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1

For bottom-up proteomics there are a wide variety of database searching algorithms in use for matching peptide sequences to tandem MS spectra. Likewise, there are numerous strategies being employed to produce a confident list of peptide identifications from the different search algorithm outputs. Here we introduce a grid search approach for determining optimal database filtering criteria in shotgun proteomics data analyses that is easily adaptable to any search. Systematic Trial and Error Parameter Selection - referred to as STEPS - utilizes user-defined parameter ranges to test a wide array of parameter combinations to arrive at an optimal "parameter set" for data filtering, thus maximizing confident identifications. The benefits of this approach in terms of numbers of true positive identifications are demonstrated using datasets derived from immunoaffinity-depleted blood serum and a bacterial cell lysate, two common proteomics sample types.

Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Sandoval, John D.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

2013-03-01

2

Optimal filtering and filter stability of linear stochastic delay systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal filtering equations are obtained for very general linear stochastic delay systems. Stability of the optimal filter is studied in the case where there are no delays in the observations. Using the duality between linear filtering and control, asymptotic stability of the optimal filter is proved. Finally, the cascade of the optimal filter and the deterministic optimal quadratic control system is shown to be asymptotically stable as well.

Kwong, R. H.-S.; Willsky, A. S.

1977-01-01

3

OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based on the issues identified. The two advanced barrier filter systems have been found to have the potential to be significantly more reliable and less expensive to operate than standard ceramic candle filter system designs. Their key development requirements are the assessment of the design and manufacturing feasibility of the ceramic filter elements, and the small-scale demonstration of their conceptual reliability and availability merits.

R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

1998-04-30

4

Design of Optimal Digital Filters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four methods for designing digital filters optimal in the Chebyshev sense are developed. The properties of these filters are investigated and compared. An analytic method for designing narrow-band FIR filters using Zolotarev polynomials, which are extensions of Chebyshev polynomials, is proposed. Bandpass and bandstop narrow-band filters as well as lowpass and highpass filters can be designed by this method. The design procedure, related formulae and examples are presented. An improved method of designing optimal minimum phase FIR filters by directly finding zeros is proposed. The zeros off the unit circle are found by an efficient special purpose root-finding algorithm without deflation. The proposed algorithm utilizes the passband minimum ripple frequencies to establish the initial points, and employs a modified Newton's iteration to find the accurate initial points for a standard Newton's iteration. The proposed algorithm can be used to design very long filters (L = 325) with very high stopband attenuations. The design of FIR digital filters in the complex domain is investigated. The complex approximation problem is converted into a near equivalent real approximation problem. A standard linear programming algorithm is used to solve the real approximation problem. Additional constraints are introduced which allow weighting of the phase and/or group delay of the approximation. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The desired constant group delay which gives the minimum Chebyshev error is found to be smaller than that of a linear phase filter of the same length. These filters, in addition to having a smaller, approximately constant group delay, have better magnitude characteristics than exactly linear phase filters with the same length. The filters have nearly equiripple magnitude and group delay. The problem of IIR digital filter design in the complex domain is formulated such that the existence of best approximation is guaranteed. An efficient and numerically stable algorithm for the design is proposed. The methods to establish a good initial point are investigated. Digital filters are designed which have nearly constant group delay in the passbands. The magnitudes of the filter poles near the passband edge are larger than of those far from the passband edge. A delay overshooting may occur in the transition band (don't care region), and it can be reduced by decreasing the maximum allowed pole magnitude of the design problem at the expense of increasing the approximation error.

Chen, Xiangkun

5

Design and optimization of nanostructured optical filters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical filters encompass a vast array of devices and structures for a wide variety of applications. Generally speaking, an optical filter is some structure that applies a designed amplitude and phase transform to an incident signal. Different classes of filters have vastly divergent characteristics, and one of the challenges in the optical design process is identifying the ideal filter for a given application and optimizing it to obtain a specific response. In particular, it is highly advantageous to obtain a filter that can be seamlessly integrated into an overall device package without requiring exotic fabrication steps, extremely sensitive alignments, or complicated conversions between optical and electrical signals. This dissertation explores three classes of nano-scale optical filters in an effort to obtain different types of dispersive response functions. First, dispersive waveguides are designed using a sub-wavelength periodic structure to transmit a single TE propagating mode with very high second order dispersion. Next, an innovative approach for decoupling waveguide trajectories from Bragg gratings is outlined and used to obtain a uniform second-order dispersion response while minimizing fabrication limitations. Finally, high Q-factor microcavities are coupled into axisymmetric pillar structures that offer extremely high group delay over very narrow transmission bandwidths. While these three novel filters are quite diverse in their operation and target applications, they offer extremely compact structures given the magnitude of the dispersion or group delay they introduce to an incident signal. They are also designed and structured as to be formed on an optical wafer scale using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. A number of frequency-domain numerical simulation methods are developed to fully characterize and model each of the different filters. The complete filter response, which includes the dispersion and delay characteristics and optical coupling, is used to evaluate each filter design concept. However, due to the complex nature of the structure geometries and electromagnetic interactions, an iterative optimization approach is required to improve the structure designs and obtain a suitable response. To this end, a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is developed and applied to the simulated filter responses to generate optimal filter designs.

Brown, Jeremiah Daniel

6

Design of optimal hybrid form FIR filter

This paper examines the problem of designing the opti- mal hybrid form FIR filter subjected to a minimum cycle- time constraint. We formulate the problem as one of de- termining the optimal partitioning of the hybrid form FIR filter into subsections. Each subsection can be optimized independently using other methods. We then show how the problem can be solved efficientlyusing

Kei-yong Khoo; Zhan Yu; Alan N. Willson Jr.

2001-01-01

7

OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

Two advanced, hot gas, barrier filter system concepts have been proposed by the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation to improve the reliability and availability of barrier filter systems in applications such as PFBC and IGCC power generation. The two hot gas, barrier filter system concepts, the inverted candle filter system and the sheet filter system, were the focus of bench-scale testing, data evaluations, and commercial cost evaluations to assess their feasibility as viable barrier filter systems. The program results show that the inverted candle filter system has high potential to be a highly reliable, commercially successful, hot gas, barrier filter system. Some types of thin-walled, standard candle filter elements can be used directly as inverted candle filter elements, and the development of a new type of filter element is not a requirement of this technology. Six types of inverted candle filter elements were procured and assessed in the program in cold flow and high-temperature test campaigns. The thin-walled McDermott 610 CFCC inverted candle filter elements, and the thin-walled Pall iron aluminide inverted candle filter elements are the best candidates for demonstration of the technology. Although the capital cost of the inverted candle filter system is estimated to range from about 0 to 15% greater than the capital cost of the standard candle filter system, the operating cost and life-cycle cost of the inverted candle filter system is expected to be superior to that of the standard candle filter system. Improved hot gas, barrier filter system availability will result in improved overall power plant economics. The inverted candle filter system is recommended for continued development through larger-scale testing in a coal-fueled test facility, and inverted candle containment equipment has been fabricated and shipped to a gasifier development site for potential future testing. Two types of sheet filter elements were procured and assessed in the program through cold flow and high-temperature testing. The Blasch, mullite-bonded alumina sheet filter element is the only candidate currently approaching qualification for demonstration, although this oxide-based, monolithic sheet filter element may be restricted to operating temperatures of 538 C (1000 F) or less. Many other types of ceramic and intermetallic sheet filter elements could be fabricated. The estimated capital cost of the sheet filter system is comparable to the capital cost of the standard candle filter system, although this cost estimate is very uncertain because the commercial price of sheet filter element manufacturing has not been established. The development of the sheet filter system could result in a higher reliability and availability than the standard candle filter system, but not as high as that of the inverted candle filter system. The sheet filter system has not reached the same level of development as the inverted candle filter system, and it will require more design development, filter element fabrication development, small-scale testing and evaluation before larger-scale testing could be recommended.

R.A. Newby; M.A. Alvin; G.J. Bruck; T.E. Lippert; E.E. Smeltzer; M.E. Stampahar

2002-06-30

8

Quantum Filtering and Optimal Control

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanical systems exhibit an inherently probabilistic nature upon measurement which excludes in principle the singular direct observability case. Quantum theory of time continuous measurements and quantum filtering developed by VPB on the basis of semi-Markov independent increment models for quantum noise and quantum nondemolition (QND) observability is generalized for demolition indirect measurements of quantum unstable systems satisfying the microcausality principle. The reduced quantum feedback-controlled dynamics is described both by linear semi-Markov and nonlinear conditionally-Markov stochastic master equations. Using this scheme for diffusive and counting measurement to describe the stochastic evolution of the open quantum system under the continuous indirect observation and working in parallel with classical indeterministic control theory, we show the conditionally-Markov Bellman equations for optimal feedback control of the a posteriori stochastic quantum states conditioned upon these measurements. The resulting Bellman equation for the diffusive observation is then applied to the explicitly solvable quantum linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) problem which emphasizes many similarities with the corresponding classical control problem.

Belavkin, Viacheslav P.; Edwards, Simon

2008-08-01

9

Optimal frequency domain textural edge detection filter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal frequency domain textural edge detection filter is developed and its performance evaluated. For the given model and filter bandwidth, the filter maximizes the amount of output image energy placed within a specified resolution interval centered on the textural edge. Filter derivation is based on relating textural edge detection to tonal edge detection via the complex low-pass equivalent representation of narrowband bandpass signals and systems. The filter is specified in terms of the prolate spheroidal wave functions translated in frequency. Performance is evaluated using the asymptotic approximation version of the filter. This evaluation demonstrates satisfactory filter performance for ideal and nonideal textures. In addition, the filter can be adjusted to detect textural edges in noisy images at the expense of edge resolution.

Townsend, J. K.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Frost, V. S.

1985-01-01

10

Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a committee is usually in charge of deciding the priority of each mission competing for access to the DSN within a time period while scheduling. Instead, we can assume that the committee assigns a budget to each mission.This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum ofsers preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this

Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

2006-01-01

11

Optimization of Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Narrowband RFI

Optimization of Cosine Modulated Filter Bank for Narrowband RFI Yingsi Liang Department perfect- reconstruction (PR) filter bank that is tailored to mitigate the effects of narrowband radio frequency interfer- ence (RFI). The conventionally used optimization criterion for bandpass filtering

Rajan, Dinesh

12

Muscle artifacts constitute one of the major problems in electroencephalogram (EEG) examinations, particularly for the diagnosis of epilepsy, where pathological rhythms occur within the same frequency bands as those of artifacts. This paper proposes to use the method dual adaptive filtering by optimal projection (DAFOP) to automatically remove artifacts while preserving true cerebral signals. DAFOP is a two-step method. The first step consists in applying the common spatial pattern (CSP) method to two frequency windows to identify the slowest components which will be considered as cerebral sources. The two frequency windows are defined by optimizing convolutional filters. The second step consists in using a regression method to reconstruct the signal independently within various frequency windows. This method was evaluated by two neurologists on a selection of 114 pages with muscle artifacts, from 20 clinical recordings of awake and sleeping adults, subject to pathological signals and epileptic seizures. A blind comparison was then conducted with the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method and conventional low-pass filtering at 30?Hz. The filtering rate was 84.3% for muscle artifacts with a 6.4% reduction of cerebral signals even for the fastest waves. DAFOP was found to be significantly more efficient than CCA and 30?Hz filters. The DAFOP method is fast and automatic and can be easily used in clinical EEG recordings. PMID:25298967

Peyrodie, Laurent; Szurhaj, William; Bolo, Nicolas; Pinti, Antonio; Gallois, Philippe

2014-01-01

13

Advanced Stepped-Impedance Dual-Band Filters With Wide Second Stopbands

Advanced Stepped-Impedance Dual-Band Filters With Wide Second Stopbands Marjan Mokhtaari 1 , K, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, Canada K7K 7B4 Abstract--Advanced dual-band stepped for advanced dual-band filter applications. Filter design; stepped-impedance resonators; dual-band filters

Bornemann, Jens

14

On Optimal Infinite Impulse Response Edge Detection Filters

The authors outline the design of an optimal, computationally efficient, infinite impulse response edge detection filter. The optimal filter is computed based on Canny's high signal to noise ratio, good localization criteria, and a criterion on the spurious response of the filter to noise. An expression for the width of the filter, which is appropriate for infinite-length filters, is incorporated

Sudeep Sarkar; Kim L. Boyer

1991-01-01

15

MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the values of amplitude and phase for the k whose metric was largest, as well as consistency checks, are reported. A finer search can be done in the neighborhood of the optimal k if desired. The filter finally selected is written to disk in terms of drive values, not in terms of the filter's complex transmittance. Optionally, the impulse response of the filter may be created to permit users to examine the response for the features the algorithm deems important to the recognition process under the selected metric, limitations of the filter SLM, etc. MEDOF uses the filter SLM to its greatest potential, therefore filter competence is not compromised for simplicity of computation. MEDOF is written in C-language for Sun series computers running SunOS. With slight modifications, it has been implemented on DEC VAX series computers using the DEC-C v3.30 compiler, although the documentation does not currently support this platform. MEDOF can also be compiled using Borland International Inc.'s Turbo C++ v1.0, but IBM PC memory restrictions greatly reduce the maximum size of the reference images from which the filters can be calculated. MEDOF requires a two dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2DFFT). One 2DFFT routine which has been used successfully with MEDOF is a routine found in "Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Programming," which is available from Cambridge University Press, New Rochelle, NY 10801. The standard distribution medium for MEDOF is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. MEDOF was developed in 1992-1993.

Barton, R. S.

1994-01-01

16

Triple band microstrip tri-section bandpass filter using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is designed, simulated, built, and measured using hair pin structure. The complete design procedure is given from analytical stage to implementation stage with details The coupling between SIRs is investigated for the first time in detail by studying their effect on the filter characteristics including bandwidth, and attenuation to optimize the filter perfomance. The simulation of the filler is performed using method of moment based 2.5D planar electromagnetic simulator The filter is then implemented on RO4003 material and measured The simulation, and measured results are compared and found to be my close. The effect of coupling on the filter performance is then investigated using electromagnetic simulator It is shown that the coupling effect between SIRs can be used as a design knob to obtain a bandpass Idler with a better performance jar the desired frequency band using the proposed filter topology The results of this work can used in wireless communication systems where multiple frequency bandy are needed

Eroglu, Abdullah [ORNL

2010-01-01

17

Optimal two-stage filtering of elastograms.

In ultrasound elastography, tissue axial strains are obtained through the differentiation of measured axial displacements. However, during the measurement process, the displacement signals are often contaminated with de-correlation noise caused by changes in the speckle pattern in the tissue. Thus, the application of the gradient operator on the displacement signals results in the presence of amplified noise in the axial strains, which severely obscures the useful information. The use of an effective denoising scheme is therefore imperative. In this paper, a method based on a two-stage consecutive filtering approach is proposed for the accurate estimation of axial strains. The presented method considers a cascaded system of a frequency filter and a time window, which are both designed such that the overall system operates optimally in a mean square error sense. Experimentation on simulated signals shows that the two-stage scheme employed in this study has good potential as a denoising method for ultrasound elastograms. PMID:22254895

Subramaniam, Suba R; Hon, Tsz K; Ling, Wing-Kuen; Georgakis, Apostolos

2011-01-01

18

Optimal edge filters explain human blur detection.

Edges are important visual features, providing many cues to the three-dimensional structure of the world. One of these cues is edge blur. Sharp edges tend to be caused by object boundaries, while blurred edges indicate shadows, surface curvature, or defocus due to relative depth. Edge blur also drives accommodation and may be implicated in the correct development of the eye's optical power. Here we use classification image techniques to reveal the mechanisms underlying blur detection in human vision. Observers were shown a sharp and a blurred edge in white noise and had to identify the blurred edge. The resultant smoothed classification image derived from these experiments was similar to a derivative of a Gaussian filter. We also fitted a number of edge detection models (MIRAGE, N(1), and N(3)(+)) and the ideal observer to observer responses, but none performed as well as the classification image. However, observer responses were well fitted by a recently developed optimal edge detector model, coupled with a Bayesian prior on the expected blurs in the stimulus. This model outperformed the classification image when performance was measured by the Akaike Information Criterion. This result strongly suggests that humans use optimal edge detection filters to detect edges and encode their blur. PMID:22984222

McIlhagga, William H; May, Keith A

2012-01-01

19

A monothically integrated dual-wavelength photodetector with a step-shaped Fabry-Pérot filter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel long wavelength photodetector with dual-wavelength response has been designed and fabricated, which can be realized by a step-shaped Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter structure. By using low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD), the step-shaped GaAs/AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) and the InP PIN photodetector are grown on a GaAs substrate, and by employing a thin low temperature buffer layer, the high quality GaAs/InP heteroepitaxy is realized. The structure of the photodetector is optimized by theoretical simulation. This device has a dual-peak distance of 19nm (1558, 1577 nm). The peak quantum efficiency of 8.5% around 1558 nm and 8.6% around 1577 nm, the 3dB bandwidth of 16 GHz are simultaneously obtained.

Fan, Xinye; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin; Duan, Xiaofeng; Hu, Fuquan; Wang, Qi; Cai, Shiwei

2012-10-01

20

Dynamic Neural Field Optimization using the Unscented Kalman Filter

Dynamic Neural Field Optimization using the Unscented Kalman Filter Jeremy Fix, Matthieu Geist Kalman filters, a derivative-free algorithm for parameter estimation, which reveals to efficiently function which may be difficult or at least costly to perform. Kalman filters are a popular collection

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de

21

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To realize the compact ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filters, a novel filter prototype with two short-circuited stubs loaded at both sides of a stepped-impedance resonator (SIR) via the parallel coupled lines is proposed based on a distributed filter synthesis theory. The equivalent circuit of this filter is established, while the corresponding 7-pole Chebyshev-type transfer function is derived for filter synthesis. Then, a distributed-circuit-based technique was presented to synthesize the elements' values of this filter. As an example, a FCC UWB filter with the fractional bandwidth (FWB) @ -10dB up to 110% was designed using the proposed prototype and then re-modeled by commercial microwave circuit simulator to verify the correctness and accuracy of the synthesis theory. Furthermore, in terms of EM simulator, the filter was further-optimized and experimentally-realized by using microstrip line. Good agreements between the measurement results and theoretical ones validate the effectiveness of our technique. In addition, compared with the conventional SIR-type UWB filter without short-circuited stubs, the new one significantly improves the selectivity and out-of-band characteristics (especially in lower one -45dB@1-2GHz) to satisfy the FCC's spectrum mask. The designed filter also exhibits very compact size, quite low insertion loss, steep skirts, flat group delay and the easily-fabricatable structure (the coupling gap dimension in this filter is 0.15mm) as well. Moreover, it should be noted that, in terms of the presented design technique, the proposed filter prototype can be also used to easily realize the UWB filters with other FBW even greater than 110%.

Chen, Chun-Ping; Ma, Zhewang; Anada, Tetsuo

22

Multispectral image denoising with optimized vector bilateral filter.

Vector bilateral filtering has been shown to provide good tradeoff between noise removal and edge degradation when applied to multispectral/hyperspectral image denoising. It has also been demonstrated to provide dynamic range enhancement of bands that have impaired signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Typical vector bilateral filtering described in the literature does not use parameters satisfying optimality criteria. We introduce an approach for selection of the parameters of a vector bilateral filter through an optimization procedure rather than by ad hoc means. The approach is based on posing the filtering problem as one of nonlinear estimation and minimization of the Stein's unbiased risk estimate of this nonlinear estimator. Along the way, we provide a plausibility argument through an analytical example as to why vector bilateral filtering outperforms bandwise 2D bilateral filtering in enhancing SNR. Experimental results show that the optimized vector bilateral filter provides improved denoising performance on multispectral images when compared with several other approaches. PMID:24184727

Peng, Honghong; Rao, Raghuveer; Dianat, Sohail A

2014-01-01

23

Optimally stabilized PET image denoising using trilateral filtering.

Low-resolution and signal-dependent noise distribution in positron emission tomography (PET) images makes denoising process an inevitable step prior to qualitative and quantitative image analysis tasks. Conventional PET denoising methods either over-smooth small-sized structures due to resolution limitation or make incorrect assumptions about the noise characteristics. Therefore, clinically important quantitative information may be corrupted. To address these challenges, we introduced a novel approach to remove signal-dependent noise in the PET images where the noise distribution was considered as Poisson-Gaussian mixed. Meanwhile, the generalized Anscombe's transformation (GAT) was used to stabilize varying nature of the PET noise. Other than noise stabilization, it is also desirable for the noise removal filter to preserve the boundaries of the structures while smoothing the noisy regions. Indeed, it is important to avoid significant loss of quantitative information such as standard uptake value (SUV)-based metrics as well as metabolic lesion volume. To satisfy all these properties, we extended bilateral filtering method into trilateral filtering through multiscaling and optimal Gaussianization process. The proposed method was tested on more than 50 PET-CT images from various patients having different cancers and achieved the superior performance compared to the widely used denoising techniques in the literature. PMID:25333110

Mansoor, Awais; Bagci, Ulas; Mollura, Daniel J

2014-01-01

24

Optimization design of filter banks in subband image coding

In this paper we present a new optimization-based method for designing filter banks in subband image coding. We formulate the design problem as a nonlinear optimization problem whose objective consists of both the performance metrics of the image coder; such as the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and those of individual filters. In contrast to previous methods that design

Yi Shang; Longzhuang Li

1999-01-01

25

Optimization-based tuning of LPV fault detection filters for civil transport aircraft

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a two-step optimal synthesis approach of robust fault detection (FD) filters for the model based diagnosis of sensor faults for an augmented civil aircraft is suggested. In the first step, a direct analytic synthesis of a linear parameter varying (LPV) FD filter is performed for the open-loop aircraft using an extension of the nullspace based synthesis method to LPV systems. In the second step, a multiobjective optimization problem is solved for the optimal tuning of the LPV detector parameters to ensure satisfactory FD performance for the augmented nonlinear closed-loop aircraft. Worst-case global search has been employed to assess the robustness of the fault detection system in the presence of aerodynamics uncertainties and estimation errors in the aircraft parameters. An application of the proposed method is presented for the detection of failures in the angle-of-attack sensor.

Ossmann, D.; Varga, A.

2013-12-01

26

In this paper proximity effects correction in Electron Beam Lithography by means of an artificial neural network is presented. Supporting approximations to cope with negative doses inherent in Gibbs oscillations which occur from step-like function representation in the Fourier space are introduced. Miller regularization theory as better alternative to Tikhonov one is presented. Optimal filtering with prolate spheriodal wave functions

P. Jedrasik; J. Garcia; B. De Boeck; D Van Dyck

1998-01-01

27

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel hybrid algorithm featuring a simple index modulation profile with fast-converging optimization is proposed towards the design of dense wavelength-division-multiplexing systems (DWDM) multichannel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filters. The approach is based on utilizing one of other FBG design approaches that may suffer from spectral distortion as the first step, then performing Lagrange multiplier optimization (LMO) for optimized correction of the spectral distortion. In our design examples, the superposition method is employed as the first design step for its merits of easy fabrication, and the discrete layer-peeling (DLP) algorithm is used to rapidly obtain the initial index modulation profiles for the superposition method. On account of the initially near-optimum index modulation profiles from the first step, the LMO optimization algorithm shows fast convergence to the target reflection spectra in the second step and the design outcome still retains the advantage of easy fabrication.

Hsin, Chen-Wei

2011-07-01

28

A hybrid method for optimization of the adaptive Goldstein filter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Goldstein filter is a well-known filter for interferometric filtering in the frequency domain. The main parameter of this filter, alpha, is set as a power of the filtering function. Depending on it, considered areas are strongly or weakly filtered. Several variants have been developed to adaptively determine alpha using different indicators such as the coherence, and phase standard deviation. The common objective of these methods is to prevent areas with low noise from being over filtered while simultaneously allowing stronger filtering over areas with high noise. However, the estimators of these indicators are biased in the real world and the optimal model to accurately determine the functional relationship between the indicators and alpha is also not clear. As a result, the filter always under- or over-filters and is rarely correct. The study presented in this paper aims to achieve accurate alpha estimation by correcting the biased estimator using homogeneous pixel selection and bootstrapping algorithms, and by developing an optimal nonlinear model to determine alpha. In addition, an iteration is also merged into the filtering procedure to suppress the high noise over incoherent areas. The experimental results from synthetic and real data show that the new filter works well under a variety of conditions and offers better and more reliable performance when compared to existing approaches.

Jiang, Mi; Ding, Xiaoli; Tian, Xin; Malhotra, Rakesh; Kong, Weixue

2014-12-01

29

Initial steps of inactivation at the K+ channel selectivity filter

K+ efflux through K+ channels can be controlled by C-type inactivation, which is thought to arise from a conformational change near the channel’s selectivity filter. Inactivation is modulated by ion binding near the selectivity filter; however, the molecular forces that initiate inactivation remain unclear. We probe these driving forces by electrophysiology and molecular simulation of MthK, a prototypical K+ channel. Either Mg2+ or Ca2+ can reduce K+ efflux through MthK channels. However, Ca2+, but not Mg2+, can enhance entry to the inactivated state. Molecular simulations illustrate that, in the MthK pore, Ca2+ ions can partially dehydrate, enabling selective accessibility of Ca2+ to a site at the entry to the selectivity filter. Ca2+ binding at the site interacts with K+ ions in the selectivity filter, facilitating a conformational change within the filter and subsequent inactivation. These results support an ionic mechanism that precedes changes in channel conformation to initiate inactivation. PMID:24733889

Thomson, Andrew S.; Heer, Florian T.; Smith, Frank J.; Hendron, Eunan; Bernčche, Simon; Rothberg, Brad S.

2014-01-01

30

Optimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs

line spacing; (2) power amplifiers to boost the power of pulses from the filtered comb; and (3) highlyOptimization of filtering schemes for broadband astro-combs Guoqing Chang,1,2,* Chih-Hao Li,3 David, Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts 02138, USA *guoqing@mit.edu Abstract: To realize a broadband

Walsworth, Ronald L.

31

Optimally Robust Kalman Filtering at Work: AO-, IO-, and Simultaneously IO-and AO-Robust Filters

Optimally Robust Kalman Filtering at Work: AO-, IO-, and Simultaneously IO- and AO- Robust Filters Abstract We take up optimality results for robust Kalman filtering from Ruckdeschel (2001, 2010) where. (2006), Fried et al. (2007). Keywords: robustness, Kalman Filter, innovation outlier, additive outlier

Ruckdeschel, Peter

32

Optimization of tunable silicon compatible microring filters

Microring resonators can be used as pass-band filters for wavelength division demultiplexing in electronic-photonic integrated circuits for applications such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). For high quality signal ...

Amatya, Reja

2008-01-01

33

Geomagnetic modeling by optimal recursive filtering

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of using Kalman filter techniques for geomagnetic field modeling are given. Specifically, five separate field models were computed using observatory annual means, satellite, survey and airborne data for the years 1950 to 1976. Each of the individual field models used approximately five years of data. These five models were combined using a recursive information filter (a Kalman filter written in terms of information matrices rather than covariance matrices.) The resulting estimate of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation was propogated four years past the data to the time of the MAGSAT data. The accuracy with which this field model matched the MAGSAT data was evaluated by comparisons with predictions from other pre-MAGSAT field models. The field estimate obtained by recursive estimation was found to be superior to all other models.

Gibbs, B. P.; Estes, R. H.

1981-01-01

34

Ares-I Bending Filter Design using a Constrained Optimization Approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares-I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for control system design. Software filtering of the inertial sensor output is required to ensure adequate stable response to guidance commands while minimizing trajectory deviations. This paper presents a design methodology employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares-I bending filters. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Under the assumption that the Ares-I time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the bending filters are designed to stabilize all the selected frozen-time launch control systems in the presence of parameter uncertainty. To ensure adequate response to guidance command, step response specifications are introduced as constraints in the optimization problem. Imposing these constrains minimizes performance degradation caused by the addition of the bending filters. The first stage bending filter design achieves stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency to phase stabilize the first flex mode while gain stabilizing the higher modes. The upper stage bending filter design gain stabilizes all the flex bending modes. The bending filter designs provided here have been demonstrated to provide stable first and second stage control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the MSFC MAVERIC 6DOF nonlinear time domain simulation.

Hall, Charles; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Hall, Robert; Bedrossian, Nazareth

2008-01-01

35

Particle Filter with Swarm Move for Optimization

distributions, which has gained popularity for the last decade to solve sequential Bayesian inference problems of artificial dynamic distribution was designed to employ the particle filter algorithm. The basic idea, LNCS 5199, pp. 909Â918, 2008. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008 #12;910 C. Ji et al. birds

Yang, Shengxiang

36

Identifying Optimal Measurement Subspace for the Ensemble Kalman Filter

To reduce the computational load of the ensemble Kalman filter while maintaining its efficacy, an optimization algorithm based on the generalized eigenvalue decomposition method is proposed for identifying the most informative measurement subspace. When the number of measurements is large, the proposed algorithm can be used to make an effective tradeoff between computational complexity and estimation accuracy. This algorithm also can be extended to other Kalman filters for measurement subspace selection.

Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Welch, Greg; Zhang, J.

2012-05-24

37

Design of optimal correlation filters for hybrid vision systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is underway at the NASA Johnson Space Center on the development of vision systems that recognize objects and estimate their position by processing their images. This is a crucial task in many space applications such as autonomous landing on Mars sites, satellite inspection and repair, and docking of space shuttle and space station. Currently available algorithms and hardware are too slow to be suitable for these tasks. Electronic digital hardware exhibits superior performance in computing and control; however, they take too much time to carry out important signal processing operations such as Fourier transformation of image data and calculation of correlation between two images. Fortunately, because of the inherent parallelism, optical devices can carry out these operations very fast, although they are not quite suitable for computation and control type operations. Hence, investigations are currently being conducted on the development of hybrid vision systems that utilize both optical techniques and digital processing jointly to carry out the object recognition tasks in real time. Algorithms for the design of optimal filters for use in hybrid vision systems were developed. Specifically, an algorithm was developed for the design of real-valued frequency plane correlation filters. Furthermore, research was also conducted on designing correlation filters optimal in the sense of providing maximum signal-to-nose ratio when noise is present in the detectors in the correlation plane. Algorithms were developed for the design of different types of optimal filters: complex filters, real-value filters, phase-only filters, ternary-valued filters, coupled filters. This report presents some of these algorithms in detail along with their derivations.

Rajan, Periasamy K.

1990-01-01

38

Optimal Filtering Methods to Structural Damage Estimation under Ground Excitation

This paper considers the problem of shear building damage estimation subject to earthquake ground excitation using the Kalman filtering approach. The structural damage is assumed to take the form of reduced elemental stiffness. Two damage estimation algorithms are proposed: one is the multiple model approach via the optimal two-stage Kalman estimator (OTSKE), and the other is the robust two-stage Kalman filter (RTSKF), an unbiased minimum-variance filtering approach to determine the locations and extents of the damage stiffness. A numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure subject to base excitation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed results. PMID:24453869

Hsieh, Chien-Shu; Liaw, Der-Cherng; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan

2013-01-01

39

Robustness of optimal binary filters: analysis and design

, when Xs, k = 1, 0, is observed and p = 1/n. Increase of error for optimal filters, when Xq, k = 1, 0, is observed and p & 1/n. Realizations of triplex (a), sans-serif (b), and gothic (c) fonts. 23 Sparse-noise-degraded realizations of triplex (a... of default font; noise intensity is 0. 030. 32 14 Results of filters designed for triplex font for noise intensity p' = 0. 03, 0. 06, and 0. 01. 33 15 Results of filters designed for gothic font for noise intensity p' = 0. 03, 0. 06, and 0. 01. 34 FIGURE...

Grigoryan, Artyom M

1999-01-01

40

Optimal Signal Processing of Frequency-Stepped CW Radar Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal signal processing algorithm is derived for estimating the time delay and amplitude of each scatterer reflection using a frequency-stepped CW system. The channel is assumed to be composed of abrupt changes in the reflection coefficient profile. The optimization technique is intended to maximize the target range resolution achievable from any set of frequency-stepped CW radar measurements made in such an environment. The algorithm is composed of an iterative two-step procedure. First, the amplitudes of the echoes are optimized by solving an overdetermined least squares set of equations. Then, a nonlinear objective function is scanned in an organized fashion to find its global minimum. The result is a set of echo strengths and time delay estimates. Although this paper addresses the specific problem of resolving the time delay between the two echoes, the derivation is general in the number of echoes. Performance of the optimization approach is illustrated using measured data obtained from an HP-851O network analyzer. It is demonstrated that the optimization approach offers a significant resolution enhancement over the standard processing approach that employs an IFFT. Degradation in the performance of the algorithm due to suboptimal model order selection and the effects of additive white Gaussion noise are addressed.

Ybarra, Gary A.; Wu, Shawkang M.; Bilbro, Griff L.; Ardalan, Sasan H.; Hearn, Chase P.; Neece, Robert T.

1995-01-01

41

Optimal Filter Estimation for Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow

Optical flow algorithms offer a way to estimate motion from a sequence of images. The computation of optical flow plays a key-role in several computer vision applications, including motion detection and segmentation, frame interpolation, three-dimensional scene reconstruction, robot navigation and video compression. In the case of gradient based optical flow implementation, the pre-filtering step plays a vital role, not only for accurate computation of optical flow, but also for the improvement of performance. Generally, in optical flow computation, filtering is used at the initial level on original input images and afterwards, the images are resized. In this paper, we propose an image filtering approach as a pre-processing step for the Lucas-Kanade pyramidal optical flow algorithm. Based on a study of different types of filtering methods and applied on the Iterative Refined Lucas-Kanade, we have concluded on the best filtering practice. As the Gaussian smoothing filter was selected, an empirical approach for the Gaussian variance estimation was introduced. Tested on the Middlebury image sequences, a correlation between the image intensity value and the standard deviation value of the Gaussian function was established. Finally, we have found that our selection method offers a better performance for the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm.

Sharmin, Nusrat; Brad, Remus

2012-01-01

42

An optimized blockwise nonlocal means denoising filter for 3-D magnetic resonance images

A critical issue in image restoration is the problem of noise removal while keeping the integrity of relevant image information. Denoising is a crucial step to increase image quality and to improve the performance of all the tasks needed for quantitative imaging analysis. The method proposed in this paper is based on a 3D optimized blockwise version of the Non Local (NL) means filter [1]. The NL-means filter uses the redundancy of information in the image under study to remove the noise. The performance of the NL-means filter has been already demonstrated for 2D images, but reducing the computational burden is a critical aspect to extend the method to 3D images. To overcome this problem, we propose improvements to reduce the computational complexity. These different improvements allow to drastically divide the computational time while preserving the performances of the NL-means filter. A fully-automated and optimized version of the NL-means filter is then presented. Our contributions to the NL-means filter are: (a) an automatic tuning of the smoothing parameter, (b) a selection of the most relevant voxels, (c) a blockwise implementation and (d) a parallelized computation. Quantitative validation was carried out on synthetic datasets generated with BrainWeb [2]. The results show that our optimized NL-means filter outperforms the classical implementation of the NL-means filter, as well as two other classical denoising methods (Anisotropic Diffusion [3] and Total Variation minimization process [4]) in terms of accuracy (measured by the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) with low computation time. Finally, qualitative results on real data are presented. PMID:18390341

Coupé, Pierrick; Yger, Pierre; Prima, Sylvain; Hellier, Pierre; Kervrann, Charles; Barillot, Christian

2008-01-01

43

Swarm Intelligence for Optimizing Hybridized Smoothing Filter in Image Edge Enhancement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this modern era, image transmission and processing plays a major role. It would be impossible to retrieve information from satellite and medical images without the help of image processing techniques. Edge enhancement is an image processing step that enhances the edge contrast of an image or video in an attempt to improve its acutance. Edges are the representations of the discontinuities of image intensity functions. For processing these discontinuities in an image, a good edge enhancement technique is essential. The proposed work uses a new idea for edge enhancement using hybridized smoothening filters and we introduce a promising technique of obtaining best hybrid filter using swarm algorithms (Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)) to search for an optimal sequence of filters from among a set of rather simple, representative image processing filters. This paper deals with the analysis of the swarm intelligence techniques through the combination of hybrid filters generated by these algorithms for image edge enhancement.

Rao, B. Tirumala; Dehuri, S.; Dileep, M.; Vindhya, A.

44

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency in inverse IMRT planning of one-step optimization with the step-and-shoot (SS) technique as compared to traditional two-step optimization using the sliding windows (SW) technique. The Pinnacle IMRT TPS allows both one-step and two-step approaches. The same beam setup for five head-and-neck tumor patients and dose-volume constraints were applied for all optimization methods. Two-step plans were produced converting the ideal fluence with or without a smoothing filter into the SW sequence. One-step plans, based on direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO), had the maximum number of segments per beam set at 8, 10, 12, producing a directly deliverable sequence. Moreover, the plans were generated whether a split-beam was used or not. Total monitor units (MUs), overall treatment time, cost function and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were estimated for each plan. PTV conformality and homogeneity indexes and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) that are the basis for improving therapeutic gain, as well as non-tumor integral dose (NTID), were evaluated. A two-sided t-test was used to compare quantitative variables. All plans showed similar target coverage. Compared to two-step SW optimization, the DMPO-SS plans resulted in lower MUs (20%), NTID (4%) as well as NTCP values. Differences of about 15-20% in the treatment delivery time were registered. DMPO generates less complex plans with identical PTV coverage, providing lower NTCP and NTID, which is expected to reduce the risk of secondary cancer. It is an effective and efficient method and, if available, it should be favored over the two-step IMRT planning.

Abate, A.; Pressello, M. C.; Benassi, M.; Strigari, L.

2009-12-01

45

Active Filter Based On-Chip Step-Down DC-DC Switching Voltage Regulator

Switching type step-down voltage regulators are commonly used as the power source for the IC circuit loads. To ensure that the voltage stability is well maintained, the switching type voltage regulator usually uses LC low-pass filter in the output terminal. However, the inductor size and cost are two of the major concerns in the circuit design of this kind of

Chun-Hsun Wu; Le-Ren Chang-Chien; Lih-Yih Chiou

2005-01-01

46

Optimal Correlation Filters for Images with Signal-Dependent Noise

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We address the design of optimal correlation filters for pattern detection and recognition in the presence of signal-dependent image noise sources. The particular examples considered are film-grain noise and speckle. Two basic approaches are investigated: (1) deriving the optimal matched filters for the signal-dependent noise models and comparing their performances with those derived for traditional signal-independent noise models and (2) first nonlinearly transforming the signal-dependent noise to signal-independent noise followed by the use of a classical filter matched to the transformed signal. We present both theoretical and computer simulation results that demonstrate the generally superior performance of the second approach in terms of the correlation peak signal-to-noise ratio.

Downie, John D.; Walkup, John F.

1994-01-01

47

Parameter optimization and performance of backwashing in biological aerated filters

The backwashing optimization, which included gas washing, water washing and water rinsing, was carried out in three biological aerated filters with zeolite, ceramic particle and carbonate media. The recovery of headloss and treatment efficiency in the biofilters after backwashing were also investigated for deeper understanding of the relationship of headloss and backwashing in BAF. The results showed that the COD

Liping Qiu; Guangwei Wang; Shoubin Zhang; Jingying Chen; Yongzheng Liu

2010-01-01

48

Na-Faraday rotation filtering: the optimal point.

Narrow-band optical filtering is required in many spectroscopy applications to suppress unwanted background light. One example is quantum communication where the fidelity is often limited by the performance of the optical filters. This limitation can be circumvented by utilizing the GHz-wide features of a Doppler broadened atomic gas. The anomalous dispersion of atomic vapours enables spectral filtering. These, so-called, Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters (FADOFs) can be by far better than any commercial filter in terms of bandwidth, transition edge and peak transmission. We present a theoretical and experimental study on the transmission properties of a sodium vapour based FADOF with the aim to find the best combination of optical rotation and intrinsic loss. The relevant parameters, such as magnetic field, temperature, the related optical depth, and polarization state are discussed. The non-trivial interplay of these quantities defines the net performance of the filter. We determine analytically the optimal working conditions, such as transmission and the signal to background ratio and validate the results experimentally. We find a single global optimum for one specific optical path length of the filter. This can now be applied to spectroscopy, guide star applications, or sensing. PMID:25298251

Kiefer, Wilhelm; Löw, Robert; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

2014-01-01

49

Na-Faraday rotation filtering: The optimal point

Narrow-band optical filtering is required in many spectroscopy applications to suppress unwanted background light. One example is quantum communication where the fidelity is often limited by the performance of the optical filters. This limitation can be circumvented by utilizing the GHz-wide features of a Doppler broadened atomic gas. The anomalous dispersion of atomic vapours enables spectral filtering. These, so-called, Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters (FADOFs) can be by far better than any commercial filter in terms of bandwidth, transition edge and peak transmission. We present a theoretical and experimental study on the transmission properties of a sodium vapour based FADOF with the aim to find the best combination of optical rotation and intrinsic loss. The relevant parameters, such as magnetic field, temperature, the related optical depth, and polarization state are discussed. The non-trivial interplay of these quantities defines the net performance of the filter. We determine analytically the optimal working conditions, such as transmission and the signal to background ratio and validate the results experimentally. We find a single global optimum for one specific optical path length of the filter. This can now be applied to spectroscopy, guide star applications, or sensing. PMID:25298251

Kiefer, Wilhelm; Löw, Robert; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

2014-01-01

50

Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Generation 1 and Next Steps

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization Working Group (MDAO WG) of the Systems Analysis Design & Optimization (SAD&O) discipline in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project completed three major milestones during Fiscal Year (FY)08: "Requirements Definition" Milestone (1/31/08); "GEN 1 Integrated Multi-disciplinary Toolset" (Annual Performance Goal) (6/30/08); and "Define Architecture & Interfaces for Next Generation Open Source MDAO Framework" Milestone (9/30/08). Details of all three milestones are explained including documentation available, potential partner collaborations, and next steps in FY09.

Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

2008-01-01

51

Opdic (optimized Peak, Distortion and Clutter) Detection Filter.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection is considered. This involves determining regions of interest (ROIs) in a scene: the locations of multiple object classes in a scene in clutter when object distortions and contrast differences are present. High probability of detection P_{D} is essential and low P_{FA } is desirable since subsequent stages in the full system will only decrease P_{FA } and cannot increase P_{D }. Low resolution blob objects and objects with more internal detail are considered with both 3-D aspect view and depression angle distortions present. Extensive tests were conducted on 56 scenes with object classes not present in the training set. A modified MINACE (Minimum Noise and Correlation Energy) distortion-invariant filter was used. This minimizes correlation plane energy due to distortions and clutter while satisfying correlation peak constraint values for various object-aspect views. The filter was modified with a new object model (to give predictable output peak values) and a new correlated noise clutter model; a white Gaussian noise model of distortion was used; and a new techniques to increase the number of training set images (N _{T}) included in the filter were developed. Excellent results were obtained. However, the correlation plane distortion and clutter energy functions were found to become worse as N_{T } was increased and no rigorous method exists to select the best N_{T} (when to stop filter synthesis). A new OPDIC (Optimized Peak, Distortion, and Clutter) filter was thus devised. This filter retained the new object, clutter and distortion models noted. It minimizes the variance of the correlation peak values for all training set images (not just the N_{T} images). As N _{T} increases, the peak variance and the objective functions (correlation plane distortion and clutter energy) are all minimized. Thus, this new filter optimizes the desired functions and provides an easy way to stop filter synthesis (when the objective function is minimized). Tests show excellent detection results and confirm its advantageous properties.

House, Gregory Philip

1995-01-01

52

Fuzzy membership function optimization for system identification using an extended Kalman filter

Fuzzy membership function optimization for system identification using an extended Kalman filter an extended Kalman filter to optimize the membership functions for system modeling, or system identification is that the proposed system acts as a noise-reducing filter. We demonstrate that the extended Kalman filter can

Simon, Dan

53

Clever particle filters, sequential importance sampling and the optimal proposal

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle filters rely on sequential importance sampling and it is well known that their performance can depend strongly on the choice of proposal distribution from which new ensemble members (particles) are drawn. The use of clever proposals has seen substantial recent interest in the geophysical literature, with schemes such as the implicit particle filter and the equivalent-weights particle filter. Both these schemes employ proposal distributions at time tk+1 that depend on the state at tk and the observations at time tk+1. I show that, beginning with particles drawn randomly from the conditional distribution of the state at tk given observations through tk, the optimal proposal (the distribution of the state at tk+1 given the state at tk and the observations at tk+1) minimizes the variance of the importance weights for particles at tk overall all possible proposal distributions. This means that bounds on the performance of the optimal proposal, such as those given by Snyder (2011), also bound the performance of the implicit and equivalent-weights particle filters. In particular, in spite of the fact that they may be dramatically more effective than other particle filters in specific instances, those schemes will suffer degeneracy (maximum importance weight approaching unity) unless the ensemble size is exponentially large in a quantity that, in the simplest case that all degrees of freedom in the system are i.i.d., is proportional to the system dimension. I will also discuss the behavior to be expected in more general cases, such as global numerical weather prediction, and how that behavior depends qualitatively on the observing network. Snyder, C., 2012: Particle filters, the "optimal" proposal and high-dimensional systems. Proceedings, ECMWF Seminar on Data Assimilation for Atmosphere and Ocean., 6-9 September 2011.

Snyder, Chris

2014-05-01

54

GaN nanostructure design for optimal dislocation filtering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of image forces in GaN pyramidal nanorod structures is investigated to develop dislocation-free light emitting diodes (LEDs). A model based on the eigenstrain method and nonlocal stress is developed to demonstrate that the pyramidal nanorod efficiently ejects dislocations out of the structure. Two possible regimes of filtering behavior are found: (1) cap-dominated and (2) base-dominated. The cap-dominated regime is shown to be the more effective filtering mechanism. Optimal ranges of fabrication parameters that favor a dislocation-free LED are predicted and corroborated by resorting to available experimental evidence. The filtering probability is summarized as a function of practical processing parameters: the nanorod radius and height. The results suggest an optimal nanorod geometry with a radius of 50b (26 nm) and a height of 125b (65 nm), in which b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector for the GaN system studied. A filtering probability of greater than 95% is predicted for the optimal geometry.

Liang, Zhiwen; Colby, Robert; Wildeson, Isaac H.; Ewoldt, David A.; Sands, Timothy D.; Stach, Eric A.; García, R. Edwin

2010-10-01

55

FIR filter optimization for video processing on FPGAs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional finite impulse response (FIR) filters are an important component in many image and video processing systems. The processing of complex video applications in real time requires high computational power, which can be provided using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) due to their inherent parallelism. The most resource-intensive components in computing FIR filters are the multiplications of the folding operation. This work proposes two optimization techniques for high-speed implementations of the required multiplications with the least possible number of FPGA components. Both methods use integer linear programming formulations which can be optimally solved by standard solvers. In the first method, a formulation for the pipelined multiple constant multiplication problem is presented. In the second method, also multiplication structures based on look-up tables are taken into account. Due to the low coefficient word size in video processing filters of typically 8 to 12 bits, an optimal solution is found for most of the filters in the benchmark used. A complexity reduction of 8.5% for a Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA could be achieved compared to state-of-the-art heuristics.

Kumm, Martin; Fanghänel, Diana; Möller, Konrad; Zipf, Peter; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

2013-12-01

56

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose an analytical design for a microstrip broadband spurious-suppression filter. The proposed design uses every section of the transmission lines as both a coupling and a spurious suppression element, which creates a very compact, planar filter. While a traditional filter length is greater than the multiple of the quarter wavelength at the center passband frequency (lambda(sub g)/4), the proposed filter length is less than (order n(Ssup th) + l)center dot lambda(sub g)/8. The filter s spurious response and physical dimension are controlled by the step impedance ratio (R) between two transmission line sections as a lambda(sub g)/4 resonator. The experimental result shows that, with R of 0.2, the out-of-band attenuation is greater than 40 dB; and the first spurious mode is shifted to more than 5 times the fundamental frequency. Moreover, it is the most compact planar filter design to date. The results also indicate a low in-band insertion loss.

U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Doiron, Terence; Papapolymerou, John; Laskar, Joy

2005-01-01

57

Optimal Noise Filtering in the Chemotactic Response of Escherichia coli

Information-carrying signals in the real world are often obscured by noise. A challenge for any system is to filter the signal from the corrupting noise. This task is particularly acute for the signal transduction network that mediates bacterial chemotaxis, because the signals are subtle, the noise arising from stochastic fluctuations is substantial, and the system is effectively acting as a differentiator which amplifies noise. Here, we investigated the filtering properties of this biological system. Through simulation, we first show that the cutoff frequency has a dramatic effect on the chemotactic efficiency of the cell. Then, using a mathematical model to describe the signal, noise, and system, we formulated and solved an optimal filtering problem to determine the cutoff frequency that bests separates the low-frequency signal from the high-frequency noise. There was good agreement between the theory, simulations, and published experimental data. Finally, we propose that an elegant implementation of the optimal filter in combination with a differentiator can be achieved via an integral control system. This paper furnishes a simple quantitative framework for interpreting many of the key notions about bacterial chemotaxis, and, more generally, it highlights the constraints on biological systems imposed by noise. PMID:17112312

Andrews, Burton W; Yi, Tau-Mu; Iglesias, Pablo A

2006-01-01

58

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced 3D optical and laser scanners can generate mesh models with high-resolution details, while inevitably introducing noises from various sources and mesh irregularity due to inconsistent sampling. Noises and irregularity of a scanned model prohibit its use in practical applications where high quality models are required. However, optimizing a noisy mesh while preserving its geometric features is a challenging task. We present a robust two-step approach to meet the challenges of noisy mesh optimization. In the first step, we propose a joint bilateral filter to remove noises on a mesh while maintaining its volume and preserving its features. In the second step, we develop a constrained Laplacian smoothing scheme by adding two kinds of constraints into the original Laplacian equation. As most noises have been removed in the first step, we can easily detect feature edges from the model and add them as constraints in the Laplacian smoothing. As a result, the constrained scheme can simultaneously preserve sharp features and avoid volume shrinkage during mesh smoothing. By integrating these two steps, our approach can effectively remove noises, maintain features, improve regularity for a noisy mesh, as well as avoid side-effects such as volume shrinkage. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments have been performed on meshes with synthetic and raw noises to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.

Wei, Mingqiang; Shen, Wuyao; Qin, Jing; Wu, Jianhuang; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Heng, Pheng-Ann

2013-11-01

59

A multi-dimensional procedure for BNCT filter optimization

An initial version of an optimization code utilizing two-dimensional radiation transport methods has been completed. This code is capable of predicting material compositions of a beam tube-filter geometry which can be used in a boron neutron capture therapy treatment facility to improve the ratio of the average radiation dose in a brain tumor to that in the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. The optimization algorithm employed by the code is very straightforward. After an estimate of the gradient of the dose ratio with respect to the nuclide densities in the beam tube-filter geometry is obtained, changes in the nuclide densities are made based on: (1) the magnitude and sign of the components of the dose ratio gradient, (2) the magnitude of the nuclide densities, (3) the upper and lower bound of each nuclide density, and (4) the linear constraint that the sum of the nuclide density fractions in each material zone be less than or equal to 1.0. A local optimal solution is assumed to be found when one of the following conditions is satisfied in every material zone: (1) the maximum positive component of the gradient corresponds to a nuclide at its maximum density and the sum of the density fractions equals 1.0 or, and (2) the positive and negative components of the gradient correspond to nuclides densities at their upper and lower bounds, respectively, and the remaining components of the gradient are sufficiently small. The optimization procedure has been applied to a beam tube-filter geometry coupled to a simple tumor-patient head model and an improvement of 50% in the dose ratio was obtained.

Lille, R.A.

1998-02-01

60

Design optimization of volume holographic gratings for wavelength filters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volume holography is promising for devices such as wavelength filters. However, in previously reported work with these holographic devices the diffraction efficiency and wavelength selectivity were not so satisfactory, which affected the insertion loss and channel spacing of the device respectively. In order to investigate the performances for most of the volume holographic devices which are of finite size and with 90 degree geometry, two-dimensional (2-D) coupled-wave theory is more accurate than that based on the well-known Kogelnik"s coupled-wave theory. In this paper a close-form analytical solution to 2-D coupled wave theory for 2-D restricted gratings is presented firstly. Then in order to achieve the optimum insertion loss and channel spacing for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) filters, diffraction properties, especially effects of the grating strength and grating size ratio on the peak diffraction efficiency and wavelength selectivity are researched based on the 2-D coupled-wave theory and its solution. The results show that this solution is capable of design optimization of volume holographic gratings for various devices, including wavelength filters. And the design optimization is given in order to gain the optimum peak diffraction efficiency and wavelength selectivity. Finally, some experimental results showing the angular selectivity for different grating size ratio are given, which agree well with the 2-D coupled-wave theory.

Wang, Bo; Chang, Liang; Tao, Shiquan

2005-02-01

61

Simulation-based optimal filter for maneuvering target tracking

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While single model filters are sufficient for tracking targets having fixed kinematic behavior, maneuvering targets require the use of multiple models. Jump Markov linear systems whose parameters evolve with time according to a finite state-space Markov chain, have been used in these situations with great success. However, it is well-known that performing optimal estimation for JMLS involves a prohibitive computational cost exponential in the number of observations. Many approximate methods have been proposed in the literature to circumvent this including the well-known GPB and IMM algorithms. These methods are computationally cheap but at the cost of being suboptimal. Efficient off- line methods have recently been proposed based on Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms that out-perform recent methods based on the Expectation-Maximization algorithms. However, realistic tracking systems need on-line techniques. In this paper, we propose an original on-line Monte Carlo filtering algorithm to perform optimal state estimation of JMLS. The approach taken is loosely based on the bootstrap filter which, wile begin a powerful general algorithm in its original form, does not make the most of the structure of JMLS. The proposed algorithm exploits this structure and leads to a significant performance improvement.

Doucet, Arnaud; Gordon, Neil J.

1999-10-01

62

Optimal initial perturbations for El Nino ensemble prediction with ensemble Kalman filter

Optimal initial perturbations for El Nino ensemble prediction with ensemble Kalman filter Yoo of an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Among the initial conditions gene- rated by EnKF, ensemble members with fast. Keywords Ensemble Kalman filter Ă Seasonal prediction Ă Optimal initial perturbation Ă Ensemble prediction

Kang, In-Sik

63

Particle Swarm Optimization of Passive Filters for Industrial Plants in Distribution Networks

Single-tuned passive filters are considered one of the most effective and economical means of harmonic mitigation. One important factor to consider while designing passive filters is the source voltage harmonics. This article presents a novel approach based on a particle swarm technique to optimize the design of the single-tuned passive filters for industrial plants in distribution networks. The filter design

H. H. Zeineldin; A. F. Zobaa

2011-01-01

64

The treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature was studied in a two-anaerobic-step system followed by an aerobic step, consisting of an anaerobic filter (AF) ? an anaerobic hybrid (AH) + polyurethane-foam trickling filter (PTF). The AF+AH system was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3+6 h at a controlled temperature of 13°C, while the PTF was operated

T. A. Elmitwally; Lier van J. B; G. Zeeman; G. Lettinga

2003-01-01

65

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present design optimization of wavelength filters based on long period waveguide gratings (LPWGs) using the adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) technique. We demonstrate optimization of the LPWG parameters for single-band, wide-band and dual-band rejection filters for testing the convergence of APSO algorithms. After convergence tests on the algorithms, the optimization technique has been implemented to design more complicated application specific filters such as erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) flattening, erbium doped waveguide amplifier (EDWA) gain flattening and pre-defined broadband rejection filters. The technique is useful for designing and optimizing the parameters of LPWGs to achieve complicated application specific spectra.

Semwal, Girish; Rastogi, Vipul

2014-01-01

66

Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid-infrared

Optimally designed narrowband guided-mode resonance reflectance filters for mid must be taken into consideration rigorously for accurate design of narrowband GMR filters discrete frequency infrared (DFIR) spectrometry, has recently been proposed. This approach uses narrowband

Cunningham, Brian

67

Efficient Design of Cosine-Modulated Filter Banks via Convex Optimization

Thispaperpresentsefficientapproachesfordesigning cosine-modulated filter banks with linear phase prototype filter. First, we show that the design problem of the prototype filter being a spectral factor of th-band filter is a nonconvex optimization problem with low degree of nonconvexity. As a result, the non- convex optimization problem can be cast into a semi-definite pro- gramming (SDP) problem by a convex relaxation technique.

Ha Hoang Kha; Hoang Duong Tuan; Truong Q. Nguyen

2009-01-01

68

Combining classical Kalman filter with NIR analysis technology, a new method of characteristic wavelength variable selection, namely Kalman filtering method, is presented. The principle of Kalman filter for selecting optimal wavelength variable was analyzed. The wavelength selection algorithm was designed and applied to NIR detection of soybean oil acid value. First, the PLS (partial leastsquares) models were established by using different absorption bands of oil. The 4 472-5 000 cm(-1) characteristic band of oil acid value, including 132 wavelengths, was selected preliminarily. Then the Kalman filter was used to select characteristic wavelengths further. The PLS calibration model was established using selected 22 characteristic wavelength variables, the determination coefficient R2 of prediction set and RMSEP (root mean squared error of prediction) are 0.970 8 and 0.125 4 respectively, equivalent to that of 132 wavelengths, however, the number of wavelength variables was reduced to 16.67%. This algorithm is deterministic iteration, without complex parameters setting and randomicity of variable selection, and its physical significance was well defined. The modeling using a few selected characteristic wavelength variables which affected modeling effect heavily, instead of total spectrum, can make the complexity of model decreased, meanwhile the robustness of model improved. The research offered important reference for developing special oil near infrared spectroscopy analysis instruments on next step. PMID:25007608

Wang, Li-Qi; Ge, Hui-Fang; Li, Gui-Bin; Yu, Dian-Yu; Hu, Li-Zhi; Jiang, Lian-Zhou

2014-04-01

69

MRL-filters: a general class of nonlinear systems and their optimal design for image processing

A class of morphological\\/rank\\/linear (MRL)-filters is presented as a general nonlinear tool for image processing. They consist of a linear combination between a morphological\\/rank filter and a linear filter. A gradient steepest descent method is proposed to optimally design these filters, using the averaged least mean squares (LMS) algorithm. The filter design is viewed as a learning process, and convergence

Lúcio F. C. Pessoa; Petros Maragos

1998-01-01

70

Analytic design of optimal FIR narrow-band filters using Zolotarev polynomials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytic method for designing narrow-band FIR filters using Zolotarev polynomials, which are extensions of Chebyshev polynomials, is proposed. These filters are optimal in the Chebyshev sense. Bandpass and bandstop narrow-band filters, as well as low-pass and high-pass filters, can be designed by this method. The design procedure and related formulas are presented. Design examples are included to show the properties of these filters.

Chen, Xiangkun; Parks, Thomas W.

1986-11-01

71

This paper introduces a new approximate solution of the optimal nonlinear filter suitable for nonlinear oceanic and atmospheric data assimilation problems. The method is based on a local linearization in a low-rank kernel representation of the state's probability density function. In the resulting low-rank kernel particle Kalman (LRKPK) filter, the standard (weight type) particle filter correction is complemented by a

I. Hoteit; D.-T. Pham; G. Triantafyllou; G. Korres

2008-01-01

72

Kalman filtering with unknown inputs via optimal state estimation of singular systems

1 Kalman filtering with unknown inputs via optimal state estimation of singular systems M. DAROUACH de Lorraine, 54400 COSNES ET ROMAIN, FRANCE A new method for designing a Kalman filter for linear the Kalman filter, it is generally assumed that all system parameters, noise covariances, and inputs

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de

73

Optimized Analog Filter Designs With Flat Responses by Semidefinite Programming

Analog filters constitute indispensable components of analog circuits. Inspired by recent advances in digital filter design, this paper provides a flexible design for analog filters. All-pole fil- ters have maximally flat passband, so our design minimizes their passband distortion. Analogously, maximally flat filters have max- imally flat passband, so our design maximizes their stopband at- tenuation. Its particular cases provide

Nguyen Thien Hoang; Hoang Duong Tuan; Truong Q. Nguyen; Hung Gia Hoang

2009-01-01

74

On layout optimization of the microwave diplexor filter using genetic algorithms

An original application of genetics algorithms in the on layout optimization of the microwave filters is presented. Based on a resonant coupling irises topology, a Ka-band diplexor filter on silicon membrane substrate is tuned in order to improve its performances. The optimization process uses the numerical results given by Sonnet software and the overall process is piloted by a genetic

A. Takacs; A. Serbanescu; G. Leu; H. Aubert; P. Pons; T. Parra; R. Plana

2004-01-01

75

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite correlation filters are used for solving a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. These filters are given by a combination of several training templates chosen by a designer in an ad hoc manner. In this work, we present a new approach for the design of composite filters based on multi-objective combinatorial optimization. Given a vast search space of training templates, an iterative algorithm is used to synthesize a filter with an optimized performance in terms of several competing criteria. Moreover, by employing a suggested binary-search procedure a filter bank with a minimum number of filters can be constructed, for a prespecified trade-off of performance metrics. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed method in recognizing geometrically distorted versions of a target in cluttered and noisy scenes are discussed and compared in terms of recognition performance and complexity with existing state-of-the-art filters.

Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Cuevas, Andres; Kober, Vitaly; Trujillo, Leonardo; Awwal, Abdul

2015-03-01

76

Optimal stability for trapezoidal-backward difference split-steps

The marginal stability of the trapezoidal method makes it dangerous to use for highly non-linear oscillations. Damping is provided by backward differences. The split-step combination (??t trapezoidal, (1 – ?)?t for BDF2) ...

Dharmaraja, Sohan

77

Triple stage and single stage biotrickling filters (T-BTF and S-BTF) were operated with oxygenated liquid recirculation to enhance bio-desulfurization of biogas. Empty bed retention time (EBRT 100-180s) and liquid recirculation velocity (q 2.4-7.1m/h) were applied. H2S removal and sulfuric acid recovery increased with higher EBRT and q. But the highest q at 7.1m/h induced large amount of liquid through the media, causing a reduction in bed porosity in S-BTF and H2S removal. Equivalent performance of S-BTF and T-BTF was obtained under the lowest loading of 165gH2S/m(3)/h. In the subsequent continuous operation test, it was found that T-BTF could maintain higher H2S elimination capacity and removal efficiency at 175.6±41.6gH2S/m(3)/h and 89.0±6.8% versus S-BTF at 159.9±42.8gH2S/m(3)/h and 80.1±10.2%, respectively. Finally, the relationship between outlet concentration and bed height was modeled. Step feeding of oxygenated liquid recirculation in multiple stages clearly demonstrated an advantage for sulfide oxidation. PMID:25569031

Chaiprapat, Sumate; Charnnok, Boonya; Kantachote, Duangporn; Sung, Shihwu

2015-03-01

78

Performance of optimal geometry three step compound wedge stationary concentrator

The concentration ratios including maximum ones obtainable with East-West aligned non-tracking three step compound wedge solar energy collector has been examined. It has been shown that maximum concentration design is not the most practical design because of its requirement of disproportionately large reflecting surfaces. It has been shown further that significant saving of reflecting surface can be effected with only

K. D. Mannan

1978-01-01

79

A method for optimizing multipass laser amplifier output utilizes a spectral filter in early passes but not in later passes. The pulses shift position slightly for each pass through the amplifier, and the filter is placed such that early passes intersect the filter while later passes bypass it. The filter position may be adjust offline in order to adjust the number of passes in each category. The filter may be optimized for use in a cryogenic amplifier.

Backus, Sterling J. (Erie, CO); Kapteyn, Henry C. (Boulder, CO)

2007-07-10

80

Optimal Planning of Harmonic Filters in an Industrial Plant Considering Uncertainty Conditions

This paper presents an integrated approach feasible direction method and genetic algorithm (FDM+GA) to investigate the planning of large-scale passive harmonic filters. The optimal filter scheme can be obtained from a system under abundant harmonic current sources where harmonic amplification problems should be avoided. The constraints of harmonics with orders lower than the filter tuned-points have been set stricter to

SHU-CHEN WANG; CHI-JUI WU; Ying-Pin Chang

2007-01-01

81

Optimization of Pleated Filter Designs Using a Finite-Element Numerical Model

A numerical model has been developed to optimize the design of pleated filter panels. In this model, the fluid flow is modeled by a steady laminar flow and the filter media resistance is governed by the Darcy-Lapwood-Brinkman equation. A finite element method with a nine-node Lagrangian element is used to solve the governing equations. For the rectangularly pleated filter panel,

Da-Ren Chen; David Y. H. Pui; Benjamin Y. H. Liu

1995-01-01

82

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective optimization approach to the inverse design problems of complex fiber Bragg grating filters is developed in the present paper. Based on a multi-objective evolutionary programming (MOEP) algorithm, the proposed method can efficiently search for optimal solutions and simultaneously take into account various requirements of the designed filter. To improve the efficiency of the MOEP based algorithm, an adaptive mutation process is proposed and verified. One of the advantages of the proposed optimization method is the capability to impose additional constrains on the desired coupling coefficient, which ensures the convenience and possibility for actually fabricating the designed devices with the commercially available photosensitive fibers. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, an optimal narrowband dispersionless fiber Bragg grating filter for DWDM optical fiber communication systems is designed. We successfully demonstrate that complicated dispersionless FBG filters with short grating lengths and smooth dispersion profiles can be obtained by using the proposed algorithm.

Lee, Cheng-Ling; Lai, Yinchieh

2004-05-01

83

Inertial measurement unit calibration using Full Information Maximum Likelihood Optimal Filtering

The robustness of Full Information Maximum Likelihood Optimal Filtering (FIMLOF) for inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration in high-g centrifuge environments is considered. FIMLOF uses an approximate Newton's Method ...

Thompson, Gordon A. (Gordon Alexander)

2005-01-01

84

Performance Optimization of a Photovoltaic Generator with an Active Power Filter Application

1 Performance Optimization of a Photovoltaic Generator with an Active Power Filter ApplicationP photovoltaic power stocks gain GPV photovoltaic generator h harmonic Range MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking PV Generator with an Active Power Filter Application," International Journal on Engineering Applications, vol

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de

85

DMT bit rate maximization with optimal time domain equalizer filter bank architecture

In a multicarrier modulation system, a time domain equalizer (TEQ) traditionally shortens the transmission channel impulse response (CIR) to mitigate intersymbol interference (ISI). In this paper, we propose a data-rate optimal TEQ filter bank whose data rates at the equalizer output of this filter bank are significantly better than those of the Maximum Bit Rate and Minimum ISI methods and

Milos Milosevic; Lucio F. C. Pessoa; Brian L. Evans; Ross Baldick

2002-01-01

86

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization

Environmentally realistic fingerprint-image generation with evolutionary filter-bank optimization t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Fingerprint image generation Evolutionary algorithm Image filters Input pressure a b s t r a c t Constructing a fingerprint database is important to evaluate the performance

Cho, Sung-Bae

87

Hybrid Kalman/H?filter in designing optimal navigation of vehicle in PRT System

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PRT( Personal Rapid Transit ) system is a automated operation, so that it is important exactly finding position of vehicle. Many of PRT system has accepted the GPS system for a position, speed, and direction. in this paper, we propose a combination of Kalman Filter and H? Filter known as Hybrid Kalman/ H? Filter for applying to GPS navigation algorithm. For disturbance cancellation, Kalman Filter is optimal but it requires the statistical information about process and measurement noises while H? Filter only minimizes the "worst-case" error and requires that the noises are bounded. The new Hybrid Filter is expected to reduce the worst-case error and exploit the incomplete knowledge about noises to provide a better estimation. The experiment shows us the ability of Hybrid Filter in GPS navigation algorithm.

Kim, Hyunsoo; Nguyen, Hoang Hieu; Nguyen, Phi Long; Kim, Han Sil; Jang, Young Hwan; Ryu, Myungseon; Choi, Changho

2007-12-01

88

Optimal Filters with Multiple Packet Losses and its Application in Wireless Sensor Networks

This paper is concerned with the filtering problem for both discrete-time stochastic linear (DTSL) systems and discrete-time stochastic nonlinear (DTSN) systems. In DTSL systems, an linear optimal filter with multiple packet losses is designed based on the orthogonal principle analysis approach over unreliable wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and the experience result verifies feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed linear filter; in DTSN systems, an extended minimum variance filter with multiple packet losses is derived, and the filter is extended to the nonlinear case by the first order Taylor series approximation, which is successfully applied to unreliable WSNs. An application example is given and the corresponding simulation results show that, compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF), the proposed extended minimum variance filter is feasible and effective in WSNs. PMID:22319301

Liu, Yonggui; Xu, Bugong; Feng, Linfang; Li, Shanbin

2010-01-01

89

Fibonacci sequence, golden section, Kalman filter and optimal control

A connection between the Kalman filter and the Fibonacci sequence is developed. More precisely it is shown that, for a scalar random walk system in which the two noise sources (process and measurement noise) have equal variance, the Kalman filter's estimate turns out to be a convex linear combination of the a priori estimate and of the measurements with coefficients

Alessio Benavoli; Luigi Chisci; Alfonso Farina

2009-01-01

90

An optimal modification of a Kalman filter for time scales

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kalman filter in question, which was implemented in the time scale algorithm TA(NIST), produces time scales with poor short-term stability. A simple modification of the error covariance matrix allows the filter to produce time scales with good stability at all averaging times, as verified by simulations of clock ensembles.

Greenhall, C. A.

2003-01-01

91

Optimal Filtering of Source Address Prefixes: Models and Algorithms

malicious traffic is filtering: access control lists (ACLs) can selectively block traffic based on fields of the IP header. Filters (ACLs) are already available in the routers today but are a scarce resource today via access control lists (ACLs), which allow a router to match This work was supported by the NSF

Markopoulou, Athina

92

Optease Vena Cava Filter Optimal Indwelling Time and Retrievability

The purpose of this study was to assess the indwelling time and retrievability of the Optease IVC filter. Between 2002 and 2009, a total of 811 Optease filters were inserted: 382 for prophylaxis in multitrauma patients and 429 for patients with venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease. In 139 patients [97 men and 42 women; mean age, 36 (range, 17-82) years], filter retrieval was attempted. They were divided into two groups to compare change in retrieval policy during the years: group A, 60 patients with filter retrievals performed before December 31 2006; and group B, 79 patients with filter retrievals from January 2007 to October 2009. A total of 128 filters were successfully removed (57 in group A, and 71 in group B). The mean filter indwelling time in the study group was 25 (range, 3-122) days. In group A the mean indwelling time was 18 (range, 7-55) days and in group B 31 days (range, 8-122). There were 11 retrieval failures: 4 for inability to engage the filter hook and 7 for inability to sheathe the filter due to intimal overgrowth. The mean indwelling time of group A retrieval failures was 16 (range, 15-18) days and in group B 54 (range, 17-122) days. Mean fluoroscopy time for successful retrieval was 3.5 (range, 1-16.6) min and for retrieval failures 25.2 (range, 7.2-62) min. Attempts to retrieve the Optease filter can be performed up to 60 days, but more failures will be encountered with this approach.

Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Bensaid, Paul, E-mail: paulbensaid@hotmail.com; Golan, Gil, E-mail: gilgolan201@gmail.com; Garniek, Alexander, E-mail: garniek@gmail.com; Khaitovich, Boris, E-mail: borislena@012.net.il [Chaim Sheba Medical Center (Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv), Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Israel); Dotan, Zohar, E-mail: Zohar.Dotan@sheba.health.gov.il [Chaim Sheba Medical Center (Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv), Department of Urology (Israel); Konen, Eli, E-mail: Eli.Konen@sheba.health.gov.il [Chaim Sheba Medical Center (Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv), Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Israel)

2011-06-15

93

Synthesis and analysis of an optimal filtering algorithm for discrete signals with anomalous noise

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines the synthesis of a nonbiased filter which is optimal in the rms sense in the class of linear filters. The synthesis is carried out for the case of the reception of a multidimensional Gaussian Markovian signal on a background of a mixture of constant Gaussian noise and anomalous noise with a partial known a priori description. The synthesized filter is shown to be invariant to the matrix of anomalous-noise intensity. The optimality of a procedure for the exclusion of anomalous observations is demonstrated for a particular case.

Demin, N. S.; Zhadan, L. I.

1984-02-01

94

The two-step filter has been combined with a modified Sage-Husa time-varying measurement noise statistical estimator, which is able to estimate the covariance of measurement noise on line, to generate an adaptive two-step filter. In many practical applications such as the bearings-only guidance, some model parameters and the process noise covariance are also unknown a priori. Based on the adaptive two-step

Di Zhou; Yong-An Zhang; Guang-Ren Duan

2005-01-01

95

An infeasible interior-point algorithm with full-Newton step for linear optimization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Roos (SIAM J Optim 16(4):1110?1136, 2006) presented a primal-dual infeasible interior-point algorithm that uses full-Newton steps and whose iteration bound coincides with the best known bound for infeasible interior-point algorithms. In the current paper we use a different feasibility step such that the definition of the feasibility step in Mansouri and Roos (Optim Methods Softw 22(3):519?530, 2007) is a special case of our definition, and show that the same result on the order of iteration complexity can be obtained.

Liu, Zhongyi; Sun, Wenyu

2007-10-01

96

Write Strategy Optimization Method with Two-Step Search for Blu-ray Disc Recording

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new write strategy (WS) optimization method with a two-step search process for Blu-ray Disc (BD) recording is developed to shorten the optimization time. This method is realized by the WS optimization system, which is constructed with an optical pickup, a disc tester, and the WS optimization algorithm. The optimization is executed according to the two-step search process along the mathematical axis, which is experimentally derived from the sample WS parameters. As the experimental result, the optimization time is reduced by nearly two-thirds from that achieved using the conventional method performed by the experts. All the jitter values of the playback signal derived from the recorded marks are smaller than the 7% target value and the effectiveness of this new method is experimentally confirmed.

Takeshita, Nobuo; Kanatake, Yusuke; Kishigami, Tomo; Ikuta, Koichi

2010-08-01

97

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for reliably identifying point sources in millimeter/submillimeter wavelength maps is presented. This method accounts for the frequency dependence of noise in the Fourier domain as well as nonuniformities in the coverage of a field. This optimal filter is an improvement over commonly-used matched filters that ignore coverage gradients. Treating noise variations in the Fourier domain as well as map space is traditionally viewed as a computationally intensive problem. We show that the penalty incurred in terms of computing time is quite small due to casting many of the calculations in terms of FFTs and exploiting the absence of sharp features in the noise spectra of observations. Practical aspects of implementing the optimal filter are presented in the context of data from the AzTEC bolometer camera. The advantages of using the new filter over the standard matched filter are also addressed in terms of a typical AzTEC map.

Perera, T. A.; Wilson, G. W.; Scott, K. S.; Austermann, J. E.; Schaar, J. R.; Mancera, A.

2013-07-01

98

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-step filter has been combined with a modified Sage-Husa time-varying measurement noise statistical estimator, which is able to estimate the covariance of measurement noise on line, to generate an adaptive two-step filter. In many practical applications such as the bearings-only guidance, some model parameters and the process noise covariance are also unknown a priori. Based on the adaptive two-step filter, we utilize multiple models in the first-step filtering as well as in the time update of the second-step filtering to handle the uncertainties of model parameters and process noise covariance. In each timestep of the multiple model filtering, probabilistic weights punishing the estimates of first-step state from different models, and their associated covariance matrices are acquired according to Bayes’ rule. The weighted sum of the estimates of first-step state and that of the associated covariance matrices are extracted as the ultimate estimate and covariance of the first-step state, and are used as measurement information for the measurement update of the second-step state. Thus there is still only one iteration process and no apparent enhancement of computation burden. A motion tracking sliding-mode guidance law is presented for missiles with non-negligible delays in actual acceleration. This guidance law guarantees guidance accuracy and is able to enhance observability in bearings-only tracking. In bearings-only cases, the multiple model adaptive two-step filter is applied to the motion tracking sliding-mode guidance law, supplying relative range, relative velocity, and target acceleration information. In simulation experiments satisfactory filtering and guidance results are obtained, even if the filter runs into unknown target maneuvers and unknown time-varying measurement noise covariance, and the guidance law has to deal with a large time lag in acceleration.

Zhou, Di; Zhang, Yong-An; Duan, Guang-Ren

99

Optimized interpolation filters for compatible pyramidal coding of TV and HDTV

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the question of optimizing the filters in the upsampling stage of a TV/HDTV compatible pyramidal coder. From a coding gain point of view, both the decimation and upsampling filters should be optimized. In the frame of compatible coding, not only the coding efficiency influences the choice of the decimation filter but also the compatible image quality. Therefore, assuming this filter has been fixed, we analyze the question of optimizing the upsampling filter in order to obtain the highest coding gain. This question is addressed for a mean squared error (MSE) criterion. In addition, assuming the base layer (TV) signal can be quantized, the influence on the quantization noise on the optimal interpolation filter is investigated and the problem is handled for the MSE criterion. As the statistical properties of pictures are required in the optimization, a model is then developed to compute these properties when there is motion. The model takes into account the processing of progressive sources and, concerning interlaced sequences, the independent processing of fields or the processing of merged fields. Results are then derived for the three types of processing.

Cuvelier, Laurent; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Maison, Benoit; Vandendorpe, Luc

1993-10-01

100

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation filters for object recognition represent an attractive alternative to feature based methods. These filters are usually synthesized as a combination of several training templates. These templates are commonly chosen in an ad-hoc manner by the designer, therefore, there is no guarantee that the best set of templates is chosen. In this work, we propose a new approach for the design of composite correlation filters using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm in conjunction with a variable length coding technique. Given a vast search space of feasible templates, the algorithm finds a subset that allows the construction of a filter with an optimized performance in terms of several performance metrics. The resultant filter is capable of recognizing geometrically distorted versions of a target in high cluttering and noisy conditions. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed approach are presented and discussed in terms of several performance metrics. These results are also compared to those obtained with existing correlation filters.

Serrano Trujillo, Alejandra; Díaz Ramírez, Víctor H.; Trujillo, Leonardo

2013-09-01

101

A note on optimal filtering in the presence of unknown biases

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note considers some aspects of the optimal filtering problem for linear processes in the presence of unknown biases in the input and the observations. It is proved via duality that the optimal filtering problem in the presence of an input bias is equivalent to a certain optimal regulator problem incorporating integral feedback. The question of observability of the augmented system used in the state and bias estimation is answered by deriving necessary and sufficient conditions when bias is present (1) in the input, (2) in the observations and (3) both in the input and the observations.

Joshi, S. M.

1975-01-01

102

This thesis solves the problem of finding the optimal linear noise-reduction filter for linear tomographic image reconstruction. The optimization is data dependent and results in minimizing the mean-square error of the reconstructed image. The error is defined as the difference between the result and the best possible reconstruction. Applications for the optimal filter include reconstructions of positron emission tomographic (PET), X-ray computed tomographic, single-photon emission tomographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Using high resolution PET as an example, the optimal filter is derived and presented for the convolution backprojection, Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse, and the natural-pixel basis set reconstruction methods. Simulations and experimental results are presented for the convolution backprojection method.

Sun, W.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

1993-04-01

103

An alternative to the well-established Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, termed discrete frequency infrared (DFIR) spectrometry, has recently been proposed. This approach uses narrowband mid-infrared reflectance filters based on guided-mode resonance (GMR) in waveguide gratings, but filters designed and fabricated have not attained the spectral selectivity (? 32 cm(-1)) commonly employed for measurements of condensed matter using FT-IR spectroscopy. With the incorporation of dispersion and optical absorption of materials, we present here optimal design of double-layer surface-relief silicon nitride-based GMR filters in the mid-IR for various narrow bandwidths below 32 cm(-1). Both shift of the filter resonance wavelengths arising from the dispersion effect and reduction of peak reflection efficiency and electric field enhancement due to the absorption effect show that the optical characteristics of materials must be taken into consideration rigorously for accurate design of narrowband GMR filters. By incorporating considerations for background reflections, the optimally designed GMR filters can have bandwidth narrower than the designed filter by the antireflection equivalence method based on the same index modulation magnitude, without sacrificing low sideband reflections near resonance. The reported work will enable use of GMR filters-based instrumentation for common measurements of condensed matter, including tissues and polymer samples. PMID:22109445

Liu, Jui-Nung; Schulmerich, Matthew V; Bhargava, Rohit; Cunningham, Brian T

2011-11-21

104

Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. PMID:24388927

Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

2014-01-15

105

Sparsity Optimization in Design of Multidimensional Filter Networks

They are composed of sparse sub-filters whose high sparsity ensures ... increases the approximation error and degrades the image quality. ..... contrast to L = 1, in the case of L > 1 there is practically no chance to find an exact minimizer of f(x) ..... Cand`es E, Romberg J (2005) l1-MAGIC: Recovery of sparse signals via ...

2014-11-22

106

We present the synthesis of multi-channel fiber Bragg grating (MCFBG) filters for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) application by using a simple optimization approach based on a Lagrange multiplier optimization (LMO) method. We demonstrate for the first time that the LMO method can be used to constrain various parameters of the designed MCFBG filters for practical application demands and fabrication requirements. The designed filters have a number of merits, i.e., flat-top and low dispersion spectral response as well as single stage. Above all, the maximum amplitude of the index modulation profiles of the designed MCFBGs can be substantially reduced under the applied constrained condition. The simulation results demonstrate that the LMO algorithm can provide a potential alternative for complex fiber grating filter design problems. PMID:19529515

Lee, Cheng-Ling; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Kao, Yee-Mou

2006-11-13

107

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the synthesis of multi-channel fiber Bragg grating (MCFBG) filters for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) application by using a simple optimization approach based on a Lagrange multiplier optimization (LMO) method. We demonstrate for the first time that the LMO method can be used to constrain various parameters of the designed MCFBG filters for practical application demands and fabrication requirements. The designed filters have a number of merits, i.e., flat-top and low dispersion spectral response as well as single stage. Above all, the maximum amplitude of the index modulation profiles of the designed MCFBGs can be substantially reduced under the applied constrained condition. The simulation results demonstrate that the LMO algorithm can provide a potential alternative for complex fiber grating filter design problems.

Lee, Cheng-Ling; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Kao, Yee-Mou

2006-11-01

108

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial recognition is a difficult task due to variations in pose and facial expressions, as well as presence of noise and clutter in captured face images. In this work, we address facial recognition by means of composite correlation filters designed with multi-objective combinatorial optimization. Given a large set of available face images having variations in pose, gesticulations, and global illumination, a proposed algorithm synthesizes composite correlation filters by optimization of several performance criteria. The resultant filters are able to reliably detect and correctly classify face images of different subjects even when they are corrupted with additive noise and nonhomogeneous illumination. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed approach are presented and discussed in terms of efficiency in face detection and reliability of facial classification. These results are also compared with those obtained with existing composite filters.

Cuevas, Andres; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Trujillo, Leonardo

2014-09-01

109

Optimizing the Choice of Filter Sets for Space Based Imaging Instruments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the challenge of selecting a limited number of filters for space based imaging instruments such that they are able to address multiple heterogeneous science goals. The number of available filter slots for a mission is bounded by factors such as instrument size and cost. We explore methods used to extract the optimal group of filters such that they complement each other most effectively. We focus on three approaches; maximizing the separation of objects in two-dimensional color planes, SED fitting to select those filter sets that give the finest resolution in fitted physical parameters, and maximizing the orthogonality of physical parameter vectors in N-dimensional color-color space. These techniques are applied to a test-case, a UV/optical imager with space for five filters, with the goal of measuring the properties of local stars through to distant galaxies.

Elliott, Rachel E.; Farrah, Duncan; Petty, Sara M.; Harris, Kathryn Amy

2015-01-01

110

High Temperature Resistant Silicon-Nitride Ceramics by Optimized Two-Step Gas Pressure Sintering

\\u000a The potential of two-step gas pressure sintering as a production method for high-temperature resistant silicon nitride ceramics\\u000a was evaluated. In a first step, a strategy for process optimization was derived from a comprehensive investigation on processing-densification-microstructure\\u000a relations of Si3N4 with Y2O3 and Al2O3 as sintering aids. This optimization strategy could be used to reduce the amount of additives in this

R. Oberacker; G. Grathwohl

111

FPGA Implementation of Optimal Filtering Algorithm for TileCal ROD System

Traditionally, Optimal Filtering Algorithm has been implemented using general purpose programmable DSP chips. Alternatively, new FPGAs provide a highly adaptable and flexible system to develop this algorithm. TileCal ROD is a multi-channel system, where similar data arrives at very high sampling rates and is subject to simultaneous tasks. It include different FPGAs with high I/O and with parallel structures that provide a benefit at a data analysis. The Optical Multiplexer Board is one of the elements presents in TileCal ROD System. It has FPGAs devices that present an ideal platform for implementing Optimal Filtering Algorithm. Actually this algorithm is performing in the DSPs included at ROD Motherboard. This work presents an alternative to implement Optimal Filtering Algorithm.

Torres, J; Castillo, V; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; González, V; Higón, E; Poveda, J; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J A

2008-01-01

112

Particle swarm optimization-based approach for optical finite impulse response filter design.

This study presents what is to our knowledge a new and efficient method for the design of an optical finite impulse response (FIR) filter by employing a particle swarm optimization technique. With the method proposed, the design of an optical FIR filter, which is able to provide an arbitrary spectrum output based on crystal birefringence, could be implemented with good performance and high efficiency. The design procedure is discussed. A typical example of a green/magenta filter used in a liquid crystal on silicon projection display is included to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of this method in this design process as compared with simulated annealing. PMID:12645986

Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Guangjie; Yu, Feihong

2003-03-10

113

Phosphorus (P) eutrophication of lakes and streams, coming from drained farmlands, is a serious problem in areas with intensive agriculture. Installation of P sorbing filters at drain outlets may be a solution. Efficient sorbents to be used for such filters must possess high P bonding affinity to retain ortho-phosphate (Pi) at low concentrations. In addition high P sorption capacity, fast bonding and low desorption is necessary. In this study five potential filter materials (Filtralite-P(®), limestone, calcinated diatomaceous earth, shell-sand and iron-oxide based CFH) in four particle size intervals were investigated under field relevant P concentrations (0-161 ?M) and retentions times of 0-24 min. Of the five materials examined, the results from P sorption and desorption studies clearly demonstrate that the iron based CFH is superior as a filter material compared to calcium based materials when tested against criteria for sorption affinity, capacity and stability. The finest CFH and Filtralite-P(®) fractions (0.05-0.5 mm) were best with P retention of ?90% of Pi from an initial concentration of 161 ?M corresponding to 14.5 mmol/kg sorbed within 24 min. They were further capable to retain ?90% of Pi from an initially 16 ?M solution within 1˝ min. However, only the finest CFH fraction was also able to retain ?90% of Pi sorbed from the 16 ?M solution against 4 times desorption sequences with 6 mM KNO3. Among the materials investigated, the finest CFH fraction is therefore the only suitable filter material, when very fast and strong bonding of high Pi concentrations is needed, e.g. in drains under P rich soils during extreme weather conditions. PMID:24275107

Lyngsie, G; Borggaard, O K; Hansen, H C B

2014-03-15

114

Optimized 90° Polarization Shift Step Twists for Ku, K and Ka Bands

Optimized models for 90 polarization shift step twists for Ku, K and Ka bands are presented. The cross-section of the waveguide\\u000a employed is similar to that of a rectangular one, with the difference that the walls of the shorter side are part of a circular\\u000a one with the proper diameter. The optimized models have been found using the CST Microwave

Vasilis G. Salis; Sotirios A. Mallios; Ioannis G. Tigelis; Aristidis S. Theodorou

2007-01-01

115

Optimal-adaptive filters for modelling spectral shape, site amplification, and source scaling

This paper introduces some applications of optimal filtering techniques to earthquake engineering by using the so-called ARMAX models. Three applications are presented: (a) spectral modelling of ground accelerations, (b) site amplification (i.e., the relationship between two records obtained at different sites during an earthquake), and (c) source scaling (i.e., the relationship between two records obtained at a site during two different earthquakes). A numerical example for each application is presented by using recorded ground motions. The results show that the optimal filtering techniques provide elegant solutions to above problems, and can be a useful tool in earthquake engineering.

Safak, Erdal

1989-01-01

116

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that Ă˘ÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.Ă˘ÂÂ Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Filters, is the eighth chapter in Volume II Ă˘ÂÂAlternating Current (AC). A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Low-pass filters, High-pass filters, Band-pass filters, Band-stop filters, and Resonant filters. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-02

117

Insights into HER2 signaling from step-by-step optimization of anti-HER2 antibodies.

HER2, a ligand-free tyrosine kinase receptor of the HER family, is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. The anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab has shown significant clinical benefits in metastatic breast cancer; however, resistance to trastuzumab is common. The development of monoclonal antibodies that have complementary mechanisms of action results in a more comprehensive blockade of ErbB2 signaling, especially HER2/HER3 signaling. Use of such antibodies may have clinical benefits if these antibodies can become widely accepted. Here, we describe a novel anti-HER2 antibody, hHERmAb-F0178C1, which was isolated from a screen of a phage display library. A step-by-step optimization method was employed to maximize the inhibitory effect of this anti-HER2 antibody. Crystallographic analysis was used to determine the three-dimensional structure to 3.5 Ĺ resolution, confirming that the epitope of this antibody is in domain III of HER2. Moreover, this novel anti-HER2 antibody exhibits superior efficacy in blocking HER2/HER3 heterodimerization and signaling, and its use in combination with pertuzumab has a synergistic effect. Characterization of this antibody revealed the important role of a ligand binding site within domain III of HER2. The results of this study clearly indicate the unique potential of hHERmAb-F0178C1, and its complementary inhibition effect on HER2/HER3 signaling warrants its consideration as a promising clinical treatment. PMID:24838231

Fu, Wenyan; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yunshan; Xiong, Lijuan; Takeda, Hiroaki; Ding, Li; Xu, Qunfang; He, Lidong; Tan, Wenlong; Bethune, Augus N; Zhou, Lijun

2014-01-01

118

In this study the authors investigate possible objectives that the central nervous system (CNS) may consider in planning a strategy for stepping over an obstacle. A link segment simulation model has been developed based on Lagrangian dynamics, with which muscle force inputs can be optimized to best satisfy the postulated objectives for landing stability, obstacle clearance, and efficiency of the

Mehran Armand; Jan P. Huissoon; Aftab E. Patla

1998-01-01

119

Constrained Optimal Control of the Step-Down DC–DC Converter

In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modeling and controller design of the synchronous step-down dc-dc converter. We introduce a hybrid converter model that is valid for the whole operating regime and captures the different modes of operation. Based on this model, we formulate and solve a constrained optimal control problem. This allows a systematic controller design

Tobias Geyer; Georgios Papafotiou; Roberto Frasca; Manfred Morari

2008-01-01

120

Fast Split-Step Wavelet Collocation Method for WDM System Parameter Optimization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet rapidly increasing bandwidth requirements, extensive numerical simulations are an important optimization step for optical networks. Using a basis of cardinal functions with compact support, a new split-step wavelet collocation method (SSWCM) was developed as a general solver for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing pulse propagation in nonlinear optical fibers. With N as the number of discretization points, this technique has the optimum complexity cal(N) for a fixed accuracy, which is superior to the complexity cal(N log2 N) of the standard split-step Fourier method (SSFM). For the simulation of a large 40-Gb/s dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) system with 64 channels, the SSWCM requires less than 40% of computation time compared with the SSFM. This improvement allows a systematic optimization of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) system parameters to achieve a minimum bit-error rate.

Kremp, Tristan; Freude, Wolfgang

2005-03-01

121

Using the innovation analysis method in the time domain, based on the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) innovation model, this paper presents a unified white noise estimation theory that includes both input and measurement white noise estimators, and presents a new steady-state optimal state estimation theory. Non-recursive optimal state estimators are given, whose recursive version gives a steady-state Kalman filter, where

Zi-Li Deng; Huan-Shui Zhang; Shu-Jun Liu; Lu Zhou

1996-01-01

122

Synthesis of fiber Bragg grating filters for optimal DPSK demodulation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiple fiber Bragg grating structure is proposed for optimal demodulation of differential phase shifting keys (DPSK) optical signals. Specific grating design and synthesis are presented for DPSK demodulation at 10 Gbit/s to operate either in reflection or transmission configurations.

Longhi, S.; Gatti, D.; Laporta, P.; Belmonte, M.

2008-10-01

123

Synthesis of fiber Bragg grating filters for optimal DPSK demodulation

A multiple fiber Bragg grating structure is proposed for optimal demodulation of differential phase shifting keys (DPSK) optical signals. Specific grating design and synthesis are presented for DPSK demodulation at 10 Gbit\\/s to operate either in reflection or transmission configurations.

S. Longhi; D. Gatti; P. Laporta; M. Belmonte

2008-01-01

124

A new approach to linear least squares estimation of continuous-time (wide sense) stationary stochastic processes is presented. The basic idea is that the relevant estimates can be ex- pressed not only in terms of the usual (forward) innovation process but also in terms of a backward innovation process. The functions determining the optimal filter as well as the error covariance

Anders Lindquist

1974-01-01

125

In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems. PMID:23844390

Saha, S. K.; Dutta, R.; Choudhury, R.; Kar, R.; Mandal, D.; Ghoshal, S. P.

2013-01-01

126

trigger our bottom-up attention when we forget to take the cash from the ATM or when a fire alarmAutomatic detection of auditory salience with optimized linear filters derived from human a particular auditory event attracts human attention. Previous attempts at automatic detection of salient audio

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

127

Design formulas for a class of double-terminated optimal filters

Design equations are presented for a class of optimal filters which are RC ladder networks with double and equal terminations. The resulting network has the maximum gain constant and the minimum product of capacity and resistance. The proposed formulas make it possible to avoid the process of formulating impedance or admittance function and expanding a continued fraction, required with the

T. S. Lim; T. N. Lee

1980-01-01

128

Statistical Design and Optimization for Adaptive Post-silicon Tuning of MEMS Filters

]-[6], [14]. MEMS resonators made in low-loss materials (e.g., silicon, polysilicon, aluminum nitride, etc-to-die. In addition, mechanically-coupled MEMS resonators often generate spurious modes out of the intended passStatistical Design and Optimization for Adaptive Post-silicon Tuning of MEMS Filters Fa Wang, Gokce

Li, Xin

129

Design and optimization of stepped austempered ductile iron using characterization techniques

Conventional characterization techniques such as dilatometry, X-ray diffraction and metallography were used to select and optimize temperatures and times for conventional and stepped austempering. Austenitization and conventional austempering time was selected when the dilatometry graphs showed a constant expansion value. A special heat color-etching technique was applied to distinguish between the untransformed austenite and high carbon stabilized austenite which had formed during the treatments. Finally, it was found that carbide precipitation was absent during the stepped austempering in contrast to conventional austempering, on which carbide evidence was found. - Highlights: • Dilatometry helped to establish austenitization and austempering parameters. • Untransformed austenite was present even for longer processing times. • Ausferrite formed during stepped austempering caused important reinforcement effect. • Carbide precipitation was absent during stepped treatment.

Hernández-Rivera, J.L., E-mail: jose.hernandez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados-Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Z.C. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Garay-Reyes, C.G.; Campos-Cambranis, R.E.; Cruz-Rivera, J.J. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Sierra Leona 550, Lomas 2a. sección, Z.C. 78210, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

2013-09-15

130

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telban and Cardullo have developed and successfully implemented the non-linear optimal motion cueing algorithm at the Visual Motion Simulator (VMS) at the NASA Langley Research Center in 2005. The latest version of the non-linear algorithm performed filtering of motion cues in all degrees-of-freedom except for pitch and roll. This manuscript describes the development and implementation of the non-linear optimal motion cueing algorithm for the pitch and roll degrees of freedom. Presented results indicate improved cues in the specified channels as compared to the original design. To further advance motion cueing in general, this manuscript describes modifications to the existing algorithm, which allow for filtering at the location of the pilot's head as opposed to the centroid of the motion platform. The rational for such modification to the cueing algorithms is that the location of the pilot's vestibular system must be taken into account as opposed to the off-set of the centroid of the cockpit relative to the center of rotation alone. Results provided in this report suggest improved performance of the motion cueing algorithm.

Zaychik, Kirill B.; Cardullo, Frank M.

2012-01-01

131

Hair occlusion is one of the main challenges facing automatic lesion segmentation and feature extraction for skin cancer applications. We propose a novel method for simultaneously enhancing both light and dark hairs with variable widths, from dermoscopic images, without the prior knowledge of the hair color. We measure hair tubularness using a quaternion color curvature filter. We extract optimal hair features (tubularness, scale, and orientation) using Markov random field theory and multi-label optimization. We also develop a novel dual channel matched filter to enhance hair pixels in the dermoscopic images while suppressing irrelevant skin pixels. We evaluate the hair enhancement capabilities of our method on hair-occluded images generated via our new hair simulation algorithm. Since hair enhancement is an intermediate step in a computer aided diagnosis system for analyzing dermoscopic images, we validate our method and compare it to other methods by studying its effect on: (i) hair segmentation accuracy, (ii) image inpainting quality, and (iii) image classification accuracy. The validation results on 40 real clinical dermoscopic images and 94 synthetic data demonstrate that our approach outperforms competing hair enhancement methods. PMID:25312927

Mirzaalian, Hengameh; Lee, Tim; Hamarneh, Ghassan

2014-10-01

132

Optimally apodized ring-resonator filter for DPSK demodulation

Optical micro-ring resonator arrays (OMRA) are versatile elements for designing various photonic integrated circuits and systems for optical signal processing and communication. In this paper, we analyze the performance of an OMRA used for optical demodulation of both single channel DPSK and 3-channel WDM-DPSK signals. Several apodization profiles have been investigated to decide for the optimal performance. It is shown

Raunaq Agarwal; Ranjan Gangopadhyay; Giancarlo Prati; Sumanta Gupta; Paolo Pintus

2009-01-01

133

Comparison of Kalman filter and optimal smoother estimates of spacecraft attitude

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given a valid system model and adequate observability, a Kalman filter will converge toward the true system state with error statistics given by the estimated error covariance matrix. The errors generally do not continue to decrease. Rather, a balance is reached between the gain of information from new measurements and the loss of information during propagation. The errors can be further reduced, however, by a second pass through the data with an optimal smoother. This algorithm obtains the optimally weighted average of forward and backward propagating Kalman filters. It roughly halves the error covariance by including future as well as past measurements in each estimate. This paper investigates whether such benefits actually accrue in the application of an optimal smoother to spacecraft attitude determination. Tests are performed both with actual spacecraft data from the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) and with simulated data for which the true state vector and noise statistics are exactly known.

Sedlak, J.

1994-01-01

134

Decoupled Control Strategy of Grid Interactive Inverter System with Optimal LCL Filter Design

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a control strategy for a three-phase grid interactive voltage source inverter that links a renewable energy source to the utility grid through a LCL-type filter. An optimized LCL-type filter has been designed and modeled so as to reduce the current harmonics in the grid, considering the conduction and switching losses at constant modulation index (Ma). The control strategy adopted here decouples the active and reactive power loops, thus achieving desirable performance with independent control of active and reactive power injected into the grid. The startup transients can also be controlled by the implementation of this proposed control strategy: in addition to this, optimal LCL filter with lesser conduction and switching copper losses as well as core losses. A trade-off has been made between the total losses in the LCL filter and the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD%) of the grid current, and the filter inductor has been designed accordingly. In order to study the dynamic performance of the system and to confirm the analytical results, the models are simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, and the results are analyzed.

Babu, B. Chitti; Anurag, Anup; Sowmya, Tontepu; Marandi, Debati; Bal, Satarupa

2013-09-01

135

The accurate localization of anatomical landmarks is a challenging task, often solved by domain specific approaches. We propose a method for the automatic localization of landmarks in complex, repetitive anatomical structures. The key idea is to combine three steps: (1) a classifier for pre-filtering anatomical landmark positions that (2) are refined through a Hough regression model, together with (3) a parts-based model of the global landmark topology to select the final landmark positions. During training landmarks are annotated in a set of example volumes. A classifier learns local landmark appearance, and Hough regressors are trained to aggregate neighborhood information to a precise landmark coordinate position. A non-parametric geometric model encodes the spatial relationships between the landmarks and derives a topology which connects mutually predictive landmarks. During the global search we classify all voxels in the query volume, and perform regression-based agglomeration of landmark probabilities to highly accurate and specific candidate points at potential landmark locations. We encode the candidates’ weights together with the conformity of the connecting edges to the learnt geometric model in a Markov Random Field (MRF). By solving the corresponding discrete optimization problem, the most probable location for each model landmark is found in the query volume. We show that this approach is able to consistently localize the model landmarks despite the complex and repetitive character of the anatomical structures on three challenging data sets (hand radiographs, hand CTs, and whole body CTs), with a median localization error of 0.80 mm, 1.19 mm and 2.71 mm, respectively. PMID:23664450

Donner, René; Menze, Bjoern H.; Bischof, Horst; Langs, Georg

2013-01-01

136

An optimized method of harvesting vibrational energy with a piezoelectric element using a step-down DC-DC converter is presented. In this configuration, the converter regulates the power flow from the piezoelectric element to the desired electronic load. Analysis of the converter in discontinuous current conduction mode results in an expression for the duty cycle-power relationship. Using parameters of the mechanical system,

Geffrey K. Ottman; Heath F. Hofmann; George A. Lesieutre

2003-01-01

137

Optimization of single-step tapering amplitude and energy detuning for high-gain FELs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We put forward a method to optimize the single-step tapering amplitude of undulator strength and initial energy tuning of electron beam to maximize the saturation power of high gain free-electron lasers (FELs), based on the physics of longitudinal electron beam phase space. Using the FEL simulation code GENESIS, we numerically demonstrate the accuracy of the estimations for parameters corresponding to the linac coherent light source and the Tesla test facility.

Li, He-Ting; Jia, Qi-Ka

2015-01-01

138

Exact solution of multicommodity network optimization problems with general step cost functions

We describe an exact solution procedure, based on the use of standard LP software, for multicommodity network optimization problems with general discontinuous step-increasing cost functions. This class of problems includes the so-called single-facility and multiple-facility capacitated network loading problems as special cases. The proposed procedure may be viewed as a specialization of the well-known BENDERS partitioning procedure, leading to iteratively

Virginie Gabrel; Arnaud Knippel; Michel Minoux

1999-01-01

139

Optimization of a Permanent Step Mold Design for Mg Alloy Castings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a permanent Step mold for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of light alloys has been reviewed. An optimized Step die with a different runner and gating systems is proposed to minimize the amount of casting defects. Numerical simulations have been performed to study the filling and solidification behavior of an AM60B alloy to predict the turbulence of the melt and the microshrinkage formation. The results reveal how a correct design of the trap in the runners prevents the backwave of molten metal, which could eventually reverse out and enter the die cavity. The tapered runner in the optimized die configuration gently leads the molten metal to the ingate, avoiding turbulence and producing a balanced die cavity filling. The connection between the runner system and the die cavity by means of a fan ingate produces a laminar filling in contrast with a finger-type ingate. Solidification defects such as shrinkage-induced microporosity, numerically predicted through a dimensionless version of the Niyama criterion, are considerably reduced in the optimized permanent Step mold.

Timelli, Giulio; Capuzzi, Stefano; Bonollo, Franco

2015-02-01

140

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystem models have been widely used to simulate carbon, water and energy fluxes and climate-ecosystem interactions. In these models, some vegetation and soil parameters are determined based on limited studies from literatures without consideration of their seasonal variations. Data assimilation (DA) provides an effective way to optimize these parameters at different time scales . In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is developed and applied to optimize two key parameters of an ecosystem model, namely the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS): (1) the maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax) at 25 °C, and (2) the soil water stress factor (fw) for stomatal conductance formulation. These parameters are optimized through assimilating observations of gross primary productivity (GPP) and latent heat (LE) fluxes measured in a 74 year-old pine forest, which is part of the Turkey Point Flux Station's age-sequence sites. Vcmax is related to leaf nitrogen concentration and varies slowly over the season and from year to year. In contrast, fw varies rapidly in response to soil moisture dynamics in the root-zone. Earlier studies suggested that DA of vegetation parameters at daily time steps leads to Vcmax values that are unrealistic. To overcome the problem, we developed a three-step scheme to optimize Vcmax and fw. First, the EnKF is applied daily to obtain precursor estimates of Vcmax and fw. Then Vcmax is optimized at different time scales assuming fw is unchanged from first step. The best temporal period or window size is then determined by analyzing the magnitude of the minimized cost-function, and the coefficient of determination (R2) and Root-mean-square deviation (RMSE) of GPP and LE between simulation and observation. Finally, the daily fw value is optimized for rain free days corresponding to the Vcmax curve from the best window size. The optimized fw is then used to model its relationship with soil moisture. We found that the optimized fw is best correlated linearly to soil water content at 5 to 10 cm depth. We also found that both the temporal scale or window size and the priori uncertainty of Vcmax (given as its standard deviation) are important in determining the seasonal trajectory of Vcmax. During the leaf expansion stage, an appropriate window size leads to reasonable estimate of Vcmax. In the summer, the fluctuation of optimized Vcmax is mainly caused by the uncertainties in Vcmax but not the window size. Our study suggests that a smooth Vcmax curve optimized from an optimal time window size is close to the reality though the RMSE of GPP at this window is not the minimum. It also suggests that for the accurate optimization of Vcmax, it is necessary to set appropriate levels of uncertainty of Vcmax in the spring and summer because the rate of leaf nitrogen concentration change is different over the season. Parameter optimizations for more sites and multi-years are in progress.

He, L.; Chen, J. M.; Liu, J.; Mo, G.; Zhen, T.; Chen, B.; Wang, R.; Arain, M.

2013-12-01

141

Optimal Design of CSD Coefficient FIR Filters Subject to Number of Nonzero Digits

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a hardware implementation of FIR(Finite Impulse Response) digital filters, it is desired to reduce a total number of nonzero digits used for a representation of filter coefficients. In general, a design problem of FIR filters with CSD(Canonic Signed Digit) representation, which is efficient one for the reduction of numbers of multiplier units, is often considered as one of the 0-1 combinational problems. In such the problem, some difficult constraints make us prevent to linearize the problem. Although many kinds of heuristic approaches have been applied to solve the problem, the solution obtained by such a manner could not guarantee its optimality. In this paper, we attempt to formulate the design problem as the 0-1 mixed integer linear programming problem and solve it by using the branch and bound technique, which is a powerful method for solving integer programming problem. Several design examples are shown to present an efficient performance of the proposed method.

Ozaki, Yuichi; Suyama, Kenji

142

Design of FIR Filters with Discrete Coefficients using Ant Colony Optimization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new design method for linear phase FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters with discrete coefficients. In a hardware implementation, filter coefficients must be represented as discrete values. The design problem of digital filters with discrete coefficients is formulated as the integer programming problem. Then, an enormous amount of computational time is required to solve the problem in a strict solver. Recently, ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) which is one heuristic approach, is used widely for solving combinational problem like the traveling salesman problem. In our method, we formulate the design problem as the 0-1 integer programming problem and solve it by using the ACO. Several design examples are shown to present effectiveness of the proposed method.

Tsutsumi, Shuntaro; Suyama, Kenji

143

Splitting of speech into two using time-varying comb filters has helped in reducing the effect of increased temporal and spectral masking simultaneously. The time varying comb filters contained pre-calculated sets of coefficients, which were selected in steps, such that a cyclic sweeping of magnitude responses occur. Presently the investigation has been carried out to find the best sweep cycle. The

Alice N. Cheeran; Prem C. Pandey

2002-01-01

144

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel millimeter-wave ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) based on microstrip dual-mode rectangular ring resonators. In order to get strong coupling between the input/output line and the dual-mode ring resonators, a step-impedance parallel-coupled structure is adopted for the design of the filter. On the other hand, transmission zeros are produced by the dual-mode resonator. As a consequence, the filter has low insertion-loss in its passband, sharp attenuation in its lower and upper stopbands and very wide stopbands. As an example, a filter with two dual-mode ring resonators is designed and fabricated. The measured frequency property of the fabricated filter shows good agreement with the simulated response.

Cai, Peng; Ma, Zhewang; Kanzaki, Hitoshi; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Bin

2009-05-01

145

This paper reports a compact bandpass filter with improved skirt selectivity using integrated passive device fabrication technology on a GaAs substrate. The structure of the filter consists of electromagnetically coupled meandered-line symmetric stepped-impedance resonators. The strength of the coupling between the resonators is enhanced by using a meandered-line stub-load inside the resonators to improve the selectivity and miniaturize the size of the filter. In addition, the center frequency of the filter can be flexibly controlled by varying degrees of the capacitive coupling between resonator and stub-load. To verify the proposed concept, a protocol bandpass filter with center frequency of 6.53?GHz was designed, fabricated, and measured, with a return loss and insertion loss of 39.1?dB and 1.63?dB. PMID:25386617

Chuluunbaatar, Z.; Wang, C.; Kim, N. Y.

2014-01-01

146

This paper reports a compact bandpass filter with improved skirt selectivity using integrated passive device fabrication technology on a GaAs substrate. The structure of the filter consists of electromagnetically coupled meandered-line symmetric stepped-impedance resonators. The strength of the coupling between the resonators is enhanced by using a meandered-line stub-load inside the resonators to improve the selectivity and miniaturize the size of the filter. In addition, the center frequency of the filter can be flexibly controlled by varying degrees of the capacitive coupling between resonator and stub-load. To verify the proposed concept, a protocol bandpass filter with center frequency of 6.53 GHz was designed, fabricated, and measured, with a return loss and insertion loss of 39.1 dB and 1.63 dB. PMID:25386617

Chuluunbaatar, Z; Wang, C; Kim, N Y

2014-01-01

147

Implicit application of polynomial filters in a k-step Arnoldi method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arnoldi process is a well known technique for approximating a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a general square matrix. Numerical difficulties such as loss of orthogonality and assessment of the numerical quality of the approximations as well as a potential for unbounded growth in storage have limited the applicability of the method. These issues are addressed by fixing the number of steps in the Arnoldi process at a prescribed value k and then treating the residual vector as a function of the initial Arnoldi vector. This starting vector is then updated through an iterative scheme that is designed to force convergence of the residual to zero. The iterative scheme is shown to be a truncation of the standard implicitly shifted QR-iteration for dense problems and it avoids the need to explicitly restart the Arnoldi sequence. The main emphasis of this paper is on the derivation and analysis of this scheme. However, there are obvious ways to exploit parallelism through the matrix-vector operations that comprise the majority of the work in the algorithm. Preliminary computational results are given for a few problems on some parallel and vector computers.

Sorensen, D. C.

1990-01-01

148

All signals, except sine waves, exhibit intrinsic modulations that affect perceptual masking. Reducing the physical intrinsic modulations of a broadband signal does not necessarily have a perceptual impact: auditory filtering can reintroduce modulations. Broadband signals with low intrinsic modulations after auditory filtering have proved difficult to design. To that end, this paper introduces a class of signals termed pulse-spreading harmonic complexes (PSHCs). PSHCs are generated by summing harmonically related components with such a phase that the resulting waveform exhibits pulses equally-spaced within a repetition period. The order of a PSHC determines its pulse rate. Simulations with a gamma-tone filterbank suggest an optimal pulse rate at which, after auditory filtering, the PSHC's intrinsic modulations are lowest. These intrinsic modulations appear to be less than those for broadband pseudo-random (PR) or low-noise (LN) noise. This hypothesis was tested in a modulation-detection experiment involving five modulation rates ranging from 8 to 128?Hz and both broadband and narrowband carriers using PSHCs, PR, and LN noise. PSHC showed the lowest thresholds of all broadband signals. Results imply that optimized PSHCs exhibit less intrinsic modulations after auditory filtering than any other broadband signal previously considered. PMID:25190401

Hilkhuysen, Gaston; Macherey, Olivier

2014-09-01

149

Optimizing binary phase and amplitude filters for PCE, SNR, and discrimination

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Binary phase-only filters (BPOFs) have generated much study because of their implementation on currently available spatial light modulator devices. On polarization-rotating devices such as the magneto-optic spatial light modulator (SLM), it is also possible to encode binary amplitude information into two SLM transmission states, in addition to the binary phase information. This is done by varying the rotation angle of the polarization analyzer following the SLM in the optical train. Through this parameter, a continuum of filters may be designed that span the space of binary phase and amplitude filters (BPAFs) between BPOFs and binary amplitude filters. In this study, we investigate the design of optimal BPAFs for the key correlation characteristics of peak sharpness (through the peak-to-correlation energy (PCE) metric), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and discrimination between in-class and out-of-class images. We present simulation results illustrating improvements obtained over conventional BPOFs, and trade-offs between the different performance criteria in terms of the filter design parameter.

Downie, John D.

1992-01-01

150

Multi-Bandwidth Frequency Selective Surfaces for Near Infrared Filtering: Design and Optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frequency selective surfaces are widely used in the microwave and millimeter wave regions of the spectrum for filtering signals. They are used in telecommunication systems for multi-frequency operation or in instrument detectors for spectroscopy. The frequency selective surface operation depends on a periodic array of elements resonating at prescribed wavelengths producing a filter response. The size of the elements is on the order of half the electrical wavelength, and the array period is typically less than a wavelength for efficient operation. When operating in the optical region, diffraction gratings are used for filtering. In this regime the period of the grating may be several wavelengths producing multiple orders of light in reflection or transmission. In regions between these bands (specifically in the infrared band) frequency selective filters consisting of patterned metal layers fabricated using electron beam lithography are beginning to be developed. The operation is completely analogous to surfaces made in the microwave and millimeter wave region except for the choice of materials used and the fabrication process. In addition, the lithography process allows an arbitrary distribution of patterns corresponding to resonances at various wavelengths to be produced. The design of sub-millimeter filters follows the design methods used in the microwave region. Exacting modal matching, integral equation or finite element methods can be used for design. A major difference though is the introduction of material parameters and thicknesses that may not be important in longer wavelength designs. This paper describes the design of multi- bandwidth filters operating in the 1-5 micrometer wavelength range. This work follows on a previous design. In this paper extensions based on further optimization and an examination of the specific shape of the element in the periodic cell will be reported. Results from the design, manufacture and test of linear wedge filters built using microlithographic techniques and used in spectral imaging applications will be presented.

Cwik, Tom; Fernandez, Salvador; Ksendzov, A.; LaBaw, Clayton C.; Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

1998-01-01

151

Multi-Bandwidth Frequency Selective Surfaces for Near Infrared Filtering: Design and Optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frequency selective surfaces are widely used in the microwave and millimeter wave regions of the spectrum for filtering signals. They are used in telecommunication systems for multi-frequency operation or in instrument detectors for spectroscopy. The frequency selective surface operation depends on a periodic array of elements resonating at prescribed wavelengths producing a filter response. The size of the elements is on the order of half the electrical wavelength, and the array period is typically less than a wavelength for efficient operation. When operating in the optical region, diffraction gratings are used for filtering. In this regime the period of the grating may be several wavelengths producing multiple orders of light in reflection or transmission. In regions between these bands (specifically in the infrared band) frequency selective filters consisting of patterned metal layers fabricated using electron beam lithography are beginning to be developed. The operation is completely analogous to surfaces made in the microwave and millimeter wave region except for the choice of materials used and the fabrication process. In addition, the lithography process allows an arbitrary distribution of patterns corresponding to resonances at various wavelengths to be produced. The design of sub-millimeter filters follows the design methods used in the microwave region. Exacting modal matching, integral equation or finite element methods can be used for design. A major difference though is the introduction of material parameters and thicknesses tha_ may not be important in longer wavelength designs. This paper describes the design of multi-bandwidth filters operating in the I-5 micrometer wavelength range. This work follows on previous design [1,2]. In this paper extensions based on further optimization and an examination of the specific shape of the element in the periodic cell will be reported. Results from the design, manufacture and test of linear wedge filters built using micro-lithographic techniques and used ir spectral imaging applications will be presented.

Cwik, Tom; Fernandez, Salvador; Ksendzov, A.; LaBaw, Clayton C.; Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

1999-01-01

152

Two-dimensional (2D) optimal filter for highly nonstationary 2D signal estimation is developed. It is based on the real-time results of space\\/spatial-fre quency (S\\/SF) analysis, on the correspondence of filter's region of support (FRS) to the signal's local frequency (LF) and on the real time LF estimation algorithm, also proposed in this paper. The filter permits multiple FRS detection in the

Veselin N. Ivanovic; Nevena Radovic; Srdjan Jovanovski

2011-01-01

153

As the use of approximations is often the only way to deal with the optimization of complex structures, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering as a new approach for building global approximations. Basic ideas and procedures of Kalman filters are first recalled. Next, key elements of how to implement the method for design problems are described. Finally, in

E. Lemenager; T. Bouet; V. Braibant

1997-01-01

154

In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (?p), stopband error (?s), transition band error (?t), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. PMID:25034647

Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

2014-07-14

155

This work aimed to inform the design of ceramic pot filters to be manufactured by the organization Pure Home Water (PHW) in Northern Ghana, and to model the flow through an innovative paraboloid-shaped ceramic pot filter. ...

Miller, Travis Reed

2010-01-01

156

Optimal hydrograph separation filter to evaluate transport routines of hydrological models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrograph separation (HS) using recursive digital filter approaches focuses on trying to distinguish between the rapidly occurring discharge components like surface runoff, and the slowly changing discharge originating from interflow and groundwater. Filter approaches are mathematical procedures, which perform the HS using a set of separation parameters. The first goal of this study is an attempt to minimize the subjective influence that a user of the filter technique exerts on the results by the choice of such filter parameters. A simple optimal HS (OHS) technique for the estimation of the separation parameters was introduced, relying on measured stream hydrochemistry. The second goal is to use the OHS parameters to develop a benchmark model that can be used as a geochemical model itself, or to test the performance of process based hydro-geochemical models. The benchmark model quantifies the degree of knowledge that the stream flow time series itself contributes to the hydrochemical analysis. Results of the OHS show that the two HS fractions ("rapid" and "slow") differ according to the geochemical substances which were selected. The OHS parameters were then used to demonstrate how to develop benchmark model for hydro-chemical predictions. Finally, predictions of solute transport from a process-based hydrological model were compared to the proposed benchmark model. Our results indicate that the benchmark model illustrated and quantified the contribution of the modeling procedure better than only using traditional measures like r2 or the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency.

Rimmer, Alon; Hartmann, Andreas

2014-05-01

157

Towards optimal explicit time-stepping schemes for the gyrokinetic equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear gyrokinetic equations describe plasma turbulence in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. To solve these equations, massively parallel codes have been developed and run on present-day supercomputers. This paper describes measures to improve the efficiency of such computations, thereby making them more realistic. Explicit Runge-Kutta schemes are considered to be well suited for time-stepping. Although the numerical algorithms are often highly optimized, performance can still be improved by a suitable choice of the time-stepping scheme, based on the spectral analysis of the underlying operator. Here, an operator splitting technique is introduced to combine first-order Runge-Kutta-Chebychev schemes for the collision term with fourth-order schemes for the remaining terms. In the nonlinear regime, based on the observation of eigenvalue shifts due to the (generalized) E×B advection term, an accurate and robust estimate for the nonlinear timestep is developed. The presented techniques can reduce simulation times by factors of up to three in realistic cases. This substantial speedup encourages the use of similar timestep optimized explicit schemes not only for the gyrokinetic equation, but also for other applications with comparable properties.

Doerk, H.; Jenko, F.

2014-07-01

158

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bi-objective optimization problem with Lipschitz objective functions is considered. An algorithm is developed adapting a univariate one-step optimal algorithm to multidimensional problems. The univariate algorithm considered is a worst-case optimal algorithm for Lipschitz functions. The multidimensional algorithm is based on the branch-and-bound approach and trisection of hyper-rectangles which cover the feasible region. The univariate algorithm is used to compute the Lipschitz bounds for the Pareto front. Some numerical examples are included.

Žilinskas, Antanas; Žilinskas, Julius

2015-04-01

159

Kalman-Filter Observer Design around Optimal Control Policy for Gas Pipelines

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seeking the optimal operating policy by an off-line controller for pipelines carrying natural gas has an inherent state estimation problem associated with deviations from demand forecast. This paper presents a Kalman-filter-based observer for the real-time estimation of deviations from the states previously obtained by an off-line controller optimally, around an expected demand function. The observer is based on the linearized form of the non-linear partial differential equations which are the state space representation of isothermal and unidirectional gas flow through a pipeline. Data for the observer are produced by a dynamic simulator. The simulator and linearized observer equations are solved using an implicit finite element method. The observer has been tested on a pipeline subject to certain deviations from demand forecast. It converge s in a short span of time.

Durgut, Smal; Leblebcolu, Kemal

1997-01-01

160

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose an ultra compact single-layer spurious suppression band pass filter design which has the following benefit: 1) Effective coupling area can be increased with no fabrication limitation and no effect on the spurious response; 2) Two fundamental poles are introduced to suppress spurs; 3) Filter can be designed with up to 30% bandwidth; 4) The Filter length is reduced by at least 100% when compared to the conventional filter; 5) Spurious modes are suppressed up to at the seven times the fundamental frequency; and 6) It uses only one layer of metallization which minimize the fabrication cost.

U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Ed; Papapolymerou, John; Laskar, Joy

2005-01-01

161

Optimization of a One-Step Heat-Inducible In Vivo Mini DNA Vector Production System

While safer than their viral counterparts, conventional circular covalently closed (CCC) plasmid DNA vectors offer a limited safety profile. They often result in the transfer of unwanted prokaryotic sequences, antibiotic resistance genes, and bacterial origins of replication that may lead to unwanted immunostimulatory responses. Furthermore, such vectors may impart the potential for chromosomal integration, thus potentiating oncogenesis. Linear covalently closed (LCC), bacterial sequence free DNA vectors have shown promising clinical improvements in vitro and in vivo. However, the generation of such minivectors has been limited by in vitro enzymatic reactions hindering their downstream application in clinical trials. We previously characterized an in vivo temperature-inducible expression system, governed by the phage ? pL promoter and regulated by the thermolabile ? CI[Ts]857 repressor to produce recombinant protelomerase enzymes in E. coli. In this expression system, induction of recombinant protelomerase was achieved by increasing culture temperature above the 37°C threshold temperature. Overexpression of protelomerase led to enzymatic reactions, acting on genetically engineered multi-target sites called “Super Sequences” that serve to convert conventional CCC plasmid DNA into LCC DNA minivectors. Temperature up-shift, however, can result in intracellular stress responses and may alter plasmid replication rates; both of which may be detrimental to LCC minivector production. We sought to optimize our one-step in vivo DNA minivector production system under various induction schedules in combination with genetic modifications influencing plasmid replication, processing rates, and cellular heat stress responses. We assessed different culture growth techniques, growth media compositions, heat induction scheduling and temperature, induction duration, post-induction temperature, and E. coli genetic background to improve the productivity and scalability of our system, achieving an overall LCC DNA minivector production efficiency of ?90%.We optimized a robust technology conferring rapid, scalable, one-step in vivo production of LCC DNA minivectors with potential application to gene transfer-mediated therapeutics. PMID:24586704

Wettig, Shawn; Slavcev, Roderick A.

2014-01-01

162

Optimization of a one-step heat-inducible in vivo mini DNA vector production system.

While safer than their viral counterparts, conventional circular covalently closed (CCC) plasmid DNA vectors offer a limited safety profile. They often result in the transfer of unwanted prokaryotic sequences, antibiotic resistance genes, and bacterial origins of replication that may lead to unwanted immunostimulatory responses. Furthermore, such vectors may impart the potential for chromosomal integration, thus potentiating oncogenesis. Linear covalently closed (LCC), bacterial sequence free DNA vectors have shown promising clinical improvements in vitro and in vivo. However, the generation of such minivectors has been limited by in vitro enzymatic reactions hindering their downstream application in clinical trials. We previously characterized an in vivo temperature-inducible expression system, governed by the phage ? pL promoter and regulated by the thermolabile ? CI[Ts]857 repressor to produce recombinant protelomerase enzymes in E. coli. In this expression system, induction of recombinant protelomerase was achieved by increasing culture temperature above the 37°C threshold temperature. Overexpression of protelomerase led to enzymatic reactions, acting on genetically engineered multi-target sites called "Super Sequences" that serve to convert conventional CCC plasmid DNA into LCC DNA minivectors. Temperature up-shift, however, can result in intracellular stress responses and may alter plasmid replication rates; both of which may be detrimental to LCC minivector production. We sought to optimize our one-step in vivo DNA minivector production system under various induction schedules in combination with genetic modifications influencing plasmid replication, processing rates, and cellular heat stress responses. We assessed different culture growth techniques, growth media compositions, heat induction scheduling and temperature, induction duration, post-induction temperature, and E. coli genetic background to improve the productivity and scalability of our system, achieving an overall LCC DNA minivector production efficiency of ? 90%.We optimized a robust technology conferring rapid, scalable, one-step in vivo production of LCC DNA minivectors with potential application to gene transfer-mediated therapeutics. PMID:24586704

Nafissi, Nafiseh; Sum, Chi Hong; Wettig, Shawn; Slavcev, Roderick A

2014-01-01

163

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved aerodynamics performance of a turbine cascade shape can be achieved by an understanding of the flow-field associated with the stator-rotor interaction. In this research, an axial gas turbine airfoil cascade shape is optimized for improved aerodynamic performance by using an unsteady Navier-Stokes solver and a parallel genetic algorithm. The objective of the research is twofold: (1) to develop a computational fluid dynamics code having faster convergence rate and unsteady flow simulation capabilities, and (2) to optimize a turbine airfoil cascade shape with unsteady passing wakes for improved aerodynamic performance. The computer code solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. It is based on the explicit, finite difference, Runge-Kutta time marching scheme and the Diagonalized Alternating Direction Implicit (DADI) scheme, with the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic and k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Improvements in the code focused on the cascade shape design capability, convergence acceleration and unsteady formulation. First, the inverse shape design method was implemented in the code to provide the design capability, where a surface transpiration concept was employed as an inverse technique to modify the geometry satisfying the user specified pressure distribution on the airfoil surface. Second, an approximation storage multigrid method was implemented as an acceleration technique. Third, the preconditioning method was adopted to speed up the convergence rate in solving the low Mach number flows. Finally, the implicit dual time stepping method was incorporated in order to simulate the unsteady flow-fields. For the unsteady code validation, the Stokes's 2nd problem and the Poiseuille flow were chosen and compared with the computed results and analytic solutions. To test the code's ability to capture the natural unsteady flow phenomena, vortex shedding past a cylinder and the shock oscillation over a bicircular airfoil were simulated and compared with experiments and other research results. The rotor cascade shape optimization with unsteady passing wakes was performed to obtain an improved aerodynamic performance using the unsteady Navier-Stokes solver. Two objective functions were defined as minimization of total pressure loss and maximization of lift, while the mass flow rate was fixed. A parallel genetic algorithm was used as an optimizer and the penalty method was introduced. Each individual's objective function was computed simultaneously by using a 32 processor distributed memory computer. One optimization took about four days.

Lee, Eun Seok

2000-10-01

164

This paper presents a symmetric-type microstrip triple-band bandstop filter incorporating a tri-section meandered-line stepped impedance resonator (SIR). The length of each section of the meandered line is 0.16, 0.15, and 0.83 times the guided wavelength (?g), so that the filter features three stop bands at 2.59?GHz, 6.88?GHz, and 10.67?GHz, respectively. Two symmetric SIRs are employed with a microstrip transmission line to obtain wide bandwidths of 1.12, 1.34, and 0.89?GHz at the corresponding stop bands. Furthermore, an equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is developed, and the model matches the electromagnetic simulations well. The return losses of the fabricated filter are measured to be ?29.90?dB, ?28.29?dB, and ?26.66?dB while the insertion losses are 0.40?dB, 0.90?dB, and 1.10?dB at the respective stop bands. A drastic reduction in the size of the filter was achieved by using a simplified architecture based on a meandered-line SIR. PMID:24319367

Kim, Nam-Young

2013-01-01

165

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general sequential Monte Carlo method, particularly a general particle filter, attracts much attention in prognostics recently because it is able to on-line estimate posterior probability density functions of the state functions used in a state space model without making restrictive assumptions. In this paper, the general particle filter is introduced to optimize a wavelet filter for extracting bearing fault features. The major innovation of this paper is that a joint posterior probability density function of wavelet parameters is represented by a set of random particles with their associated weights, which is seldom reported. Once the joint posterior probability density function of wavelet parameters is derived, the approximately optimal center frequency and bandwidth can be determined and be used to perform an optimal wavelet filtering for extracting bearing fault features. Two case studies are investigated to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method provides a Bayesian approach to extract bearing fault features. Additionally, the proposed method can be generalized by using different wavelet functions and metrics and be applied more widely to any other situation in which the optimal wavelet filtering is required.

Wang, Dong; Sun, Shilong; Tse, Peter W.

2015-02-01

166

Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman-Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An emerging approach in the field of aircraft engine controls and system health management is the inclusion of real-time, onboard models for the inflight estimation of engine performance variations. This technology, typically based on Kalman-filter concepts, enables the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters that can be directly utilized by controls, prognostics, and health-management applications. A challenge that complicates this practice is the fact that an aircraft engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. Through Kalman-filter-based estimation techniques, the level of engine performance degradation can be estimated, given that there are at least as many sensors as health parameters to be estimated. However, in an aircraft engine, the number of sensors available is typically less than the number of health parameters, presenting an under-determined estimation problem. A common approach to address this shortcoming is to estimate a subset of the health parameters, referred to as model tuning parameters. The problem/objective is to optimally select the model tuning parameters to minimize Kalman-filterbased estimation error. A tuner selection technique has been developed that specifically addresses the under-determined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine that seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error of the Kalman filter. This approach can significantly reduce the error in onboard aircraft engine parameter estimation applications such as model-based diagnostic, controls, and life usage calculations. The advantage of the innovation is the significant reduction in estimation errors that it can provide relative to the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the model tuning parameter vector. Because this technique needs only to be performed during the system design process, it places no additional computation burden on the onboard Kalman filter implementation. The technique has been developed for aircraft engine onboard estimation applications, as this application typically presents an under-determined estimation problem. However, this generic technique could be applied to other industries using gas turbine engine technology.

Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

2011-01-01

167

The availability of microcomputer-based portable devices facilitates the high-volume multichannel biosignal acquisition and the analysis of their instantaneous oscillations and inter-signal temporal correlations. These new, non-invasively obtained parameters can have considerable prognostic or diagnostic roles. The present study investigates the inherent signal delay of the obligatory anti-aliasing filters. One cycle of each of the 8 electrocardiogram (ECG) and 4 photoplethysmogram signals from healthy volunteers or artificially synthesised series were passed through 100-80-60-40-20?Hz 2-4-6-8th order Bessel and Butterworth filters digitally synthesized by bilinear transformation, that resulted in a negligible error in signal delay compared to the mathematical model of the impulse- and step responses of the filters. The investigated filters have as diverse a signal delay as 2-46?ms depending on the filter parameters and the signal slew rate, which is difficult to predict in biological systems and thus difficult to compensate for. Its magnitude can be comparable to the examined phase shifts, deteriorating the accuracy of the measurement. As a conclusion, identical or very similar anti-aliasing filters with lower orders and higher corner frequencies, oversampling, and digital low pass filtering are recommended for biosignal acquisition intended for inter-signal phase shift analysis. PMID:25514627

Keresnyei, Róbert; Megyeri, Péter; Zidarics, Zoltán; Hejjel, László

2015-01-01

168

Iterative Informed Audio Data Hiding Scheme Using Optimal Filter Alejandro LoboGuerrero, Patrick.bas@lis.inpg.fr,joel.lienard@lis.inpg.fr Abstract- Audio watermarking is a method that allows the insertion of an imperceptible mark on an audio, the audio data set represents the host that supports the embedded information and it is considered as "noise

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de

169

Analysis of the rate-limiting step of an anaerobic biotrickling filter removing Sudeep C. Popat a

of attainable performance are not known. For example, reports on H2S removal in biological reactors show a vast of H2S in biotrickling filters. This paved the way for the development of high performance biotrickling of the pollutant, pollutant diffusion within the biofilm and pollutant biodegradation in the biofilm. The majority

170

Optimization by decomposition: A step from hierarchic to non-hierarchic systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new, non-hierarchic decomposition is formulated for system optimization that uses system analysis, system sensitivity analysis, temporary decoupled optimizations performed in the design subspaces corresponding to the disciplines and subsystems, and a coordination optimization concerned with the redistribution of responsibility for the constraint satisfaction and design trades among the disciplines and subsystems. The approach amounts to a variation of the well-known method of subspace optimization modified so that the analysis of the entire system is eliminated from the subspace optimization and the subspace optimizations may be performed concurrently.

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

1988-01-01

171

Hybrid Kalman\\/H?filter in designing optimal navigation of vehicle in PRT System

PRT( Personal Rapid Transit ) system is a automated operation, so that it is important exactly finding position of vehicle. Many of PRT system has accepted the GPS system for a position, speed, and direction. in this paper, we propose a combination of Kalman Filter and H? Filter known as Hybrid Kalman\\/ H? Filter for applying to GPS navigation algorithm.

Hyunsoo Kim; Hoang Hieu Nguyen; Phi Long Nguyen; Han Sil Kim; Young Hwan Jang; Myungseon Ryu; Changho Choi

2007-01-01

172

Optimization by decomposition: A step from hierarchic to non-hierarchic systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new, non-hierarchic decomposition is formulated for system optimization that uses system analysis, system sensitivity analysis, temporary decoupled optimizations performed in the design subspaces corresponding to the disciplines and subsystems, and a coordination optimization concerned with the redistribution of responsibility for the constraint satisfaction and design trades among the disciplines and subsystems, and a coordination optimization concerned with the redistribution of responsibility for the constraint satisfaction and design trades among the disciplines and subsystems. The approach amounts to a variation of the well-known method of subspace optimization modified so that the analysis of the entire system is eliminated from the subspace optimization and the subspace optimizations may be performed concurrently.

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

1989-01-01

173

QuickQuan is an integrated software package for Thermo Scientific triple quadrupole mass spectrometers that allows users to automate routine operations ranging from method development to data processing. QuickQuan automated optimization of compound-selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions by evaluating both positive and negative polarities during an infusion. Whichever mode produces the most intense Q1 scan is then carried to product ion spectra. QuickQuan then writes these SRM methods to a shared network database. The total volume of compound needed is 100 microL infused over approximately 1.6 min. The auto-optimization is carried out in 96-well plates and does not require an operator present. The SRM database was shared between two identical TSQ Quantum mass spectrometers. For data acquisition, QuickQuan automatically created a sequence file complete with a data processing method pre-populated with compound IDs and corresponding SRM transitions. To increase throughput we coupled each Finnigan Quantum with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (uHPLC) accomplished using 4x Ultra Flux quaternary pumps that were designed to handle pressures up to 15 000 psi. The total run time for all analyses was 1.2 min using BEH 1.7 microm particle C18 columns. Further time reductions were realized with sample preparation accomplished using Strata Impact protein precipitation plates which provided an in-well protein crash and 0.20 micron filtering in a one-step process. Pharmacokinetic data turnaround time was significantly improved by combining these three techniques of automated method development with the speed efficiency of uHPLC and a single step in well sample preparation. PMID:19813283

Smalley, James; Xin, Baomin; Olah, Timothy V

2009-11-01

174

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends upon knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined which accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2005-01-01

175

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least-squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2007-01-01

176

An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine's performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

Litt, Jonathan S.

2007-01-01

177

Matched filter optimization of kSZ measurements with a reconstructed cosmological flow field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and test a new statistical method to measure the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect. A sample of independently detected clusters is combined with the cosmic flow field predicted from a galaxy redshift survey in order to derive a matched filter that optimally weights the kSZ signal for the sample as a whole given the noise involved in the problem. We apply this formalism to realistic mock microwave skies based on cosmological N-body simulations, and demonstrate its robustness and performance. In particular, we carefully assess the various sources of uncertainty, cosmic microwave background primary fluctuations, instrumental noise, uncertainties in the determination of the velocity field, and effects introduced by miscentring of clusters and by uncertainties of the mass-observable relation (normalization and scatter). We show that available data (Planck maps and the MaxBCG catalogue) should deliver a 7.7? detection of the kSZ. A similar cluster catalogue with broader sky coverage should increase the detection significance to 13?. We point out that such measurements could be binned in order to study the properties of the cosmic gas and velocity fields, or combined into a single measurement to constrain cosmological parameters or deviations of the law of gravity from General Relativity.

Li, Ming; Angulo, R. E.; White, S. D. M.; Jasche, J.

2014-09-01

178

Selection of plants for optimization of vegetative filter strips treating runoff from turfgrass.

Runoff from turf environments, such as golf courses, is of increasing concern due to the associated chemical contamination of lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and ground water. Pesticide runoff due to fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides used to maintain golf courses in acceptable playing condition is a particular concern. One possible approach to mitigate such contamination is through the implementation of effective vegetative filter strips (VFS) on golf courses and other recreational turf environments. The objective of the current study was to screen ten aesthetically acceptable plant species for their ability to remove four commonly-used and degradable pesticides: chlorpyrifos (CP), chlorothalonil (CT), pendimethalin (PE), and propiconazole (PR) from soil in a greenhouse setting, thus providing invaluable information as to the species composition that would be most efficacious for use in VFS surrounding turf environments. Our results revealed that blue flag iris (Iris versicolor) (76% CP, 94% CT, 48% PE, and 33% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), eastern gama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides) (47% CP, 95% CT, 17% PE, and 22% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), and big blue stem (Andropogon gerardii) (52% CP, 91% CT, 19% PE, and 30% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth) were excellent candidates for the optimization of VFS as buffer zones abutting turf environments. Blue flag iris was most effective at removing selected pesticides from soil and had the highest aesthetic value of the plants tested. PMID:18689747

Smith, Katy E; Putnam, Raymond A; Phaneuf, Clifford; Lanza, Guy R; Dhankher, Om P; Clark, John M

2008-01-01

179

Industrial-scale filter dryers, equipped with one or more microwave input ports, have been modelled with the aim of detecting existing criticalities, proposing possible solutions and optimizing the overall system efficiency and treatment homogeneity. Three different loading conditions have been simulated, namely the empty applicator, the applicator partially loaded by both a high-loss and low loss load whose dielectric properties correspond to the one measured on real products. Modeling results allowed for the implementation of improvements to the original design such as the insertion of a wave guide transition and a properly designed pressure window, modification of the microwave inlet's position and orientation, alteration of the nozzles' geometry and distribution, and changing of the cleaning metallic torus dimensions and position. Experimental testing on representative loads, as well as in production sites, allowed for the confirmation of the validity of the implemented improvements, thus showing how numerical simulation can assist the designer in removing critical features and improving equipment performances when moving from conventional heating to hybrid microwave-assisted processing. PMID:18350999

Leonelli, Cristina; Veronesi, Paolo; Grisoni, Fabio

2007-01-01

180

Time-domain technique for optimal design of digital-filter equalizers.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is presented for the design of frequency-sampling and transversal digital filters from specified unit-impulse responses. The multiplier coefficients for the digital filter are specified by the use of a linear-programming algorithm. Examples include the design of digital filters to generate intersymbol-free pulses for data transmission over ideal bandlimited channels and to equalize data transmission channels that have known unit-impulse responses.

Burlage, D. W.; Houts, R. C.

1972-01-01

181

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem is an optimization problem with an objective to determine the optimal combination of power outputs for all generating units over a certain period of time in order to minimize the total fuel cost while satisfying dynamic operational constraints and load demand in each interval. Recently social foraging behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria has been explored to develop a novel algorithm for distributed optimization and control. The Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) is currently gaining popularity in the community of researchers, for its effectiveness in solving certain difficult real-world optimization problems. This article comes up with a hybrid approach involving Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and BFO algorithms with varying chemo tactic step size for solving the DED problem of generating units considering valve-point effects. The proposed hybrid algorithm has been extensively compared with those methods reported in the literature. The new method is shown to be statistically significantly better on two test systems consisting of five and ten generating units.

Praveena, P.; Vaisakh, K.; Rama Mohana Rao, S.

182

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design of experiment (DOE) was implemented to show the effects of various point of use filters on the coat process. The DOE takes into account the filter media, pore size, and pumping means, such as dispense pressure, time, and spin speed. The coating was executed on a TEL Mark 8 coat track, with an IDI M450 pump, and PALL 16 stack Falcon filters. A KLA 2112 set at 0.69 ?m pixel size was used to scan the wafers to detect and identify the defects. The process found for DUV42P to maintain a low defect coating irrespective of the filter or pore size is a high start pressure, low end pressure, low dispense time, and high dispense speed. The IDI M450 pump has the capability to compensate for bubble type defects by venting the defects out of the filter before the defects are in the dispense line and the variable dispense rate allows the material in the dispense line to slow down at the end of dispense and not create microbubbles in the dispense line or tip. Also the differential pressure sensor will alarm if the pressure differential across the filter increases over a user-determined setpoint. The pleat design allows more surface area in the same footprint to reduce the differential pressure across the filter and transport defects to the vent tube. The correct low defect coating process will maximize the advantage of reducing filter pore size or changing the filter media.

Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Kidd, Brian; Mesawich, Michael; Stevens, Don, Jr.; Gotlinsky, Barry

2003-06-01

183

Influence of CO2 observations on the optimized CO2 flux in an ensemble Kalman filter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of CO2 observations on an analysis of surface CO2 flux was calculated using an influence matrix in the CarbonTracker, which is an inverse modeling system for estimating surface CO2 flux based on an ensemble Kalman filter. The influence matrix represents a sensitivity of the analysis to observations. The experimental period was from January 2000 to December 2009. The diagonal element of the influence matrix (i.e., analysis sensitivity) is globally 4.8% on average, which implies that the analysis extracts 4.8% of the information from the observations and 95.2% from the background each assimilation cycle. Because the surface CO2 flux in each week is optimized by 5 weeks of observations, the cumulative impact over 5 weeks is 19.1%, much greater than 4.8%. The analysis sensitivity is inversely proportional to the number of observations used in the assimilation, which is distinctly apparent in continuous observation categories with a sufficient number of observations. The time series of the globally averaged analysis sensitivities shows seasonal variations, with greater sensitivities in summer and lower sensitivities in winter, which is attributed to the surface CO2 flux uncertainty. The time-averaged analysis sensitivities in the Northern Hemisphere are greater than those in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. The trace of the influence matrix (i.e., information content) is a measure of the total information extracted from the observations. The information content indicates an imbalance between the observation coverage in North America and that in other regions. Approximately half of the total observational information is provided by continuous observations, mainly from North America, which indicates that continuous observations are the most informative and that comprehensive coverage of additional observations in other regions is necessary to estimate the surface CO2 flux in these areas as accurately as in North America.

Kim, J.; Kim, H. M.; Cho, C.-H.

2014-12-01

184

The purpose of this report is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of renal vein inflow and filter position on unoccluded and partially occluded IVC filters using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Three-dimensional models of the TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters, spherical thrombi, and an IVC with renal veins were constructed. Hemodynamics of steady-state flow was examined for unoccluded and partially occluded TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters in varying proximity to the renal veins. Flow past the unoccluded filters demonstrated minimal disruption. Natural regions of stagnant/recirculating flow in the IVC are observed superior to the bilateral renal vein inflows, and high flow velocities and elevated shear stresses are observed in the vicinity of renal inflow. Spherical thrombi induce stagnant and/or recirculating flow downstream of the thrombus. Placement of the TrapEase filter in the suprarenal vein position resulted in a large area of low shear stress/stagnant flow within the filter just downstream of thrombus trapped in the upstream trapping position. Filter position with respect to renal vein inflow influences the hemodynamics of filter trapping. Placement of the TrapEase filter in a suprarenal location may be thrombogenic with redundant areas of stagnant/recirculating flow and low shear stress along the caval wall due to the upstream trapping position and the naturally occurring region of stagnant flow from the renal veins. Infrarenal vein placement of IVC filters in a near juxtarenal position with the downstream cone near the renal vein inflow likely confers increased levels of mechanical lysis of trapped thrombi due to increased shear stress from renal vein inflow.

Wang, S L; Singer, M A

2009-07-13

185

with little research attention. In this work we present simulation and optimization models for improving patient and resource scheduling in health care specialty clinics such as nuclear medicine departments. We rst derive a discrete event system speci cation...

Perez Roman, Eduardo

2011-08-08

186

Optimal conditions for the screening of cervical scrapes for human papillomavirus (HPV) were investigated by using filter in situ hybridization. Since integrated and episomal HPV can be found, cell lines containing viral DNA in an integrated form (HPV in CaSki) or in an episomal state (BK virus-induced hamster tumor cells) were used for optimization experiments. An increase in sensitivity was achieved by alkaline denaturation and neutralization before the specimens were spotted onto the membrane. This increase was 5-fold for the episomal virus and 16-fold for the integrated virus in the model system, as compared with other methods. To evaluate this method on clinical material, 1,963 cervical scrapes were screened for the presence of HPV 6/11 and HPV 16. Nineteen scrapes were positive for HPV 6/11 or HPV 16; and in 1,810 scrapes, no HPV 6/11 or HPV 16 could be detected by the modified filter in situ hybridization technique. Scrapes from which the interpretation of the modified filter in situ hybridization results were equivocal (n = 71, 3.6%) or in which positivity was detected for both HPV 6/11 and HPV 16 (n = 63, 3.2%) were further analyzed by the DNA dot spot technique. Eight scrapes with an equivocal result and only one scrape showing a double positivity by the modified filter in situ hybridization technique could be confirmed in the dot spot assay. In the total group 12 scrapes were positive for HPV 6/11 DNA, 15 were positive for HPV 16 DNA, and 1 was positive for both HPV 6/11 and HPV 16 DNA. Southern blot analysis on modified filter in situ hybridization-positive and -negative scrapes revealed a 100% correlation. Images PMID:2536384

Melchers, W J; Herbrink, P; Walboomers, J M; Meijer, C J; vd Drift, H; Lindeman, J; Quint, W G

1989-01-01

187

Optimal conditions for the screening of cervical scrapes for human papillomavirus (HPV) were investigated by using filter in situ hybridization. Since integrated and episomal HPV can be found, cell lines containing viral DNA in an integrated form (HPV in CaSki) or in an episomal state (BK virus-induced hamster tumor cells) were used for optimization experiments. An increase in sensitivity was achieved by alkaline denaturation and neutralization before the specimens were spotted onto the membrane. This increase was 5-fold for the episomal virus and 16-fold for the integrated virus in the model system, as compared with other methods. To evaluate this method on clinical material, 1,963 cervical scrapes were screened for the presence of HPV 6/11 and HPV 16. Nineteen scrapes were positive for HPV 6/11 or HPV 16; and in 1,810 scrapes, no HPV 6/11 or HPV 16 could be detected by the modified filter in situ hybridization technique. Scrapes from which the interpretation of the modified filter in situ hybridization results were equivocal (n = 71, 3.6%) or in which positivity was detected for both HPV 6/11 and HPV 16 (n = 63, 3.2%) were further analyzed by the DNA dot spot technique. Eight scrapes with an equivocal result and only one scrape showing a double positivity by the modified filter in situ hybridization technique could be confirmed in the dot spot assay. In the total group 12 scrapes were positive for HPV 6/11 DNA, 15 were positive for HPV 16 DNA, and 1 was positive for both HPV 6/11 and HPV 16 DNA. Southern blot analysis on modified filter in situ hybridization-positive and -negative scrapes revealed a 100% correlation. PMID:2536384

Melchers, W J; Herbrink, P; Walboomers, J M; Meijer, C J; vd Drift, H; Lindeman, J; Quint, W G

1989-01-01

188

Optimization of the extended terminal subfluidization wash (ETSW) filter backwashing procedure

The increased passage of particles and microorganisms through granular media filters immediately following backwashing is a common problem known to the water treatment community as filter “ripening” or maturation. While several strategies have been developed over the years to reduce the impact of this vulnerable period of the filtration cycle on finished water quality, this research involves a recently developed

James E. Amburgey

2005-01-01

189

Optimal filter design approaches to statistical process control for autocorrelated processes

reduces to a third-order filter on x t without a prefilter. The ARMA(1,1) chart of Jiang et al. (2000) is a first-order filter on x t with no prefilter. With the whitening prefilter, therefore, the dynamic structure of control charts can...

Chin, Chang-Ho

2005-11-01

190

Full wave optimization of stripline tapped-in ridge waveguide bandpass filters

A bandpass ridge waveguide filter, with input\\/output realized through tapped-in stripline is designed. Using rigorous mode matching technique the generalized scattering matrices of all the building blocks can be obtained. Design procedure is described and examples are given to demonstrate the features of the proposed coupling structure. The proposed structure shows a considerable reduction of the filter's total length

M. A. El Sabbagh; Heng-Tung Hsu; K. A. Zaki; P. Pramanick; T. Dolan

2002-01-01

191

Error control coding of television signals by multidimensional filtering

The design of image prefilters for error control is considered and seen to be dual to the well-known problem of designing anti-aliasing filters for signal decimation. Filters formed from unitary transforms are seen to yield computationally efficient two-step implementations obtained by orthogonal decomposition. Filters which perform optimally in the presence of background noise are introduced and seen to require only

1991-01-01

192

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel notch-filtering scheme for bit-rate transparent all-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format conversion. The scheme is based on a two-degree-of-freedom optimally designed fiber Bragg grating. It is shown that a notch filter optimized for any specific operating bit rate can be used to realize high-Q-factor format conversion over a wide bit rate range without requiring any tuning.

Cao, Hui; Shu, Xuewen; Atai, Javid; Zuo, Jun; Xiong, Bangyun; Shen, Fangcheng; Liu, xin; Cheng, Jianqun

2015-02-01

193

Fast aggregating control of swarm system with single-step optimization

In this paper, we study the aggregating problem of swarm system with guaranteed connectivity in 2-dimensional environment, and propose an individual-based swarm model composed of the state information about the individual's farthest neighbors. In our approach, we formulate the following two steps at each time as distributed control strategy: (1) determining several available positions for every individual; (2) selecting the

Shiming Chen

2010-01-01

194

We describe two enhancements of the planar bilayer recording method which enable low-noise recordings of single-channel currents activated by voltage steps in planar bilayers formed on apertures in partitions separating two open chambers. First, we have refined a simple and effective procedure for making small bilayer apertures (25-80 micrograms diam) in plastic cups. These apertures combine the favorable properties of very thin edges, good mechanical strength, and low stray capacitance. In addition to enabling formation of small, low-capacitance bilayers, this aperture design also minimizes the access resistance to the bilayer, thereby improving the low-noise performance. Second, we have used a patch-clamp headstage modified to provide logic-controlled switching between a high-gain (50 G omega) feedback resistor for high-resolution recording and a low-gain (50 M omega) feedback resistor for rapid charging of the bilayer capacitance. The gain is switched from high to low before a voltage step and then back to high gain 25 microseconds after the step. With digital subtraction of the residual currents produced by the gain switching and electrostrictive changes in bilayer capacitance, we can achieve a steady current baseline within 1 ms after the voltage step. These enhancements broaden the range of experimental applications for the planar bilayer method by combining the high resolution previously attained only with small bilayers formed on pipette tips with the flexibility of experimental design possible with planar bilayers in open chambers. We illustrate application of these methods with recordings of the voltage-step activation of a voltage-gated potassium channel. PMID:1698470

Wonderlin, W F; Finkel, A; French, R J

1990-01-01

195

Optimized design of a band-pass filter with low frequency and narrow bandwidth

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An underwater metal pipeline detector is designed based on the principle of artificial source electromagnetic detection, which is used for detecting the deeply buried in underwater metal pipes. Narrowband band-pass filter in the receiver can well separate the specific frequency signal from mixed signal which is containing strong noise. Authors deduced the narrowband filter transfer function and simulated in computer, and the detector was applied in instrument prototype. Experiment results show that the error of the center frequency of the band-pass filter is small, and the gain is stable. In conclusion the detector has good performance.

Tian, Biao; Fu, Guo-hong; Liao, Xiu-ying; Cheng, Hui; Li, Guang

2013-10-01

196

Wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching has received intensive attention in recent years because it can help develop various reasonable plans to schedule the power generation efficiency. But future data such as wind power output and power load would not be accurately predicted and the nonlinear nature involved in the complex multiobjective scheduling model; therefore, to achieve accurate solution to such complex problem is a very difficult task. This paper presents an interval programming model with 2-step optimization algorithm to solve multiobjective dispatching. Initially, we represented the future data into interval numbers and simplified the object function to a linear programming problem to search the feasible and preliminary solutions to construct the Pareto set. Then the simulated annealing method was used to search the optimal solution of initial model. Thorough experimental results suggest that the proposed method performed reasonably well in terms of both operating efficiency and precision. PMID:24895663

Jihong, Qu

2014-01-01

197

Dielectric filter optimization by simulated thermal annealing: a simulated zone-melting approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for designing thinfilm optical filters based on simulated zone melting techniques is outlined. In contrast to conventional methods, but like all methods based on the simulated annealing ideas, it does not require a good starting design and helps to find good solutions separated by barriers in the quality function. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in mosaic filter arrays, which are required for colour cameras based on a single charge coupled-device image sensor. As a result of the trend to smaller and higher resolution sensors, the pixel size becomes smaller and therefore the thickness of such filters significantly affects the cross talk from pixel to pixel. Such constraints can be incorporated in the merit function by penalizing too thick dielectric layers. It turns out that the thickness of typical colour separation filters can be kept significantly below 2gm, using as dielectrics T102 and S102. Examples of yellow, green and cyan filters, as well as a spectrally Gaussian transmission filter are presented.

Morf, Rudolph H.; Kunz, Rino E.

1990-08-01

198

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a promising method for characterizing malignant and benign lesions in the female breast. We introduce a new two-step algorithm for DOT inversion in which the optical parameters are estimated with the global optimization method, genetic algorithm. The estimation result is applied as an initial guess to the conjugate gradient (CG) optimization method to obtain the absorption and scattering distributions simultaneously. Simulations and phantom experiments have shown that the maximum absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are reconstructed with less than 10% and 25% errors, respectively. This is in contrast with the CG method alone, which generates about 20% error for the absorption coefficient and does not accurately recover the scattering distribution. A new measure of scattering contrast has been introduced to characterize benign and malignant breast lesions. The results of 16 clinical cases reconstructed with the two-step method demonstrates that, on average, the absorption coefficient and scattering contrast of malignant lesions are about 1.8 and 3.32 times higher than the benign cases, respectively.

Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Zhu, Quing

2013-01-01

199

The temporal output of a Ti:Sapphire laser system has been optimized using an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter and a genetic algorithm. In-situ recording the evolution of spectral phase, amplitude and temporal pulse profile for each iteration of the algorithm using SPIDER shows that we are able to lock the spectral phase of the laser pulse within a narrow margin. By using the second harmonic of the CPA laser as feedback for the genetic algorithm, it has been demonstrated that severe mismatch between the compressor and stretcher can be compensated for in a short period of time.

Korovyanko, O. J.; Rey-de-Castro, R.; Elles, C. G.; Crowell, R. A.; Li, Y.

2006-01-01

200

2353 Efficiency Optimization of a Step-Down Switched Capacitor Converter for Subthreshold Applications a binary resolution technique to preserve high efficiency at load voltages down to sub-200 mV while keeping load voltages. Index Terms--DcÂdc power converter, design optimization, low-power electronics

201

Tissue stiffness estimation plays an important role in cancer detection and treatment. The presence of stiffer regions in healthy tissue can be used as an indicator for the possibility of pathological changes. Electrode vibration elastography involves tracking of a mechanical shear wave in tissue using radio-frequency ultrasound echoes. Based on appropriate assumptions on tissue elasticity, this approach provides a direct way of measuring tissue stiffness from shear wave velocity, and enabling visualization in the form of tissue stiffness maps. In this study, two algorithms for shear wave velocity reconstruction in an electrode vibration setup are presented. The first method models the wave arrival time data using a hidden Markov model whose hidden states are local wave velocities that are estimated using a particle filter implementation. This is compared to a direct optimization-based function fitting approach that uses sequential quadratic programming to estimate the unknown velocities and locations of interfaces. The mean shear wave velocities obtained using the two algorithms are within 10%of each other. Moreover, the Young’s modulus estimates obtained from an incompressibility assumption are within 15 kPa of those obtained from the true stiffness data obtained from mechanical testing. Based on visual inspection of the two filtering algorithms, the particle filtering method produces smoother velocity maps. PMID:25285187

Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

2014-01-01

202

Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

2012-08-15

203

Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2011-10-15

204

Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

2011-10-01

205

Large-scale processes used to manufacture grams of plasmid DNA (pDNA) should be cGMP compliant, economically feasible, and environmentally friendly. Alcohol and salt precipitation techniques are frequently used in plasmid DNA (pDNA) downstream processing, as concentration and prepurification steps, respectively. This work describes a study of a standard 2-propanol (IsopOH; 0.7 v/v) and ammonium sulfate (AS; 2.5 M) precipitation. When inserted in a full process, this tandem precipitation scheme represents a high economic and environmental impact due to the large amounts of the two precipitant agents and their environmental relevance. Thus, major goals of the study were the minimization of precipitants and the selection of the best operating conditions for high pDNA recovery and purity. The pDNA concentration in the starting Escherichia coli alkaline lysate strongly affected the efficiency of IsopOH precipitation as a concentration step. The results showed that although an IsopOH concentration of at least 0.6 (v/v) was required to maximize recovery when using lysates with less than 80 microg pDNA/mL, concentrations as low as 0.4 v/v could be used with more concentrated lysates (170 microg pDNA/mL). Following resuspension of pDNA pellets generated by 0.6 v/v IsopOH, precipitation at 4 degrees C with 2.4 M AS consistently resulted in recoveries higher than 80% and in removal of more than 90% of the impurities (essentially RNA). An experimental design further indicated that AS concentrations could be reduced down to 2.0 M, resulting in an acceptable purity (21-23%) without compromising recovery (84-86%). Plasmid recovery and purity after the sequential IsopOH/AS precipitation could be further improved by increasing the concentration factor (CF) upon IsopOH precipitation from 2 up to 25. Under these conditions, IsopOH and AS concentrations of 0.60 v/v and 1.6 M resulted in high recovery (approximately 100%) and purity (32%). In conclusion, it is possible to reduce substantially the mass of precipitation agents used without affecting recovery, if a small concession is made regarding purity. This directly translates into an improvement of the process economics and in a reduction of the environmental impact of the process. PMID:16889396

Freitas, S S; Santos, J A L; Prazeres, D M F

2006-01-01

206

Optimization of band-pass filtering parameters of a Raman lidar detecting atmospheric water vapor

It is very important for daytime Raman lidar measurement of water vapor to determine the parameters of a band-pass filter, which are pertinent to the lidar signal to noise ratio (SNR). The simulated annealing (SA) algorithm method has an advantage in finding the extremum of a certain cost function. In this paper, the Raman spectrum of water vapor is simulated

Kai-Fa Cao; Shun-Xing Hu; Ying-jian Wang

2012-01-01

207

PWM Inverter Output Filter Cost to Losses Trade Off and Optimal Design

--This paper describes how to design the output filter of a PWM inverter used in a Uninterruptible Power SupplyVA 3-ph. PWM inverter is taken as example. B. Design Constraints Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS-losses trade-off curves are deduced. Two power levels (30kVA and 300kVA) are taken as design example

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de

208

The bus voltage and branch current detection control strategies of the active power filters used in industrial multibus power systems for harmonic voltage mitigation are analyzed and compared in the paper. The effectiveness of both the methods with real control gains is assessed in terms of the harmonic bus voltage mitigation and of the demanded current spectrum injected by the

Josef Tlustý; Pavel Santarius; Viktor Valouch; Jirí Skramlík

2006-01-01

209

In Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305Â8180 ABSTRACT Fractional sample delay arrays [1], [2], delay lines for physical models of musical instruments [3] [4], and time delay estimation[5]. This paper addresses the design of finite impulse response (FIR) FD filters. The problem

Smith III, Julius Orion

210

In Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-8180 ABSTRACT Fractional sample delay arrays [1], [2], delay lines for physical models of musical instruments [3] [4], and time delay estimation[5]. This paper addresses the design of finite impulse response (FIR) FD filters. The problem

Smith III, Julius Orion

211

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three algorithms are developed for designing finite impulse response digital filters to be used for pulse shaping and channel equalization. The first is the Minimax algorithm which uses linear programming to design a frequency-sampling filter with a pulse shape that approximates the specification in a minimax sense. Design examples are included which accurately approximate a specified impulse response with a maximum error of 0.03 using only six resonators. The second algorithm is an extension of the Minimax algorithm to design preset equalizers for channels with known impulse responses. Both transversal and frequency-sampling equalizer structures are designed to produce a minimax approximation of a specified channel output waveform. Examples of these designs are compared as to the accuracy of the approximation, the resultant intersymbol interference (ISI), and the required transmitted energy. While the transversal designs are slightly more accurate, the frequency-sampling designs using six resonators have smaller ISI and energy values.

Houts, R. C.; Vaughn, G. L.

1974-01-01

212

Optimal spatial filtering of single trial EEG during imagined hand movement

The development of an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) requires rapid and reliable discrimination of EEG patterns, e. g., associated with motor imagery. One sided hand movement imagination results in EEG changes located at contra- and ipsilateral central areas. We demonstrate that spatial filters for multi-channel EEG effectively extract discriminatory information from two populations of single-trial EEG, recorded during left and

H. Ramoser; J. Müller-gerking; G. Pfurtscheller

1998-01-01

213

Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear point design methodology for minimizing the error in on-line Kalman filter-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications is presented. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine which seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error. This paper derives theoretical Kalman filter estimation error bias and variance values at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the conventional approach of tuner selection. Experimental simulation results are found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. The new methodology is shown to yield a significant improvement in on-line engine performance estimation accuracy

Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

2010-01-01

214

Background In current practice, patients with chronic pancreatitis undergo surgical intervention in a late stage of the disease, when conservative treatment and endoscopic interventions have failed. Recent evidence suggests that surgical intervention early on in the disease benefits patients in terms of better pain control and preservation of pancreatic function. Therefore, we designed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the benefits, risks and costs of early surgical intervention compared to the current stepwise practice for chronic pancreatitis. Methods/design The ESCAPE trial is a randomized controlled, parallel, superiority multicenter trial. Patients with chronic pancreatitis, a dilated pancreatic duct (? 5 mm) and moderate pain and/or frequent flare-ups will be registered and followed monthly as potential candidates for the trial. When a registered patient meets the randomization criteria (i.e. need for opioid analgesics) the patient will be randomized to either early surgical intervention (group A) or optimal current step-up practice (group B). An expert panel of chronic pancreatitis specialists will oversee the assessment of eligibility and ensure that allocation to either treatment arm is possible. Patients in group A will undergo pancreaticojejunostomy or a Frey-procedure in case of an enlarged pancreatic head (? 4 cm). Patients in group B will undergo a step-up practice of optimal medical treatment, if needed followed by endoscopic interventions, and if needed followed by surgery, according to predefined criteria. Primary outcome is pain assessed with the Izbicki pain score during a follow-up of 18 months. Secondary outcomes include complications, mortality, total direct and indirect costs, quality of life, pancreatic insufficiency, alternative pain scales, length of hospital admission, number of interventions and pancreatitis flare-ups. For the sample size calculation we defined a minimal clinically relevant difference in the primary endpoint as a difference of at least 15 points on the Izbicki pain score during follow-up. To detect this difference a total of 88 patients will be randomized (alpha 0.05, power 90%, drop-out 10%). Discussion The ESCAPE trial will investigate whether early surgery in chronic pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of pain relief, pancreatic function and quality of life, compared with current step-up practice. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN45877994 PMID:23506415

2013-01-01

215

to follow the original schedule or plan, inadvertently increasing the overall project cost. Many deterministic project control methods have been proposed by various researchers for calculating optimal resource schedules considering the time-cost as well...

Bondugula, Srikant

2010-07-14

216

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes and illustrates two matched-filter-theory based schemes for obtaining maximized and time-correlated gust-loads for a nonlinear airplane. The first scheme is computationally fast because it uses a simple one-dimensional search procedure to obtain its answers. The second scheme is computationally slow because it uses a more complex multidimensional search procedure to obtain its answers, but it consistently provides slightly higher maximum loads than the first scheme. Both schemes are illustrated with numerical examples involving a nonlinear control system.

Scott, Robert C.; Perry, Boyd, III; Pototzky, Anthony S.

1991-01-01

217

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two matched filter theory based schemes are described and illustrated for obtaining maximized and time correlated gust loads for a nonlinear aircraft. The first scheme is computationally fast because it uses a simple 1-D search procedure to obtain its answers. The second scheme is computationally slow because it uses a more complex multi-dimensional search procedure to obtain its answers, but it consistently provides slightly higher maximum loads than the first scheme. Both schemes are illustrated with numerical examples involving a nonlinear control system.

Scott, Robert C.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Perry, Boyd, III

1991-01-01

218

Selection of optimal combinations of band-pass filters for ice detection by hyperspectral imaging.

Hyperspectral imaging captures rich information in spatial and spectral domains but involves high costs and complex data processing. The use of a set of optical band-pass filters (BPFs) in the acquisition of spectral images is proposed for reducing dimensionality of spectral data while maintaining target detection and/or categorization performance. A set of BPFs that could distinguish ice from surrounding water on various materials (e.g., asphalt), was designed as an example. Relatively high accuracy (90.28%) was achieved with only two BPFs, showing the potential of this approach for accurate target detection with lesser complexity than conventional methods. PMID:22274446

Nakauchi, Shigeki; Nishino, Ken; Yamashita, Takuya

2012-01-16

219

Estimation of the error for small-sample optimal binary filter design using prior knowledge

= 0. 2 . 21 2e(n) for N = 4, o, ?, ?= O. v, f(q: (oe = 1/24. y?= 0. 5, o' I/12) and (a) p ? ye = 0. 1 (b) p??= ye = 0. 2 . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Nonlinear filters are playing an increasing role in image and signal processing, this being..., n & 0. 5] G, & 0]P[G, & 0]) if p, & 0. 5 Then Eq. 3. 2 yields (. (p) ? (-(~) = Qc. (Ip ? 05[ ? la ? 05[) where (3. 5) With Eq. 3. 4, we are now able to compute e by noticing that ls (P) EqX (q)]l = IEq?n(p) sn( 1)]l Eq[lsn(p) fn(q)l] C ' Eq...

Sabbagh, David L

2012-06-07

220

music titles directly from Internet services such as e.g. iTunes or Napster 1 . Portable players easilyOptimal filtering of dynamics in short-time features for music organization JerÂ´onimo Arenas interest in customizable methods for organizing music collections. Relevant music characteriza- tion can

221

-varying (TV) parameters of a harmonic or chirp signal using particle fil- tering (PF) tools. Similar applications that involve a single TV harmonic or chirp signal, e.g., TV Doppler estimation in communications4598 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 56, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2008 Optimal Particle Filters

Sidiropoulos, Nikolaos D.

222

A new fangled method for ship wake detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is explored here. Most of the detection procedure applies the Radon transform as its properties outfit more than any other transformation for the detection purpose. But still it holds problems when the transform is applied to an image with a high level of noise. Here this paper articulates the combination between the radon transformation and the shrinkage methods which increase the mode of wake detection process. The latter shrinkage method with RT maximize the signal to noise ratio hence it leads to most optimal detection of lines in the SAR images. The originality mainly works on the denoising segment of the proposed algorithm. Experimental work outs are carried over both in simulated and real SAR images. The detection process is more adequate with the proposed method and improves better than the conventional methods.

Krishnaveni, M; Subashini, P

2009-01-01

223

Moment tensor solutions estimated using optimal filter theory for 51 selected earthquakes, 1980-1984

The 51 global events that occurred from January 1980 to March 1984, which were chosen by the convenors of the Symposium on Seismological Theory and Practice, have been analyzed using a moment tensor inversion algorithm (Sipkin). Many of the events were routinely analyzed as part of the National Earthquake Information Center's (NEIC) efforts to publish moment tensor and first-motion fault-plane solutions for all moderate- to large-sized (mb>5.7) earthquakes. In routine use only long-period P-waves are used and the source-time function is constrained to be a step-function at the source (??-function in the far-field). Four of the events were of special interest, and long-period P, SH-wave solutions were obtained. For three of these events, an unconstrained inversion was performed. The resulting time-dependent solutions indicated that, for many cases, departures of the solutions from pure double-couples are caused by source complexity that has not been adequately modeled. These solutions also indicate that source complexity of moderate-sized events can be determined from long-period data. Finally, for one of the events of special interest, an inversion of the broadband P-waveforms was also performed, demonstrating the potential for using broadband waveform data in inversion procedures. ?? 1987.

Sipkin, S.A.

1987-01-01

224

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of multidimensional wave digital filtering (MDWDF) that builds on traveling wave formulation of lumped electrical elements, is successfully implemented on the study of dynamic responses of symmetrically laminated composite plate based on the first order shear deformation theory. The philosophy applied for the first time in this laminate mechanics relies on integration of certain principles involving modeling and simulation, circuit theory, and MD digital signal processing to provide a great variety of outstanding features. Especially benefited by the conservation of passivity gives rise to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP) for the issue of numerical stability of a MD discrete system. Adopting the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm, an effective optimization technique for rapidly achieving solution spaces of NLP models, numerical stability of the MDWDF network is well received at all time by the satisfaction of the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy stability criterion with the least restriction. In particular, optimum of the NLP has led to the optimality of the network in terms of effectively and accurately predicting the desired fundamental frequency, and thus to give an insight into the robustness of the network by looking at the distribution of system energies. To further explore the application of the optimum network, more numerical examples are engaged in efforts to achieve a qualitative understanding of the behavior of the laminar system. These are carried out by investigating various effects based on different stacking sequences, stiffness and span-to-thickness ratios, mode shapes and boundary conditions. Results are scrupulously validated by cross referencing with early published works, which show that the present method is in excellent agreement with other numerical and analytical methods.

Tseng, Chien-Hsun

2015-02-01

225

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

226

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model applied to an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. Here, the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) serves as the MBEC application engine. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC over a wide range of operating points. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from CMAPSS40k and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. Investigations using the MBEC to provide a stall margin limit for the controller protection logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in traditional engine control architectures.

Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey Thomas; Chicatelli, Amy; Kilver, Jacob

2013-01-01

227

The extraction of biopharmaceutical proteins from intact leaves involves the release of abundant particulate contaminants that must be removed economically from the process stream before chromatography, for example, using disposable filters that comply with good manufacturing practice. We therefore scaled down an existing 200-kg process for the purification of two target proteins from tobacco leaves (the monoclonal antibody 2G12 and the fluorescent protein DsRed, as monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging, respectively) and screened different materials on the 2-kg scale to reduce the number of depth filtration steps from three to one. We assessed filter cost and capacity, filtrate turbidity, and protein recovery when the filter materials were challenged with extracts from different tobacco varieties and related species grown in soil or rockwool. PDF4 was consistently the most suitable depth filter because it was the least expensive, it did not interact significantly with the target proteins, and it had the greatest overall capacity. The filter capacity was generally reduced when plants were grown in rockwool, but this substrate has a low bioburden, thus improving process safety. Our data concerning the clarification of plant extracts will help in the design of more cost-effective downstream processes and accelerate their development. PMID:24323869

Buyel, Johannes F; Fischer, Rainer

2014-03-01

228

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive GA scheme is adopted for the optimal morphological filter design problem. The adaptive crossover and mutation rate which make the GA avoid premature and at the same time assure convergence of the program are successfully used in optimal morphological filter design procedure. In the string coding step, each string (chromosome) is composed of a structuring element coding chain concatenated with a filter sequence coding chain. In decoding step, each string is divided into 3 chains which then are decoded respectively into one structuring element with a size inferior to 5 by 5 and two concatenating morphological filter operators. The fitness function in GA is based on the mean-square-error (MSE) criterion. In string selection step, a stochastic tournament procedure is used to replace the simple roulette wheel program in order to accelerate the convergence. The final convergence of our algorithm is reached by a two step converging strategy. In presented applications of noise removal from texture images, it is found that with the optimized morphological filter sequences, the obtained MSE values are smaller than those using corresponding non-adaptive morphological filters, and the optimized shapes and orientations of structuring elements take approximately the same shapes and orientations as those of the image textons.

Li, Wei; Haese-Coat, Veronique; Ronsin, Joseph

1996-03-01

229

In this paper, an analysis and selection of the optimal operation sequence that can be achieved with the four step switching technique is presented. The sequence is chosen in base to the operation features of a single-phase AC-AC converter used to compensate voltage sags and swells. The energy dissipation of the AC-AC converter switches as well as an easy implementation

Jorge Perez; Victor Cardenas; Homero Miranda

2004-01-01

230

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of polarized protons as neutron spin filter is an attractive alternative to the well established neutron polarization techniques, as the large, spin-dependent neutron scattering cross-section for protons is useful up to the sub-MeV region. Employing optically excited triplet states for the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the protons relieves the stringent requirements of classical DNP schemes, i.e low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, making technically simpler systems with open geometries possible. Using triplet DNP a record polarization of 71% has been achieved in a pentacene doped naphthalene single crystal at a field of 0.36 T using a simple helium flow cryostat for cooling. Furthermore, by placing the polarized crystal in a neutron optics focus and de-focus scheme, the actual sample cross-section could be increased by a factor 35 corresponding to an effective spin filter cross-section of 18×18 mm2.

Eichhorn, T. R.; Niketic, N.; van den Brandt, B.; Filges, U.; Panzner, T.; Rantsiou, E.; Wenckebach, W. Th.; Hautle, P.

2014-08-01

231

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study contributes the ASSIST (Adaptive Strategies for Sampling in Space and Time) framework for improving long-term groundwater monitoring decisions across space and time while accounting for the influences of systematic model errors (or predictive bias). The ASSIST framework combines contaminant flow-and-transport modeling, bias-aware ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF) and many-objective evolutionary optimization. Our goal in this work is to provide decision makers with a fuller understanding of the information tradeoffs they must confront when performing long-term groundwater monitoring network design. Our many-objective analysis considers up to 6 design objectives simultaneously and consequently synthesizes prior monitoring network design methodologies into a single, flexible framework. This study demonstrates the ASSIST framework using a tracer study conducted within a physical aquifer transport experimental tank located at the University of Vermont. The tank tracer experiment was extensively sampled to provide high resolution estimates of tracer plume behavior. The simulation component of the ASSIST framework consists of stochastic ensemble flow-and-transport predictions using ParFlow coupled with the Lagrangian SLIM transport model. The ParFlow and SLIM ensemble predictions are conditioned with tracer observations using a bias-aware EnKF. The EnKF allows decision makers to enhance plume transport predictions in space and time in the presence of uncertain and biased model predictions by conditioning them on uncertain measurement data. In this initial demonstration, the position and frequency of sampling were optimized to: (i) minimize monitoring cost, (ii) maximize information provided to the EnKF, (iii) minimize failure to detect the tracer, (iv) maximize the detection of tracer flux, (v) minimize error in quantifying tracer mass, and (vi) minimize error in quantifying the moment of the tracer plume. The results demonstrate that the many-objective problem formulation provides a tremendous amount of information for decision makers. Specifically our many-objective analysis highlights the limitations and potentially negative design consequences of traditional single and two-objective problem formulations. These consequences become apparent through visual exploration of high-dimensional tradeoffs and the identification of regions with interesting compromise solutions. The prediction characteristics of these compromise designs are explored in detail, as well as their implications for subsequent design decisions in both space and time.

Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.

2009-12-01

232

Development of Golden Section Search Driven Particle Swarm Optimization and its Application

The particle swarm optimization (PSO), although it has been widely used in various fields, has a step-size problem, which deteriorates optimization performance. This problem is resolved using the golden section search (GSS) and the steepest descent method. We also design a filter that will improve optimization performance of the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, including for which

S. Oh; Y. Hori

2006-01-01

233

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new least-mean-square algorithm of adaptive filtering to improve the signal to noise ratio for magnetocardiography data collected with high-temperature SQUID-based magnetometers. By frequently adjusting the adaptive parameter ? to systematic optimum values in the course of the programmed procedure, the convergence is accelerated with a highest speed and the minimum steady-state error is obtained simultaneously. This algorithm may be applied to eliminate other non-steady relevant noises as well.

Li, Zhuo; Chen, Geng-Hua; Zhang, Li-Hua; Yang, Qian-Sheng; Feng, Ji

2006-02-01

234

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A time domain technique is developed to design finite-duration impulse response digital filters using linear programming. Two related applications of this technique in data transmission systems are considered. The first is the design of pulse shaping digital filters to generate or detect signaling waveforms transmitted over bandlimited channels that are assumed to have ideal low pass or bandpass characteristics. The second is the design of digital filters to be used as preset equalizers in cascade with channels that have known impulse response characteristics. Example designs are presented which illustrate that excellent waveforms can be generated with frequency-sampling filters and the ease with which digital transversal filters can be designed for preset equalization.

Houts, R. C.; Burlage, D. W.

1972-01-01

235

We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics steered by effective solvation forces allows huge outer time steps up to tens of picoseconds without affecting the equilibrium and conformational properties, and thus provides a 100- to 500-fold effective speedup in comparison to conventional MD with explicit solvent. With the statistical-mechanical 3D-RISM-KH account for effective solvation forces, the method provides efficient sampling of biomolecular processes with slow and/or rare solvation events such as conformational transitions of hydrated alanine dipeptide with the mean life times ranging from 30 ps up to 10 ns for “flip-flop” conformations, and is particularly beneficial for biomolecular systems with exchange and localization of solvent and ions, ligand binding, and molecular recognition.

Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada) [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada) [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

2013-12-28

236

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-efficiency CdS/CdTe solar cell with step doped absorber layer, optimized back surface field layer, and long carrier lifetime in the absorption layer was designed. At first, The CdS/CdTe reference cell is simulated and compared with previous experimental data. In order to obtain the highest efficiency, the thickness and step doping of the absorber and back surface field layer were optimized. In addition, the effect of carrier lifetime variation in the CdTe layer on the conversion efficiency of CdTe cell was investigated. Compared with reference cell, Efficiency enhancement of the proposed structure was 4.44%. Under global AM 1.5 conditions, the optimized cell structure had an open-circuit voltage of 0.987 V, a short-circuit current density of 27.9 mA/cm^2 and a fill factor of 82.4%, corresponding to a total area conversion efficiency of 22.76%.

Khosroabadi, S.; Keshmiri, S. H.; Marjani, S.

2014-12-01

237

A filter family designed for use in quadrature mirror filter banks

This paper discusses a family of filters that have been designed for Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) Banks. These filters provide a significant improvement over conventional optimal equiripple and window designs when used in QMF banks. The performance criterion for these filters differ from those usually used for filter design in a way which makes the usual filter design techniques difficult

J. D. Johnston

1980-01-01

238

Multi-Step Look-Ahead Trajectory Planning in SLAM: Possibility and Necessity

Abstract— In this paper, the possibility and necessity of multi- step trajectory planning in Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based SLAM is investigated. The objective of the trajectory planning here is to minimize the estimation error of the robot and landmark locations subject to a given time horizon. We show that the problem can be regarded as an optimization problem for

Shoudong Huang; Ngai Ming Kwok; Gamini Dissanayake; Q. P. Ha; Gu Fang

2005-01-01

239

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a list of the essential steps to keeping a school's or district's network safe and sound. It describes how to establish a security architecture and approach that will continually evolve as the threat environment changes over time. The article discusses the methodology for implementing this approach and then discusses the…

Svetcov, Eric

2005-01-01

240

This paper builds upon our recent data assimilation work with the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method [J. Kao, D. Flicker, R. Henninger, S. Frey, M. Ghil, K. Ide, Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for an impact-produced shock-wave study, J. Comp. Phys. 196 (2004) 705-723.]. The purpose is to test the capability of EKF in optimizing a model's physical parameters. The problem is to simulate the evolution of a shock produced through a high-speed flyer plate. In the earlier work, we have showed that the EKF allows one to estimate the evolving state of the shock wave from a single pressure measurement, assuming that all model parameters are known. In the present paper, we show that imperfectly known model parameters can also be estimated accordingly, along with the evolving model state, from the same single measurement. The model parameter optimization using the EKF can be achieved through a simple modification of the original EKF formalism by including the model parameters into an augmented state variable vector. While the regular state variables are governed by both deterministic and stochastic forcing mechanisms, the parameters are only subject to the latter. The optimally estimated model parameters are thus obtained through a unified assimilation operation. We show that improving the accuracy of the model parameters also improves the state estimate. The time variation of the optimized model parameters results from blending the data and the corresponding values generated from the model and lies within a small range, of less than 2%, from the parameter values of the original model. The solution computed with the optimized parameters performs considerably better and has a smaller total variance than its counterpart using the original time-constant parameters. These results indicate that the model parameters play a dominant role in the performance of the shock-wave hydrodynamic code at hand.

Kao, Jim [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Applied Physics Division, P.O. Box 1663, MS T086, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: kao@lanl.gov; Flicker, Dawn [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Applied Physics Division, P.O. Box 1663, MS T086, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ide, Kayo [University of California at Los Angeles (United States); Ghil, Michael [University of California at Los Angeles (United States)

2006-05-20

241

A Kalman filter for a two-dimensional shallow-water model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional Kalman filter is described for data assimilation for making weather forecasts. The filter is regarded as superior to the optimal interpolation method because the filter determines the forecast error covariance matrix exactly instead of using an approximation. A generalized time step is defined which includes expressions for one time step of the forecast model, the error covariance matrix, the gain matrix, and the evolution of the covariance matrix. Subsequent time steps are achieved by quantifying the forecast variables or employing a linear extrapolation from a current variable set, assuming the forecast dynamics are linear. Calculations for the evolution of the error covariance matrix are banded, i.e., are performed only with the elements significantly different from zero. Experimental results are provided from an application of the filter to a shallow-water simulation covering a 6000 x 6000 km grid.

Parrish, D. F.; Cohn, S. E.

1985-01-01

242

The paper considers formation of mono-energetic neutron beams at the entrance of experimental channels in research reactors for various applications. The problem includes the following steps: 1. Full-scale mathematical model of the research IRT MEPhI was developed for numerical evaluations of neutron spectra and neutron spatial distribution in the area of experimental channels. 2. Modeling of filters in the channel to shift neutron spectrum towards the required mono-energetic line was performed. 3. Some characteristics of neutron beams at the entrance of detector were evaluated. The filter materials were selected. The calculations were carried out with application of the computer code based on the high-precision Monte-Carlo code MCNP. As a result, mathematical model was created for the filter which is able to form mono-energetic (24 keV) neutron beam. The study was carried out within the frames of the research project on development of Russian emission detector with liquid noble gas to observe rare processes of neutrino scattering and particles of hypothetical dark matter in atomic nuclei. (authors)

Ivakhin, S. V.; Tikhomirov, G. V.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Akimov, D. Y.; Stekhanov, V. N. [Laboratory of Experimental Nuclear Physics, National Research Nuclear Univ. MEPhI, Kashirskoe sh., 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

243

Abstract: In this book, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) has been used as the standard technique for performing recursive nonlinear estimation. The EKF algorithm, however, provides only an approximation to optimal nonlinear estimation. In this chapter, we point out the underlying assumptions and flaws in the EKF, and present an alternative filter with performance superior to that of the EKF.

E. Wan; R. Van Der Merwe

2001-01-01

244

Pretreatment is necessary for lignocellulose to achieve a highly efficient enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. However, coincident with pretreatment, compounds inhibiting microorganism growth are formed. Some tissues or cells, such as thin-walled cells that easily hydrolyze, will be excessively degraded because of the structural heterogeneity of lignocellulose, and some inhibitors will be generated under the same pretreatment conditions. Results showed, compared with one-step steam explosion (1.2 MPa/8 min), two-step steam explosion with an intermediate separation of fiber cells (ISFC) (1.1 Mpa/4 min-ISFC-1.2 MPa/4 min) can increase enzymatic hydrolyzation by 12.82%, reduce inhibitor conversion by 33%, and increase fermentation product (2,3-butanediol) conversion by 209%. Thus, the two-step steam explosion with ISFC process is proposed to optimize the hydrolysis process of lignocellulose by modifying the raw material from the origin. This novel process reduces the inhibitor content, promotes the biotransformation of lignocellulose, and simplifies the process of excluding the detoxification unit operation. PMID:22858472

Zhang, Yuzhen; Fu, Xiaoguo; Chen, Hongzhang

2012-10-01

245

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital automatic control law to capture a steep glideslope and track the glideslope to a specified altitude is developed for the longitudinal/vertical dynamics of a CTOL aircraft using modern estimation and control techniques. The control law uses a constant gain Kalman filter to process guidance information from the microwave landing system, and acceleration from body mounted accelerometer data. The filter outputs navigation data and wind velocity estimates which are used in controlling the aircraft. Results from a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics and the control law are presented for various wind conditions.

Halyo, N.

1976-01-01

246

Modelling of diffraction grating based optical filters for fluorescence detection of biomolecules.

The detection of biomolecules based on fluorescence measurements is a powerful diagnostic tool for the acquisition of genetic, proteomic and cellular information. One key performance limiting factor remains the integrated optical filter, which is designed to reject strong excitation light while transmitting weak emission (fluorescent) light to the photodetector. Conventional filters have several disadvantages. For instance absorbing filters, like those made from amorphous silicon carbide, exhibit low rejection ratios, especially in the case of small Stokes' shift fluorophores (e.g. green fluorescent protein GFP with ? exc = 480 nm and ? em = 510 nm), whereas interference filters comprising many layers require complex fabrication. This paper describes an alternative solution based on dielectric diffraction gratings. These filters are not only highly efficient but require a smaller number of manufacturing steps. Using FEM-based optical modelling as a design optimization tool, three filtering concepts are explored: (i) a diffraction grating fabricated on the surface of an absorbing filter, (ii) a diffraction grating embedded in a host material with a low refractive index, and (iii) a combination of an embedded grating and an absorbing filter. Both concepts involving an embedded grating show high rejection ratios (over 100,000) for the case of GFP, but also high sensitivity to manufacturing errors and variations in the incident angle of the excitation light. Despite this, simulations show that a 60 times improvement in the rejection ratio relative to a conventional flat absorbing filter can be obtained using an optimized embedded diffraction grating fabricated on top of an absorbing filter. PMID:25071964

Kova?i?, M; Kr?, J; Lipovšek, B; Topi?, M

2014-07-01

247

Estimation and filter stability of stochastic delay systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Linear and nonlinear filtering for stochastic delay systems are studied. A representation theorem for conditional moment functionals is obtained, which, in turn, is used to derive stochastic differential equations describing the optimal linear or nonlinear filter. A complete characterization of the optimal filter is given for linear systems with Gaussian noise. Stability of the optimal filter is studied in the case where there are no delays in the observations. Using the duality between linear filtering and control, asymptotic stability of the optimal filter is proved. Finally, the cascade of the optimal filter and the deterministic optimal quadratic control system is shown to be asymptotically stable as well.

Kwong, R. H.; Willsky, A. S.

1978-01-01

248

A very efficient technique to drastically reduce the number of multipliers and adders in narrow transition-band linear-phase\\u000a finite-impulse response digital filters is to use the one-stage or multistage frequency-response masking (FRM) approach, which\\u000a has been originally introduced by Lim and further improved by Lim and Lian. In these original synthesis techniques, the subfilters\\u000a in the overall implementation are separately designed.

Juha Yli-Kaakinen; Tapio Saramaki

2011-01-01

249

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the surface antigens of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (HBsAg) for viral assembly and replication. Several commercial and in-house techniques have been described for HDV RNA quantification, but the methodologies differ widely, making a comparison of the results between studies difficult. In this study, a full-length genomic RNA standard was developed and used for HDV quantification by two different real-time PCR approaches (fluorescence resonance energy transfer [FRET] and TaqMan probes). Three experiments were performed. First, the stability of the standard was determined by analyzing the effect of thawing and freezing. Second, because of the strong internal base pairing of the HDV genome, which leads to a rod-like structure, the effect of intense thermal shock (95°C for 10 min and immediate cooling to -80°C) was tested to confirm the importance of this treatment in the reverse transcription step. Lastly, to investigate the differences between the DNA and RNA standards, the two types were quantified in parallel with the following results: the full-length genomic RNA standard was stable and reliably mimicked the behavior of HDV-RNA-positive samples, thermal shock enhanced the sensitivity of HDV RNA quantification, and the DNA standard underquantified the HDV RNA standard. These findings indicate the importance of using complete full-length genomic RNA and a strong thermal-shock step for optimal HDV RNA quantification. PMID:24989607

Homs, Maria; Giersch, Katja; Blasi, Maria; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Buti, Maria; Esteban, Rafael; Dandri, Maura; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco

2014-09-01

250

The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI

2013-08-09

251

High accuracy motor controller for positioning optical filters in the CLAES Spectrometer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Etalon Drive Motor (EDM), a precision etalon control system designed for accurate positioning of etalon filters in the IR spectrometer of the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) experiment is described. The EDM includes a brushless dc torque motor, which has an infinite resolution for setting an etalon filter to any desired angle, a four-filter etalon wheel, and an electromechanical resolver for angle information. An 18-bit control loop provides high accuracy, resolution, and stability. Dynamic computer interaction allows the user to optimize the step response. A block diagram of the motor controller is presented along with a schematic of the digital/analog converter circuit.

Thatcher, John B.

1989-01-01

252

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-correlated gust loads are time histories of two or more load quantities due to the same disturbance time history. Time correlation provides knowledge of the value (magnitude and sign) of one load when another is maximum. At least two analysis methods have been identified that are capable of computing maximized time-correlated gust loads for linear aircraft. Both methods solve for the unit-energy gust profile (gust velocity as a function of time) that produces the maximum load at a given location on a linear airplane. Time-correlated gust loads are obtained by re-applying this gust profile to the airplane and computing multiple simultaneous load responses. Such time histories are physically realizable and may be applied to aircraft structures. Within the past several years there has been much interest in obtaining a practical analysis method which is capable of solving the analogous problem for nonlinear aircraft. Such an analysis method has been the focus of an international committee of gust loads specialists formed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and was the topic of a panel discussion at the Gust and Buffet Loads session at the 1989 SDM Conference in Mobile, Alabama. The kinds of nonlinearities common on modern transport aircraft are indicated. The Statical Discrete Gust method is capable of being, but so far has not been, applied to nonlinear aircraft. To make the method practical for nonlinear applications, a search procedure is essential. Another method is based on Matched Filter Theory and, in its current form, is applicable to linear systems only. The purpose here is to present the status of an attempt to extend the matched filter approach to nonlinear systems. The extension uses Matched Filter Theory as a starting point and then employs a constrained optimization algorithm to attack the nonlinear problem.

Pototzky, Anthony S.; Heeg, Jennifer; Perry, Boyd, III

1990-01-01

253

Factoring wavelet transforms into lifting steps

This article is essentially tutorial in nature. We show how any discrete wavelet transform or two band subband filtering with\\u000a finite filters can be decomposed into a finite sequence of simple filtering steps, which we call lifting steps but that are\\u000a also known as ladder structures. This decomposition corresponds to a factorization of the polyphase matrix of the wavelet\\u000a or

Ingrid Daubechies; Wim Sweldens

1998-01-01

254

This paper gives a new insight into the concept of load compensation under distorted voltages. Achieving both unity power factor (UPF) and perfect compensation of current harmonics are not possible where competition will arise between these two important factors. Through evaluating the present control strategies, a generalized, optimal, and flexible control strategy (OFC) for harmonic compensation of utility lines is

S. Mohammad-Reza Rafiei; Hamid A. Toliyat; Reza Ghazi; Tilak Gopalarathnam

2001-01-01

255

By virtue of the biocompatibility and physical properties of hydrogel, picoliter-sized hydrogel microcapsules have been considered to be a biometric signature containing several features similar to that of encapsulated single cells, including phenotype, viability, and intracellular content. To maximize the experimental potential of encapsulating cells in hydrogel microcapsules, a method that enables efficient hydrogel microcapsule purification from oil is necessary. Current methods based on centrifugation for the conventional stepwise rinsing of oil, are slow and laborious and decrease the monodispersity and yield of the recovered hydrogel microcapsules. To remedy these shortcomings we have developed a simple one-step method to purify alginate microcapsules, containing a single live cell, from oil to aqueous phase. This method employs oil impregnation using a commercially available hydrophobic filter paper without multistep centrifugal purification and complicated microchannel networks. The oil-suspended alginate microcapsules encapsulating single cells from mammalian cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HepG2, and U937) and microorganisms (Chlorella vulgaris) were successfully exchanged to cell culture media by quick (~10 min) depletion of the surrounding oil phase without coalescence of neighboring microcapsules. Cell proliferation and high integrity of the microcapsules were also demonstrated by long-term incubation of microcapsules containing a single live cell. We expect that this method for the simple and rapid purification of encapsulated single-cell microcapsules will attain widespread adoption, assisting cell biologists and clinicians in the development of single-cell experiments. PMID:25130499

Lee, Do-Hyun; Jang, Miran; Park, Je-Kyun

2014-10-01

256

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One option for monitoring CO2 injection is through pressure measurements made in formations overlying the injection formation. If pressure perturbations due to leakage can be separated from natural background variability, then this can be a viable technology to monitor for CO2 or brine leakage. Two key questions are how many monitoring wells are needed to detect a leakage event, and where those wells should be placed. In this study we present a methodology that uses a combination of a Kalman filter algorithm, a physically based analytical model that solves for pressure propagation across old/abandoned leaky wells in a multi-formation system, and a multi-objective genetic algorithm, to answer these two questions. The Kalman filter is used to explore the covariance reduction based on possible well positions. The physically based model is used to simulate, in a Monte Carlo scheme, a wide range of possible leakage scenarios where the main unknown is the permeability of the old/abandoned leaky wells. The multi-objective genetic algorithm is the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The models are combined to address the following three objectives: (1) The minimization of the total variance of the pressure field, (2) the minimization of the number of wells needed to detect a leakage event, and (3) the identification and subsequent elimination of detected leakage events that are considered to be "not harmful, where "harmful" refers to an event in which the pressure change in the monitored formation is not large enough to induce leakage into the deepest potable water aquifer. The methodology is applied to a synthetic case study, which serves to prove the applicability of the methods and to gather insights on the strengths and weaknesses of using pressure monitoring wells to detect a CO2 leakage event.

Nogues, J. P.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.

2013-05-01

257

A generalized adaptive mathematical morphological filter for LIDAR data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technology has become the primary method to derive high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), which are essential for studying Earth's surface processes, such as flooding and landslides. The critical step in generating a DTM is to separate ground and non-ground measurements in a voluminous point LIDAR dataset, using a filter, because the DTM is created by interpolating ground points. As one of widely used filtering methods, the progressive morphological (PM) filter has the advantages of classifying the LIDAR data at the point level, a linear computational complexity, and preserving the geometric shapes of terrain features. The filter works well in an urban setting with a gentle slope and a mixture of vegetation and buildings. However, the PM filter often removes ground measurements incorrectly at the topographic high area, along with large sizes of non-ground objects, because it uses a constant threshold slope, resulting in "cut-off" errors. A novel cluster analysis method was developed in this study and incorporated into the PM filter to prevent the removal of the ground measurements at topographic highs. Furthermore, to obtain the optimal filtering results for an area with undulating terrain, a trend analysis method was developed to adaptively estimate the slope-related thresholds of the PM filter based on changes of topographic slopes and the characteristics of non-terrain objects. The comparison of the PM and generalized adaptive PM (GAPM) filters for selected study areas indicates that the GAPM filter preserves the most "cut-off" points removed incorrectly by the PM filter. The application of the GAPM filter to seven ISPRS benchmark datasets shows that the GAPM filter reduces the filtering error by 20% on average, compared with the method used by the popular commercial software TerraScan. The combination of the cluster method, adaptive trend analysis, and the PM filter allows users without much experience in processing LIDAR data to effectively and efficiently identify ground measurements for the complex terrains in a large LIDAR data set. The GAPM filter is highly automatic and requires little human input. Therefore, it can significantly reduce the effort of manually processing voluminous LIDAR measurements.

Cui, Zheng

258

Development of superconductive microwave filters for mobile communications and filter banks

The development of superconductive microwave filters connected to the use of cooled electronics is now in the critical phase of system integration. All the different steps of filter development, design and fabrication must be controlled, reproducible and technically realisable by conventional microelectronics tools. We developed filters for mobile communications and filter banks with the goal of optimising these aspects. Lanthanum

B. Marcilhac; Y. Lemaitre; D. Mansart; J. C. Mage

1999-01-01

259

In our previous work, a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain for the microbial production of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) was constructed through modular pathway engineering. In this study, to enhance GlcNAc production, glucose feeding approaches and dissolved oxygen (DO) control methods in fed-batch culture were systematically investigated. We first studied the effects of different glucose feeding strategies, including exponential fed-batch culture, pulse fed-batch culture, constant rate fed-batch culture, and glucose control (5g/L, 10g/L, 15g/L) fed-batch culture, on cell growth and GlcNAc synthesis. We found that GlcNAc production in glucose control (5g/L) fed-batch culture reached 26.58g/L, which was 3.10 times that in batch culture. Next, the effect of DO level (20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) on GlcNAc production was investigated, and a step-wise DO control strategy (0-7h, 30%; 7-15h, 50%; 15-50h, 40%; 50-72h, 30%) was introduced. With the optimal glucose and DO control strategy, GlcNAc production reached 35.77g/L, which was 4.17 times the production in batch culture without DO control. PMID:25499147

Zhu, Yanqiu; Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

2015-02-01

260

Median filtering in multispectral filter array demosaicking

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the concept of the colour filter array (CFA), the research community has shown much interest in adapting the idea of CFA to the multispectral domain, producing multispectral filter arrays (MSFAs). In addition to newly devised methods of MSFA demosaicking, there exists a wide spectrum of methods developed for CFA. Among others, some vector based operations can be adapted naturally for multispectral purposes. In this paper, we focused on studying two vector based median filtering methods in the context of MSFA demosaicking. One solves demosaicking problems by means of vector median filters, and the other applies median filtering to the demosaicked image in spherical space as a subsequent refinement process to reduce artefacts introduced by demosaicking. To evaluate the performance of these measures, a tool kit was constructed with the capability of mosaicking, demosaicking and quality assessment. The experimental results demonstrated that the vector median filtering performed less well for natural images except black and white images, however the refinement step reduced the reproduction error numerically in most cases. This proved the feasibility of extending CFA demosaicking into MSFA domain.

Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Gouton, Pierre

2013-01-01

261

A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2012-01-01

262

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01

263

An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

264

Energetic Consequences of Walking Like an Inverted Pendulum: Step-to-Step Transitions

ARTICLE Energetic Consequences of Walking Like an Inverted Pendulum: Step-to-Step Transitions, A.D, J.M. DONELAN, and A. RUINA. Energetic consequences of walking like an inverted pendulum: Step of step length, step frequency, and even step width that is energetically optimal (2,5,11). Walking

265

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

1993-01-01

266

Hot-gas filter manufacturing assessments: Volume 5. Final report, April 15, 1997

The development of advanced filtration media for advanced fossil-fueled power generating systems is a critical step in meeting the performance and emissions requirements for these systems. While porous metal and ceramic candle-filters have been available for some time, the next generation of filters will include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), intermetallic alloys, and alternate filter geometries. The goal of this effort was to perform a cursory review of the manufacturing processes used by 5 companies developing advanced filters from the perspective of process repeatability and the ability for their processes to be scale-up to production volumes. It was found that all of the filter manufacturers had a solid understanding of the product development path. Given that these filters are largely developmental, significant additional work is necessary to understand the process-performance relationships and projecting manufacturing costs. While each organization had specific needs, some common among all of the filter manufacturers were access to performance testing of the filters to aide process/product development, a better understanding of the stresses the filters will see in service for use in structural design of the components, and a strong process sensitivity study to allow optimization of processing.

Boss, D.E.

1997-12-31

267

Application of particle filters to single-target tracking problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Bayesian framework, all single target tracking problems reduce to recursive computation of the posterior density of the target state. Particle filters approximate the optimal Bayesian recursion by propagating a set of random samples with associated weights. In the last decade, there have been numerous contributions to the theory and applications of particle filters. Much study has focussed on design issues such as appropriate selection of the importance density, the use of resampling techniques which mitigate sample degeneracy and the choice of a suitable random variable space upon which to implement the particle filter in order to minimise numerical complexity. Although the effect of these design choices is, in general, well known, their relevance to target tracking problems has not been fully established. These design issues are considered for single target tracking applications involving target manoeuvres and clutter. Two choices of importance density are studied and methods for enhancing particle diversity through the avoidance of particle duplication in the resampling step are considered for each importance density. The possibility of reducing the dimension of the space over which the particle filter is implemented is considered. Based on simulation results, a few key observations are drawn about which aspects of particle filter design most influence their performance in target tracking applications. The numerical simulations also provide insights into the relationship between the state dimension and the number of particles needed to improve upon the performance of the standard tracking filters.

Morelande, Mark R.; Challa, Subhash; Gordon, Neil J.

2003-12-01

268

Evaluation of various speckle reduction filters on medical ultrasound images.

At present, ultrasound is one of the essential tools for noninvasive medical diagnosis. However, speckle noise is inherent in medical ultrasound images and it is the cause for decreased resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio. Low image quality is an obstacle for effective feature extraction, recognition, analysis, and edge detection; it also affects image interpretation by doctor and the accuracy of computer-assisted diagnostic techniques. Thus, speckle reduction is significant and critical step in pre-processing of ultrasound images. Many speckle reduction techniques have been studied by researchers, but to date there is no comprehensive method that takes all the constraints into consideration. In this paper we discuss seven filters, namely Lee, Frost, Median, Speckle Reduction Anisotropic Diffusion (SRAD), Perona-Malik's Anisotropic Diffusion (PMAD) filter, Speckle Reduction Bilateral Filter (SRBF) and Speckle Reduction filter based on soft thresholding in the Wavelet transform. A comparative study of these filters has been made in terms of preserving the features and edges as well as effectiveness of de-noising.We computed five established evaluation metrics in order to determine which despeckling algorithm is most effective and optimal for real-time implementation. In addition, the experimental results have been demonstrated by filtered images and statistical data table. PMID:24109896

Wu, Shibin; Zhu, Qingsong; Xie, Yaoqin

2013-01-01

269

Reflective array SAW narrowband filters

Experimental results are presented for a reflective-array SAW (surface acoustic wave) device that is optimized for narrowband filter applications. The filter consists of broadband input and output transducers with two weighted reflector arrays. Previous devices of this type have used reflective dot density and depth profile weighting for the reflective arrays. A unique implementation of this design technique for a

S. Gopani; R. B. Brown; J. H. Hines; B. H. Horine

1990-01-01

270

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students filter different substances through a plastic window screen, different sized hardware cloth and poultry netting. Their model shows how the thickness of a filter in the kidney is imperative in deciding what will be filtered out and what will stay within the blood stream.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

271

Orbit determination via adaptive Gaussian swarm optimization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate orbit determination (OD) is vital for every space mission. This paper proposes a novel heuristic filter based on adaptive sample-size Gaussian swarm optimization (AGSF). The proposed estimator considers the OD as a stochastic dynamic optimization problem that utilizes a swarm of particles in order to find the best estimation at every time step. One of the key contributions of this paper is the adaptation of the swarm size using a weighted variance approach. The proposed strategy is simulated for a low Earth orbit (LEO) OD problem utilizing geomagnetic field measurements at 700 km altitude. The performance of the proposed AGSF is verified using Monte Carlo simulation whose results are compared with other advanced sample based nonlinear filters. It is demonstrated that the adopted filter achieves about 2.5 km accuracy in position estimation that fulfills the essential requirements of accuracy and convergence time for OD problem.

Kiani, Maryam; Pourtakdoust, Seid H.

2015-02-01

272

Method of statistical filtering

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minimal formula for bounding the cross correlation between a random forcing function and the state error when this correlation is unknown is used in optimal linear filter theory applications. Use of the bound results in overestimation of the estimation-error covariance.

Battin, R. H.; Deckert, J. C.; Fraser, D. C.; Potter, J. E.

1970-01-01

273

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pultrusion process is an efficient technology for the production of composite material profiles. Thanks to this positive feature, several studies have been carried out, either to expand the range of products made using the pultrusion technology, or improve its already high production rate. This study presents a process derived from the traditional pultrusion technology named "Step Pultrusion Process Technology" (SPPT). Using the step pultrusion process, the final section of the composite profiles is obtainable by means of a progressive cross section increasing through several resin cure stations. This progressive increasing of the composite cross section means that a higher degree of cure level can be attained at the die exit point of the last die. Mechanical test results of the manufactured pultruded samples have been used to compare both the traditional and the step pultrusion processes. Finally, there is a discussion on ways to improve the new step pultrusion process even further.

Langella, A.; Carbone, R.; Durante, M.

2012-12-01

274

-mode hybrid systems, re- cently developed by the authors, to voltage-regulation problems in a step-down DC-DCOptimal Switching Control of a Step-Down DC-DC Converter H. Kawashima, Y. Wardi, D. Taylor, and M of a general algorithmic approach, recently developed by the authors, for voltage regulation in a DC-DC buck

Egerstedt, Magnus

275

Multiresolution Bilateral Filtering for Image Denoising

The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contribution is an extension of the bilateral filter: multiresolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to the approximation (low-frequency) subbands of a signal decomposed using a wavelet filter bank. The multiresolution bilateral filter is combined with wavelet thresholding to form a new image denoising framework, which turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. Experimental results with both simulated and real data are provided. PMID:19004705

Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.

2008-01-01

276

Next Steps 27 September 2002 Michael W. Vannier NCI - B IP Action items • P ut agenda on website and link slide presentations • E nroll attendees on archive-comm-l listserver • U pdate links to database projects on BIP webpage • P repare reports for

277

Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

278

A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Monroeville, PA); Dilmore, William J. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01

279

A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

1992-09-01

280

Kalman and Extended Kalman Filters: Concept, Derivation and Properties

Kalman and Extended Kalman Filters: Concept, Derivation and Properties Maria Isabel Ribeiro for Gaussian Random Vectors . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 The Kalman Filter 14 4.1 Kalman Filter dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2 One-step ahead prediction dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3 Kalman filter

Ribeiro,Isabel

281

Robust H? filter design using frequency gridding

This paper considers the design of robust H1 filters for continuous-time linear systems with uncertainties described by integral quadratic constraints (IQCs). The syn- thesis problem can be converted into an infinite-dimensional optimization with frequency dependent linear matrix inequality constraints on the filter and IQC multipliers. This optimization is approximated by a finite dimensional semidefinite program by restricting the filter to

Peter Seiler; Balint Vanek; Jozsef Bokor; Gary J. Balas

2011-01-01

282

Recursive Implementations of the Consider Filter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One method to account for parameters errors in the Kalman filter is to consider their effect in the so-called Schmidt-Kalman filter. This work addresses issues that arise when implementing a consider Kalman filter as a real-time, recursive algorithm. A favorite implementation of the Kalman filter as an onboard navigation subsystem is the UDU formulation. A new way to implement a UDU consider filter is proposed. The non-optimality of the recursive consider filter is also analyzed, and a modified algorithm is proposed to overcome this limitation.

Zanetti, Renato; DSouza, Chris

2012-01-01

283

Some of the main aspects related to photographic filters are examined and prepared as a reference for researchers and students of remote sensing. A large range of information about the filters including their basic fundamentals, classification, and main types is presented. The theme cannot be exhausted in this or any other individual publication because of its great complexity, profound theoretical

Jose Eduardo Rodigues; Wagner Santosdealmeida

1987-01-01

284

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective. Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

285

A radiation source emits a beam of penetrating radiation toward an examination object. A protective filter, fabricated of yttrium foil attached to a bakelite card, is positioned in the path of the radiation beam between the source and the examination object. The yttrium filter has a preselected critical absorption edge operable to obstruct from the beam photon energy below 20 keV and permit a filtered beam having a photon energy above 20 keV to pass through the examination object. The filtered radiation emerging from the examination object is detected by preselected means, such as illuminated film, an X-ray intensifier, a CT scanner, or the like. The detector generates an output signal corresponding to the intensity of the emerging filtered radiation. An image processor converts the output signals to a radiographic image displaying the examination object.

Hartwell, G.

1985-02-12

286

Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

Wolverton, B. C.

1985-01-01

287

Texture segmentation using a class of narrowband filters

A class of 2D filters is proposed for segmenting visible images into regions of uniform texture. The filters used, known as Gabor filters, are optimal in several senses: they have tunable orientation bandwidths, they can be defined to operate over a range of spatial frequency channels, and they obey the uncertainty principle in two dimensions. The filters are interpreted as

MARIANNA CLARK; ALAN C. BOVIK; W. Geisler

1987-01-01

288

Holographic photopolymer linear variable filter with enhanced blue reflection.

A single beam one-step holographic interferometry method was developed to fabricate porous polymer structures with controllable pore size and location to produce compact graded photonic bandgap structures for linear variable optical filters. This technology is based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal materials. By introducing a forced internal reflection, the optical reflection throughout the visible spectral region, from blue to red, is high and uniform. In addition, the control of the bandwidth of the reflection resonance, related to the light intensity and spatial porosity distributions, was investigated to optimize the optical performance. The development of portable and inexpensive personal health-care and environmental multispectral sensing/imaging devices will be possible using these filters. PMID:24517443

Moein, Tania; Ji, Dengxin; Zeng, Xie; Liu, Ke; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Cartwright, Alexander N

2014-03-12

289

Initial Ares I Bending Filter Design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares-I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for control system design. Software filtering of the inertial sensor output will be required to ensure control system stability and adequate performance. This paper presents a design methodology employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares-I bending filters. The filter design methodology was based on a numerical constrained optimization approach to maximize stability margins while meeting performance requirements. The resulting bending filter designs achieved stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency and hence phase stabilizing the first Ares-I flex mode. To minimize rigid body performance impacts, a priority was placed via constraints in the optimization algorithm to minimize bandwidth decrease with the addition of the bending filters. The bending filters provided here have been demonstrated to provide a stable first stage control system in both the frequency domain and the MSFC MAVERIC time domain simulation.

Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Robert; Norris, H. Lee; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

2007-01-01

290

Bilateral filtering of magnetic resonance phase images.

High-pass filtering is required for the removal of background field inhomogeneities in magnetic resonance phase images. This high-pass filtering smooths across boundaries between areas with large differences in phase. The most prominent boundary is the surface of the brain where areas with large phase values inside the brain are located close to areas outside the brain where the phase is, on average, zero. Cortical areas, which are of great interest in brain MRI, are therefore often degraded by high-pass filtering. Here, we propose the use of the bilateral filter for the high-pass filtering step. The bilateral filter is essentially a Gaussian filter that stops smoothing at boundaries. We show that the bilateral filter improves image quality at the brain's surface, without sacrificing contrast within the brain. PMID:21664782

McPhee, Kelly C; Denk, Christian; Al-Rekabi, Zeinab; Rauscher, Alexander

2011-09-01

291

The objective of the study was to optimize the nutrition sources in a culture medium for the production of xylanase from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 using Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design. The Plackett-Burman multifactorial design was first employed to screen the important nutrient sources in the medium for xylanase production by Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 and subsequent use of the response surface methodology (RSM) was further optimized for xylanase production by Box-Behnken design. The important nutrient sources in the culture medium, identified by the initial screening method of Placket-Burman, were wheat bran, yeast extract, NaNO3, MgSO4, and CaCl2. The optimal amounts (in g/L) for maximum production of xylanase were: wheat bran, 32.8; yeast extract, 1.02; NaNO3, 12.71; MgSO4, 0.96; and CaCl2, 1.04. Using this statistical experimental design, the xylanase production under optimal condition reached 46.50 U/mL and an increase in xylanase activity of 1.34-fold was obtained compared with the original medium for fermentation carried out in a 30-L bioreactor. PMID:22949884

Cui, Fengjie; Zhao, Liming

2012-01-01

292

In this paper, we investigate optimized quantization method in JPEG2000 application for medical ultrasonic echo images. JPEG2000 has been issued as the new standard for image compression technique, which is based on Wavelet Transform (WT) and JPEG2000 incorporated into DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine). There are two quantization methods. One is the scalar derived quantization (SDQ), which is

Vimontha Khieovongphachanh; Kazuhiko Hamamoto; Shozo Kondo

2009-01-01

293

We present a power efficient DC to DC Converter to step down unregulated DC voltage source of 2.7 - 3.6 V to the regulated 1.8 V DC. The DC to DC Converter, constituted here, is designed for the load current range of 0 to 100 mA. It offers the output voltage ripple and the steady state error less than 1%

Prajakta Panse; T. Laxminidhi

2011-01-01

294

An insert is described which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment. 5 figs.

Sutton, G.P.

1998-07-14

295

An insert which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment.

Sutton, George P. (Danville, CA)

1998-01-01

296

Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus ( approximately 25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially. PMID:15286755

Srivastava, A; Srivastava, O N; Talapatra, S; Vajtai, R; Ajayan, P M

2004-09-01

297

Tunable Imaging Filters in Astronomy

While tunable filters are a recent development in night time astronomy, they have long been used in other physical sciences, e.g. solar physics, remote sensing and underwater communications. With their ability to tune precisely to a given wavelength using a bandpass optimized for the experiment, tunable filters are already producing some of the deepest narrowband images to date of astrophysical sources. Furthermore, some classes of tunable filters can be used in fast telescope beams and therefore allow for narrowband imaging over angular fields of more than a degree over the sky.

J. Bland-Hawthorn

2000-06-05

298

Optical filters with prescribed optical thickness and refined refractive indices.

We propose to refine the refractive index of the layers composing optical filters while keeping their optical thicknesses constant. Using this technique, one can optimize filters made of quarter-wave layers using conventional optimization techniques, while preserving the possibility to use turning-point monitoring during their fabrication. Application of this method to the design of a dual narrowband filter and a tilted edge filter demonstrates its effectiveness. PMID:18670572

Larouche, Stéphane; Martinu, Ludvik

2008-08-01

299

Filtered Audio Demo Max Kamenetsky

Filtered Audio Demo Max Kamenetsky In this demo you'll listen to a 10 second segment of music response, impulse and step responses, and snapshots of the input and output signals. First order lowpass; characteristic, would sound much more mu#15;ed.) The impulse response shows that this #12;lter smooths out

300

Collaborative emitter tracking using Rao-Blackwellized random exchange diffusion particle filtering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce in this paper the fully distributed, random exchange diffusion particle filter (ReDif-PF) to track a moving emitter using multiple received signal strength (RSS) sensors. We consider scenarios with both known and unknown sensor model parameters. In the unknown parameter case, a Rao-Blackwellized (RB) version of the random exchange diffusion particle filter, referred to as the RB ReDif-PF, is introduced. In a simulated scenario with a partially connected network, the proposed ReDif-PF outperformed a PF tracker that assimilates local neighboring measurements only and also outperformed a linearized random exchange distributed extended Kalman filter (ReDif-EKF). Furthermore, the novel ReDif-PF matched the tracking error performance of alternative suboptimal distributed PFs based respectively on iterative Markov chain move steps and selective average gossiping with an inter-node communication cost that is roughly two orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding cost for the Markov chain and selective gossip filters. Compared to a broadcast-based filter which exactly mimics the optimal centralized tracker or its equivalent (exact) consensus-based implementations, ReDif-PF showed a degradation in steady-state error performance. However, compared to the optimal consensus-based trackers, ReDif-PF is better suited for real-time applications since it does not require iterative inter-node communication between measurement arrivals.

Bruno, Marcelo G. S.; Dias, Stiven S.

2014-12-01

301

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide inventory maps are fundamental for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk. In tropical mountainous environments, mapping landslides is difficult as rapid and dense vegetation growth obscures landslides soon after their occurrence. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have been used to construct the digital terrain model (DTM) under dense vegetation, but its reliability for landslide recognition in the tropics remains surprisingly unknown. This study evaluates the suitability of ALS for generating an optimal DTM for mapping landslides in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. For the bare-earth extraction, we used hierarchical robust filtering algorithm and a parameterization with three sequential filtering steps. After each filtering step, four interpolations techniques were applied, namely: (i) the linear prediction derived from the SCOP++ (SCP), (ii) the inverse distance weighting (IDW), (iii) the natural neighbor (NEN) and (iv) the topo-to-raster (T2R). We assessed the quality of 12 DTMs in two ways: (1) with respect to 448 field-measured terrain heights and (2) based on the interpretability of landslides. The lowest root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.89 m across the landscape using three filtering steps and linear prediction as interpolation method. However, we found that a less stringent DTM filtering unveiled more diagnostic micro-morphological features, but also retained some of vegetation. Hence, a combination of filtering steps is required for optimal landslide interpretation, especially in forested mountainous areas. IDW was favored as the interpolation technique because it combined computational times more reasonably without adding artifacts to the DTM than T2R and NEN, which performed relatively well in the first and second filtering steps, respectively. The laser point density and the resulting ground point density after filtering are key parameters for producing a DTM applicable to landslide identification. The results showed that the ALS-derived DTMs allowed mapping and classifying landslides beneath equatorial mountainous forests, leading to a better understanding of hazardous geomorphic problems in tropical regions.

Razak, Khamarrul Azahari; Santangelo, Michele; Van Westen, Cees J.; Straatsma, Menno W.; de Jong, Steven M.

2013-05-01

302

An approach to the approximation problem for nonrecursive digital filters

A direct design procedure for nonrecursive digital filters, based primarily on the frequency-response characteristic of the desired filters, is presented. An optimization technique is used to minimize the maximum deviation of the synthesized filter from the ideal filter over some frequence range. Using this frequency-sampling technique, a wide variety of low-pass and bandpass filters have been designed, as well as

LAWRENCE R. RABINER; BERNARD GOLD; C. McGonegal

1970-01-01

303

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

2015-01-01

304

The Lockheed alternate partial polarizer universal filter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tunable birefringent filter using an alternate partial polarizer design has been built. The filter has a transmission of 38% in polarized light. Its full width at half maximum is .09A at 5500A. It is tunable from 4500 to 8500A by means of stepping motor actuated rotating half wave plates and polarizers. Wave length commands and thermal compensation commands are generated by a PPD 11/10 minicomputer. The alternate partial polarizer universal filter is compared with the universal birefringent filter and the design techniques, construction methods, and filter performance are discussed in some detail. Based on the experience of this filter some conclusions regarding the future of birefringent filters are elaborated.

Title, A. M.

1976-01-01

305

The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate became the fundamental cigarette filter material. By the mid-1960s, the meaning of the phrase ‘filter problem’ changed, such that the effort to develop effective filters became a campaign to market cigarette designs that would sustain the myth of cigarette filter efficacy. Conclusions This study indicates that cigarette designers at Philip Morris, British-American Tobacco, Lorillard and other companies believed for a time that they might be able to reduce some of the most dangerous substances in mainstream smoke through advanced engineering of filter tips. In their attempts to accomplish this, they developed the now ubiquitous cellulose acetate cigarette filter. By the mid-1960s cigarette designers realised that the intractability of the ‘filter problem’ derived from a simple fact: that which is harmful in mainstream smoke and that which provides the smoker with ‘satisfaction’ are essentially one and the same. Only in the wake of this realisation did the agenda of cigarette designers appear to transition away from mitigating the health hazards of smoking and towards the perpetuation of the notion that cigarette filters are effective in reducing these hazards. Filters became a marketing tool, designed to keep and recruit smokers as consumers of these hazardous products. PMID:21504917

2011-01-01

306

Tom Kehler, fishery biologist at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania, checks the flow rate of water leaving a phosphorus filter column. The USGS has pioneered a new use for acid mine drainage residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, usi...

307

Below, we propose a new automatic airtight filtering centrifuge for separating suspensions containing a nonabrasive solid phase with a particle size greater than 10 #m, andwe presentthe results of atest ofanexperimental model of such a centrifuge. It is based on a slotted-type screen. The centrifuge was developed and tested under laboratory conditions and in an experimental polyethylene-syn thesis unit in

A. E. Solokhnenko; V. I. Kukushkin

1978-01-01

308

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that automatic determination of regularization threshold and pre-filtering of 3-D fluorescence microscopic images improves the stability of deconvolution results when using the Linear Least squares Solution or the Maximum a Posteriori method. Doing so, the choice of the regularization parameter much less depends on a priori knowledge of the specimen or skills of the operator. This increases the reliability and repeatability of quantitative measurements on deconvolved images.

Colicchio, B.; Haeberlé, O.; Xu, C.; Dieterlen, A.; Jung, G.

2005-01-01

309

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the electromagnetic scattering problem in two dimensions, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is used. The order of convergence of the FDTD algorithm, solving the two-dimensional Maxwell's curl equations, is estimated in two different computer implementations: with and without an obstacle in the numerical domain of the FDTD scheme. This constitutes an electromagnetic scattering problem where a lumped sinusoidal current source, as a source of electromagnetic radiation, is included inside the boundary. Confined within the boundary, a specific kind of Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) is chosen and the outside of the boundary is in form of a Perfect Electric Conducting (PEC) surface. Inserted in the computer implementation, a semi-norm has been applied to compare different step sizes in the FDTD scheme. First, the domain of the problem is chosen to be the free-space without any obstacles. In the second part of the computer implementations, a PEC surface is included as the obstacle. The numerical instability of the algorithms can be rather easily avoided with respect to the Courant stability condition, which is frequently used in applying the general FDTD algorithm.

Monsefi, Farid; Carlsson, Linus; Ran?i?, Milica; Otterskog, Magnus; Silvestrov, Sergei

2014-12-01

310

A Sequential Ensemble Kalman Filter for Atmospheric Data Assimilation

An ensemble Kalman filter may be considered for the 4D assimilation of atmospheric data. In this paper, an efficient implementation of the analysis step of the filter is proposed. It employs a Schur (elementwise) product of the covariances of the background error calculated from the ensemble and a correlation function having local support to filter the small (and noisy) background-error

P. L. Houtekamer; Herschel L. Mitchell

2001-01-01

311

Theory and design of signal-adapted FIR paraunitary filter banks

We study the design of signal-adapted FIR paraunitary filter banks, using energy compaction as the adaptation criterion. We present some important properties that globally optimal solutions to this optimization problem satisfy. In particular, we show that the optimal filters in the first channel of the filter bank are spectral factors of the solution to a linear semi-infinite programming (SIP) problem.

Pierre Moulin; M. Kivanc Mihcak

1998-01-01

312

Treadmill stimulation improves newborn stepping.

To shed further light on infant stepping, we investigated whether newborns could step on a treadmill and adapt their steps to graded velocities. Twenty-one newborns (mean?=?3 days) were supported for 60?s trials on a treadmill that was static or moved at 13.4, 17.2, or 23.4?cm/s. Video analysis revealed that newborns made more real steps than in-place "pumps" on the moving treadmill than on the static treadmill and made more real steps at 17.2 than 23.4?cm/s. While the treadmill had no effect on arousal, stepping increased and showed higher quality and coordination across conditions when infants were crying. These findings suggest that treadmill interventions currently used to promote the development of independent locomotion in infants at risk of delay could begin at birth. Further investigation is needed to establish the optimal conditions for newborn treadmill stepping and to specify how arousal affects step rate, quality, and coordination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57: 247-254, 2015. PMID:25644966

Siekerman, Kim; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Anderson, David I; Donnelly, Alan; Goffinet, François; Teulier, Caroline

2015-03-01

313

The present study aimed to optimize the procedure for coating electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers with a calcium phosphate (CP) layer in order to improve their potential as bone tissue engineering scaffold. In particular, attention was paid to the reproducibility of the procedure, the morphology of the coating, and the preservation of the porous structure of the scaffold. Ethanol dipping followed by an ultrasonic assisted hydrolysis of the fiber surface with sodium hydroxide solution efficiently activated the surface. The resulting reactive groups served as nucleation points for CP precipitation, induced by alternate dipping of the samples in calcium and phosphate rich solutions. By controlling the deposition, a reproducible thin layer of CP was grown onto the fiber surface. The deposited CP was identified as calcium-deficient apatite (CDHAp). Analysis of the cell viability, adhesion, and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on untreated and CDHAp coated PCL scaffolds showed that the CDHAp coating enhanced the cell response, as the number of attached cells was higher in comparison to the untreated PCL and cells on the CDHAp coated samples showed similar morphologies as the ones found in the positive control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:24733786

Luickx, Nathalie; Van den Vreken, Natasja; D'Oosterlinck, Willem; Van der Schueren, Lien; Declercq, Heidi; De Clerck, Karen; Cornelissen, Maria; Verbeeck, Ronald

2014-04-15

314

Human colonic adenocarcinoma cells have been successfully grown on polystyrene microcarriers by modifying the culture conditions used in monolayer culture. The method can be divided into two culture phases: a) a phase of spreading, wherein cells were seeded in presence of serum-supplemented medium; b) a phase of active growth wherein spread cells on the beads were allowed to grow in a serum-free medium. Under these conditions, optimal spreading and growth of HT 29 and HRT 18 cells on the microcarriers were obtained. A differential propagation was observed between HT 29-D4 and HT 29-D9 cells (both clonal populations derived from HT 29 cells) on the microcarriers that is tentatively related to the discrepancy observed in the spreading efficiency of these clonal cells on serum-coated culture flasks. An index of spreading efficiency (IS index) has been defined to quantify the efficiency of spreading of each cell line on microcarriers. These data gave the opportunity to develop serum-free, scale-up methods to culture cells like HT 29 which release potentially useful products. PMID:3654483

Fantini, J; Galons, J P; Abadie, B; Canioni, P; Cozzone, P J; Marvaldi, J; Tirard, A

1987-09-01

315

Metal films perforated with subwavelength hole arrays have been show to demonstrate an effect known as Extraordinary Transmission (EOT). In EOT devices, optical transmission passbands arise that can have up to 90% transmission and a bandwidth that is only a few percent of the designed center wavelength. By placing a tunable dielectric in proximity to the EOT mesh, one can tune the center frequency of the passband. We have demonstrated over 1 micron of passive tuning in structures designed for an 11 micron center wavelength. If a suitable midwave (3-5 micron) tunable dielectric (perhaps BaTiO{sub 3}) were integrated with an EOT mesh designed for midwave operation, it is possible that a fast, voltage tunable, low temperature filter solution could be demonstrated with a several hundred nanometer passband. Such an element could, for example, replace certain components in a filter wheel solution.

Passmore, Brandon Scott; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01

316

Analysis of retinal blood vessels is extremely important for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, hypertension, glukoma, arteriosclerosis etc. Therefore, especially vessel segmentation is one of the most critical steps for detection and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, Gabor filter and 2D matched filter response methods, which are used to enhance blood vessels, were

Zafer Yavuz; Cemal Köse

2010-01-01

317

Study of the airborne LIDAR data filtering methods

Filter of airborne LIDAR data is a primary step of data processing. This paper reviews the literature of filter algorithms from aspects of theory and performance. The methods of filtering usually are slope-based surface-based and clustering\\/segmentation-based. In this paper the filtering methods of Lidar data are studied and summarized especially, the advantages and shortages of the present means are discussed.

Yangyang Zhang; Linjie Men

2010-01-01

318

Narrowband multiple wavelengths filter in aperiodic optical superlattice

We report on a theoretical analysis for the narrowband multiple wavelengths filter in aperiodic optical superlattice (AOS). The sequences of the opposite domains in AOS are optimized to realize the prescribed multiple wavelengths filtering using simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. Two, three and four wavelengths narrowband filters at telecommunication wavelength (near 1550 nm) are presented. The full width at half maximum

Xi Gu; Xianfeng Chen; Yuping Chen; Xianglong Zeng; Yuxing Xia; Yingli Chen

2004-01-01

319

Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

1995-12-31

320

Abstract—A new class of microstrip filter structures are designed, optimized, simulated and measured for ultra-narrowband performance essential to the wireless industry applications. More accurate model of the coupling coefficient is outlined and tested for narrowband filter design. Two sample filters are fabricated and measured to verify the simulations and prove the concept. The idea behind the new designs is based

Zuhair M. Hejazi; Maximilian C. Scardelletti; Frederick W. Van Keuls; Amjad A. Omar

2008-01-01

321

ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests being conducted by Westinghouse at Foster-Wheeler's Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Task 5 was designed to demonstrate the improvements implemented in Task 4 by fabricating fifty 1.5-meter hot gas filters. These filters were to be made available for DOE-sponsored field trials at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), operated by Southern Company Services in Wilsonville, Alabama.

E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

2000-09-30

322

The effect of spectral filters on reading speed and accuracy following stroke

Purpose The aim of the study was to determine the effect of optimal spectral filters on reading performance following stroke. Methods Seventeen stroke subjects, aged 43–85, were considered with an age-matched Control Group (n = 17). Subjects undertook the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test on three occasions: (i) using an optimally selected spectral filter; (ii) subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 used an optimal filter, whereas Group 2 used a grey filter, for two-weeks. The grey filter had similar photopic reflectance to the optimal filters, intended as a surrogate for a placebo; (iii) the groups were crossed over with Group 1 using a grey filter and Group 2 given an optimal filter, for two weeks, before undertaking the task once more. An increase in reading speed of >5% was considered clinically relevant. Results Initial use of a spectral filter in the stroke cohort, increased reading speed by ?8%, almost halving error scores, findings not replicated in controls. Prolonged use of an optimal spectral filter increased reading speed by >9% for stroke subjects; errors more than halved. When the same subjects switched to using a grey filter, reading speed reduced by ?4%. A second group of stroke subjects used a grey filter first; reading speed decreased by ?3% but increased by ?4% with an optimal filter, with error scores almost halving. Conclusions The present study has shown that spectral filters can immediately improve reading speed and accuracy following stroke, whereas prolonged use does not increase these benefits significantly.

Beasley, Ian G.; Davies, Leon N.

2013-01-01

323

Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition

A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Allebach, J.P.; Ochoa, E.; Sweeney, D.W.

1987-10-09

324

A filter algorithm: comparison with NLP solvers

The purpose of this work is to present an algorithm to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems, using the filter method with the inexact restoration (IR) approach. In the IR approach two independent phases are performed in each iteration—the feasibility and the optimality phases. The first one directs the iterative process into the feasible region, i.e. finds one point with less

Cândida Elisa P. Silva

2008-01-01

325

Far infrared spectroscopy with high resolution cyclotron resonance filters

A new type of far infrared spectroscopy based on a cyclotron resonance notch filter is demonstrated. The resonant absorption energy of such a filter is tuned by an external magnetic field. GaAs\\/AlGaAs heterostructures with high mobility two-dimensional electron gas are used to obtain an optimal cyclotron resonance filter. With such a filter, we can analyze far infrared radiation in the

C. Skierbiszewski; W. Knap; D. Dur; E. L. Ivchenko; S. Huant; B. Etienne

1998-01-01

326

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-noising and extraction of the weak signature are crucial to fault prognostics in which case features are often very weak and masked by noise. The wavelet transform has been widely used in signal de-noising due to its extraordinary time-frequency representation capability. In this paper, the performance of wavelet decomposition-based de-noising and wavelet filter-based de-noising methods are compared based on signals from mechanical defects. The comparison result reveals that wavelet filter is more suitable and reliable to detect a weak signature of mechanical impulse-like defect signals, whereas the wavelet decomposition de-noising method can achieve satisfactory results on smooth signal detection. In order to select optimal parameters for the wavelet filter, a two-step optimization process is proposed. Minimal Shannon entropy is used to optimize the Morlet wavelet shape factor. A periodicity detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to choose the appropriate scale for the wavelet transform. The signal de-noising results from both simulated signals and experimental data are presented and both support the proposed method.

Qiu, Hai; Lee, Jay; Lin, Jing; Yu, Gang

2006-02-01

327

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionosphere modeling is an important field of current studies because of its influences on the propagation of the electromagnetic signals. Among the various methods of obtaining ionospheric information, Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most prominent one because of extensive stations which are distributed all over the world. There are several studies in the literature related to the modeling of the ionosphere in terms of Total Electron Content (TEC). However, most of these studies investigate the ionosphere in the global and regional scales. On the other hand, complex dynamic of the ionosphere requires further studies in the local structure of the TEC distribution. In this work, Particle filter has been used for the investigation of the local character of the ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC). The GPS data of 29 ground based GPS stations, belonging to International GNSS Service (IGS) and Reference Frame Sub-commission for Europe (EUREF), for Europe have been used in this study. The data acquisition time is 18 February 2011 and the data is affected by the 15 February geomagnetic storm. In the preprocessing step, the observations of each satellite are examined for any possible cycle slip and also geometry-free linear combination of the observables are calculated for each continuous arc. Then, Pseudorange observations smoothed with the carrier to code leveling method. Particle filter is used for near-real time estimation of the VTEC and of the combined satellite and receiver biases. The Particle filter is implemented by recursively generating a set of weighted samples of the state variables. This filter has a flexible nature which can be more adaptive to some characteristics of the high dynamic systems. Besides, standard Kalman filter as an effective method for optimal state estimation is applied to the same data sets to compare the corresponding results with results of Particle filter. The comparison shows that Particle filter indicates better performance than the standard Kalman filter especially during the geomagnetic storm. Keywords: ionosphere, GPS, Kalman filter, Particle filer

Onur Karsl?o?lu, Mahmut; Aghakarimi, Armin

2013-04-01

328

Bilateral step length estimation using a single inertial measurement unit attached to the pelvis

Background The estimation of the spatio-temporal gait parameters is of primary importance in both physical activity monitoring and clinical contexts. A method for estimating step length bilaterally, during level walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the pelvis is proposed. In contrast to previous studies, based either on a simplified representation of the human gait mechanics or on a general linear regressive model, the proposed method estimates the step length directly from the integration of the acceleration along the direction of progression. Methods The IMU was placed at pelvis level fixed to the subject's belt on the right side. The method was validated using measurements from a stereo-photogrammetric system as a gold standard on nine subjects walking ten laps along a closed loop track of about 25 m, varying their speed. For each loop, only the IMU data recorded in a 4 m long portion of the track included in the calibrated volume of the SP system, were used for the analysis. The method takes advantage of the cyclic nature of gait and it requires an accurate determination of the foot contact instances. A combination of a Kalman filter and of an optimally filtered direct and reverse integration applied to the IMU signals formed a single novel method (Kalman and Optimally filtered Step length Estimation - KOSE method). A correction of the IMU displacement due to the pelvic rotation occurring in gait was implemented to estimate the step length and the traversed distance. Results The step length was estimated for all subjects with less than 3% error. Traversed distance was assessed with less than 2% error. Conclusions The proposed method provided estimates of step length and traversed distance more accurate than any other method applied to measurements obtained from a single IMU that can be found in the literature. In healthy subjects, it is reasonable to expect that, errors in traversed distance estimation during daily monitoring activity would be of the same order of magnitude of those presented. PMID:22316235

2012-01-01

329

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modification of conventional digital counting filter is designed to store all possible combinations of filter coefficients in random access memory. Filter includes analog-to-digital coverter, X shift register, memory, accumulator, and digital-to-analog converter.

Zohar, S.

1977-01-01

330

A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

1982-07-02

331

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

Stille, J. K.

1981-01-01

332

A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

333

A Filtering Method For Gravitationally Stratified Flows

Gravity waves arise in gravitationally stratified compressible flows at low Mach and Froude numbers. These waves can have a negligible influence on the overall dynamics of the fluid but, for numerical methods where the acoustic waves are treated implicitly, they impose a significant restriction on the time step. A way to alleviate this restriction is to filter out the modes corresponding to the fastest gravity waves so that a larger time step can be used. This paper presents a filtering strategy of the fully compressible equations based on normal mode analysis that is used throughout the simulation to compute the fast dynamics and that is able to damp only fast gravity modes.

Gatti-Bono, Caroline; Colella, Phillip

2005-04-25

334

Inverse Variation: Step By Step Lesson

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step lesson from the Math Ops website explains inverse variation. Students can read the text or follow along as it is read out loud. The lesson includes nine slides which explain what an inverse variation equation is, and include several real world examples of this type of mathematical model.

2012-08-29

335

One Step Forward, Half a Step Backward?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than thirty cases involving desegregation of public school systems handed down in the first 25 years after Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas, by the U.S. Supreme Court are discussed. However, the last 25 years have resulted in a situation of having the nation taking one step forward and half a step backwards, due to the conditions…

Russo, Charles J.

2004-01-01

336

Fast multi-symmetry adaptive loop filter algorithm

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to further improve the coding performance of Block-Based and Quadtree-Based Adaptive Loop Filter (BQ_ALF), the Fast Multi-Symmetry Adaptive Loop Filter Algorithm (FMS_ALF) is proposed. Firstly, this algorithm determines the optimal symmetry filter according to area symmetry and average sum of absolute difference. Then the filter areas are obtained through the block-based and quadtree-based method in I frame and through motion vector and Rate Distortion Optimization model A (RDOA) in P or B frame .Finally the obtained areas are filtered by the optimal symmetry filter. Simulation results show that compared with BQ_ALF, the proposed algorithm reduces the coding time greatly while retains the reconstructed picture quality.

Li, Hongwei; Li, Yunsong; Wu, Chengke; Song, Rui; Feng, Yuli

2010-08-01

337

2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions

In two dimensions, 2-Step Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy (2-Step IMAT) and 2-Step Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were shown to be powerful methods for the optimization of plans with organs at risk (OAR) (partially) surrounded by a target volume (PTV). In three dimensions, some additional boundary conditions have to be considered to establish 2-Step IMAT as an optimization method. A further aim was to create rules for ad hoc adaptations of an IMRT plan to a daily changing PTV-OAR constellation. As a test model, a cylindrically symmetric PTV-OAR combination was used. The centrally placed OAR can adapt arbitrary diameters with different gap widths toward the PTV. Along the rotation axis the OAR diameter can vary, the OAR can even vanish at some axis positions, leaving a circular PTV. The width and weight of the second segment were the free parameters to optimize. The objective function f to minimize was the root of the integral of the squared difference of the dose in the target volume and a reference dose. For the problem, two local minima exist. Therefore, as a secondary criteria, the magnitude of hot and cold spots were taken into account. As a result, the solution with a larger segment width was recommended. From plane to plane for varying radii of PTV and OAR and for different gaps between them, different sets of weights and widths were optimal. Because only one weight for one segment shall be used for all planes (respectively leaf pairs), a strategy for complex three-dimensional (3-D) cases was established to choose a global weight. In a second step, a suitable segment width was chosen, minimizing f for this global weight. The concept was demonstrated in a planning study for a cylindrically symmetric example with a large range of different radii of an OAR along the patient axis. The method is discussed for some classes of tumor/organ at risk combinations. Noncylindrically symmetric cases were treated exemplarily. The product of width and weight of the additional segment as well as the integral across the segment profile was demonstrated to be an important value. This product was up to a factor of 3 larger than in the 2-D case. Even in three dimensions, the optimized 2-Step IMAT increased the homogeneity of the dose distribution in the PTV profoundly. Rules for adaptation to varying target-OAR combinations were deduced. It can be concluded that 2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT are also applicable in three dimensions. In the majority of cases, weights between 0.5 and 2 will occur for the additional segment. The width-weight product of the second segment is always smaller than the normalized radius of the OAR. The width-weight product of the additional segment is strictly connected to the relevant diameter of the organ at risk and the target volume. The derived formulas can be helpful to adapt an IMRT plan to altering target shapes.

Bratengeier, Klaus [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 11, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

2005-12-15

338

Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

Vadnais, Kenneth G. (Ojai, CA); Bashforth, Michael B. (Buellton, CA); Lewallen, Tricia S. (Ventura, CA); Nammath, Sharyn R. (Santa Barbara, CA)

1994-01-01

339

Polychromator filter design with genetic algorithm

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics, polychromators are equipped with several optical band-pass filters which cover the spectral region where the radiation from the incident laser beam is expected to be Doppler shifted. The spectral location of the transmission band of individual filters has a strong influence on the measured electron temperature (Te) since the latter is derived from a previously computed lookup table including the spectral specifications of the filters. Here, we present the design of the set of polychromator filters through genetic algorithms (GAs). We examine the developed algorithm under two specific target conditions, and optimized filter sets covering the wavelength region longer than the wavelength of the incident laser seem to be more effective in improving the accuracy of the Te calculations provided by the diagnostic.

Oh, Seungtae; Park, Jiyoung

2015-02-01

340

Application of an Optimal Tuner Selection Approach for On-Board Self-Tuning Engine Models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enhanced design methodology for minimizing the error in on-line Kalman filter-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications is presented in this paper. It specific-ally addresses the under-determined estimation problem, in which there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. This work builds upon an existing technique for systematically selecting a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. While the existing technique was optimized for open-loop engine operation at a fixed design point, in this paper an alternative formulation is presented that enables the technique to be optimized for an engine operating under closed-loop control throughout the flight envelope. The theoretical Kalman filter mean squared estimation error at a steady-state closed-loop operating point is derived, and the tuner selection approach applied to minimize this error is discussed. A technique for constructing a globally optimal tuning parameter vector, which enables full-envelope application of the technology, is also presented, along with design steps for adjusting the dynamic response of the Kalman filter state estimates. Results from the application of the technique to linear and nonlinear aircraft engine simulations are presented and compared to the conventional approach of tuner selection. The new methodology is shown to yield a significant improvement in on-line Kalman filter estimation accuracy.

Simon, Donald L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Garg, Sanjay

2012-01-01

341

Crowdsourcing step-by-step information extraction to enhance existing how-to videos

Millions of learners today use how-to videos to master new skills in a variety of domains. But browsing such videos is often tedious and inefficient because video player interfaces are not optimized for the unique step-by-step ...

Nguyen, Phu Tran

342

Hepa filter dissolution process

A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

343

Recirculating electric air filter

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09

344

HEPA filter dissolution process

A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1994-02-22

345

In this paper, we propose a novel type of explicit image fil- ter - guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter generates the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can perform as an edge-preserving smoothing opera- tor like

Kaiming He; Jian Sun; Xiaoou Tang

2010-01-01

346

This review summarizes the research progress made so far on electret air filters used for separation of airborne particles from complex air stream. A set of different categories of these filters are delineated and the methods of manufacturing of these filters are described. The principles and mechanisms of filtration and modeling of pressure drop by these filters are analyzed. The

Rashmi Thakur; Dipayan Das; Apurba Das

2012-01-01

347

Recirculating electric air filter

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01

348

Potential Accuracy of the Television Method of Measurement with Fluctuation Noise Filtering

An expression is derived for the potential accuracy of the television method of measuring the size of objects by idealizing the Wiener filter when solving the problem of optimal linear filtering of television signals.

E. M. Rusinov

2001-01-01

349

New Fingerprint Image Enhancement Using Directional Filter Bank

This paper describes a new method of directional filter-based analysis for fingerprint enhancement. Fingerprint images can be represented by a directional field of regular structure of ridge patterns. The dominant directional component of ridge plays a very important role in the pre-processing steps of fingerprint image analysis such as ridge's linking and noise removal for minutiae extraction. A directional filter

Oh Sang-keun; Joon-jae Lee; Chul-hyun Park; Bum-soo Kim; Kil-houm Park

2003-01-01

350

Online tuning of PID controllers using delayed state variable filters

Delayed state variable filters are implemented for the estimation of monotone open-loop processes which can be approximated by a dominant time delay coupled with a first order lag. Based on the delayed filtered step output response, the first and second order derivatives, the corresponding static process gain, the apparent dead time and the apparent time constant are evaluated. A new

K. M. Tsang; A. B. Rad; F. W. To

1993-01-01

351

Low-complexity wavelet filter design for image compression

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image compression algorithms based on the wavelet transform are an increasingly attractive and flexible alternative to other algorithms based on block orthogonal transforms. While the design of orthogonal wavelet filters has been studied in significant depth, the design of nonorthogonal wavelet filters, such as linear-phase (LP) filters, has not yet reached that point. Of particular interest are wavelet transforms with low complexity at the encoder. In this article, we present known and new parameterizations of the two families of LP perfect reconstruction (PR) filters. The first family is that of all PR LP filters with finite impulse response (FIR), with equal complexity at the encoder and decoder. The second family is one of LP PR filters, which are FIR at the encoder and infinite impulse response (IIR) at the decoder, i.e., with controllable encoder complexity. These parameterizations are used to optimize the subband/wavelet transform coding gain, as defined for nonorthogonal wavelet transforms. Optimal LP wavelet filters are given for low levels of encoder complexity, as well as their corresponding integer approximations, to allow for applications limited to using integer arithmetic. These optimal LP filters yield larger coding gains than orthogonal filters with an equivalent complexity. The parameterizations described in this article can be used for the optimization of any other appropriate objective function.

Majani, E.

1994-01-01

352

Software Would Largely Automate Design of Kalman Filter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Embedded Navigation Filter Automatic Designer (ENFAD) is a computer program being developed to automate the most difficult tasks in designing embedded software to implement a Kalman filter in a navigation system. The most difficult tasks are selection of error states of the filter and tuning of filter parameters, which are timeconsuming trial-and-error tasks that require expertise and rarely yield optimum results. An optimum selection of error states and filter parameters depends on navigation-sensor and vehicle characteristics, and on filter processing time. ENFAD would include a simulation module that would incorporate all possible error states with respect to a given set of vehicle and sensor characteristics. The first of two iterative optimization loops would vary the selection of error states until the best filter performance was achieved in Monte Carlo simulations. For a fixed selection of error states, the second loop would vary the filter parameter values until an optimal performance value was obtained. Design constraints would be satisfied in the optimization loops. Users would supply vehicle and sensor test data that would be used to refine digital models in ENFAD. Filter processing time and filter accuracy would be computed by ENFAD.

Chuang, Jason C. H.; Negast, William J.

2005-01-01

353

Analysis Scheme in the Ensemble Kalman Filter

This paper discusses an important issue related to the implementation and interpretation of the analysis scheme in the ensemble Kalman filter. It is shown that the observations must be treated as random variables at the analysis steps. That is, one should add random perturbations with the correct statistics to the observations and generate an ensemble of observations that then is

Gerrit Burgers; Peter Jan van Leeuwen; Geir Evensen

1998-01-01

354

A method for improving time-stepping numerics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contemporary numerical simulations of the atmosphere, evidence suggests that time-stepping errors may be a significant component of total model error, on both weather and climate time-scales. This presentation will review the available evidence, and will then suggest a simple but effective method for substantially improving the time-stepping numerics at no extra computational expense. The most common time-stepping method is the leapfrog scheme combined with the Robert-Asselin (RA) filter. This method is used in the following atmospheric models (and many more): ECHAM, MAECHAM, MM5, CAM, MESO-NH, HIRLAM, KMCM, LIMA, SPEEDY, IGCM, PUMA, COSMO, FSU-GSM, FSU-NRSM, NCEP-GFS, NCEP-RSM, NSEAM, NOGAPS, RAMS, and CCSR/NIES-AGCM. Although the RA filter controls the time-splitting instability in these models, it also introduces non-physical damping and reduces the accuracy. This presentation proposes a simple modification to the RA filter. The modification has become known as the RAW filter (Williams 2011). When used in conjunction with the leapfrog scheme, the RAW filter eliminates the non-physical damping and increases the amplitude accuracy by two orders, yielding third-order accuracy. (The phase accuracy remains second-order.) The RAW filter can easily be incorporated into existing models, typically via the insertion of just a single line of code. Better simulations are obtained at no extra computational expense. Results will be shown from recent implementations of the RAW filter in various atmospheric models, including SPEEDY and COSMO. For example, in SPEEDY, the skill of weather forecasts is found to be significantly improved. In particular, in tropical surface pressure predictions, five-day forecasts made using the RAW filter have approximately the same skill as four-day forecasts made using the RA filter (Amezcua, Kalnay & Williams 2011). These improvements are encouraging for the use of the RAW filter in other models.

Williams, P. D.

2012-04-01

355

Optimization of Aperiodic Waveguide Mode Converters

Previous studies by Haq, Webb and others have demonstrated the design of aperiodic waveguide structures to act as filters and mode converters. These aperiodic structures have been shown to yield high efficiency mode conversion or filtering in lengths considerably shorter than structures using gradual transitions and periodic perturbations. The design method developed by Haq and others has used mode-matching models for the irregular, stepped waveguides coupled with computer optimization to achieve the design goal using a Matlab optimization routine. Similar designs are described here, using a mode matching code written in Fortran and with optimization accomplished with the downhill simplex method with simulated annealing using an algorithm from the book Numerical Recipes in Fortran. Where Haq et al. looked mainly for waveguide shapes with relatively wide cavities, we have sought lower profile designs. It is found that lower profiles can meet the design goals and result in a structure with lower Q. In any case, there appear to be very many possible configurations for a given mode conversion goal, to the point that it is unlikely to find the same design twice. Tolerance analysis was carried out for the designs to show edge sensitivity and Monte Carlo degradation rate. The mode matching code and mode conversion designs were validated by comparison with FDTD solutions for the discontinuous waveguides.

Burke, G J; White, D A; Thompson, C A

2004-12-09

356

Canonical Signed Digit Study. Part 2; FIR Digital Filter Simulation Results

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite Impulse Response digital filter using Canonical Signed-Digit (CSD) number representation for the coefficients has been studied and its computer simulation results are presented here. Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion is employed to optimize filter coefficients into the corresponding CSD numbers. To further improve coefficients optimization process, an extra non-zero bit is added for any filter coefficients exceeding 1/2. This technique improves frequency response of filter without increasing filter complexity almost at all. The simulation results show outstanding performance in bit-error-rate (BER) curve for all CSD implemented digital filters included in this presentation material.

Kim, Heechul

1996-01-01

357

Detection of Steps in Single Molecule Data

Over the past few decades, single molecule investigations employing optical tweezers, AFM and TIRF microscopy have revealed that molecular behaviors are typically characterized by discrete steps or events that follow changes in protein conformation. These events, that manifest as steps or jumps, are short-lived transitions between otherwise more stable molecular states. A major limiting factor in determining the size and timing of the steps is the noise introduced by the measurement system. To address this impediment to the analysis of single molecule behaviors, step detection algorithms incorporate large records of data and provide objective analysis. However, existing algorithms are mostly based on heuristics that are not reliable and lack objectivity. Most of these step detection methods require the user to supply parameters that inform the search for steps. They work well, only when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is high and stepping speed is low. In this report, we have developed a novel step detection method that performs an objective analysis on the data without input parameters, and based only on the noise statistics. The noise levels and characteristics can be estimated from the data providing reliable results for much smaller SNR and higher stepping speeds. An iterative learning process drives the optimization of step-size distributions for data that has unimodal step-size distribution, and produces extremely low false positive outcomes and high accuracy in finding true steps. Our novel methodology, also uniquely incorporates compensation for the smoothing affects of probe dynamics. A mechanical measurement probe typically takes a finite time to respond to step changes, and when steps occur faster than the probe response time, the sharp step transitions are smoothed out and can obscure the step events. To address probe dynamics we accept a model for the dynamic behavior of the probe and invert it to reveal the steps. No other existing method addresses the impact of probe dynamics on step detection. Importantly, we have also developed a comprehensive set of tools to evaluate various existing step detection techniques. We quantify the performance and limitations of various step detection methods using novel evaluation scales. We show that under these scales, our method provides much better overall performance. The method is validated on different simulated test cases, as well as experimental data. PMID:23956798

Aggarwal, Tanuj; Materassi, Donatello; Davison, Robert; Hays, Thomas; Salapaka, Murti

2013-01-01

358

Triple-Band HTS Filter Using Dual Spiral Resonators With Capacitive-Loading

The increasing demand on microwave spectrum for communication systems has been the driving force in the filter industry. Multiple filtering characteristics have become necessary for many filter designs in mobile and satellite applications. In this paper, a new cost-function for an optimization algorithm to achieve a multiple passband filtering function has been introduced. A high-temperature superconductor ten-pole filter with triple-band

Ammar M. Abu-Hudrouss; Awni B. Jayyousi; Michael J. Lancaster

2008-01-01

359

Nanoplasmonic filters for image sensors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As pixels shrink in CMOS detectors, scaling effects could lead to potential issues with existing colored filters because of their thickness (approx. 1?m). In this paper, we propose to investigate a new generation of filters that are potentially thinner by approximately a decade. Several years ago [1], nanometric metallic gratings have been found to have very unusual transmission properties. Especially, unexpected high transmission has been measured at specific wavelengths. Since these first experiments, studies have shown that very different optical processes can be responsible for these resonant transmissions, depending on the geometry of the grating. This has led to the demonstration of first applications in imaging[2]. With our designs, we show that such components are suitable for RGB color filters. We first discuss the theoretical performances and the integration of these components through modeling with rigorous electromagnetical techniques (RCWA and FDTD) in 2D and in 3D. As an example we evaluate the impact of the pixelization, the technological errors and the illumination conditions on the filter performances. Thanks to an algorithm that can optimize color correction matrix, we show that we have a satisfactory color rendering (dE=4.3). In a second part we realize these samples. We sputter Al layers on glass substrates and structure them with Focused Ion Beam technology that enables approximately 30 nm resolution. These structures are compatible in size with pixel dimensions (1.5 ?m X 1.5 ?m) and are tested with a dedicated micro-spectrometer.

Gétin, Stéphane; Désičres, Yohan; Marie, Mathilde; Auvert, Geoffroy; Pellé, Catherine; Lartigue, Olivier; Poupinet, Ludovic; Frey, Laurent

2009-02-01

360

Interpolated narrowband lowpass FIR filters

The article describes a class of digital filters, called interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) filters that can implement narrowband lowpass FIR filter designs with a significantly reduced computational workload relative to traditional FIR filters. Topics discussed include: optimum expansion factor choice, number of FIR filter taps estimation, IFIR filter performance modeling, passband ripple considerations, implementation, and filter design.

R. Lyons

2003-01-01

361

A superior edge preserving filter with a systematic analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new, adaptive, edge preserving filter for use in image processing is presented. It had superior performance when compared to other filters. Termed the contiguous K-average, it aggregates pixels by examining all pixels contiguous to an existing cluster and adding the pixel closest to the mean of the existing cluster. The process is iterated until K pixels were accumulated. Rather than simply compare the visual results of processing with this operator to other filters, some approaches were developed which allow quantitative evaluation of how well and filter performs. Particular attention is given to the standard deviation of noise within a feature and the stability of imagery under iterative processing. Demonstrations illustrate the performance of several filters to discriminate against noise and retain edges, the effect of filtering as a preprocessing step, and the utility of the contiguous K-average filter when used with remote sensing data.

Holladay, Kenneth W.; Rickman, Doug

1991-01-01

362

Advanced CSS Layouts: Step by Step

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most Web sites are designed with HTML tables, which can be an arduous task. Making sites that are accessible and standards-compliant requires a separation of markup and content, and CSS is the best way to accomplish this. This Web page by Rogelio Vizcaino Lizaola and Andy King offers a step-by-step CSS layout tutorial on how to create WebReference table-like layouts (that behave well with small window sizes and large fonts), while avoiding some of the bugs and problems discovered in other implementations. Target browsers include all of the generation five and greater browsers on both Windows and Macintosh platforms.

King, Andy.; Vizcaino Lizaola, Rogelio.

2002-01-01

363

Gabor filter based fingerprint image enhancement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fingerprint recognition technology has become the most reliable biometric technology due to its uniqueness and invariance, which has been most convenient and most reliable technique for personal authentication. The development of Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an urgent need for modern information security. Meanwhile, fingerprint preprocessing algorithm of fingerprint recognition technology has played an important part in Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This article introduces the general steps in the fingerprint recognition technology, namely the image input, preprocessing, feature recognition, and fingerprint image enhancement. As the key to fingerprint identification technology, fingerprint image enhancement affects the accuracy of the system. It focuses on the characteristics of the fingerprint image, Gabor filters algorithm for fingerprint image enhancement, the theoretical basis of Gabor filters, and demonstration of the filter. The enhancement algorithm for fingerprint image is in the windows XP platform with matlab.65 as a development tool for the demonstration. The result shows that the Gabor filter is effective in fingerprint image enhancement technology.

Wang, Jin-Xiang

2013-03-01

364

Narrowband multispectral filter set for visible band.

We design, fabricate and characterise a narrowband Fabry-Pérot multispectral filter set for the visible range (400-750 nm) that is suitable for integration onto complementary-metal oxide-semiconductor image sensors. We reduce the fabrication steps by fixing the physical cavity length and altering the effective optical length instead. Using electron-beam lithography, a sub-wavelength hole array is patterned in a silicon nitride cavity layer, backfilled with poly(methyl methacrylate), and bounded by aluminium mirrors to create 23 filters with full-width half-maximums of 22-46 nm. Additionally, for colourmetric reproduction applications, using as few as 10 filters gives a colour difference (CIEDE2000) of 0.072, better than trichromatic filters. PMID:23037341

Walls, K; Chen, Q; Grant, J; Collins, S; Cumming, D R S; Drysdale, T D

2012-09-24

365

HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection.

GUSTAVSON, R.D.

2000-05-11

366

Cordierite silicon nitride filters

The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. (Acurex Environmental Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. (Aerotherm Corp., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. (GTE Products Corp., Towanda, PA (United States))

1992-02-01

367

Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, whereafter the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant.

Miley, Harry S. (219 Rockwood Dr., Richland, WA 99352); Thompson, Robert C. (5313 Phoebe La., West Richland, WA 99352); Hubbard, Charles W. (1900 Stevens, Apt. 526, Richland, WA 99352); Perkins, Richard W. (1413 Sunset, Richland, WA 99352)

1997-01-01

368

Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, where after the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant. 5 figs.

Miley, H.S.; Thompson, R.C.; Hubbard, C.W.; Perkins, R.W.

1997-03-25

369

Bayesian filtering in electronic surveillance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of passive electronic support measures (ESM) with active radar data enables tracking and identification of platforms in air, ground, and maritime domains. An effective multi-sensor fusion architecture adopts hierarchical real-time multi-stage processing. This paper focuses on the recursive filtering challenges. The first challenge is to achieve effective platform identification based on noisy emitter type measurements; we show that while optimal processing is computationally infeasible, a good suboptimal solution is available via a sequential measurement processing approach. The second challenge is to process waveform feature measurements that enable disambiguation in multi-target scenarios where targets may be using the same emitters. We show that an approach that explicitly considers the Markov jump process outperforms the traditional Kalman filtering solution.

Coraluppi, Stefano; Carthel, Craig

2012-06-01

370

Weighted Temporal Long Trajectory Filtering for Video Compression

,glantz,krutz,tok,sikora}@nue.tu-berlin.de Abstract-- In the context of the HEVC standardization activity, in-loop filters such as the adaptive loop with the adaptive loop filter for the HEVC low-delay profile. In addition, an optimal weighting function a well-known fact that in-loop filters can be used to improve both the objective and subjective quality

Wichmann, Felix

371

Step by Step Instructions Adding an Individual Description of Work

Step by Step Instructions Adding an Individual Description of Work To a Job Hazards Analysis of Work to a Job Hazards Analysis (JHA). Step 1: Log In Step 2: Create a Draft JHA Step 3: Update Description of Work Step 4: Create Hazards Profile Step 5: Confirm Creation of JHA Adding Description of Work

372

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from ZOOM, cast members try to make the most effective water filter. They experiment with filtering dirty, salty water through different combinations of sand, gravel, and a cotton bandana.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2005-12-17

373

Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov [JSC 'Kondor-Eko,' Yaroslavl' Oblast' (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15

374

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents responses to 10 common arguments against the use of Internet filters in libraries. Highlights include keyword blocking; selection of materials; liability of libraries using filters; users' judgments; Constitutional issues, including First Amendment rights; and censorship. (LRW)

Burt, David

1997-01-01

375

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall design of filter combines radix converter with ADC in single functional unit that directly converts analog input to its negative binary representation. Four basic elements of filter are fixed register, shift register, counter, and accumulator.

Zohar, S.

1977-01-01

376

Optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis.

Gaussian smoothing of images is an important step in Voxel-based Analysis and Statistical Parametric Mapping (VBA-SPM); it accounts for registration errors and integrates imaging signals from a region around each voxel being analyzed. However, it has also become a limitation of VBA-SPM based methods, since it is often chosen empirically, non-optimally, and lacks spatial adaptivity to the shape and spatial extent of the region of interest. In this paper, we propose a new framework, named Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Analysis (ODVBA), for determining the optimal spatially adaptive smoothing of images, followed by applying voxel-based group analysis. In ODVBA, Nonnegative Discriminative Projection is applied locally to get the direction that best discriminates between two groups, e.g. patients and controls; this direction is equivalent to local filtering by an optimal kernel whose coefficients define the optimally discriminative direction. By considering all the neighborhoods that contain a given voxel, we then compose this information to produce the statistic for each voxel. Permutation tests are finally used to obtain the statistical significance. The experiments on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) study have shown the effectiveness of the framework. PMID:20879323

Zhang, Tianhao; Davatzikos, Christos

2010-01-01

377

Thermal control design of the Lightning Mapper Sensor narrow-band spectral filter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the Lightning Mapper Sensor is dependent on the temperature shifts of its narrowband spectral filter. To perform over a 10 degree FOV with an 0.8 nm bandwidth, the filter must be 15 cm in diameter and mounted externally to the telescope optics. The filter thermal control required a filter design optimized for minimum bandpass shift with temperature, a thermal analysis of substrate materials for maximum temperature uniformity, and a thermal radiation analysis to determine the parameter sensitivity of the radiation shield for the filter, the filter thermal recovery time after occultation, and heater power to maintain filter performance in the earth-staring geosynchronous environment.

Flannery, Martin R.; Potter, John; Raab, Jeff R.; Manlief, Scott K.

1992-01-01

378

Nonlinear bayesian filtering with applications to estimation and navigation

In principle, general approaches to optimal nonlinear filtering can be described in a unified way from the recursive Bayesian approach. The central idea to this recur- sive Bayesian estimation is to determine the probability density function...

Lee, Deok-Jin

2005-08-29

379

Unlike traditional passive harmonic filters, modern active harmonic filters have the following multiple functions: harmonic filtering, damping,isolation and termination, reactive-power control for power factor correction and voltage regulation, load balancing, voltage-flicker reduction, and\\/or their combinations. Significant cost reductions in both power semiconductor devices and signal processing devices have inspired manufactures to put active filters on the market. This paper deals

HIROFUMI AKAGI

2005-01-01

380

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

Nagle, H. T., Jr.

1972-01-01

381

SOLUTION OF A GROUNDWATER CONTROL PROBLEM WITH IMPLICIT FILTERING \\Lambda

SOLUTION OF A GROUNDWATER CONTROL PROBLEM WITH IMPLICIT FILTERING \\Lambda A. BATTERMANN y , J. M an industrial site. Key words. Implicit filtering, Groundwater flow and transport, Optimal control, Parallel on a groundwater temperature control problem. This problem has some of the imporÂ tant difficulties

382

MULTI-FOVEATION FILTERING T. Popkin, A. Cavallaro

MULTI-FOVEATION FILTERING T. Popkin, A. Cavallaro Multimedia and Vision Group, Queen Mary in foveation filtering) that is optimal in the sense of discarding frequencies in least-noticeable-first order. Existing approaches usually solve the multi-viewer foveation problem as a number of single

Cavallaro, Andrea

383

Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate bypassing a broken or leaking candle while having a low enough pressure drop to allow the candle to be backpulse-regenerated. Forward-flow pressure drop should increase by no more than 20% because of incorporation of the fail-safe filter.

Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

2002-09-18

384

Robust ensemble filtering and its relation to covariance inflation in the ensemble Kalman filter

We propose a robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the $H_{\\infty}$ filtering theory. The optimal $H_{\\infty}$ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used in the Kalman filter. By design, the $H_{\\infty}$ filter is more robust than the Kalman filter, in the sense that the estimation error in the $H_{\\infty}$ filter in general has a finite growth rate with respect to the uncertainties in assimilation, except for a special case that corresponds to the Kalman filter. The original form of the $H_{\\infty}$ filter contains global constraints in time, which may be inconvenient for sequential data assimilation problems. Therefore we introduce a variant that solves some time-local constraints instead, and hence we call it the time-local $H_{\\infty}$ filter (TLHF). By analogy to the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), we also propose the concept of ensemble time-local $H_{\\infty}$ filter (EnTLHF). We outline the general form of the EnTLHF, and discuss some of its special cases. In particular, we show that an EnKF with certain covariance inflation is essentially an EnTLHF. In this sense, the EnTLHF provides a general framework for conducting covariance inflation in the EnKF-based methods. We use some numerical examples to assess the relative robustness of the TLHF/EnTLHF in comparison with the corresponding KF/EnKF method.

Xiaodong Luo; Ibrahim Hoteit

2011-07-31

385

According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

Sellers, Cheryl L. (Peoria, IL); Nordyke, Daniel S. (Arlington Heights, IL); Crandell, Richard A. (Morton, IL); Tomlins, Gregory (Peoria, IL); Fei, Dong (Peoria, IL); Panov, Alexander (Dunlap, IL); Lane, William H. (Chillicothe, IL); Habeger, Craig F. (Chillicothe, IL)

2008-12-09

386

Practical Active Capacitor Filter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus is described that filters an electrical signal. The filtering uses a capacitor multiplier circuit where the capacitor multiplier circuit uses at least one amplifier circuit and at least one capacitor. A filtered electrical signal results from a direct connection from an output of the at least one amplifier circuit.

Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

387

In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc. PMID:23599054

He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

2013-06-01

388

The objectives of this program are to provide a more ruggedized filter system that utilizes porous ceramic filters which have improved resistance to damage resulting from crack propagation, thermal fatigue and\\/or thermal excursions during plant or process transient conditions, and\\/or mechanical ash bridging events within the candle filter array. As part of the current Phase 1, Task 1, effort of

M. A. Alvin; T. E. Lippert; E. S. Diaz; E. W. Smeltzer

1995-01-01

389

Collaborative Filtering CAPTCHAs

Current CAPTCHAs require users to solve objective ques- tions such as text recognition or image recognition. We propose a class of CAPTCHAs based on collaborative filtering. Collaborative filtering CAPTCHAs allow us to ask questions that have no absolute answer; instead, the CAPTCHAs are graded by comparison to other people's answers. We analyze the security requirements of collaborative filtering CAPTCHAs and

Monica Chew; J. D. Tygar

2005-01-01

390

A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

Gates-Anderson, Dianne D. (Union City, CA); Kidd, Scott D. (Brentwood, CA); Bowers, John S. (Manteca, CA); Attebery, Ronald W. (San Lorenzo, CA)

2003-01-01

391

Mammogram enhancement using alpha weighted quadratic filter.

Mammograms are widely used to detect breast cancer in women. The quality of the image may suffer from poor resolution or low contrast due to the limitations of the X-ray hardware systems. Image enhancement is a powerful tool to improve the visual quality of mammograms. This paper introduces a new powerful nonlinear filter called the alpha weighted quadratic filter for mammogram enhancement. The user has the flexibility to design the filter by selecting all of the parameters manually or using an existing quantitative measure to select the optimal enhancement parameters. Computer simulations show that excellent enhancement results can be obtained with no apriori knowledge of the mammogram contents. The filter can also be used for automatic segmentation. PMID:19965002

Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

2009-01-01

392

Stratified Filtered Sampling in Stochastic Optimization

reduction, stratified sampling, stochastic optiÂ mization, performance evaluation 1 Introduction Group John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company Boston, Massachusetts John M. Mulvey Princeton York September 22, 1999 Abstract We develop a methodology for evaluating a decision strategy gener

Mitchell, John E.

393

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal alignment of two given biosequences is mathematically optimal, but it may not be a biologically optimal one. To investigate more possible alignments with biological meaning, one can relax the scoring functions to get near-optimal alignments. Though the near optimal alignments increase the possibility of finding the correct alignment, they may confuse the biologists because the size of candidates is large. In this paper, we present the filter scheme for the near-optimal alignments. An easy method for tracing the near-optimal alignments and an algorithm for filtering those alignments are proposed. The time complexity of our algorithm is O(dmn) in the worst case, where d is the maximum distance between the near-optimal alignments and the optimal alignment, and m and n are the lengths of the input sequences, respectively.

Tseng, Kuo-Tsung; Yang, Chang-Biau; Huang, Kuo-Si; Peng, Yung-Hsing

394

Modeling hydrology and sediment transport in vegetative filter strips

Sediment and sediment bounded pollutants carried by runoff from non-point sources is a major pollutant of water bodies. Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are bands of planted or indigenous vegetation used to control runoff and sediment outflow from disturbed areas. This work presents and validates a research model to study the hydrology and sediment movement in VFS. This was accomplished in four steps. The numerical solution of the overland flow kinematic wave equations is subject to numerical problems when a rapid change in parameters is encountered (kinematic shock). An improved finite element method, i.e. a Petrov-Galerkin (PG) formulation, is presented. The formulation depends on four parameters. The PG method decreased the mean sum of square error by about 65%. The finite element overland flow solution is modified and linked to the Green-Ampt infiltration equation to form a VFS-specific hydrology model. An analysis of the effect of different filter properties (soil type, slope, surface roughness, buffer length) on the major hydrological out-puts (runoff volume, velocity and peak flow rate) is made. Optimal filter performance (i.e. reduction in runoff volume, velocity and peak flow rate) is found for soils with high infiltration capacity, dense grass cover and small slopes. A sediment transport/filtration submodel (based on the University of Kentucky model) is added to the hydrology submodel. The interaction between submodels and a natural event application case to illustrate the capability of the model and its various outputs is presented in detail. An analysis of sensitivity and a field validation are performed. The most sensitive parameters are soil initial water content, vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity, particle class and grass spacing. The model predictions were compared with a set of natural events from an experimental site in the North Carolina Piedmont. In general the model performs well.

Munoz-Carpena, R.

1993-12-31

395

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility's major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-01-01

396

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility`s major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-12-31

397

A filter inexact-restoration method for nonlinear programming

A new iterative algorithm based on the inexact-restoration (IR) approach combined with the filter strategy to solve nonlinear\\u000a constrained optimization problems is presented. The high level algorithm is suggested by Gonzaga et al. (SIAM J. Optim. 14:646–669,\\u000a 2003) but not yet implement—the internal algorithms are not proposed. The filter, a new concept introduced by Fletcher and Leyffer\\u000a (Math. Program. Ser.

Cândida Elisa P. Silva; M. Teresa T. Monteiro

2008-01-01

398

Kalman Filter Constraint Tuning for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. Recently published work has shown a new method for incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter, which has been shown to generally improve the filter s estimation accuracy. However, the incorporation of inequality constraints poses some risk to the estimation accuracy as the Kalman filter is theoretically optimal. This paper proposes a way to tune the filter constraints so that the state estimates follow the unconstrained (theoretically optimal) filter when the confidence in the unconstrained filter is high. When confidence in the unconstrained filter is not so high, then we use our heuristic knowledge to constrain the state estimates. The confidence measure is based on the agreement of measurement residuals with their theoretical values. The algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate engine health.

Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.

2005-01-01

399

Creating the Solar System step by step

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this lesson is to encourage the clarification and understanding of the processes involved in the creation of our solar system. The lesson is part of a larger unit of astronomy which addresses the MA Science Curriculum Framework Standard concerning gravity and its' role in the formation of the planets, stars, and the solar system. The lesson is a springboard to other standards including; describing the layers of the earth lithosphere, mantle, and core, and differentiating among radiation, convection, and conduction- heat transfer in the earth's system. The lesson begins with a lecture describing the complex process of creation from molecular cloud to planetesimals to planets to organized solar system. The lecture is followed up with a draw/write activity in which the students are required to put in pictures or writing their interpretation of the series of steps that have been presented. The activity involves the students, working in pairs to create a visual model of one of the steps in the series. Their phase in the process will be assigned and the class as a whole will be creating a timeline in entirety. It is important to make clear that this process is not linear but certain steps overlap. In addition, this process is ongoing and is occurring in many places in the universe even today.

Curtin, Karen

400

Optical filtering for star trackers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimization of optical filtering was investigated for tracking faint stars, down to the fifth magnitude. The effective wavelength and bandwidth for tracking pre-selected guide stars are discussed along with the results of an all-electronic tracker with a star tracking photomultiplier, which was tested with a simulated second magnitude star. Tables which give the sum of zodiacal light and galactic background light over the entire sky for intervals of five degrees in declination, and twenty minutes in right ascension are included.

Wilson, R. E.

1973-01-01

401

Compact planar microwave blocking filters

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

402

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

Brumfield, M. L. (compiler)

1984-01-01

403

Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment

The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. These samples provided a concrete link between tricresyl phosphates and a homologous series of synthetic pentaerythritol esters from oil and contaminants found on the sample paper. The second step was to test 184 used aircraft filters with the same gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry system; of that total, 107 were standard filters, and 77 were nonstandard. Four of the standard filters had both markers for oil, with the homologous series synthetic pentaerythritol esters being the less common marker. It was also found that 90% of the filters had some detectable level of tricresyl phosphates. Of the 77 nonstandard filters, 30 had both markers for oil, a significantly higher percent than the standard filters. PMID:25641977

Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

2015-01-01

404

Step by Step Instructions Adding a Description of Work

Step by Step Instructions Adding a Description of Work Work Group Revision 1f, August 12, 2009 In order to add a Description of Work to a Work Group Profile, you must be an Owner of that Work Group. Step 1: Log In Step 2: Go to My Work Groups Step 3: Open Work Group Step 4: Update Description of Work

405

Optimization Online Digest -- March 2011

A Chance-Constrained Model & Cutting Planes for Fixed Broadband Wireless Networks Grit Claßen ... Designing AC Power Grids using Integer Linear Programming ... A Dwindling Filter Line Search Method for Unconstrained Optimization

406

Fast bilateral filter with arbitrary range and domain kernels.

In this paper, we present a fast implementation of the bilateral filter with arbitrary range and domain kernels. It is based on the histogram-based fast bilateral filter approximation that uses uniform box as the domain kernel. Instead of using a single box kernel, multiple box kernels are used and optimally combined to approximate an arbitrary domain kernel. The method achieves better approximation of the bilateral filter compared to the single box kernel version with little increase in computational complexity. We also derive the optimal kernel size when a single box kernel is used. PMID:21411406

Gunturk, Bahadir K

2011-09-01

407

Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter

Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously horn have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken.

Larsen, David A. (Clifton Park, NY); Bacchi, David P. (Schenectady, NY); Connors, Timothy F. (Watervliet, NY); Collins, III, Edwin L. (Albany, NY)

1998-01-01

408

Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter

Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by a novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken. 2 figs.

Larsen, D.A.; Bacchi, D.P.; Connors, T.F.; Collins, E.L. III

1998-02-10

409

Laser radar based relative navigation using improved adaptive Huber filter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved adaptive Huber filter algorithm is proposed to model error and measurement noise uncertainty in this work. The adaptive algorithm for model error is obtained by using an upper bound for the state prediction covariance matrix with augment of chi-square statistical hypothesis test in case of filter deteriorated by wrong residual information. The measurement noise is estimated at each filter step by minimizing a criterion function which was original from Huber filter. A recursive algorithm is provided for solving the criterion function. The proposed adaptive filter algorithm was successfully implemented in radar navigation system for spacecraft formation flying in high earth orbits with real orbit perturbations and non-Gaussian random measurement error. Simulation results indicated that the proposed adaptive filter performed better in robustness and accuracy compared with previous adaptive algorithms.

Wang, Xiaoliang; Gong, Deren; Xu, Liqiang; Shao, Xiaowei; Duan, Dengping

2011-06-01

410

Control and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2007 REDUCED ORDER KALMAN FILTERING

Control and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2007 REDUCED ORDER KALMAN FILTERING WITHOUT MODEL REDUCTION D. Simon* Abstract This paper presents an optimal discrete time reduced order Kalman filter of the estimation error covariance. Key Words Kalman filter, state estimatioh, order reduction 1. Introduction

Simon, Dan

411

A new approach to design harmonic filters in industrial power systems

Power quality can generally be achieved by installing harmonic filters in industrial power systems, thereby reducing the harmonics. Users prioritize the performance and cost of filters as primary concerns. In this study, we formulate the harmonic filter design problem by considering investment cost and operational constraints. This new formulation is a combinatorial optimization problem with a nondifferentiable objective function. A

I-Sheng Chou; Chih-Wen Liu; Chih-Ju Chou; Ying-Tung Hsiao; Tsong-Liang Huang

1996-01-01

412

Unified Forms for Kalman and Finite Impulse Response Filtering and Smoothing

Unified Forms for Kalman and Finite Impulse Response Filtering and Smoothing Dan Simon and Yuriy S. Shmaliy July 25, 2012 Abstract The Kalman filter and smoother are optimal state estimators under certain impulse response (UFIR) filters and smoothers, which can provide a suboptimal but robust alternative

Simon, Dan

413

Developing metal coated mesh filters for mid-infrared astronomy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metal mesh filter is appropriate to a band-pass filter for astronomy in the long mid-infrared between 25 and 40 ?m, where most of optical materials are opaque. The mesh filter does not require transparent dielectric materials unlike interference filters because the transmission characteristics bare determined by surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) resonances excited on a metal surface with a periodic structure. In this study, we have developed the mesh filters optimized to atmospheric windows at 31.8 and 37.5 ?m accessible from the Chajnantor site of 5,640 m altitude. First, mesh filters made of a gold film of 2 ?m thickness have been fabricated. Four identical film-type filters are stacked incoherently to suppress leakages at stop-bands. The transmissions of the stacked filters have been measured to be 0.8 at the peaks and below 1 x 10-3 at the stop-bands at 4 K. The ground-based mid-infrared camera MAX38 has been equipped with the stacked filters and successfully obtained diffraction-limited stellar images at the Chajnantor site. The film-type mesh filter does not have sufficient mechanical strength for a larger aperture and for use in space. We have developed mesh filters with higher strength by applying the membrane technology for x-ray optics. The membrane-type mesh filter is made of SiC and coated with a thin gold layer. The optical performance of the mesh filter is independent of internal materials in principle because the SPP resonances are excited only on the metal surface. The fabricated membrane-type mesh filter has been confirmed to provide comparable optical performance to the film-type mesh filter.

Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Wada, Takehiko

2012-09-01

414

Generic Kalman Filter Software

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on the basis of the aforementioned templates. The GKF software can be used to develop many different types of unfactorized Kalman filters. A developer can choose to implement either a linearized or an extended Kalman filter algorithm, without having to modify the GKF software. Control dynamics can be taken into account or neglected in the filter-dynamics model. Filter programs developed by use of the GKF software can be made to propagate equations of motion for linear or nonlinear dynamical systems that are deterministic or stochastic. In addition, filter programs can be made to operate in user-selectable "covariance analysis" and "propagation-only" modes that are useful in design and development stages.

Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

2005-01-01

415

Filtering separators having filter cleaning apparatus

This invention relates to filtering separators of the kind having a housing which is subdivided by a partition, provided with parallel rows of holes or slots, into a dust-laden gas space for receiving filter elements positioned in parallel rows and being impinged upon by dust-laden gas from the outside towards the inside, and a clean gas space. In addition, the housing is provided with a chamber for cleansing the filter element surfaces of a row by counterflow action while covering at the same time the partition holes or slots leading to the adjacent rows of filter elements. The chamber is arranged for the supply of compressed air to at least one injector arranged to feed compressed air and secondary air to the row of filter elements to be cleansed. The chamber is also reciprocatingly displaceable along the partition in periodic and intermittent manner. According to the invention, a surface of the chamber facing towards the partition covers at least two of the rows of holes or slots of the partition, and the chamber is closed upon itself with respect to the clean gas space, and is connected to a compressed air reservoir via a distributor pipe and a control valve. At least one of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements in flow communication therewith are in flow communication with the discharge side of at least one injector acted upon with compressed air. At least one other row of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements is in flow communication with the suction side of the injector.

Margraf, A.

1984-08-28

416

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Step Barrier Scattering model shows a quantum mechanical experiment in which an incident wave (particle) traveling from the left is transmitted and reflected from a potential step at x=0. Although the analytic solution to this standard problem is well known, its visualization shows how the incident and reflected waves form an interference pattern and how the incident wave penetrates the classically forbidden region when its energy is less than the barrier height Vâ

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-10-09

417

Principal Component Noise Filtering for NAST-I Radiometric Calibration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed- Interferometer (NAST-I) instrument is a high-resolution scanning interferometer that measures emitted thermal radiation between 3.3 and 18 microns. The NAST-I radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient and hot temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes a principal component (PC) noise filter to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, further improve the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy. To test the procedure and estimate the PC filter noise performance, we form dependent and independent test samples using odd and even sets of blackbody spectra. To determine the optimal number of eigenvectors, the PC filter algorithm is applied to both dependent and independent blackbody spectra with a varying number of eigenvectors. The optimal number of PCs is selected so that the total root-mean-square (RMS) error is minimized. To estimate the filter noise performance, we examine four different scenarios: apply PC filtering to both dependent and independent datasets, apply PC filtering to dependent calibration data only, apply PC filtering to independent data only, and no PC filters. The independent blackbody radiances are predicted for each case and comparisons are made. The results show significant reduction in noise in the final calibrated radiances with the implementation of the PC filtering algorithm.

Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L., Sr.

2011-01-01

418

Monolithic PDMS passband filters for fluorescence detection.

We present the fabrication and characteristics of monolithically integrated ink dyed poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) filters for optical sensing in disposable lab-on-a-chip. This represents a migration of auxillary functions onto the disposable chip with the goal of producing truly portable systems. Filters made from commercially available ink (Pelikan) directly mixed into PDMS oligomer without the use of any additional solvents were patterned with standard soft lithography technologies. Furthermore, a fabrication process based on capillary forces is presented allowing PDMS coloration of arbitrary shapes. Different filters of varying thickness fabricated using red, green and blue ink in four different concentrations were characterized. The optimal performance was found with filter thicknesses of 250 microm and ink to PDMS ratios of 0.1 (mL ink : mL PDMS oligomer) resulting in a transmittance ranging from -15.1 dB to -12.3 dB in the stopband and from -4.0 dB to -2.5 dB in the passband. Additionally, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach as the ink dyed PDMS filters do not exhibit temporal ageing due to diffusion or autofluorescence. We also show that such filters can easily be integrated in fluorescence systems, with stopbands efficient enough to allow fluorescence measurements under non-optimal conditions (broadband excitation, 180 degrees configuration). Integrated ink dyed PDMS filters add robust optical functionalities to disposable microdevices at a low cost and will enable the use of these devices for a wide range of fluorescence and absorbance based biological and chemical analysis. PMID:20485776

Llobera, Andreu; Demming, Stefanie; Joensson, Haakan N; Vila-Planas, J; Andersson-Svahn, Helene; Büttgenbach, Stephanus

2010-08-01

419

Optically tunable optical filter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

1995-12-01

420

A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream is described. The filter includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. A cover screen isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of porous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses. 6 figs.

Stelman, D.

1988-06-30

421

Quantum Filtering of Markov Signals with White Quantum Noise

Time-continuous non-anticipating quantum processes of nondemolition measurements are introduced as the dynamical realizations of the causal quasi-measurements, which are described in this paper by the adapted operator-valued probability measures on the trajectory spaces of the generalized temporal observations in quantum open systems. In particular, the notion of physically realizable quantum filter is defined and the problem of its optimization to obtain the best a posteriori quantum state is considered. It is proved that the optimal filtering of a quantum Markovian Gaussian signal with the Gaussian white quantum noise is described as a coherent Markovian linear filter generalizing the classical Kalman filter. As an example, the problem of optimal measurement of complex amplitude for a quantum Markovian open oscillator, loaded to a quantum wave communication line, is considered and solved.

V. P. Belavkin

2005-12-13

422

Cesium Atomic Resonance Filter

An atomic resonance filter (ARF), composed of a cell containing an absorbing gas and two interference\\/absorption filter stacks, is designed to be both wide angle and ultra -narrowband. The bandwidth of this filter, in the range of 1-10mA, is determined by the absorption linewidth of the absorbing gas. Light entering the ARF within this bandwidth excites the gas to a

Brian James Batdorf

1991-01-01

423

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of dust particles on the filter surface and to facilitate dust removal with pulse or back airflow.

Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

2012-01-01

424

Subwavelength grating reflectors in MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot infrared filters with large aperture

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel tunable infrared filter applying a subwavelength grating that substitutes the distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) in tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filters to reduce cost and fabrication effort. It consists of uniformly arranged disc resonators which are made of 100 nm thick aluminum at a 200 nm Si3N4 membrane carrier that stands freely after fabrication. The dimensions of the subwavelength structures were optimized based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis. The fabrication sequence consists of silicon MEMS technology steps like deposition and patterning of electrodes and of isolation layers, silicon etching, and wafer bonding, and it includes nano imprint lithography for forming the subwavelength structures at wafer level. The samples have an aperture of 2 mm and are mechanically tuned by electrostatic forces with tuning voltages up to 80 V. They show the typical characteristics of FP filters but with high peak transmittance within a remarkably large wavelength range (T < 50% @ 2.5 ?m … 6.5 ?m) spanning over 5 interference orders of the optical resonator. The optical performance was measured by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and compared to the simulation results. It shows a widely good agreement between calculation and measurement.

Kurth, Steffen; Hiller, Karla; Meinig, Marco; Besser, Jan; Seifert, Mario; Ebermann, Martin; Neumann, Norbert; Schlachter, Florian; Gessner, Thomas

2014-02-01

425

The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the PMID:24369656

Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

2013-09-01

426

Adaptive common average filtering for myocontrol applications.

The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic common average reference (CAR), often used in EEG processing. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is referred to as adaptive common average reference (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications. PMID:25388778

Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario

2015-02-01

427

Input filter compensation for switching regulators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel input filter compensation scheme for a buck regulator that eliminates the interaction between the input filter output impedance and the regulator control loop is presented. The scheme is implemented using a feedforward loop that senses the input filter state variables and uses this information to modulate the duty cycle signal. The feedforward design process presented is seen to be straightforward and the feedforward easy to implement. Extensive experimental data supported by analytical results show that significant performance improvement is achieved with the use of feedforward in the following performance categories: loop stability, audiosusceptibility, output impedance and transient response. The use of feedforward results in isolating the switching regulator from its power source thus eliminating all interaction between the regulator and equipment upstream. In addition the use of feedforward removes some of the input filter design constraints and makes the input filter design process simpler thus making it possible to optimize the input filter. The concept of feedforward compensation can also be extended to other types of switching regulators.

Kelkar, S. S.; Lee, F. C.

1983-01-01

428

Linear phase compressive filter

A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

429

Linear phase compressive filter

A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1995-06-06

430

Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

2009-01-01

431

Filter Media Recommendation Review

The original filter recommended by PNNL for the RASA is somewhat difficult to dissolve and has been discontinued by the manufacturer (3M) because the manufacturing process (substrate blown microfiber, or SBMF) has been superceded by a simpler process (scrim-free blown microfiber, or BMF). Several new potential filters have been evaluated by PNNL and by an independent commercial lab. A superior product has been identified which provides higher trapping efficiency, higher air flow, is easier to dissolve, and is thinner, accommodating more filters per RASA roll. This filter is recommended for all ground-based sampling, and with additional mechanical support, it could be useful for airborne sampling, as well.

Thompson, Robert C.; Miley, Harry S.; Arthur, Richard J.

2002-01-07

432

Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

Lippert, Thomas Edwin (Murrysville, PA); Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburgh, PA); Bruck, Gerald Joseph (Murrysville, PA); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Export, PA)

1999-03-02

433

Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband rejection, and constant bandwidth is designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The filters are fabricated using barium strontium titanate (BST) varactors. Electromagnetic simulations and measured results of the tunable two-pole ferroelectric filter are analyzed to explore the origins of high insertion loss in ferroelectric filters. The results indicate that the high-permittivity of the BST (a ferroelectric) not only makes the filters tunable and compact, but also increases the conductive loss of the ferroelectric-based tunable resonators which translates into high insertion loss in ferroelectric filters.

Haridasan, Vrinda

434

Reconciling steady-state Kalman and alpha-beta filter design

is the equivalent stochastic data model specifications for which the filter is Kalman optimal, and the resulting deterministic performance parameters. THE KALMAN/ALPHA-BETA ARCHITECTURE The approach taken here to the alpha-beta filter is through the steady...-state Kalman filter. A particular generating model is assumed for the received signal and noise, such that the resulting Kalman architecture is the same as that for the alpha-beta filter. The impulse-invariant transformation model for the discrete...

Painter, John H.; Kerstetter, D.; Jowers, S.

435

Three theories of the development of a malignant change which each involve two successive steps are described. Armitage, Doll (1957) proposed that two homologous chromosomes each contained a region which was critical in the control of cell division. The two steps were mutations in these regions brought about by random exposure to carcinogenic agents. Comings (1973) proposed a similar theory but the two steps were considered to be spontaneous mutatons. This paper points out that if one mutation has occurred this can become dominant in at least six ways which mostly involve chromosome translocations. The synergism between oncogenic agents and ionizing radiation and the ability to breed out high and low cancer incidence stocks of animals from a common stock can be explained on the same lines. PMID:1063921

Read, J

1976-02-11

436

Realization of Multi-Delay Filter Using Fermat Number Transforms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is about an efficient implementation of adaptive filtering for echo cancelers. The first objective of this paper is to propose a simplified method of the flexible block Multi-Delay Filter (MDF) algorithm in the time-domain. Then, we will derive a new method for the step-size adaptation coefficient. The second objective is about the realization of a Block Proportionate Normalized Least Mean Squares (BPNLMS++) with the simplified MDF (SMDF) implementation. Using the new step-size method and the smaller block dimension proposed by SMDF, we achieve a faster convergence of the adaptive process with a limited computational cost. Then, an efficient implementation of the new procedure (SMDF-BPNLMS++) block filtering is proposed using Fermat Number Transform, which can significantly reduce the computation complexity of filter implantation on Digital Signal Processor.

Alaeddine, Hamzé Haidar; Baghious, El Houssaďn; Madre, Guillaume; Burel, Gilles

437

Stable Kalman filters for processing clock measurement data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kalman filters have been used for some time to process clock measurement data. Due to instabilities in the standard Kalman filter algorithms, the results have been unreliable and difficult to obtain. During the past several years, stable forms of the Kalman filter have been developed, implemented, and used in many diverse applications. These algorithms, while algebraically equivalent to the standard Kalman filter, exhibit excellent numerical properties. Two of these stable algorithms, the Upper triangular-Diagonal (UD) filter and the Square Root Information Filter (SRIF), have been implemented to replace the standard Kalman filter used to process data from the Deep Space Network (DSN) hydrogen maser clocks. The data are time offsets between the clocks in the DSN, the timescale at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and two geographically intermediate clocks. The measurements are made by using the GPS navigation satellites in mutual view between clocks. The filter programs allow the user to easily modify the clock models, the GPS satellite dependent biases, and the random noise levels in order to compare different modeling assumptions. The results of this study show the usefulness of such software for processing clock data. The UD filter is indeed a stable, efficient, and flexible method for obtaining optimal estimates of clock offsets, offset rates, and drift rates. A brief overview of the UD filter is also given.

Clements, P. A.; Gibbs, B. P.; Vandergraft, J. S.

1989-01-01

438

This paper reports the development of an innovative sample preparation method for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in heterogeneous solid or semisolid samples, with high suspended solids and COD concentrations, using an optimized closed reflux colorimetric method. The novel method, named solid dilution (SD), is based on a different technique of sample preparation, diluting the sample with magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) previous to COD determination. With this, it is possible to obtain a solid homogeneous mixture much more easily analyzable. Besides, a modification of concentration and ratio of reagents was optimized to make the closed reflux colorimetric method suitable for complex substrates with COD levels ranging from 5 to 2500 g O(2) kg(-1) TS. The optimized method has been tested with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) as primary solid standard and using different solid or semiliquid substrates like pig slaughterhouse waste and sewage sludge, among others. Finally, the optimized method (SD/SM-CRC) was intensively tested in comparison to the standard titrimetric method (SM-ORT) using different certified reference materials (CRM). The developed method was found to give higher accuracy, 1.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) vs 10.4%, and bias of 2.8% vs 8.0%, in comparison to the standard open reflux titrimetric method. PMID:22762259

Noguerol-Arias, Joan; Rodríguez-Abalde, Angela; Romero-Merino, Eva; Flotats, Xavier

2012-07-01

439

Filters and mathematical systems

A filter in a set is any device which passes or does not pass each element in a set. The action of a filter is the dichotomy (A,B) of the base set where A is the set of elements passed or accepted and B is the complement of A. This innocent appearing definition which I first stated in 1967 is

Preston C. Hammer

1970-01-01

440

Approaches to Relevance Filtering

this paper is relevance filtering, whichreduces communication and processing requirements byrelaying only relevant event and state information. Theemphasis in this paper has been placed on entity state trafficfor clarity and concreteness. Even so, the concepts andapproaches presented can certainly be extended to other datatypes as well.Two approaches to relevance filtering are examined: gridbasedand object-based. The key difference between these twoschemes

Daniel J. Van Hook; Steven J. Rak; James O. Calvin

1994-01-01