejection method for selection of scattered states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, William S.

    1994-05-01

    A rejection method is presented that sidesteps much of the labor necessary in the usual techniques for choosing a scattered state after an electron-phonon collision with full band structure. The phonon wave number is chosen randomly, then tested to see if the resultant collision will satisfy energy conservation to within some accuracy. If not, the collision is rejected, and if so, then the wave number is adjusted in order to enforce energy conservation more precisely. The price one pays is in a high rejection rate. If the cost of a rejection is small, however, this rejection rate can be tolerated. This method will not compete with analytical models (near valley minima), but may outperform the more usual techniques. Accuracies of a few percent are practical. Simulations were preformed with the first conduction band of gallium arsenide.

  15. Group marginalization: extending research on interpersonal rejection to small groups.

    PubMed

    Betts, Kevin R; Hinsz, Verlin B

    2013-11-01

    An extensive research literature has examined the reactions of individuals facing interpersonal rejection. Small groups can also be rejected, but current research tells us little about the experiences of groups and their members directly. We integrate findings from various literatures to gain insight into shared rejection experiences and their outcomes. Of most practical importance, we argue that groups can be expected to react with more hostility than individuals when rejected. Four existing models that account for how group processes might alter such reactions are examined: a need-threat model, a rejection-identification model, a multimotive model, and a dual attitudes model. Aspects of these models are then integrated into a unifying framework that is useful for understanding hostile reactions to group marginalization. Implications for natural groups such as terrorist cells, school cliques, racial and ethnic minorities, and gangs are discussed. PMID:23928559

  16. Fabrication of Silicon Backshorts with Improved Out-of-Band Rejection for Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Erik J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Denis, Kevin L.; Eimer, Joseph; Lourie, Nathan; Marriage, Tobias; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Towner, Deborah; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a ground-based instrument that will measure the polarization of the cosmic microqave background to search for gravitational waves form a posited epoch of inflation early in the universe's history. This measurement will require integration of superconducting transition-edge sensors with microwave waveguide inputs with good conrol of systematic errors, such as unwanted coupling to stray signals at frequencies outside of a precisely defined microwave band. To address these needs we will present work on the fabrication of silicon quarter-wave backshorts for the CLASS 40GHz focal plane. The 40GHz backshort consists of three degeneratively doped silicon wafers. Two spacer wafers are micromachined with through wafer vins to provide a 2.0mm long square waveguide. The third wafer acts as the backshort cap. The three wafers are bonded at the wafer level by Au-Au thermal compression bonding then aligned and flip chip bonded to the CLASS detector at the chip level. The micromachining techniques used have been optimized to create high aspect ratio waveguides, silicon pillars, and relief trenches with the goal of providing improved out of band signal rejection. We will discuss the fabrication of integrated CLASS superconducting detectors with silicon quarter wave backshorts and present current measurement results.

  17. Some applications of Photon/Electron-Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) spectrometry to the assay of alpha emitters

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of certain solvent extraction separations and a special kind of liquid scintillation detector and electronics designed for alpha spectrometry allows some highly accurate, yet simple determinations of alpha-emitting nuclides. Counting efficiency is 99.68% with backgrounds of <0.02 cpm. Energy resolution and peak position are sufficient for the identification of many nuclides. Rejection of interference from ..beta.. and ..gamma.. radiation is >99.95%. The Photon/Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) equipment is described and procedures for the separation and determination of uranium, thorium, plutonium, polonium, radium, and trivalent actinides are outlined. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Rejection of micropollutants by clean and fouled forward osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Zhenyu; Amy, Gary

    2011-12-15

    As forward osmosis (FO) gains attention as an efficient technology to improve wastewater reclamation processes, it is fundamental to determine the influence of fouling in the rejection of emerging contaminants (micropollutants). This study focuses on the rejection of 13 selected micropollutants, spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, by a FO membrane, using Red Sea water as draw solution (DS), differentiating the effects on the rejection caused by a clean and fouled membrane. The resulting effluent was then desalinated at low pressure with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, to produce a high quality permeate and determine the rejection with a coupled forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% and 95.2%, 48.7%-91.5% and 96.9%-98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the presence of a fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity of hydrophilic compounds and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the membrane surface, related to the foulants composition, mainly NOM acids (carboxylic radicals) and polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances. However, when coupled with RO, the rejections in both cases increased above 96%. The coupled FO-LPRO system was an effective double barrier against the selected micropollutants. PMID:22055122

  19. Subclinical Rejection in Renal Transplantation: Reappraised.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajil; Sood, Puneet; Hariharan, Sundaram

    2016-08-01

    Short-term outcomes in renal transplantation have improved significantly in the past few years. However, the improvement in long-term outcomes has been modest. The reasons for graft failure beyond the first year of transplantation have been attributed to several different factors. We believe that subclinical rejection (SCR) may be 1 of the factors that contribute to graft loss in the long run. We also believe that there are data to suggest that SCR leads to progressive fibrosis and loss of graft function. This has been demonstrated even in patients who have mild degrees of subclinical inflammation. This review outlines the major studies that have been published on this important topic. It also outlines potential risk factors for the development of SCR. The current approach and diagnostic methods are discussed as well as their pros and cons. Newer noninvasive methods of diagnosis as well as molecular diagnostics and their merits and shortcomings are also discussed in some depth. Thus, the proposed state of the art review on SCR will create a renewed interest at all levels including transplant clinicians, transplant researchers, pharmaceutical industries as well as regulatory organizations. PMID:26985747

  20. Rejected by peers-attracted to antisocial media content: rejection-based anger impairs moral judgment among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Plaisier, Xanthe S; Konijn, Elly A

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying together developmental research on peer rejection and research on media effects. Assumed underlying mechanisms are rejection-based anger and frustration and the adolescent's moral judgment. A between-participants experimental design manipulated peer rejection versus acceptance in adolescents (Mage = 13.88 years; N = 74) and young adults (Mage = 21.37 years; N = 75), applying the Cyberball paradigm. Measures included the State Anger Inventory (STAXI) to assess feelings of rejection and the newly devised Media, Morals, and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue) to assess media preferences and moral judgment of media content. Using bootstrapping analyses, a double mediation was established: Higher levels of state anger in peer-rejected adolescents induced more tolerable moral judgments of antisocial media content, subsequently instigating a preference for antisocial media content. In contrast, the young adult sample showed no relations between peer rejection and antisocial media preference. Results are discussed within a downward spiral framework of combined peer and media influences. PMID:22799588

  1. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  2. Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait Rejection Sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and Rejection Detection Capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective. PMID:26483750

  3. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  5. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-02-13

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1 nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities. PMID:26712639

  6. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1 nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities. PMID:26712639

  7. Acute Rejection Associated with Donor-Specific Anti-MICA Antibody in a Highly Sensitized Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shoba; Tsai, Eileen W.; Zhang, Qiuheng; Wallace, William D.; Reed, Elaine F.; Ettenger, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Allograft rejection in HLA identical transplant recipients and in patients without detectable donor specific anti-HLA antibodies has lead to the identification of non-HLA antigens as targets of the alloimmune response. Major Histocompatibility Complex class I-related chain A (MICA) antigen has been recognized as an important non-HLA target in renal transplantation. Recent studies have shown that anti-MICA antibodies are associated with acute renal allograft rejection and failure. Current cross match procedures using donor lymphocytes fail to detect MICA antibodies. Transplant candidates are not routinely tested for pre-sensitization to MICA antigens nor are transplant donors typed for MICA alleles. Optimal classification and treatment of acute rejection associated with MICA antibody remains unknown. In this case report, we are the first to describe the clinical course and treatment of donor specific MICA antibody associated with both Banff type II A acute cellular rejection (ACR) and antibody mediated rejection (AMR) in a highly sensitized pediatric renal re-transplant recipient. This case also emphasizes the importance of pre-transplant screening for donor specific MICA antibody especially in highly sensitized renal transplant patients.. PMID:21199204

  8. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, Thomas James

    2014-12-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed e ective ducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection su cient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125 - 128 were analyzed for the rst time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel \\mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have signi cant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them di cult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent ducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for mid- to low

  9. Early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Tisdale, P.L.; Collier, B.D.; Kauffman, H.M.; Adams, M.B.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Rao, S.A.; Joestgen, T.; Krohn, L.

    1985-05-01

    A prospective evaluation of In-111 labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy for the early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection was undertaken. To date, 28 consecutive patients between 7 and 14 days post-op have been injected with 500..mu..Ci of In-111 platelets followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours. Activity within the renal transplant exceeding activity in the adjacent iliac vessels was considered to be evidence of rejection, and both chemical evidence and clinical impression of rejection at 5 days after completion of imaging was accepted as proof of ongoing or incipient rejection at the time of scintigraphy. In addition, to visual inspection, independent quantitative analysis compared the area-normalized activity over the transplant with the adjacent iliac vessels (normal <1.0). For 5 patients, positive In-111 scintigraphy was present before convincing clinical evidence of rejection. In-111 platelet scintigraphy is useful not only to confirm the clinical diagnosis of rejection but also to establish the early, pre-clinical diagnosis of incipient acute postoperative renal transplant rejection.

  10. Cardiac function and rejection following transplantation of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Schober, O.; Schuler, S.; Gratz, K.; Warnecke, H.; Lang, W.; Hetzer, R.; Creutzig, H.

    1985-05-01

    It was the purpose of the study to evaluate the noninvasive detection of rejection following cardiac transplantation. Multigated cardiac blood pool imaging (MUGA) at rest with assessment of ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall motion was determined prospectively in 14 patients with 180 studies (follow up 5.1 +- 3.2 months) following orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The results were compared with histological examination of a percutaneous endocardial biopsy specimen (EMB) from the right ventricle. Diagnosis of rejection by EF measurement was defined by a decrease of 10% if EF < 70%, and 15% if EF > 70%. In 152 studies a normal MUGA study correlated with none rejection as defined by EMB. In 14 of 22 studies with moderate or severe rejection decrease of EF followed the rejection with a delay of 5 days. Septal wall motion abnormalities were typical. In 6 studies an abnormal temporal course of EF was not related to a similar finding in EMB. A sensitivity of 69% and a specifity of 96% can be estimated in the investigated group, in which all patients survived during the period of the study. It is concluded that rejection can be excluded by noninvasive MUGA (specifity 96%) and that MUGA is predictive of rejection (sensitivity 67%) mostly with a delay of 5 days.

  11. Separate neural representations for physical pain and social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Lindquist, Martin A.; Banich, Marie T.; Ruzic, Luka; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Wager, Tor D.

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that physical pain and social rejection share common neural mechanisms, largely by virtue of overlapping functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity. Here we challenge this notion by identifying distinct multivariate fMRI patterns unique to pain and rejection. Sixty participants experience painful heat and warmth and view photos of ex-partners and friends on separate trials. FMRI pattern classifiers discriminate pain and rejection from their respective control conditions in out-of-sample individuals with 92% and 80% accuracy. The rejection classifier performs at chance on pain, and vice versa. Pain-and rejection-related representations are uncorrelated within regions thought to encode pain affect (for example, dorsal anterior cingulate) and show distinct functional connectivity with other regions in a separate resting-state data set (N = 91). These findings demonstrate that separate representations underlie pain and rejection despite common fMRI activity at the gross anatomical level. Rather than co-opting pain circuitry, rejection involves distinct affective representations in humans. PMID:25400102

  12. Detection of cardiac transplant rejection with radiolabeled lymphocytes. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-03-01

    To determine whether rejections of cardiac transplants could be detected specifically and non-invasively by lymphocytes labeled with indium-111 (111In), we studied 36 allogeneic and 14 isogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Allogeneic grafts accumulated autologous 111In-lymphocytes, detectable scintigraphically 24 hours after i.v. injection of the labeled cells. At the time of peak histologic rejection, the allogeneic grafts accumulated 92. +/- 4.8 times more activity than the native hearts (determined by well counting). The tissue-to-blood ratio in the rejecting transplants was 3.7 +/- 2.2; total uptake by the graft was 2.9 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose. Autoradiography confirmed that graft radioactivity was associated with labeled lymphocytes. In contrast, isogeneic grafts showed no signs of rejection and did not accumulate radioactivity. Because conventionally isolated and labeled lymphocytes are often contaminated with platelets, we prepared both 111In-platelets and purified 111In-lymphocytes for use in additional experiments. Allogeneic grafts accumulated platelets and purified lymphocytes independently. Thus, deposition of immunologically active cells in the rejecting graft representing specific pathophysiologic events can be detected. The results suggest that rejection of cardiac transplants can be detected noninvasively, potentially facilitating objective early clinical detection of rejection and titration of antirejection therapy.

  13. Lunar Dust on Heat Rejection System Surfaces: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Heat rejection from power systems will be necessary for human and robotic activity on the lunar surface. Functional operation of such heat rejection systems is at risk of degradation as a consequence of dust accumulation. The Apollo astronauts encountered marked degradation of performance in heat rejection systems for the lunar roving vehicle, science packages, and other components. Although ground testing of dust mitigation concepts in support of the Apollo mission identified mitigation tools, the brush concept adopted by the Apollo astronauts proved essentially ineffective. A better understanding of the issues associated with the impact of lunar dust on the functional performance of heat rejection systems and its removal is needed as planning gets underway for human and robotic missions to the Moon. Renewed emphasis must also be placed on ground testing of pristine and dust-covered heat rejection system surfaces to quantify degradation and address mitigation concepts. This paper presents a review of the degradation in performance of heat rejection systems encountered on the lunar surface to-date, and will discuss current activities underway to evaluate the durability of candidate heat rejection system surfaces and current dust mitigation concepts.

  14. Life skills profile of patients with schizophrenia and its correlation to a feeling of rejection among key family carers

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L.S.S; Chandran, R. Satheesh

    2005-01-01

    Background: The behaviour of patients with schizophrenia is of great concern to key family carers. Life skills profile (LSP) is the measure that has considerable importance in assessing the functioning of people with schizophrenia in the community. Aim: To assess the sociodemographic correlates of LSP, and to find the correlation between LSP and the rejection response of key family carers. Methods: The LSP of 48 patients with chronic schizophrenia (29 men and 19 women) was assessed. The rejection responses of key family carers (28 men and 20 women) were evaluated using the Patient Rejection Scale. Results: The LSP did not significantly differ on the variables of gender, income level or attendance of day-care centre. However, there were differences between patients from urban and rural areas. A new dimension of family harmony, added as a subscale to LSP, also did not show any significant difference on the above variables. The rejection responses of key family carers were found to be significantly related to the LSP of the patients and, among the subscales, family harmony and communication were positively related to rejection. Conclusion: Though family interventions have been found to have positive implications on relapse and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia, a model of a family intervention programme for families of patients with schizophrenia needs to be developed. PMID:20711289

  15. Suicide Screening for Prisoners: An Ethical Critique of Research Rejection.

    PubMed

    Guinn, David; Burgermeister, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective review of medical records was proposed to examine mental health staff compliance with documentation of a suicide assessment tool according to institutional policy on suicide screening within a U.S. correctional facility. A shift in focus was necessary when the proposed study was rejected by the institutional review board. Reasons for the rejection included low perceived benefit versus greater risk to the correctional facility and the need for prisoner informed consent, albeit the design was a retrospective medical record review. Because of this rejection, ethical issues in the prevention of suicide in prisons were examined with implications for the forensic nurse leading quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26910268

  16. Simulation and verification of the cosmogenic background at the shallow depth GIOVE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakenmüller, J.; Maneschg, W.; Heusser, G.

    2016-05-01

    The GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto) detector setup is a low level Germanium spectrometer for material screening with elaborated shield located at the shallow depth underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg. It is equipped with a double active muon veto with a total muon rejection efficiency of ~99% and there are also passive layers to moderate and capture neutrons. With this setup an integral count rate is achieved comparable to detectors far deeper underground. The detector and shield geometry has been implemented into a Monte Carlo simulation, using the simulation framework MaGe based on Geant4. The Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine sample efficiencies for γ ray screening measurements as well as to reproduce the remaining detector background from cosmic ray muon-induced secondaries. In terms of the background modeling of the unvetoed γ ray spectrum an excellent agreement better than 10% in the integral count rate in (40, 2700) keV as well as for the 511 keV line has been found. However, concerning the expected number of neutrons at the diode, the simulation outcome lays 40-80% below the measurement results. Being able to reproduce the detector background in the simulation, the simulation can be used to further optimize the shield design.

  17. Stress, rejection, and hormones: Cortisol and progesterone reactivity to laboratory speech and rejection tasks in women and men

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress and social rejection have important impacts on health. Among the mechanisms implicated are hormonal systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which produces cortisol in humans. Current research employs speech stressors and social rejection stressors to understand hormonal responses in a laboratory setting. However, it is not clear whether social rejection stressors elicit hormonal reactivity. In addition to cortisol, progesterone has been highlighted as a potential stress- and affiliation-related hormone in humans. In the present study, 131 participants (70 men and 61 women) were randomly assigned to be exposed to one of four conditions: standardized speech stressor; speech control; social rejection task; or a control (inclusion) version of the social rejection task. Saliva samples were collected throughout the study to measure cortisol and progesterone. As hypothesized, we found the expected increase in cortisol in the speech stressor, and we also found that the social rejection task did not increase cortisol, underscoring the divergence between unpleasant experiences and HPA axis activity. However, we did not find evidence for progesterone increase either during the speech- or social rejection tasks. Compared with past studies on progesterone and stress in humans, the present findings present a mixed picture. Future work is needed to delineate the contexts and types of manipulations which lead to progesterone increases in humans. PMID:25580228

  18. Recovery and recycling of uranium from rejected coated particles for compact high temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Rajesh V.; Mollick, P. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Banerjee, J.; Radhakrishna, J.; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    UO2 microspheres prepared by internal gelation technique were coated with pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide using CVD technique. The particles which were not meeting the specifications were rejected. The rejected/failed UO2 based coated particles prepared by CVD technique was used for oxidation and recovery and recycling. The oxidation behaviour of sintered UO2 microspheres coated with different layers of carbon and SiC was studied by thermal techniques to develop a method for recycling and recovery of uranium from the failed/rejected coated particles. It was observed that the complete removal of outer carbon from the spheres is difficult. The crushing of microspheres enabled easier accessibility of oxygen and oxidation of carbon and uranium at 800-1000 °C. With the optimized process of multiple crushing using die & plunger and sieving the broken coated layers, we could recycle around fifty percent of the UO2 microspheres which could be directly recoated. The rest of the particles were recycled using a wet recycling method.

  19. Automatic detection of regional heart rejection in USPIO-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Moura, José M F; Wu, Yijen L; Ho, Chien

    2008-08-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to study the infiltration of cells in vivo. This research adopts ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles as contrast agents. USPIO particles administered intravenously can be endocytosed by circulating immune cells, in particular, macrophages. Hence, macrophages are labeled with USPIO particles. When a transplanted heart undergoes rejection, immune cells will infiltrate the allograft. Imaged by T(2)(*)-weighted MRI, USPIO-labeled macrophages display dark pixel intensities. Detecting these labeled cells in the image facilitates the identification of acute heart rejection. This paper develops a classifier to detect the presence of USPIO-labeled macrophages in the myocardium in the framework of spectral graph theory. First, we describe a USPIO-enhanced heart image with a graph. Classification becomes equivalent to partitioning the graph into two disjoint subgraphs. We use the Cheeger constant of the graph as an objective functional to derive the classifier. We represent the classifier as a linear combination of basis functions given from the spectral analysis of the graph Laplacian. Minimization of the Cheeger constant based functional leads to the optimal classifier. Experimental results and comparisons with other methods suggest the feasibility of our approach to study the rejection of hearts imaged by USPIO-enhanced MRI. PMID:18672427

  20. Automatic Detection of Regional Heart Rejection in USPIO-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Moura, José M. F.; Wu, Yijen L.; Ho, Chien

    2008-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to study the infiltration of cells in vivo. This research adopts ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles as contrast agents. USPIO particles administered intravenously can be endocytosed by circulating immune cells, in particular, macrophages. Hence, macrophages are labeled with USPIO particles. When a transplanted heart undergoes rejection, immune cells will infiltrate the allograft. Imaged by T2∗- weighted MRI, USPIO-labeled macrophages display dark pixel intensities. Detecting these labeled cells in the image facilitates the identification of acute heart rejection. This paper develops a classifier to detect the presence of USPIO-labeled macrophages in the myocardium in the framework of spectral graph theory. First, we describe a USPIO-enhanced heart image with a graph. Classification becomes equivalent to partitioning the graph into two disjoint subgraphs. We use the Cheeger constant of the graph as an objective functional to derive the classifier. We represent the classifier as a linear combination of basis functions given from the spectral analysis of the graph Laplacian. Minimization of the Cheeger constant based functional leads to the optimal classifier. Experimental results and comparisons with other methods suggest the feasibility of our approach to study the rejection of hearts imaged by USPIO-enhanced MRI. PMID:18672427

  1. Changes in attractiveness of elected, rejected, and precluded alternatives: a comparison of happy and unhappy individuals.

    PubMed

    Lyubomirsky, S; Ross, L

    1999-06-01

    In 3 studies the authors compared the responses of self-rated happy and unhappy students in situations involving choice. In Study 1, high school seniors evaluated colleges after applying for admission and then later after making their selections. Happy students tended to be more satisfied than unhappy ones with the colleges they ultimately chose and those they ultimately rejected, and they more sharply devalued the colleges that rejected them. Studies 2 and 3 dealt with postdecisional consequences of less consequential decisions about fancy desserts. In Study 2, unhappy participants sharply derogated the desserts they rejected or were denied, relative to those selected by or for them, whereas happy participants showed no such derogation. These group differences, moreover, proved to be largely independent of self-esteem and optimism. The design of Study 3 helped explicate underlying mechanisms by inducing both groups to distract themselves or to self-reflect. Doing so eliminated all group differences. Implications of the results for the link between cognitive processes and hedonic consequences are discussed. PMID:10402682

  2. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  3. Use of [18F]FDG PET to Monitor The Development of Cardiac Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin P.; Dearling, Jason L. J.; Seto, Tatsuichiro; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic; Packard, Alan B.; Briscoe, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has the potential to be a specific, sensitive and quantitative diagnostic test for transplant rejection. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) and 13N-labeled ammonia ([13N]NH3) small animal PET imaging in a well-established murine cardiac rejection model. Methods Heterotopic transplants were performed using minor MHC mismatched B6.C-H2bm12 donor hearts in C57BL/6(H-2b) recipients. C57BL/6 donor hearts into C57BL/6 recipients served as isograft controls. [18F]FDG PET imaging was performed weekly between post-transplant days 7 and 42 and the percent injected dose was computed for each graft. [13N]NH3 imaging was performed to evaluate myocardial perfusion. Results There was a significant increase in [18F]FDG uptake in allografts from day 14 to day 21 (1.6% to 5.2%; P<0.001) and uptake in allografts was significantly increased on post-transplant days 21 (5.2% vs. 0.9%; P=0.005) and 28 (4.8% vs. 0.9%; P=0.006) compared to isograft controls. Furthermore, [18F]FDG uptake correlated with an increase in rejection within allografts between days 14 and 28 post-transplant. Finally, the uptake of [13N]NH3 was significantly lower relative to the native heart in allografts with chronic vasculopathy compared to isograft controls on day 28 (P=0.01). Conclusions PET imaging with [18F]FDG can be used following transplantation to monitor the evolution of rejection. In addition, decreased uptake of [13N]NH3 in rejecting allografts may be reflective of decreased myocardial blood flow. These data suggest that combined [18F]FDG and [13N]NH3 PET imaging could be used as a non-invasive, quantitative technique for serial monitoring of allograft rejection and has potential application in human transplant recipients. PMID:25675207

  4. Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Outside advantage: can social rejection fuel creative thought?

    PubMed

    Kim, Sharon H; Vincent, Lynne C; Goncalo, Jack A

    2013-08-01

    Eminently creative people working in fields as disparate as physics and literature refer to the experience of social rejection as fuel for creativity. Yet, the evidence of this relationship is anecdotal, and the psychological process that might explain it is as yet unknown. We theorize that the experience of social rejection may indeed stimulate creativity but only for individuals with an independent self-concept. In 3 studies, we show that individuals who hold an independent self-concept performed more creatively after social rejection relative to inclusion. We also show that this boost in creativity is mediated by a differentiation mind-set, or salient feelings of being different from others. Future research might investigate how the self-concept--for example, various cultural orientations-may shape responses to social rejection by mitigating some of the negative consequences of exclusion and potentially even motivating creative exploration. PMID:22889163

  6. Urinary proteomic shotgun approach for identification of potential acute rejection biomarkers in renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute rejection (AR) episodes in renal transplant recipients are suspected when plasma creatinine is elevated and other potential causes out ruled. Graft biopsies are however needed for definite diagnosis. Non-invasive AR-biomarkers is an unmet clinical need. The urinary proteome is an interesting source in the search for such a biomarker in this population. Methods In this proof of principle study, serial urine samples in the early post transplant phase from 6 patients with biopsy verified acute rejections and 6 age-matched controls without clinical signs of rejection were analyzed by shotgun proteomics. Results Eleven proteins fulfilled predefined criteria for regulation in association with AR. They presented detectable regulation already several days before clinical suspicion of AR (increased plasma creatinine). The regulated proteins could be grouped by their biological function; proteins related to growth and proteins related to immune response. Growth-related proteins (IGFBP7, Vasorin, EGF and Galectin-3-binding protein) were significantly up-regulated in association with AR (P = 0.03) while proteins related to immune response (MASP2, C3, CD59, Ceruloplasmin, PiGR and CD74) tended to be up-regulated ( P = 0.13). Conclusion The use of shotgun proteomics provides a robust and sensitive method for identification of potentially predictive urinary biomarkers of AR. Further validation of the current findings is needed to establish their potential clinical role with regards to clinical AR diagnosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00139009 PMID:23369437

  7. Fate of manuscripts rejected for publication in the AJR.

    PubMed

    Chew, F S

    1991-03-01

    The fate of rejected manuscripts that were originally submitted to the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) during the first 5 months of 1986 was investigated to learn whether, when, and where they had been published. AJR, a peer-reviewed journal of diagnostic radiology with a circulation of over 21,000, annually publishes about 500 papers and receives over 11,500 citations. MEDLINE searches conducted 45 to 54 months after the dates of rejection by AJR located 162 (64%) published papers out of a consecutive series of 254 manuscripts rejected by AJR, including 69% of the rejected major papers and 62% of the rejected case reports. The papers had been published in 30 different radiologic and 27 different nonradiologic journals. Most of these journals published fewer papers, had smaller circulations, and had lower impact factors (a ratio of citations received to papers published) than AJR does. The mean time lapse between rejection by AJR and publication in other journals was 15 months. The delay in publication was greater for papers published in nonradiologic and foreign journals than for papers published in radiologic and American journals. The results of this study indicate that rejection of a manuscript by a peer-reviewed journal such as AJR delays but by no means precludes publication. At least 82% of the major papers and 70% of the case reports that are submitted to AJR are eventually published, either in AJR or elsewhere. Because a scientific paper represents not only many hours of writing and manuscript preparation but also a great investment of research time and resources, authors are reluctant to abandon rejected manuscripts. In the majority of cases, submission to other journals gains acceptance and publication. PMID:1899764

  8. Backgrounds in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.; Long, Barbara K.

    "Backgrounds in Language," a field-tested inservice course designed for use by groups of 15 or 25 language arts teachers, provides the subject matter background teachers need to make informed decisions about what curriculum materials to use in what way, at what time, and with which students. The course is comprised of eight 2-hour sessions,…

  9. Influence of biofouling on pharmaceuticals rejection in NF membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Botton, Sabrina; Verliefde, Arne R D; Quach, Nhut T; Cornelissen, Emile R

    2012-11-15

    The effects of biomass attachment and growth on the surface characteristics and organic micropollutants rejection performance of nanofiltration membranes were investigated in a pilot installation. Biomass growth was induced by dosing of a readily biodegradable carbon source resulting in the formation of a biofouling in the investigated membrane elements. Surface properties and rejection behaviour of a biofouled and virgin membrane were investigated and compared in terms of surface charge, surface energy and hydrophobicity. The last two were accomplished by performing contact angle measurements on fully hydrated membrane surfaces, in order to mimic the operating conditions of a membrane in contact with water. Compared to a virgin membrane, deposition and growth of biofilm did slightly alter the surface charge, which became more negative, and resulted in a higher hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. In addition, the presence of the negatively charged biofilm induced accumulation of positively charged pharmaceuticals within the biomass layer, which probably also hindered back diffusion. This caused a reduction in rejection efficiency of positively charged solutes but did not alter rejection of neutral and negatively charged pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals rejection was found to positively correlate with the specific free energy of interaction between virgin or biofouled membranes and pharmaceuticals dissolved in the water phase. The rejection values obtained with both virgin and biofouled membranes were compared and found in good agreement with the predictions calculated with a solute transport model earlier developed for high pressure filtration processes. PMID:22960036

  10. The private rejection of unfair offers and emotional commitment.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Takagishi, Haruto; Shinada, Mizuho; Tanida, Shigehito; Cook, Karen S

    2009-07-14

    In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that certain players of an economic game reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases rather than decreases inequity. A substantial proportion (30-40%, compared with 60-70% in the standard ultimatum game) of those who responded rejected unfair offers even when rejection reduced only their own earnings to 0, while not affecting the earnings of the person who proposed the unfair split (in an impunity game). Furthermore, even when the responders were not able to communicate their anger to the proposers by rejecting unfair offers in a private impunity game, a similar rate of rejection was observed. The rejection of unfair offers that increases inequity cannot be explained by the social preference for inequity aversion or reciprocity; however, it does provide support for the model of emotion as a commitment device. In this view, emotions such as anger or moral disgust lead people to disregard the immediate consequences of their behavior, committing them to behave consistently to preserve integrity and maintain a reputation over time as someone who is reliably committed to this behavior. PMID:19564602

  11. Prevention trumps treatment of antibody-mediated transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Stuart J.; Kwun, Jean; Iwakoshi, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Belying the spectacular success of solid organ transplantation and improvements in immunosuppressive therapy is the reality that long-term graft survival rates remain relatively unchanged, in large part due to chronic and insidious alloantibody-mediated graft injury. Half of heart transplant recipients develop chronic rejection within 10 years — a daunting statistic, particularly for young patients expecting to achieve longevity by enduring the rigors of a transplant. The current immunosuppressive pharmacopeia is relatively ineffective in preventing late alloantibody-associated chronic rejection. In this issue of the JCI, Kelishadi et al. report that preemptive deletion of B cells prior to heart transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys, in addition to conventional posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, markedly attenuated not only acute graft rejection but also alloantibody elaboration and chronic graft rejection. The success of this preemptive strike implies a central role for B cells in graft rejection, and this approach may help to delay or prevent chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation. PMID:20335653

  12. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  13. Late antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation during Gram-negative sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major challenge in ABO-incompatible transplantation is to minimize antibody-mediated rejection. Effective reduction of the anti-ABO blood group antibodies at the time of transplantation has made ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation a growing practice in our hospital and in centers worldwide. ABO antibodies result from contact with A- and B-like antigens in the intestines via nutrients and bacteria. We demonstrate a patient with fulminant antibody-mediated rejection late after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation, whose anti-A antibody titers rose dramatically following Serratia marcescens sepsis. Case presentation A 58-year-old woman underwent an ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation for end-stage renal disease secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. It concerned a blood group A1 to O donation. Pre-desensitization titers were 64 for anti-blood group A IgM and 32 for anti-blood group A IgG titers. Desensitization treatment consisted of rituximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, immunoadsorption and intravenous immunoglobulines. She was readmitted to our hospital 11 weeks after transplantation for S. marcescens urosepsis. Her anti-A IgM titer rose to >5000 and she developed a fulminant antibody-mediated rejection. We hypothesized that the (overwhelming) presence in the blood of S. marcescens stimulated anti-A antibody formation, as S. marcescens might share epitopes with blood group A antigen. Unfortunately we could not demonstrate interaction between blood group A and S. marcescens in incubation experiments. Conclusion Two features of this post-transplant course are remarkably different from other reports of acute rejection in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: first, the late occurrence 12 weeks after kidney transplantation and second, the very high anti-A IgM titers (>5000), suggesting recent boosting of anti-A antibody formation by S. marcescens. PMID:24517251

  14. POST-TRANSPLANT HYPERGLYCEMIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF LIVER ALLOGRAFT REJECTION

    PubMed Central

    Wallia, Amisha; Parikh, Neehar D; Molitch, Mark E; Mahler, Eileen; Tian, Lu; Huang, Jie Jenny; Levitsky, Josh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intensive glycemic control has been shown to positively impact outcomes in an intensive care setting. Whether this practice is beneficial after liver transplantation (LT) is not known. METHODS A retrospective review of patients undergoing LT from 2/02-07/04 was conducted to analyze the association between peri-operative hyperglycemia and outcomes after LT. Covariates included pre-existing diabetes, mean glucose three months pre-LT, need for insulin drip post-LT, mean total glucose during the post-LT hospitalization, age, gender, type of transplant, and MELD score. Outcomes within one year of LT included rejection, infection, re-hospitalization, prolonged ventilation, and patient/graft survival. RESULTS 113 LT and 31 liver-kidney recipients were included. By multivariate logistic regression adjusting for covariates, the rejection rate was significantly lower for patients with postoperative glucose levels < 200 mg/dL (n=114) vs. > 200 mg/dL (n=30) (OR 0.055, 95%CI [0.0154, 0.200], p<0.001). The need for prolonged ventilation was more common in patients with glucose < 200 vs. > 200 mg/dL (OR 4.30, 95%CI [1.284, 14.388], p=0.018). While other outcomes, infection, re-hospitalization, patient/graft survival, were not different among the glucose control groups, rejection was associated with increased re-hospitalizations and infections. CONCLUSION Our data demonstrate an association between immediate post-transplant glycemic control and the development of subsequent rejection. Prospective trials investigating the effects of perioperative glycemic control on outcomes and morbidity after LT are warranted. PMID:20098286

  15. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Ng, Yolanda W.; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urine exosomes are small vesicles exocytosed into the urine by all renal epithelial cell types under normal physiologic and disease states. Urine exosomal proteins may mirror disease specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration of urine samples collected from kidney transplant patients with and without acute rejection (AR), which were biopsy matched. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Ue) underwent mass spectroscopy-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in AR. Results: A total of 1018 proteins were identified in Uw and 349 proteins in Ue. Two hundred seventy-nine overlapped between the two urinary compartments and 70 proteins were unique to the Ue compartment. Of 349 exosomal proteins identified from transplant patients, 220 had not been previously identified in the normal Ue fraction. Eleven Ue proteins, functionally involved in an inflammatory and stress response, were more abundant in urine samples from patients with AR, three of which are exclusive to the Ue fraction. Ue AR-specific biomarkers (1) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusion: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Ue proteins was applied. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were specific to inflammatory responses, and were not observed in the Ue fraction from normal healthy subjects. Ue-specific protein alterations in renal disease provide potential mechanistic insights and offer a unique panel of sensitive

  16. Antitumor vaccines, immunotherapy and the immunological constant of rejection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ena; Monaco, Alessandro; Monsurró, Vladia; Sabatino, Marianna; Pos, Zoltan; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Wang, Jeanne; Worschech, Andrea; Stroncek, David F

    2012-01-01

    Anti-cancer vaccines have not matched the clinical expectations projected from their ability to induce consistently systemic anti-cancer T-cell responses. Thus, a dichotomy is observed between the immunological and clinical endpoints of anti-cancer immunization. Anti-cancer vaccines have clearly demonstrated that highly specific T-cell responses can be induced that can recognize autologous cancer antigens in patients with cancer. This ability is an outstanding achievement of modern biotechnology, yielding one of the most specific types of potential anti-cancer reagents. However, systemic, vaccine-induced anti-cancer responses exemplify a broader immunological paradox: cytotoxic T-cells can coexist within the same organism with their target cells not only in the context of cancer, but also in the context of chronic infections, well-controlled allo-transplant reactions and autoimmunity. According to this view, anti-cancer immune responses are a facet of a tissue-specific autoimmune phenomenon specific for cancer tissue that may or may not result in the successful immune-destruction of target cells, depending on an assortment of genetic factors related to the background of the host or evolving phenotypes of a heterogeneous cancer environment. This feature article summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms leading to tumor rejection in humans as well as in experimental models, in the context of the broader immunological phenomenon leading to tissue-specific destruction. Anti-cancer vaccines that may not induce clinically significant anti-cancer responses independently could function as a unique tool to enhance the specificity of the response of the host against cancer, provided that strategies are implemented to amplify the immune reaction initiated by vaccine-induced antibodies and/or T-cells. PMID:19431094

  17. Acute allograft rejection and immunosuppression: influence on endogenous melatonin secretion.

    PubMed

    Cardell, Markus; Jung, Florian Johannes; Zhai, Wei; Hillinger, Sven; Welp, Andre; Manz, Bernhard; Weder, Walter; Korom, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    Melatonin displays a dose-dependent immunoregulatory effect in vitro and in vivo. Exogenous high-dose melatonin therapy exerted an immunosuppressive effect, abrogating acute rejection (AR), significantly prolonging transplant survival. Endogenous melatonin secretion, in response to heterotopic rat cardiac allograft transplantation (Tx), was investigated during the AR response and under standardized immunosuppressive maintenance therapy with cyclosporin A (CsA) and rapamycin (RPM). Recipients of syngeneic transplants, and recipients of allogeneic grafts, either untreated or receiving immunosuppressive therapy constituted the experimental groups. Endogenous circadian melatonin levels were measured at 07:00, 19:00, and 24:00 hr, using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure, under standardized 12-hr-light/dark-conditions (light off: 19:00 hr; light on: 07:00 hr), before and after Tx. Neither the operative trauma, nor the challenge with a perfused allograft or the AR response influenced endogenous melatonin peak secretion. Immunosuppressive therapy with CsA led to a significant increase in peak secretion, measured for days 7 (212 +/- 40.7 pg/mL; P < 0.05), 14 (255 +/- 13.9 pg/mL; P < 0.001), and 21 (219 +/- 34 pg/mL; P < 0.01) after Tx, as compared with naïve animals (155 +/- 25.8 pg/mL). In contrast, treatment with RPM significantly decreased the melatonin peak post-Tx up to day 7 (87 +/- 25.2 pg/mL; P < 0.001), compared with naïve animals (155 +/- 25.8 pg/mL). These findings imply a robust nature of the endogenous circadian melatonin secretion kinetics, even against the background of profound allogeneic stimuli. Immunosuppressive maintenance therapy with CsA and RPM modulated early melatonin secretion, indicating a specific secondary action of these drugs. Further studies are necessary to disclose the long-term effect of immunosuppressive therapy on circadian melatonin secretion in transplant recipients. PMID:18339121

  18. Peer Rejection and Friendships in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions to Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Even after evidence-based treatment, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor long-term outcomes. These outcomes may be partly explained by difficulties in peer functioning, which are common among children with ADHD and which do not respond optimally to standard ADHD treatments. We examined whether peer rejection and lack of dyadic friendships experienced by children with ADHD after treatment contribute to long-term emotional and behavioral problems and global impairment, and whether having a reciprocal friend buffers the negative effects of peer rejection. Children with Combined type ADHD (N=300) enrolled in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) were followed for 8 years. Peer rejection and dyadic friendships were measured with sociometric assessments after the active treatment period (14 or 24 months after baseline; M ages 9.7 and 10.5 years, respectively). Outcomes included delinquency, depression, anxiety, substance use, and general impairment at 6 and 8 years after baseline (Mean ages 14.9 and 16.8 years, respectively). With inclusion of key covariates, including demographics, symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and CD, and level of the outcome variable at 24 months, peer rejection predicted cigarette smoking, delinquency, anxiety, and global impairment at 6 years and global impairment at 8 years after baseline. Having a reciprocal friend was not, however, uniquely predictive of any outcomes and did not reduce the negative effects of peer rejection. Evaluating and addressing peer rejection in treatment planning may be necessary to improve long-term outcomes in children with ADHD. PMID:22331455

  19. Solar rejection for an orbiting telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnberg, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The present work discusses some of the constraints that the optical designer must deal with in optimizing spaceborne sensors that must look at or near the sun. Analytical techniques are described for predicting the effects of stray radiation from sources such as mirror scatter, baffle scatter, diffraction, and ghost images. In addition, the paper describes a sensor design that has been flown on the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab) to aid astronauts in locating solar flares. In addition to keeping stray radiation to a minimum, the design had to be nondegradable by the direct solar heat load.

  20. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  1. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  2. Adaptive background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochun; Xiao, Yijun; Chai, Zhi; Wang, Bangping

    2007-11-01

    An adaptive background model aiming at outdoor vehicle detection is presented in this paper. This model is an improved model of PICA (pixel intensity classification algorithm), it classifies pixels into K-distributions by color similarity, and then a hypothesis that the background pixel color appears in image sequence with a high frequency is used to evaluate all the distributions to determine which presents the current background color. As experiments show, the model presented in this paper is a robust, adaptive and flexible model, which can deal with situations like camera motions, lighting changes and so on.

  3. Donor Rejection Before Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Causes and Cost Effective Analysis in an Egyptian Transplant Center.

    PubMed Central

    El-Meteini, Mahmoud; Dabbous, Hany; Sakr, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Amany; Fawzy, Iman; Bahaa, Mohamed; Abdelaal, Amr; Fathy, Mohamed; Said, Hany; Rady, Mohamed; El-Dorry, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the living donor liver transplant setting, the preoperative assessment of potential donors is important to ensure the donor safety. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify causes and costs of living liver-donors rejection in the donation process. Materials and Methods: From June 2010 to June 2012, all potential living liver donors for 66 liver transplant candidates were screened at the Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation. Potential donors were evaluated in 3 phases, and their data were reviewed to determine the causes and at which phase the donors were rejected. Results: One hundred and ninety two potential living liver donors, including 157 (81.7%) males, were screened for 66 potential recipients. Of these, 126 (65.6%) were disqualified for the donation. The causes of rejection were classified as surgical (9.5 %) or medical (90.5 %). Five donors (3.9 %) were rejected due to multiple causes. Factor V Leiden mutation was detected in 29 (23 %) rejected donors (P = 0.001), 25 (19.8 %) donors had positive results for hepatitis serology (P = 0.005), and 16 (12.7 %) tested positive for drug abuse. Portal vein trifurcation (n = 9, 7.1%) and small size liver graft estimated by CT volumetric analysis (n = 6, 4.8 %) were the main surgical causes which precluded the donation. Conclusions: Among potential Egyptian living liver donors, Factor V Leiden mutation was a significant cause for live donor rejection. A stepwise approach to donor assessment was found to be cost-effective. PMID:24497879

  4. MDMA DECREASES THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED SOCIAL REJECTION

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Charles G.; Wardle, Margaret C.; Norman, Greg J.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) increases self-reported positive social feelings and decreases the ability to detect social threat in faces, but its effects on experiences of social acceptance and rejection have not been determined. We examined how an acute dose of MDMA affects subjective and autonomic responses to simulated social acceptance and rejection. We predicted that MDMA would decrease subjective responses to rejection. On an exploratory basis, we also examined the effect of MDMA on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic cardiac control often thought to index social engagement and emotional regulation. Over three sessions, healthy adult volunteers with previous MDMA experience (N = 36) received capsules containing placebo, 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg of MDMA under counter-balanced double-blind conditions. During expected peak drug effect, participants played two rounds of a virtual social simulation task called “Cyberball” during which they experienced acceptance in one round and rejection in the other. During the task we also obtained electrocardiograms (ECGs), from which we calculated RSA. After each round, participants answered questionnaires about their mood and self-esteem. As predicted, MDMA decreased the effect of simulated social rejection on self-reported mood and self-esteem and decreased perceived intensity of rejection, measured as the percent of ball tosses participants reported receiving. Consistent with its sympathomimetic properties, MDMA decreased RSA as compared to placebo. Our finding that MDMA decreases perceptions of rejection in simulated social situations extends previous results indicating that MDMA reduces perception of social threat in faces. Together these findings suggest a cognitive mechanism by which MDMA might produce pro-social behavior and feelings and how the drug might function as an adjunct to psychotherapy. These phenomena merit further study in non-simulated social environments. PMID

  5. 14 CFR 302.306 - Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dismissal or rejection of incomplete... Exemption and Certain Other Proceedings § 302.306 Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications. (a) Dismissal or rejection. The Department may dismiss or reject any application for exemption that does...

  6. 37 CFR 1.132 - Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... traversing rejections or objections. 1.132 Section 1.132 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Affidavits Overcoming Rejections § 1.132 Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections. When any claim of an application or a patent under reexamination is rejected...

  7. 42 CFR 424.525 - Rejection of a provider or supplier's enrollment application for Medicare enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of a provider or supplier's enrollment... Rejection of a provider or supplier's enrollment application for Medicare enrollment. (a) Reasons for rejection. CMS may reject a provider's or supplier's enrollment application for any of the following...

  8. 49 CFR 365.111 - Appeals to rejections of the application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appeals to rejections of the application. 365.111... rejections of the application. (a) An applicant has the right to appeal rejection of the application. The appeal must be filed at the FMCSA within 10 days of the date of the letter of rejection. (b) If...

  9. 49 CFR 365.111 - Appeals to rejections of the application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appeals to rejections of the application. 365.111... rejections of the application. (a) An applicant has the right to appeal rejection of the application. The appeal must be filed at the FMCSA within 10 days of the date of the letter of rejection. (b) If...

  10. 14 CFR 302.306 - Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dismissal or rejection of incomplete... Exemption and Certain Other Proceedings § 302.306 Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications. (a) Dismissal or rejection. The Department may dismiss or reject any application for exemption that does...

  11. 49 CFR 365.111 - Appeals to rejections of the application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeals to rejections of the application. 365.111... rejections of the application. (a) An applicant has the right to appeal rejection of the application. The appeal must be filed at the FMCSA within 10 days of the date of the letter of rejection. (b) If...

  12. 37 CFR 1.132 - Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... traversing rejections or objections. 1.132 Section 1.132 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Affidavits Overcoming Rejections § 1.132 Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections. When any claim of an application or a patent under reexamination is rejected...

  13. 37 CFR 1.132 - Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... traversing rejections or objections. 1.132 Section 1.132 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Affidavits Overcoming Rejections § 1.132 Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections. When any claim of an application or a patent under reexamination is rejected...

  14. 37 CFR 1.132 - Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... traversing rejections or objections. 1.132 Section 1.132 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Affidavits Overcoming Rejections § 1.132 Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections. When any claim of an application or a patent under reexamination is rejected...

  15. 14 CFR 302.306 - Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dismissal or rejection of incomplete... Exemption and Certain Other Proceedings § 302.306 Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications. (a) Dismissal or rejection. The Department may dismiss or reject any application for exemption that does...

  16. Demonstration of An Image Rejection Mixer for High Frequency Applications (26-36 GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, Cheryl D.; Carlstrom, John E.

    1999-01-01

    A new high frequency image-rejection mixer was successfully tested in a 26-36 GHz band receiver. This paper briefly describes the motivation for implementation of an image rejection mixer in a receiver system, the basic operation of an image rejection mixer, and the development and testing of an image rejection mixer for a high frequency, cryogenic receiver system.

  17. 37 CFR 1.132 - Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... traversing rejections or objections. 1.132 Section 1.132 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... Processing Provisions Affidavits Overcoming Rejections § 1.132 Affidavits or declarations traversing rejections or objections. When any claim of an application or a patent under reexamination is rejected...

  18. 14 CFR 302.306 - Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dismissal or rejection of incomplete... Exemption and Certain Other Proceedings § 302.306 Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications. (a) Dismissal or rejection. The Department may dismiss or reject any application for exemption that does...

  19. 14 CFR 302.306 - Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dismissal or rejection of incomplete... Exemption and Certain Other Proceedings § 302.306 Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications. (a) Dismissal or rejection. The Department may dismiss or reject any application for exemption that does...

  20. Relational Victimization and Rejection Sensitivity: The Long-Term Impact of Social Hurt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Rejection Sensitivity Model is used to examine the social antecedents to expectations of rejection among adults. College students (N = 314) completed measures of relational victimization and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that relational victimization is significantly related to rejection sensitivity for women. Implications for…

  1. Monitoring of corneal allograft rejection using laser flare meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnowski, Tomasz; Haszcz, Dariusz; Rakowska, Ewa; Zagorski, Zbigniew

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify noninvasively, with the use of laser-flare meter the alterations of the blood-aqueous barrier following penetrating keratoplasty. This could diagnose objectively disruption of this barrier in eyes with early allograft rejection, possible even before manifestation of the clinical signs and would help to monitor the efficacy of the treatment. We used the laser flare-meter (Kowa FM-500) to investigate alteration of the blood-aqueous barrier following uncomplicated penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and in corneal allograft rejection. Examination was performed in 50 eyes of 48 patients after uncomplicated PK (7 days to 12 months after PK), in 20 normal control eyes and in 8 patients with acute allograft rejection. Flare values after uncomplicated keratoplasty slowly decreased in time reaching nearly control values 6 - 12 months postoperatively. They were considerably higher for acute allograft rejection compared to eyes following uncomplicated PK and normal control group. Actually, they tended to diminish gradually after systemic and topical administration of steroids and/or immunosuppressants. Application of laser tyndalometry has been proven to be highly useful in the follow up of patients after perforating keratoplasty-especially high risk grafts, it helps to detect objectively early allograft rejection and is beneficial in monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment.

  2. The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuk Man; Chen, Luqiu; Wang, Ying; Stefka, Andrew T; Molinero, Luciana L; Theriault, Betty; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Sivan, Ayelet S; Nagler, Cathryn R; Gajewski, Thomas F; Chong, Anita S; Bartman, Caroline; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Transplantation is the only cure for end-stage organ failure, but without immunosuppression, T cells rapidly reject allografts. While genetic disparities between donor and recipient are major determinants of the kinetics of transplant rejection, little is known about the contribution of environmental factors. Because colonized organs have worse transplant outcome than sterile organs, we tested the influence of host and donor microbiota on skin transplant rejection. Compared with untreated conventional mice, pretreatment of donors and recipients with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) or use of germ-free (GF) donors and recipients resulted in prolonged survival of minor antigen-mismatched skin grafts. Increased graft survival correlated with reduced type I IFN signaling in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and decreased priming of alloreactive T cells. Colonization of GF mice with fecal material from untreated conventional mice, but not from Abx-pretreated mice, enhanced the ability of APCs to prime alloreactive T cells and accelerated graft rejection, suggesting that alloimmunity is modulated by the composition of microbiota rather than the quantity of bacteria. Abx pretreatment of conventional mice also delayed rejection of major antigen-mismatched skin and MHC class II-mismatched cardiac allografts. This study demonstrates that Abx pretreatment prolongs graft survival, suggesting that targeting microbial constituents is a potential therapeutic strategy for enhancing graft acceptance. PMID:27322054

  3. The role of peer rejection in adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Platt, Belinda; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2013-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of major risk for depression, which is associated with negative personal, social, and educational outcomes. Yet, in comparison to adult models of depression, very little is known about the specific psychosocial stressors that contribute to adolescent depression, and whether these can be targeted by interventions. In this review, we consider the role of peer rejection. First, we present a comprehensive review of studies using innovative experimental paradigms to understand the role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. We show how reciprocal relationships between peer rejection and depressive symptoms across adolescence powerfully shape and maintain maladaptive trajectories. Second, we consider how cognitive biases and their neurobiological substrates may explain why some adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of, and perhaps exposure to, peer rejection compared to others. Finally, we draw attention to emerging cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based neurofeedback training, which by modifying aspects of information processing may promote more adaptive responses to peer rejection. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying adolescent depression may not only alleviate symptoms during a period of substantial developmental challenges, but may also reduce the burden of the disorder across the lifespan. PMID:23596129

  4. Thermal control systems for low-temperature heat rejection on a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias

    1992-01-01

    One of the important issues in the lunar base architecture is the design of a Thermal Control System (TCS) to reject the low temperature heat from the base. The TCS ensures that the base and all components inside are maintained within the operating temperature range. A significant portion of the total mass of the TCS is due to the radiator. Shading the radiation from the sun and the hot lunar soil could decrease the radiator operating temperature significantly. Heat pumps have been in use for terrestrial applications. To optimize the mass of the heat pump augmented TCS, all promising options have to be evaluated and compared. Careful attention is given to optimizing system operating parameters, working fluids, and component masses. The systems are modeled for full load operation.

  5. Background suppression in the Edelweiss-III experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Navick, X.-F. [CEA Collaboration: EDELWEISS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    In dark matter WIMP searches the neutron shielding plays a crucial role in attenuating neutron flux and hence, suppressing nuclear recoil event rate - one of the key background mimicking WIMP interactions. The transition from EDELWEISS-II to EDELWEISS-III with 40 detectors with increased mass and improved background rejection has required the modification of the neutron shielding. In this paper we describe the new neutron shielding design and give an estimate of the expected neutron rate in comparison with the previous stage of the experiment.

  6. Evaluation of lexicon size variations on a verification and rejection system based on SVM, for accurate and robust recognition of handwritten words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricquebourg, Yann; Coüasnon, Bertrand; Guichard, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The transcription of handwritten words remains a still challenging and difficult task. When processing full pages, approaches are limited by the trade-off between automatic recognition errors and the tedious aspect of human user verification. In this article, we present our investigations to improve the capabilities of an automatic recognizer, so as to be able to reject unknown words (not to take wrong decisions) while correctly rejecting (i.e. to recognize as much as possible from the lexicon of known words). This is the active research topic of developing a verification system that optimize the trade-off between performance and reliability. To minimize the recognition errors, a verification system is usually used to accept or reject the hypotheses produced by an existing recognition system. Thus, we re-use our novel verification architecture1 here: the recognition hypotheses are re-scored by a set of support vector machines, and validated by a verification mechanism based on multiple rejection thresholds. In order to tune these (class-dependent) rejection thresholds, an algorithm based on dynamic programming has been proposed which focus on maximizing the recognition rate for a given error rate. Experiments have been carried out on the RIMES database in three steps. The first two showed that this approach results in a performance superior or equal to other state-of-the-art rejection methods. We focus here on the third one showing that this verification system also greatly improves results of keywords extraction in a set of handwritten words, with a strong robustness to lexicon size variations (21 lexicons have been tested from 167 entries up to 5,600 entries) which is particularly relevant to our application context cooperating with humans, and only made possible thanks to the rejection ability of this proposed system. The proposed verification system, compared to a HMM with simple rejection, improves on average the recognition rate by 57% (resp. 33% and 21%) for

  7. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  8. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  9. Disturbance rejection of the WIYN telescope position control servosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellington, Scott

    1995-06-01

    The performance of a telescope position control servosystem depends on its ability to minimize changes in position due to wind and other disturbances. Modern, lightweight telescopes such as WIYN rely on feedback to achieve good disturbance rejection. While the simplicity of a direct, friction-drive system is attractive, the small drive ratio greatly diminishes the effectiveness of motor velocity control in reducing disturbance sensitivity. The WIYN servosystems use position feedback and motor torque control to achieve tracking accuracy and disturbance rejection. This type of control allows the use of larger position control bandwidth than is possible with motor velocity control. The factors affecting disturbance rejection are discussed. Motor velocity controlled and motor torque controlled servosystems are described and compared. The WIYN telescope is analyzed to show the expected performance of each type of system, and measured performance is presented.

  10. Self-contained heat rejection module for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.; Williams, J. L.; Baskett, J. D.; Leach, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses development of a Self-Contained Heat Rejection Module (SHRM) which can be used on a wide variety of future spacecraft launched by the space shuttle orbiter. The SHRM contains radiators which are deployed by a scissor-mechanism and the flow equipment including pumps, accumulator, by-pass valves, and controllers necessary to reject heat from those radiators. Heat transfer between SHRM and the parent vehicle is effected by a contact heat exchanger. This device provides heat transfer between two separate flow loops through a mechanical connection. This approach reduces the time required to attach the SHRM to the payload, and increases the reliability of the SHRM flow loop since breaking into the fluid system in the field is not required. The SHRM concept also includes a refrigeration system to increase heat rejection capacity in adverse environments, or to provide for a lower return temperature, down to -23 C.

  11. Allograft rejection in cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Müller, K E; Rutten, V P; Becker, C K; Hoek, A; Bernadina, W E; Wentink, G H; Figdor, C G

    1995-09-01

    In the present investigation cell-mediated immunity in animals with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was studied by means of skin transplantation experiments. Autograft and allograft behaviour in animals with BLAD was compared with the behaviour of simultaneously transplanted autografts and allografts in healthy controls. Allograft survival time was prolonged in three BLAD cattle (28, 30, and 72 days) compared to six healthy controls (12-14 days). When transplantations were repeated on one animal with BLAD using skin grafts from the same donor, accelerated rejection was observed (allograft survival time decreased from 72 days at primary to 35 days at secondary and to 21 days at tertiary transplantation), suggesting the development of immunological memory. Graft-infiltrating lymphocytes that were obtained from allograft biopsies during the period of rejection, were shown to be from recipient origin (beta 2-integrin negative). Our findings demonstrate that, although prolonged allograft survival is observed in cattle with BLAD, skin allografts are ultimately rejected. PMID:8533316

  12. Data augmentation for models based on rejection sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vinayak; Lin, Lizhen; Dunson, David B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a data augmentation scheme to perform Markov chain Monte Carlo inference for models where data generation involves a rejection sampling algorithm. Our idea is a simple scheme to instantiate the rejected proposals preceding each data point. The resulting joint probability over observed and rejected variables can be much simpler than the marginal distribution over the observed variables, which often involves intractable integrals. We consider three problems: modelling flow-cytometry measurements subject to truncation; the Bayesian analysis of the matrix Langevin distribution on the Stiefel manifold; and Bayesian inference for a nonparametric Gaussian process density model. The latter two are instances of doubly-intractable Markov chain Monte Carlo problems, where evaluating the likelihood is intractable. Our experiments demonstrate superior performance over state-of-the-art sampling algorithms for such problems. PMID:27279660

  13. Universal noninvasive detection of solid organ transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Thomas M.; Khush, Kiran K.; Valantine, Hannah A.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to monitor the health of transplanted organs, particularly with respect to rejection by the host immune system. Because transplanted organs have genomes that are distinct from the recipient's genome, we used high throughput shotgun sequencing to develop a universal noninvasive approach to monitoring organ health. We analyzed cell-free DNA circulating in the blood of heart transplant recipients and observed significantly increased levels of cell-free DNA from the donor genome at times when an endomyocardial biopsy independently established the presence of acute cellular rejection in these heart transplant recipients. Our results demonstrate that cell-free DNA can be used to detect an organ-specific signature that correlates with rejection, and this measurement can be made on any combination of donor and recipient. This noninvasive test holds promise for replacing the endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplant recipients and may be applicable to other solid organ transplants. PMID:21444804

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Rejecting and Autonomy-Restrictive Parenting, Rejection Sensitivity, and Socioemotional Symptoms in Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Susan L; Gembeck, Melanie J Zimmer; Rudolph, Julia; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-08-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) has been defined as the tendency to readily perceive and overreact to interpersonal rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test key propositions of RS theory, namely that rejecting experiences in relationships with parents are antecedents of early adolescents' future RS and symptomatology. We also expanded this to consider autonomy-restrictive parenting, given the importance of autonomy in early adolescence. Participants were 601 early adolescents (age 9 to 13 years old, 51% boys) from three schools in Australia. Students completed questionnaires at school about parent and peer relationships, RS, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at two times with a 14-month lag between assessments. Parents also reported on adolescents' difficulties at Time 1 (T1). It was anticipated that more experience of parental rejection, coercion, and psychological control would be associated with adolescents' escalating RS and symptoms over time, even after accounting for peer victimisation, and that RS would mediate associations between parenting and symptoms. Structural equation modelling supported these hypotheses. Parent coercion was associated with adolescents' increasing symptoms of social anxiety and RS over time, and parent psychological control was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Indirect effects via RS were also found, with parent rejection and psychological control linked to higher T1 RS, which was then associated with increasing loneliness and RS. Lastly, in a separate model, peer victimisation and RS, but not parenting practices, were positively associated with concurrent parent reports of adolescents' difficulties. PMID:25520298

  15. Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. Specificity of the effector mechanism in the rejection of allogeneic marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Gress, R.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Cellular effector mechanisms of allograft rejection remain incompletely described. Characterizing the rejection of foreign-marrow allografts rather than solid-organ grafts has the advantage that the cellular composition of the marrow graft, as a single cell suspension, can be altered to include cellular components with differing antigen expression. Rejection of marrow grafts is sensitive to lethal doses of radiation in the mouse but resistant to sublethal levels of radiation. In an effort to identify cells mediating host resistance, lymphocytes were isolated and cloned from spleens of mice 7 days after sublethal TBI (650 cGy) and inoculation with allogeneic marrow. All clones isolated were cytolytic with specificity for MHC encoded gene products of the allogeneic marrow donor. When cloned cells were transferred in vivo into lethally irradiated (1025 cGy) recipients unable to reject allogeneic marrow, results utilizing splenic 125IUdR uptake indicated that these MHC-specific cytotoxic clones could suppress marrow proliferation. In order to characterize the effector mechanism and the ability of the clones to affect final engraftment, double donor chimeras were constructed so that 2 target cell populations differing at the MHC from each other and from the host were present in the same marrow allograft. Results directly demonstrated an ability of CTL of host MHC type to mediate graft rejection and characterized the effector mechanism as one with specificity for MHC gene products.

  16. Sexual Education In Malaysia: Accepted Or Rejected?

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Mutalip, Siti Syairah; Mohamed, Ruzianisra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Introduction to sexual education in schools was suggested by the Malaysian government as one of the effort taken in the aim to reduce the sexual-related social problems among Malaysian teenagers nowadays. This study was proposed in the aim to determine the rate of acceptance among adolescents on the implementation of sexual education in schools. Methods: This study was conducted using questionnaires distributed to 152 pre-degree students in Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. Results: Almost half (49.3%) of the respondents agreed that sexual education might help to overcome the social illness among school teenagers. Besides, a large number (77.6%) of respondents also agreed that this module should be incorporated with other core subjects compare to the feedback received on the implementation of this module on its own (28.9%). Conclusion: These results have provided some insight towards the perception of sexual education among the teenagers. Since most of the respondents agreed with this idea, so it might be a sign that the implementation of sexual education is almost accepted by the adolescents. PMID:23113207

  17. Thermal control systems for low-temperature heat rejection on a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, Matthias

    1992-01-01

    In this report, Rankine-cycle heat pumps and absorption heat pumps (ammonia-water and lithium bromide-water) have been analyzed and optimized for a lunar base cooling load of 100 kW. For the Rankine cycle, a search of several commonly used commercial refrigerants provided R11 and R717 as possible working fluids. Hence, the Rankine-cycle analysis has been performed for both R11 and R717. Two different configurations were considered for the system--one in which the heat pump is directly connected to the rejection loop and another in which a heat exchanger connects the heat pump to the rejection loop. For a marginal increase in mass, the decoupling of the rejection loop and the radiator from the heat pump provides greater reliability of the system and better control. Hence, the decoupled system is the configuration of choice. The optimal TCS mass for a 100 kW cooling load at 270 K was 5940 kg at a radiator temperature of 362 K. R11 was the working fluid in the heat pump, and R717 was the transport fluid in the rejection loop. Two TCS's based on an absorption-cycle heat pump were considered, one with an ammonia-water mixture and the other with a lithium bromide-water mixture as the working fluid. A complete cycle analysis was performed for these systems. The system components were approximated as heat exchangers with no internal pressure drop for the mass estimate. This simple approach underpredicts the mass of the systems, but is a good 'optimistic' first approximation to the TCS mass in the absence of reliable component mass data. The mass estimates of the two systems reveal that, in spite of this optimistic estimate, the absorption heat pumps are not competitive with the Rankine-cycle heat pumps. Future work at the systems level will involve similar analyses for the Brayton- and Stirling-cycle heat pumps. The analyses will also consider the operation of the pump under partial-load conditions. On the component level, a capillary evaporator will be designed, built

  18. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  19. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  20. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  1. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  2. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  3. Monitored background radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruel, C.; Larouche, M.; Donato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The infrared (IR) testing of the Olympus thermal model has provided a capability to perform cost effective thermal balance testing of satellites and satellite components. A high-accuracy monitored background radiometer was developed for the measurement of absorbed radiation heat flux encountered during IR thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft. The design, development, and calibration of this radiometer is described.

  4. Inertial-space disturbance rejection for space-based manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Kevin; Desrochers, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    The implementation of a disturbance rejection controller for a 6-DOF PUMA manipulator mounted on a 3-DOF platform was described. A control algorithm is designed to track the desired position and attitude of the end-effector in inertial space, subject to unknown disturbances in the platform axes. Experimental results are presented for step, sinusoidal, and random disturbances in the platform rotational axis and in the neighborhood of kinematic singularities. Robotic manipulators were proposed as a means of reducing the amount of extra vehicular activity time required for space station assembly and maintenance. The proposed scenario involves a robotic manipulator attached to some mobile platform, such as a spacecraft, satellite, or the space station itself. Disturbances in the platform position and attitude may prevent the manipulator from successfully completing the task. The possibility of using the manipulator to compensate for platform disturbances was explored. The problem of controlling a robotic manipulator on a mobile platform has received considerable attention in the past few years. Joshi and Desrochers designed a nonlinear feedback control law to carry out tasks (with respect to the robot base frame) in the presence of roll, pitch and yaw disturbances in the platform axes. Dubowsky, Vance, and Torres proposed a time-optimal planning algorithm for a robotic manipulator mounted on a spacecraft, subject to saturation limits in the attitude control reaction jets. Papadopoulos and Dubowsky developed a general framework for analyzing the control of free-floating space manipulator systems. Most recently, Torres and Dubowsky have presented a technique called the enhanced disturbance map to find manipulator trajectories that reduce the effect of disturbances in the spacecraft position and attitude. One common assumption in the literature is that the disturbance signal is exactly known. If this is the case, then the end-effector location can be calculated without

  5. Prevention of pancreatic islet xenograft rejection by dietary vitamin E.

    PubMed Central

    Vajkoczy, P.; Lehr, H. A.; Hübner, C.; Arfors, K. E.; Menger, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    In pancreatic islet transplantation, the adhesion of activated leukocytes to endothelial cells and the loss of microvascular integrity represent the critical microcirculatory events, which promote loss of graft function due to rejection. With the view that oxygen radicals may contribute to graft rejection, we studied the effect of the antioxidant vitamin E on microvascular rejection of islet grafts. Islets were transplanted syngeneically and xenogeneically (rat) into dorsal skin-fold chambers of hamsters, which received a non-vitamin-E-supplemented laboratory chow. Treated animals with xenografts were fed with a diet supplemented with vitamin E in a low (150 mg/kg) and high (8000 mg/kg) concentration. Intravital fluorescence microscopy demonstrated complete vascularization of syngeneic grafts at day 10 after transplantation, intact islet microcirculation at day 20 with a functional capillary density of 653 +/- 6 cm-1, and only few leukocytes adherent to the endothelial lining of the islets' microvasculature (88 +/- 23 mm-2). Xenogeneic islets showed initial signs of rejection at day 6, including adhesion of leukocytes to the microvascular endothelium (610 +/- 110 mm-2) and loss of endothelial integrity. After 20 days, functional capillary density was significantly lower (173 +/- 68 cm-1) when compared with syngeneic grafts, indicating failure of graft acceptance. Supplementation of the diet with low and high concentrations of vitamin E resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of xenograft leukocyte-endothelium interaction (146 +/- 29 mm-2 and 109 +/- 42 mm-2) at day 6 after transplantation and and adequate development of functional capillary density at day 20 (478 +/- 36 cm-1 and 539 +/- 86 cm-1; P < 0.05), indicating prevention of microvascular rejection. We conclude that dietary supplementation of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, preserves microvascular integrity, and thus inhibits microvascular

  6. Solar dynamic organic Rankine cycle heat rejection system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Namkoong, D.

    The use of a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) and shear flow condenser for two-phase fluid management in microgravity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) applications is examined. A prototype of the proposed Space Station ORC heat rejection system was constructed to evaluate the performance of the inventory control method. The design and operation of the RFMD, shear flow condenser, and inventory control fluid accumulator are described. A schematic diagram of the ORC, RFMD, and condenser, and a functional diagram of the heat rejection system for the ORC are presented.

  7. Solar dynamic organic Rankine cycle heat rejection system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Namkoong, D.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) and shear flow condenser for two-phase fluid management in microgravity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) applications is examined. A prototype of the proposed Space Station ORC heat rejection system was constructed to evaluate the performance of the inventory control method. The design and operation of the RFMD, shear flow condenser, and inventory control fluid accumulator are described. A schematic diagram of the ORC, RFMD, and condenser, and a functional diagram of the heat rejection system for the ORC are presented.

  8. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  9. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2014-11-18

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  10. Remote noninvasive allograft rejection monitoring for heart transplant recipients: study protocol for the novel evaluation with home electrocardiogram and remote transmission (NEW HEART) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute allograft rejection is a major cause of early mortality in the first year after heart transplantation in adults. Although endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is not a perfect "gold standard" for a correct diagnosis of acute allograft rejection, it is considered the best available test and thus, is the current standard practice. Unfortunately, EMB is an invasive and costly procedure that is not without risk. Recent evidence suggests that acute allograft rejection causes delays in ventricular repolarization and thereby increases the cellular action potential duration resulting in a longer QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG). No prospective study to date has investigated whether such increases in the QT interval could provide early detection of acute allograft rejection. Therefore, in the Novel Evaluation With Home Electrocardiogram And Remote Transmission (NEW HEART) study, we plan to investigate the potential benefit of daily home QT interval monitoring to predict acute allograft rejection. Methods/design The NEW HEART study is a prospective, double-blind, multi-center descriptive research study. A sample of 325 adult heart transplant recipients will be recruited within six weeks of transplant from three sites in the United States. Subjects will receive the HeartView™ ECG recorder and its companion Internet Transmitter, which will transmit the subject's ECG to a Core Laboratory. Subjects will be instructed to record and transmit an ECG recording daily for 6 months. An increase in the QTC interval from the previous day of at least 25 ms that persists for 3 consecutive days will be considered abnormal. The number and grade of acute allograft rejection episodes, as well as all-cause mortality, will be collected for one year following transplant surgery. Discussion This study will provide "real world" prospective data to determine the sensitivity and specificity of QTC as an early non invasive marker of cellular rejection in transplant recipients

  11. Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Philip F; Chang, Jessica; Famulski, Konrad; Hidalgo, Luis G; Salazar, Israel D R; Merino Lopez, Maribel; Matas, Arthur; Picton, Michael; de Freitas, Declan; Bromberg, Jonathan; Serón, Daniel; Sellarés, Joana; Einecke, Gunilla; Reeve, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The prevalent renal transplant population presents an opportunity to observe the adaptive changes in the alloimmune response over time, but such studies have been limited by uncertainties in the conventional biopsy diagnosis of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). To circumvent these limitations, we used microarrays and conventional methods to investigate rejection in 703 unselected biopsies taken 3 days to 35 years post-transplant from North American and European centers. Using conventional methods, we diagnosed rejection in 205 biopsy specimens (28%): 67 pure TCMR, 110 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (89 designated borderline). Using microarrays, we diagnosed rejection in 228 biopsy specimens (32%): 76 pure TCMR, 124 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (no borderline). Molecular assessment confirmed most conventional diagnoses (agreement was 90% for TCMR and 83% for ABMR) but revealed some errors, particularly in mixed rejection, and improved prediction of failure. ABMR was strongly associated with increased graft loss, but TCMR was not. ABMR became common in biopsy specimens obtained >1 year post-transplant and continued to appear in all subsequent intervals. TCMR was common early but progressively disappeared over time. In 108 biopsy specimens obtained 10.2-35 years post-transplant, TCMR defined by molecular and conventional features was never observed. We conclude that the main cause of kidney transplant failure is ABMR, which can present even decades after transplantation. In contrast, TCMR disappears by 10 years post-transplant, implying that a state of partial adaptive tolerance emerges over time in the kidney transplant population. PMID:25377077

  12. [Characteristics of seasonal drought and its adaptation in southern China under the background of global climate change. VI. Optimized layout of cropping system for preventing and avoiding drought disaster].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-11-01

    Southern China is an important agricultural planting region of China, but the seasonal drought severely impacted the regional agricultural production. Based on the 1981-2007 meteorological data from 13 typical meteorological stations in the seasonal drought areas in southern China and the data of related crops growth period and yield, three precipitation year types (drought year, normal year, and wet year) were classified based on the yearly precipitation, and by using five indices (coupling degree of water requirement and precipitation during crop water critical stages, meteorological crop yield, output value per unit area, and water use efficiency and precipitation during whole growth period), the comprehensive benefit of all possible cropping patterns in each typical region was evaluated, and the optimal cropping patterns in the different regions of southern China in different precipitation years were obtained. In the semi-arid region, the optimal cropping patterns in dry year included potato-maize-sweet potato and winter wheat-rice-sweet potato. In the semi-humid region and during dry year, winter wheat-rice-sweet potato was the best choice, and rape seed-rice-sweet potato was the second one. In the warm and humid region (the typical region where seasonal drought happened), the best cropping pattern in Jiangnan area in different precipitation years was potato-double cropping rice, and the suitable patterns in southwest area were the triple cropping systems with drought-resistant crops, such as winter wheat-rice-sweet potato, winter wheat-maize-sweet potato, and potato-double cropping rice. From the aspect of maximally utilizing water and heat resources, triple cropping would be the best choice, with the rice and upland crop rotation as the main and with the rice arranged in pairs in wet year. PMID:24564149

  13. Background illumination simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Towry, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a testing apparatus for testing and evaluating the performance of laser seeking warheads for missiles, under simulated weather conditions. It comprises support means for supporting a warhead seeker; laser means for generating a laser beam and for directing a laser beam towards the seeker; a diffusion screen interposed between the seeker support means and the laser means for diffusing the laser beam; a collimating lens interposed between the diffusion screen and the seeker support means for collimating the diffused laser beam and for directing the collimated laser beam onto a warhead seeker, supported in the seeker support; background illuminator means for illuminating the seeker support and a seeker disposed therein, supported for movement into and out of an operating position between the diffusion means and the collimating lens for providing background lighting in simulation of weather lighting conditions; and control means for controlling the intensity of the light provided by the illuminator means to simulate various weather conditions.

  14. Some background about satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  15. Vicarious Group-Based Rejection: Creating a Potentially Dangerous Mix of Humiliation, Powerlessness, and Anger

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Tinka M.; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    Rejection can convey that one is seen as inferior and not worth bothering with. Is it possible for people to feel vicariously rejected in this sense and have reactions that are similar to those following personal rejection, such as feeling humiliated, powerless, and angry? A study on personal rejection was followed by two main studies on vicarious group-based rejection. It was found that merely observing rejection of ingroup members can trigger feelings of humiliation that are equally intense as those experienced in response to personal rejection. Moreover, given that the rejection is explicit, vicariously experienced feelings of humiliation can be accompanied by powerlessness and anger. Potentially, this combination of emotions could be an important source of offensive action against rejecters. PMID:24759901

  16. Chlorine-resistant composite membranes with high organic rejection

    DOEpatents

    McCray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Barss, Robert P.; Nelson, Leslie D.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a chlorine-resistant composite polyamide membrane having high organic rejection, the essential step of which comprises treating a conventional composite membrane with an acyl halide. The novel membrane is especially suitable for the treatment of water containing chlorine or lower molecular weight organic compounds.

  17. On the rejection of vibrations in adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradore, Riccardo; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Fedrigo, Enrico; Clare, Richard

    2012-07-01

    In modern adaptive optics systems, lightly damped sinusoidal oscillations resulting from telescope structural vibrations have a significant deleterious impact on the quality of the image collected at the detector plane. Such oscillations are often at frequencies beyond the bandwidth of the wave-front controller that therefore is either incapable of rejecting them or might even amplify their detrimental impact on the overall AO performance. A technique for the rejection of periodic disturbances acting at the output of unknown plants, which has been recently presented in literature, has been adapted to the problem of rejecting vibrations in AO loops. The proposed methodology aims at estimating phase and amplitude of the harmonic disturbance together with the response of the unknown plant at the frequency of vibration. On the basis of such estimates, a control signal is generated to cancel out the periodic perturbation. Additionally, the algorithm can be easily extended to cope with unexpected time variations of the vibrations frequency by adding a frequency tracking module based either on a simple PLL architecture or on a classical extended Kalman filter. Oversampling can be also easily introduced to efficiently correct for vibrations approaching the sampling frequency. The approach presented in this contribution is compared against a different algorithm for vibration rejection available in literature, in order to identify drawbacks and advantages. Finally, the performance of the proposed vibration cancellation technique has been tested in realistic scenarios defined exploiting tip/tilt measurements from MACAO and NACO

  18. 77 FR 47062 - Notice Rejecting Request for Rehearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice Rejecting Request for Rehearing Project Nos. Northland Power... Natural Gas Co. v. FERC, 877 F.2d 1066, 1072-73 (D.C. Cir. 1999) (citing Tennessee Gas Pipeline v....

  19. 45 CFR 1180.36 - Rejection of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of an application. 1180.36 Section 1180.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General...

  20. 45 CFR 1180.36 - Rejection of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of an application. 1180.36 Section 1180.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES GRANTS REGULATIONS General...