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Sample records for oral cavity carcinoma

  1. Oral Cavity Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Villaflor, Victoria; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2016-06-01

    A case of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the oral cavity is described in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. CT demonstrated a solid and cystic mass arising from the mandible. Histology demonstrated variably-sized nests of clear to pale eosinophilic cells with occasional central necrosis embedded in a hyalinized to fibrocellular stroma. The specimen was also positive for the characteristic rearrangement of the EWSR1 (22q12) locus in 93.5 % of interphase cells. PMID:25994920

  2. [Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of maxillofacial and oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Byung, M

    1990-11-01

    Authors experienced a case of low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 48-year-old female and a case of low grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 51-year-old female, respectively. The former occurred in right mandibular angle and showed multilocular radiolucent area surrounded by sclerotic rim but perforation of cortical bone connected with tumor mass in oral cavity radiographically. The latter occurred in left mandibular angle and ramus. Radiographic feature showed large radiolucent area in left mandibular angle and ramus, and destruction of coronoid process but intact condylar process. The origin of the latter might be mucus secreting cells of lined epithelium in dentigerous epithelium. In two cases metastases were not found. PMID:2130125

  3. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma--an overview.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Adam J; Welch, Chris M; Zevallos, Jose P; Patel, Samip N

    2014-09-01

    Inhaled or chewed tobacco is equally addictive and harmful and used daily by over 1 billion people. In addition to increased rates of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancers, tobacco is the leading preventable cause of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to tobacco, consumption and abuse of alcohol, and betel nut quid significantly contribute to the burden of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Dental visits are excellent opportunities to identify primary lesions in the oral cavity. This review highlights relevant anatomy, epidemiology, pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment options for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25284574

  4. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  5. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  6. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Douglas Magno; Pontes, Flavia Sirotheau Correa; Miyahara, Ligia Akiko Ninokata; Guerreiro, Marcella Yasmin Reis; de Almeida, Maria Clara Lopes; Pontes, Helder Antonio Rebelo; Pinto, Decio Dos Santos

    2016-09-01

    Metastases to the oral cavity are extremely rare events, representing less than 1% of all malignant oral tumors. Renal cell carcinoma constitutes about 3% of solid tumors in adults, and it is the most frequent kidney neoplasm, representing about 90% of kidney malignancies. Due to the silent growth of this neoplasm, most patients have no symptoms and the diagnosis is belated, usually after metastases. The present study reports an additional patient of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the oral cavity regarding the clinical and pathologic features. PMID:27607131

  7. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to central compartment (level 6) lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Likhterov, Ilya; Rowe, Meghan E; Khorsandi, Azita S; Urken, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Alterations to drainage pathways in the head and neck as a result of surgical manipulation are not well understood. We present two unusual cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the level 6 nodal compartment following extensive treatment. Both oral squamous cell carcinoma cases exhibited metastases to the central neck compartment following extensive surgery and radiation. Each patient had prior history of multifocal oral cavity disease and recurrent neck metastases requiring salvage lymphadenectomy. Surgical interventions may alter the usual lymphatic drainage patterns. In cases of extensive treatment, all levels of the neck should be monitored for lymph node recurrence. Laryngoscope, 126:1803-1805, 2016. PMID:26490846

  8. Questionable Necessity for Removing Submandibular Gland in Neck Dissection in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Nagpure, Prakash S; Chavan, Sushil S

    2016-09-01

    To assess whether submandibular gland is involved by metastasis in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas. It was a retrospective study, where we reviewed the records of the patients who underwent neck dissections for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the oral cavity. It included 112 patients who had undergone 115 neck dissections (three patients had undergone bilateral neck dissection), either therapeutic or prophylactic. No pathologic evidence of metastasis to submandibular gland was seen in any of the case. Preservation of submandibular glands can be a good technique for reducing future complications in a patient undergoing Neck Dissection wherever feasible. Therefore, if there is no need to expose large oral cavity tumors through the submandibular triangle, or when there is no direct extension of the primary and/or regional lymph nodes into the submandibular gland, it may be safe to preserve the submandibular gland. PMID:27508132

  9. Radiotherapy and verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. A study of 107 cases.

    PubMed

    Vidyasagar, M S; Fernandes, D J; Kasturi, D P; Akhileshwaran, R; Rao, K; Rao, S; Rao, R V; Solomon, J G

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and seven cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated primarily with radiotherapy at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India between 1977 and 1987 were analysed concerning location within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy. The most common site was the buccal mucosa followed by the buccogingival sulcus. Only 13.2% of the patients presented with T1 or T2 tumours and 32.7% had clinically negative nodes. Biopsy had to be repeated more than once in 22 patients to get confirmation of invasive carcinoma. The 5-year survival rate was 35% for stage III and 26% for stage IV. The treatment results with radiotherapy were comparable with those for ordinary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. It is felt that the treatment policy for verrucous carcinoma can be the same as for ordinary squamous cell carcinoma. In order to prevent delay in diagnosis and treatment, proper cooperation between the treating oncologist and the pathologist is essential. PMID:1586504

  10. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Mardi, Kavita; Singh, Narbir

    2014-09-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon but well-recognized variant of squamous cell carcinoma that was first described by Lever in 1947. ASCC has been reported to originate in the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck and in other sites. However ASCC located in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The patient was a 50-year-old man who presented with an ulcer on the right maxillary alveolar mucosa. The biopsy was diagnosed as ASCC. Tumor resection was therefore performed. Histologically, acantholytic pattern was seen throughout the tumor. PMID:25364162

  11. Effect of beam arrangement on oral cavity dose in external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Vincent W.C.; Yang Zhining; Zhang Wuzhe; Wu Lili; Lin Zhixiong

    2012-07-01

    This study compared the oral cavity dose between the routine 7-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam arrangement and 2 other 7-beam IMRT with the conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten NPC patients treated by the 7-beam routine IMRT technique (IMRT-7R) between April 2009 and June 2009 were recruited. Using the same computed tomography data, target information, and dose constraints for all the contoured structures, 2 IMRT plans with alternative beam arrangements (IMRT-7M and IMRT-7P) by avoiding the anterior facial beam and 1 conventional radiotherapy plan (CONRT) were computed using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and oral cavity from which the dose parameters and the conformity index of the PTV were recorded for dosimetric comparisons among the plans with different beam arrangements. The dose distributions to the PTVs were similar among the 3 IMRT beam arrangements, whereas the differences were significant between IMRT-7R and CONRT plans. For the oral cavity dose, the 3 IMRT beam arrangements did not show significant difference. Compared with IMRT-7R, CONRT plan showed a significantly lower mean dose, V30 and V-40, whereas the V-60 was significantly higher. The 2 suggested alternative beam arrangements did not significantly reduce the oral cavity dose. The impact of varying the beam angles in IMRT of NPC did not give noticeable effect on the target and oral cavity. Compared with IMRT, the 2-D conventional radiotherapy irradiated a greater high-dose volume in the oral cavity.

  12. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  13. Durvalumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-06

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Squamous Carcinoma of Oral Cavity: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sadighi, Sanambar; Keyhani, Amanolah; Harirchi, Iraj; Garajei, Ata; Aghili, Mahdi; Kazemian, Ali; Motiee Langroudi, Maziar; Zendehdel, Kazem; Nikparto, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy to surgery and radiation therapy for locally advanced resectable oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, 24 patients with T3 or T4a oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were randomly assigned to surgery alone or Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF) induction chemotherapy followed by surgery. All patients were planned to receive chemoradiotherapy after surgery. The primary end-points were organ preservation and progression-free-survival. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis. Median follow-up was 16 months. The median age of the patients was 62 years old (23-75 years). Man/woman ratio was 1.13. The primary site of the tumor was the tongue in most patients (48%). No significant difference was observed between pathologic characteristics of the two groups. Chemotherapy group showed 16% complete pathologic response to TPF. No significant difference in organ preservation surgery or overall survival was detected. However, the patients in the chemotherapy group had longer progression-free-survival (P=0.014). Surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy with or without TPF induction results in similar survival time. However, progression-free-survival improves with the TPF induction chemotherapy. Studies with more patents and new strategies are recommended to evaluate organ preservation improvement and long-term outcomes. PMID:26069178

  15. Verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell papilloma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Hilal; Agacayak, Serkan; Kavak, Gulten; Ozcan, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity is a rare variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass. There is a certain clinical similarity between squamous cell papilloma and VC. We presented a report of two cases which are VC and squamous cell papilloma that are showed the same clinical appearance but different pathological appearance, with a review of the literature. PMID:26430380

  16. [The role of bleomycin combination in radiation therapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Masaki, N

    1986-04-01

    In an effort to improve tumor control by radiation therapy, a treatment regimen consisting of concurrent combination of bleomycin (90 mg/3 weeks) and radiation (30 Gy/3 weeks) was applied. Between 1972 and 1981, 287 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity were subjected to this bleomycin-radiation combination regimen. All except 4 patients experienced marked response after treatment using the bleomycin-radiation combination alone. One hundred thirty-four patients (47%) obtained CR and 149 (53%) PR. Higher CR rates were obtained in patients with carcinoma of the lower gum (62%), of the upper gum (68%), and of the cheek mucosa (43%), compared to patients with carcinoma of the floor of the mouth (21%), and of the tongue (15%). In each of the tumor sites, small lesions (T1, T2) obtained higher CR rates, compared with large lesions (T3, T4). Of the 134 patients who experienced CR, 83 were observed without any further treatment after bleomycin-radiation combination alone. Local recurrence-free rates of these patients were 72% for T1, T2 lesions and 48% for T3, T4 lesions. Local control rates were increased to 85% and 78%, respectively, with successful salvage treatment involving surgery or interstitial radiotherapy for post-irradiation failures. PMID:2425746

  17. Accuracy of administrative and clinical registry data in reporting postoperative complications after surgery for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Mahmoud I.; Shuman, Andrew G.; Montero, Pablo H.; Palmer, Frank L.; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe and compare how postoperative complications after oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) surgery are reported in medical records, institutional billing claims, and national clinical registries. Methods The medical records of 355 previously untreated patients who underwent surgery for oral cavity SCC at our institution were retrospectively reviewed for postoperative complications. Information was compared with claims and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data. Results We identified 219 patients (62%) experiencing 544 complications (10% major). Billing claims identified 29% of these patients, 36% of overall complications, and 98% of major complications. Of overlapping patients, NSQIP identified 27% of patients, 33% of overall complications, and 100% of major complications noted on chart abstraction. Conclusion The incidence of minor postoperative complications after oral cavity SCC surgery is relatively high. Both claims data and NSQIP accurately recorded major complications, but were suboptimal compared to chart abstraction in capturing minor complications. PMID:24623622

  18. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young adults: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Ewa; Szybiak, Bartosz; Wegner, Anna; Pienkowski, Piotr; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Luczewski, Lukasz; Sowka, Marcin; Golusinski, Pawel; Malicki, Julian; Golusinski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease of middle-aged to elderly adults. However, an increased incidence of HNSCC in young people under 45 years of age has been reported recently. In the present review, we focused on the epidemiology and aetiology of HNSCC in adults under 45 years of age. Methods We reviewed literature related to HNSCC in adult patients less than 45 years of age and discussed current treatment options and prognosis. Results HNSCC in young adults is associated with a higher incidence rate in nonsmokers, lower female-to-male ratio, a higher percentage of oral cavity and oropharynx tumours, and fewer second primary tumours. However, aside from traditional risk factors of tobacco and alcohol exposure, the causes of these cancers in young adults remain unclear. Agents that might contribute to risk include infection with high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes as well as genetic factors or immunodeficiency status. The expected increase in incidence and mortality of the young with HNSCC may become a major public health concern if current trends persist, particularly lifestyle habits that may contribute to this disease. Conclusions Given the younger age and potential long-term adverse sequelae of traditional HNSCC treatments, young adults should be treated on a case-by-case basis and post-therapy quality of life must be considered in any treatment-decision making process. PMID:24587773

  19. An unexpected finding in the resection specimen of a carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Olthof, D.C.; Bun, R.J.; Dutrieux, R.P.; Houdijk, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The occurrence of two synchronous, primary cancers is rare. Thyroid carcinoma is incidentally found in the resection specimen after surgery for head and neck cancer in 0.3–1.9% of the patients. Presentation of case In this report, we describe the case of a 72-year-old patient in whom a primary (synchronous) papillary thyroid carcinoma was found coincidentally upon pathologic examination of lymph nodes recovered from the cervical neck lymph node dissection specimen after a ‘commando’ procedure for carcinoma of the oral cavity. Discussion and conclusion There is no gold standard concerning treatment of the incidentally discovered thyroid gland carcinoma. The decision to perform surgery depends on the life expectancy of the patient, whether the thyroid gland demonstrates clinical or radiologic lesions, the already completed treatment for the head and neck cancer and should always be adjusted to the specific patient. PMID:26710330

  20. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Thotakura, Vijaya; Balboni, Tracy A.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen; Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  1. Obtaining Normal Tissue Constraints Using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in Patients with Oral Cavity, Oropharnygeal, and Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, William K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal tissue dose constraints while maintaining planning target volume (PTV) prescription without reducing PTV margins. Sixteen patients with oral cavity carcinoma (group I), 27 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (group II), and 28 patients with laryngeal carcinoma (group III) were reviewed. Parotid constraints were a mean dose to either parotid < 26 Gy (PP1), 50% of either parotid < 30 Gy (PP2), or 20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy (PP3). Treatment was intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). All patients met constraints for cord and brain stem. The mandibular constraints were met in 66%, 29%, and 57% of patients with oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers, respectively. Mean dose of 26 Gy (PP1) was achieved in 44%, 41%, and 38% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients. PP2 (parotid constraint of 30 Gy to less than 50% of one parotid) was the easiest to achieve (group I, II, and III: 82%, 76%, and 78%, respectively). PP3 (20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy) was difficult, and was achieved in 25%, 17%, and 35% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients, respectively. Mean parotid dose of 26 Gy was met 40% of the time. However, a combination of constraints allowed for sparing of the parotid based on different criteria and was met in high numbers. This was accomplished without reducing PTV-parotid overlap. What dose constraint best correlates with subjective and objective functional outcomes remains a focus for future study.

  2. Cytokeratin 8/18 expression indicates a poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Fillies, Thomas; Werkmeister, Richard; Packeisen, Jens; Brandt, Burkhard; Morin, Philippe; Weingart, Dieter; Joos, Ulrich; Buerger, Horst

    2006-01-01

    Background Intermediary filaments are involved in cell motility and cancer progression. In a variety of organs, the expression of distinct intermediary filaments are associated with patient prognosis. In this study, we seeked to define the prognostic potential of cytokeratin and vimentin expression patterns in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC's) of the oral cavity. Methods 308 patients with histologically proven and surgically treated squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were investigated for the immunohistochemical expression of a variety of intermediary filaments including high- and low-molecular weight cytokeratins (Ck's), such as Ck 5/6, Ck 8/18, Ck 1, CK 10, Ck 14, Ck 19 and vimentin, using the tissue microarray technique. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of Cytokeratins and vimentin were evaluated statistically by Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results The expression of Ck 8/18 and Ck 19 were overall significantly correlated with a poor clinical prognosis (Ck 8/18 p = 0.04; Ck19 p < 0.01). These findings could also be reproduced for Ck 8/18 in primary nodal-negative SCC's and held true in multivariate-analysis. No significant correlation with patient prognosis could be found for the expression of the other cytokeratins and for vimentin. Conclusion The expression of Ck 8/18 in SCC's of the oral cavity is an independent prognostic marker and indicates a decreased overall and progression free survival. These results provide an extended knowledge about the role of intermediary filament expression patterns in SCC's. PMID:16412231

  3. Small cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (cheek mucosa): a case report with an immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is extremely rare; only one case has been reported in the English Literature. The author herein reports the second case of SCC of the oral cavity. A 59-year-old man presented with oral tumor (5 cm) in the right cheek mucosa. A biopsy was taken. The HE histology was typical SCC consisting of small epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, molded nuclei, scant nucleocytoplasmic ratio, and negative nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells are positive for pancytokeratin (PCK) WSS, PCK MNF-116, cytokeratin (CK) 34BE12, CK5/6, CK14, vimentin, KIT (CD117), CD56, synaptophysin, p53 protein, and Ki67 antigen (Ki-67 labeling = 70%). The tumor cells are negative for PCK AE1/3, PSK CAM5.2, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, NSE, chromogranin, platelet-derived growth factor-α (PDGFRA), CD45, CD45RO, CD3, CD20, CD30, CD79a, and bcl-2. A retrospective genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method in paraffin sections identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. Various imaging modalities including CT and MRI and upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy did not identified no tumors other than the oral tumor. Thus, the oral tumor was thought primary. The oral tumor rapidly enlarged, and distant metastases to cervical lymph nodes, ribs and iliac bones emerged. The patient is now treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy 16 months after the first manifestation. PMID:23573327

  4. Cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx: A collective international review.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Carlos; Barnes, Leon; Silver, Carl E; Rodrigo, Juan P; Shah, Jatin P; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Cardesa, Antonio; Pitman, Karen T; Kowalski, Luiz P; Robbins, K Thomas; Hellquist, Henrik; Medina, Jesus E; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Bradley, Patrick J; Gnepp, Douglas R; Teymoortash, Afshin; Strojan, Primož; Mendenhall, William M; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Bishop, Justin A; Devaney, Kenneth O; Thompson, Lester D R; Hamoir, Marc; Slootweg, Pieter J; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Williams, Michelle D; Wenig, Bruce M; Skálová, Alena; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to suggest general guidelines in the management of the N0 neck of oral cavity and oropharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) in order to improve the survival of these patients and/or reduce the risk of neck recurrences. The incidence of cervical node metastasis at diagnosis of head and neck AdCC is variable, and ranges between 3% and 16%. Metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes of intraoral and oropharyngeal AdCC varies from 2% to 43%, with the lower rates pertaining to palatal AdCC and the higher rates to base of the tongue. Neck node recurrence may happen after treatment in 0-14% of AdCC, is highly dependent on the extent of the treatment and is very rare in patients who have been treated with therapeutic or elective neck dissections, or elective neck irradiation. Lymph node involvement with or without extracapsular extension in AdCC has been shown in most reports to be independently associated with decreased overall and cause-specific survival, probably because lymph node involvement is a risk factor for subsequent distant metastasis. The overall rate of occult neck metastasis in patients with head and neck AdCC ranges from 15% to 44%, but occult neck metastasis from oral cavity and/or oropharynx seems to occur more frequently than from other locations, such as the sinonasal tract and major salivary glands. Nevertheless, the benefit of elective neck dissection (END) in AdCC is not comparable to that of squamous cell carcinoma, because the main cause of failure is not related to neck or local recurrence, but rather, to distant failure. Therefore, END should be considered in patients with a cN0 neck with AdCC in some high risk oral and oropharyngeal locations when postoperative RT is not planned, or the rare AdCC-high grade transformation. PMID:27017314

  5. Levels of biological markers of nitric oxide in serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Jablonska, Ewa; Antonowicz, Bozena; Dziemianczyk, Dorota; Grabowska, Stanislawa Zyta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was a determination of the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and its biological markers such as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and identification of the relationships between NO and those markers. These studies were performed on patients with SCC of the oral cavity before and after treatment. Griess reaction was used for the estimation of the total concentration of NO in serum. The nitrotyrosine level in serum was assessed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and MDA level using a spectrophotometric assay. Higher concentrations of NO in blood serum were determined in patients with stage IV of the disease before treatment in comparison to the control group and patients with stages II and III of the disease. Moreover, higher concentrations of MDA and nitrotyrosine were determined in the serum of patients in all stages of the disease in comparison to healthy people. After treatment, lower concentrations of NO in the serum of patients with stage IV of the disease were observed in comparison to the amounts obtained prior to treatment. In addition, lower levels of nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with all stages of the disease were recorded, whereas higher concentrations of MDA were determined in these patients in comparison to results obtained before treatment. The compounds formed with the contribution of NO, such as MDA and nitrotyrosine, may lead to cancer progression in patients with SCC of the oral cavity, and contribute to formation of resistance to therapy in these patients as well. Moreover, the lack of a relationship between concentrations of NO and MDA, and between NO and nitrotyrosine in serum suggests that the process of lipid peroxidation and nitration in patients with SCC does not just depend on NO. PMID:23970140

  6. The Failure Patterns of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy-University of Iowa Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min . E-mail: min-yao@uiowa.edu; Chang, Kristi; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Heming; Tan Huaming; Wacha, Judith C; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.; Buatti, John M.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Determine the failure patterns of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between May 2001 and July 2005, 55 patients with oral cavity SCC were treated with IMRT for curative intent. Forty-nine received postoperative IMRT, 5 definitive IMRT, and 1 neoadjuvant. Three target volumes were defined (clinical target CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3). The failure patterns were determined by coregistration or comparison of the treatment planning computed tomography to the images obtained at the time of recurrence. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 17.1 months (range, 0.27-59.3 months). The median follow-up for living patients was 23.9 months (range, 9.3-59.3 months). Nine patients had locoregional failures: 4 local failures only, 2 regional failures only, and 3 had both local and regional failures. Five patients failed distantly; of these, 3 also had locoregional failures. The 2-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, and distant disease-free survival was 68%, 74%, 85%, 82%, and 89%, respectively. The median time from treatment completion to locoregional recurrence was 4.1 months (range, 3.0-12.1 months). Except for 1 patient who failed in contralateral lower neck outside the radiation field, all failed in areas that had received a high dose of radiation. The locoregional control is strongly correlated with extracapsular extension. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated RT is effective for oral cavity SCC. Most failures are in-field failures. Further clinical studies are necessary to improve the outcomes of patients with high-risk features, particularly for those with extracapsular extension.

  7. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  8. Cytokeratin and protein expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity provide evidence for two distinct pathogenetic pathways

    PubMed Central

    FROHWITTER, GESCHE; BUERGER, HORST; VAN DIEST, PAUL J.; KORSCHING, EBERHARD; KLEINHEINZ, JOHANNES; FILLIES, THOMAS

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is a morphological heterogeneous disease. Various cytokeratin (CK) expression patterns with different prognostic values have been described, but little is known concerning the underlying biological cell mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated 193 cases of oral SCCs using immunohistochemistry for α/β/γ-catenin, glucose transporter 1, caspase-3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, mast/stem cell growth factor receptor, p21, p27, p16, p53, B-cell lymphoma 6, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1 and CK1, 5/6, 8/18, 10, 14 and 19. Expression patterns were analyzed with biomathematical permutation analysis. The present results revealed a significant association between the expression of low-molecular weight CK8/18 and 19 and a high-tumor grade, β and γ-catenin expression, deregulated cell cycle proteins and a predominant localization of the tumor on the floor of the mouth. By contrast, expression of high-molecular weight CK1, 5/6, 10 and 14 was significantly associated with the expression of p21 and hsp70. In conclusion, the current study presents evidence for the existence of two parallel pathogenetic pathways in oral SCCs, characterized by the expression of low- and high-molecular weight CKs. Additional studies are required to demonstrate the extent that these results may be used to improve therapeutic regimens. PMID:27347109

  9. Reducing the Risk of Xerostomia and Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: The Potential Benefits of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Advanced Oral Cavity Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Merina; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2009-10-01

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 {+-} 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 {+-} 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 {+-} 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 {+-} 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 {+-} 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 {+-} 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 {+-} 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 {+-} 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 {+-} 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 {+-} 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC.

  10. Reducing the risk of xerostomia and mandibular osteoradionecrosis: the potential benefits of intensity modulated radiotherapy in advanced oral cavity carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Merina; Hansen, Vibeke N; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 +/- 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 +/- 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 +/- 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 +/- 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 +/- 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 +/- 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 +/- 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 +/- 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 +/- 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 +/- 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC. PMID:19647632

  11. Oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the staging of oral cancers. Imaging information is essential for determining tumour resectibility, post resection surgical reconstruction and radiation therapy planning. The aim of this paper is to highlight the natural history of oral cancer spread and how malignant infiltration can be accurately mapped. It focuses on buccal mucosa, hard palate, tongue and floor of mouth carcinoma. PMID:16361136

  12. Definitive chemoradiation for primary oral cavity carcinoma: A single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Eli D.; Romesser, Paul B.; Chen, Christine; Ho, Felix; Wuu, Yen; Sherman, Eric J.; Fury, Matthew G.; Wong, Richard J.; McBride, Sean; Lee, Nancy Y.; Riaz, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives While surgery with or without adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) is the standard of care for oral cavity cancer (OCC), a select group requires nonsurgical treatment. We provide a single-institution experience using definitive chemotherapy and RT for primary OCC. Materials and methods We examined 73 patients with previously untreated, non-metastatic primary OCC treated definitively from 1990 to 2011. There were 39 male and 34 female, with a median age of 63 years (range, 35–89). The disease distribution was Stage I and II (7% each), Stage III (14%), and Stage IV (73%). Oral tongue was the most common (48%), followed by floor of mouth (19%), retromolar trigone (13.7%), and others (8.2%). Median tumor dose was 70 Gy. Sixty-two percent of patients (n = 45) were treated with concurrent chemotherapy, predominantly platinum-based. Results Median follow-up among surviving patients was 73.1 months (interquartile range 14.2– 81.4 months). Actuarial 5-year overall survival was 15%. Incidences of locoregional and distant failures were 41.1% and 20.5%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year rates of locoregional control and freedom from distant metastasis were 37% and 70%, respectively. Mucositis was the most common ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity (49%). Incidences of Grade 3 late dysphagia and trismus were 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrates over 20 years of experience using definitive chemoradiation for OCC at our institution. Our results illustrate the challenges in treating patients with advanced disease who are not surgical candidates, and the need for adequate and early treatment to prevent distant disease and improve survival outcomes. PMID:25958830

  13. Collision Tumour of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Malignant Melanoma in the Oral Cavity of a Dog.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F; Castro, P; Ramírez, G A

    2016-05-01

    A 7-year-old, male cocker spaniel was presented with a gingival proliferative lesion in the rostral maxilla and enlargement of the regional lymph node. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a collision tumour composed of two malignant populations, epithelial and melanocytic, with metastasis of the neoplastic melanocytes to the regional lymph node. The epithelial component consisted of trabeculae and islands of well-differentiated squamous epithelium immunoreactive to cytokeratins. The melanocytic component had a varying degree of pigmentation of polygonal and spindle-shaped cells, growing in nests or densely packed aggregates and immunolabelled with S100, melanoma-associated antigen (melan A), neuron-specific enolase and vimentin antibodies. Protein markers involved in tumorigenesis or cell proliferation (i.e. COX-2, p53, c-kit and Ki67), were overexpressed by the neoplastic cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of an oral collision tumour involving malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the dog. PMID:27147111

  14. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Cancer starts when cells in ... the parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  15. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome and latent infection gene expression in normal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; de Rivera, Michelle Wendoline Garcia-Niño; Hoshino, Miyako; Sakashita, Hideaki; Yamada, Tsutomu; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nozaki, Tadashige; González-López, Blanca Silvia; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    A relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and cancer of lymphoid and epithelial tissues such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma, and oral cancer has been reported. EBV is transmitted orally and infects B cells and epithelial cells. However, it has remained uncertain whether EBV plays a role in carcinogenesis of oral mucosal tissue. In the present study, we detected the EBV genome and latent EBV gene expression in normal mucosal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to clarify whether EBV is involved in carcinogenesis of the oral cavity. We examined 333 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples (morphologically normal oral mucosa 30 samples, gingivitis 32, tonsillitis 17, oral epithelial dysplasia 83, OSCC 150, and NPC 21). EBV latent infection genes (EBNA-2, LMP-1) were detected not only in OSCC (50.2 %, 10.7 %) but also in severe epithelial dysplasia (66.7 %, 44.4 %), mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia (43.1 %, 18.5 %), gingivitis (78.1 %, 21.9 %), and normal mucosa (83.3 %, 23.3 %). Furthermore, the intensity of EBV latent infection gene expression (EBER, LMP-1) was significantly higher in severe epithelial dysplasia (94.4 %, 72.2 %) than in OSCC (34.7 %, 38.7 %). These results suggest that EBV latent infection genes and their increased expression in severe epithelial dysplasia might play an important role in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the oral cavity. PMID:26449822

  16. [A clinical study on the adenoid cystic carcinoma in oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Byung, M

    1990-03-01

    Two cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma occurred on the palate are reported. They were female and aged 65 and 69 year. They showed expansile growth in association with the bony destruction of maxillary sinus wall. Histologically the case 1 had cribriform pattern and the case 2 had cribriform and tubular pattern, and exhibited perineural invasion of tumor cells in both cases. The radical surgery were conducted, and there were no lymph node metastasis and recurrence. PMID:1966821

  17. Solitary Myocardial Metastasis from Locoregionally Controlled Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Roderick; Skarsgard, David

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 62-year-old male originally diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the right retromolar trigone, Stage cT2N2bM0. He was treated radically with a pharyngotomy and segmental mandibular resection, right selective neck nodal dissection, and then reconstruction with a free fibular flap. The pathologic stage was T4aN1. He then received adjuvant chemoradiation therapy with a radiation dose of 6,000 cGy in 30 fractions, along with cisplatin, 100 mg/m2 every three weeks. Good local control was repeatedly documented for two years. He then presented with shortness of breath and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) with rapid ventricular response. Computed tomography/pulmonary embolus protocol (CT/PE) showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism but did show a small pericardial effusion. His AF was refractory to medical management, and he was later admitted to hospital with congestive heart failure. He was found to have a large mass arising from the free wall of the right ventricle, a biopsy of which confirmed squamous cell carcinoma consistent with his head and neck primary. The patient declined further therapy and passed away within one month of presentation. This case is unusual in that the only known site of metastatic disease seen was to the myocardium of the right ventricle, presenting as cardiac arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. Although post-mortem studies show cardiac metastases to occur in 2 to 20% of cancer patients, it is rarely seen as a sole site of relapse in clinical practice. PMID:27453804

  18. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Patterns of Failure and Predictors of Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Megan E.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Kozak, Margaret M.; Maxim, Peter G.; Murphy, James D.; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy W.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Few studies have evaluated the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity (OC). We report clinical outcomes and failure patterns for these patients. Methods and Materials: Between October 2002 and June 2009, 37 patients with newly diagnosed SCC of the OC underwent postoperative (30) or definitive (7) IMRT. Twenty-five patients (66%) received systemic therapy. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 10-87 months). The median interval from surgery to RT was 5.9 weeks (range, 2.1-10.7 weeks). Results: Thirteen patients experienced local-regional failure at a median of 8.1 months (range, 2.4-31.9 months), and 2 additional patients experienced local recurrence between surgery and RT. Seven local failures occurred in-field (one with simultaneous nodal and distant disease) and two at the margin. Four regional failures occurred, two in-field and two out-of-field, one with synchronous metastases. Six patients experienced distant failure. The 3-year actuarial estimates of local control, local-regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival were 67%, 53%, 81%, and 60% among postoperative patients, respectively, and 60%, 60%, 71%, and 57% among definitive patients. Four patients developed Grade {>=}2 chronic toxicity. Increased surgery to RT interval predicted for decreased LRC (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Local-regional control for SCC of the OC treated with IMRT with or without surgery remains unsatisfactory. Definitive and postoperative IMRT have favorable toxicity profiles. A surgery-to-RT interval of <6 weeks improves local-regional control. The predominant failure pattern was local, suggesting that both improvements in target delineation and radiosensitization and/or dose escalation are needed.

  19. Metastatic Tumours to the Oral Cavity: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Astreidis, Ioannis T.; Kontos, Konstantinos I.; Lazaridou, Maria N.; Bourlidou, Eleni T.; Gerasimidou, Domniki K.; Vladika, Natalia P.; Mangoudi, Doxa L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity from distant organs are uncommon and represent approximately 1 - 3% of all oral malignancies. Such metastases can occur to the bone or to the oral soft tissues. Almost any malignancy from any site is capable of metastasis to the oral cavity and a wide variety of tumours have been reported to spread to the mouth. Methods Careful examination of the oral cavity and a high degree of clinical suspicion as well as a multidisciplinary approach are suggested. Results In this article we present three patients, a female and two males with metastatic tumours to the oral cavity, who were referred to our Department. The primary tumours were invasive lobular breast carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma respectively. Conclusions Metastases to the oral cavity are quite uncommon among population. They usually present with symptoms similar to odontogenic infections and benign tumours, causing a delayed diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26904182

  20. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  1. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development. PMID:25654476

  2. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having professional hygiene procedures performed and caries lesions filled. Baseline examination and the examination two years afterwards, evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of oral cavity environment. Caries incidence was determined based on DMFT and DMFS values, oral cavity hygiene on Plaque Index (acc. Silness & Loe) and Hygiene Index (acc. O’Leary), and the gingival status on Gingival Index (acc. Loe & Silness) and Gingival Bleeding Index (acc. Ainamo & Bay). Saliva osmolarity, pH and concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, Na+, Cl−, total protein, albumins, F− and Sr2+ were determined. Results The results confirmed ongoing changeability of the oral cavity environment. After 2 years of the study reduction in oral cavity hygiene parameters PLI and HI (P<0.1), and gingival indices as well as lower saliva concentration of Ca2+ (P<.001), Pi (P<.06), K+ (P<.04), Sr2+ (P<.03), Na+ (P<.1), against the baseline values, were observed. Total protein and albumin saliva concentrations were also significantly lower. Conclusion Physiological oral cavity environment is subject to constant, individually different, changes which should be considered when analysing studies that employ oral cavity environment parameters. PMID:19212491

  3. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes ({>=}4 vs. {<=}3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of {>=}11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth {>=}11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  4. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control. PMID:27521039

  5. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  6. External Carotid Artery Ligation in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx: an Oncological Emergency.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Yadav, Vijay; Ravi, K; Ramaswamy, Kartikeyan; Patel, Mahesh H; Kothari, Kiran

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes of emergency external carotid artery ligation in head and neck cancer patients. It is a retrospective observational study of 11 patients with oral cavity and oropharynx cancers who underwent external carotid ligation as an emergency procedure. Prior tracheostomy was done in all the patients as part of the procedure. Parameters studied were the efficacy and safety of the procedure in the form of control of haemorrhage, any postoperative neurological deficit, morbidity and mortality. The study evaluates the efficacy of the intervention purely as an emergency procedure, and oncological outcomes have not been reported. Analysis was done using simple frequencies and proportions. The oropharynx is the most common site of tumour bleeding in head and neck malignancies. Bleeding following external carotid ligation stopped in all the patients immediately without any postoperative mortality or morbidity. No patient had any neurologic deficits postoperatively. There was one case of rebleeding. Emergency external carotid ligation in tumours of the oral cavity and oropharynx is a life-saving and simple procedure with limited morbidity. Prior tracheostomy is recommended in all the patients. PMID:27011469

  7. CT-Based Evaluation of Tumor Volume After Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy of Locally Advanced Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Comparison with Clinical Remission Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Stefan Turowski, Bernd; Berkefeld, Joachim; Kovacs, Adorjan F.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To assess the volume of locally advanced tumors of the oral cavity and the oropharynx before and after intra-arterial (i.a.) chemotherapy by means of computed tomography and to compare these data with clinically determined treatment response of the same patient population. Methods. Eighty-eight patients with histologically proven, advanced carcinoma of the oral cavity and/or the oropharynx (local tumor stages T3/4) received neoadjuvant i.a. chemotherapy with cisplatin as part of a multimodal therapeutic regimen, comprising (1) local chemotherapy, (2) surgery, and (3) combined radio-chemotherapy. Three weeks after the intervention, residual disease was evaluated radiologically by measurement of the tumor volume and clinically by inspection and palpation of the primary tumor according to WHO criteria. Results. Comparison of treatment response according to radiological and clinical criteria respectively revealed complete remission in 5% vs. 8% (p < 0.05), partial remission in 30% vs. 31%, stable disease in 61% vs. 58%, and tumor progression in 5% vs. 2%. Conclusion. Radiological volumetry and clinical evaluation found comparable response rates after local chemotherapy. However, in patients with good response after local treatment, volumetric measurement with CT may help to distinguish between partial and complete remission. Thus, radiological tumor volumetry provides precise and differentiated information about tumor response and should be used as an additional tool in treatment monitoring after local chemotherapy.

  8. The importance of immunohistochemical expression of EGFr in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smid, Ernst J.; Stoter, T. Rianne; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Lafleur, M. Vincent M.; Leemans, C. Rene; Slotman, Ben J.; Langendijk, Johannes A. . E-mail: j.a.langendijk@rt.umcg.nl

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor (EGFr) expression in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) treated with curative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 165 OCSCC patients. The expression of EGFr was assessed on paraffin-embedded tissue of the primary tumor by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against EGFr. Intensity of the EGFr expression was scored by two authors blinded for the clinical outcome. Results: In the univariate analysis, locoregional control at 3 years (LRC) in the EGFr-negative cases was 69% compared with 77% in the EGFr-positive cases (p 0.22). In the multivariate analysis for local control, a significant interaction was found between EGFr and overall treatment time of radiation (OTT). After stratification for EGFr expression, the OTT was of no importance in the EGFr-negative cases, whereas a significant difference in LRC was found in the EGFr-positive cases, in which the LRC after 3 years was 69% and 94% in case of an OTT of 0-42 days and >42 days, respectively (p = 0.009; hazard ratio = 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-8.96). No significant association was found between EGFr expression and overall survival. Conclusions: In the present study, no association was found between EGFr expression and outcome regarding locoregional control and overall survival. However, the results of the present study suggest that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity with high EGFr expression benefit more from a reduction of the overall treatment time of postoperative radiation than those with low EGFr expression.

  9. Reduced levels of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 in epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, R. C.; Bradley, G.; Slingerland, J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors play important roles in cell cycle progression in normal cells. Alterations in the cdk inhibitors also appear to be important in cancer development in a number of human tumors. p27Kip1 is a member of the CIP/KIP family of cdk inhibitors that negatively regulates cyclin-cdk complexes. Reduced levels of p27Kip1 protein have been identified in a number of human cancers, and in some cases reduced p27Kip1 is associated with an increase in proliferative fraction. In the present study, we examined p27Kip1 protein by immunohistochemistry in 10 normal and 36 dysplastic epithelia and in 8 squamous cell carcinomas from one anatomical site within the oral cavity, the floor of the mouth. Proliferative activity was assessed in serial sections by determining the expression of the cell cycle proteins Ki-67 and cyclin A. p27kip1 protein was significantly reduced in oral dysplasias and carcinomas compared with that in normal epithelial controls. In addition, there was a significant reduction in p27Kip1 protein between low- and high-grade dysplasias, suggesting that changes in p27Kip1 expression may be an early event in oral carcinogenesis. There was increasing expression of Ki-67 and cyclin A proteins with increasingly severe grades of dysplasia compared with normal controls. Although there was a strong correlation between Ki-67 and cyclin A scores (r2= 0.61) for all categories of disease, there was a weak negative correlation between Ki-67 and p27Kip1 levels (r2 = 0.29) and between cyclin A and p27Kip1 levels (r2 = 0.25). In conclusion, this study has found that a reduction in the proportion of cells expressing p27Kip1 protein is frequently associated with oral dysplasia and carcinoma from the floor of the mouth. Furthermore, reductions in p27Kip1 levels are associated with increased cell proliferation, although other changes likely contribute to altered cell kinetics during carcinogenesis at this site

  10. The added value of a portable gamma camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, M; Paredes, P; Sieira, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Marti, C; Pons, F

    2014-01-01

    The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is still subject to debate although some studies have reported its feasibility. The main reason for this debate is probably due to the high false-negative rate for floor-of-mouth tumors per se. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a T1N0 floor-of-mouth squamous cell carcinoma who underwent the sentinel lymph node procedure. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging were performed for lymphatic mapping with a conventional gamma camera. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified at right Ib, left IIa and Ia levels. However, these sentinel lymph nodes were difficult to detect intraoperatively with a gamma probe owing to the activity originating from the injection site. The use of a portable gamma camera made it possible to localize and excise all the sentinel lymph nodes. This case demonstrates the usefulness of this tool to improve sentinel lymph node detecting in floor-of-mouth tumors, especially those close to the injection area. PMID:24581865

  11. Outcome Prediction After Surgery and Chemoradiation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx, and Hypopharynx: Use of Baseline Perfusion CT Microcirculatory Parameters vs. Tumor Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Anand, Sharma K.; Glavina, Gordana; Day, Terry; Rumboldt, Zoran

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether pretreatment perfusion computed tomography (PCT) may predict outcome in chemoradiated patients with oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) after surgical excision. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with SCCA were examined before treatment. The primary site was oral cavity in 6, oropharynx in 7, and hypopharynx in 8 patients; there were 11 T2, 6 T3, and 4 T4 tumors. PCT was performed at the level of largest tumor diameter based on standard neck CT. The data were processed to obtain blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface area product (PS). Regions of interest were free-hand positioned on the lesions to obtain PCT measurements. Tumor volume was also calculated. Follow-up was performed with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and endoscopy. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for comparison between the subgroups. A regression model was constructed to predict recurrence based on the following predictors: age, gender, tumor (T) and nodal (N) stage, tumor volume, and PCT parameters. Results: BF{sub mean}, BF{sub max}, BV{sub mean}, BV{sub max}, MTT{sub mean}, PS{sub mean}, and PS{sub max} were significantly different between patients with and without tumor recurrence (0.0001, p < 0.04). T stage, tumor volume, N stage, BF{sub max}, BV{sub max}, MTT{sub mean}, and radiation dose (p < 0.001) were independent predictors for recurrence. Cox proportional hazards model for tumor recurrence revealed significantly increased risk with high tumor volume (p = 0.00001, relative risk [RR] 7.4), low PS{sub mean} (p = 0.0001, RR 14.3), and low BF{sub max} (p = 0.002, RR 5.9). Conclusions: Our data suggest that PCT parameters have a prognostic role in patients with SCCA.

  12. p16 expression independent of human papillomavirus is associated with lower stage and longer disease-free survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Virk, Sohaib A; Lum, Trina; Gao, Kan; Clark, Jonathan R; Gupta, Ruta

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the incidence of p16 expression, its association with human papillomavirus (HPV) and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The role of p16 in OSCC is evaluated in 215 cases using tissue microarrays (TMAs). p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridisation were performed on TMAs following histopathology review of 215 patients with OSCC in the Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute database. Thirty-seven (17.2%) cases showed p16 expression without association with HPV. p16 expression significantly decreased with increasing pT category (p=0.002). p16 expression was associated with longer disease-specific survival on univariable analysis (p=0.044) but not on multivariable analysis adjusting for depth of invasion. Amongst patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, patients with p16 expression had significantly longer disease-free and overall survival. p16 expression was seen in early stage OSCCs and was associated with better survival following surgery and radiotherapy. While not an independent predictor of survival, p16 may mediate its effects by contributing to reduced proliferative capacity, leading to smaller tumour size and lower invasive potential. PMID:27370365

  13. A Multi-institutional Investigation of the Prognostic Value of Lymph Nodal Yield in Advanced Stage Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OCSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, James J.; Zender, Chad A.; Mehta, Vikas; Davis, Kara; Ferris, Robert L.; Lavertu, Pierre; Rezaee, Rod; Feustel, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although existing literature provides surgical recommendations for treating occult disease (cN0) in early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, a focus on late stage OCSCC is less pervasive. Methods The records of 162 late stage OCSCC pN0 individuals that underwent primary neck dissections were reviewed. Lymph node yield (LNY) as a prognosticator was examined. Results Despite being staged pN0, patients that had a higher LNY had an improved regional/distant control rates, DFS, DSS, and OS. LNY consistently outperformed all other standard variables as being the single best prognostic factor with a tight risk ratio range (RR = 0.95–0.98) even when correcting for the number of lymph nodes examined. Conclusion The results of this study showed that lower regional recurrence rates and improved survival outcomes were seen as lymph node yield increased for advanced T-stage OCSCC pN0. This suggests that increasing lymph node yield with an extended cervical lymphadenectomy may result in lower recurrence rates and improved survival outcomes for this advanced stage group. PMID:24038739

  14. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-04

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  15. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-10

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  16. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded. The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths {>=}10mm, and margin distances {<=}4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.

  17. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome. PMID:26519069

  18. Study of oral cavity lesions by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, E; Conti, C; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Sabbatini, S; Librando, V; Tosi, G

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy is considered a useful tool in the biomedical field, for analysing in situ and at cellular level, very small areas of tissues and cells, with minimal sample preparation and without the use of stains or probes. This spectroscopic technique has been successfully applied to analyse biological samples from patients affected by tumoral pathologies, with particular attention to oral cavity lesions. In this study, we describe the application of FTIR microspectroscopy to characterize and discriminate the most recurrent benign and malignant diseases of oral cavity compartment. Infrared maps were acquired on tissues affected by the following pathologies: squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, squamous dysplasia, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, radicular cyst, residual cyst, unicystic ameloblastoma, and ameloblastic fibroma, together with healthy tissue samples (used as control group). The epithelial and connective components of all samples were distinguished and submitted to multivariate analysis. The results were in agreement with histological suggestions. PMID:27049108

  19. An Ultra-Deep Targeted Sequencing Gene Panel Improves the Prognostic Stratification of Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Yang, Lan-Yan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Chen, I-How; Chang, Kai-Ping; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Chen, Hua-Chien; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An improved prognostic stratification of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and pathologically positive (pN+) nodes is urgently needed. Here, we sought to examine whether an ultra-deep targeted sequencing (UDT-Seq) gene panel may improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. A mutation-based signature affecting 10 genes (including genetic mutations in 6 oncogenes and 4 tumor suppressor genes) was devised to predict disease-free survival (DFS) in 345 primary tumor specimens obtained from pN+ OSCC patients. Of the 345 patients, 144 were extracapsular spread (ECS)-negative and 201 were ECS-positive. The 5-year locoregional control, distant metastases, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival (OS) rates served as outcome measures. The UDT-Seq panel was an independent risk factor (RF) for 5-year locoregional control (P = 0.0067), distant metastases (P = 0.0001), DFS (P < 0.0001), disease-specific survival (DSS, P < 0.0001), and OS (P = 0.0003) in pN+ OSCC patients. The presence of ECS and pT3–4 disease were also independent RFs for DFS, DSS, and OS. A prognostic scoring system was formulated by summing up the significant covariates (UDT-Seq, ECS, pT3–4) separately for each survival endpoint. The presence of a positive UDT-Seq panel (n = 77) significantly improved risk stratification for all the survival endpoints as compared with traditional AJCC staging (P < 0.0001). Among ECS-negative patients, those with a UDT-Seq-positive panel (n = 31) had significantly worse DFS (P = 0.0005) and DSS (P = 0.0002). Among ECS-positive patients, those with a UDT-Seq-positive panel (n = 46) also had significantly worse DFS (P = 0.0032) and DSS (P = 0.0098). Our UDT-Seq gene panel consisting of clinically actionable genes was significantly associated with patient outcomes and provided better prognostic stratification than traditional AJCC staging. It was also able to predict

  20. Identification of a High-Risk Group Among Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and pT1-2N0 Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the American Joint Committee on Cancer 2010 classification system, pT1-2N0 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered an early-stage cancer treatable with surgery alone (National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2010 guidelines). Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of surgery alone for pT1-2N0 OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: Among 1279 previously untreated OSCC patients referred to our hospital between January 1996 and May 2008, we identified 457 consecutive patients with pT1-2N0 disease. All had radical tumor excision with neck dissection. A total of 387 patients showing pathologic margins greater than 4 mm and treated by surgery alone were included in the final analysis. All were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates in the entire group of pT1-2N0 patients were as follows: local control, 91%; neck control, 92%; distant metastases, 1%; disease-free survival, 85%; disease-specific survival, 93%; and overall survival, 84%. Multivariate analysis identified poor differentiation and pathologic tumor depth of 4 mm or greater as independent risk factors for neck control, disease-free survival, and disease-specific survival. A scoring system using poor differentiation and tumor depth was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The presence of both poorly differentiated tumors and a tumor depth of 4 mm or greater resulted in significantly poorer 5-year neck control (p < 0.0001), disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p = 0.0046) rates. Conclusion: The combination of poor differentiation and pathologic tumor depth of 4 mm or greater identified a subset of pT1-2N0 OSCC patients with poor outcome, who may have clinical benefit from postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

  1. Oral Mucosal Lesions: Oral Cavity Biology-Part I.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Syed, Nazim Hussain; Aggarwal, Ashok; Sehgal, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the background of oral cavity biology to define morphologic abrasions in oral mucosa following a host of local and/ or systemic disorders. The oral cavity is not only the beginning of the digestive system, but it also plays a significant role in communication; the voice (although the voice is produced in the throat), tongue, lips, and jaw are its essential components to produce the range of sounds. The vestibule and the oral cavity are its major parts, and are usually moist. The lips and the teeth are in approximation, marking its start up. The anatomy of the oral cavity in brief has been reviewed in right prospective for disease related changed morphology, thus facilitating interpretation. PMID:26861428

  2. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  5. Manifestation of psoriasis in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz

    2016-03-01

    Despite the common prevalence of cutaneous psoriasis, the existence of manifestations in the oral cavity is subject to controversy. In this article, dermatologic psoriasis is reviewed, and a patient with generalized, symptomatic oral mucosal erythema resembling atrophic candidiasis synchronous with flare of chronic skin psoriasis is described. Diagnostic work up and therapeutic response supported that these mucosal findings were the oral counterpart of cutaneous disease. Dental providers should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of oral psoriasis, institute appropriate preventive measures, and provide palliation directed at symptomatic oral changes of psoriasis. PMID:26665263

  6. Cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Zbaeren, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Tumours in the oral cavity and oropharynx differ in presentation and prognosis and the detection of spread of tumour from one subsite to another is essential for the T-staging. This article reviews the anatomy and describes the pattern of spread of different cancers arising in the oral cavity and oropharynx; the imaging findings on computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are also described. Brief mention is made on the role of newer imaging modalities such as [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, perfusion studies and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:20233682

  7. Common problems of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, J G

    1990-06-01

    The oral cavity is an area of the human body that is often given only cursory surveillance by primary care physicians. In this article, I have discussed a comprehensive approach for collecting subjective and objective data from the patient that is pertinent to oral conditions. Most common and critical problems have been reviewed in detail, focusing on their definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management. This review is intended to sensitize physicians to the need to evaluate oral complaints more completely, to diagnose them more accurately, and to treat them more successfully. PMID:2196616

  8. Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 48,330 % of All New Cancer Cases 2.9% Estimated Deaths in 2016 9,570 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 300,682 people living with oral cavity and ...

  9. Hamartomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26539384

  10. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Postirradiation flap infection about the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Cabbabe, E.B.; Herbold, D.R.; Sunwoo, Y.C.; Baroudi, I.F.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation alteration of oral flora is well documented in the literature. Infection as a complication leading to partial or complete loss of a flap used to reconstruct a defect in the oral cavity is a worrisome outcome. We describe how a flap that was judged clinically to be viable became overwhelmingly infected with the Klebsiella oxytoca, an oral cavity pathogen encountered in this patient following irradiation. Local and systemic changes led to detachment of the flap. This complication may be explained, in view of the absence of venous congestion or arterial ischemia both clinically and pathologically, by the proven contamination of the flap by the Klebsiella pathogen. Local factors resulted in lower resistance and subsequent overwhelming infection. Discussion of the case, review of pertinent literature, and proposed solutions are presented.

  12. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology. PMID:26351482

  13. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  18. Dermographism in the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Binmadi, Nada; Almazrooa, Soulafa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermographism is a type of physical urticaria that can be induced by writing on the skin. It occurs in 2-5% of the population and is considered to be a normal physiological phenomenon. However, in a small subset of patients, it can be symptomatic and may affect the quality of life. The etiology of this disease remains unclear. CASE REPORT Herein, we present a case of dermographism in a 20-year-old male and discuss the involvement of the oral mucosa in this condition. CONCLUSIONS Although this condition is well known to occur in the skin, we believe this condition is rarely discussed among dentists. All healthcare providers, especially dentists, should know its potential to cause complications during dental procedures. PMID:27324161

  19. Dermographism in the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Binmadi, Nada; Almazrooa, Soulafa

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 20 Final Diagnosis: Dermographism Symptoms: Unusual skin reaction to trauma Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Dentistry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Dermographism is a type of physical urticaria that can be induced by writing on the skin. It occurs in 2–5% of the population and is considered to be a normal physiological phenomenon. However, in a small subset of patients, it can be symptomatic and may affect the quality of life. The etiology of this disease remains unclear. Case Report: Herein, we present a case of dermographism in a 20-year-old male and discuss the involvement of the oral mucosa in this condition. Conclusions: Although this condition is well known to occur in the skin, we believe this condition is rarely discussed among dentists. All healthcare providers, especially dentists, should know its potential to cause complications during dental procedures. PMID:27324161

  20. NID2 and HOXA9 promoter hypermethylation as biomarkers for prevention and early detection in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma tissues and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Preston, R; Soudry, E; Acero, J; Orera, M; Moreno-López, L; Macía-Colón, Germán; Jaffe, A; Berdasco, M; Ili-Gangas, C; Brebi-Mieville, P; Fu, Y; Engstrom, C; Irizarry, R; Esteller, M; Westra, W; Koch, W; Califano, J; Sidransky, D

    2011-01-01

    Differentially methylated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biomarkers, identified in-vitro and validated in well-characterized surgical specimens, have shown poor clinical correlation in cohorts with different risk profiles. To overcome this lack of relevance we used the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, publicly available methylation and expression array data, and Quantitative Methylation Specific PCR to uncover differential methylation in OSCC clinical samples with heterogeneous risk profiles. A two stage-design consisting of Discovery and Prevalence screens was used to identify differential promoter methylation and deregulated pathways in patients diagnosed with OSCC and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Promoter methylation of KIF1A (κ = 0.64), HOXA9 (κ = 0.60), NID2 (κ = 0.60), and EDNRB (κ = 0.60) had a moderate to substantial agreement with clinical diagnosis in the Discovery screen. HOXA9 had 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity and a 0.81 AUC. NID2 had 71% sensitivity, 100% specificity and a 0.79 AUC. In the Prevalence screen HOXA9 (κ = 0.82) and NID2 (κ = 0.80) had an almost perfect agreement with histologic diagnosis. HOXA9 had 85% sensitivity, 97% specificity and a 0.95 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 95% specificity and a 0.91 AUC. A HOXA9 and NID2 gene panel had 94% sensitivity, 97% specificity and a 0.97 AUC. In saliva from OSCC cases and controls HOXA9 had 75% sensitivity, 53% specificity and a 0.75 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 21% specificity and a 0.73 AUC. This Phase I Biomarker Development Trial identified a panel of differentially methylated genes in normal and OSCC clinical samples from patients with heterogeneous risk profiles. This panel may be useful for early detection and cancer prevention studies. PMID:21558411

  1. NID2 and HOXA9 promoter hypermethylation as biomarkers for prevention and early detection in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma tissues and saliva.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Preston, R; Soudry, E; Acero, J; Orera, M; Moreno-López, L; Macía-Colón, G; Jaffe, A; Berdasco, M; Ili-Gangas, C; Brebi-Mieville, P; Fu, Y; Engstrom, C; Irizarry, R A; Esteller, M; Westra, W; Koch, W; Califano, J; Sidransky, D

    2011-07-01

    Differentially methylated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biomarkers, identified in vitro and validated in well-characterized surgical specimens, have shown poor clinical correlation in cohorts with different risk profiles. To overcome this lack of relevance, we used the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, publicly available methylation and expression array data, and quantitative methylation specific PCR to uncover differential methylation in OSCC clinical samples with heterogeneous risk profiles. A two stage design consisting of discovery and prevalence screens was used to identify differential promoter methylation and deregulated pathways in patients diagnosed with OSCC and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Promoter methylation of KIF1A (κ = 0.64), HOXA9 (κ = 0.60), NID2 (κ = 0.60), and EDNRB (κ = 0.60) had a moderate to substantial agreement with clinical diagnosis in the discovery screen. HOXA9 had 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and a 0.81 Area Under the Curve (AUC). NID2 had 71% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and a 0.79 AUC. In the prevalence screen, HOXA9 (κ = 0.82) and NID2 (κ = 0.80) had an almost perfect agreement with histologic diagnosis. HOXA9 had 85% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a 0.95 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and a 0.91 AUC. A HOXA9 and NID2 gene panel had 94% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a 0.97 AUC. In saliva, from OSCC cases and controls, HOXA9 had 75% sensitivity, 53% specificity, and a 0.75 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 21% specificity, and a 0.73 AUC. This phase I Biomarker Development Trial identified a panel of differentially methylated genes in normal and OSCC clinical samples from patients with heterogeneous risk profiles. This panel may be useful for early detection and cancer prevention studies. PMID:21558411

  2. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification and PD-L1 protein expression are common events in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Melanie; Drecoll, Enken; Pfarr, Nicole; Weichert, Wilko; Langer, Rupert; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Götz, Carolin; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas; Specht, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Immunomodulatory therapies, targeting the immune checkpoint receptor-ligand complex PD-1/PD-L1 have shown promising results in early phase clinical trials in solid malignancies, including carcinomas of the head and neck. In this context, PD-L1 protein expression has been proposed as a potentially valuable predictive marker. In the present study, expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 80 patients with predominantly HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinomas and associated nodal metastasis. In addition, CD274/PD-L1 gene copy number status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. PD-L1 expression was detected in 36/80 (45%) cases and concordance of PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and corresponding nodal metastasis was present in only 20/28 (72%) cases. PD-1 expression was found in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) but not in tumor cells. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was detected in 19% of cases, with high level PD-L1 amplification present in 12/80 (15%), and low level amplification in 3/80 (4%). Interestingly, CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was associated with positive PD-L1 immunostaining in only 73% of cases. PD-L1 copy number status was concordant in primary tumor and associated metastases. Clinically, PD-L1 tumor immunopositivity was associated with a higher risk for nodal metastasis at diagnosis, overall tumor related death und recurrence. Based on our findings we propose to include PD-L1 copy number status in addition to protein status in screening programs for future clinical trials with immunotherapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. PMID:26918453

  3. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification and PD-L1 protein expression are common events in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Straub, Melanie; Drecoll, Enken; Pfarr, Nicole; Weichert, Wilko; Langer, Rupert; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Götz, Carolin; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas; Specht, Katja

    2016-03-15

    Immunomodulatory therapies, targeting the immune checkpoint receptor-ligand complex PD-1/PD-L1 have shown promising results in early phase clinical trials in solid malignancies, including carcinomas of the head and neck. In this context, PD-L1 protein expression has been proposed as a potentially valuable predictive marker. In the present study, expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 80 patients with predominantly HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinomas and associated nodal metastasis. In addition, CD274/PD-L1 gene copy number status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. PD-L1 expression was detected in 36/80 (45%) cases and concordance of PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and corresponding nodal metastasis was present in only 20/28 (72%) cases. PD-1 expression was found in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) but not in tumor cells. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was detected in 19% of cases, with high level PD-L1 amplification present in 12/80 (15%), and low level amplification in 3/80 (4%). Interestingly, CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was associated with positive PD-L1 immunostaining in only 73% of cases. PD-L1 copy number status was concordant in primary tumor and associated metastases. Clinically, PD-L1 tumor immunopositivity was associated with a higher risk for nodal metastasis at diagnosis, overall tumor related death und recurrence. Based on our findings we propose to include PD-L1 copy number status in addition to protein status in screening programs for future clinical trials with immunotherapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. PMID:26918453

  4. Oral cavity lipoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byeong-Gi; Choi, Dong-Ju; Park, Jun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Intraoral lipomas are a rare clinical entity, comprising only 0.1% to 5% of all benign tumors in the intraoral cavity. A 56-year-old woman suffering from diabetes presented with this relatively rare intraoral lipoma and was treated by surgical excision under general anesthesia. Because the mass was located adjacent to the mental foramen, a precise dissection was necessary to ensure minimal nerve damage. No abnormalities or recurrence was noted at 1-year follow-up and the patient did not complain of numbness. We studied the occurrence of oral lipoma in this diabetic patient and reviewed the relationship between oral lipoma and diabetes in the literature. PMID:26339582

  5. [Oral cavity pathology by renal failure].

    PubMed

    Maĭborodin, I V; Minikeev, I M; Kim, S A; Ragimova, T M

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the scientific literature devoted to organ and tissue changes of oral cavity at the chronic renal insufficiency (CRI)is made. The number of patients in an end-stage of CRI constantly increases and patients receiving renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation will comprise an enlarging segment of the dental patient population. Owing to CRI and its treatment there is a set of changes of teeth and oral cavity fabrics which remain even in a end-stage. Renal replacement therapy can affect periodontal tissues including gingival hyperplasia in immune suppressed renal transplantation patients and increased levels of bacterial contamination, gingival inflammation, formation of calculus, and possible increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal diseases. Besides, the presence of undiagnosed periodontitis may have significant effects on the medical management of the patients in end-stage of CRI. PMID:24719973

  6. Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23971298

  7. AZD1775, Docetaxel, and Cisplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Borderline Resectable Stage III-IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-04

    Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  8. [Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Brocheriou, C; Kuffer, R; Verola, O

    1985-01-01

    Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity are of multiple origin. They can be subdivided as follows: non tumoral pigmentations, non melanin pigmented tumors or tumor-like lesions, benign melanin pigmented tumors and malignant melanomas. Among non tumoral pigmented lesions, some of them show melanin deposits: they can be associated with a systemic disease (Peutz Jeghers syndrome, Addison's disease) or have a medicamentous origin, or belong to a lichen migricans. Non tumoral and non melanin pigmentations are principally due to a heavy metal accumulation or an accidental tatoo arising after tooth treatment. Peripheral giant cell granuloma, so-called giant cell epulis is the major non pigmented non melanin pseudotumoral lesion; pigmentation is due to hemosiderin deposits. In the oral cavity nevi are principally of the intramucosal type. Blue nevus, the second type in frequency, is usually located on the hard palate. Primary malignant melanomas are rare in the oral cavity, but it is--because its very bad prognosis--the most important lesion. In order to improve the survival it is necessary to do the diagnosis as early as possible. PMID:3833244

  9. Oral neurovascular hamartoma: an extraordinary verdict in the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Junaid, Montasir; Ahmed, Sadaf Qadeer; Kazi, Maliha; Haroon, Saroona

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a neurovascular hamartoma within the oral cavity is truly a rare entity. Scarcely reported in the literature, these hamartomas are smooth, pinkish masses and are painless, and therefore difficult to diagnose. They are benign in nature and apply pressure to their surroundings. The histological diagnosis remains the gold standard as it comprises of neural tissue and vascular components. Treatment is surgical excision with adequate margins. Recurrence is reported in cases of incomplete resection. PMID:24969068

  10. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Genden, Eric M.; Silver, Carl E.; Takes, Robert P.; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P.; Haigentz, Missak; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Rapidis, Alexander D.; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction have evolved significantly. Because of the profound functional and cosmetic importance of the oral cavity, management of oral cavity cancers requires a thorough understanding of disease progression, approaches to management and options for reconstruction. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most current management options for oral cavity cancers. PMID:20155361

  11. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Genden, Eric M; Ferlito, Alfio; Silver, Carl E; Takes, Robert P; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P; Haigentz, Missak; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Shaha, Ashok R; Rapidis, Alexander D; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-07-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction have evolved significantly. Because of the profound functional and cosmetic importance of the oral cavity, management of oral cavity cancers requires a thorough understanding of disease progression, approaches to management and options for reconstruction. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most current management options for oral cavity cancers. PMID:20155361

  12. Development of oral cavity inspecting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Wu, Di; Jia, Dagong; Zhang, Yimo

    2009-11-01

    An oral cavity inspecting system is designed and developed to inspect the detail of teeth. The inspecting system is composed of microscopic imaging part, illuminating part, image capture and processing, display part. The two groups of cemented lenses were optimized to minimize the optical aberration and the collimated beam light is gotten between the two lenses. A relay lens is adopted to allow the probe to access the oral cavity depth. The illumination optic fiber is used and the brightness and color temperature can be adjustable. The illumination fiber end surface is oblique cut and the optimum angle is 37°. The image of teeth is imaged on CMOS and captured into computer. The illumination intensity and uniformity were tested and the proper parameter is set. Foucault chart was observed and the system resolution is higher than 100lp/mm. The oral inspecting system is used to test standard tooth model and patho-teeth model. The tooth image is clear and the details can be observed. The experimental results show that the system could meet dental medical application requirements.

  13. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. FT-IR microscopy imaging on oral cavity tumours, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Rubini, C.; Tosi, G.

    2005-06-01

    Changes in the biochemistry of oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR microscopy. Various aspects of squamous cell carcinomas of cheek mucosa, of tongue, of gingiva, and of the floor of the mouth have been analyzed through FT-IR imaging with the aim to relate spectral patterns with histopathological results. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wavenumber or band ratio images allowed a quali- and quantitative evaluation of the changes in the proliferating activity from displastic to neoplastic states. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and histological findings.

  15. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Meshkat, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP) is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR) has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions. Methods One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs) and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group) were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%), we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18). All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230). Additionally, 15 (13.1%) SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830). The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11). A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity. Conclusion More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions. PMID:26674929

  16. Can MMP-9 be a Prognosticator Marker for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Shiva Kumar; Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours severely endanger the life of cancer patients. Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the commonly found malignancies in the oral cavity and its survival rate has not improved from past few decades. Since an important risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma is the presence of epithelial dysplasia, it is necessary to check the presence of a prognosticator marker in both of them. As matrix metalloproteinase’s (MMP’s) are involved in degradation of type IV collagen, which are one of the important components of extracellular matrix components which play a relevant role in several steps of tumour progression such as invasion and metastasis. We have studied MMP-9 expression to evaluate its prognostic potential in oral cancers as well as oral epithelial dysplasia along with tissues of normal oral epithelium. Materials and Methods The expression was examined using immunohistochemistry procedure with MMP-9 in 100 samples including cases of epithelium from normal oral mucosa, oral dysplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. One set of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections of the three categories were stained by haematoxylin and eosin. The sections were then evaluated under microscope. Data was examined for statistical significance using SPSS 13.0 by Mann-Whitney Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test. Results With MMP-9 gain of expression was noted from Control group to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic staining was seen with MMP-9. Statistically highly significant differences were seen between oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and statistically significant differences were found between the control group and the oral squamous cell carcinoma group. Conclusion This study suggested that oral squamous cell carcinoma shows higher MMP-9 expression as compared to oral epithelial dysplasia followed by epithelium from normal oral mucosa. However, no correlation was found among the

  17. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  18. [Overview of researches for Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity and stomach].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Yuqing; Zhou, Xuedong

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogens in human and it is closely related to gastrointestinal diseases. It is essential for us to understand the transmission process of H. pylori to prevent its spreading. The oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for gastric H. pylori, which has been detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both dental plaque and saliva. Some researchers have proposed H. pylori in oral cavity may play an important role in its transmission and reinfection. Oral-oral or fecal-oral transmission are thought to be the most possible transmit way. This review will discuss the evidence for the role of the oral cavity in the transmission of H. pylori, the difficulties encountered in addressing this topic and possible directions for future research. Oral H. pylori may also play a role in the diagnosis and prevention of deceases related to H. pylori such as gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The recent progresses in this area are also reviewed. Moreover, we also discussed the relationship between oral H. pylori and oral deceases like periodontal disease and oral ulcer. PMID:25033655

  19. Miswak in oral cavity – An update

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Akhilanand; Patil, Ranjit; Nagar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Miswak, scientifically known as Salvadora persica, is a species of Salvadora belonging to family Salvadoraceae. It is considered as “Nature's little toothbrush” as it is a popular chewing stick throughout Indian subcontinent. In India, it is commonly known as arak tree, meswak, peelu, kharjal or jhank. It also serves as a natural toothpaste with antibacterial, anti-caries, anti-periopathic disinfectant having anti-plaque and anti-fungal properties. Miswak sticks are being used by majority of people who cannot afford to buy the commercial western toothbrush and toothpaste mainly in rural areas of developing countries. The present review is an attempt to define the potential of the miswak in preventing and treating the common diseases of oral cavity and teeth. PMID:25737893

  20. Imaging the oral cavity: key concepts for the radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Law, C P; Chandra, R V; Hoang, J K; Phal, P M

    2011-01-01

    The oral cavity is a challenging area for radiological diagnosis. Soft-tissue, glandular structures and osseous relations are in close proximity and a sound understanding of radiological anatomy and common pathways of disease spread is required. In this pictorial review we present the anatomical and pathological concepts of the oral cavity with emphasis on the complementary nature of diagnostic imaging modalities. PMID:21933981

  1. Unusual Dermoid Cyst in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; Volpato, Luis Evaristo Ricci; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Botelho, Gilberto de Almeida; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Dermoid cysts in oral cavity are unusual lesions. Their etiology is not yet clear and can be associated with trapped cells as a result of the inclusion error resulting in the development into the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm tissues. The aim of this case report is to evidence the presence of a dermoid cyst in the floor of mouth surgically removed. In the present case, the lesion showed soft consistency, floating, regular borders, smooth surface, and the same color as the adjacent mucosa, asymptomatic and measuring 4.5 × 5.5 cm in its greatest diameter. The initial diagnostic was ranula in consequence of the similarity with clinical characteristics and localization. After surgical removal lesion, a fibrotic capsule was identified with a friable material with intensive yellow color. The microscopic exam showed cystic lesion with cavity lined by squamous stratified epithelium hyperorthokeratinized. Cutaneous attachments, such as sebaceous glands and hair follicles, were present in connective adjacent tissue. Surgical intervention is elective in these situations. All dentists must have a thorough knowledge of this unusual lesion. PMID:24818032

  2. Linear Epidermal Nevus of the Oral Cavity: A Rare Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mariana Dutra de Cássia Ferreira; Duarte, Alexandre Scalli Mathias; Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro; Coelho Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Milani Altemani, Albina Messias de Almeida; Danielli Nicola, Ester Maria

    2012-01-01

    Linear epidermal nevus is an uncommon diagnosis of benign lesions of the oral cavity. It is characterized by a congenital malformation arising from the ectoderm cells, which are arranged according to a typical linear configuration known as Blaschko's lines. We report a case of linear epidermal nevus of oral cavity in a 51-year-old lady or woman. The linear epidermal nevus of the oral cavity, although rare, can be considered a differential diagnosis of oral papillomatosis (OP). The histopathological studies and detailed description are the center of the diagnostic and clinical evolution. PMID:22811716

  3. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Wang, H.-M.; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, C.-Y.; Ng, S.-H.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

  5. Incidence and Outcomes of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Fourth Primary Tumors: A Long-term Follow-up Study in a Betel Quid Chewing Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Adel, Mohamad; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chien; Chang, Kai-Ping; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yang, Lan Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and fourth primary tumors (PTs) in a betel-chewing endemic area.We retrospectively examined the records of 1836 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2014. The outcome measures included the incidence and number of multiple PTs, the main risk factors, and their associations with overall survival (OS).Of the 1836 patients, 1400 (76.3%) had a single PT, 344 (18.7%) a second PT, 67 (3.6%) a third PT, and 25 (1.4%) a fourth PT. Univariate analyses (log-rank test) identified the following factors as significantly associated with a fourth PT: simultaneous first and second PTs, betel quid chewing, buccal subsite, and pT3-4 status. After allowance for the potential confounding effect of other risk factors, all of these factors retained their independent prognostic significance in stepwise multivariate analyses, the only exception being betel chewing. The incidences of second, third, and fourth PTs at 5 and 10 years were 20.2%/34.6%, 4.0%/8.6%, and 1.0%/2.3%, respectively. The 5 and 10-year OS rates (calculated from the diagnosis of each PTs) for patients with a single, second, third, and fourth PTs were 68%/61%, 43%/37%, 45%/39%%, and 30%/30%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among patients with a fourth PT, those who underwent radical surgery showed a significantly higher 3-year OS than those who did not (57% vs 13%; P = 0.0442).Fourth PTs are rarely observed in OSCC patients in a betel quid-chewing endemic area. Long-term survival rates of patients treated with radical surgery seems acceptable, being 4-fold higher than their counterparts. PMID:27015170

  6. Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

  7. Pretreatment Primary Tumor SUVmax Measured by FDG-PET and Pathologic Tumor Depth Predict for Poor Outcomes in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, Joseph T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I.-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: The pathologic tumor depth is an independent prognosticator for local control (LC) and survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: A total of 109 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All patients underwent 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed for {>=}24 months after surgery or until death. The optimal cutoff value for the primary tumor SUVmax was selected according to the 5-year LC rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 26 months (39 months for surviving patients). A cutoff SUVmax of 19.3 provided the greatest prognostic information for the 5-year LC rate (55% vs. 88%, p = 0.0135). A tumor depth {>=}12 mm appeared to be the most appropriate cutoff for predicting the 5-year LC rate (76% vs. 95%, p = 0.0075). A scoring system using the primary tumor SUVmax and tumor depth was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. Patients with both a SUVmax of {>=}19.3 and tumor depth of {>=}12 mm (n = 8) had significantly poorer 5-year LC, 5-year disease-free, 5-year disease-specific, and 5-year overall survival rates compared with the other patient groups. Conclusion: The combination of the primary tumor SUVmax ({>=}19.3) and pathologic tumor depth ({>=}12 mm) identified a subgroup of OSCC patients at greatest risk of poor LC and death.

  8. Surgical Approaches to the Oral Cavity Primary and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jatin P.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: A variety of surgical approaches used to treat primary oral cavity tumors are described to delineate the technique and rationale behind each treatment choice. Methods and Materials: Size, location, proximity to bone, lymph node status, histology, and prior treatment considerations are employed to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for primary oral cavity tumors. Results: Oncologic outcomes and physical function show the best results from surgical treatment of many primary oral cavity, but necessitates careful selection of surgical approach. Conclusion: Each surgical approach must be selected based upon relevant tumor, patient and physician factors.

  9. HIF-1alpha Expression Profile in Intratumoral and Peritumoral Inflammatory Cells as a Prognostic Marker for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Suzanny Oliveira; dos Santos, Marcelo; Peterle, Gabriela Tonini; Maia, Lucas de Lima; Stur, Elaine; Agostini, Lidiane Pignaton; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Trivilin, Leonardo Oliveira; da Silva-Conforti, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2014-01-01

    The HIF-1 transcriptional complex is responsible for controlling transcription of over 100 genes involved in cell hypoxia response. HIF-1alpha subunit is stabilized in hypoxia conditions, creating the HIF-1 nuclear transcription factor. In inflammatory cells, high HIF-1alpha expression induces lymphocytic immunosuppression, decreasing tumoral antigen recognition, which promotes tumor growth. The present work investigated the relationship between HIF-1alpha expression in lymphocytes populating the intratumoral and peritumoral region of 56 patients with oral cancer. Our data indicates a prognostic value for this expression. High HIF-1alpha expression in peritumoral inflammatory cells is significantly related to worse patient outcome, whereas high expression in the intratumoral lymphoid cells correlates with a better prognosis. A risk profile indicating the chance of disease relapse and death was designed based on HIF-1alpha expression in tumoral inflammatory cells, defining low, intermediate and high risks. This risk profile was able to determine that high HIF-1alpha expression in peritumoral cells correlates with worse prognosis, independently of intratumoral expression. Low HIF-1alpha in tumor margins and high expression in the tumor was considered a low risk profile, showing no cases of disease relapse and disease related death. Intermediate risk was associated with low expression in tumor and tumor margins. Our results suggest that HIF-1alpha expression in tumor and peritumoral inflammatory cells may play an important role as prognostic tumor marker. PMID:24416312

  10. Application of direct oral microscopy in evaluating mucosal margins around invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Michcik, Adam; Michajłowski, Igor; Starzyńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique, which aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The oral mucosa is examined at multiple magnifications and features such as sub-epithelial mucosal vessels, surface patterns, colour tone, transparency and the exact demarcation of mucosal lesions are estimated. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) oscillates between 1.9% and 3.5%, which makes it the eighth most common carcinoma occurring around the world and in Poland. The 5-year survival rates oscillate between 20% and 30%. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate clinically unchanged mucosal margins around OSCC by direct oral microscopy. The authors approached the question whether the borders of mucosal margins around OSCC established via direct oral microscopy differ from those established based on clinical examination. Material and methods Fifteen patients diagnosed with OSCC were enrolled. Patients were first clinically examined to evaluate the extent of the tumour and to plan resection margins. Eventually, direct oral microscopy was performed to establish the width of the subclinically unchanged mucosal margins based on a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae, followed by comparison with those established by clinical evaluation. Results Histopathologic results of biopsies from areas indicated by direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 86.7% of patients, whereas biopsies from areas indicated by clinical examination revealed dysplasia only in 40% of individuals, resulting in the need for widening of mucosal margins. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy enables detection of dysplasia within clinically unaltered mucosal margins around OSCC, which results in more precise establishing of resection boundaries, contributing to improvement of resection totality. PMID:26759543

  11. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, AG; Nair, Bindu J; Sivakumar, TT; Joseph, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods. PMID:25328305

  12. Autofluorescence imaging in recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Martin; Fuss, Juliana; Derman, Mehmet Ali; Kreppel, Matthias; Neugebauer, Jörg; Rothamel, Daniel; Drebber, Uta; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2016-03-01

    The survival of patients with oral cancer is decreased by locoregional recurrence after an initial multimodal treatment. In order to identify lesions in the oral cavity for a possible recurrence, clinical evaluation as well as MRI or CT scanning is advised. The evaluation of mucosa lesions is hampered by changes related to radio- and chemotherapy as well as reconstruction with tissue flaps. Several techniques for easier identification of tissue abnormalities in the oral cavity have been advocated as adjuncts in order to facilitate identification. Especially methods using altered tissue fluorescence have gained much interest during the last decade. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate fluorescence properties of undiagnosed mucosa lesions with the VELscope device in patients with multimodal treated oral cancer prior to histological confirmation. In total, 41 patients with a history of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) (19 females and 22 males) with undiagnosed mucosa lesions where included in the study. After clinical evaluation, examination and documentation using the VELscope® device were performed. Then, an incisional biopsy was performed. An autofluorescence loss indicating a malignant or dysplastic mucosa condition could be detected in six patients (14.6 %); however, only one OSCC and one SIN revealed a complete autofluorescence loss. In four patients, OSCC was present in lesions with retained autofluorescence. Sensitivity and specificity for the VELscope® examination to identify malignant oral lesions by autofluorescence were 33.3 and 88.6 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 33.3 and 88.6 %, respectively. No statistical correlation between gender and lesion appearance versus autofluorescence loss could be detected. In contrast to mucosa lesions in patients with no prior treatment, the autofluorescence evaluation with the VELscope reveals no additional information in our analysis. Accordingly, invasive biopsies

  13. The oral cavity in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Pittock, S; Drumm, B; Fleming, P; McDermott, M; Imrie, C; Flint, S; Bourke, B

    2001-05-01

    We assessed the utility of expert oral examination as a part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected Crohn's disease. Of 45 patients with newly diagnosed CD, 25 had been examined by a dentist. Twelve (48%) of these had oral CD lesions. Mucosal tags constituted the most frequent form of oral lesion (8/12). Of 8 oral biopsy specimens, 6 (75%) contained non-caseating granulomas. Patients with oral CD had more oral symptoms, presented for diagnosis sooner, and were more likely to have other upper gastrointestinal inflammation than those without oral lesions. Oral manifestations of CD are common in children; therefore, expert oral examination may be useful during diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:11343060

  14. Genetic polymorphisms and HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Limei; Song, Xicheng; Li, Guojun

    2015-10-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the United States, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, including oral cavity and oropharynx) is rising in young adults. The reasons have been attributed to changes in sexual behaviors and the increasingly prevalent infection of oncogenic subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), principally type16 and occasionally type18. However, only small proportion of individuals who have contracted HPV infection will develop OSCC, suggesting that there is an inter-individual variation in susceptibility to HPV infection and related OSCC. Identification of susceptible biomarkers for HPV status would be useful to identify those individuals who are susceptible to HPV infection, to refine the prognostication of HPV associated OSCC, and ultimately to improve prevention efforts for OSCC and potentially other HPV-associated diseases. Our public health OSCC prevention paradigm will need to expand beyond tobacco and alcohol control. PMID:26057719

  15. Puffed-cheek computed tomography: a dynamic maneuver for imaging oral cavity tumors.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Nezahat; Bulbul, Erdogan; Songu, Murat; Uluc, Engin; Onal, Kazim; Apaydin, Melda; Katilmis, Huseyin

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a prospective study to compare the effectiveness of conventional computed tomography (CT) and puffed-cheek CT in detecting the presence and extension of oral cavity malignant tumors. We enrolled 11 patients--5 men and 6 women, aged 32 to 85 years--who had a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. These tumors were located in the floor of the mouth in 4 patients, in the buccal mucosa in 4, in both the buccal mucosa and retromolar trigone in 2, and in the retromolar trigone only in 1. First, conventional contrast-enhanced axial CT was obtained through the oral cavity and neck in each patient. Next, axial imaging was obtained through the oral cavity while patients inflated their cheeks, pursed their lips, and held their breath. We found that the puffed-cheek CTs provided more information regarding the size and extent of the squamous cell carcinomas than did the conventional CTs. For example, in 8 patients, conventional CT could not differentiate the tumor from the normal mucosal surface, but puffed-cheek images clearly showed the surface of the tumor as distinct from the normal mucosa. More disconcerting was the fact that in the other 3 patients, conventional CTs were evaluated as normal, even though puffed-cheek imaging clearly showed the mass in each case. We conclude that puffed-cheek CT is superior to conventional CT for evaluating the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity. It provides a clearer and more detailed picture with no downside. PMID:22996710

  16. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  17. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-15

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  18. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Optical diagnostics in the oral cavity: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, P; Holtzman, J; Epstein, J; Le, A

    2014-01-01

    As the emphasis shifts from damage mitigation to disease prevention or reversal of early disease in the oral cavity, the need for sensitive and accurate detection and diagnostic tools become more important. Many novel and emergent optical diagnostic modalities for the oral cavity are becoming available to clinicians with a variety of desirable attributes including: (i) non-invasiveness, (ii) absence of ionizing radiation, (iii) patient-friendliness, (iv) real-time information (v) repeatability, and (vi) high-resolution surface and subsurface images. In this article, the principles behind optical diagnostic approaches, their feasibility and applicability for imaging soft and hard tissues, and their potential usefulness as a tool in the diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions, dental pathologies, and other dental applications will be reviewed. The clinical applications of light-based imaging technologies in the oral cavity and of their derivative devices will be discussed to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of emergent diagnostic modalities. PMID:20561224

  20. An explosion in the oral cavity by a firecracker.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Min

    2013-01-01

    Explosive oral cavity injuries make restoring optimal oral function a challenge. An explosion in the oral cavity can cause burns and concomitant smoke inhalation injury to the upper airway.We present the case of a patient in whom the middle and lower thirds of the face were destroyed when a firecracker exploded in his oral cavity. Gunpowder tattooing caused by the explosion was present on the retropharyngeal space. He had an open fracture of the mandibular symphysis and inhalation burns of the upper airway were suspected. Tracheostomy was performed because we could not rule out inhalation burns of the upper airway. After close observation, his cardiopulmonary function and vital signs were stable, and we prepared him for reconstructive surgery. PMID:24036829

  1. Multiple aphthoid syphilitic chancres of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, S; Lunardon, L; Persico, M C; Francia, C; Bottini, S

    2008-07-01

    We describe the case of a 31-year-old man who was affected by three asymptomatic, aphthoid, syphilitic chancres of the oral cavity. These lesions were accompanied by right latero-cervical and chin lymphadenopathy. The infection was previously diagnosed as aphthous stomatitis. The search for Treponema pallidum by means of darkfield microscope examination was positive. The patient was successfully treated with oral erythromycin ethylsuccinate. To our knowledge, this is the first case of multiple aphthoid syphilitic chancres of the oral cavity reported in the literature. We suggest that all patients with a recent history of painless ulcers in the oral cavity, accompanied by regional lymphadenopathy in which the clinical diagnosis has not been confirmed, should undergo a darkfield microscope examination. PMID:18574125

  2. Oral Cavity as an Extragastric Reservoir of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S.; Kamath, Kavitha P.; Patil, Shankargouda; Preethanath, R. S.; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several studies were reported on the prevalence, and relationship between the existence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity and in stomach of patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its link to gastric infection, the existence of coinfection, and the impact of anti-H. pylori therapy on the dental plaque and vice versa. Method. Two authors independently searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The articles were analyzed critically and all qualified studies were included. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words Helicobacter, Helicobacter pylori, and H. pylori in combination with dental plaque, periodontitis, and oral hygiene. Results. The data was presented in 8 tables and each topic separately discussed. Conclusion. Based on the systematic review of the available literature on H. pylori infection and its presence in the oral cavity, it can be concluded that dental plaque can act as a reservoir, and proper oral hygiene maintenance is essential to prevent reinfection. Due to the diversified methods and population groups involved in the available literature, no concrete evidence can be laid down. Further studies are necessary to establish the role of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its eradication on preventing the gastroduodenal infection. PMID:24701355

  3. Oral squamous cell carcinoma around dental implants.

    PubMed

    Czerninski, Rakefet; Kaplan, Ilana; Almoznino, Galit; Maly, Alexander; Regev, Eran

    2006-10-01

    It is well documented that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is related to risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption as well as premalignant lesions and conditions such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus (OLP), and previous malignancy of the upper respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. Osseointegrated dental implants are rarely reported in association with OSCC. This article presents 2 cases of OSCC adjacent to dental implants in patients at risk for oral cancer--1 was a heavy smoker with OLP; the other had a history of previous oral and colon cancer. Six additional cases of malignancy adjacent to dental implants were retrieved from the literature; the majority of cases had at least 1 recognized risk factor for oral cancer. Although such cases are rarely reported, patients at risk for oral cancer, especially those with multiple existing risk factors, that present with failing dental implants should be thoroughly evaluated to rule out the presence of malignancy disguised as peri-implant disease. PMID:17017632

  4. Outcome of operable oral cavity cancer and impact of maintenance metronomic chemotherapy: A retrospective study from rural India

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Avinash; Desai, A.; Ostwal, V.; Patil, V.; Kulkarni, A.; Kulkarni, R.; Patil, N.; Chaukar, D.; Prabhash, K.; Banavali, Shripad D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral cavity cancer is the most common cancer among rural India. There is a paucity of data for outcomes of operable oral cavity cancer from rural India. Use of maintenance metronomic may delay or avoid relapse. Aim: To evaluate outcomes of operable oral cavity carcinoma and evaluate impact of maintenance metronomic chemotherapy. Objectives: To evaluate disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and factors affecting the outcome in operable oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer registered between May 2008 and May 2014 were retrieved. Only those patients with operable oral cavity cancer and upfront definitive surgery were included in the study. Demographic profile, stage, tobacco consumption, adjuvant therapy, and pattern of failure were collected. Kaplan–Meir survival analysis was used to determine DFS and OS. Log-rank test was used to evaluate factors affecting outcome. Results: Median follow-up is 24 months. Out of 335 patients, 225 (67%) had advanced operable cancer with 42/225 (18%) and 183/225 (82%) as Stages III and IVA, respectively. Buccal mucosa was the most common subsite (178/335, 53%) followed by tongue (63/335, 19%). Ninety-two percent patients were addicted to smokeless tobacco, whereas 27% were smokers. Median DFS is 13 months with 2 years relative DFS 32%. Median OS is 30 months, with 2 years OS of 54%. Metronomic adjuvant oral chemotherapy was given in 130/225 (58%); Stage III and IVA patients with median of 14 months (3–18 months). Use of metronomic chemotherapy improved DFS (8 vs. 14 months, P = 0.22) and OS (14 vs. 26 months, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Oral cavity cancer is a major health care problem in rural India. Presentation at advanced stage leads to suboptimal outcomes. Benefit of metronomic maintenance chemotherapy in locally advanced oral cavity needs to be further evaluated prospectively. PMID:27275446

  5. Clinical and mycological analysis of dog’s oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; de Oliveira Nobre, Márcia; Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; de Mello, João Roberto Braga; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2013-01-01

    The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis. PMID:24159296

  6. Applications of flexible hollow waveguides in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannot, Israel; Calderon, Shlomo; Dror, Jacob; Croitoru, Nathan I.

    1995-05-01

    Flexible plastic waveguides were used in several fields of dentistry for treatments in the oral cavity. Soft tissue lesions were treated applying CO2 laser energy. A new technique for dental implants was suggested using a combination of Er-YAG and CO2 laser energy. Cavity preparation in the teeth was performed using the Er-YAG laser radiation and CO2 energy transmitted by the waveguides was used for root canal treatments.

  7. High incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma independent of HPV infection after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Chang, P M; Li, W Y; Hsiao, L T; Hong, Y C; Liu, C Y; Gau, J P; Liu, J H; Chen, P M; Chiou, T J; Tzeng, C H

    2011-04-01

    Hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is a well-recognized therapeutic procedure to prolong life and cure patients with life-threatening hematological malignancies; however, the risk of developing secondary carcinoma may increase in long-term survivors. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for secondary squamous carcinoma after HSCT. Between 1984 and 2004, 170 allogeneic HSCT recipients aged >15 years, who had survived for >5 years were enrolled. Demographic data and the characteristics of secondary carcinoma were collected and analyzed for the determination of the incidence and risk of developing secondary carcinoma. Eight patients developed secondary carcinoma, including five oral squamous cell carcinomas, one esophageal, one gastric and one ovarian carcinoma, but no cutaneous carcinomas were detected at a median follow-up of 14.1 years (range, 5.1-23.3 years) after HSCT. The accrual 10-year cumulative incidence of secondary carcinoma was 2.89%. In univariate and multivariate analyses, chronic GVHD and age >40 years at the time of HSCT were both significant risk factors independently associated with the development of secondary carcinoma. Thus, the occurrence of secondary carcinoma is one of the late complications in patients undergoing HSCT. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was more common in our patients after HSCT, indicating the need for lifelong surveillance of the oral cavity. Moreover, because of the relatively long latency in developing secondary carcinoma, extended follow-up is required for a thorough understanding of the incidence and characteristics of secondary carcinoma after HSCT. PMID:20622906

  8. Oral hybrid verrucous carcinoma: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gokavarapu, Sandhya; Rao S, L M Chandrasekhara; Tantravahi, Uma Sankar; Gundimeda, Sandhya Devi; Rao, T Subramaneshwar; Murthy, Sudha

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid Verrucous Carcinoma is an uncommon tumour wherein Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) is coexisting with conventional Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) within same maternal field. The heterogeneous nature, infrequency of occurrence and the difficulties associated with diagnosis and management of this tumor is discussed through a retrospective study. Patients of primary hybrid VC treated from Jan 2010 to May 2013 at a tertiary institute were analyzed on multivariate cox regression model. During the above mentioned period; 37 patients of hybrid VC were reported; 18(48.6 %) were male and 19(51.3 %) were female. Age ranged between 33 years to 78 years. Median follow up period was 32 months. T stage status and Stage grouping was not statistically significant for mortality (p value: 0.338). In the multivariate cox-regression model, the presence of second primary oral cancer was significantly associated with mortality, adjusted HR; 23.10 (95 % CI: 1.73, 307.65) (p = 0.017). Tumour staging is often unreliable in predicting prognosis of hybrid VC, occurrence of second primary oral cancer and recurrence appears to be significant factors effecting prognosis. PMID:25767335

  9. Metastatic tumors of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roopa S; Patil, Shankargouda; Sanketh, Ds; Amrutha, N

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal reason for morbidity and mortality of any type of cancer is due to metastasis that occurs as a result of adaptation of genetically unstable cancer cells, in an ectopic conducive environment. Oral metastasis in spite of being unusual or rare represents around 25% of the first signs of metastatic spread. Literature says there are more number of cases of jaw bone metastasis reported than in the oral soft tissues. The most common primary organs metastasizing to the jaw bones and the oral soft tissues are the breast and the lungs respectively. The issue in diagnosing a metastatic tumor arises either when the patient does not reveal the history of the primary illness he or she may be suffering from or when he or she is unaware of it. Diagnosis in such situations is a challenge to the clinician or pathologist. Diagnosing any lymph node or distant metastasis from oral cancer is very important for the prognosis of the patient. In this review we have made an attempt, to explain some recent concepts of pathophysiology of the metastatic process, the clinical manifestations of metastatic tumors to the oral region and to discuss their diagnostic workup. PMID:25095855

  10. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Pride, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  11. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Boehm, Tobias K; Pride, David T

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  12. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  13. [Smoking and diseases of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Squier, C; Kramer, M; Johnson, G; Lilly, G

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives a review on the etiology of oral cancer, discusses some of the mechanisms by which tobacco may bring about changes in oral tissues, and describe ways in which the dentist can help with the problem of tobacco use. Risk of developing oral cancer increases with the amount and length of cigarette-smoking and alcohol consumption. Hungry is ranked with the highest cigarette-consumption as third among 111 countries world-wide. Investigations of the authors on the pathogenesis of leukoplakia by tobacco, demonstrated increased tissue levels of inflammatory mediators, and stimulated keratinocyte proliferation. Finally, the dentist has an important role to play in society as an advocate for reducing tobacco use. PMID:9729664

  14. Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-15

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage 0 Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Laryngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer; Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA

  15. The magic of magic bugs in oral cavity: Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Anusha, Rangare Lakshman; Umar, Dilshad; Basheer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an update about the current status of probiotics in the field of dentistry. Oral infections are the most common forms of infections. It is necessary to understand the role of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity in better understanding of the pathogenesis of various oral diseases. The concept of bacteriotherapy has been an emerging field in dentistry. The use of health-beneficial micro-organisms to heal diseases or support immune function was first introduced in the beginning of the 20th century. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts and it has been found to be beneficial to the host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. This approach has shown promising results in the oral cavity with respect to control of chronic diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, and recurring problems such as halitosis and candidal infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, data are still deficient on the probiotic action in the oral cavity, which further mandates randomized trials before any concrete clinical recommendations can be arrived. PMID:25878972

  16. The magic of magic bugs in oral cavity: Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Anusha, Rangare Lakshman; Umar, Dilshad; Basheer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an update about the current status of probiotics in the field of dentistry. Oral infections are the most common forms of infections. It is necessary to understand the role of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity in better understanding of the pathogenesis of various oral diseases. The concept of bacteriotherapy has been an emerging field in dentistry. The use of health-beneficial micro-organisms to heal diseases or support immune function was first introduced in the beginning of the 20(th) century. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts and it has been found to be beneficial to the host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. This approach has shown promising results in the oral cavity with respect to control of chronic diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, and recurring problems such as halitosis and candidal infections. Despite the immense potential of probiotics, data are still deficient on the probiotic action in the oral cavity, which further mandates randomized trials before any concrete clinical recommendations can be arrived. PMID:25878972

  17. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R. Zhung, Joanne E.; Gomez, Jennifer; Chan, Kelvin; Wu, Abraham J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Pfister, David G.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Wong, Richard J.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To present our single-institution experience of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2006, 35 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent surgery followed by postoperative IMRT. The sites included were buccal mucosa in 8, oral tongue in 11, floor of the mouth in 9, gingiva in 4, hard palate in 2, and retromolar trigone in 1. Most patients had Stage III-IV disease (80%). Ten patients (29%) also received concurrent postoperative chemotherapy with IMRT. The median prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 28.1 months (range, 11.9-85.1). Treatment failure occurred in 11 cases as follows: local in 4, regional in 2, and distant metastases in 5. Of the 5 patients with distant metastases, 2 presented with dermal metastases. The 2- and 3-year estimates of locoregional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 84% and 77%, 85% and 85%, 70% and 64%, and 74% and 74%, respectively. Acute Grade 2 or greater dermatitis, mucositis, and esophageal reactions were experienced by 54%, 66%, and 40% of the patients, respectively. Documented late complications included trismus (17%) and osteoradionecrosis (5%). Conclusion: IMRT as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection for oral cavity tumors is feasible and effective, with promising results and acceptable toxicity.

  18. One case of pemphigus vulgaris observed in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T; Furusawa, S; Iguti, Y; Kuno, T; Nishiyama, K; Yamamoto, K; Nitta, M; Hayashi, Y

    1996-01-01

    We report on a case of pemphigus vulgaris with lesions in the oral cavity as well as an outline of differential diagnosis and treatment. Changes in the pemphigus antibodies in blood assisted in judging the therapeutic effects along with the therapeutic course. PMID:8790766

  19. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  20. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review

    PubMed Central

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V.; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  1. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review.

    PubMed

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  2. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  3. Early oral intake after reconstruction with a free flap for cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Guidera, Alice K; Kelly, Bronwen N; Rigby, Paul; MacKinnon, Craig A; Tan, Swee T

    2013-04-01

    To allow healing of the surgical wound patients are traditionally given nothing by mouth for 6-12 days after resection and reconstruction of a cancer of the oral cavity. Our aim was to assess the impact of introducing oral intake within 6 days postoperatively. Consecutive patients who had resection and reconstruction of a cancer of the oral cavity with a free flap within an 8-year period were selected from the head and neck database. Personal and social data; type, stage, and site of the tumour; type of resection and free flap; postoperative complications; and duration of hospital stay were recorded, supplemented by review of casenotes for the time that oral intake was started, duration of nasogastric and tracheostomy intubation, and changes in body weight. Patients in the early oral intake group started oral intake within 5 days postoperatively, and those in the late group began feeding from postoperative day 6. The duration of hospital stay in the early group was significantly shorter than that in the late group. There was, however, no difference in the morbidity, including orocutaneous fistula, between the two groups. The duration of nasogastric and tracheostomy intubation was shorter, and weight loss was less, in the early group than in the late group, but not significantly so. Early oral feeding does not increase the morbidity for patients having resection and reconstruction with free flaps for cancers of the oral cavity. Early oral intake is associated with a shorter hospital stay, and this may have implications for improved postoperative outcome. PMID:22776518

  4. Desmosomal component expression in normal, dysplastic, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Nagamani; Gist, Julie; Smith, Tyler; Tylka, Daniel; Trogdon, Gavin; Wahl, James K

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC) is the most common oral cancer in the U.S., affecting nearly 30,000 Americans each year. Despite recent advances in detection and treatment, there has been little improvement in the five-year survival rate for this devastating disease. Oral cancer may be preceded by premalignant disease that appears histologically as dysplasia. Identification of molecular markers for cellular change would assist in determining the risk of dysplasia progressing to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The goal of this study was to determine if any correlation exists between histological diagnosed dysplasia and OSCC lesions and altered expression of desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecules in the oral epithelium. Our data showed that oral SCC tissue samples showed decreased immunoreactivity of both desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 proteins compared to normal oral epithelium. Furthermore, significant decrease in desmoplakin immunoreactivity was observed in dysplastic tissue compared to normal oral epithelium. In contrast, the level of desmoglein-1 staining was unchanged between samples however desmoglein-1 was found localized to cell borders in oral SCC samples. These data suggest that changes in expression of desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 may prove to be a useful marker for changes in tissue morphology and provide a tool for identifying pre-neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:20585603

  5. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavities of patients with leukoplakia and oral lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Kazanowska-Dygdała, Magdalena; Duś, Irena; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. Results In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients). The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions. PMID:27008253

  6. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavities of patients with leukoplakia and oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Kazanowska-Dygdała, Magdalena; Duś, Irena; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2016-02-01

    Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. Results In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients). The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions. PMID:27008253

  7. Apoptotic Index and Proliferative Index in Premalignant and Malignant Squamous Cell Lesions of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vidya; Juluri, Ravichandra; Goel, Seema; Madan, Jyotsna; Mitra, Subir K; Gopalakrishnan, Dharmarajan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell lesions are most commonly diagnosed lesions in India. Both premalignant and malignant lesions are frequently encountered. In this study, we evaluated the role and significance of apoptotic indices (AI) and proliferative indices (PI) in premalignant and malignant squamous cell lesions of the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 histologically proven cases of premalignant and malignant oral squamous cell lesions were analyzed. The biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and also with monoclonal antibody Ki-67. AI and PI were assessed using a light microscope. Results: AI was found to increase gradually from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest AI was seen in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). PI also was found to increase significantly from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest PI was seen in poorly differentiated SCC. Conclusion: AI in conjunction with the PI offers an accurate idea as to the nature and course of the lesion and may help to plan timely surgical intervention that results in better clinical prognosis and outcome. PMID:25709366

  8. Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach.

    PubMed

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Reischl, Udo; Behr, Anke; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Lehn, Norbert; Schmalz, Gottfried; Ruhl, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The oral cavity has been suspected as an extra-gastroduodenal reservoir for Helicobacter pylori infection and transmission, but conflicting evidence exists regarding the occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth, independently of stomach colonization. Ninety-four gastric biopsy patients were analysed for the concurrent presence of H. pylori in the mouth and stomach. Samples were collected from different areas within the mouth and H. pylori DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and verified by sequencing. Helicobacter pylori-specific serology was performed, and stomach colonization was determined by culture. In addition, relevant dental and periodontal parameters, as well as general health parameters, were recorded. Helicobacter pylori was found in the stomach of 29 patients and in the oral cavity of 16 patients. In only six patients was the bacterium detected simultaneously in the stomach and mouth. Notably, the 10 patients in whom the bacterium was found solely in the mouth did not have serum antibodies to H. pylori. The occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth was found to be correlated neither to any general or oral health parameters, nor to any particular site of collection. This study shows that H. pylori can occur in the oral cavity independently of stomach colonization. PMID:18705796

  9. The fluid mechanics of bolus ejection from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, M A; Robbins, J A

    2001-12-01

    The squeezing action of the tongue against the palate provides driving forces to propel swallowed material out of the mouth and through the pharynx. Transport in response to these driving forces, however, is dependent on the material properties of the swallowed bolus. Given the complex geometry of the oral cavity and the unsteady nature of this process, the mechanics governing the oral phase of swallowing are not well understood. In the current work, the squeezing flow between two approaching parallel plates is used as a simplified mathematical model to study the fluid mechanics of bolus ejection from the oral cavity. Driving forces generated by the contraction of intrinsic and extrinsic lingual muscles are modeled as a spatially uniform pressure applied to the tongue. Approximating the tongue as a rigid body, the motion of tongue and fluid are then computed simultaneously as a function of time. Bolus ejection is parameterized by the time taken to clear half the bolus from the oral cavity, t(1/2). We find that t(1/2) increases with increased viscosity and density and decreases with increased applied pressure. In addition, for low viscosity boluses (mu approximately 100 cP), density variations dominate the fluid mechanics while for high viscosity boluses (mu approximately 1000 cP), viscosity dominates. A transition region between these two regimes is found in which both properties affect the solution characteristics. The relationship of these results to the assessment and treatment of swallowing disorders is discussed. PMID:11716855

  10. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  11. Oral cavity contains distinct niches with dynamic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; He, Jinzhi; Xue, Jing; Wang, Yan; Li, Kun; Zhang, Keke; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Xianghong; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Li, Yan; Shi, Wenyuan; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-03-01

    Microbes colonize human oral surfaces within hours after delivery. During postnatal development, physiological changes, such as the eruption of primary teeth and replacement of the primary dentition with permanent dentition, greatly alter the microbial habitats, which, in return, may lead to community composition shifts at different phases in people's lives. By profiling saliva, supragingival and mucosal plaque samples from healthy volunteers at different ages and dentition stages, we observed that the oral cavity is a highly heterogeneous ecological system containing distinct niches with significantly different microbial communities. More importantly, the phylogenetic microbial structure varies with ageing. In addition, only a few taxa were present across the whole populations, indicating a core oral microbiome should be defined based on age and oral niches. PMID:24800728

  12. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha; Mittal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, 15 in each of the following: normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used for the study. Immunohistochemical reaction for survivin protein was performed for the 4 µm thick histological sections taken on positively charged slides. Results. 20% normal mucosa cases, 53.33% cases of leukoplakia, and 80% of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found out to be survivin positive. One way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference of survivin expression between the three different groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion. A high incidence of survivin protein expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma samples indicate that survivin protein expression may be an early event in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26457223

  13. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  14. [Side effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Although drugs are the most powerful therapeutic tools we have for improving the quality of life of the population, their use is not free of adverse effects. Today there are many polymedicated patients, and it is difficult to find the cause of their adverse effects that increase exponentially when more than 4 drugs are combined. There are a large number of drugs that can result in numerous adverse effects in the oral cavity. The most common are xerostomia, altered taste, gingival enlargement and mucositis caused by cancer treatment. We also review other disorders of the salivary glands, oral mucosal changes, pigmentations, halitosis, osteonecrosis, opportunistic infections and bleeding diathesis. PMID:24629691

  15. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Ornamental Fish.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Sweeney, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Ornamental fish represent the largest and most diverse group of exotic animals kept as pets. The specific oral anatomy of each family or selected species has evolved to suit the natural environment, feeding behaviors, food or prey type, and location of the food/prey in the water column. The anatomy can change over the life of the animal, from fry to adult. The oral cavity of fish is susceptible to many problems including infectious and parasitic diseases, trauma, and neoplasia. Diagnosis may involve wet mount preparations of exfoliative cytology from the lesion, histopathology, and bacterial or fungal culture. PMID:27497201

  16. Differential cell-specific cytotoxic responses of oral cavity cells to tobacco preparations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, Gaddamanugu L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of standardized (reference) tobacco preparations on human oral cavity cells, two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (101A, 101B) and normal human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) were treated with cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), smokeless tobacco extracted with complete artificial saliva (ST/CAS), or whole-smoke conditioned media (WS-CM). EC-50 values, as determined by sulforhodamine B assays, varied among the cell types and agents. When normalized to nicotine content, cytotoxicity for WS-CM and TPM was higher compared to that observed with ST/CAS. Nicotine alone had no or only minimal cytotoxicity for all cell types in the applied range. Activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 was examined in all cell types at their respective EC-50 doses for the three agents. TPM, but not ST/CAS or WS-CM significantly activated caspase-3 in all three cell types. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for expression of the early apoptosis marker Annexin V and for nuclear staining by 7-aminoactinomycin (7-AAD) revealed different extents of apoptosis versus non-apoptotic cell death for the three agents. These data characterize differential responses of normal and malignant oral cells after exposure to TPM, ST/CAS, or WS-CM. They assist in understanding differential effects of combustible versus non-combustible tobacco products, and in identifying novel biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and effect in the oral cavity. PMID:22960471

  17. Site-dependant redox ratio in healthy oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Sivabalan; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2011-03-01

    The metabolic coenzymes NADH and FAD are autofluorescent and can be monitored non-destructively and without exogenous labels, using optical techniques. These endogenous fluorophores which are present in the cells and tissues gives rise to different fluorescence emission/excitation spectra between the normal and different diseased conditions. In the resent years, finding the optical redox ratio i.e., the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of FAD and NADH, gives the relative change in the oxidation-reduction state of the cells. Unlike other organs oral cavity has lined with variety of mucosal types. We investigated in vivo Optical redox ratio for four different anatomical locations viz., cheek mucosa, vermilion border of the lip, Hard palate, dorsal side of the tongue of healthy oral cavity. We measured this ratio for 20 healthy subjects and the redox ratio was significantly different between the different anatomical locations. The statistical significance was also investigated.

  18. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy. PMID:26608497

  19. Osteolipoma: a rare tumor in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Omonte, Sheyla Viana; de Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto; Leal, Rosana Maria; Capistrano, Hermínia Marques; Souza, Paulo Eduardo Alencar; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello

    2016-07-01

    Osteolipoma is a rarely reported histologic variant of lipoma that exhibits bone formation. To the best of our knowledge, only 13 well-documented case reports of osteolipoma in the oral cavity have been published in the English literature. This study presents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of an osteolipoma in the oral cavity and reviews the pertinent literature. The patient was a 29-year-old female, who presented with an 8-month history of a painless, progressively enlarging, well-defined, movable submucosal mass in the left posterior buccal mucosa. The lesion had a hard consistency. Imaging findings revealed a spherical radiopacity with an irregular trabecular pattern. The lesion was excised and the diagnosis of osteolipoma was established. No recurrence was observed after a 5-year follow-up. PMID:26652892

  20. Photodynamic action on some pathogenic microorganisms of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99 % are determined.

  1. Modulation of nitrate-nitrite conversion in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    van Maanen, J M; van Geel, A A; Kleinjans, J C

    1996-01-01

    The formation of nitrite from ingested nitrate can give rise to the induction of methemoglobinemia and endogenous nitrosation resulting in the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. We investigated the possibility of modulation of the conversion of nitrate into nitrite in the oral cavity in order to seek ways of reducing the formation of the deleterious nitrite. We investigated the effectiveness of several mouthwash solutions with antibacterial constituents on the reduction of nitrate into nitrite in the oral cavity. In 15 studied subjects, the mean percentage of salivary nitrate reduced to nitrite after ingestion of 235 mg (3.8 mmol) nitrate was found to be 16.1 +/- 6.2%. The use of an antiseptic mouthwash with active antibacterial constituent chlorhexidine resulted in an almost complete decrease of the mean percentage of reduced nitrate, to 0.9 +/- 0.8%. Mouthwash solutions with antibacterial component triclosan or antimicrobial enzymes amyloglucosidase and glucose oxidase did not affect the reduction of nitrate into nitrite. A toothpaste with active components triclosan and zinc citrate with synergistic antiplaque activity was also without effect. Use of a pH-regulating chewing gum resulted in a rise in the pH in the oral cavity from 6.8 to 7.3. At 30 min after nitrate ingestion, this rise was accompanied by a significant increase in the salivary nitrite concentration, which might be explained by the pH being close to the optimal pH for nitrate reductase of 8. In conclusion, a limited number of possibilities of modulation of the conversion of nitrate into nitrite in the oral cavity are available. PMID:8939344

  2. Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hong; Tian, Xin; Liu, Ou-Sheng; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Quan, Hong-Zhi; Xie, Shang; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes. PMID:25126189

  3. Coordination of oral cavity and laryngeal movements during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Gay, T; Rendell, J K; Spiro, J; Mosier, K; Lurie, A G

    1994-07-01

    In this study, dynamic imaging was used to track the movements of oral cavity and laryngeal structures during swallowing in 10 normal adults subjects. The movements of tiny lead pellet markers attached to the lips, tongue, mandible, and soft palate, as well as anatomic landmarks on the hyoid bone, were measured in relation to a reference pellet affixed to the upper central incisors. Sagittal views of the oral cavity were obtained using standard videofluorography. Each subject produced 10 swallows of 12 ml of tap water followed by 5 swallows with a bite block placed between the molars. The recorded video images were input to a microcomputer where the x- and y-coordinates of the pellets were measured. Results of the analyses revealed considerable temporal overlap in the timing of oral cavity and laryngeal movements, widespread individual variability in coordination patterns and movement trajectories, and selective effects of the bite block. These data suggest the existence of individual adaptive strategies in the programming and control of swallowing movements. PMID:7961257

  4. Bortezomib Followed by the Addition of Doxorubicin at Disease Progression in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (Cancer) of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  5. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity. PMID:21815141

  6. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y.; Tito, Raul Y.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars; Samaniego Castruita, José Alfredo; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian; Olsen, Jesper V.; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M.; Collins, Matthew J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize: (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) the first evidence of ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, “red-complex” pathogens, and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity, and diet, thereby extending the direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  7. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y; Tito, Raul Y; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars H; Castruita, José Alfredo Samaniego; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M; Collins, Matthew J; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, 'red complex' pathogens and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  8. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Munde, Anita; Juvekar, Monica Vivek; Karle, Ravindra R.; Wankhede, Pranali

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female. PMID:24963252

  9. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Munde, Anita; Juvekar, Monica Vivek; Karle, Ravindra R; Wankhede, Pranali

    2014-04-01

    Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female. PMID:24963252

  10. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer. PMID:25313728

  11. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001). Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR) of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7-7.6), working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7-3.7), and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females. PMID:20838608

  12. Combusted but not smokeless tobacco products cause DNA damage in oral cavity cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, G L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate genomic DNA damage in human oral cavity cells after exposure to different tobacco product preparations (TPPs). The oral carcinoma cell line 101A, gingival epithelial cells HGEC, and gingival fibroblasts HGF were exposed to TPM (total particulate matter from 3R4F cigarettes), ST/CAS (2S3 smokeless tobacco extract in complete artificial saliva), and NIC (nicotine). Treatments were for 24 h using TPM at its EC-50 doses, ST/CAS and NIC at doses with equi-nicotine units, and high doses for ST/CAS and NIC. Comet assays showed that TPM, but not ST/CAS or NIC, caused substantial DNA breaks in cells; only the high ST/CAS dose caused weak DNA damage. These results were confirmed by immunofluorescence for γ-H2AX protein. These data revealed that the combusted TPP caused substantial DNA damage in all cell types, whereas the two non-combusted TPPs exerted no or only minimal DNA damage. They support epidemiologic evidence on the relative risk associated with consumption of non-combusted versus combusted tobacco products, and help to understand potential genotoxic effects of such products on oral cavity cells. PMID:24780532

  13. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. PMID:26802697

  14. Nuclear fractal dimension as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goutzanis, L; Papadogeorgakis, N; Pavlopoulos, P M; Katti, K; Petsinis, V; Plochoras, I; Pantelidaki, C; Kavantzas, N; Patsouris, E; Alexandridis, C

    2008-04-01

    Strong theoretical reasons exist for using fractal geometry in measurements of natural objects, including most objects studied in pathology. Indeed, fractal dimension provides a more precise and theoretically more appropriate approximation of their structure properties and especially their shape complexity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nuclear fractal dimension (FD) in tissue specimens from patients with oral cavity carcinomas in order to assess its potential value as prognostic factor. Relationships between FD and other factors including clinicopathologic characteristics were also investigated. Histological sections from 48 oral squamous cell carcinomas as well as from 17 non-malignant mucosa specimens were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for pathological examination and with Feulgen for nuclear complexity evaluation. The sections were evaluated by image analysis using fractal analysis software to quantify nuclear FD by the box-counting method. Carcinomas presented higher mean values of FD compared to normal mucosa. Well differentiated neoplasms had lower FD values than poorly differentiated ones. FD was significantly correlated with the nuclear size. Patients with FD lower than the median value of the sample had statistically significant higher survival rates. Within the sample of patients studied, FD was proved to be an independent prognostic factor of survival in oral cancer patients. In addition this study provides evidence that there are several statistically significant correlations between FD and other morphometric characteristics or clinicopathologic factors in oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:17692559

  15. [Study of pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Inagi, K; Takahashi, H O; Yao, K; Kamata, T

    1991-12-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is one of the diseases sometimes seen in otorhinolaryngology clinics. The clinical features of this disease are understood to be that the lesion is located in the oral cavity in the majority of cases that its causative agent is usually discovered and that it most likely grows as a malignant tumor. However, the entity of pathological diagnosis has not been established. Thirty-one cases of oral pyogenic granuloma, including 16 males and 15 females, are reported in this paper. The granuloma was located most frequently at the tongue, followed, in order, by the gingiva, buccal mucosa, hard palate, lip and oral floor. The period between the patient's first visit to our clinic and the onset of his/her complaint was variable. It was relatively shorter in those cases with the lesion at the gingiva or tongue as compared to other locations. The size of the lesion was smaller than 10 x 10 mm. We classified the pathological features into three patterns; granuloma type, hemangioma type, and intermediate type. Many cases of lesions located at the back of the tongue, buccal mucosa, or hard palate were of the hemangioma type, while many cases of lesions located at the top of the tongue, gingiva, or oral floor were of the granuloma type. We have the impression that pyogenic granuloma could be one of the purulent changes associated with benign oral tumors. PMID:1779270

  16. Clearance and metabolism of starch foods in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Birkenfeld, L H

    1999-01-01

    The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth sites from 7 volunteers using absorbent paper points. Samples were analyzed for carbohydrates and organic acids using high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical data for each food were pooled and compared to the results of the sugar food. The amount of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was highest with the potato chips and lowest with the corn flakes. Potato starch contributed more readily to oral lactic acid production than wheat or corn starch. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of oral glucose produced from starch, which occurred via the metabolites maltotriose and maltose. Oral clearance of foods containing cooked starch proceeded significantly slower than that of the sugar food, thus contributing to a prolonged period of lactic acid production. PMID:10545668

  17. Oral cavity rare lesions: 15 years case histories

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CARDONI, G.; MUZZI, F.; CADDEO, F.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Oral cavity rare diseases include a various group of uncommon morbid conditions. For this reason they are often called “orphan diseases”, as they are not interesting for research and the description of their natural history is not easy. The aim of our study is to analyze the prevalence and the distribution of oral cavity rare diseases in order to increase their knowledge and allow a fast therapeutic approach. Methods and material. 3144 patients took part to our study, they were choosen according to specific criteria and included in a experimental program; they all were prepared for oral biopsy surgery at Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Tor Vergata University of Rome. Following the results of the histological diagnosis, patients have been grouped. Results. From 1996 to 2010, we observed 1635 men and 1509 women, average age was 53 years, higher for women (55y.) and lower for men (52y.). Conclusions. Nevertheless the low level of accordance and the difficulty in description of natural history of diseases reported in literature, we can conclude that, according to our study the onset of rare diseases shows a percentage of appearing statistically significant. PMID:23277869

  18. Laser-induced autofluorescence of oral cavity hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E. G.; Uzunov, Tz. T.; Avramov, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    In current study oral cavity hard tissues autofluorescence was investigated to obtain more complete picture of their optical properties. As an excitation source nitrogen laser with parameters - 337,1 nm, 14 μJ, 10 Hz (ILGI-503, Russia) was used. In vitro spectra from enamel, dentine, cartilage, spongiosa and cortical part of the periodontal bones were registered using a fiber-optic microspectrometer (PC2000, "Ocean Optics" Inc., USA). Gingival fluorescence was also obtained for comparison of its spectral properties with that of hard oral tissues. Samples are characterized with significant differences of fluorescence properties one to another. It is clearly observed signal from different collagen types and collagen-cross links with maxima at 385, 430 and 480-490 nm. In dentine are observed only two maxima at 440 and 480 nm, related also to collagen structures. In samples of gingival and spongiosa were observed traces of hemoglobin - by its re-absorption at 545 and 575 nm, which distort the fluorescence spectra detected from these anatomic sites. Results, obtained in this study are foreseen to be used for development of algorithms for diagnosis and differentiation of teeth lesions and other problems of oral cavity hard tissues as periodontitis and gingivitis.

  19. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  20. Teratoid cyst of the oral cavity: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Palaskar, Sangeeta J; Garde, Janardan; Bartake, Anirudha; Narang, Bindiya

    2014-01-01

    The teratoid cyst is a rare variant of the dermoid cyst which seldom occurs in the oral cavity. If seen, they generally present as slow growing cysts of the floor of mouth, reported commonly in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life in males. Histopathologically, dermoid cyst is classified as epidermoid cyst, true dermoid cyst and teratoid cyst depending on the presence of adnexal structures and derivatives of all three germ layers. Herewith we report a rare case of teratoid cyst of the floor of the mouth, in a 2-year-old female child, which was present since birth. PMID:25949009

  1. What Are the Key Statistics about Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are the key statistics about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? The American ... increase the risk for these second cancers. For statistics related to survival, see the section “ Survival rates ...

  2. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-27

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  3. Metastatic tumors to the jaws and oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gs; Manjunatha, Bs

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a disease involving complex multiple sequential irreversible dysregulated processes showing metastasis that results in morbidity and mortality. Metastasis is a complex biological course that begins with detachment of tumor cells from the primary tumor, spreading into the distant tissues and/or organs, invading through the lymphovascular structures followed by their survival in the circulation. Metastatic tumors to the oro-facial region are uncommon and may occur in the oral soft tissues or jawbones. The clinical presentation of metastatic tumors can be variable, which may lead to erroneous diagnosis or may create diagnostic dilemma. Therefore, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory and reactive lesions that are common to the oral region. Most of the literature on oral metastases involves either single case reports or reviews of these reported cases from scattered geographical areas. Hence this present article is an attempt to provide a detailed review of pathogenesis, epidemiological details including clinical and radiographic presentations, microscopic features and treatment of metastatic tumors to the jaws and oral cavity. PMID:23798834

  4. Enhanced visualization of oral cavity for early inflamed tissue detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Lin, Jui-Teng; Chiang, Chun-Ping; Cheng, Fang-Hsuan

    2010-05-24

    We describe a color image reconstruction method that enables both direct visualization and direct digital image acquisition from one oral tissue by using various light sources and color compensating filters. In this method, the image of the oral tissue with white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue color compensating filter has a larger color difference between the normal and inflamed tissues. The enhanced visualization comes from the white light color mixing between the red normal tissue and bluish white light from the LEDs. With our method, we evaluate the perceived tissue reflectance in each pixel of the image and color reproduction with different illuminated spectra. Our approach to enhancement of visually perceived color difference between normal and inflamed oral tissue involves optimization of illumination and observation conditions by allowing a significant optical contrast of illuminated spectrum to reach the observer's eyes. In comparison with a conventional daylight LED flashlight, a LED with blue filter as the illuminant for oral cavity detection enhances the color difference between normal and inflamed tissues by 32%. PMID:20589041

  5. Individualized Risk Estimation for Postoperative Complications After Surgery for Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Mahmoud I.; Palmer, Frank L.; Kou, Lei; Yu, Changhong; Montero, Pablo H.; Shuman, Andrew G.; Ganly, Ian; Shah, Jatin P.; Kattan, Michael W.; Patel, Snehal G.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Postoperative complications after head and neck surgery carry the potential for significant morbidity. Estimating the risk of complications in an individual patient is challenging. OBJECTIVE To develop a statistical tool capable of predicting an individual patient’s risk of developing a major complication after surgery for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective case series derived from an institutional clinical oncologic database, augmented by medical record abstraction, at an academic tertiary care cancer center. Participants were 506 previously untreated adult patients with biopsy-proven oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who underwent surgery between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was a major postoperative complication requiring invasive intervention (Clavien-Dindo classification grades III–V). Patients treated between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008 (354 of 506 [70.0%]) comprised the modeling cohort and were used to develop a nomogram to predict the risk of developing the primary end point. Univariable analysis and correlation analysis were used to prescreen 36 potential predictors for incorporation in the subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis. The variables with the highest predictive value were identified with the step-down model reduction method and included in the nomogram. Patients treated between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008 (152 of 506 [30.0%]) were used to validate the nomogram. RESULTS Clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 cohorts for most comparisons. Thirty-six patients in the modeling cohort (10.2%) and 16 patients in the validation cohort (10.5%) developed a major postoperative complication. The 6 preoperative variables with the highest individual predictive value were incorporated within the nomogram, including body mass index, comorbidity status, preoperative white blood cell count

  6. The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Longjiang; Hu, Yuanting

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied to 5% 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) to induce hamster buccal cheek pouch carcinoma three times a week. Rose Bengal, which has been used in clinican for years and avoids visible side-effect to human was chosen as photosensitizer. 405 nm blue LED was used to induce the fluorescence of photosensitizer. After topical application of photosensitizer, characteristic red emission fluorescence peak was observed around 600nm. Similar, normal oral cavity has special luminescence around 480nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy technology is based on analysing emission peaks of photosensitizer in the areas of oral carcinoma, moreover, red-to-green (IR/IG) intensity ratio is also applied as a diagnostic algorithm. A CCD which is connected with a computer is used to take pictures at carcinoma areas through different filters. Fluorescence images from normal hamster buccal cheek pouch are compared with those from carcinogen-induced models of carcinoma, and morphological differences between normal and lesion tissue can be distinguished. The pictures are analyzed by Matlab and shown on the screen of computer. This paper demonstrates that Rose Bengal could be used as photosensitizer to detect oral carcinoma, and blue LED as excitation source could not only have a good effect to diagnose oral carcinoma, but also decrease cost greatly.

  7. Arsenic Exposure and Oral Cavity Lesions in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Emdadul H.; Melkonian, Stephanie; Poudel, Krishna C.; Yasuoka, Junko; Otsuka, Keiko; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul; Jimba, Masamine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between arsenic exposure and oral cavity lesions among an arsenic-exposed population in Bangladesh. Methods We carried out an analysis utilizing the baseline data of the Health Effects of Arsenic Exposure Longitudinal Study (HEALS). HEALS is an ongoing population-based cohort study to investigate health outcomes associated with arsenic exposure via drinking water in Araihazar, Bangladesh. We used multinomial regression models to estimate the risk of oral cavity lesions. Results Participants with high urinary arsenic levels (286.1–5000.0μg/g) were more likely to develop arsenical lesions of the gums [multinomial odds ratio (M-OR 2.90; 95% CI= 1.11–7.54)], and tongue (M-OR 2.79; 95% CI= 1.51– 5.15), compared with those of urinary arsenic levels of 7.0–134.0μg/g. Conclusions Higher level of arsenic exposure was positively associated with increased arsenical lesions of the gums and tongue. PMID:23201591

  8. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  9. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  10. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  11. Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Correa, Pelayo; Oreggia, Fernando; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Leiva, Juan

    2005-01-01

    From 1995 to 2002, a case-control study on food groups and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Two hundred thirty cases were frequency-matched to 460 controls on age, residence, and urban/rural status. The study was restricted to men. The relationship between foods and risk of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined through: 1) individual food group analysis, 2) factor analysis, and 3) determination of empirical scores. The results were similar. Factor analysis generated 2 patterns, which were labeled as "stew" and "vegetables and fruits." The stew pattern loaded positively on boiled meat, cooked vegetables, potato, and sweet potato. This pattern was directly associated with risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer [odds ratio (OR), 3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-7.06; P value for trend=0.0002]. The vegetables and fruits factor loaded positively on raw vegetables, citrus fruits, other fruits, liver, fish, and desserts. This pattern was inversely associated with risk of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64; P value for trend=0.0008). Joint effects of high intake of risk foods and low intake of protective foods were associated with a risk of 12.0 (95% CI, 4.1-34.6). Our study confirms the important role of dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer risk and suggests that the analysis of dietary patterns is a powerful tool to investigate the links between nutrition and cancer. PMID:15860434

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Resected Oral Cavity Cancer and Simultaneous Second Primary Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Huang, Bing-Shen; Chao, Yin-Kai; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Wang, Hung-Ming; Liau, Chi-Ting; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Simultaneous second primary tumors (SSPT) are not uncommon in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) living in areas where the habit of betel quid chewing is widespread. We sought to identify the main prognostic factors in OSCC patients with SSPT and incorporate them into a risk stratification scheme. Methods A total of 1822 consecutive patients with primary OSCC treated between January 1996 and February 2014 were analyzed for the presence of SSPT. The 18-month and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates served as the main outcome measures. Results Of the 1822 patients, 77 (4%) were found to have SSPT (i.e, two malignancies identified within one month of each other). The 18-month and 5-year OS rates in patients without SSPT and with SSPT were 82% and 69%, and 72% and 53%, respectively (p = 0.0063). Patients with SSPT were further divided into patients with either esophageal cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (eso-HCC subgroup, n = 8) and other tumors (NO eso-HCC subgroup, n = 69). After multivariate analysis, neck nodal extracapsular spread (ECS, n = 18) and the presence of eso-HCC were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 18-month OS rates of SSPT patients with both eso-HCC and ECS (n = 5) vs. the remaining patients (n = 72) were 0% and 78%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion OSCC patients with neck nodal ECS and esophageal cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma as SSPT have a dismal short-term prognosis. PMID:26335067

  13. TERT promoter hot spot mutations are frequent in Indian cervical and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, Vilvanathan; Arunkumar, Ganesan; Revathidevi, Sundaramoorthy; Arun, Kanagaraj; Manikandan, Mayakannan; Rao, Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra; Rajkumar, Kottayasamy Seenivasagam; Ajay, Chandrasekar; Rajaraman, Ramamurthy; Ramani, Rajendren; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix and oral cavity are most common cancers in India. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) overexpression is one of the hallmarks for cancer, and activation through promoter mutation C228T and C250T has been reported in variety of tumors and often shown to be associated with aggressive tumors. In the present study, we analyzed these two hot spot mutations in 181 primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity by direct DNA sequencing and correlated with patient's clinicopathological characteristics. We found relatively high frequency of TERT hot spot mutations in both cervical [21.4 % (30/140)] and oral [31.7 % (13/41)] squamous cell carcinomas. In cervical cancer, TERT promoter mutations were more prevalent (25 %) in human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative cases compared to HPV-positive cases (20.6 %), and both TERT promoter mutation and HPV infection were more commonly observed in advanced stage tumors (77 %). Similarly, the poor and moderately differentiated tumors of the uterine cervix had both the TERT hot spot mutations and HPV (16 and 18) at higher frequency (95.7 %). Interestingly, we observed eight homozygous mutations (six 228TT and two 250TT) only in cervical tumors, and all of them were found to be positive for high-risk HPV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from India reporting high prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity. Our results suggest that TERT reactivation through promoter mutation either alone or in association with the HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7) could play an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical and oral cancers. PMID:26700669

  14. An oral-cavity component in retronasal smelling of natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Dragich, Ann M; Halpern, Bruce P

    2008-02-27

    Retronasal and oral-cavity-only identifications of six natural extract odorants, presented in air-phase, were compared in an initial experiment. Prior to identification testing, the 21 participants were given experience with air-phase presentations, and with the odorants and their correct identifications. Retronasal correct identifications for anise, cinnamon, coffee, orange, peppermint, and strawberry were 88%, 81%, 98%, 95%, 91%, and 83%; oral-cavity-only, 19%, 21%, 19%, 21%, 33%, and 24%. All participants correctly identified retronasal odorants above chance. Across participants only peppermint received correct oral-cavity-only identifications, but two participants gave correct oral-cavity-only identifications for all odorants. In a second experiment, different participants attempted to discriminate oral-cavity-only odorants from their solvents. Fifteen participants discriminated orange, peppermint, and strawberry odorants from their solvents, and five discriminated all odorants from their solvents. It had been hypothesized that peppermint would provide unique trigeminal stimulation; this was supported by correct oral-cavity-only identification of only peppermint. A second hypothesis posited oral-cavity-only discrimination of orange and peppermint from their solvents because of trigeminal stimuli, but strawberry extract discrimination was unexpected. Furthermore, oral-cavity-only discrimination of all odorants by one-quarter of the participants was not anticipated. Overall, these outcomes suggest that peppermint-like odorants can initiate sufficiently differential responses in the oral cavity to permit identification, indicate that not only odorants with known trigeminal stimulus components but also others may elicit oral-cavity-only air-phase responses, and imply that for a substantial minority of individuals, trigeminal input may enhance oral-cavity effectiveness of many odorants during retronasal smelling. PMID:18023826

  15. Salivary biomarkers for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma – current state and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Maha; Fuentes, Laurel; Wang, Marilene B.; Abemayor, Elliot; Wong, David T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on thorough clinical oral examination combined with biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers. Studies that incorporate proteomic, transcriptomic, and potentially additional “omics”, including methylomics, need to be initiated to bring technology to clinical applications and allow the best use of saliva in diagnosing OSCC. PMID:24883261

  16. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2015-05-01

    The regularities of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity have been investigated, and the induction order and constants have been determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is shown that an increase in the initial supersaturation leads to a transition from the heterogeneous nucleation of crystallites to a homogeneous one. Some additives are found to enhance nucleation: HCO{3/-} > C6H12O6 > F-, while others hinder this process: protein (casein) > Mg2+. It is established that crystallization in DPF occurs more rapidly and the DPF composition is favorable for the growth of small (52.6-26.1 μm) crystallites. On the contrary, the conditions implemented in the model saliva solution facilitate the formation of larger (198.4-41.8 μm) crystals.

  17. Oral cavity eumycetoma: a rare and unusual condition.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ahmed Mohamed; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan

    2013-04-01

    In this short communication, we report on a 25-year-old male patient who presented with a longstanding painless swelling under the tongue. It was of a gradual onset and course, but 2 months before presentation it suddenly increased in size. Local examination revealed a tender firm pigmented mass in the midline of the mouth floor. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, salivary glands tumours, mucocele or vascular anomaly. The investigations done were not conclusive. He underwent surgical exploration, and mycetoma was a surgical surprise. Although mycetoma is common problem in the tropics, such a presentation is a rarity. In tropical and subtropical regions, mycetoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity masses. PMID:23522651

  18. Absence of Helicobacter pylori within the Oral Cavities of Members of a Healthy South African Community

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Brenda J.; Bond, Robert P.; van Zyl, Walda B.; Delport, Maraliese; Slavik, Tomas; Ziady, Christopher; Terhaar sive Droste, Jochim S.; Lastovica, Albert; van der Merwe, Schalk W.

    2006-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate the oral cavity as a reservoir from where Helicobacter pylori may be transmitted. Histology and PCR amplification were performed. Eighty-four percent of the stomach biopsies tested positive; however, H. pylori was not detected in dental samples, indicating the absence of H. pylori within the oral cavity. PMID:16455932

  19. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  20. Irradiation for locoregionally recurrent, never-irradiated oral cavity cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Benjamin H.; Chin, Christine; Riaz, Nadeem; Ho, Felix; Hu, Man; Hong, Julian C.; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Sherman, Eric; Wong, Richard J.; Morris, Luc G.; Ganly, Ian; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Rao, Shyam S.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report the clinical outcomes and related prognostic factors of patients who underwent radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of recurrent, never-irradiated oral cavity cancer (recurrent OCC). Methods The records of consecutive patients with nonmetastatic recurrent OCC who presented to and were treated with RT at our institution between 1989 and 2011 were reviewed. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to calculate overall survival (OS). The cumulative incidences of disease-specific death, local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis were calculated with death as a competing risk. Results One hundred twenty-three patients were identified. Median follow-up for living patients was 54 months and 16 months for all patients. Ninety-one patients had salvage surgery followed by adjuvant RT. Definitive RT was utilized in the remaining 32 patients. The 5-year OS was 40%. The 5-year cumulative incidence of disease-specific death, local failure, regional failure, and distant metastasis was 55%, 34%, 22%, and 20%, respectively. Recurrent T classification and lack of salvage surgery were independently associated with worse disease-specific death and decreased OS, respectively. Subset analysis of patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated that age, recurrent T classification, and perineural invasion (PNI) were independently associated with decreased OS; recurrent T classification and thicker tumors were independently associated with worse disease-specific death; and positive/close margins and primary T classification were independently associated with increased local failure. Conclusion In this group of patients with recurrent OCC, clinical outcomes were similar or improved when compared with other recurrent OCC-specific reports. In the salvage surgery subset, tumor thickness and PNI are recurrent pathologic features associated with outcomes that were only previously demonstrated in studies of primary disease. Because of

  1. Six years' experience with cryosurgery in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Bekke, J P; Baart, J A

    1979-08-01

    Ninety selected patients with a benign or malignant lesion in the oral cavity were treated by cryosurgery. A clinical study was carried out during a 6-year period to investigate the value of cryosurgery as supplemental or substitute therapy. Good results have been obtained in the treatment of small to moderate, superficially situated angiomas. Cryotherapy has also been found to be satisfactory in the treatment of papillary hyperplasia of the palate. As symptomatic treatment we employed the freezing procedure to painful erosive lichen planus. Until now, a casual treatment has not been possible because of an unknown etiology. Used as symtomatic therapy, cryosurgery may be of some use in these cases, especially to relieve pain. Good results have been obtained in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. The pathologically changed mucous membranes could be completely eliminated in most of the cases without severe scar formation or impairment to functions. Cryosurgery for palliation was employed in 11 incurable tumors. Results have been disappointing. Twenty-one localized malignant neoplasms were treated by cryosurgery to cure. The tumor was completely destroyed in 67% of the cases. PMID:94318

  2. Epithelial dysplasia of the oral cavity and lips.

    PubMed

    Kaugars, G E; Burns, J C; Gunsolley, J C

    1988-11-15

    Between 1970 and 1986, 1651 biopsy specimens from the oral cavity or lips with a diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia were accessioned by the Medical College of Virginia Oral Pathology Diagnostic Service (Richmond, VA). Of the four histologic grades of epithelial dysplasia (focal mild, mild, moderate, and severe), most of the cases were diagnosed as mild (54.1%) and the fewest (8.1%) were in the severe category. The overall mean age at time of diagnosis was 56.7 years. A predilection for occurrence in males was confirmed, but a lower than expected incidence in blacks was noted. The most common anatomic sites were the buccal mucosa, palate, and floor of mouth. The anatomic areas which were most likely to have a severe epithelial dysplasia were the ventral surface of the tongue and the lip. Patients with dysplasias in more than one site had a slightly higher probability of being diagnosed as either moderate or severe. The cases associated with lichen planus usually were found on the buccal mucosa and demonstrated a shift toward a milder degree of dysplasia. PMID:3179929

  3. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1994-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Fifty-three patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to 40 months. Eight patients with T2-T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eighteen patients with CIS and T1 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Eleven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and remain disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma or the oral cavity were treated, one obtained a complete response. Five patients with juvenile laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but all recurred within six months of treatment. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations and complications are discussed.

  4. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1993-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Thirty patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to twenty nine months. Four patients with T3 and T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eleven patients with T1 and T2 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Seven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and have remained disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity were treated. One obtained a complete response. Three patients with recurrent juvenile laryngotracheal papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but one recurred four months post-PDT. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however, limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations, and complications will be discussed.

  5. L-lysine in Treating Oral Mucositis in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy For Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-15

    Mucositis; Oral Complications of Chemotherapy; Oral Complications of Radiation Therapy; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone. PMID:19506920

  7. Oral autopsy: A simple, faster procedure for total visualization of oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Charan Gowda, Boregowda Kadaiah; Mohan, C. V.; Hemavathi

    2016-01-01

    Identification of humans, especially in mass disaster is a challenging aspect for team members of the disaster victim identification (DVI) unit. Identification is necessary for humanitarian and emotional reasons and for many legal issues, particularly for family members. In the modern day, all possible methods have been applied for establishing the identification of deceased individuals. The DVI team comprises specialists from different disciplines. The forensic dentist plays a major role in the identification of victims in disaster. To establish a simple, faster and time saving procedure for Postmortem dental identification in mass disaster. In this article, we present a simpler and faster method, which helps in gaining access into the oral cavity that helps in the recording of postmortem oral findings where required. PMID:27555728

  8. Oral autopsy: A simple, faster procedure for total visualization of oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Charan Gowda, Boregowda Kadaiah; Mohan, C V; Hemavathi

    2016-01-01

    Identification of humans, especially in mass disaster is a challenging aspect for team members of the disaster victim identification (DVI) unit. Identification is necessary for humanitarian and emotional reasons and for many legal issues, particularly for family members. In the modern day, all possible methods have been applied for establishing the identification of deceased individuals. The DVI team comprises specialists from different disciplines. The forensic dentist plays a major role in the identification of victims in disaster. To establish a simple, faster and time saving procedure for Postmortem dental identification in mass disaster. In this article, we present a simpler and faster method, which helps in gaining access into the oral cavity that helps in the recording of postmortem oral findings where required. PMID:27555728

  9. A minimally invasive immunocytochemical approach to early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, I S; Odell, E; Chatrath, P; Morris, L S; Davies, R J; Vowler, S L; Laskey, R A; Coleman, N

    2006-01-01

    Squamous dysplasia of the oral cavity indicates increased risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). An important advance would be the development of a minimally invasive assay for identification of oral SCC and dysplasia. We have investigated the suitability in this context of immunostaining oral smears for minichromosome maintainance proteins (MCMs), sensitive and specific biomarkers of cell cycle entry. Immunohistochemical examination of 66 oral tissue samples showed a greater frequency of Mcm-2 expression in surface layers of moderate/severe dysplasia and SCC compared to benign keratosis/mild dysplasia. Immunocytochemistry for Mcm-2/Mcm-5 was performed on 101 oral smears. Conventional smears included 23 from normal mucosa, benign proliferative disease and mild dysplasia, all of which were MCM negative. Of 52 conventional smears of SCC tissue samples, 18 were inadequate. However, MCM-positive cells were present in 33/34 adequate samples. Of 26 liquid-based cytology smears, 19 out of 20 smears from SCC were adequate and all were MCM positive. Six smears from benign lesions were adequate and MCM negative. We conclude that MCMs are promising markers for early detection of oral SCC and dysplasia, particularly in a liquid-based cytology platform. Detection of MCMs would be amenable to automation and potentially applicable in the developing world. Further studies are now warranted. PMID:16622441

  10. [Cryotherapy, combined drug therapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of oral cavity cancer: 3 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Vercellino, V; Goia, F; Gandolfo, S; Camoletto, D

    1980-01-01

    The medium-term (three years) result of a multidisciplinary association treatment of carcinoma of the oral cavity has been reviewed. Treatment was Cryosurgery-polychemotherapy-ratiotherapy and the technique has been described along with the times of association in an introduction that has already been published in this review (see bibliography). Thirty patients were treated with the association because they refused or could not be submitted to surgery at the intital therapeutic action. All these patients present fairly extensive lesions and a three-year follow-up. Results were positive: 56.6% of patients showed disappearance of any objective or subjective sign of cancer and, in all cases, appreciable remission in terms of both extent and duration. The easiness of the technique is confirmed as well as the excellent conversation of the anatomical structures involved. However, a critical review of cases presenting partial failure suggest a classifications of oral carcinomatous lesions (for therapeutic purposes only) on the basis of which the condition can be treated with cryo-polychemo-radiotherapy alone or with a variation of this which provides for the addition of local exersis. PMID:6935521

  11. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Extending into the Oral Cavity: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Chhibber, Neha; Agarwal, Deshant; Jain, Manish; Vijay, Pradkhshana

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare vascular tumour which is benign but locally aggressive and occurs invariably in young and adolescent males. It seldom involves the oral cavity but has the tendency to invade the adjacent structures. Its characteristic features include slow progression, aggressive growth & an increased rate of persistence and recurrence due to its location in inaccessible areas. In literature, very few cases of JNA have been reported with extension into the oral cavity. Here, a case of JNA with extension into the oral cavity has been discussed who reported to our institute. PMID:26266232

  12. Streptococcus panodentis sp. nov. from the oral cavities of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masaaki; Imai, Susumu; Miyanohara, Mayu; Saito, Wataru; Momoi, Yasuko; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Ikawa, Tomoko; Ogawa, Takumi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Kaneko, Akihisa; Watanabe, Akino; Watanabe, Shohei; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Three strains TKU9, TKU49 and TKU50(T) , were isolated from the oral cavities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The isolates were all gram-positive, facultative anaerobic cocci that lacked catalase activity. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the most closely related species was Streptococcus infantis (96.7%). The next most closely related species to the isolates were S. rubneri, S. mitis, S. peroris and S. australis (96.6 to 96.4%). Based on the rpoB and gyrB gene sequences, TKU50(T) was clustered with other member of the mitis group. Enzyme activity and sugar fermentation patterns differentiated this novel bacterium from other members of the mitis group streptococci. The DNA G + C content of strain TKU50(T) was 46.7 mol%, which is the highest reported value for members of the mitis group (40-46 mol%). On the basis of the phenotypic characterization, partial 16S rRNA gene and sequences data for two housekeeping gene (gyrB and rpoB), we propose a novel taxa, S. panodentis for TKU 50(T) (type strain = CM 30579(T)  = DSM 29921(T) ), for these newly described isolates. PMID:26242550

  13. Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov., from the chimpanzee oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masaaki; Imai, Susumu; Miyanohara, Mayu; Saito, Wataru; Momoi, Yasuko; Abo, Tomoko; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Ikawa, Tomoko; Ogawa, Takumi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Kaneko, Akihisa; Watanabe, Akino; Watanabe, Shohei; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2013-02-01

    Six strains, TKU 25, TKU 28, TKU 30, TKU 31(T), TKU 33 and TKU 34, were isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Colonies of strains grown on Mitis-Salivarius agar were similar in morphology to that of Streptococcus mutans. The novel strains were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that lacked catalase activity. Analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed that the most closely related strain was the type strain of S. mutans (96.4 %). The next closely related strains to the isolates were the type strains of Streptococcus devriesei (94.5 %) and Streptococcus downei (93.9 %). These isolates could be distinguished from S. mutans by inulin fermentation and alkaline phosphatase activity (API ZYM system). The peptidoglycan type of the novel isolates was Glu-Lys-Ala(3). Strains were not susceptible to bacitracin. On the basis of phenotypic characterization, partial 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping gene (groEL and sodA) sequence data, we propose a novel taxon, Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov.; the type strain is TKU 31(T) ( = JCM 18038(T) = DSM 25324(T)). PMID:22447699

  14. Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (collagenous fibroma) of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    de Lacerda, Júlio-Cesar-Tanos; Porto-Matias, Michelle-Danielle; de Jesus, Alessandro-Oliveira; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Mesquita, Ricardo-Alves

    2016-01-01

    Desmoplastic fibroblastoma is benign soft tissue tumor, with fibroblastic or myofibroblastic origin, that rarely occurs in oral cavity. We reported the case of a 56-year-old man who presented a tumor in the left mandibular alveolar ridge, with slow and asymptomatic growth, with no osseous involvement. The tumor was sessile with lobulated surface, covered by healthy mucosa with erythematous areas. The lesion was excised and specimens sent to histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Histopathological exam showed a non-encapsulated fibroblastic proliferation, characterized by myofibroblasts, spindle and stellate fibroblasts with large or oval nuclei and bi or tri nucleation, immersed in an abundant hypocellular dense collagen stroma. Tumor cells were positive for vimentin, HHF35, α-smooth muscle actin and factor XIIIa. The diagnosis of desmoplastic fibroblastoma was based in the clinical history of absence of trauma related to the growth in the alveolar ridge, associated with macroscopic, microscopic and immunohistochemical features. The patient is free-diseases by eight months. Key words:Collagenous fibroma, desmoplastic fibroblastoma, neoplasm of connective and soft tissue. PMID:26855713

  15. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  16. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells. PMID:27120594

  17. Severe Hypoglycemia Caused by Recurrent Sarcomatoid Carcinoma in the Pelvic Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chao; Fan, Chuan Wen; Yu, Yong Yang; Wang, Cun; Yang, Lie; Li, Yuan; Mo, Xian Ming; Zhou, Zong Guang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by persistent, severe hypoglycemia in different tumor types of mesochymal or epithelial origin; however, NICTH is infrequently induced by sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC). Despite some sarcomatoid and epithelioid characteristics in few cases of malignancies from epithelium, NICTH induced by recurrent SC in pelvic cavity in this report is extremely rare. We report a case in which NICTH caused by recurrence and pulmonary metastases from SC in the pelvic cavity, and the computed tomography scan revealed multiple pelvic masses and multiple large masses in the pulmonary fields. During the treatment of intestinal obstruction, the patient presented paroxysmal loss of consciousness and sweating. Her glucose even reached 1.22 mmol/L while the serum glycosylated hemoglobin was normal and previous history of diabetes or use of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin denied. The laboratory examination showed that the low level of insulin, C-peptide, and growth hormone levels in the course of hypoglycemic episodes suggesting to the diagnosis of hypoglycemia induced by nonislet cell tumor, and the decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGFBP3 and the high expression of big IGF-II in the serum further confirmed the diagnosis of NICTH. Because of the widely pelvic recurrence and pulmonary metastases were unresected, the patient was discharged from the hospital after 2 weeks treatment with dexamethasone and glucose and unfortunately died 1 week later. NICTH caused by SC in the pelvic cavity is extremely rare case in clinical. The aim of this report was to present the importance to examine big IGF-II expression in patient's serum in order to reach the diagnosis of NICTH in cases of intractable cancer-associated hypoglycemia. PMID:26496258

  18. Evaluation of different diagnostic criteria of diseases manifesting the oral cavity - A review. Part-1.

    PubMed

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Gupta, Ashish; Yadav, Monu; Konidena, Arvinda; Shankarnarayan, Lata

    2016-01-01

    There are many disorders affecting the oral cavity, which can cause difficulty in diagnosis for an oral physician. A criterion is defined as 'a principle or standard by which something may be judged or decided'. Several criteria have been given by different authors or committee, which further aids in diagnosis of certain disease. This article encompasses a collection and analysis of all the criteria of diseases affecting the oral cavity, which will be beneficial for an oral physician in their routine clinics. PMID:27195212

  19. Acrolein-an α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects.

    PubMed

    Aizenbud, Dror; Aizenbud, Itay; Reznick, Abraham Z; Avezov, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells. PMID:27487309

  20. Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, D L; Pope, E R; Payne, J T; West, M K; Tompson, R V; Tate, D

    2000-01-01

    Eleven dogs with naturally occurring oral squamous cell carcinomas were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using Photochlor (HPPH) as the photosensitizer. The largest length of the tumours measured in a two-dimensional plane ranged from 0.9 to 6.8 cm. Seven of the tumours invaded underlying bone as determined by radiograph appearance. Photochlor was injected intravenously at a dose of 0.3 mg kg–1. Forty-eight hours later the tumours were treated. Tumours with a surface to base depth of greater than 1 cm were surgically reduced to less than 1 cm. Irradiation with 665 nm light with an energy density of 100 J cm–2was administered. Eight dogs were considered cured with no tumour recurrence for at least 17 months after treatment. Local treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas with PDT appears to give results similar to those obtained with surgical removal of large portions of the mandible or maxilla. The cosmetic results with PDT are superior to those of radical surgical removal. The new sensitizer, Photochlor, appears effective for oral squamous carcinomas with results similar to those reported for other sensitizers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10755404

  1. Enhanced contact endoscopy for the assessment of the neoangiogenetic changes in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Carta, Filippo; Sionis, Sara; Cocco, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Ferreli, Caterina; Puxeddu, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract show significant neoangiogenesis appearing as subepithelial and epithelial microvascular irregularities that can be detected by Image-Enhanced Endoscopy such as Narrow Band Imaging and Storz Professional Image Enhancement System. In the present study, the most advanced endoscopic enhancement systems were coupled with Contact Endoscopy (Enhanced Contact Endoscopy). This original method improved the identification and the understanding of the neoangiogenetic changes of the chorion in 42 patients with leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and leuko-erythroplakia of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The physiologic and pathologic mucosa was described in five obvious vascular patterns observed at Enhanced Contact Endoscopy ranging from normal to squamous cell carcinoma, passing through inflammation, hyperplasia, and dysplasia. Each vascular pattern was then compared to histology, showing that the microvascular architectural changes seen with Enhanced Contact Endoscopy are almost constant. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in the differentiation between healthy mucosa and inflammation versus pathologic hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma were, respectively, 96.6, 93.3, 98.2, 87.5, and 95.9 %. Sensitivity and specificity were 100 % in differentiation between non-malignant lesions versus squamous cell carcinoma. Our preliminary experience shows that accuracy of Image-Enhanced Endoscopy in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx can be increased if associated to Contact Endoscopy. PMID:26138390

  2. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability. PMID:26581612

  3. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, M C; Arrais, M J; Mato, M J; de Araújo, V C

    1997-11-01

    Tuberculosis of the oral mucosa was associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in a 38-year-old white man. The patient presented with multiple oral ulcerations with an irregular periphery and a granular vegetative fundus. The oral lesions antedated the findings of primary pulmonary tuberculosis, and the diagnosis was initially established histologically. Through the differential diagnosis of oral ulcerations, the dentist can play a role in the early detection of tuberculosis. PMID:9573865

  4. Safety Assessment of the Oral Cavity Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Jeremy P.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Moore, Chris J.; Chilcott, Chris N.; Tagg, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent member of the oral microbiota and has excellent potential for use as a probiotic targeting the oral cavity. In this report we document safety data relating to S. salivarius K12, including assessment of its antibiogram, metabolic profiles, and virulence determinants, and we examine the microbial composition of saliva following the dosing of subjects with K12. PMID:16598017

  5. Safety assessment of the oral cavity probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    PubMed

    Burton, Jeremy P; Wescombe, Philip A; Moore, Chris J; Chilcott, Chris N; Tagg, John R

    2006-04-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent member of the oral microbiota and has excellent potential for use as a probiotic targeting the oral cavity. In this report we document safety data relating to S. salivarius K12, including assessment of its antibiogram, metabolic profiles, and virulence determinants, and we examine the microbial composition of saliva following the dosing of subjects with K12. PMID:16598017

  6. Lip and tongue pressures related to dental arch and oral cavity size in Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Proffit, W R; McGlone, R E; Barrett, M J

    1975-01-01

    Although the oral cavity and dental arches of the Australian aborigine are large, studies of lingual and labial pressures indicate that the tongue is neither unusually large nor strong. The Australian aborigine's pharyngeal cavity is smaller in height and depth than that of the American; just the opposite is true for the oral cavity. To the extent that environmental factors are important at all, the resting pressure of the lips, not tongue pressure during swallowing, is probably the significant determinant of dental arch dimensions. PMID:1059654

  7. Transition of Immunohistochemical Expression of E-Cadherin and Vimentin from Premalignant to Malignant Lesions of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Kafil; Ara, Anjum; Siddiqui, Shahid A; Sherwani, Rana K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to study the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and vimentin in precancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx and to use the specific pattern of expression to predict invasiveness. Methods This cross-sectional study looked at 87 cases of oral and oropharyngeal lesions obtained between December 2012 and November 2014 in the Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, India. Fifty-three biopsies from the buccal mucosa, tongue, and pharynx and 34 resected oral specimens were evaluated for premalignant and malignant lesions using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stains. Immunohistochemical expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal marker vimentin was evaluated wherever possible. Slides were examined for staining pattern (cytoplasmic or membrane), proportion, and intensity of staining of tumor cells. Patients follow-up and therapy related changes were also studied. Results There were 64 premalignant and 23 malignant cases in our study with 65 (74.7%) cases seen in males and 22 (25.3%) cases seen in females. The majority of malignant cases, (n = 15; 64.2%) were seen in the fifth and sixth decades of life while most of the premalignant lesions (n = 36; 56.4%) were seen in the fourth and fifth decade. Amongst the 64 premalignant oral lesions, leukoplakia comprised of 14 cases (21.9%), of which three cases had associated mild to moderate dysplasia. The majority of premalignant lesions showed strong E-cadherin expression and decreased expression of vimentin with negative and weak expression in both dysplasias and carcinoma in situ (p = 0.013). E-cadherin expression was significantly reduced in invasive carcinomas compared to dysplasias and carcinoma in situ and the difference in immunoreactivity was statistically significant (p < 0.050). Vimentin expression increased as the tumor progressed from dysplasias to carcinoma in situ to invasive

  8. Expression of E-cadherin in normal oral mucosa, in oral precancerous lesions and in oral carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, Ugrappa; Jain, Ajay; Nagalaxmi, Velpula; Kumar, Ugrappa Vijay; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral mucosa (NOM) as control group. All the samples were assessed for the expression of E-cad by immunohistochemical study. Results: Upon assessing the expression of E-cad in OL, OSMF, OLP and OSCC, as majority of the samples with OSCC (90%), OL (80%), OLP (70%) and OSMF (60%) showed mild to moderate expression of E-cad staining, which was suggestive of reduction in dysplastic cells on comparison to NOM cells. This difference in expression and variation of E-cad upon comparison with normal mucosa was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is significant (P < 0.001) variation of expression of E-cad with the histopathological dysplasia of the oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and the tumor differentiation of the oral cancers. However, there was no correlation of the degree of loss of expression of E-cad with the degree of dysplasia or the tumor differentiation of oral cancers. We conclude with our study that, there is a variation in the expression of E-cad but its value as a prognostic marker is questionable. PMID:26430364

  9. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Reptiles and Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    A wide variety of disorders may be seen affecting the reptile and amphibian oral cavity. Owners can easily miss problems until they are at an advanced stage because of the difficulty of examining the oral cavity at home. Because many problems are secondary to an inappropriate environment or diet and may be related to systemic disease, a full history and clinical examination is always required. Treatment of oral disorders also requires a holistic approach including correction of any predisposing factors in order for long-term successful resolution of the problem. PMID:27497202

  10. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  11. Novel diagnostic device for oral and pharyngeal examinations of children: folding-scope for the oral and pharyngeal cavities.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Koichi; Sekimoto, Sotaro; Tsunoda, Atsunobu

    2010-01-01

    Although children may dislike and/or resist oral and pharyngeal examination with a tongue depressor, they enjoy lollipops on sticks, eating with spoons, forks, and chopsticks, and brushing their teeth. Many reports have noted this apparent contradiction, since paediatric patients are often treated after toothbrushes or chopsticks penetrate the pharyngeal wall. We therefore developed a novel device to observe the inside of the mouth without using a flashlight, tongue depressor or head mirror. We previously developed the AWS for tracheal intubation through the mouth for anaesthesia and emergency situations, along with a new device to observe the inside of the oral cavity simultaneously. We have developed a new attachment to the AWS for observations inside the oral cavity and pharynx. Our newly developed oral and pharyngeal examination system is a useful tool for diagnostic examinations and may also enable treatment without causing discomfort or distress to patients and their families. PMID:22767566

  12. Distinctive pattern of let-7 family microRNAs in aggressive carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients

    PubMed Central

    Hilly, Ohad; Pillar, Nir; Stern, Sagit; Strenov, Yulia; Bachar, Gideon; Shomron, Noam; Shpitzer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma may be more aggressive at presentation and recurrence in young patients compared with older patients. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) has been associated with the development and prognosis of oral cavity cancer. The present study investigated miRNA expression in carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. miRNA expression profiles were evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of tumor and normal mucosa from 12 patients aged <30 years old with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The levels of let-7f-5p, miR-30b-5p and let-7e-5p were upregulated in tumors (P<0.05). The expression of let-7f-5p was upregulated in non-aggressive tumors, while the expression of let-7e-5p was upregulated in aggressive tumors, compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Aggressive tumors had higher levels of let-7c, miR-130a-3p, miR-361-5p, miR-99a-5p, miR-29c-3p and let-7d-5p than non-aggressive tumors (P<0.05). The findings remained significant for let-7c upon false-discovery rate correction. An excellent correlation was noticed on validation of NanoString counts by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The comparison with published findings in adults demonstrated a unique miRNA signature in young patients with aggressive disease. Aggressive oral cavity cancer in patients <30 years old is associated with a distinctive expression pattern of the let-7 family. Larger studies including direct comparison with older patients are warranted. PMID:27602107

  13. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  14. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC. PMID:26983454

  15. Neck dissection for oral squamous cell carcinoma: our experience and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article describes our experience with neck dissection in 10 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods Between January 2007 and October 2009, 10 patients underwent primary surgery for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. For patients with N0 disease on clinical exam, selective neck dissection (SND [I-III]) was performed. In patients with palpable cervical metastases (N+), modified radical neck dissections were performed, except in one patient in whom SND (I-III) was performed. The histopathologic reports were reviewed to assess the surgical margins, the presence of extra-capsular spread, perineural invasion, and lymphatic invasion. Results On histopathologic examination, positive soft tissue margins were found in three patients, and regional lymph node metastases were present in five of the ten patients. Perineural invasion was noted in five patients, and extra nodal spread was found in four patients. Regional recurrence was seen in two patients and loco-regional recurrence plus distant metastasis to the tibia was observed in one patient. During the study period, three patients died. Seven patients remain free of disease to date. Conclusion Histopathological evaluation provides important and reliable information for disease staging, treatment planning, and prognosis. The philosophy of neck dissection is evolving rapidly with regard to the selectivity with which at-risk lymph node groups are removed. The sample size in the present study is small, thus, caution should be employed when interpreting these results. PMID:26734556

  16. Influence of extracapsular nodal spread extent on prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wreesmann, Volkert B.; Katabi, Nora; Palmer, Frank L.; Montero, Pablo H.; Migliacci, Jocelyn C.; Gönen, Mithat; Carlson, Diane; Ganly, Ian; Shah, Jatin P.; Ghossein, Ronald; Patel, Snehal G.

    2016-01-01

    Background An objective definition of clinically relevant extracapsular nodal spread (ECS) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unavailable. Methods Pathologic review of 245 pathologically positive oral cavity SCC neck dissection specimens was performed. The presence/absence of ECS, its extent (in millimeters), and multiple nodal and primary tumor risk factors were related to disease-specific survival (DSS) at a follow-up of 73 months. Results ECS was detected in 109 patients (44%). DSS was significantly better for patients without ECS than patients with ECS. Time-dependent receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis identified a prognostic cutoff for ECS extent at 1.7 mm. In multivariate analyses, DSS was significantly lower for patients with major ECS compared with patients with minor ECS, but not significantly different between patients with minor ECS and patients without ECS. Conclusion ECS is clinically relevant in oral cavity SCC when it has extended more than 1.7 mm beyond the nodal capsule. PMID:26514096

  17. Clinical relevance of copy number profiling in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Pauline M W; Noorlag, Rob; Braunius, Weibel W; Moelans, Cathy B; Rifi, Widad; Savola, Suvi; Koole, Ronald; Grolman, Wilko; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Current conventional treatment modalities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are nonselective and have shown to cause serious side effects. Unraveling the molecular profiles of head and neck cancer may enable promising clinical applications that pave the road for personalized cancer treatment. We examined copy number status in 36 common oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a cohort of 191 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and 164 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) using multiplex ligation probe amplification. Copy number status was correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) status in OPSCC, with occult lymph node status in OSCC and with patient survival. The 11q13 region showed gain or amplifications in 59% of HPV-negative OPSCC, whereas this amplification was almost absent in HPV-positive OPSCC. Additionally, in clinically lymph node-negative OSCC (Stage I-II), gain of the 11q13 region was significantly correlated with occult lymph node metastases with a negative predictive value of 81%. Multivariate survival analysis revealed a significantly decreased disease-free survival in both HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCC with a gain of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1. Gain of CCND1 showed to be an independent predictor for worse survival in OSCC. These results show that copy number aberrations, mainly of the 11q13 region, may be important predictors and prognosticators which allow for stratifying patients for personalized treatment of HNSCC. PMID:26194878

  18. Pharmacokinetics in the oral cavity: fluoride and other active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    Modern commercial toothpastes contain therapeutic ingredients to combat various oral conditions, for example, caries, gingivitis, calculus and tooth stain. The efficient delivery and retention of such ingredients in the mouth is essential for good performance. The aim of this chapter is to review the literature on the oral pharmacokinetics of, primarily, fluoride but also other active ingredients, mainly anti-plaque agents. Elevated levels of fluoride have been found in saliva, plaque and the oral soft tissues after use of fluoridated toothpaste, which persist at potentially active concentrations for hours. Both experiment and mathematical modelling suggest that the soft tissues are the main oral reservoir for fluoride. Qualitatively similar observations have been made for anti-plaque agents such as triclosan and metal cations, though their oral substantivity is generally greater. Scope for improved retention and subsequent efficacy exists. PMID:23817065

  19. Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Ragunathan, Yoithapprabhunath Thukanayakanpalayam; Lakshmi, Suman Jhansi; Nallusamy, Jaisanghar; Joseph, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation. Aim The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC. Materials and Methods A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands. Results In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia. Conclusion According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours.

  20. The use of acrylic resin oral prosthesis in radiation therapy of oral cavity and paranasal sinus cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, V.S.T.; Oral, K.; Aramamy, M.A.

    1982-07-01

    In radiation therapy of cancer of the oral cavity and the paranasal sinuses, the extent to which the tissues of the oral cavity are included in the radiation treatment portals will determine the severity of the oral discomfort during treatment. This will affect the nutritional status of the patients, and may eventually affect the total dose of radiation which the patients can receive for treatment of their cancers. In cooperation with the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Department, an acrylic resin oral prosthesis was developed. This prosthesis is easy to use and can be made for each individual patient within 24 hours. It allows for maximum sparing of the normal tissues in the oral cavity and can be modified for shielding of backscattered electrons from heavy metals in the teeth. We have also found that acrylic resin extensions can be built onto the posterior edge of post-maxillectomy obturators; this extension can be used as a carrier for radioactive sources to deliver radiation to deep seated tumor modules in the paranasal sinuses.

  1. Is Helicobacter pylori resident or transient in the human oral cavity?

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, A; Kürschner, A; Weckesser, S; Wittmer, A; Rauberger, H; Jakob, T; Hellwig, E; Kist, M; Waidner, B

    2012-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of at least half of the world's human population. The role of the oral cavity in this colonization is not clear and there are, to date, no comprehensive data that clearly demonstrate the isolation of this bacterium from the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori in the oral cavity of 15 patients who tested positive for H. pylori. A comprehensive dental examination of all patients was conducted. Samples were taken from supragingival and subgingival plaque, saliva, periapical exudates and tongue swabs. All samples were taken before the application of antibiotics. A total of 163 oral samples were investigated by PCR using two different H. pylori-specific primer pairs. A PCR inhibition control using a modified plasmid was always included for the most specific primer pair. In addition, a culture technique was used to confirm PCR results. Despite a PCR detection limit of 10(2) bacteria ml(-1), out of 14 patients, H. pylori could not be detected in any of the samples taken. In one patient, H. pylori-positive PCR signals were obtained in two samples using only one primer pair. H. pylori could not be cultivated from these two PCR-positive samples; therefore, no correlation to oral colonization status could be established. This study challenges the misleading preconception that H. pylori resides in the human oral cavity and suggests that this bacterium should be considered transient and independent of the oral status. To date, positive PCR results for H. pylori in the oral cavity have been overestimated and not critically interpreted in literature. PMID:22499779

  2. [A study on survival rates of oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, G S; Chen, C H

    1996-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is seen predominantly after the fourth decade of life. We have retrospectively reviewed 103 patients (92 males and 11 females) with squamous cell carcinoma, which were confirmed by histopathologic examination and treated by surgical excision at Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital from 1987 to 1991. The age of the patients ranged from 23 to 87 years. 39.8% of cases occurred on the buccal mucosa, 27.2% on the tongue, 15.5% on the gingiva of mandible, 8% on the maxilla, 7.8% on the lower lip and 1% on the floor of the mouth. 23.3% of the patients had stage I disease, 14.6% were stage II, 43.7% were stage III and 18.4% stage IV. Of 103 patients treated with wide excision, about 65% (17/103) of patients treated with wide excision and radical neck dissection or suprahyoid neck dissection, and 41% (42/103) were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. 96% (99/103) of our cases have completed a minimum follow-up period of 3 years. The sex and age of the patients did not influence survival significantly. The 5-year survival rates were 62% for patients with stage I disease, 80% for patients with stage II disease, 42% for patients with stage III, and 19% for patients with stage IV disease. Stage at initial presentation was an important factor influencing survival. The location of the primary tumor did not significantly influence survival for early stage tumors (stage I & II). In terminal stage tumors (stage III & IV). those with carcinomas of the floor of the mouth, gingiva of the mandible, lip, and maxilla had a 5-year survival of 15%, those with carcinomas of the tongue had a 5-year survival of 47%, and those with carcinomas of the buccal mucosa had a favorable survival rate of 53%. The differences were significant (P = 0.017). PMID:8699569

  3. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nivia, Mahadoon; Sunil, Sukumaran Nair; Rathy, Ravindran; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu Vijayamma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the third most common cause of oral morbidity in India despite the numerous advances made in the treatment protocol. Aim: To compare the cytomorphometric changes of oral mucosal cells in normal subjects (Group I) with that of tobacco users without any lesion (Group II), tobacco users with oral leukoplakia (Group III), and tobacco users with oral SCC (Group IV) through a semi-automated image analysis system. Materials and Methods: Oral mucosal cells collected from study subjects (n = 100) stained using rapid Papanicolaou stain. Photomicrograph of 50 nonoverlapping cells captured at 50× magnification with a digital image capture system. Cytomorphometric analysis of cells in the captured images was performed with Image-Pro image analysis software. Image analysis was performed to obtain cell diameter (CD), cytoplasmic area (CyA), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear area (NA), and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. These values were statistically compared among the groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The ND, NA, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio values were found to be increased in the samples collected from leukoplakia and oral SCC. The CD and CyA decreased compared to the normal mucosa in oral SCC samples. Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions. PMID:26811574

  4. Cytomorphological Analysis of Keratinocytes in Oral Smears from Tobacco Users and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions — A Histochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Suneet; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyse the cytomorphological features of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users and from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Methodology Oral smears were obtained from clinically, normal appearing mucosa of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients (n=20) and from the mucosa of smokers (n=20), and apparently healthy individuals (n=20) were used as controls. The smears were histochemically stained and cytomorphological assessment of the keratinocytes was carried out. One-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used for comparing the parameters among multiple groups and Tukey-HSD test was used to compare the mean values between groups. Results The mean nuclear area of keratinocytes from the mucosa of tobacco users was 46 ± 2.57 and that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion was 81.54 ± 4.31. While there was a significant (P=0.001) reduction in the cellular area of keratinocytes from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion when compared with those from oral smears of tobacco users. Conclusion Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes can serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:20690418

  5. Relationship between oral poor hygiene and broken teeth with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Behnoud, Fatholah; Torabian, Saadat; Zargaran, Maasoumeh

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on etiology of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue have reported results with respect to long term exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for SCC of the tongue in a set of patients with minimum exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol. Sixty four cases with diagnosis of oral tongue SCC were reviewed in this study. The patients underwent surgical management at the educational and therapeutic centers, Imam and Buali Hospitals (Hamedan, Iran) between the dates of January 1990 and December 2006. Eighty five percent of patients were older than 40 years of age. Most of patients had poor oral hygiene, dental decay and halitosis. It appears that poor oral hygiene and nutritional deficiency can be considered as risk factors for the SCC of the tongue in west of Iran. PMID:21681703

  6. The Pharmacologic Management of Common Lesions of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    The oral ulcerations caused by aphtous lesions, herpetic lesions, candidiasis, ulcerative lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris are managed in a step-up approach that can involve topical, intarlesional, and systemic pharmacologic management. This article reviews the common treatment agents, modalities, and dosages. The emphasis is on local pharmacologic therapies, yet systemic conditions that often present with such oral lesions are briefly reviewed, along with the appropriate management. PMID:27040292

  7. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Wang, Jiayi; Liu, Dongjuan; Liu, Sai; Xu, Hao; Ji, Ning; Zhou, Min; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Dunfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of OLK with and without mild/moderate dysplasia (P < 0.001). In addition, IL-37 expression was lower in OSCC with lymph node metastasis than those without metastasis (P < 0.01). What’s more, overexpression of IL-37 in RAW264.7 cells remarkably reduced the pseudopodia, vacuolization and the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Finally, we found IL-37 and its receptor IL-18Rα but not its binding partner IL-18BP have similar tissue location and expression trend in different stages of oral mucosa carcinogenesis. Overall, IL-37 can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions. PMID:27225603

  8. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Wang, Jiayi; Liu, Dongjuan; Liu, Sai; Xu, Hao; Ji, Ning; Zhou, Min; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Dunfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of OLK with and without mild/moderate dysplasia (P < 0.001). In addition, IL-37 expression was lower in OSCC with lymph node metastasis than those without metastasis (P < 0.01). What's more, overexpression of IL-37 in RAW264.7 cells remarkably reduced the pseudopodia, vacuolization and the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Finally, we found IL-37 and its receptor IL-18Rα but not its binding partner IL-18BP have similar tissue location and expression trend in different stages of oral mucosa carcinogenesis. Overall, IL-37 can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions. PMID:27225603

  9. A YAP/TAZ-Regulated Molecular Signature is Associated with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hiemer, Samantha E.; Zhang, Liye; Kartha, Vinay K.; Packer, Trevor S.; Almershed, Munirah; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Bais, Manish V.; Monti, Stefano; Varelas, Xaralabos

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent form of cancer that develops from the epithelium of the oral cavity. OSCC is on the rise worldwide, and death rates associated with the disease are particularly high. Despite progress in understanding of the mutational and expression landscape associated with OSCC, advances in deciphering these alterations for the development of therapeutic strategies have been limited. Further insight into the molecular cues that contribute to OSCC is therefore required. Here we show that the transcriptional regulators YAP (YAP1) and TAZ (WWTR1), which are key effectors of the Hippo pathway, drive pro-tumorigenic signals in OSCC. Regions of pre-malignant oral tissues exhibit aberrant nuclear YAP accumulation, suggesting that dysregulated YAP activity contributes to the onset of OSCC. Supporting this premise, we determined that nuclear YAP and TAZ activity drives OSCC cell proliferation, survival, and migration in vitro, and is required for OSCC tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Global gene expression profiles associated with YAP and TAZ knockdown revealed changes in the control of gene expression implicated in pro-tumorigenic signaling, including those required for cell cycle progression and survival. Notably, the transcriptional signature regulated by YAP and TAZ significantly correlates with gene expression changes occurring in human OSCCs identified by “The Cancer Genome Atlas” (TCGA), emphasizing a central role for YAP and TAZ in OSCC biology. PMID:25794680

  10. Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of oral cavity: A case report with its diagnostic workup

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Komal Ladharam; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Mandale, Mandakini S

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), seen primarily in children or young adults, is a malignant neoplasia that originates from B or T lymphocyte precursors and rarely occurs in the oral cavity. In this localization, neither the clinical features nor the radiologic appearances are pathognomic and can pose significant diagnostic problems. Histopathologically, it presents as a round blue cell tumor. An early and accurate diagnosis of this entity is very important due to its high cure rate. We report a case of B-cell LBL involving oral cavity in a 10-year-old child. The purpose of this report is to explore the diagnostic workup. PMID:27194876

  11. Illumination devices for uniform delivery of light to the oral cavity for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cassarly, William J.; Foster, Thomas H.; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2011-10-01

    To date, the lack of light delivery mechanisms to the oral cavity remains a barrier to the treatment of oral cancer with photodynamic therapy (PDT). The greatest impediment to medical practitioners is the current need to shield the normal tissues of the oral cavity, a costly and time-consuming procedure. In this research, we present the design of illumination devices to deliver light to the oral cavity for PDT, which will facilitate administration of PDT in the clinic. The goal for such an illumination device, as indicated by our clinical collaborators at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, is to limit exposure of healthy tissue and produce an average irradiance of 100 mW/cm2 over the treatment field, with spatial non-uniformities below 10%. Furthermore, the size of the device must be compact to allow use in the oral cavity. Our research led to the design and fabrication of two devices producing spatial non-uniformities below 6% over a treatment area of 0.25 cm2 by design. One device consisted of an appropriately-sized reflector, inspired by solar concentrators, illuminated by a cylindrical diffusing fiber optimally located within the reflector; another was a solid lightpipe with a combination of optimized tapered and straight components.

  12. Corrosion in the oral cavity--potential local and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M

    1986-03-01

    The main current-generating corrosion cells in the oral cavity are the bimetallic cell and the concentration cell, the latter mainly occurring due to differences in access to oxygen in the various parts of the metallic material. Corrosion resistance is not an intrinsic property of a metal or an alloy for it depends on an interaction with the environment. Thus, the contents of the oral cavity, have a decisive influence. This implies that corrosion tests in vitro are of limited value in predicting the clinical corrosion behaviour of a metallic material. Results from a series of clinical studies concerning a possible relationship between galvanic currents and certain oral and other symptoms in a group of patients who had been referred to the Faculty of Odontology, University of Umeå, are briefly presented. The possibility of local and systemic effects of intra-oral galvanic cells is discussed. PMID:3457767

  13. [Inflammatory changes of oral cavity proceeding appearance of clinical symptoms of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Szczeklik, Katarzyna; Darczuk, Dagmara; Owczarek, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Crohn's disease belongs to the inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammatory changes can be located in any part of the gastrointestinal tract including rarely oral cavity. We present a case of a 21 years old woman with unhealed by the local treatment, and verified by histological examination, inflammatory changes of oral cavity. These changes had proceed the diagnosis of typical changes in gastrointestinal tract for 6 months. Changes were located in terminal ileum and colon and were confirmed by colonoscopic, histologic and radiologic studies. Standard therapy of Crohn's disease with antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs led to the healing of oral changes. We point out on the necessity of proper differential diagnosis of problematic unhealing changes, particularly with ulcerations of oral mucosa in young patients. Dental examination with histological confirmation of mucosal changes may be helpful in proper diagnosis of Crohn's disease in the young group of patients. PMID:21591368

  14. Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the oral cavity. An analysis of 34 cases.

    PubMed

    Wolvius, E B; van der Valk, P; van der Wal, J E; van Diest, P J; Huijgens, P C; van der Waal, I; Snow, G B

    1994-01-01

    34 patients with primary extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PE-NHL) of the oral cavity have been studied with reference to age, sex, clinical symptoms, location of primary tumour, histological subtype, grade of malignancy according to the Working Formulation, stage of disease, treatment and follow-up. The clinicopathological features of these oral PE-NHL correspond with those of PE-NHL in general. Survival was influenced by stage of disease and grade of malignancy. PMID:8032301

  15. Micronucleus investigation of alcoholic patients with oral carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Andréa; Saldanha, Pedro Henrique

    2002-01-01

    The micronucleus test (MN) is used as an indicator of genotoxic exposition, since it is associated with chromosome aberrations. An increased mutation rate in oral squamous cells, indicated by an increased MN frequency, is also related to the development of oral carcinomas. We evaluated the frequencies of MN and other metanucleated anomalies in the buccal squamous cells of 30 alcoholics with oral or oropharyngeal carcinomas, and compared them to a control group of abstinent health individuals. Microscopic examination was made of 2000 cells per individual from each of three distinct areas of the mouth: around the lesion (A), opposite to the lesion (B) and in the upper gingival-labial gutter (C); C was used as a control region because of low tumor frequency. There was a seven-fold increase in MN frequency in region B, a three-fold increase in region A and a two-fold, though nonsignificant, increase in C; indicating a gradient of frequencies towards carcinogenesis: C --> A --> B. Comparisons of frequencies of various types of metanucleated cells: binucleated, karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis (KL) and broken egg (BE) in patients and controls showed, with few exceptions, highly significant differences. This gave us a better understanding of the dynamics of this squamous epithelium, supporting a more efficient biomonitor based on these various metanucleated anomalies: the repair index RI=(KL+KR)/(MN+BE). Also, the apparently contradictory results from regression analysis revealed that the MN frequency decreased with age and alcohol consumption, probably because of slow cell proliferation, and consequently led to a loss of homeostasis due to aging. In addition, in the analysis of nonparametric variables only one CAGE question was significant, confirming the effect of alcohol. In conclusion, the MN test and the repair index could be used for monitoring clinical evolution, by means of intra- and inter-individual cellular comparisons, in subjects with healed or surgically

  16. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  17. Vallecular Varix: A Perplexing Cause of Oral Cavity Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Polacco, Marc A.; Ossoff, Jacob; Paydarfar, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Often discovered only after an extensive work up for hemoptysis and hematemesis, vallecular varices are a rare cause of oral bleeding that increase patient morbidity due to delay of diagnosis. We describe an 89-year-old male who presented with a week of intermittent oral blood production. A vallecular varix was identified on fiberoptic laryngoscopy after studies for hematemesis and hemoptysis had been performed, including negative esophagogastroduodenoscopy and bronchoscopy. Awareness of this pathology and key points in the patient history can direct the clinician toward the correct diagnosis, expediting treatment and limiting invasive diagnostic procedures for pulmonary or gastric etiologies of bleeding. PMID:26759685

  18. [Significance of the CO2-laser angle, oral cavity endoscopes].

    PubMed

    Gáspár, L; Bakos, R; Kásler, M

    1991-10-01

    The CO2-laser ray guided at 90 degrees to the surface creates a crater of typical "v" shape. If the guide angle of the ray deviates therefrom and the smaller the angle of incidence than 90 degrees, destruction becomes the more astymmetric, the crater takes an ever more flattened eliptical shape. The lack of tissue becomes even more superficial, thus removal of a circumscribed pathological area requires the sacrifice of more ambient healthy tissue. Consterning the possible angle of incidence of the laser ray instrumental measurements were carried out. It has been ascertained that in the pharinx third of the mouth cavity behind the plain corresponding to the premolars, as a rule, only guide angles below 50 degrees, in the middle third of the mouth cavity corresponding to the area between the front teeth and the molars guide angles between 50-70 degrees, and in the front third mostly a ray guiding below 90 degrees are possible. In the middle and rear third of the mouth cavity the ideal rey-guiding at 90 degrees can be obtained but with reflection, certain areas even cannot be treated directly, are visible but in mirrors. By transforming the hand piece of the laser apparatus endoscopes with fixed mirror and rotating mirror have been constructed. By means of the endoscope with fixed mirror already all parts of the mouth cavity have been rendered accessible while the rotating mirror model became suitable even to admit the laser ray to the surfaces at the ideal angle of incidence of 90(2). PMID:1765203

  19. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kanupriya; Metgud, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined. PMID:24455418

  20. Outcome Analysis of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer and Extracapsular Spread in Neck Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Extracapsular spread (ECS) in neck lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in this patient group and tried to identify a subset of patients with a worse prognosis suitable for more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 255 OSCC patients with ECS in neck nodes and without evidence of distant metastasis. All participants were followed-up for at least 2 years or censored at last follow-up. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: Level IV/V lymph node metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm were independent predictors of 5-year survival and identified three prognostic groups. In the low-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth <12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 60%, 66%, and 50%, respectively. In the intermediate-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 39%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In the high-risk group (evidence of level IV/V metastases), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 14%, 12%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusions: Among OSCC patients with ECS, those with level IV/V metastases appear to have the worst prognosis followed by without level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm. An aggressive therapeutic approach may be suitable for intermediate- and high-risk patients.

  1. RENAL CELL CARCINOMA METASTASIS TO THE SINONASAL CAVITY: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marijan; Krvavica, Ana; Rudić, Milan

    2015-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of all adult malignant tumors. Common sites of metastases are lungs, bone, liver, brain and adrenal glands. Metastatic disease to the head and neck ranges from 15% to 30%. The 5-year survival rate after nephrectomy is 60%-75%, but with multiorgan metastases the 5-year survival rate is significantly lower, 0-7%. A case is presented of a female patient diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma metastases to the paranasal sinuses, diagnosed and treated at the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, Zadar General Hospital, Zadar, Croatia. The tumor was surgically removed. Unfortunately, the patient died one year after the procedure due to multiorgan failure. Although metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the head and neck are very rare, it should be first suspected when investigating a metastatic tumor in this region. Surgical excision offers the best hope for long term survival. In case of unresectable tumor, other treatment options should be considered such as radiotherapy, immunotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:26415321

  2. The use of thermovision camera to observe physiological and pathological conditions of oral cavity mucous membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, M.; Dulski, R.; Żmuda, S.; Zaborowski, P.; Pogorzelski, C.

    2002-06-01

    This article presents initial results of investigations of the temperature distribution changes in oral cavity mucous membrane. The investigations aimed to prepare a model of temperature changes existing within mucosal membrane in physiological conditions and to compare those changes with those under pathological conditions. Our investigations were carried out using an infrared imaging system. A representative group of patients was tested.

  3. [Estimation of antimicrobial means action efficacy in children oral cavities by pH-test].

    PubMed

    Guliamov, S S

    2009-01-01

    Possibility of mixed saliva pH determination in the efficacy of antimicrobial mean action was assessed using fluctuations in hydrogen index (pH following consumption of sweets in teenagers according to Stephan curve). Antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine-containing preparation Eludrile and Elgidium-tooth paste, as well as furacillin solution in oral cavities of teenagers was estimated. PMID:19365352

  4. RNA regulators of host immunity and pathogen adaptive responses in the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kreth, Jens; Liu, Nan; Chen, Zhiyun; Merritt, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The recent explosion of RNA-seq studies has resulted in a newfound appreciation for the importance of riboregulatory RNAs in the posttranscriptional control of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genetic networks. The current review will explore the role of trans-riboregulatory RNAs in various adaptive responses of host and pathogen in the oral cavity. PMID:25790757

  5. Development of a device for photodynamic therapy of oral cavity mucous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.

    1999-03-01

    The device, offered for reviewing, was designed and developed for photodynamic therapy of oral cavity mucous diseases and for laboratory experiments on the red light influence on the bacterial colonies in presence of a dye. The device has rather simple construction, it is cheap but convenience in use.

  6. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  7. Application of free radial forearm flap in reconstruction of the face and oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Tvrdek, M; Nejedlý, A; Kletenský, J; Pros, Z

    1994-01-01

    The authors have shown the possibilities of application of the free radial forearm flap in clinical cases when reconstructing defects in the region of the face and of oral cavity. This flap is particularly useful in cases where it is necessary to duplicate the flap and to reconstruct two layers at the same time. PMID:7618399

  8. Photodynamic Therapy with 3-(1’-hexyloxyethyl) pyropheophorbide a (HPPH) for Cancer of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rigual, Nestor; Shafirstein, Gal; Cooper, Michele T.; Baumann, Heinz; Bellnier, David A.; Sunar, Ulas; Tracy, Erin C.; Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Wilding, Gregory; Tan, Wei; Sullivan, Maureen; Merzianu, Mihai; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective was to evaluate safety of 3-(1’-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) photodynamic therapy (HPPH-PDT) for dysplasia and early squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Secondary objectives were the assessment of treatment response and reporters for an effective PDT reaction. Experimental Design Patients with histologically proven oral dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CiS ) or early stage HNSCC were enrolled in two sequentially conducted dose escalation studies with an expanded cohort at the highest dose level. These studies employed an HPPH dose of 4 mg/m2 and light doses from 50 to 140 J/cm2. Pathologic tumor responses were assessed at 3 months. Clinical follow up range was 5 to 40 months. PDT induced cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were assessed as potential indicators of PDT effective reaction. Results Forty patients received HPPH-PDT. Common adverse events were pain and treatment site edema. Biopsy proven complete response rates were 46% for dysplasia and CiS, and 82% for SCCs lesions at 140 J/cm2. The responses in the CiS/dysplasia cohort are not durable. The PDT induced STAT3 cross-links is significantly higher (P=0.0033) in SCC than in CiS/dysplasia for all light-doses. Conclusion HPPH-PDT is safe for the treatment of CiS/dysplasia and early stage cancer of the oral cavity. Early stage oral HNSCC appears to respond better to HPPH-PDT in comparison to premalignant lesions. The degree of STAT3 cross-linking is a significant reporter to evaluate HPPH-PDT mediated photoreaction. PMID:24088736

  9. Granulocytic sarcoma: an atypical presentation in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Pinto, Andres; Alawi, Faizan; Raghavendra, Sree; Boyce, Ricardo; Porter, David; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2004-01-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a hematologic disorder that is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature myeloid cells. Granulocytic sarcomas are clusters of leukemic myeloid cells that may develop as a result of AML. Oral manifestations of AML are common and often involve enlargements of the gingiva and/or mucosal tissue from direct leukemia cell infiltration. We describe the case history of a 50-year-old man who had an ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa that was determined to be a granulocytic sarcoma of AML-MO subtype. The combination of both the subtype and clinical presentation of the leukemia makes this presentation unusual, and to the best of our knowledge, of a type that has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:15200230

  10. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberance of the oral cavity: does it exist?

    PubMed

    Nemenqani, Dalal; Yaqoob, Nausheen; Khoja, Hatem; al Qurashi, Abdullah

    2010-03-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberance (DFSP) is a low grade spindle cell malignant tumour that is locally aggressive especially it incompletely excised. A 64-year-old man presented with intra-oral buccal mass of 34 year duration with accelerated increase in size in the last two years. CT scan showed well-circumscribed tumour with no relation to the overlying skin. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed a highly cellular mitotically active spindle cell neoplasm with recommendation of excision with safety margins. Histological examination of the excised mass showed typical dermatofibrosarcoma protuberance with cytoplasmic positivity for Vimentin and CD34. Intra-oral sarcomas are rare and to the best of our knowledge only a single case of DFSP has been described in literature. We present another case for its unusual site, presentation, duration and surgical approach. PMID:20225788

  11. Antitumor effect of temsirolimus against oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Takaoka, Munenori; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2010-11-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is engaged in the molecular pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma, which frequently invades the maxilla or the mandible. However, the effects of a mTOR inhibitor on bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of temsirolimus-mediated mTOR inhibition against advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma. Temsirolimus inhibited the proliferation and migration of HSC-2 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and suppressed the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in vivo. Significantly, we clearly show that temsirolimus inhibited osteoclast formation both in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that temsirolimus decreased the mRNA expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand, known as an osteoclast differentiation factor in bone stromal ST2 cells. Moreover, temsirolimus normalized blood-free calcium concentration in mouse models for humoral hypercalcemia. These findings suggest that mTOR signaling is a potential target of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction, and hence we describe the efficacy of temsirolimus for the treatment of advanced oral squamous carcinoma. PMID:20858724

  12. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahingur, Sinem Esra; Yeudall, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host–microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25999952

  13. Extracellular Glycoside Hydrolase Activities in the Human Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Inui, Taichi; Walker, Lauren C; Dodds, Michael W J; Hanley, A Bryan

    2015-08-15

    Carbohydrate availability shifts when bacteria attach to a surface and form biofilm. When salivary planktonic bacteria form an oral biofilm, a variety of polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the primary carbon sources; however, simple sugar availabilities are limited due to low diffusion from saliva to biofilm. We hypothesized that bacterial glycoside hydrolase (GH) activities would be higher in a biofilm than in saliva in order to maintain metabolism in a low-sugar, high-glycoprotein environment. Salivary bacteria from 13 healthy individuals were used to grow in vitro biofilm using two separate media, one with sucrose and the other limiting carbon sources to a complex carbohydrate. All six GHs measured were higher in vitro when grown in the medium with complex carbohydrate as the sole carbon source. We then collected saliva and overnight dental plaque samples from the same individuals and measured ex vivo activities for the same six enzymes to determine how oral microbial utilization of glycoconjugates shifts between the planktonic phase in saliva and the biofilm phase in overnight dental plaque. Overall higher GH activities were observed in plaque samples, in agreement with in vitro observation. A similar pattern was observed in GH activity profiles between in vitro and ex vivo data. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that plaque samples had a higher abundance of microorganisms with larger number of GH gene sequences. These results suggest differences in sugar catabolism between the oral bacteria located in the biofilm and those in saliva. PMID:26048943

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Inverted Schneiderian Papilloma: A Case Report with Oral Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alexandre Simões; Bravo-Calderón, Diego Maurício; Ferreira, Mariana Pisinato; Oliveira, Denise Tostes

    2014-01-01

    Inverted Schneiderian papilloma is an uncommon benign tumor that presents tendency to recur and propensity to be associated with malignancy in approximately 10% of the cases. Some of these lesions are isolated in the maxillary sinus, and predominantly affect white males with mean age of 50 years. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from inverted Schneiderian papilloma in the maxillary sinus extending to the mouth. The patient was submitted to extraction of a maxillary molar tooth four months before the exacerbation of the symptoms of nasal airway obstruction and facial enlargement. Computed tomography scan revealed a sinonasal mass causing opacification of the right maxillary sinus with destruction of the lateral nasal wall and maxillary sinus floor. The patient was referred to an oncology center for treatment and died from tumor progression one year after the cancer was diagnosed. The intention of this report is to alert dentists to include the inverted Schneiderian papilloma, either associated with squamous cell carcinoma, or not, in the differential diagnosis of maxillary sinus tumors with aggressive behavior, which may extend to the oral cavity or involve roots of teeth. PMID:25057422

  15. Oral squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla, a second malignancy after a right ethmoido-maxillary chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Mircea; Morariu, Silviu Horia; Ormenişan, Alina; Grigoraş, Radu Ionuţ; Bostan, Radu Horia; Mocanu, Simona; Vartolomei, Mihai Dorin; Cotoi, Ovidiu Simion

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is defined as an invasive epithelial neoplasm, with variable degrees of squamous differentiation, with or without keratinization. It is origins stand at the level of the keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (skin) or non-keratinized (oral mucosa, esophageal mucosa, uterine exocervical mucosa), but it can also be found in squamous metaplasia areas (uterine endocervix or trachea-bronchial tree). This report presents the case of an oral squamous cell carcinoma as a second malignancy in the same anatomical territory, in a patient with prior treatment for chondrosarcoma, both surgical and radiotherapy. The tumor had appeared 5-6 months prior and had undergone a relatively rapid growth, this being the patient's main motive for addressing the doctors. The tumor was greyish, with imprecisely demarcated margins, of firm consistency, bleeding and with local necrotic deposits. The tumor extended from the incisive region to the maxillary tuberosity, towards the cheek mucosa and the soft palate. After a large excision, the histopathological diagnosis was infiltrative keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, with moderate differentiation, with origins in the oral mucosa, infiltrating the whole of the maxilla and the maxillary sinus mucosa. Approximately three months after the surgery, a new tumor appeared in the oral cavity, on superior and inferior mucosa of the right cheek, extending towards the right buccal commissure, implying a relapse of the primary tumor. Postoperative oncological therapy included standard chemotherapy, which resulted in favorable postoperative evolution. This case is interesting by the association, of two metachronous malignant tumors, of different histological origin: a chondrosarcoma and a squamous cell carcinoma, at an interval of 25 years. PMID:25607415

  16. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA); targeting oral cavity pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Boswellic acids mixture of triterpenic acids obtained from the oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata and known for its effectiveness in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease including peritumor edema. Boswellic acids have been extensively studied for a number of activities including anti inflammatory, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study describes the antimicrobial activities of boswellic acid molecules against oral cavity pathogens. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), which exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity, was further evaluated in time kill studies, mutation prevention frequency, postantibiotic effect (PAE) and biofilm susceptibility assay against oral cavity pathogens. Findings AKBA exhibited an inhibitory effect on all the oral cavity pathogens tested (MIC of 2-4 μg/ml). It exhibited concentration dependent killing of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 up to 8 × MIC and also prevented the emergence of mutants of S.mutans ATCC 25175 at 8× MIC. AKBA demonstrated postantibiotic effect (PAE) of 5.7 ± 0.1 h at 2 × MIC. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited the formation of biofilms generated by S.mutans and Actinomyces viscosus and also reduced the preformed biofilms by these bacteria. Conclusions AKBA can be useful compound for the development of antibacterial agent against oral pathogens and it has great potential for use in mouthwash for preventing and treating oral infections. PMID:21992439

  17. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years

    PubMed Central

    Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

  18. Oral carcinoma after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation – a new classification based on a literature review over 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Astrid LD; Grätz, Klaus W

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have a higher risk of developing secondary solid tumors, in particular squamous cell carcinoma, because of several risk factors, including full-body irradiation (TBI), chemotherapy, and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). Based on the review presented here, a classification of oral changes is suggested in order to provide a tool to detect high-risk patients. Methods and Results The literature over the last 30 years was reviewed for development of malignoma of the oral cavity after HSCT. Overall, 64 cases were found. In 16 out of 30 cases, the tongue was the primary location, followed by the salivary gland (10 out of 30); 56.4% appeared in a latency time of 5 to 9 years after HSCT. In 76.6%, GVHD was noticed before the occurrence of oral malignancy. Premalignant changes of the oral mucosa were mucositis, xerostomia, and lichenoid changes, developing into erosive form. Conclusion All physicians involved in the treatment of post-HSCT patients should be aware of the increased risk, even after 5 years from the development of oral malignancy, in particular when oral graft versus host changes are visible. In order to develop evidence based management, screening and offer adequate therapy as early as possible in this patient group, multicenter studies, involving oncologists and head and neck surgeons, should be established. PMID:19624855

  19. Silent blast in oral cavity: is the car battery innocuous?

    PubMed

    Bhadani, Umesh Kumar; Tripathi, Mukesh; Ramraj, P N; Singh, Ishwar

    2005-04-01

    Low voltage energy source is not free from danger. An exceptionally rare and peculiar mode of facial blast injury is reported. The blast took place silently in the mouth of a 15-year-old boy, due to short-circuiting of wires connected to a12-volt car battery while peeling off insulation with the intent of running a musical instrument. Airway compromise due to soft tissue injury produced further problem during tracheostomy. Emergent airway management is discussed. Post-healing sequel resulted in loss of voice and prevented normal oral feeding. The case report emphasizes need for education to public in handling low voltage energy source. PMID:15876773

  20. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Loic

    2016-09-01

    Acquired dental disease represents the most common oral disorder of guinea pigs. Most patients are presented with nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms, such as weight loss, reduced food intake, difficulty chewing and/or swallowing. The physical examination must be followed by standard radiography and/or computed tomography, and thorough inspection under general anesthesia. Several complications may follow, including periodontal disease, subluxation of the temporomandibular joint, periapical infection, and abscessation. The dental treatment is aimed to restore the proper length and shape of both the incisor and cheek teeth, associated with medical and supportive treatment. Abscesses should be surgically addressed by complete excision. PMID:27497208

  1. Gender Difference in the Prognostic Role of Interleukin 6 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Sung, Wen-Wei; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Lee, Ching-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    Background Interleukin 6 (IL6) plays an important role in immunoregulation and tumorigenesis in human cancers. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant tumor of the oral cavity with a male predominant tendency and a poor clinical prognosis. Due to the relatively few cases in females, the gender difference of prognostic markers for OSCC is seldom discussed. Methods In this study, we used immunohistochemical staining methods to investigate the associations between IL6 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC. In addition, we collected 74 female and 263 male OSCC patients for evaluation. Results High IL6 expression in tumor cells was significantly associated OSCC patient characteristics including female gender (P<0.001), high lymph node metastatic rate (P = 0.007), and poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.008). Tumor-expressed IL6 had prognostic role in male OSCC patients as defined by the log-rank test (P = 0.014), but not in female patients (P = 0.959). In male OSCC patients, high IL6 expression in tumor cells was associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.025) and a 1.454-fold higher death risk, as determined by Cox regression. Conclusions High IL6 expression in tumor cells was therefore significantly associated with aggressive clinical manifestations and might be an independent survival predictor, particularly in male OSCC patients. PMID:23185547

  2. Epithelial Antimicrobial Peptides: Guardian of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Mayank; Madaan Hans, Veenu

    2014-01-01

    Gingival epithelium provides first line of defence from the microorganisms present in dental plaque. It not only provides a mechanical barrier but also has an active immune function too. Gingival epithelial cells participate in innate immunity by producing a range of antimicrobial peptides to protect the host against oral pathogens. These epithelial antimicrobial peptides (EAPs) include the β-defensin family, cathelicidin (LL-37), calprotectin, and adrenomedullin. While some are constitutively expressed in gingival epithelial cells, others are induced upon exposure to microbial insults. It is likely that these EAPs have a role in determining the initiation and progression of oral diseases. EAPs are broad spectrum antimicrobials with a different but overlapping range of activity. Apart from antimicrobial activity, they participate in several other crucial roles in host tissues. Some of these, for instance, β-defensins, are chemotactic to immune cells. Others, such as calprotectin are important for wound healing and cell proliferation. Adrenomedullin, a multifunctional peptide, has its biological action in a wide range of tissues. Not only is it a potent vasodilator but also it has several endocrine effects. Knowing in detail the various bioactions of these EAPs may provide us with useful information regarding their utility as therapeutic agents. PMID:25435884

  3. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ lining the uterine cavity.

    PubMed

    Anthuenis, J; Baekelandt, J; Bourgain, C; De Rop, C

    2016-01-01

    Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia is a very common and well-known pathology. However superficial spreading of this lesion is very rare. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman with an abdominal mass, who had previously undergone a cervical conisation for a high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Anatomo-pathological examination of the mass showed a large distended fluid-filled uterus with the entire endometrium replaced by a high-grade squamous cell lesion. There were only micro-invasive foci found. The authors performed a literature search in PubMed with the following MeSH-terms: "squamous cell carcinoma" and "endometrium". Other articles were selected out of the references of previously found articles. Only 31 similar cases were found. The presentation of the cases is varies extremely and a long-term prognosis is not yet known. PMID:27048127

  5. Localization of fluconazole in oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for treatment of oral thrush

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Kamla; Sharma, Vijay; Akhtar, Nida; Rastogi, Pragya

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present research work was aimed at localization of fluconazole in the oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for the treatment of oral thrush. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the aim, buccoadhesive tablets were optimized using 32 full factorial design to study the influence of varying content of chitosan and carbopol 934P (input variables) on the responses. Results: Perturbation plots revealed high sensitivity of the input variables to ex vivo mucoadhesion force and percent cumulative drug release (CDR) whereas the ex vivo mucoadhesion time was less sensitive to the input variables. Based on the highest desirability factor of 0.693 the formulation F9 was identified as the optimized formulation and was preferentially coated with ethyl cellulose (3% w/v) on one tablet face to get F9C. In reference to F9, F9C showed superior mucoadhesive features (P < 0.05) but the % CDR was comparable (f2 = 50.80). The preferential coating (F9C, Jss = 0.812 μg/cm2/h) limited the permeation of fluconazole across goat buccal mucosa by almost half the value of F9 (Jss = 1.34 μg/cm2/h) that could serve as an advantage in establishing high local concentration of drug in the oral cavity, thereby facilitating faster attainment of minimum inhibitory concentration. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis established nonirritant potential. The developed formulation was stable and demonstrated antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that preferentially coated buccoadhesive tablets of fluconazole might be considered as a precise approach to localize the drug delivery in oral cavity. PMID:27051630

  6. Developmental changes in primary cilia in the mouse tooth germ and oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hisamoto, Meri; Goto, Marie; Muto, Mami; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium, a sensory apparatus, functions as both a chemical and mechanical sensor to receive environmental stimuli. The present study focused on the primary cilia in the epithelialmesenchymal interaction during tooth development. We examined the localization and direction of projection of primary cilia in the tooth germ and oral cavity of mice by immunohistochemical observation. Adenylyl cyclase 3 (ACIII)-immunolabeled cilia were visible in the inner/outer enamel epithelium of molars at the fetal stage and then conspicuously developed in the odontoblast layer postnatally. The primary cilia in ameloblasts and odontoblasts-shown by the double staining of acetylated tubulin and γ-tubulin-were regularly arranged from postnatal Day12, projecting apart from each other. The periodontal ligament possessed ACIII-positive cilia, which gathered on both sides of the dentin/cement and alveolar bone in postnatal days. In the oral cavity, numerous long primary cilia immunoreactive for ACIII were condensed at subepithelial stromal cells in the oral processes in fetuses, while postnatally a small number of short cilia were dispersed throughout the stroma of the oral cavity. These findings suggest that the primary cilia showing stage- and regionspecific morphology are involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during tooth development via mechano- and/or chemoreception for growth factors. PMID:27356608

  7. High-risk human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system. Results Out of 70 women with cervical cancer, four (5.71%) were found to be positive for HR-HPV in their oral cavity. No association of HR-HPV was found with sociodemographic profile, marital status, reproductive history, tobacco and alcohol usage, contraceptive pills usage, and presence of oral lesions (p>0.05). Among children, HR-HPV in the oral cavity was detected in only 1 of the 46 subjects examined (2.17%). Clinically healthy oral mucosa, without any oral lesions, was observed in all the HR-HPV positive subjects. Conclusion The result of this study showed that there is low, if any, risk of HR-HPV infection in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer. Further, our study suggests that there is very low risk for children of women with cervical cancer, to acquire and sustain HR-HPV in their oral cavity until childhood or adolescence. PMID:20550718

  8. Connexin subtype expression during oral carcinogenesis: A pilot study in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    BROCKMEYER, PHILLIPP; HEMMERLEIN, BERNHARD; JUNG, KLAUS; FIALKA, FLORIAN; BRODMANN, TOBIAS; GRUBER, RUDOLF MATTHIAS; SCHLIEPHAKE, HENNING; KRAMER, FRANZ-JOSEF

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and connexin (Cx) expression were reported in association with carcinogenesis in various types of tumours. In an earlier histomorphometric study, the protein levels of Cx subtypes 26, 43 and 45 were differentially expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), corresponding lymph node metastases and dysplasia-free oral mucosa. Moreover, membrane Cx43 acted as an independent prognostic marker in OSCC tissues. This study aimed to confirm the expression of described Cx subtypes at the mRNA level. Hence, a reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis of Cx26, Cx43 and Cx45 gene expressions was performed in paired carcinoma and mucosa samples of 15 OSCC patients. Additionally, we assessed the interaction between Cx subtype expression and clinicopathological routine parameters. The RT-qPCR analysis revealed that Cx26 was downregulated in OSCC (P=0.01), while Cx43 was marginally upregulated in cancer tissue (P=0.04). Cx45 was significantly overexpressed in OSCC tissue compared with the intraoral mucosa controls (P<0.01), and remained unchanged at different tumour stages. No significant interactions between differential Cx subtype expression and clinicopathological routine parameters were observed. In conclusion, Cx regulation at the transcriptional level appears to be an early event during the initiation and development of OSCC, and is maintained during further progression. However, the mRNA-protein correlation is variable. This may be indicative of post-transcriptional, translational and degradation regulations being associated with the determination of Cx protein concentration during oral carcinogenesis. PMID:26893879

  9. [Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the nasal cavity manifested as massive epistaxis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sung Jae; Cheon, Jae Hee; Lee, Sang Won; Jung, Yoo Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun; Park, Joong-Won; Hong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Chang-Min

    2004-09-01

    Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not infrequently found during the later stage, regarding that the autopsy report described its prevalence to be up to 50%. The most frequent sites are known to be the abdominal lymph nodes, lung and bone. However, metastasis to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses has been seldom reported, and to out knowledge, there is no Korean report describing extrahepatic metastasis of HCC to these sites. Recently we experienced a case of extrahepatic metastasis of HCC to the nasal cavity in a 50 year-old man with massive epistaxis refractory to conservative treatment. He was found to have a mass of soft tissue attenuation occupying the right nasal cavity at CT, which was biopsy-proven as metastatic HCC. Epistaxis was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. PMID:15385718

  10. Comparative Evaluation of EGF in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mohebbian, Mina; Sarookani, Mohammad-Reza; Harirchi, Iraj; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2015-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is classified as a potential malignant disorder, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) may play a key role in cancer development. The aim of this study was to compare serum and saliva EGF among patients with OLP and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A cross-sectional study was performed on 27 patients with OLP (10 reticular and 17 atrophic-erosive forms), 27 patients with OSCC and 27 healthy control group. The study was conducted at the Cancer Department, Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The serum and saliva EGF were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used. The mean serum EGF in OLP and OSCC patients was significantly lower compared to healthy control group (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between OLP and OSCC patients. There was no significant difference in mean salivary EGF among groups. As serum EGF levels appear to be statistically similar in OLP and OSCC, it seems that EGF might play a role in the pathogenesis of OLP and its cancerization. PMID:26545991

  11. An overview on "cellular cannibalism" with special reference to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular cannibalism has been defined as a large cell engulfing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. It has been described in various cancers like bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cellular cannibalism has been well correlated with anaplasia, tumor aggressiveness, grading and metastatic potential. Present review focuses on significance of cannibalism in relation to cancer with special emphasis on oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26710834

  12. Higher prevalence and gene amplification of HPV16 in oropharynx as compared to oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, Hideo; SUGIYAMA, Masaru; OHTA, Kouji; RAHMAN, Mohammad Zeshaan; TAKECHI, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to clarify differences regarding HPV16 infection and gene amplification between the oral cavity and oropharynx in healthy individuals. Material and Methods The subjects were 94 healthy asymptomatic individuals (41 males, 53 females; mean age 58.6 years, range 16-97 years) who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery of the Hiroshima University Hospital from 2014 to 2015. Oral epithelial cells were collected from oral rinse and pharynx gargle samples and placed in saline. The human endogenous retrovirus gene ERV3-1 was used as a reference to estimate the number of human cells in each sample. DNA samples were extracted from approximately 10,000 human cells and tested for HPV16 DNA by PCR using a type-specific primer. Similarly, we analyzed the HPV16 viral copy number in HPV16-positive cases using real-time PCR to examine genomic amplification. Results The percentage of HPV16-positive cases was higher in the gargle (28.7%) as compared to the rinse (16.0%) samples. In the oral rinse samples, males (26.8%) showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 than females (7.5%) (P=0.021). Importantly, in older subjects (aged 60-89 years), gargle samples showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 (33.3%) than oral rinse samples (13.7%) (P=0.034). The average number of viral copies was approximately 8 times higher in the gargle than in the oral rinse samples (0.16±0.27 vs. 1.35±1.26 copy numbers per cell), a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the oropharynx is more susceptible to HPV16 infection as compared to the oral cavity, while HPV16 gene amplification is also more commonly found in the oropharynx. PMID:27556212

  13. The submental flap for oral cavity reconstruction: Extended indications and technical refinements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose The submental flap is gaining popularity as a simple technique for reconstruction of small to moderate size defects of the oral cavity. However, its role in composite defects involving the jaw is not clearly defined. Indeed, controversy exists about the flap's interference with an oncologically sound neck dissection Patients and Methods A total of 21 patients with oral cavity cancers over a three year period were included. All patients underwent surgical resection and immediate reconstruction with submental flap except one patient who had delayed reconstruction with reversed flap. The flap was used for reconstruction of intra-oral soft tissue defect in 13 patients and composite defects in 8 patients. Results Of 21 patients 12 were males and 9 were females, age ranged from 32 to 83 years. The primary tumor sites included buccal mucosa (7), tongue (4), alveolar margin (3), floor of mouth (5) and lip (2). Eventually in this study, we adopted completing the neck dissection first before flap harvest. Complete flap loss occurred in 2 whereas 3 patients had partial flap loss. Follow up ranged from 3 to 44 months, one patient died from metastatic disease. Four patients developed neck recurrences. Conclusion The submental flap is a valid option for reconstruction of intra-oral soft tissue as well as composite oral defects particularly in elderly patients. However, oncologically sound neck dissection should be assured. PMID:22185515

  14. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo. PMID:25650283

  15. Oral Cavity Lymphoid Neoplasms. A Fifteen-Year Single Institution Review.

    PubMed

    Philipone, Elizabeth; Bhagat, Govind; Alobeid, Bachir

    2015-04-01

    Although relatively rare, lymphomas can and do present within the oral cavity and can represent either the initial presentation or secondary involvement in the setting of systemic disease. Our objective was to conduct a retrospective search of the surgical pathology database at our institution to review all oral biopsy specimens diagnosed as either a lymphoma or plasma cell neoplasm over the past 15 years. Based on our search, we identified 47 cases. We report here the type of neoplasm, location, patient age and gender, and available pertinent clinical information. PMID:26094364

  16. In vivo OCT imaging of hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Iksanov, R. R.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Kuranov, R. V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gladkova, N.; Ourutina, M. N.; Reitze, David H.; Warren, J. A.

    1998-09-01

    We use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to perform a comprehensive program of in vivo and in vitro structural imaging of hard and soft tissues within the oral cavity. We have imaged the different types of healthy oral mucosa as well as normal and abnormal tooth structure. OCT is able to differentiate between the various types of keratinized and non-keratinized mucosa with high resolution. OCT is also able to provide detailed structural information on clinical abnormalities (caries and non-caries lesions) in teeth and provide guidance in dental restorative procedures. Our investigations demonstrate the utility of OCT as a diagnostic imaging modality in clinical and research dentistry.

  17. Abnormal DNA content in oral epithelial dysplasia is associated with increased risk of progression to carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G; Odell, E W; Raphael, S; Ho, J; Le, L W; Benchimol, S; Kamel-Reid, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) is a histologically detectable lesion that may progress to carcinoma but there are no accurate markers that predict progression. This study examined the development of carcinoma from oral dysplastic lesions, and the association between abnormal DNA content and progression to carcinoma. Methods: Epithelial dysplasias from the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Service were matched against the Ontario Cancer Registry database to identify cases that progressed to carcinoma. A case–control study was conducted to compare DNA image cytometry of dysplasias that progressed with those that have not progressed. For a subset of the progressed dysplasias, DNA content of the carcinoma was also analysed. Results: A total of 8% of epithelial dysplasias progressed to carcinoma after 6–131 months. In all, 28 of 99 dysplasias showed abnormal DNA content by image cytometry. In multivariate analysis of time to progression, abnormal DNA content was a significant predictor with hazard ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–7.4) corrected for site and grade of dysplasia. Analysis of sequential samples of dysplasia and carcinoma suggested that epithelial cell populations with grossly abnormal DNA content were transient intermediates during oral cancer development. Conclusions: Abnormal DNA content is a significant biomarker of a subset of OED that progress to carcinoma. PMID:20859287

  18. Unusual Presentation of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    França, Diurianne CC; Monti, Lira M; de Castro, Alvimar L; Soubhia, Ana MP; Volpato, Luiz ER; de Aguiar, Sandra MHC Á; Goiato, Marcelo C

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral malignant neoplasm, mainly affecting individuals over 50 years old with a history of tobacco and alcohol use. The occurrence of this oral cancer in individuals under 40 years old is unusual and, when it does occur, shows a weaker relation to those risk factors and a more aggressive clinical course. Due to the paucity of reports in this population, it is difficult to prove its increasing trend. A case of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 39-year-old woman with no history of tobacco or alcohol use is reported. Clinical and histopathological findings, aetiology, and treatment are discussed. The increasing trend of oral squamous cell carcinoma in young women without known risk factors highlights the need for clinicians to be prepared to diagnose this lesion quickly and precisely, providing a better prognosis, chance of survival, and quality of life for the patient. PMID:22548144

  19. Versitality of the Use of Collagen Membrane in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Nagamalleswara; Bhushan, N.V.V. Satya; Krishnan, Gokkula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bovine derived collagen membrane is usually and regularly used as a temporary cover or dressing for the extra oral wounds and for the burns on the body. It has wide applications because of its usefulness and biocompatibility. This has provoked us to do a study with the use of collagen membrane even for the intraoral minor surgical defects. Aim The study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of collagen membrane as a biological dressing material for intraoral wounds, to check for haemostasis, pain control, granulation tissue formation, rapid re-epithelialization and minimal contracture. Materials and Methods A total of 30 patients 19 male, 11 female were taken for excision of various intraoral lesions like leukoplakia patches, mucocele, epulis growths, irritational fibroma, frenectomy and the surgical defects were closed with collagen membrane. Postoperatively healing was assessed by taking five clinical parameters of Haemostasis, Pain, Granulation tissue, Epithelialization, Contracture. Results Among 30 patients, haemostasis score was found to be good in 28 cases, fair in two cases. Pain relief score was good in seven cases, fair in 19 cases, poor in four cases. Granulation tissue formation score was good in eight cases, fair in 13 cases, poor in nine cases. Epithelialization score was good in 19 cases, fair in seven cases, poor in four cases. Contracture score was good in six cases, fair in 16 cases, poor in eight cases. Total score of all the five parameters, which was rated as effectiveness score, was calculated by using a standard scale. Final scoring was very effective in six cases, effective in 20 cases, ineffective in four cases. Conclusion Reconstituted bovine derived collagen membrane used in our study was found to be an effective intraoral wound dressing material for faster uneventful healing of intraorally also. PMID:27042581

  20. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen in Premalignancy and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Ramesh, K.; Gudiseva, Swetha; Bala, Sekar; Sundar, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer has multifactorial aetiology and is a multistep process involving initiation, promotion and tumour progression. Cellular proliferation is one of the important indicators for the biologic aggressiveness of a malignant lesion. The dysregulated proliferation may be a significant change to determine the potential prognosis of various malignant tumours. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as an indicator for clinical aggressiveness in oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods A total of 50 blocks were taken from the Department of Oral Pathology which was diagnosed previously histopathologically. It comprised of normal oral mucosa (10), dysplasia (10) and grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (30) of patients between the age group of 40–60 years. From each block, sections of 4 micro metre thicknesses were prepared and placed on poly- L lysine coated slides. These sections were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal proliferating cell antibody (PC10). The stained slides were evaluated by a single examiner for cell count. Results A comparison between study groups and controls showed a probability value (p-value) < 0.05. Significant increase in the proliferative index from the normal to oral squamous cell carcinoma was noticed. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed maximum proliferative index followed by moderately differentiated, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, dysplasia and normal mucosa. Conclusion Present study concluded that PCNA index can be used to assess the proliferation and aggressiveness in dysplasia and different grades oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26266215

  1. Clinical and biochemical studies support smokeless tobacco's carcinogenic potential in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Mallery, Susan R; Tong, Meng; Michaels, Gregory C; Kiyani, Amber R; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented compelling evidence that linked smokeless tobacco use to the development of human oral cancer. Although these findings imply vigorous local carcinogen metabolism, little is known about levels and distribution of phase I, II, and III (drug egress) enzymes in human oral mucosa. In this study here, we integrated clinical data, and imaging and histopathologic analyses of an oral squamous cell carcinoma that arose at the site of smokeless tobacco quid placement in a patient. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were used to identify tumor and normal human oral mucosal smokeless tobacco-associated metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes. Human oral epithelium contains every known phase I enzyme associated with nitrosamine oxidative bioactivation with approximately 2-fold interdonor differences in protein levels. Previous studies have confirmed approximately 3.5-fold interdonor variations in intraepithelial phase II enzymes. Unlike the superficially located enzymes in nonreplicating esophageal surface epithelium, IHC studies confirmed that oral mucosal nitrosamine metabolizing enzymes reside in the basilar and suprabasilar region, which notably is the site of ongoing keratinocyte DNA replication. Clearly, variations in product composition, nitrosamine metabolism, and exposure duration will modulate clinical outcomes. The data presented here form a coherent picture consistent with the abundant experimental data that link tobacco-specific nitrosamines to human oral cancer. PMID:24265177

  2. Cysticercosis of the oral cavity: report of five cases and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Saran, R K; Rattan, V; Rajwanshi, A; Nijkawan, R; Gupta, S K

    1998-12-01

    This paper reports on five cases of cysticercosis of tongue and buccal mucosa, diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), affecting child patients who presented between January 1994 and October 1997. Four cases presented with gradually increasing nodular swelling of the dorsum of tongue and in the fifth case the swelling was situated on the buccal mucosa of the left side. A clinical diagnosis of cysticercosis was not entertained in any of these patients, who each presented with a solitary lesion; instead, it was considered to be a benign cyst or benign tumour of salivary gland or mesenchymal tissue, before FNAC diagnosis. These lesions of the oral cavity may present first to a dentist and, in endemic areas, cysticercosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary nodular lesions of the oral cavity, particularly in young individuals. PMID:9927929

  3. CTCFL (BORIS) mRNA Expression in a Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano-Galván, Graciela; Reyes-Romero, Miguel; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Almeda-Ojeda, Oscar Eduardo; Lemus-Rojero, Obed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a relatively common benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity which can occur at any age. CTCFL/BORIS (CTCF like/Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites) and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) are paralogous genes with an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and nuclear chromatin insulators regulation. BORIS expression promotes cell immortalization and growth while CTCF has tumor suppressor activity; the expression pattern may reflect the reverse transcription silencing of BORIS. The aim of this work was to describe a histopathological and molecular approach of an 8-year-old pediatric male patient with PGCG diagnosis. It was observed that the PGCG under study expressed CTCF as well as BORIS mRNAs alongside with the housekeeping gene GAPDH, which may be related to possible genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells of oral cavity. PMID:25114808

  4. [Trichomonad infections of the oral cavity in horses in southern Germany].

    PubMed

    Schöl, H; Beelitz, P; Gothe, R

    1992-12-01

    Trichomonads of the oral cavity were found in 9 of 60 investigated horses. Apart from dental tartar, the oral cavity showed no clinical signs in all positive horses. The clinical investigation of these horses additionally revealed colic in 4 and coughing in 4 horses as well as lumbago in 1 animal. By means of scanning electron microscopy the trichomonads were shown to be round or piriform with an average length of 7.6 microns and greatest width of 6.3 microns. They had 4 anterior flagella with an average length of 8.3 microns, an undulating membrane measuring 8.7 microns with no trailing flagellum as well as an axostyle extending on average 7.8 microns beyond the body, and therefore have to be placed into the genus Trichomonas. PMID:1481216

  5. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1–2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time. PMID:26120570

  6. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1-2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time. PMID:26120570

  7. Podoplanin expression in tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas: an immunohistochemical and fractal analysis study.

    PubMed

    Margaritescu, C; Raica, M; Pirici, D; Simionescu, C; Mogoanta, L; Stinga, A C; Stinga, A S; Ribatti, D

    2010-06-01

    Podoplanin is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in head and neck malignancies and its expression is not restricted to lymphatic vessel endothelium. The aim of this study was to establish podoplanin expression in the tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and to evaluate the geometric complexity of the lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa by utilizing fractal analysis. As concerns the podoplanin expression in noncancerous tissue, forty tumor-free resection margins from OSCCs were investigated utilizing immunohistochemistry for D2-40 antibody and image densitometry analysis. Podoplanin expression was extremely low in basal cells, especially in resection margins of OSCCs developed in the lower lip regions. However, a highly variable D2-40 expression in tumor-free resection margins associated with hyperplastic or dysplastic lesions was identified. Moreover, podoplanin expression also extended to the basal layer of the lower lip skin appendages, the myoepithelial cells of acini and ducts of minor salivary glands, and other structures from the oral cavity. As concerns the study of the density and complexity of oral lymphatic vessels architecture by means of immunohistochemistry (D2-40, CD31 and Ki-67 antibodies) and fractal analysis, we demonstrated that in normal oral mucosa the geometry of the lymphatic vessels was less complex at the level of the lower lip compared to the anterior part of the oral floor mucosa or the tongue. A comparative analysis between the normal and pathological aspects revealed statistically significant differences between the fractal dimension (FD) of the vessels' outline, especially in the tongue. Fractal analysis proved an increasing lymphatic network complexity from normal to premalignant oral mucosal lesions, providing additional prognostic information in oral malignant tumors. PMID:20376776

  8. Relationship between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The components of the human body are closely interdependent; as a result, disease conditions in some organs or components can influence the development of disease in other body locations. The effect of oral health upon health in general has been investigated for decades by many epidemiological studies. In this context, there appears to be a clear relationship between deficient oral hygiene and different systemic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The precise relationship between them is the subject of ongoing research, and a variety of theories have been proposed, though most of them postulate the mediation of an inflammatory response. This association between the oral cavity and disease in general requires further study, and health professionals should be made aware of the importance of adopting measures destined to promote correct oral health. The present study conducts a Medline search with the purpose of offering an update on the relationship between oral diseases and cardiovascular diseases, together with an evaluation of the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease. Most authors effectively describe a moderate association between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases, though they also report a lack of scientific evidence that oral alterations constitute an independent cause of cardiovascular diseases, or that their adequate treatment can contribute to prevent such diseases. In the case of metabolic syndrome, obesity and particularly diabetes mellitus may be associated to an increased susceptibility to periodontitis. However, it is not clear whether periodontal treatment is able to improve the systemic conditions of these patients. Key words:Cardiovascular diseases, periodontitis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus. PMID:24121926

  9. The effect of statherin and its shortened analogues on anaerobic bacteria isolated from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kochańska, B; Kedzia, A; Kamysz, W; Maćkiewicz, Z; Kupryszewski, G

    2000-01-01

    The susceptibility (MIC) of 44 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the oral cavity and 3 standard strains to statherin and its C-terminal fragments with sequences QYQQYTF, YQQYTF, QQYTF, QYTF and YTF was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar with 5% content of defibrinated sheep's blood, menadione and hemin. The culture was anaerobic. As shown, at concentrations from 12.5 to 100 microg/ml statherin and its C-terminal fragments inhibited the growth of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the oral cavity. Peptostreptococcus strains were the most susceptible to statherin and YTF (MIC < or = 12.5 mg/ml), whereas the most susceptible to the peptides investigated were Fusobacterium necrogenes and Fusobacterium necrophorum strains: QYQQYTF, YQQYTF, QQYTF, QYTF (MIC < or = 12.5 microg/ml). Prevotella oralis, Bacteroides forsythus and Bacteroides ureolyticus strains exhibited the lowest susceptibility (MIC > 100 microg/ml). When analysing the bacteriostatic activity of statherin it should be pointed out that the concentrations of this peptide used in microbiological investigations are within the range of physiological concentrations determined for whole saliva when at rest and stimulated in healthy donors of 19-25 years of age. Since the anaerobes investigated may be involved in the diseases of periodontum, the results presented seem to have also a practical aspect, i.e. a possibility to apply the C-terminal fragments of statherin as a novel therapeutic agent, affecting favourably the oral cavity. PMID:11293657

  10. Host Defense Peptides in the Oral Cavity and the Lung: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, G.; Beckloff, N.; Ryan, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity are found in the mucosal surfaces at many sites in the body, including the airway, the oral cavity, and the digestive tract. Based on their in vitro antimicrobial and other immunomodulatory activities, these host defense peptides have been proposed to play an important role in the innate defense against pathogenic microbial colonization. The genes that encode these peptides are up-regulated by pathogens, further supporting their role in innate immune defense. However, the differences in the local microbial environments between the generally sterile airway and the highly colonized oral cavity suggest a more complex role for these peptides in innate immunity. For example, β-defensin genes are induced in the airway by all bacteria and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists primarily through an NF-κB-mediated pathway. In contrast, the same genes are induced in the gingival epithelium by only a subset of bacteria and TLR ligands, via different pathways. Furthermore, the environments into which the peptides are secreted—specifically saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and airway surface fluid—differ greatly and can effect their respective activities in host defense. In this review, we examine the differences and similarities between host defense peptides in the oral cavity and the airway, to gain a better understanding of their contributions to immunity. PMID:18809744

  11. Tie2 Regulates Tumor Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Daisuke; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Miyamoto, Isao; Kimura, Yasushi; Saito, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody. We found that Tie2 expression was down-regulated significantly (p < 0.05) in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oeTie2 cells showed higher cellular adhesion (p < 0.05) and lower cellular invasion (p < 0.05) compared with control cells; whereas there was similar cellular proliferation in both transfectants. Furthermore, cellular adhesion was inhibited and invasion was activated by Tie2 function-blocking antibody (p < 0.05), indicating that Tie2 directly regulates cellular adhesion and invasion. As expected, among the clinical variables analyzed, Tie2-positivity in patients with OSCC was correlated closely with negative lymph node metastasis. These results suggested for the first time that Tie2 plays an important role in tumor metastasis and may be a potential biomarker for OSCC metastasis. PMID:27053959

  12. Intratumoral PV701 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

  13. Pure sarcomatoid carcinoma of maxillary sinus and nasal cavity simulating malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although a few cases of sinonasal carcinoma with focal sarcomatous differentiation have been reported, pure sarcomatoid carcinoma has not been reported in the English literature. Imaging studies and gross inspection in a 60-year-old man with left-sided face pain revealed a mass in the left maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. A large incisional biopsy specimen from the nasal cavity revealed proliferation of malignant spindle and round cells with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) pattern. Tumor giant cells were scattered, and there were areas of a vague storiform pattern. Mitotic figures were numerous. Carcinomatous component was not recognized. The histologic diagnosis was storiform-pleomorphic MFH. Tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins AE1/3, KL-1, and CAM5.2 and cytokeratin (CK) 18, vimentin, CD68, p53, Ki-67 (labeling, 90%), α₁-antitrypsin, and α₁-antichymotrypsin and negative for pancytokeratin WSS, CK 34βE14, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK19, CK20, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, desmin, α-smooth muscle actin, CD34, HMB45, chromogranin, synaptophysin, myoglobin, CD45, CD30, and CD15. Because keratins were positive in tumor cells, a diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma simulating MFH was made. The patient was treated with chemoradiation without significant effect and died 9 months after initial examination. PMID:21173134

  14. Major complications of radiotherapy in cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. A 10 year retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.L.; Lindberg, R.D.; Lane, E.; Goepfert, H.

    1983-10-01

    In an attempt to determine the late effects and associated morbidity of radiotherapy on normal tissue, patients with squamous carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx were retrospectively reviewed. Between 1964 and 1975, 569 patients with cancer of the floor of the mouth, oral tongue, tonsil, and retromolar trigone region of the anterior faucial pillar had their primary lesions treated by radiotherapy alone for cure. One hundred twenty-eight of the patients were evaluable for this study. Bone and soft tissue morbidity were graded according to the late radiation scoring scheme of the radiation therapy oncology group of the European Organization on Research and Treatment of Cancer, tallying only grade 4 changes. Patients were further classified according to site of tumor, age, sex, tumor stage, histologic grade, and dental status--none of which had a positive correlation with complications. Of 31 evaluable patients with cancer of the floor of the mouth (median follow-up 136 months), 71 percent (22 of 31 patients) had at least one complication involving bone (osteonecrosis, pathologic fracture) or mucus membrane (ulcer). Sixty-one percent (25 of 41 patients) with primary cancer of the oral tongue had grade 4 sequelae (median follow-up 112 months). In 26 patients with cancer of the tonsil, 13 (50 percent) had grade 4 sequelae (median follow-up 113 months). This included 11 patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of osteonecrosis, 6 of whom required mandibulectomy. Patients with cancer of the retromolar trigone region of the anterior faucial pillar fared the best (median follow-up 122 months). Late sequelae were noted in 40 percent (12 of 30 patients). The morbidity attendant to cure by radiotherapy included at least one significant complication of bone or soft tissue in 40 to 70 percent of the patients, depending on the location of the primary tumor. There was also a positive correlation with dose of radiation received.

  15. Detection of hydrogen cyanide from oral anaerobes by cavity ring down spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen; Roslund, Kajsa; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Halonen, Lauri; Groop, Per-Henrik; Metsälä, Markus; Lehto, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been recognized as a potential biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lung. However, the oral cavity is a dominant production site for exhaled HCN and this contribution can mask the HCN generated in the lung. It is thus important to understand the sources of HCN production in the oral cavity. By screening of oral anaerobes for HCN production, we observed that the genus of Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Fusobacterium generated low levels of HCN in vitro. This is the first study to show that oral anaerobes are capable of producing HCN in vitro. Further investigations were conducted on the species of P. gingivalis and we successfully detected HCN production (0.9–10.9 ppb) in the headspace of three P. gingivalis reference strains (ATCC 33277, W50 and OMG 434) and one clinical isolate. From P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and W50, a strong correlation between HCN and CO2 concentrations (rs = 0.89, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that the HCN production of P. gingivalis might be connected with the bacterial metabolic activity. These results indicate that our setup could be widely applied to the screening of in vitro HCN production by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26940198

  16. Detection of hydrogen cyanide from oral anaerobes by cavity ring down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Roslund, Kajsa; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Halonen, Lauri; Groop, Per-Henrik; Metsälä, Markus; Lehto, Markku

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been recognized as a potential biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lung. However, the oral cavity is a dominant production site for exhaled HCN and this contribution can mask the HCN generated in the lung. It is thus important to understand the sources of HCN production in the oral cavity. By screening of oral anaerobes for HCN production, we observed that the genus of Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Fusobacterium generated low levels of HCN in vitro. This is the first study to show that oral anaerobes are capable of producing HCN in vitro. Further investigations were conducted on the species of P. gingivalis and we successfully detected HCN production (0.9–10.9 ppb) in the headspace of three P. gingivalis reference strains (ATCC 33277, W50 and OMG 434) and one clinical isolate. From P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and W50, a strong correlation between HCN and CO2 concentrations (rs = 0.89, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that the HCN production of P. gingivalis might be connected with the bacterial metabolic activity. These results indicate that our setup could be widely applied to the screening of in vitro HCN production by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  17. Primary malignant melanoma of oral cavity: A report of three rare cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hanspal; Kumar, Priya; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B; Gupta, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is a rare tumor of melanocytic origin, accounting for 20-30% of malignant melanomas at the mucosal surface and 16% intra-orally. Hard palate and maxillary gingiva are the most common involved sites. In this case series, we present varying patterns of presentation of three cases of OMM with one case of distant metastasis. All cases in the current series presented at an advanced stage and died within a year of diagnosis. In conclusion, due to the aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis of this deadly lesion, it is of paramount importance to maintain a high index of suspicion for early detection and diagnosis for any pigmented lesion in the oral cavity. PMID:27041909

  18. Histological changes in radial forearm skin flaps in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A; Johnston, E; Badran, D H; Neilson, M; Soutar, D S; Robertson, A G; McDonald, S W

    2004-04-01

    We reported previously that skin flaps transplanted to the oral cavity in reconstructive surgery for oral cancer frequently acquired the gross appearance of buccal mucosa. The changes were shown to be reactive in nature. The "changed" flaps generally had a heavier infiltration of leukocytes in the dermis and appeared to have thicker epithelium. The present study quantifies these parameters, as well as the numbers of intraepithelial leukocytes. The flaps that had acquired the gross appearance of oral mucosa had significantly thicker epithelium, larger numbers of dermal leukocytes, and more intraepidermal inflammatory cells per unit length than flaps that retained the gross appearance of thin skin. No correlation was found between these changes and radiotherapy. PMID:15042571

  19. Verrucous Carcinoma with Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Rare Case with Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Komal, Khot; Deshmukh, Siddharth B; Deshmukh, Anjum

    2015-08-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a variant of well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) characterized by exophytic over growth. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder associated with chronic betel nut chewing habit. The development of OSCC is seen in one-third of the OSMF patients, but the development of VC is rare in such patients. There are very few cases of OSMF with VC reported in literature. Here, present a rare case of an elderly patient with VC in conjunction with OSMF. PMID:26468468

  20. Verrucous Carcinoma with Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Rare Case with Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Komal, Khot; Deshmukh, Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a variant of well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) characterized by exophytic over growth. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder associated with chronic betel nut chewing habit. The development of OSCC is seen in one-third of the OSMF patients, but the development of VC is rare in such patients. There are very few cases of OSMF with VC reported in literature. Here, present a rare case of an elderly patient with VC in conjunction with OSMF. PMID:26468468

  1. Human Papilloma Virus in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - The Enigma Unravelled.

    PubMed

    Khot, Komal P; Deshmane, Swati; Choudhari, Sheetal

    2016-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) has long been regarded as a disease entity having a remarkable incidence worldwide and a fairly onerous prognosis; thus encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Squamous cell carcinomas encompass at least 90% of all oral malignancies. Several factors like tobacco and tobacco-related products, alcohol, genetic predisposition and hormonal factors are suspected as possible causative factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical cancer also appears to be involved in the aetiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. HPVpositive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) seems to differ from HPV-negative SCC. Many questions about the natural history of oral HPV infection remain under investigation. The aim of this review is to highlight the current understanding of HPV-associated oral cancer with an emphasis on its prognosis, detection and management. PMID:26981603

  2. The buccale puzzle: The symbiotic nature of endogenous infections of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, John; Barbeau, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The indigenous, 'normal', microflora causes the majority of localized infectious diseases of the oral cavity (eg, dental caries, alveolar abscesses, periodontal diseases and candidiasis). The same microflora also protects the host from exogenous pathogens by stimulating a vigorous immune response and provides colonization resistance. How can a microflora that supports health also cause endogenous oral disease? This paradoxical host-symbiont relationship will be discussed within the dynamic of symbiosis. Symbiosis means 'life together' - it is capable of continuous change as determined by selective pressures of the oral milieu. Mutualistic symbiosis, where both the host and the indigenous microflora benefit from the association, may shift to a parasitic symbiosis, where the host is damaged and the indigenous microflora benefit. Importantly, these are reversible relationships. This microbial dynamism, called amphibiosis, is the essential adaptive process that determines the causation of endogenous oral disease by a parasitic microflora or the maintenance of oral health by a mutualistic microflora. Complex microbial consortiums, existing as a biofilm, usually provide the interfaces that initiate and perpetuate the infectious assault on host tissue. The ecology of the various oral microhabitats is critical for the development of the appropriate selecting milieux for pathogens. The microbiota associated with dental caries progression is primarily influenced by the prevailing pH, whereas periodontal diseases and pulpal infection appear to be more dependent on redox potential. Candidiasis results from host factors that favour yeast overgrowth or bacterial suppression caused by antibiotics. Oral health or disease is an adventitious event that results from microbial adaptation to prevailing conditions; prevention of endogenous oral disease can occur only when we realize that ecology is the heart of these host-symbiont relationships. PMID:18159372

  3. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  4. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  5. Gene expression profiling signatures for the diagnosis and prevention of oral cavity carcinogenesis-genome-wide analysis using RNA-seq technology

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Zhang, Tuo; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    We compared the changes in global gene expression between an early stage (the termination of the carcinogen treatment and prior to the appearance of frank tumors) and a late stage (frank squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) of tongue carcinogenesis induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in a mouse model of human oral cavity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Gene ontology and pathway analyses show that increases in “cell cycle progression” and “degradation of basement membrane and ECM pathways” are early events during SCC carcinogenesis and that changes in these pathways are even greater in the actual tumors. Myc, NFκB complex (NFKB1/RELA), and FOS transcription networks are the major transcriptional networks induced in early stage tongue carcinogenesis. Decreases in metabolism pathways, such as in “tricarboxylic acid cycle” and “oxidative phosphorylation”, occurred only in the squamous cell carcinomas and not in the early stages of carcinogenesis. We detected increases in ALDH1A3, PTGS2, and KRT1 transcripts in both the early and late stages of carcinogenesis. The identification of the transcripts and pathways that change at an early stage of carcinogenesis provides potentially useful information for early diagnosis and for prevention strategies for human tongue squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26110572

  6. ARNT2 Regulates Tumoral Growth in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yasushi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kazuyuki; Fushimi, Kazuaki; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) 2 is a transcriptional factor related to adaptive responses against cellular stress from a xenobiotic substance. Recent evidence indicates ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, little is known about the relevance of ARNT2 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the current study, we evaluated the ARNT2 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC in vitro and in vivo and the clinical relationship between ARNT2 expression levels in primary OSCCs and their clinicopathologic status by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Using ARNT2 overexpression models, we performed functional analyses to investigate the critical roles of ARNT2 in OSCC. ARNT2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated significantly (P < 0.05 for both comparisons) in nine OSCC-derived cells and primary OSCC (n=100 patients) compared with normal counterparts. In addition to the data from exogenous experiments that ARNT2-overexpressed cells showed decreased cellular proliferation, ARNT2-positive OSCC cases were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Since von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1)-α, is a downstream molecule of ARNT2, we speculated that HIF1-α and its downstream molecules would have key functions in cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, overexpressed ARNT2 cells showed down-regulation of HIF1-α, which causes hypofunctioning of glucose transporter 1, leading to decreased cellular growth. Our results proposed for the first time that the ARNT2 level is an indicator of cellular proliferation in OSCCs. Therefore, ARNT2 may be a potential therapeutic target against progression of OSCCs. PMID:27076852

  7. Osteoactivin Promotes Migration of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Arosarena, Oneida A; Dela Cadena, Raul A; Denny, Michael F; Bryant, Evan; Barr, Eric W; Thorpe, Ryan; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 50% of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) die of metastases or locoregional recurrence. Metastasis is mediated by cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Osteoactivin (OA) overexpression plays a role in metastases in several malignancies. The aims were to determine how integrin interactions modulate OA-induced OSCC cell migration; and to investigate OA effects on cell survival and proliferation. We confirmed OA mRNA and protein overexpression in OSCC cell lines. We assessed OA's interactions with integrins using adhesion inhibition assays, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation. We investigated OA-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cell survival. Integrin inhibition effects on OA-mediated cell migration were determined. We assessed effects of OA knock-down on cell migration and proliferation. OA is overexpressed in OSCC cell lines, and serves as a migration-promoting adhesion molecule. OA co-localized with integrin subunits, and co-immunoprecipitated with the subunits. Integrin blocking antibodies, especially those directed against the β1 subunit, inhibited cell adhesion (P = 0.03 for SCC15 cells). Adhesion to OA activated MAPKs in UMSCC14a cells and OA treatment promoted survival of SCC15 cells. Integrin-neutralizing antibodies enhanced cell migration with OA in the extracellular matrix. OA knock-down resulted in decreased proliferation of SCC15 and SCC25 cells, but did not inhibit cell migration. OA in the extracellular matrix promotes OSCC cell adhesion and migration, and may be a novel target in the prevention of HNSCC spread. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1761-1770, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26636434

  8. ARNT2 Regulates Tumoral Growth in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasushi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kazuyuki; Fushimi, Kazuaki; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) 2 is a transcriptional factor related to adaptive responses against cellular stress from a xenobiotic substance. Recent evidence indicates ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, little is known about the relevance of ARNT2 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the current study, we evaluated the ARNT2 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC in vitro and in vivo and the clinical relationship between ARNT2 expression levels in primary OSCCs and their clinicopathologic status by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Using ARNT2 overexpression models, we performed functional analyses to investigate the critical roles of ARNT2 in OSCC. ARNT2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated significantly (P < 0.05 for both comparisons) in nine OSCC-derived cells and primary OSCC (n=100 patients) compared with normal counterparts. In addition to the data from exogenous experiments that ARNT2-overexpressed cells showed decreased cellular proliferation, ARNT2-positive OSCC cases were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Since von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1)-α, is a downstream molecule of ARNT2, we speculated that HIF1-α and its downstream molecules would have key functions in cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, overexpressed ARNT2 cells showed down-regulation of HIF1-α, which causes hypofunctioning of glucose transporter 1, leading to decreased cellular growth. Our results proposed for the first time that the ARNT2 level is an indicator of cellular proliferation in OSCCs. Therefore, ARNT2 may be a potential therapeutic target against progression of OSCCs. PMID:27076852

  9. MALT1 Inhibition of Oral Carcinoma Cell Invasion and ERK/MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Chiba, T; Soeno, Y; Shirako, Y; Sudo, H; Yagishita, H; Taya, Y; Kawashiri, S; Okada, Y; Imai, K

    2016-04-01

    The expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) that activates nuclear factor (NF)-κB in lymphocyte lineages is rapidly inactivated in oral carcinoma cells at the invasive front and the patients with worst prognosis. However, its mechanism to accelerate carcinoma progression remains unknown, and this study was carried out to examine the role in invasion. HSC2 oral carcinoma cells stably expressing wild-type MALT1 (wtMALT1) reduced the invasion of basement membrane matrices and collagen gels, and the dominant-negative form (∆MALT1)-expressing cells aggressively invaded into collagen gels. MALT1 decelerated proliferation and migration of cells and downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, which were confirmed by short interfering RNA transfections. Reporter assays and immunoblot analysis showed that MALT1 does not affect the NF-κB pathway but inhibits ERK/MAPK activation. This was confirmed by endogenous MALT1 expression in oral carcinoma cell lines. Orthotopic implantation of ∆MALT1-expressing HSC2 cells in mice grew rapid expansive and invasive tongue tumors in contrast to an absence of tumor formation by wtMALT1-expressing cells. These results demonstrate that MALT1 suppresses oral carcinoma invasion by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix degradation and that the ERK/MAPK pathway is a target of MALT1 and further suggests a role as a suppressor of carcinoma progression. PMID:26701346

  10. Reactive lesions of oral cavity: A survey of 100 cases in Eluru, West Godavari district

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Bina; Reddy, P. Sridhar; Nalini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Reactive lesions of the oral cavity are associated with injuries of soft tissue and have high prevalence rates and different involvement patterns in different parts of the world. This study reviews the pathogenesis and analyzes demographic data, histopathological features and compares the clinico-pathologic profiles of the diseases to those previously reported. Materials and Methods: Patient records of the Department of Oral Pathology during one and half year period were reviewed for diagnosis of oral connective tissue reactive hyperplastic lesion. Data including the area involved and the type of lesion were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and ANOVA test. Results: 100 cases (mean age 36 years, male:female ratio 1:2) matched study criterion. The most common affected site was mandibular anterior region and buccal mucosa and the most common lesion was pyogenic granuloma and focal fibrous hyperplasia. All the lesions were more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. PGCG was seen to be equally distributed in males and females. Conclusion: Reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral connective tissue are more common in females and the majority of the lesions occur in gingiva. This study supports previous assertions that PG and FFH may occur on any oral mucosal site with special preference for the mandibular anterior gingiva and buccal mucosa while PGCG and POF occur exclusively on the mandibular gingiva. PMID:23293484

  11. Novel Midkine Inhibitor iMDK Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masui, Masanori; Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Kurio, Naito; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor highly expressed in various human malignant tumors. However, its role in the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effect of a novel midkine inhibitor (iMDK) against oral squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of iMDK induced a robust antitumor response and suppressed cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells and SAS cells xenograft models. iMDK inhibited the proliferation of these cells dose-dependently, as well as the expression of midkine and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase in HSC-2 and SAS cells. Moreover, iMDK significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor and induced tube growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that midkine is critically involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma and iMDK can be effectively used for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27272788

  12. Repeat Brachytherapy for Patients With Residual or Recurrent Tumors of Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji; Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kaida, Atushi; Miura, Masahiko

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze data from patients receiving repeat brachytherapy (re-BT) for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor in the oral cavity. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 62 patients who had undergone definitive BT as an initial treatment of oral cancer subsequently underwent re-BT for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumors at the diagnostic radiology and oncology department (Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital). Re-BT was performed 0.9-73 months (median, 5.7) after the initial BT. Au-198 grains were used as the re-BT source in all 62 patients, and an area of 0.8-6.3 cm{sup 2} (median, 3.1) was permanently irradiated with 60-110 Gy (median, 83) according to the system of Paterson-Parker. Results: The 2-year local control and overall survival rate was 53% and 66%, respectively, and local control significantly affected overall survival. Both local control and overall survival were affected by the initial tumor characteristics and the macroscopic appearance of the residual or recurrent tumor. Grade 3 or 4 complications were seen in 5 patients. The incidence of mandibular and mucosal complications was significantly related to a biologic effective dose of {alpha}/{beta} of 3 Gy to the surface of the gingiva and mucosa, respectively. Conclusion: Re-BT using Au-198 grains for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor after definitive BT in the oral cavity is effective and well tolerated.

  13. Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.

    PubMed

    Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean ± SD, 26.9 ± 12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n = 46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface. PMID:23668608

  14. [Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent].

    PubMed

    Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm. PMID:26561840

  15. Robust species taxonomy assignment algorithm for 16S rRNA NGS reads: application to oral carcinoma samples

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hebshi, Nezar Noor; Nasher, Akram Thabet; Idris, Ali Mohamed; Chen, Tsute

    2015-01-01

    Background Usefulness of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in assessing bacteria associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been undermined by inability to classify reads to the species level. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a robust algorithm for species-level classification of NGS reads from oral samples and to pilot test it for profiling bacteria within OSCC tissues. Methods Bacterial 16S V1-V3 libraries were prepared from three OSCC DNA samples and sequenced using 454's FLX chemistry. High-quality, well-aligned, and non-chimeric reads ≥350 bp were classified using a novel, multi-stage algorithm that involves matching reads to reference sequences in revised versions of the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), HOMD extended (HOMDEXT), and Greengene Gold (GGG) at alignment coverage and percentage identity ≥98%, followed by assignment to species level based on top hit reference sequences. Priority was given to hits in HOMD, then HOMDEXT and finally GGG. Unmatched reads were subject to operational taxonomic unit analysis. Results Nearly, 92.8% of the reads were matched to updated-HOMD 13.2, 1.83% to trusted-HOMDEXT, and 1.36% to modified-GGG. Of all matched reads, 99.6% were classified to species level. A total of 228 species-level taxa were identified, representing 11 phyla; the most abundant were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Thirty-five species-level taxa were detected in all samples. On average, Prevotella oris, Neisseria flava, Neisseria flavescens/subflava, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss polymorphum, Aggregatibacter segnis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium periodontium were the most abundant. Bacteroides fragilis, a species rarely isolated from the oral cavity, was detected in two samples. Conclusion This multi-stage algorithm maximizes the fraction of reads classified to the species level while ensuring reliable classification by giving priority to the human, oral reference

  16. Distinct perturbations of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepti; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Gupta, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Objective Oral cancer constitutes a major health issue in developing countries, representing the leading cause of death. Quantitative assessment by sophisticated diagnostic techniques is becoming increasingly important. Hence, a histochemical staining procedure and morphometric evaluation are used to obtain optimal information on the cellular events. The objective of present study is to assess the variation in cellular area, nuclear area, cellular diameter, nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio respectively in normal subjects, smokeless tobacco users, (smokers, combination and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methods Total 125 number of subjects were divided into five groups, each comprising 25 subjects of more than 40 years of age. These groups were: a. Normal, b. smokeless tobacco users, c. smokers d. combination and e. oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral smears were obtained, stained with Feulgen stain and the cells were measured cytomorphometrically using Nikon imaging software. Results Our study showed a significant reduction in the cellular diameter, cellular area and increase in the nuclear diameter, nuclear area and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients as compared to tobacco users and normal patients. Significant changes were found in group I, II, III and IV when compared with group V but as such no significant intergroup variation was found in cellular and nuclear dimensions in smokers, smokeless tobacco users, combination and control group. Conclusion Quantitative parameters could be assessed by cytomorphometry. Cytomorphological changes in exfoliated squames could serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26609293

  17. Grooming behavior in mice induced by stimuli of corn oil in oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, M; Sawano, S; Takeda, M; Fushiki, T

    Mice show a strong preference for corn oil, which was thought to be elicited by stimulation in the oral cavity. Grooming behavior is known to be induced by dopamine D(1) stimulation in rodents. Therefore, we evaluated stimulation by corn oil in the oral cavity and the contribution of D(1) receptors to corn-oil-induced grooming in mice. Intraoral injection (0.1 ml) of corn oil induced grooming behavior similarly to SKF 38393 (10 mg/kg i.p.), a D(1) agonist, and both were antagonized by pretreatment with SCH 23390, a D(1) antagonist. However, a higher dose was needed for antagonism of the corn-oil-induced grooming compared with that induced by SKF 38393. Long-chain fatty acids, their methyl esters and alcohol, their triglycerides, mineral oil and silicone oil but not glycerin, a short-chain triglyceride, xanthan gum solution, or sucrose solution also induced grooming in mice. Xanthan gum solution, which was suggested to mask oil-like texture, attenuated the silicone-oil- but not corn-oil-induced grooming when injected intraorally as a mixture with an equal volume of the oil (50% suspension). The silicone-oil-induced grooming was reduced by SCH 23390 similarly to that induced by corn oil. These results suggested that stimulation by the oil-like texture in the oral cavity in mice induced grooming behavior and that it might be mediated at least partially via D(1) receptors. Moreover, stimuli other than texture might also contribute to the corn-oil-induced grooming. PMID:11150574

  18. [Development of semisolid dosage form of clonazepam for oral cavity administration].

    PubMed

    Sakata, Osamu; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    A semisolid dosage form of clonazepam (CZP), administered to the oral cavity between the lower gum and bottom lip with small volume of saline, was developed to obtain the stable dosage which can replace the injection dosage form. Semisolid dosage forms were prepared using a mixture of CZP/(polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG))/(oleic acid (OA)) at the ratios of 1/39/0, 1/37/2 and 2/36/2 (w/w), named CZP1-PEG, CZP1-PEG-OA and CZP2-PEG-OA, respectively, and were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. No crystal of CZP was observed in CZP1-PEG-OA for at least 8 days, while CZP crystal appeared before administration for CZP2-PEG-OA. When a small volume of saline was added to CZP1-PEG-OA just before the oral cavity administration, more than 80% (w/w) was found to exist in the soluble form. Each semisolid dosage form (40 mg) was administered to the oral cavity in rats, and CZP 1 mg suspension in 0.5% (w/v) sodium carboxymethylcellulose aqueous solution was administered into rat stomach as a control. CZP1-PEG-OA gave the plasma concentrations of more than 5 ng/ml and 12 ng/ml at 30 min and 1 h after administration, respectively, which might be near the plasma levels effective for the suppression of epileptic seizures in human, while the plasma concentration was less than 5 ng/ml at 30 min or did not reach 10 ng/ml at 1 h for the other formulations. It is proposed that the semisolid dosage form CZP1-PEG-OA should be a possibly useful preparation for the antiepileptic or sedative medication. PMID:20046075

  19. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  20. White lesions in the oral cavity: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kyle Burke; Jordan, Richard

    2015-12-01

    White lesions in the oral cavity are common and have multiple etiologies, some of which are also associated with dermatological disease. While most intraoral white lesions are benign, some are premalignant and/or malignant at the time of clinical presentation, making it extremely important to accurately identify and appropriately manage these lesions. Due to their similar clinical appearances, it may be difficult sometimes to differentiate benign white lesions from their premalignant/malignant counterparts. This review will discuss many of the most common intraoral white lesions including their clinical presentation, how to make an accurate diagnosis, and effective treatment and management strategies. PMID:26650693

  1. Atypical Presentation of Capillary Hemangioma in Oral Cavity- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhan, Chitra Girija; Geetha, Seema; Nair, Manoj S; Jacob, Tharun Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Capillary Haemangioma is a benign vascular tumour characterized by proliferation of blood vessels that are primarily reported to be a developmental hamartomatous lesion of infancy and childhood. Pyogenic granuloma is a non-neoplastic benign lesion found in the oral cavity having a striking predilection for occurrence in the gingiva. The present case report is an atypical presentation of capillary haemangioma on gingiva which is considered to be extremely rare. The lesion in this case was clinically diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma but histopathologically as capillary haemangioma. These lesions present as a diagnostic dilemma to the clinician and can lead to serious complications if not carefully managed. PMID:26557632

  2. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Prabhat, M. P. V.; Raja Lakshmi, Chintamaneni; Sai Madhavi, N.; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sarat, Gummadapu; Ramamohan, Kodali

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18. PMID:24455323

  3. Anatomy and Disorders of the Beak and Oral Cavity of Birds.

    PubMed

    Speer, Brian; Powers, Lauren Virginia

    2016-09-01

    Cranial kinesis of the avian beak is complex; particularly in birds with prokinetic beak movement, such as psittacine birds. A number of diseases can result in damage to the bony and soft tissue structures of the beak and can lead to secondary pathology, such as beak deviation, abnormal rhamphothecal growth and wear, and opportunistic infections. A solid understanding of species-specific anatomic variations is essential before attempting rhamphothecal restoration or surgical repair. Many diseases of the oral cavity can appear similar on initial clinical evaluation and therefore warrant appropriate diagnostic testing. PMID:27497203

  4. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate, by means of internal light delivery, photoacoustic imaging of the deep brain of rats in vivo. With fiber illumination via the oral cavity, we delivered light directly into the bottom of the brain, much more than can be delivered by external illumination. The study was performed using a photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system equipped with a 512-element full-ring transducer array, providing a full two-dimensional view aperture. Using internal illumination, the PACT system provided clear cross sectional photoacoustic images from the palate to the middle brain of live rats, revealing deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  5. Primary extra nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the oral cavity in a young girl

    PubMed Central

    Vinoth, Ponnurangam N.; Selvan, Sathyamoorthi Muthamil; Sahni, Latika; Krishnaratnam, Kannan; Rajendiran, Swaminathan; Anand, Chidambaram Vishwanath; Scott, Julius X.

    2012-01-01

    Primary Non Hodgkin s Lymphoma (NHL) usually arises within the lymphnodes, but 20-30% account for extra nodal sites. Oral cavity, as a primary extra nodal site for NHL, is relatively rare and diverse in presentation, response to therapy and prognosis. We report a 14 year old adolescent girl who presented with multiple gingival swellings, the most prominent one being in the right anterior maxilla. Gingival biopsy showed NHL- diffuse large B cell type. Child was completely cured with chemotherapy and now she is in complete remission and under regular follow up. PMID:23833495

  6. Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, Bill W.; Everett, Mathew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B. Otis, Linda L. Stroeve, Pieter Nathel, Howard

    1998-06-01

    We have developed a prototype optical coherent tomography (OCT) system for the imaging of hard and soft tissue in the oral cavity. High-resolution images of {ital in vitro} porcine periodontal tissues have been obtained with this system. The images clearly show the enamel{endash}cementum and the gingiva{endash}tooth interfaces, indicating OCT is a potentially useful technique for diagnosis of periodontal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first application of OCT for imaging biologic hard tissue. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  7. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Using internal illumination with an optical fiber in the oral cavity, we demonstrate, for the first time, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) of the deep brain of rats in vivo. The experiment was performed on a full-ring-array PACT system, with the capability of providing high-speed cross-sectional imaging of the brain. Compared with external illumination through the cranial skull, internal illumination delivers more light to the base of the brain. Consequently, in vivo photoacoustic images clearly reveal deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  8. [Role of cryotherapy in the treatment of small angiomas of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Ragot, J P; Szpirglas, H; Vaillant, J M

    1984-01-01

    Operative difficulties when attempting to treat oral cavity angiomas suggested the use, of cryotherapy for limited lesions. The technique is simple in use non-aggressive and has few after effects. The principle of cryotherapy has been known for a long time, but it was only in the 60's that it was applied in ophthalmology, neurology, dermatology, gynecology and the treatment of hemorrhoids, as a result of the availability of new products: Freon, liquid nitrogen. Conclusions as to the value of cryotherapy are drawn from results obtained in buccal mucosa affections treated by this method over the last four years. PMID:6534251

  9. Oral verrucous carcinoma: From multifactorial etiology to diverse treatment regimens (Review).

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Wang, Yuehong; Quan, Hongzhi; Li, Yiping; Tang, Zhangui

    2016-07-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a verrucous variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which accounts for 2-12% of all oral carcinomas with a 5-year survival rate of only approximately 50%. Enormous effort has been dedicated to this cancer, and the past decades have witnessed significant advances in relevant diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, there exist three challenges from primary sub-fields of research and clinical practice of the cancer, namely multifactorial etiology, complex molecular mechanism, and deficient treatment. This study reviews the existing literature on the cancer, encompassing its etiology, clinical manifestations and pathology, molecular mechanism, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and treatment. For improved treatment of OVC, multifactorial etiology analysis, incorporation of effective biomarkers for mechanism illustration, and integration of multidisciplinary modalities are expounded, in an attempt to resolve the challenges and to provide a useful guide for future research in the field. PMID:27121637

  10. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: an atypical presentation mimicking temporomandibular joint disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Andrea; Nolet, Paul S; Diwan, Murtaza A

    2004-01-01

    A 50-year-old female presented to a chiropractic clinic with left jaw pain consistent with temporomandibular joint disorder. Examination revealed a large ulcerated mass on the posterolateral margin of the tongue which was later diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common of the oral cancers. These cancers are often detected late making treatment more complicated and reducing the chance of survival. In the early stages squamous cell carcinoma can be asymptomatic. Symptoms can be similar to that of temporomandibular joint disorder making examination of the patient’s mouth important to rule out oral cancers. Oral cancers should be considered when patients present to a chiropractor with pain in the area of the temporomandibular joint. Risk factors such as chronic tobacco and alcohol use should raise concern in these patients. Suspicious lesions should be referred immediately for further investigation. PMID:17549104

  11. Insights on diagnosis of oral cavity pathologies by infrared spectroscopy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Elisabetta; Balercia, Paolo; Conti, Carla; Ferraris, Paolo; Sabbatini, Simona; Rubini, Corrado; Tosi, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Fourier-Transform Infrared microspectroscopy, a largely used spectroscopic technique in basic and industrial researches, offers the possibility to analyze the vibrational features of molecular groups within a variety of environments. In the bioclinical field, and, in particular, in the study of cells, tissues and biofluids, it could be considered a supporting objective technique able to characterize the biochemical processes involved in relevant pathologies, such as tumoral diseases, highlighting specific spectral markers associable with the principal biocomponents (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates). In this article, we review the applications of infrared spectroscopy to the study of tumoral diseases of oral cavity compartments with the aim to improve understanding of biological processes involved during the onset of these lesions and to afford to an early diagnosis. Spectral studies on mouth, salivary glands and oral cystic lesions, objectively discriminate normal from dysplastic and cancer states characterizing also the grading.

  12. High throughput image cytometry for detection of suspicious lesions in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum; Poh, Catherine F.; Guillaud, Martial; Michele Williams, Pamela; Laronde, Denise M.; Zhang, Lewei; Rosin, Miriam P.

    2012-08-01

    The successful management of oral cancer depends upon early detection, which relies heavily on the clinician's ability to discriminate sometimes subtle alterations of the infrequent premalignant lesions from the more common reactive and inflammatory conditions in the oral mucosa. Even among experienced oral specialists this can be challenging, particularly when using new wide field-of-view direct fluorescence visualization devices clinically introduced for the recognition of at-risk tissue. The objective of this study is to examine if quantitative cytometric analysis of oral brushing samples could facilitate the assessment of the risk of visually ambiguous lesions. About 369 cytological samples were collected and analyzed: (1) 148 samples from pathology-proven sites of SCC, carcinoma in situ or severe dysplasia; (2) 77 samples from sites with inflammation, infection, or trauma, and (3) 144 samples from normal sites. These were randomly separated into training and test sets. The best algorithm correctly recognized 92.5% of the normal samples, 89.4% of the abnormal samples, 86.2% of the confounders in the training set as well as 100% of the normal samples, and 94.4% of the abnormal samples in the test set. These data suggest that quantitative cytology could reduce by more than 85% the number of visually suspect lesions requiring further assessment by biopsy.

  13. The Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1 genome sequence reflects its genetic adaptation to the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca; Zomer, Aldert; Foroni, Elena; Giubellini, Vanessa; Bottacini, Francesca; Canchaya, Carlos; Claesson, Marcus J; He, Fei; Mantzourani, Maria; Mulas, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Gao, Beile; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Oggioni, Marco; Gupta, Radhey S; Zhang, Ziding; Beighton, David; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2009-12-01

    Bifidobacteria, one of the relatively dominant components of the human intestinal microbiota, are considered one of the key groups of beneficial intestinal bacteria (probiotic bacteria). However, in addition to health-promoting taxa, the genus Bifidobacterium also includes Bifidobacterium dentium, an opportunistic cariogenic pathogen. The genetic basis for the ability of B. dentium to survive in the oral cavity and contribute to caries development is not understood. The genome of B. dentium Bd1, a strain isolated from dental caries, was sequenced to completion to uncover a single circular 2,636,368 base pair chromosome with 2,143 predicted open reading frames. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed multiple ways in which B. dentium has adapted to the oral environment through specialized nutrient acquisition, defences against antimicrobials, and gene products that increase fitness and competitiveness within the oral niche. B. dentium Bd1 was shown to metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates, consistent with genome-based predictions, while colonization and persistence factors implicated in tissue adhesion, acid tolerance, and the metabolism of human saliva-derived compounds were also identified. Global transcriptome analysis demonstrated that many of the genes encoding these predicted traits are highly expressed under relevant physiological conditions. This is the first report to identify, through various genomic approaches, specific genetic adaptations of a Bifidobacterium taxon, Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1, to a lifestyle as a cariogenic microorganism in the oral cavity. In silico analysis and comparative genomic hybridization experiments clearly reveal a high level of genome conservation among various B. dentium strains. The data indicate that the genome of this opportunistic cariogen has evolved through a very limited number of horizontal gene acquisition events, highlighting the narrow boundaries that separate commensals from opportunistic pathogens. PMID

  14. The Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1 Genome Sequence Reflects Its Genetic Adaptation to the Human Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca; Zomer, Aldert; Foroni, Elena; Giubellini, Vanessa; Bottacini, Francesca; Canchaya, Carlos; Claesson, Marcus J.; He, Fei; Mantzourani, Maria; Mulas, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Gao, Beile; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Oggioni, Marco; Gupta, Radhey S.; Zhang, Ziding; Beighton, David; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2009-01-01

    Bifidobacteria, one of the relatively dominant components of the human intestinal microbiota, are considered one of the key groups of beneficial intestinal bacteria (probiotic bacteria). However, in addition to health-promoting taxa, the genus Bifidobacterium also includes Bifidobacterium dentium, an opportunistic cariogenic pathogen. The genetic basis for the ability of B. dentium to survive in the oral cavity and contribute to caries development is not understood. The genome of B. dentium Bd1, a strain isolated from dental caries, was sequenced to completion to uncover a single circular 2,636,368 base pair chromosome with 2,143 predicted open reading frames. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed multiple ways in which B. dentium has adapted to the oral environment through specialized nutrient acquisition, defences against antimicrobials, and gene products that increase fitness and competitiveness within the oral niche. B. dentium Bd1 was shown to metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates, consistent with genome-based predictions, while colonization and persistence factors implicated in tissue adhesion, acid tolerance, and the metabolism of human saliva-derived compounds were also identified. Global transcriptome analysis demonstrated that many of the genes encoding these predicted traits are highly expressed under relevant physiological conditions. This is the first report to identify, through various genomic approaches, specific genetic adaptations of a Bifidobacterium taxon, Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1, to a lifestyle as a cariogenic microorganism in the oral cavity. In silico analysis and comparative genomic hybridization experiments clearly reveal a high level of genome conservation among various B. dentium strains. The data indicate that the genome of this opportunistic cariogen has evolved through a very limited number of horizontal gene acquisition events, highlighting the narrow boundaries that separate commensals from opportunistic pathogens. PMID

  15. Extended Safety Data for the Oral Cavity Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    PubMed

    Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Wescombe, P A; Tagg, J R

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies of the bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius K12 monitored a variety of intrinsic strain characteristics of potential relevance to its application as an oral probiotic in humans. These included the content of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants, the production of deleterious metabolic by-products and its genetic stability. In the present study, we examined additional safety factors including the responses of rats to either short- or long-term oral dosing with strain K12 preparations. In addition, the potential genotoxicity of strain K12 was tested using a bacterial reverse mutation assay. To determine the occurrence and concentrations in human saliva of S. salivarius having the same bacteriocin phenotype as strain K12, saliva samples from 780 children were evaluated. The level of dosing with strain K12 required to achieve oral cavity colonization levels similar to those occurring naturally for this type of bacteriocin-producing S. salivarius was established using 100 human subjects. Following the oral instillation of lyophilized S. salivarius K12 cells in these subjects, its persistence was not at levels higher than those found naturally for this type of bacterium. The various sets of data obtained in this study showed no evidence of genotoxicity and no acute or subacute toxicity effects associated with strain K12. Based on the previously published data, the long history of use by humans and the information presented here, it is concluded that S. salivarius K12 is safe for human consumption. PMID:26781236

  16. [The influence of barometric pressure changes in the oral cavity: dental barotrauma and barodontalgia].

    PubMed

    Nakdimon, I; Zehavi, E; Chapnik, L; Zadik, Y

    2014-07-01

    Several oro-facial physiologic and pathologic phenomena affect individuals during flight or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving. Physicians and dentists who treat aircrews and divers are occasionally challenged by those manifestations, though their uncommon appearance. This article reviews the two main barometric-related phenomena in the oral cavity: dental barotrauma and barodontalgia. Dental barotrauma includes all barometric-related dental mechanical phenomena. Tooth fracture or failure of dental restoration usually appears in a tooth with a leaking restoration or secondary caries lesion. In addition, changes in barometric pressure can cause a reduction in the retention of dental restoration and appliance. Barodontalgia is the oral pain which evoked during changes of the atmospheric pressure. This manifestation can be classified as a direct or non-direct pain. In most cases, the direct pain is caused by deterioration of pre-existed oral disease, whereas the source of the nondirect pain is an extra-oral facial barotrauma. These two barometric-related manifestations can cause a decrease in life quality and jeopardize the safety of flight or diving. PMID:25219097

  17. Prognostic Significance of Invasive Tumor Front in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Augustine, Dominic; Rao, Roopa S

    2016-01-01

    Tumor, Node, and Metastasis (TNM) classification dictates treatment planning for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This system stages tumor on the principle that smaller size tumors have a better prognosis than larger tumors with local or distant spread. It has been brought to light that many tumors with similar clinical staging show different clinical behavior and growth patterns. This results in difficulty in predicting the prognosis for patients with OSCC on the basis of clinical staging alone.(1) How to cite this article: Patil S, Augustine D, Rao RS. Prognostic Significance of Invasive Tumor Front in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(1):1-2. PMID:27084854

  18. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity. PMID:26568990

  19. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Oral Cavity: Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study of 21 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Vanguri, Vijay; Allen, Carl M.; Eversole, Lewis Roy; Wright, John M.; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2009-01-01

    We describe clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of 21 cases of solitary fibrous tumor presenting in the oral cavity. There were 9 male and 12 female patients with a median age of 51 years (range 37–83). The most common locations included the buccal mucosa (the most common site), lip, maxillary or mandibular vestibule and tongue. Histopathologic examination showed well-circumscribed tumors with two well-defined patterns: the classic pattern with densely cellular areas alternating with hypocellular areas in a variably collagenous, vascular stroma and a more uniformly sclerotic pattern with only subtle classic areas. The spindle-shaped neoplastic cells consistently showed immunoreactivity for antibodies directed against CD34. Five of nineteen cases (26%) were reactive for CD99 and 19 of 19 for Bcl-2. Follow-up information was available in 17 cases and averaged 54 months, with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis in any of these patients. Awareness that solitary fibrous tumor may present in the oral cavity is important so that confusion with other spindle cell neoplasms can be avoided. We also briefly describe the differential diagnosis and compare this series, the largest single series of intraoral SFT, to cases previously reported in the literature. PMID:19644541

  20. Enterobacteriaceae ISOLATES FROM THE ORAL CAVITY OF WORKERS IN A BRAZILIAN ONCOLOGY HOSPITAL

    PubMed Central

    LEÃO-VASCONCELOS, Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira; LIMA, Ana Beatriz Mori; COSTA, Dayane de Melo; ROCHA-VILEFORT, Larissa Oliveira; de OLIVEIRA, Ana Claúdia Alves; GONÇALVES, Nádia Ferreira; VIEIRA, José Daniel Gonçalves; PRADO-PALOS, Marinésia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of workers as potential reservoirs and disseminators of pathogenic bacteria has been described as a strategy for the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of workers at an oncology hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil, as well as to characterize the phenotypic profile of the isolates. Saliva samples of 294 workers from the hospital’s healthcare and support teams were collected. Microbiological procedures were performed according to standard techniques. Among the participants, 55 (18.7%) were colonized by Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity. A total of 64 bacteria were isolated, including potentially pathogenic species. The most prevalent species was Enterobacter gergoviae (17.2%). The highest rates of resistance were observed for β-lactams, and 48.4% of the isolates were considered multiresistant. Regarding the enterobacteria isolated, the production of ESBL and KPC was negative. Nevertheless, among the 43 isolates of the CESP group, 51.2% were considered AmpC β-lactamase producers by induction, and 48.8% were hyper-producing mutants. The significant prevalence of carriers of Enterobacteriaceae and the phenotypic profile of the isolates represents a concern, especially due to the multiresistance and production of AmpC β-lactamases. PMID:25923890

  1. Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity and the maxillofacial region: Overall survival prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Vadillo, Rafael; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia J.; Barrionuevo-Cornejo, Carlos; Montes-Gil, Jaime; Cava-Vergiú, Carlos E.; Soares, Fernando A.; Chaves-Netto, Henrique D M.; Chaves, Maria G A M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the overall survival and prognostic factors of malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity and the maxillofacial region. Study Design: Clinical records data were obtained in order to determine overall survival at 2 and 5 years, the individual survival percentage of each possible prognostic factor with the actuarial technique, and the survival regarding the possible prognostic factors with the actuarial technique and the Log-rank and Cox’s regression tests. Results: Of 151 subjects, an overall survival was 60% at 2 years, and 45% at 5 years. The multivariate analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences for clinical stage (p=0.002), extranodal involvement (p=0.030), presence of human immunodeficiency virus (p=0.032), and presence of Epstein-Barr virus (p=0.010). Conclusion: The advanced clinical stage and the larger number of involved extranodular sites are related to a lower overall survival, as well as, the presence of previous infections such as the human immunodeficiency and the Epstein-Barr virus. Key words:Lymphoma, oral cavity, survival. PMID:23722134

  2. Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Fournier, Florian; Foster, Thomas H.; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2010-08-01

    We present three designs for delivery of light in the oral cavity for photodynamic therapy (PDT) under the requirements of average irradiance of 50 mW/cm2 and spatial non-uniformities well under 10% over a square area of 25 mm2. The main goal is to design a device that avoids having to shield the oral cavity prior to irradiation for PDT. Illumination theory is instrumental in identifying an effective geometry for the device. The designs proposed build upon the technology that is already available for PDT and use illumination theory concepts to maximize the efficiency of the light delivery. One design combines a cylindrical diffusing fiber with a reflector derived from the edge-ray theorem while a second consists of a fiber illuminator coupled to a lightpipe device. Both designs are successful in delivering the light reducing the need of shielding and in providing the desired irradiance and uniformity. The two approaches performed comparably and provided a higher irradiance than needed, thus inspiring the design of a third, simpler design based on an off-axis cylinder reflector.

  3. The prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in oral squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis of 88 patients and literature overview.

    PubMed

    Krüger, M; Pabst, A M; Walter, C; Sagheb, K; Günther, C; Blatt, S; Weise, K; Al-Nawas, B; Ziebart, T

    2014-10-01

    In addition to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the two main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), recent studies have revealed infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) as an additional risk factor for OSCC development. In the field of head and neck malignancies, the prevalence of HPV infections in oropharyngeal cancer (OC) ranges in different studies up to 84%. While HPV infection is discussed as an independent risk factor in this region, its distinguished role in carcinogenesis of tumours localized to the oral cavity remains still uncertain. In this study, we analysed the HPV status in 88 consecutive patients with OSCCs localized anterior of the palatoglossal arch who were treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University Medical Center Mainz. The HPV status analysis was performed using DNA-PCR and immunostaining of p16 protein. The prevalence of HPV-positive OSCCs was about 6% (5 patients). In 3 patients the HPV subtypes 16/18 were found. No significant differences between the HPV positive and negative patients regarding age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, localization and TNM level could be detected. Contrary to other studies focussing on cancers of the lingual and palatine tonsil, the prevalence of HPV infections was much lower in the oral cavity. Therefore HPV infection might play a less important role in oral carcinogenesis. PMID:24947612

  4. Pigmented oral carcinoma in situ: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Kitano, Taiichi; Oki, Hidero; Omagari, Daisuke; Matsue, Yasuyoshi; Okudera, Michisato; Yamamura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Yohichi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Asano, Masatake; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    Oral melanotic lesions, including melanin pigmentation, melanocytic nevus, and malignant melanoma, are well-recognized pathologic entities. However, melanocytic proliferation within malignant oral mucosal lesions is not well documented. We report the unusual case of a 53-year-old Japanese man who developed oral carcinoma in situ (CIS) with melanocytic proliferation and melanin pigmentation in the epithelial layer. The patient, a nonsmoker and an opportunistic drinker, presented with a brown tongue lesion. Initial examination found a large brown pigmented area and multiple small white patchy areas on the right tongue border. The pigmentation had an ill-defined border with uneven color distribution. Physical examination found no abnormalities. Ultrasonography did not find a deeply infiltrating lesion. Oral mucosal malignant melanoma in situ was diagnosed, and partial tongue resection was performed. Histopathologic examination found oral pigmented CIS. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third reported case of oral pigmented CIS. PMID:24746807

  5. Oral reconstruction with submental flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473

  6. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 protein is overexpressed in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koole, Koos; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Swartz, Justin E; Peeters, Ton; van Diest, Paul J; Koole, Ron; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase family. It has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in multiple types of cancer. We have investigated FGFR3 protein expression and FGFR3 gene copy-numbers in a single well-documented cohort of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Tissue microarray sets containing 452 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-FGFR3 antibody and hybridized with a FGFR3 fluorescence in situ hybridization probe. FGFR3 protein expression was correlated with clinicopathological and survival data, which were retrieved from electronic medical records. FGFR3 mRNA data of 522 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) protein was overexpressed in 48% (89/185) of oral and 59% (124/211) of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Overexpression of FGFR3 protein was not related to overall survival or disease-free survival in oral (HR[hazard ratio]: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.64-1.39; P = 0.77, HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.65-1.36; P = 0.75) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.81-1.80; P = 0.36, HR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.79-1.77; P = 0.42). FGFR3 mRNA was upregulated in 3% (18/522) of HNSCC from the TCGA. The FGFR3 gene was gained in 0.6% (1/179) of oral squamous cell carcinoma but no amplification was found in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, FGFR3 protein is frequently overexpressed in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, it may serve as a potential therapeutic target for FGFR3-directed therapies in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26711175

  7. Expression of SRSF3 is Correlated with Carcinogenesis and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Peiqi, Liu; Zhaozhong, Guo; Yaotian, Yin; Jun, Jia; Jihua, Guo; Rong, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck with high mortality rates. The mechanisms of initiation and development of OSCC remain largely unknown. Dysregulated alternative splicing of pre-mRNA has been associated with OSCC. Splicing factor SRSF3 is a proto-oncogene and overexpressed in multiple cancers. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between SRSF3 and carcinogenesis and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Design and Methods: The expression of SRSF3 in oral normal, dysplasia, or carcinoma tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of EMT-related genes were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of SRSF3 in DMBA treated primary cultured oral epithelial cells were analyzed by western blot. Result: SRSF3 is overexpressed in oral cancer and moderate or severe dysplasia tissues. Patients with high grade cancer or lymphatic metastasis showed up-regulated expression of SRSF3. Knockdown of SRSF3 repressed the expression of Snail and N-cadherin in vitro. Carcinogen DMBA treated primary cultured oral epithelial cells showed significantly increased SRSF3 level than in control cells. Conclusion: Our results suggested that SRSF3 is associated with the initiation and development of OSCC and may be a biomarker and therapeutic target of OSCC. PMID:27429590

  8. Influence of sport mouthguards on the ecological factors of the children oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of fixed and/or removable dental devices is an attributable factor that may affect the oral cavity homeostasis. The aim of this study was to monitor the oral environmental changes caused by dental devices, as sports mouthguards with the aid of a chair-side test. Methods Sixty children with sports-mouthguards were analyzed at baseline (T0), after 6 months of dental devices use (T1), after a year (T2) and after almost 6 months without using it (T3). At T0, a clinical monitoring was performed and the DMFT index was recorded. At each time of observation, the following parameters were recorded: FMPS, FMBS, unstimulated-flow rate, saliva consistency, resting pH, stimulated saliva, buffer capacity, the CFU/ml of Streptococcus mutans. Results In 60 subjects, mean age 9.9 ± 1.2, mean value of DMFT 1.55 ± 1.29,dmf-t 3.43 ± 1.21, FMPS and FMBS values increased significantly at T2. The values of unstimulated flow rate vary significantly within the observation times. The pH value and the buffering capacity reduced significantly at T2. The tests for the detection of S. mutans were negative in all the subjects in several observation times. All patients regularly used fluoridated toothpaste and comply with normal standards of oral hygiene; but over time the patients lost their initial motivation. Conclusions Sport treatment with dental devices dues to changes in oral ecological factors: increases FMPS, FMBS and reduces the buffering capacity and the salivary pH. The use of removable devices increases the retentive plaque surfaces and inhibits the protective effect of saliva. The so-called “chair-side” tests were able to easily monitor patients and to determine the risk of oral disease during sport treatment. PMID:25091394

  9. Influence of plasma GSH level on acute radiation mucositis of the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattathiri, V.N.; Nair, M.K.; Sreelekha, T.T.; Sebastian, P.; Remani, P.; Chandini, R.; Vijayakumar, T. )

    1994-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to see how pretreatment plasma GSH level influences the severity of acute radiation mucositis of the oral cavity during therapeutic irradiation in patients with oral cancer. Thirteen patients with squamous cell circinoma of the oral cavity form the subject material. Radical radiotherapy (60 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks) was given using telecobalt. Pretreatment plasma GSH level was measured by Beutler's method. The normal tissue reaction during radiotherapy was monitored and graded. The GSH levels ranged from 10.6-90.5 [mu]M/L (mean 30.6 [mu]M/L). Those who had higher GSH levels developed less severe mucositis. The mean GSH levels in the groups with different severity of reactions were: Grade 2 (four patients) = 50.7 [mu]M/L; Grade 3 (five patients) = 26.1 [mu]M/L; Grade 4 (two patients) = 20.4 [mu]M/L and Grade 5 (two patients) = 26.1 [mu]M/L; Grade 4 (two patients) = 20.4 [mu]M/L and Grade 5 (two patients) = 13.6 [mu]M/L. Plasma GSH estimation has the potential to predict individual sensitivity to acute radiation mucositis and may particularly be useful in hyperfractionated regimes. The study also affirms the radioprotective role of GSH and suggests that this effect is either due to protection against membrane lipid perodixation (since GSH does not enter the cell freely) or DNA damage (fractionated radiotherapy may permit freer entry of GSH into cell). 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products). Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations). Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants) relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of

  11. Influence of the Toothpaste with Brazilian Ethanol Extract Propolis on the Oral Cavity Health

    PubMed Central

    Skaba, Dariusz; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Bobela, Elżbieta; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Dawiec, Monika; Yamamoto, Rindai; Makita, Yuki; Redzynia, Małgorzata; Janoszka, Beata; Niedzielska, Iwona; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50 mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium. PMID:23861699

  12. Iron supplement tablet embedded in the oral cavity mimicking neoplasm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The detection of foreign bodies in the upper-aerodigestive tract is a fairly frequent event and can occur in various areas and for various reasons. In rare cases, foreign bodies can simulate a neoplasia. We evaluated similar cases during emergency regimen with an oral cavity mucosal lesion, causing lockjaw, sore throat, dysphagia, and swelling of the submandibular and laterocervical region. Physical examination revealed an extensive mucosal ulceration in the floor of the mouth and the lateral surface of the tongue, comparable to oral cancer. During a second, more accurate assessment, a partially deteriorated iron supplement tablet was found embedded in a mucosal pocket. After removing the tablet, gradual normalization of the tissue was observed without any sequelae. This is one of the many reasons why it is advisable and useful in cases of oral lesions to collect a detailed medical history and to perform an accurate clinical evaluation, including inspection and palpation of the lesion, before proceeding to further diagnostic assessments, especially in elderly patients taking many medications. However unlikely, it is possible that difficulty in swallowing pills or tablets could generate tumorlike lesions. PMID:27162752

  13. Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mao-Jung; Lambert, Joshua D; Prabhu, Saileta; Meng, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Maliakal, Pius; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yang, Chung S

    2004-01-01

    Catechins and theaflavins, polyphenolic compounds derived from tea (Camellia sinensis, fam. Theaceae), have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities including prevention of tooth decay and oral cancer. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness of green tea leaves and black tea extract for the delivery of catechins and theaflavins to the oral cavity. After holding either green tea leaves (2 g) or brewed black tea (2 g of black tea leaves in 100 ml) in the mouth for 2-5 min and thoroughly rinsing the mouth, high concentrations of catechins (C(max) = 131.0-2.2 micro M) and theaflavins (C(max) = 1.8-0.6 micro M) were observed in saliva in the 1st hour. Whereas there was significant interindividual variation in the peak levels of catechins and theaflavins, the overall kinetic profile was similar, with t(1/2) = 25-44 min and 49-76 min for catechins and theaflavins, respectively (average coefficient of variation in t(1/2) was 23.4%). In addition to the parent catechin and theaflavin peaks, five unidentified peaks were also observed in saliva after black tea treatment. Hydrolysis of theaflavin gallates, apparently by salivary esterases, was observed in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that tea leaves can be used as a convenient, slow-release source of catechins and theaflavins and provide information for the possible use of tea in the prevention of oral cancer and dental caries. PMID:14744744

  14. A novel gammaherpesvirus found in oral squamous cell carcinomas in sun bears (Helarctos malayanus).

    PubMed

    Lam, Lydia; Garner, Michael M; Miller, Christine L; Milne, Victoria E; Cook, Kimberly A; Riggs, Gary; Grillo, James F; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2013-01-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Five captive sun bears from 4 institutions in the United States presented with oral lesions ranging from erythema and mild erosions to nodular, ulcerated masses. All 5 were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated with surgical resection but recurrence, local extension, or appearance of new lesions was noted in all cases. Intralesional chemotherapy was administered in 2 cases, and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam was administered in 3 cases. Virus was detected in 4 of the 5 bears' tissue samples using a consensus herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that this herpesvirus is in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae and distinct from other known herpesviruses. The association between the herpesvirus and squamous cell carcinoma is unknown. The current study presents a novel gammaherpesvirus within the order Ursidae, with the name Ursid herpesvirus 1 proposed. PMID:23345273

  15. Practical Application of Anatomy of the Oral Cavity in Forensic Facial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dias, Paulo Eduardo Miamoto; Miranda, Geraldo Elias; Beaini, Thiago Leite; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-01-01

    The oral cavity's importance in defining the facial region makes it a primary feature for forensic facial reconstruction (FFR). The aim of this study is to construct a pattern of reference for dimensions and proportions of the lips and establish parameters that may help estimate the vermilion borders' height dimensions and the mouth's width. By means of cone beam computed tomography, divided into two samples: sample 1 (n = 322; 137 male, 185 female) verified the linear distances delimited by anatomical landmarks in soft tissue. The sample 2 (n = 108; 40 male, 68 female), verified the proportions among the height of the vermilion borders, width of the mouth, and linear distances between craniometric landmarks in hard tissues, both from a Brazilian database. The measurements were completed using OsiriX, and the results were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics at a level of significance of 5%. The height of the vermilion borders corresponded to approximately 26% of the width of the mouth. The width of the mouth increased over the course of time in men and remained stable in women. In men, a mean intercanine distance of 75% of the total mouth's width was found; for women, it was 80%. The parameters of the relations between soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity region presented that the distance between landmarks ID-SM (Infradentale-Supramentale) corresponded to 55% of the height of the vermilion borders of the mouth for both sexes, while the distance between landmarks PM-SD (Philtrum medium-Supradentale) corresponded to 85% in men and 88% in women. Mean values of 97% of the width of the mouth in women and 93% in men were attributed to the distance between the mentonian foramina. It was not possible to estimate the height of the labial vermilion borders by the bone measurements, FIs-Fli (Foramen incisivus superius-inferius) and NS-GN (Nasospinale-Gnathion). Profound knowledge of the anatomy and morphology of the oral cavity may contribute to increasing the

  16. Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Met in oral squamous cell carcinoma and in an organotypic oral cancer model.

    PubMed

    Brusevold, Ingvild J; Søland, Tine M; Khuu, Cuong; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Bryne, Magne

    2010-08-01

    Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, is important in transducing signals for tumour growth and metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of Met expression and its value as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The material consisted of 53 OSCCs and five healthy controls from normal oral mucosa supplied with cell lines, 10 organotypic models supplied with oral cancer cells, and three organotypic models supplied with normal keratinocytes. Met protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Met expression was scarce and limited to the basal layer in normal oral mucosa, but was more extensive in the tumours. Cytoplasmic expression of Met was found in the majority of the tumours, and nuclear expression was found in 72%, including a high fraction of the cells located at the invasive front. Organotypic models with normal or malignant oral cells yielded principally similar results as in the mucosa and the cancers, respectively. A smaller amount of Met immunoreactivity was detected, by western blotting, in the nuclear fraction of cultured oral cancer cells. In conclusion, Met was upregulated in OSCCs and was also found in the nucleus. However, Met was not a marker for prognosis in this study. PMID:20662906

  17. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  18. Fabricated or induced illness in the oral cavity in children. A systematic review and personal experience

    PubMed Central

    Wolska-Kusnierz, Beata; Bernatowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Münchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) describes a pattern in which a caregiver induces a disease in a child. The symptoms may manifest in the oral cavity. Material and methods PubMed was researched for articles between 1990-2014, presenting manifestations of MSPB, following PRISMA 2009 guidelines, and an in-house case of MSBP with oral manifestations was presented. Review Among 66 articles presenting MSBP symptoms, four included descriptions of oral lesions in five children. They included: tooth loss, ulcerations and ulcers on oral mucosa, scars due to old, healed lesions, bleeding, black tongue, polysialia, and discolouration and swelling in the lips. Münchausen syndrome by proxy with participation of the mother was diagnosed in four cases. Case A 13-year-old girl was hospitalised because of a non-healing ulcer of the septum, loose and lost mandibular teeth, skin lesions, and suspected immunodeficiency. She had been hospitalised numerous times at other facilities. Consultations and diagnostic tests did not confirm an organic disease. The patient and her mother agreed to undergo all examinations, and some symptoms ‘went away’ during the examinations. The behaviour of the patient and her mother during hospital stays, ambulatory care, and the psychiatric observations all pointed towards MPSB. They refused further treatment at the present facility. Conclusions A dentist should take into account the potential ‘fabrication’ of symptoms in a child by the latter or by a caregiver. Consultations with a paediatrician or psychiatrist enable a diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26155192

  19. Expression of Endoglin (CD-105) and Microvessel Density in Oral Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SR, Shashikanth; BNVS, Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the expression of Endoglin (CD-105) and Microvessel Density in clinically normal oral mucosa of non-tobacco and tobacco habituated patients & also histopathologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of clinically normal oral mucosa with tobacco habituation in the form of chewing or smoking, 20 histopathologically confirmed cases of OSCC and twelve normal healthy oral mucosal cases without tobacco habituation in any form, served as control group, were immunohistochemically analysed for expression of Endoglin (CD-105). Chi-square test is used to determine statistical analysis and significance. Result & Conclusion: The finding of 65% of Endoglin CD - 105 positivity and microvessel density (MVD) in the mucosal specimens of tobacco users may be attributed as neoangiogenesis or angiogenic squamous dysplasia like phenomenon occurring as important pathological biomarker preceding oral cancer development, and may therefore be useful as a predictive marker of malignancy. PMID:25386532

  20. Oral squamous cell carcinoma misdiagnosed as a denture-related traumatic ulcer: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Valente, Vitor Bonetti; Takamiya, Aline Satie; Ferreira, Lígia Lavezo; Felipini, Renata Callestini; Biasoli, Éder Ricardo; Miyahara, Glauco Issamu; Bernabé, Daniel Galera

    2016-03-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with an ulcerated lesion in the alveolar ridge mucosa, which appeared after new dentures had been inserted. Despite many treatment attempts, the lesion did not recede, even with the interruption of denture wearing. A biopsy was performed, and histopathologic examination revealed an ulcerated, invasive, poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. The time from the patient's first contact with the prosthodontist because of the lesion until the appropriate diagnosis was established was approximately 6 months. This clinical report documents a significant delay in the oral squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis and treatment because of a clinical misdiagnosis of a traumatic ulcer resulting from complete dentures. Prosthodontists should be aware of the importance of early diagnosis of oral cancer among elderly prosthesis wearers. PMID:26581660

  1. Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma arising around dental osseointegrated implants mimicking peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Eguia del Valle, Asier; Martínez-Conde Llamosas, Rafael; López Vicente, José; Uribarri Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre Urizar, José Manuel

    2008-08-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation using dental implants has become a common practice in dentistry at the present time. The number of complications related to dental osseointegrated implants has increased according to the generalization of its use along the last decade. Among the most common of these complications are chronic inflammatory conditions affecting both hard and soft tissues around dental implants. Although severe complications are uncommon, in recent years several cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma adjacent to dental implants have been published. In this paper we present a new unusual case of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma arising around a dental fixed prosthesis over osseointegrated implants in a 76 male patient with no previous history of malignance and no risk factors related to oral cancer. PMID:18667981

  2. Langerhans cells and T cells sense cell dysplasia in oral leukoplakias and oral squamous cell carcinomas--evidence for immunosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Öhman, J; Magnusson, B; Telemo, E; Jontell, M; Hasséus, B

    2012-07-01

    Leukoplakias (LPLs) are lesions in the oral mucosa that may develop into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study was to assess presence and distribution of dendritic Langerhans cells (LCs) and T cells in patients with LPLs with or without cell dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Biopsy specimens from patients with leukoplakias (LPLs) with or without dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were immunostained with antibodies against CD1a, Langerin, CD3, CD4, CD8 and Ki67, followed by quantitative analysis. Analyses of epithelium and connective tissue revealed a significantly higher number of CD1a + LCs in LPLs with dysplasia compared with LPLs without dysplasia. Presence of Langerin + LCs in epithelium did not differ significantly between LPLs either with or without dysplasia and OSCC. T cells were found in significantly increased numbers in LPLs with dysplasia and OSCC. The number of CD4+ cells did not differ significantly between LPLs with and without dysplasia, but a significant increase was detected when comparing LPLs with dysplasia with OSCC. CD8+ cells were significantly more abundant in OSCC and LPLs with dysplasia compared with LPLs without dysplasia. Proliferating cells (Ki67+) were significantly more abundant in OSCC compared to LPLs with dysplasia. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed colocalization of LCs and T cells in LPLs with dysplasia and in OSCC. LCs and T cells are more numerous in tissue compartments with dysplastic epithelial cells and dramatically increase in OSCC. This indicates an ongoing immune response against cells with dysplasia. PMID:22469080

  3. Degradation and fracture of Ni-Ti superelastic wire in an oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, K; Hamada, K; Moriyama, K; Asaoka, K

    2001-08-01

    Superelastic Ni-Ti wire is widely used in orthodontic clinics, but delayed fracture in the oral cavity has been observed. Because hydrogen embrittlement is known to cause damage to Ti alloy systems, orthodontic wires were charged with hydrogen using an electro-chemical system in saline. Tensile tests were carried out, and fracture surfaces were observed after hydrogen charging. The strength of the Co-Cr alloy and stainless steel used in orthodontic treatment, was not affected by the hydrogen charging. However, Ni-Ti wire showed significant decreases in strength. The critical stress of martensite transformation was increased with increasing hydrogen charging, and the alloy was embrittled. The fractured surface of the alloys with severe hydrogen charging exhibited dimple patterns similar to those in the alloys from patients. In view of the galvanic current in the mouth, the fracture of the Ni-Ti alloys might be attributed to the degradation of the mechanical properties due to hydrogen absorption. PMID:11456065

  4. Microimaging FT-IR of oral cavity tumours. Part III: Cells, inoculated tissues and human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Ferraris, P.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Possati, L.; Rocchetti, R.; Rubini, C.; Sabbatini, S.; Tosi, G.; Mariggiò, M. A.; Lo Muzio, L.

    2007-05-01

    The biochemistry of healthy and tumour cell cultures, inoculated tissues and oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR Microscopy with the aim to relate spectral patterns with microbiological and histopathological findings. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and the other two techniques. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wave number or band ratio images, allowed an evaluation of the pathological changes. The spectroscopic patterns of inoculated tissues resulted quite similar to human tissues; differences of both types of sections with cellular lines could be explained by the influence of the environment.

  5. [Trichomonad infections of the oral cavity in cats in south Germany].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Beelitz, P; Schöl, H; Beer, B

    1992-04-01

    In this investigation trichomonads were isolated from the oral cavity in 21 of 110 examined cats, and only from those which were simultaneously FeLV, FIV or FIP positive. By means of scanning electron microscopy the trichomonads were shown to be round or piriform parasites which were on average 7.9 microns long and 6.2 microns wide at maximum width. They had 4 anterior flagella, which were on average 9.4 microns long, an undulating membrane measuring 6.7 microns with no trailing flagellum as well as an axostyle extending on average 5.0 microns beyond the body, and therefore should be attributed to the genus Trichomonas. PMID:1319091

  6. Kinetic characteristics of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity are investigated and the growth order and constants are determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is found that the stage in which the number of particles increases occurs in the range of mixed kinetics and their growth occurs in the diffusion range. The enhancing effect of additives HCO- 3 > C6H12O6 > F- and the retarding effect of Mg2+ are demonstrated. The HCO- 3 and Mg2+ additives, taken in high concentrations, affect the corresponding rate constants. It is revealed the crystallization in DPF is favorable for the growth of small crystallites, while the model solution of saliva is, vice versa, favorable for the growth of larger crystals.

  7. Surgical management of premalignant lesions of the oral cavity with the CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, A L; Frame, J W

    1996-01-01

    The management of patients with premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity can present problems. The potentially invasive nature of premalignant lesions together with their large extent influences the treatment. The common modalities of treatment of these lesions are surgical excision, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and radiotherapy. Recently, CO2 laser surgery has become available. Less pain, little bleeding, minimal post-operative edema, reduced risk of infection, and low recurrence rates were advantages observed following CO2 laser surgery in the mouth when compared to other modalities of treatment. Healing following CO2 laser surgery progressed well with little postoperative scarring and re-epithelialization was complete after 4-6 weeks. The newly formed epithelium appeared normal and was soft on palpation. PMID:9206362

  8. Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; Abdulmajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S

    2014-04-01

    Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = -0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC. PMID:24415717

  9. Minimal invasive method to treat hemangiomas of the oral cavity with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.

    1997-05-01

    During the last six years we have developed a new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma. Our new technique, named 'laser encircling technique', has especially succeeded during hemangioma buccal maxillary surgeries. The treatment consisted in the application of a line of points of CO2 laser circling the lesion. Depending on the position and size of the lesion, we used from 0.4 to 4.0 Joules/mm2 laser energy density per pulse, causing reduction in the size of the lesion throughout the sclerosis of nutritional vessels which led to reduction in size, volume and color of the hemangiomas with no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. In this work forty male and female patients, twelve to fifty years old, presenting medium to small size hemangiomas situated in different sites of the oral cavity such as the tongue, mouth vestibule, pharynx, tonsil area and lips were treated by the procedure described above. The number of laser applications was defined by the peculiarities of each case, varying form 3 to 6 sessions at 4 week intervals, always under local or topic anesthesia. The patients complained about minimal posit operative discomfort and had good cicatrix evolution. The good results achieved by this technique lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser for these types of hemangioma is an efficient and very secure method of treatment. An important aspect of our technique is the fact that using relatively low laser power we do not perform real surgery but a less aggressive alternative of treatment.

  10. Tissue-selective inflammation in the oral cavity of the rat.

    PubMed

    Frade, Taíssa Iolanda Checón; Dos Reis, Diego Carlos; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; Bakhle, Yeshwant S; de Francischi, Janetti Nogueira

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, carrageenan (CG; 100-1000 μg/site) was injected intraorally in the cheeks of Holtzman or Wistar rats to evaluate the consequences of administration of a non-immunogenic stimulus in the orofacial region. Subsequent inflammation was measured as oedema (increased thickness of the cheek wall using digital calipers), relative to the other cheek injected with saline. Oedema formation and tissue collection for histopathological studies were assessed at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h after injection. In parallel, other groups of rats were injected with CG in the hind paw, to provide a reference response. The inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, indomethacin, and antagonists of histamine, serotonin and NK1 receptors were injected s.c., 0.5 h before CG. CG induced a dose-related oedema more rapidly from 0 to 2 h which lasted for at least 72 h, showing a biphasic profile (peak at 2 and 24 h), compared with the monophasic oedema induced in rat paws (maximal duration of 24 h). Histopathological analysis of the CG-injected cheek revealed oedema formation with little leukocyte recruitment at 1-3 h, mast cell degranulation at 6 h, and a mixed polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltrate by 24 h. Histamine and serotonin antagonists and indomethacin, but not the NK1 antagonist, decreased cheek oedema in the first 4 h following carrageenan. Taken together, our data indicated important differences in the pattern of inflammation between the oral cavity and the paw which will determine the therapeutic approach to the treatment of inflammatory conditions in the oral cavity. PMID:27324249

  11. Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Babji, Deepa V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2015-03-01

    Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization. PMID:25621249

  12. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  13. Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... The tooth may hurt even without stimulation (spontaneous toothache). If irreversible damage to the pulp occurs and ... To detect cavities early, a dentist inquires about pain, examines the teeth, probes the teeth with dental instruments, and may take x-rays. People should ...

  14. [Results of treatment of oral cavity mucosa cancer according to the data of the regional oncological clinic].

    PubMed

    Get'man, E E

    1998-01-01

    The results of treatment of 139 patients with mucosal cancer of oral cavity are summarized. The most effective method of treatment is combined one, including the operative intervention conduction. In 18 patients intraoperative cryoimpact on tumor was conducted, permitting to reduce the recidives frequency and to increase their life span. PMID:9866321

  15. An orally administered DNA vaccine targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 inhibits lung carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Xin; Jin, Cong Guo; Zhou, Yong Chun; Navab, Roya; Jakobsen, Kristine Raaby; Chen, Xiao Qun; Li, Jia; Li, Ting Ting; Luo, Lu; Wang, Xi Cai

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of mortality and 5-year survival rate is very low worldwide. Recent studies show that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) signaling pathway contributes to lung cancer progression. So we hypothesize that an oral DNA vaccine that targets VEGFR-3 carried by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium strain SL3261 has impacts on lung cancer progression. In this study, the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine-immunized mice showed appreciable inhibition of tumor growth and tumor lymphatic microvessels in lung cancer mice model. Moreover, the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine-immunized mice showed remarkable increases in both VEGFR-3-specific antibody levels and cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine-immunized mice showed a significant increase in the levels of T helper type 1 (Th1) cell intracellular cytokine expression (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). After inoculation with murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell numbers obviously declined in control groups whereas high levels were maintained in the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine group. These results demonstrated that the oral VEGFR-3-based vaccine could induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses and then significantly inhibit lung carcinoma growth via suppressing lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26376999

  16. Meat Consumption and Risk of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-yu; Bai, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose High meat consumption, especially red and processed meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of several cancers, however, evidence for oral cavity and oropharynx cancer is limited. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine the association between intakes of total meat, processed meat, red meat, and white meat, and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. Methods Electronic search of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database was conducted to select relevant studies. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results 12 case–control studies and one cohort study were included in the analyses, including 501,730 subjects and 4,104 oral cavity and oropharynx cancer cases. Pooled results indicated that high consumption of total meat, red meat, and white meat were not significantly associated with increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR = 1.14, 95% CI[0.78–1.68]; RR = 1.05, 95% CI[0.66, 1.66] and RR = 0.81, 95% CI[0.54, 1.22], respectively), while the high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with a 91% increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer (RR = 1.91, 95% CI [1.19–3.06]). Sensitivity analysis indicated that no significant variation in combined RR by excluding any of the study, confirming the stability of present results. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that high consumption of processed meat was significantly associated with an increased risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, while there was no significantly association between total meat, red meat or white meat and the risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer. More prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm these associations. PMID:24736706

  17. OCCURRENCE OF PASTEURELLACEAE BACTERIA IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF THE TASMANIAN DEVIL (SARCOPHILUS HARRISII).

    PubMed

    Brix, Lena; Hansen, Mie Johanne; Kelly, Androo; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) was investigated using phenotypic and subsequent genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 62 bacterial isolates obtained from Tasmanian devils, tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae, were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequence similarity, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. A total of 15 strains formed a novel genus-like group within Pasteurellaceae. Thirty-six strains grouped with the type strain of Frederiksenia canicola. Five strains clustered with the type strain of Pasteurella multocida . Interestingly, four of the P. multocida-like strains were β-hemolytic when incubated on blood agar, which is atypical for this genus. Five strains grouped with a 100% rpoB similarity with Pasteurella dagmatis. Finally, a single strain showed 97.1% resemblance to Haemophilus haemoglobinophilus. The results demonstrate that Tasmanian devils are hosting a variety of bacterial taxa affiliated with the family of Pasteurellaceae as part of their oral microflora. PMID:26056874

  18. Occurrence of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of selected marine mammal species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads F; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive marine mammals was investigated using culture and subsequent geno- and phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 89 bacterial isolates from pinnipeds tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequences, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. Four strains from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) made up group I, which was classified with Pasteurella canis. Group II comprised four strains from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) classified with Pasteurella stomatis. Group III consisted of 28 strains, isolated from harbor and gray seals and represented Bisgaardia genomospecies 1. Two strains from a harbor and a grey seal, group IV, were classified with Bisgaardia hudsonensis. Fifty-two strains from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus), and California and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) formed group V and represented Otariodibacter oris. No Pasteurellaceae isolates were obtained from cetaceans, but Pasteurellaceae were isolated from all sampled pinnipeds. On the basis of these results, it is very likely that Pasteurellaceae bacteria represent a part of the normal oral flora in pinnipeds. PMID:23272350

  19. Antimicrobial activity of pure platelet-rich plasma against microorganisms isolated from oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autologous platelet concentrates (PCs) have been extensively used in a variety of medical fields to promote soft and hard tissue regeneration. The significance behind their use lies in the abundance of growth factors in platelets α-granules that promotes wound healing. In addition, antibacterial properties of PCs against various bacteria have been recently pointed out. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) was evaluated against oral cavity microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus oralis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Blood samples were obtained from 17 patients who underwent oral surgery procedures involving the use of P-PRP. The antibacterial activity of P-PRP, evaluated as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), was determined through the microdilution twofold serial method. Results P-PRP inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus oralis, but not of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Conclusions P-PRP is a potentially useful substance in the fight against postoperative infections. This might represent a valuable property in adjunct to the enhancement of tissue regeneration. PMID:23442413

  20. Ecology of Lactobacilli in the Oral Cavity: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Badet, C; Thebaud, N.B

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli appear in the oral cavity during the first years of a child’s life. Their presence depends on numerous factors such as the presence of ecological niches e.g. natural anfractuosities of the teeth. A strong correlation has been established between the saliva Lactobacillus count and dental caries, the higher the DMF index, the higher the number of children harbouring a high Lactobacillus count. Among children, the presence of lactobacilli in coronal caries is incontestable. Among adults, lactobacilli are found in root caries. Since 1999, taxonomical revisions make it difficult to interpret the results obtained in the numerous previous studies carried out on the identification of oral lactobacilli, but whatever the sampling method or the identification technique, the carious site or the age of sampled subjects, most species belong to the Lactobacillus casei group. This is important because if a specific correlation can be found between few species of lactobacilli and caries a better understanding of their properties could allow the development of new tools for prevention. PMID:19088910

  1. Expression of GLUT-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Neha; Kumari Maurya, Malti; Kar, Meenakshi; Goel, Madhu Mati; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Sagar, Mala; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Background GLUTs are a family of proteins that mediate glucose transport through the membrane, expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. GLUT-1 positivity in malignant cells indicates increased proliferative activity, energy requirements, aggressive behaviour and poor radiation response. Aim To observe the expression of GLUT-1 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users and to correlate the expression with histopathological grading and pathological staging. Methods 50 cases (25 tobacco and 25 non-tobacco) of oral squamous cell carcinoma, selected during period of August 2014 to July 2015. Histopathological grading, TNM and staging were done. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using standard protocol for paraffin embedded sections. Analysis was performed on SPSS software (Windows version 17.0). Results Significant association of GLUT-1 expression was found with history of tobacco (p < 0.001), Bryne's grade (p < 0.001), tumour size (p = 0.001), nodal metastasis (p = 0.022) and stage (p < 0.001). Higher GLUT-1 expression in stage II, stage III and stage IV was found as compared to stage I. GLUT-1 immunoexpression also shows progressive switch from membranous to cytoplasmic to combined location correlating with histopathologic grade and pTNM stage. Conclusion GLUT-1 expression correlates significantly with histological grade and pTNM staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It also significantly correlates with tobacco addiction. Thus, GLUT-1 expression may serve as a biomarker for patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26937365

  2. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Heyu; Nan, Xu; Li, Xuefen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jianyun; Sun, Lisha; Han, Wenlin; Li, Tiejun

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Evaluation of selected oral cavity microbiota--risk factors of management complications in patients with masticatory system disorders.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Paweł J; Perkowski, Konrad; Starościak, Bohdan; Dybicz, Monika; Baltaza, Wanda; Pionkowski, Krzysztof; Chomicz, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    The retrospective analysis of data on oral cavity clinical status in relation to microbiota species composition is presented. The research regards patients of different age, with and without congenital malformation, pretreatment assessed for occurrence of pathological changes in the masticatory system. Samples of the swabs collected from each patient (from dental plaque, periodontium and dental pockets) were used for identification of oral protozoans in wet slides and stained preparations; additionally, transmission electron microscope examination was performed. The material was used for in vitro cultures to identify bacteria strains. Clinically, intensity of tissue deteriorations was higher in patients with a congenital disease. Alive Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis, species with confirmed pathogenic impact on oral cavity and neighboring structures, were detected with higher prevalence in older patients. Enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, various Enterobacteriaceae were more frequently detected in patients with somatic and mental retardations; in mouths of those patients, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa opportunistic strains occurred. Masticatory system abnormalities favor colonization of oral cavity by exogenous species and dissemination of infections, especially dangerous for patients with congenital diseases. Oral microbiota assessment and preventive measures may be helpful to avoid subsequent peri-surgery complications. PMID:27262961

  4. Six Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Simulation of Probing Dental Caries Within a Narrow Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhao, Xiaohan; Shi, Youjiao; Zhang, Yuru; Hou, Jianxia; Xiao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Haptic simulation of handling pathological tissues is a crucial component to enhance virtual surgical training systems. In this paper, we introduce a configuration-based optimization approach to simulate the exploration and diagnosis of carious tissues in dental operations. To simulate the six Degree-of-Freedom (6DoF) haptic interaction between the dental probe and the oral tissues, we introduce two interaction states, the sliding state and the penetration state, which simulate the exploration on the surface of and inside of the caries, respectively. Penetration criteria considering a contact force threshold are defined to trigger the switch between the two states. By utilizing a simplified friction model based on the optimization approach, various multi-region frictional contacts between the probe and carious tissues are simulated. To simulate the exploration within the carious tissues for diagnosing the depth of the caries, a dynamic sphere tree is used to constrain the insertion/extraction of the probe within carious tissues along a fixed direction while enabling simulation of additional contacts of the probe with neighboring oral tissues during the insertion/extraction process. Experimental results show that decays with different levels of stiffness and friction coefficients can be stably simulated. Preliminary user studies show that users could easily identify the invisible boundary between the decay and healthy tissues and correctly rank the depth of target decays within a required time limit. The proposed approach could be used for training delicate motor skill of probing target carious teeth in a narrow oral cavity, which requires collaborated control of tool posture and insertion/extraction force, while avoiding damages to adjacent healthy tissues of the tongue and gingiva. PMID:26915130

  5. Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity secondary to lower lip trauma. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Pérez, Sergi; España-Tost, Antoni; Vidal-Bel, August

    2013-01-01

    Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity is an infrequent benign neoplasm of papillary appearance that originates in the secretory duct of a salivary gland. The etiology is unknown, though some authors have related it to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a tumor of the lower lip mucosa. Histopathological study of the lesion diagnosed inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity. Human papillomavirus DNA detection and typing based on tumor lesion DNA amplification and posterior hybridization, revealed no presence of viral DNA. The antecedents of trauma reported by the patient could have played an important role in the development of this tumor. Key words:Inverted ductal papilloma, intraductal papilloma, oral papilloma, papillary epidermoid adenoma. PMID:24455058

  6. [A CASE OF ADVANCED BLADDER NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA) SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED BY LOW DOSE OF ORAL TEGAFUR-URACIL].

    PubMed

    Nomi, Hayahito; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Minami, Koichiro; Maenosono, Ryoichi; Matsunaga, Tomohisa; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Tsujino, Takuya; Hirano, Hajime; Inamoto, Teruo; Yamamoto, Ikuhisa; Tsuji, Motomu; Kiyama, Satoshi; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-10-01

    A 81-old-woman underwent a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) at a nearby hospital in April 2011. The diagnosis was invasive urothelial carcinoma, G3 with a component of bladder small cell carcinoma, T1 or more. She was recommended to visit our hospital for combined modality therapy of bladder cancer, but she refused the treatment for over one year. In May 2012, she came to our hospital with the chief complaint of pain at urination. Cystoscopy revealed non-papillary sessile tumor in the top of the bladder, and CT scan demonstrated the presence of the right obturator lymph nodes swollen up to 1.2 cm in size. The second TURBT was performed and the diagnosis was bladder small cell carcinoma (pT3N2M0) according to urothelial cancer guidelines of the Japanese Urological Association (JUA). Because she strongly refused hospitalization anymore, we started daily oral intake of low dose Tegafur-Uracil (100 mg) for the treatment. After one month, the serum Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE; tumor maker of small cell cancer) level was elevated to 27.6 ng/ml and the right obturator lymph node was enlarged up to 1.9 cm. Therefore, the Trgafur-Uracil dose was increased to 200 mg daily. After then, the serum NSE level was decreased to 15.5 ng/ml following reduction in size of the obturator lymph nodes with partial response in December 2013. After two years of follow-up period, her regular urine test showed normal findings, and no apparent recurrence was detected on urinary bladder with MRI and Cystoscopy. This is a case of advanced bladder small cell carcinoma significantly improved by oral administration of Tegafur-Uracil 200 mg/day for over 2 years. PMID:26717786

  7. DNA-flow cytometry of head and neck carcinoma: the importance of uniform tissue sampling and tumor sites.

    PubMed

    Westerbeek, H A; Mooi, W J; Begg, C; Dessing, M; Balm, A J

    1992-01-01

    Flow cytometric DNA ploidy measurements using deparaffinized tumor specimens were performed on 46 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, including 22 carcinomas of the oropharynx, 18 carcinomas of the larynx and six carcinomas of the oral cavity. Aneuploidy was found in 14 of these tumors with carcinomas of the larynx and oral cavity showing almost equal percentages of DNA aneuploidy (10/18 and 3/6, respectively). In contrast, only 1 of the oropharyngeal carcinomas was aneuploid. Accurate microscopy-controlled sampling of tumor tissue from the histological tissue blocks was found to be mandatory in order to obtain reliable ploidy measurements. PMID:1642865

  8. A robust method for assessing chemically induced mutagenic effects in the oral cavity of transgenic Big Blue® rats.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert R; Thompson, Chad M; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Suh, Mina; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    The Big Blue® (BB) in vivo mutation assay uses transgenic rodents to measure treatment-induced mutations in virtually any tissue. The BB assay can be conducted in rats or mice and is ideal for investigating tissue-specific mutagenic mode of action of tumor induction. Some tissues such as oral mucosa have not been thoroughly studied. Due to the small quantity and cartilaginous nature of oral cavity tissues, development of special prosection and DNA isolation methods was required to permit robust analysis of mutations in these tissues. Improved surgical methods permitted collection of adequate and reproducible quantities of tissue (∼45 mg gingiva/buccal and ∼30 mg gingiva/palate). Optimized DNA isolation methods included use of liquid nitrogen pulverization, homogenization, nuclei pelleting, digestion, and phenol/chloroform extraction, to yield sufficient quantities of DNA from these tissues. In preliminary optimization work, mutant frequency (MF) in tongue and gingiva was increased in rats exposed to the promutagen, benzo[a]pyrene, and the direct mutagen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. The oral cavity carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO; 10 ppm in drinking water; 28 days), was qualified as a positive control for mutagenesis in oral tissues since it caused significant increases in cII MFs in gingiva/palate (50.2-fold) and gingiva/buccal tissues (21.3-fold), but not in liver or bone marrow (0.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively). These results are consistent with the observation that 4-NQO primarily induces tumors in oral cavity. Results also demonstrate the utility of the BB rat mutation assay and optimized methods for investigation of oral cavity mutagenicity, and by extension, analysis of other small and cartilaginous tissues. PMID:25969955

  9. Extensive Myiasis infestation associated with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Biradar, Sudharani; Wankhede, Pranali; Munde, Anita; Shaikh, Safia

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is the condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots). The deposited eggs develop into larvae, which penetrate deep structures causing adjacent tissue destruction. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in tropical countries and hot climate regions, and associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions, alcoholism and senility. The diagnosis of Myiasis is basically made by the presence of larvae. The reported cases of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer in the literature are few. This paper reports two cases of oral and maxillofacial Myiasis involving larvae in patients with squamous cell carcinoma in adult males. The condition was managed by manual removal of the larvae, one by one, with the help of forceps and subsequent management through proper health care. PMID:25709682

  10. Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with a Gingival Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Kamal E.H.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic deposits to the oral cavity are exceptionally rare. The commonest tumor types metastasizing to the oral cavity include lung and breast carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma is believed to be the third most common infra clavicular tumor to metastasize to the head and neck. We report a case where an oral cavity deposit was the initial presentation for an occult clear cell renal carcinoma. Additional therapeutic options, including immunotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and participation in a clinical trial, should be discussed with the patient despite the poor overall prognosis. PMID:27478584

  11. Human papillomavirus infection in the oral cavity of HIV patients is not reduced by initiating antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, Caroline H.; Lee, Anthony; Chen, Huichao; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer; Seaman, Todd; Landovitz, Raphael J.; John, Malcolm; Reilly, Nancy; Naini, Linda; Palefsky, Joel; Jacobson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral malignancies is increasing among HIV-infected populations, and the prevalence of oral warts has reportedly increased among HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We explored whether ART initiation among treatment-naive HIV-positive adults is followed by a change in oral HPV infection or the occurrence of oral warts. Design: Prospective, observational study. Methods: HIV-1 infected, ART-naive adults initiating ART in a clinical trial were enrolled. End points included detection of HPV DNA in throat-washes, changes in CD4+ T-cell count and HIV RNA, and oral wart diagnosis. Results: Among 388 participants, 18% had at least one HPV genotype present before initiating ART, and 24% had at least one genotype present after 12–24 weeks of ART. Among those with undetectable oral HPV DNA before ART, median change in CD4+ count from study entry to 4 weeks after ART initiation was larger for those with detectable HPV DNA during follow-up than those without (P =  0.003). Both prevalence and incidence of oral warts were low (3% of participants having oral warts at study entry; 2.5% acquiring oral warts during 48 weeks of follow-up). Conclusion: These results suggest: effective immune control of HPV in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients is not reconstituted by 24 weeks of ART; whereas ART initiation was not followed by an increase in oral warts, we observed an increase in oral HPV DNA detection after 12–24 weeks. The prevalence of HPV-associated oral malignancies may continue to increase in the modern ART era. PMID:26919735

  12. Role of the MIR146A polymorphism in the origin and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Annalisa; Carinci, Francesco; Martinelli, Marcella; Pezzetti, Furio; Girardi, Ambra; Cura, Francesca; Rubini, Corrado; Scapoli, Luca

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression and cell behavior are regulated by several factors, including small non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs affecting cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis are thought to play an important role in tumorigenesis. The levels of miR-146 appear to be associated with cancer development and progression, including that of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this investigation was to ascertain whether the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2910164, mapping in the MIR146A gene, has a role in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. A genetic association study was performed with a sample set of 346 oral squamous cell carcinomas collected in Italy. Our data indicate that the rs2910164 polymorphism is not associated with tumor development. However, a slight increase in the frequency of the variant allele was observed in Stage II tumors. Further investigations are needed to verify a possible role of the variant allele or rs2910164 in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. PMID:24612133

  13. Expression of Osteopontin in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and its Surgical Margins-An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Malathi; Thiyagarajan, Muthukumar; Munuswamy, Balu David; Jayamani, Logeswari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the advances in the treatment modalities offered for oral squamous cell carcinoma. The recurrence rate of it still remains quite high. Early detection of recurrence will improve the outcome and the survival of the patient. Osteopontin, a transformation–related phosphorylated protein in epithelial cells has been closely related with tumourigenesis. This study was undertaken to explore the potential of OPN as a tumour marker of recurrence in OSCC. Aim To analyse the expression of Osteopontin (OPN) in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), patient matched tumour free surgical margins and normal oral mucosa and to correlate with local & loco regional recurrence. Materials and Methods Twenty cases each of formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC, patient matched tumour free surgical margins and normal oral mucosal tissues were obtained from the archives of the Oral Pathology & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Dental Sciences, SRU and Govt. Arignar Anna Memorial Cancer Hospital, Kancheepuram. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed with an antibody to Osteopontin protein. Patients with secondary tumours and those treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy were excluded from this study. Results The expression of OPN was elevated in 95% of tumours & 55% of histologically tumour free margin samples. There was negative OPN expression in normal mucosal samples. The result of the study was statistically analysed using Pearson chi-square test and was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion OPN can be used as a diagnostic marker in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. In the tumour free surgical margins, elevated levels of OPN may predict a significantly increased risk of recurrence. PMID:26675878

  14. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  15. Serum and saliva collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in patients with oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) has been classified as a pre-malignant condition. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) or collagenase-3 may play a key role in cancer development. The aim of this study was to compare serum and saliva MMP-13 between patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on 30 patients with OLP (8 reticular and 22 erosive forms) and 20 patients with OSCC (6 in low stage and 14 in advanced stage) who were selected randomly. The study was conducted at the Cancer Department, Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The serum and saliva MMP-13 were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of the Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient was performed. Results: There were no significant differences in mean saliva and serum levels of MMP-13 between patients with OSCC and OLP and their subgroups. Serum MMP-13 correlated significantly with unstimulated (r = 0.307, p= 0.048), but not with stimulated, saliva MMP-13. Conclusion: Serum and saliva MMP-13 levels appear to be statistically similar in OLP and OSCC. PMID:26478876

  16. Leptin receptor polymorphism Gln223Arg (rs1137101) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Pereira, Camila Santos; das Graças Pena, Geórgia; Reis, Tatiana Carvalho; Silva, Rosângela Ramos Veloso; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; de Souza, Marcela Gonçalves; Soares, Mariana Batista; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Menezes, Elytania Veiga; Nobre, Sérgio Avelino Mota; Rodrigues Neto, João Felício; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Velásquez-Meléndez, Jorge Gustavo; Sena Guimarães, André Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the LEPR gene Gln223Arg polymorphism (rs1137101) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and in potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOL) in comparison to normal oral mucosa in a Brazilian population. Smokers (n = 89) were selected from a representative sample of 471 individuals from the general population of Montes Claros, Brazil. Participants were age and gender matched to patients with OSCC (n = 25) and oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 25). We investigated the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism (A>G; rs1137101) in these groups. Genotype variants were assessed by RFLP-PCR, using MspI (HPAII) restriction endonuclease. The institutional review board of the Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros approved the study (process number 2667/2011). Written informed consent for this study was obtained from all participants. The GG genotype (Arg223Arg) appears to be the more relevant polymorphic variant in OSCC. It occurred, approximately, twice as frequently in OSCC patients than in the general population. In contrast, the A allele in its homozygosis form (Gln223Gln) is significantly associated with the development of PMOL; 80% of the samples from the PMOL group exhibit AA genotype. Our findings suggest new insights regarding LEPR gene variations in the development of OSCC and PMOL. PMID:26034683

  17. CD166-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation promotes the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guodong; Wang, Xu; Yan, Ming; Chen, Wantao; Zhang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    CD166 has been considered a relatively specific marker of stem cells and cancer stem cells, and the altered expression of CD166 has also been reported as a prognostic marker of several other types of cancer. However, the molecular functions of CD166 in these cancer cells are largely unknown. In this study, we found that CD166 significantly enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation and prolonged epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EGFR signalling activation. In addition, EGF stimulation in CD166-overexpressing oral squamous carcinoma cells led to enhanced colony formation, invasion capacity and cytoskeletal re-organization in vitro and elevated tumourigenesis in vivo. Taken together, the results of our study identify CD166 as an intriguing therapeutic target for patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). PMID:27424177

  18. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity treated with proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mostly seen in the upper aerodigestive tract and has a propensity for lymph node spread and systemic metastases. Various treatment modalities have been reported, including surgical excision supplemented with radiotherapy/adjuvant chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, treatment of nasal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma with proton beam therapy and cisplatin has not been described in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 56-year-old Japanese man with locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in his right nasal cavity with invasion of the orbit, paranasal sinus, and buccal subcutaneous tissue. He underwent proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin. Acute and late side effects did not exceed grade 3. At 24-month follow up, he remains in complete remission. Conclusion Proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin may be one choice for locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24716457

  19. Effects of EZH2 promoter polymorphisms and methylation status on oral squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kuo-Jung; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yu, Yung-Luen

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is malignant tumors in oral cavity, is the fourth most common male cancer in Taiwan. EZH2 plays a key role in transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and in cancer development. Although the EZH2 expression in OSCC is highly correlated with tumorigenesis, it has not been determined if specific EZH2 genetic variants are associated with OSCC risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of EZH2 and susceptibility to OSCC in Taiwan. Here, four SNPs of EZH2 (rs6950683, rs2302427, rs3757441, and rs41277434) were analyzed by a real-time PCR genotyping in 576 patients with oral cancer and 552 cancer-free controls. After adjusting for other co-variants, we found that carrying CC genotype at EZH2 rs6950683 and rs3757441 had a lower risk of developing OSCC than did wild-type carriers. The CCCA or CCTA haplotype among the four EZH2 sites was also associated with a reduced risk of OSCC. Furthermore, OSCC patients who carried CC genotype at EZH2 rs6950683 had a higher methylation than TC genotype. Our results suggest that the two SNPs of EZH2 (rs6950683 and rs3757441) might contribute to the prediction of OSCC susceptibility. Moreover, rs6950683 CC genotype exhibits hypermethylation in EZH2 promoter. This is the first study to provide insight into risk factors associated with EZH2 variants and epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis of OSCC in Taiwan. PMID:26807327

  20. Prospective study of the influence of psychological and medical factors on quality of life and severity of symptoms among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rana, M; Kanatas, A; Herzberg, P Y; Khoschdell, M; Kokemueller, H; Gellrich, N-C; Rana, M

    2015-04-01

    About 400,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) annually, and the incidence is increasing. Many advanced carcinomas of the oral cavity require radical surgical treatment that can impair patient's quality of life (QoL) and severity of symptoms. We therefore aimed to identify coping strategies and disease-specific medical factors that affect QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC were asked to complete the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FQCI), the University of Washington Quality of life Questionnaire (UW-QOL version 4), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure psychological stress. We also assessed the impact of various factors on QoL and severity of symptoms, including stage and site of tumour, method of reconstruction, time of diagnosis, and social structure (age, sex, marital status, living arrangements, level of education, and employment). We enrolled a consecutive sample of 104 patients over a period of one year. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that both depressive coping and size of tumour had an adverse effect on QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with high educational attainment and those who lived alone reported impaired QoL, and women experienced increased severity of symptoms. Impaired QoL and increased severity of symptoms were associated with a depressive style of coping, size of tumour, educational attainment, and living arrangements. It is important to identify these patients during treatment as they could benefit from psycho-oncological counselling. PMID:25698550

  1. Slug inhibition increases radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by upregulating PUMA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangfang; Zhou, Lijie; Wei, Changbo; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    As a new strategy, radio-gene therapy was widely used for the treatment of cancer patients in recent few years. Slug was involved in the radioresistance of various cancers and has been found to have an anti-apoptotic effect. This study aims to investigate whether the modulation of Slug expression by siRNA affects oral squamous cell carcinoma sensitivity to X-ray irradiation through upregulating PUMA. Two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC3 and HSC6) were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Slug and subjected to radiotherapy in vitro. After transfection with Slug siRNA, both HSC3 and HSC6 cells showed relatively lower expression of Slug and higher expression of PUMA. The Slug siRNA transfected cells showed decreased survival and proliferation rates, an increased apoptosis rate and enhanced radiosensitivity to X-ray irradiation. Our results revealed that Slug siRNA transfection in combination with radiation increased the expression of PUMA, which contributed to radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Thus, controlling the expression of Slug might contribute to enhance sensitivity of HSC3 and HSC6 cells toward X-ray irradiation in vitro by upregulating PUMA. PMID:27277529

  2. Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells associated with bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Honami, Tatsuki; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Okui, Tatsuo; Kurio, Naito; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling have been identified in several human cancers, and increased levels of its expression appear to correlate with disease progression and metastasis. However, the role of Shh in bone destruction associated with oral squamous cell carcinomas, which frequently invade the maxilla or the mandible, is still unclear. In this study we show that the use of siRNA for Shh to block SHH secreted by SAS oral squamous cell carcinoma cells suppressed the tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of subcutaneous SAS xenografts in vivo. Moreover, blockade of Shh in SAS cells decreased tumor growth and osteoclast number in a tibial metaphysis mouse model. Significantly, we clearly show that SHH stimulated osteoclast formation in a co-culture system consisting of murine bone stromal ST2 cells and murine CD11b(+) bone marrow cells. These findings suggest that Shh signaling is a potential target for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with bone destruction. PMID:21945071

  3. Prognostic significance of NDRG1 expression in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Marcelo; da Cunha Mercante, Ana Maria; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Gazito, Diana; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Chiappini, Paula Blandina Olga; de Carvalho Neto, Paulo Bentes; Fukuyama, Erica Erina; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Louro, Iúri Drumond; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-12-01

    Human N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a metastasis suppressor gene with several potential functions, including cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation and response to hormones, nickel and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunoexpression of NDRG1 in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas searching for its role in the clinical course of these tumors. We investigated immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 protein in 412 tissue microarray cores of tumor samples from 103 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and in 110 paraffin-embedded surgical margin sections. The results showed NDRG1 up-regulation in 101/103 (98.1 %) tumor samples, but no expression in any normal tissue sample. Western blot assays confirmed the immunohistochemical findings, suggesting that lower levels of NDRG1 are associated with a high mortality rate. NDRG1 overexpression was related to long-term specific survival (HR = 0.38; p = 0.009), whereas the presence of lymph-node metastasis showed the opposite association with survival (HR = 2.45; p = 0.013). Our findings reinforce the idea that NDRG1 plays a metastasis suppressor role in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and may be a useful marker for these tumors. PMID:22972152

  4. Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Boukje A C; Brands, Marieke T; Geurts, Sandra M E; Merkx, Matthias A W; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2016-08-01

    Information on epidemiology is essential to evaluate care for the growing group of oral cancer patients. We investigated trends in incidence, mortality and relative survival rates for oral cavity cancer (OCC) and its subsites in the Netherlands from 1991 to 2010, and relate these to changes in stage and treatment. Patient (age, sex), tumour (subsite, stage) and treatment characteristics of patients diagnosed with OCC (ICD-O-3: C02-C06) in 1991-2010 were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival rates over time are presented, as well as trends in type of treatment. The incidence of OCC increased with +1.2% (95%CI: +0.9%;+1.6%) per year: more strongly in women, stage I and IV disease, and in cancers of the tongue and gum. The mortality rate slightly rose (+0.8%, 95%CI: +0.3%;+1.3% per year), but differed by subsite. The 5-year relative survival improved from 57% in 1991-1995 to 62% in 2006-2010. The 5-year relative survival was better for women compared with men (64% and 55%, respectively), decreased with increasing stage, was the best for tongue cancer (63%) and the worst for cancer of the gum (56%) and floor of mouth cancer (55%). The relative excess risk of dying was higher for non-surgery-based treatments. Surgery was the main treatment option and the proportion of "surgery only" rose in stage I and III disease. The incidence and, to a lesser extent, mortality of OCC are increasing and therefore, even with slightly improving survival rates, OCC is an increasingly important health problem. PMID:27038013

  5. Global gene expression profiling of oral cavity cancers suggests molecular heterogeneity within anatomic subsites

    PubMed Central

    Severino, Patricia; Alvares, Adriana M; Michaluart, Pedro; Okamoto, Oswaldo K; Nunes, Fabio D; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A; Tajara, Eloiza H

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a frequent neoplasm, which is usually aggressive and has unpredictable biological behavior and unfavorable prognosis. The comprehension of the molecular basis of this variability should lead to the development of targeted therapies as well as to improvements in specificity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Results Samples of primary OSCCs and their corresponding surgical margins were obtained from male patients during surgery and their gene expression profiles were screened using whole-genome microarray technology. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Components Analysis were used for data visualization and One-way Analysis of Variance was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Samples clustered mostly according to disease subsite, suggesting molecular heterogeneity within tumor stages. In order to corroborate our results, two publicly available datasets of microarray experiments were assessed. We found significant molecular differences between OSCC anatomic subsites concerning groups of genes presently or potentially important for drug development, including mRNA processing, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, metabolic process, cell cycle and apoptosis. Conclusion Our results corroborate literature data on molecular heterogeneity of OSCCs. Differences between disease subsites and among samples belonging to the same TNM class highlight the importance of gene expression-based classification and challenge the development of targeted therapies. PMID:19014556

  6. [Biofilms of the oral cavity. Formation, development and involvement in the onset of diseases related to bacterial plaque increase].

    PubMed

    Bortolaia, C; Sbordone, L

    2002-05-01

    Biofilm is defined as a community of bacteria intimately associated with each other and included within an exopolymer matrix: this biological unit exhibits its own properties, quite different in comparison with those showed by the single species in planktonic form. The oral cavity appears as an open ecosystem, with a dynamic balance between the entrance of microrganisms, colonisation modalities and host defences aimed to their removal: to avoid elimination, bacteria need to adhere to either hard dental surfaces or epithelial surfaces. The oral biofilm formation and development, and the inside selection of specific microrganisms have been correlated with the most common oral pathologies, such as dental caries, periodontal disease and peri-implantitis. Many of these bacteria are usual saprophytes of the oral environment, that, in particular situations, can overcome and express their virulence factors: to better understand the mechanisms of these pathologies it's necessary to know the complex interactions between all the bacterial species inside the biofilm and host tissues and responses. The present paper is a review of the most significant studies on the biofilm development modalities, their correlations with either health or illness of the oral cavity, the bacterial co-aggregation strategies and the biofilm response to antimicrobial agents. PMID:12070469

  7. DJ-1 Is Upregulated in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Promotes Oral Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuaimei; Ma, Dandan; Zhuang, Rui; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Ying; Wen, Jun; Cui, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a multistep process that involves in both genetic alterations and epigenetic modifications. DJ-1, a negative regulator of tumor suppressor PTEN, functions as an oncogene in many types of cancers. However, its role in OSCC is poorly known. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting were performed to evaluate the expression level of DJ-1 in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and OSCC tissues respectively. Then lentiviral mediated DJ-1 shRNA was constructed and used to infect the OSCC cell lines (Tca8113 and CAL-27). MTT, cell counting, and Matrigel invasion assay were utilized to examine the effects of DJ-1 down-regulation on proliferation and invasion capacity of oral cancer cells. Results: The immunoreactivity and expression level of DJ-1 protein was significantly increased in OLK and OSCC tissues compared with the controls. Lentiviral-delivered shRNA targeting DJ-1 could effectively knock down DJ-1 at mRNA and protein level (P<0.01). The proliferative and invasion ability of OSCC cell lines was significantly suppressed following DJ-1 inhibition (P<0.01). Conclusions: Our study indicated that DJ-1 is over-expressed in both oral precancer and cancer tissues and shRNA inhibition of DJ-1 expression led to decreased proliferation and invasion capability of oral cancer cells. These findings suggest that DJ-1 might be actively involved in the development of OSCC. Future studies will investigate the potential of DJ-1 as a biomarker for early detection of OSCC. PMID:27313793

  8. Passage of intact IgG from plasma to the oral cavity via crevicular fluid

    PubMed Central

    Challacombe, S. J.; Russell, M. W.; Hawkes, Jane

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether IgG could pass from the blood to the oral cavity. Pure IgG was prepared from monkey serum, by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, and was radiolabelled with 125I. This was injected intravenously into eight Rhesus monkeys. Radioactivity could be detected in crevicular fluid washings, and in mixed and parotid saliva samples 30 min after injection. Ultracentrifugation on sucrose density gradients revealed that most of the radioactivity in crevicular fluid washings was associated with proteins having a sedimentation coefficient similar to marker IgG. Radioactivity in parotid saliva was not found in the IgG zone, but was present in zones with sedimentation coefficients of approximately 4·5S and 1S. The results suggest that IgG passes as an intact molecule from plasma to crevicular fluid, and support the hypothesis that serum antibodies could play a role in protection against dental caries. PMID:105828

  9. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity: comparative study of its clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features.

    PubMed

    Epivatianos, Apostolos; Antoniades, Demetrios; Zaraboukas, Thomas; Zairi, Eleni; Poulopoulos, Athanasios; Kiziridou, Athina; Iordanidis, Savas

    2005-07-01

    There are two histological types of pyogenic granuloma (PG) of the oral cavity: the lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) and non-LCH type. The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the clinical features, etiological factors, diameter of vascular elements and immunohistochemical features of LCH and non-LCH histological types of PG to determine whether they are two distinct entities. Thirty cases of LCH and 26 cases of non-LCH PG were retrieved and retrospectively studied. Clinically, LCH PG occurred more frequently (66.4%) as sessile lesion whereas non-LCH PG occurred as pedunculated (77%). Non-LCH PG was associated more frequently (86.4%) with etiological factors. The lobular area of the LCH PG contained a greater number of blood vessels with small luminal diameter than did the central area of non-LCH PG. In the central area of non-LCH PG a significantly greater number of vessels with perivascular mesenchymal cells non-reactive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and muscle-specific actin was present than in the lobular area of LCH PG. The differences found in the present study suggest that the two histological types of PG represent distinct entities. PMID:15982213

  10. Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Saito, Masanori; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-11-01

    Two strains were isolated from oral cavity samples of healthy elephants. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms that were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of these organisms in the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642(T) and Streptococcus orisuis NUM 1001(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours with 98.2 and 96.9% gene sequence similarity, respectively. When multi-locus sequence analysis using four housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB, gyrB and sodA, was carried out, similarity of concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes from the new isolates and Streptococcus mutans was 89.7%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments suggested that the new isolates were distinct from S. criceti and other species of the genus Streptococcus. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as representatives of Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov. The type strain of S. oriloxodontae is NUM 2101(T) ( =JCM 19285(T) =DSM 27377(T)). PMID:25139416

  11. Multiple fluorophore-analysis (MFA) for qualitative tissue diagnosis in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Romana; Betz, Christian; Havel, Miriam; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Leunig, Andreas; Assmann, Walter

    2007-07-01

    Early diagnosis of head and neck tumors is usually achieved via surgical tissue biopsy. By measuring the specific autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores with tumor-specific distributions, it might be possible to non-invasively judge tissue dignities ("optical biopsy"). A total of 22 patients with suspicious lesions of the oral cavity and 7 healthy volunteers were included into the study. Using a mercury vapour lamp as a light source, excitation and detection of endogenous fluorophores (tryptophan, NADH, FAD) was achieved using corresponding filter sets in an automated system. By including simultaneously recorded remission spectra into the analysis, it was possible to calculate "intrinsic" fluorescence spectra. Subsequently, the histopathological results of the lesions were compared to the spectroscopic findings. In a quantitative analysis, the intrinsic fluorescence spectra from (pre)malignant mucosal lesions regularly differed in fluorescence intensities when compared to healthy tissue. Whereas NADH and FAD yielded tumor specific intensity profiles with statistically significant differences in Student's t-test (p<=0.05), no definite spectral differences were found for tryptophan (p=0.22). The mucosa of the healthy volunteers showed a similar spectral pattern as the non-cancerous control areas in tumor patients. With regards to the results in this pilot study, MFA might serve as a helpful tool in early diagnosis of malignant lesions of head and neck.

  12. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed. PMID:26651833

  13. Cathepsin K Is Present in Invasive Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bitu, Carolina C.; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Bufalino, Andréia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Teppo, Susanna; Keinänen, Meeri; Vilen, Suvi-Tuuli; Lehenkari, Petri; Nyberg, Pia; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of skin carcinoma, but nothing is known about cathepsin K in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Our aim was to describe the expression of cathepsin K in invasive OTSCC in vitro and in a series of clinical cancer specimens. Materials and Methods OTSCC invasion in vitro was studied using invasive HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells in 3D organotypic models. In total, 121 mobile tongue OTSCCs and 10 lymph node metastases were analyzed for cathepsin K expression. The association between cathepsin K expression and clinicopathological factors was evaluated. Results Cysteine protease inhibitor E64 and cathepsin K silencing significantly (p<0.0001) reduced HSC-3 cell invasion in the 3D models. Cathepsin K was expressed in a majority of carcinoma and metastatic cells, but the expression pattern in carcinoma cells did not correlate with clinical parameters. Instead, the weak expression of cathepsin K in the invasive TME front correlated with increased overall recurrence (p<0.05), and in early-stage tumors this pattern predicted both cancer recurrence and cancer-specific mortality (p<0.05 and p<0.005, respectively). Conclusions Cathepsin K is expressed in OTSCC tissue in both carcinoma and TME cells. Although the diminished activity and expression in aggressive tongue HSC-3 cells reduced 3D invasion in vitro, the amount of cathepsin K in carcinoma cells was not associated with the outcome of cancer patients. Instead, cathepsin K in the invasive TME front seems to have a protective role in the complex progression of tongue cancer. PMID:23951042

  14. Leiomyoma: A rare tumor in the head and neck and oral cavity: Report of 3 cases with review

    PubMed Central

    Veeresh, M; Sudhakara, M; Girish, G; Naik, Charudatta

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumors arising from smooth muscle, most commonly seen in uterine myometrium, gastrointestinal tract, skin and lower extremities of middle-aged women. Leiomyomas are uncommon in the oral cavity with reported incidence of 0.065%, which accounts for 0.42% of all soft-tissue neoplasms in the oral cavity. Leiomyomas of head and neck region account for less than 1% of all leiomyomas. The most common site of leiomyoma in the head and neck region is the lips (27.46%) followed by tongue (18.30%), cheeks and palate (15.49%), gingiva (8.45%) and mandible (5.63%). The purpose of this article is to present three cases of leiomyoma comprising of an intraoral vascular leiomyoma and two solid leiomyomas in the head and neck region. The clinical features, etiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of leiomyoma are discussed with review of the literature. PMID:24250094

  15. A comparison of the effectiveness of swabbing and flossing as a means of recovering spermatozoa from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Katherine A; Johnson, Donald J; Cruz, Sherillelynn; Simpson, Heather; Safer, Alan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether flossing the teeth is a more effective collection method in recovering spermatozoa than conventional swabbing techniques. It was hypothesized that inclusion of flossing as a collection method would extend the recovery of spermatozoa to longer postcoital intervals (PCIs). Eighteen individuals provided 174 oral cavity samples. Successful recovery of spermatozoa was assessed with respect to the collection method and reported activity in the oral cavity during the PCI. Samples were subjected to a differential extraction procedure prior to microscopic evaluation of the extracted pellet. The results indicate that swabbing is more effective than flossing when the PCI falls within 1.5-12 h. However, spermatozoa were recovered from seven floss samples where the corresponding swabs gave negative results. When combining the results from the two collection methods, the percentage of subjects from whom spermatozoa are recovered increases for each PCI beyond the 0-h interval. PMID:24635105

  16. Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1 regulates the proliferation of oral adenosquamous carcinoma CAL-27 cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma is very poor due to local recurrence and metastasis. This study explores the molecular events involved in oral carcinoma with the goal of developing novel therapeutic strategies. The mitotic spindle is a complex mechanical apparatus required for the accurate segregation of sister chromosomes during mitosis. Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1 (SKA1) is a microtubule-binding subcomplex of the outer kinetochore that is essential for proper chromosome segregation. In recent years, much attention has been focused on determining how SKA proteins interact with each other, as well as their biological role in cancer cells. However, the precise role of SKA1 in oral carcinoma remains unknown. Methods In order to investigate the role of SKA1 in oral cancer, we employed lentivirus-mediated shRNA to silence SKA1 expression in the CAL-27 human oral adenosquamous carcinoma cell line. Results Depletion of SKA1 in CAL-27 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. These results strongly demonstrate that reduced SKA1 protein levels may cause inhibition of tumor formation. The shRNA-mediated depletion of SKA1 also led to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion This is the first report to show that SKA1 plays an important role in the progression of oral adenosqamous carcinoma. Thus, silencing of SKA1 by RNAi might be a potential therapy for this disease. PMID:23962337

  17. Preclinical and clinical studies of photodynamic action on some pathogenic micro-organisms of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ivanov, Krill I.; Titorenko, Vladimir A.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99% are determined.

  18. Laser Doppler technique for investigation of blood microcirculation in tooth pulp and mucous membranes of an oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedykh, Alexey V.; Kharish, Natalia A.; Karpovitch, Anatoliy; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Osipova, Yulia; Ulyanov, Sergey S.

    2001-08-01

    The results of statistical analysis of intensity fluctuations of scattered light, obtained from tissues of oral cavity membrane of healthy volunteers, are presented. The dependence of the spectral moments of Doppler signal on cutoff frequency is investigated. Some physiological tests in combination with LDF technique are suggested as a new diagnostic tool. In addition, the results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients are presented.

  19. Validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Speech Handicap Index in patients with oral cavity cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, S S; Choi, S H; Hong, J A; Hong, Y H; Jeong, N G; Lee, S Y; Sung, M-W; Hah, J H

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation of the Speech Handicap Index (SHI) for Korean subjects and to determine its reliability and utility in patients with oral cavity cancer. The Korean version of the SHI was administered to 50 healthy subjects and 56 patients with speech problems resulting from treatment for oral cavity cancers. The content and construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were examined. Healthy subject and patient group scores were compared, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to determine discriminatory ability. The Korean version of the SHI had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.99) and test-retest reliability for the total and subscales: total (T) 0.98, speech (S) 0.99, and psychosocial (P) 0.97. Mean scores in the healthy group were 0.5 (T), 0.2 (S), and 0.2 (P), whereas those in the patient group were 34.3 (T), 16.6 (S), and 15.5 (P). The scores differed significantly between the groups (P<0.05). The Korean version of the SHI can be a useful tool to evaluate a patient's self-perception of their speech dysfunction in daily life and to better understand postoperative speech disorders in patients with oral cavity cancer. PMID:26701323

  20. Morphological characterization of the oral cavity of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) with emphasis on the teeth-age adaptation.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Samir A A; Alsafy, Mohamed A M; Tanekhy, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Gilthead sea bream with different age groups that collected from Seawater fisheries, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, were examined by gross anatomy and scanning electron microscopy to assess the morphological characteristics of the oral cavity. Teeth patterns showed that the gilthead sea bream is adapted to the feeding pattern according to age development, as it modified from spiny form teeth in young fishes to obelisk-like teeth and flat dome-like teeth in growing fishes, with differentiation of teeth into three pairs of canine and conical teeth, that later differentiated to small and large flat teeth. With development, the apical pouch also showed morphological differentiation from curve-like in small fishes to Y-letter shape in medium-sized fishes, which later grow to completely covering the lower jaw in grown adult fishes. Tongue papillae, on the other hand, showed some differentiation being smoother in growing fishes than adult ones. Consistent with development differentiation, the palatine region of young fishes appeared separated from the palate by deep palatine fissure, while that the same palatine region was continuous with the palate with a remnant of palatine fissure as shallow groove was noticed in grown big fishes. Taste buds were characterized in the oral cavity of small and large fishes however in large fishes; the taste buds were more prominent especially at the palate and palatine folds. These and other morphological features of the oral cavity and the feeding habits in small and large gilthead sea bream fishes were recorded. PMID:26791335

  1. Artemisinin: an alternative treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamachika, Eiki; Habte, Temesgen; Oda, Dolphine

    2004-01-01

    Artemisinin (AR) is a widely used antimalarial drug. Recently, additional uses for AR as an anticancer drug were discovered. Using TUNEL, immunohistochemistry (IHS) markers and flow cytometry techniques, we evaluated the effect of AR and 5-FU on HPV 16 immortalized and transformed human gingival epithelial (IHGK) cells. The results of TUNEL showed that AR-treated IHGK cells consisted of 82% positive cells, while 5-FU-treated cells consisted of 18% positive cells. The IHS markers demonstrated positive staining with Bax p53, CD40 and CD40L in AR-treated cells and negative staining with Bcl-2. 5-FU-treated cells demonstrated a profile similar to AR but with less intensity. Cell cycle by flow cytometry results showed that only 5-FU-treated cells demonstrated a significant S-phase rate increase to 45%. In conclusion, our results indicate that AR is cytotoxic to transformed oral epithelial cells through apoptosis, while 5-FU is cytotoxic primarily through cell toxicity. PMID:15330155

  2. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Solarte, Víctor A.; Rosas, Jaiver E.; Rivera, Zuly J.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.; García, Javier E.; Vernot, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20–25)4, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90%) in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC. PMID:26609531

  3. Comparison of oral microbiota in tumor and non-tumor tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections have been linked to malignancies due to their ability to induce chronic inflammation. We investigated the association of oral bacteria in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC/tumor) tissues and compared with adjacent non-tumor mucosa sampled 5 cm distant from the same patient (n = 10). By using culture-independent 16S rRNA approaches, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning and sequencing, we assessed the total bacterial diversity in these clinical samples. Results DGGE fingerprints showed variations in the band intensity profiles within non-tumor and tumor tissues of the same patient and among the two groups. The clonal analysis indicated that from a total of 1200 sequences characterized, 80 bacterial species/phylotypes were detected representing six phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and uncultivated TM7 in non-tumor and tumor libraries. In combined library, 12 classes, 16 order, 26 families and 40 genera were observed. Bacterial species, Streptococcus sp. oral taxon 058, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus gordonii, Gemella haemolysans, Gemella morbillorum, Johnsonella ignava and Streptococcus parasanguinis I were highly associated with tumor site where as Granulicatella adiacens was prevalent at non-tumor site. Streptococcus intermedius was present in 70% of both non-tumor and tumor sites. Conclusions The underlying changes in the bacterial diversity in the oral mucosal tissues from non-tumor and tumor sites of OSCC subjects indicated a shift in bacterial colonization. These most prevalent or unique bacterial species/phylotypes present in tumor tissues may be associated with OSCC and needs to be further investigated with a larger sample size. PMID:22817758

  4. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  5. Multi-photon Imaging of Tumor Cell Invasion in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gatesman Ammer, Amanda; Hayes, Karen E.; Martin, Karen H.; Zhang, Lingqing; Spirou, George A.; Weed, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Loco-regional invasion of head and neck cancer is linked to metastatic risk and presents a difficult challenge in designing and implementing patient management strategies. Orthotopic mouse models of oral cancer have been developed to facilitate the study of factors that impact invasion and serve as model system for evaluating anti-tumor therapeutics. In these systems, visualization of disseminated tumor cells within oral cavity tissues has typically been conducted by either conventional histology or with in vivo bioluminescent methods. A primary drawback of these techniques is the inherent inability to accurately visualize and quantify early tumor cell invasion arising from the primary site in three dimensions. Here we describe a protocol that combines an established model for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCOT) with two-photon imaging to allow multi-vectorial visualization of lingual tumor spread. The OSC-19 head and neck tumor cell line was stably engineered to express the F-actin binding peptide LifeAct fused to the mCherry fluorescent protein (LifeAct-mCherry). Fox1nu/nu mice injected with these cells reliably form tumors that allow the tongue to be visualized by ex-vivo application of two-photon microscopy. This technique allows for the orthotopic visualization of the tumor mass and locally invading cells in excised tongues without disruption of the regional tumor microenvironment. In addition, this system allows for the quantification of tumor cell invasion by calculating distances that invaded cells move from the primary tumor site. Overall this procedure provides an enhanced model system for analyzing factors that contribute to SCOT invasion and therapeutic treatments tailored to prevent local invasion and distant metastatic spread. This method also has the potential to be ultimately combined with other imaging modalities in an in vivo setting. PMID:21808230

  6. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Oue, Erika; Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei; Iimura, Tadahiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kayamori, Kou; Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-08-01

    To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first report showing the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. PMID:22771802

  7. Raman spectroscopic study of keratin 8 knockdown oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Alam, Hunain; Dmello, Crismita; Vaidya, Milind M.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-03-01

    Keratins are one of most widely used markers for oral cancers. Keratin 8 and 18 are expressed in simple epithelia and perform both mechanical and regulatory functions. Their expression are not seen in normal oral tissues but are often expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Aberrant expression of keratins 8 and 18 is most common change in human oral cancer. Optical-spectroscopic methods are sensitive to biochemical changes and being projected as novel diagnostic tools for cancer diagnosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting minor changes associated with differential level of keratin expression in tongue-cancer-derived AW13516 cells. Knockdown clones for K8 were generated and synchronized by growing under serum-free conditions. Cell pellets of three independent experiments in duplicate were used for recording Raman spectra with fiberoptic-probe coupled HE-785 Raman-instrument. A total of 123 and 96 spectra from knockdown clones and vector controls respectively in 1200-1800 cm-1 region were successfully utilized for classification using LDA. Two separate clusters with classification-efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Leave-one-out cross-validation yielded ~63% efficiency. Findings of the study demonstrate the potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting even subtle changes such as variations in keratin expression levels. Future studies towards identifying Raman signals from keratin in oral cells can help in precise cancer diagnosis.

  8. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Development and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Khaled Waleed; Chantiri, Mansour; Bassit, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate many cellular activities including cell migration, differentiation, adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein?2 (rhBMP?2) in oral and maxillofacial surgery has seen a tremendous increase. Due to its role in many cellular pathways, the influence of this protein on carcinogenesis in different organs has been intensively studied over the past decade. BMPs also have been detected to have a role in the development and progression of many tumors, particularly disease-specific bone metastasis. In oral squamous cell carcinoma - the tumor type accounting for more than 90% of head and neck malignancies- aberrations of both BMP expression and associated signaling pathways have a certain relation with the development and progression of the disease by regulating a range of biological functions in the altered cells. In the current review, we discuss the influence of BMPs -especially rhBMP-2- in the development and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27039814

  9. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  10. Benign and Malignant Proliferative Fibro-osseous and Osseous Lesions of the Oral Cavity of Dogs.

    PubMed

    Soltero-Rivera, M; Engiles, J B; Reiter, A M; Reetz, J; Lewis, J R; Sánchez, M D

    2015-09-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OF) and fibrous dysplasia (FD) are benign, intraosseous, proliferative fibro-osseous lesions (PFOLs) characterized by replacement of normal bone by a fibrous matrix with various degrees of mineralization and ossification. Osteomas are benign tumors composed of mature, well-differentiated bone. Clinical, imaging, and histologic features of 15 initially diagnosed benign PFOLs and osteomas of the canine oral cavity were evaluated. Final diagnoses after reevaluation were as follows: OF (3 cases), FD (4 cases), low-grade osteosarcoma (LG-OSA) (3 cases), and osteoma (5 cases). Histology alone often did not result in a definitive diagnosis for PFOL. OF appeared as a well-circumscribed, radiopaque mass with some degree of bone lysis on imaging. Most lesions of FD showed soft tissue opacity with bone lysis and ill-defined margins. Low-grade OSA appeared as a lytic lesion with a mixed opacity and ill-defined margins. Osteomas were characterized by a mineralized, expansile, well-circumscribed lesion. Although histologic features of PFOLs were typically bland, the lesions diagnosed as LG-OSA had some features of malignancy (eg, bone invasion or a higher mitotic index). Treatment varied widely. Of the 10 dogs with benign PFOL or osteoma with known outcome (10/12), 9 showed either complete response (6/10) or stable disease (3/10) after treatment. Of the 2 dogs with LG-OSA with known outcome, 1 showed complete response after curative intent surgery, but 1 patient had recurrence after partial maxillectomy. Definitive diagnosis of mandibular/maxillary PFOL is challenging via histopathologic examination alone, and accurate diagnosis is best achieved through assimilation of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features. PMID:25957357

  11. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Oue, Erika; Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei; Iimura, Tadahiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kayamori, Kou; Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first

  12. Evaluation of Various Nuclear Cytological Changes in Normal Buccal Mucosa and Peritumoural Area in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Sadia; Kashif, Muhammad; Nagi, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the role of serial cytological assay in calculating the nuclear response of contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peritumoural area of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity in patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. This prospective, nonrandomized study was comprised of 76 histologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma on cyclical chemoradiation treatment. Chemoradiosensitivity was evaluated using serial scrape smears taken before and after immediate exposure to CCRT, at 17th day of CCRT (mid of treatment), and at the end of treatment. The nuclear changes, such as multinucleation, micronucleation, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear budding, prominent nucleoli, and binucleation occurring in both irradiated cancer cells and contralateral normal buccal mucosa, had a statistically significant dose related increase with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion. We recommend regular use of serial cytological assay during CCRT as it may prove to be a valuable tool for assessment of chemoradiosensitivity and persistence of tumour/dysplastic cells after radiotherapy. PMID:27148467

  13. Characterization of different tissue changes in normal, betel chewers, potentially malignant lesions, conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma using reflectance confocal microscopy: correlation with routine histopathology.

    PubMed

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Sherlin, Herald J; Anuja, N; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Chandrasekar, T

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the features of normal mucosa, mucosa in betel chewers and smokers, potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa using reflectance confocal microscopy. Oral cavity biopsies were acquired from 25 patients from College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University who underwent screening for suspected lesions of Oral precancer and Oral cancer along with normal patients who underwent impaction. Biopsies were acquired from the clinically suspicious area and immediately placed in Dulbecco modified eagles growth medium (DMEM). Reflectance confocal images were obtained at multiple image plane depths from biopsies within 6h of excision. After imaging, biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted for routine histopathological examination by an experienced oral and maxillofacial pathologist. Reflectance confocal images were compared with histological images from the same sample to determine the tissue features which contribute to early cellular changes, image contrast and early diagnosis. The confocal images were obtained to a depth of up to 150 microns on intact biopsy specimens and subsequent 3-dimensional images, keratin thickness measurements, cell measurements, cell density analysis and graphical representations were performed using Leica image analysis software. In normal mucosa keratin deposition were seen as alternating dark and bright stacks and in different cell layers the nuclei were seen as disks of varying intensities. In pre-cancerous lesions the keratin thickness and cell nuclear density were found to be increased when compared to normal controls. In OSMF cases confocal images of fibrosis show scattering from individual fibres as hyperdense areas. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases demonstrated extensive variations in cell size, nuclear size and nuclear morphology. At cellular level, dysplastic features like increased nuclear density, increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear and cellular

  14. Curcumin targets fibroblast–tumor cell interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dudás, József; Fullár, Alexandra; Romani, Angela; Pritz, Christian; Kovalszky, Ilona; Hans Schartinger, Volker; Mathias Sprinzl, Georg; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of OSCC tumor cells. We hypothesized that Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells. Normal and 2 μM Curcumin-treated co-culture were performed for 4 days, followed by analysis of tumor cell invasivity, mRNA/protein expression of EMT-markers and mediators, activity measure of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and western blot analysis of signal transduction in tumor cells and fibroblasts. In Curcumin-treated co-culture, in tumor cells, the levels of nuclear factor κB (NFκBα) and early response kinase (ERK)—decreased, in fibroblasts, integrin αv protein synthesis decreased compared to corresponding cells in normal co-culture. The signal modulatory changes induced by Curcumin caused decreased release of EMT-mediators in CAFs and reversal of EMT in tumor cells, which was associated with decreased invasion. These data confirm the palliative potential of Curcumin in clinical application. - Graphical abstract: Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells by inhibiting the production of EMT mediators in CAFs and by modification of intracellular signaling in tumor cells. This causes less invasivity and reversal of EMT in tumor cells. Highlights: ► Curcumin targets tumor–fibroblast interaction in head and neck cancer. ► Curcumin suppresses mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. ► Curcumin decreases the invasivity of tumor cells.

  15. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    PubMed

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization. PMID:26786962

  16. Cytoreduction and intraperitoneal heated chemotherapy for the treatment of endometrial carcinoma recurrent within the peritoneal cavity.

    PubMed

    Helm, C W; Toler, C R; Martin, R S; Gordinier, M E; Parker, L P; Metzinger, D S; Edwards, R P

    2007-01-01

    Our experience with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPHC) in conjunction with surgical resection for endometrial cancer recurrent within the abdominal cavity was reviewed. Eligible patients underwent exploratory laparotomy with the aim of resecting disease to < or =5 mm maximum dimension followed immediately by intraperitoneal perfusion of cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)) heated to 41-43 degrees C (105.8-109.4 degrees F) for 1.5 h. Data for analysis was extracted from retrospective chart review. Five patients underwent surgery and IPHC between September 2002 and January 2005 for abdomino-pelvic recurrence. Original stage and histology were 1A papillary serous (1), 1C endometrioid with clear cell features (1), and 1B endometrioid (3). Mean age was 61 (41-75) years, mean prior laparotomies were 1.4 (1-2), and mean chemotherapy agent exposure was 1.6 (0-4). Mean time from initial treatment to surgery and IPHC was 47 (29-66) months. Mean length of surgery was 9.8 (7-11) h after which three patients had no residual disease and two had < or =5 mm disease. The mean duration of hospital stay was 12.6 (6-20) days. Postoperative surgical complications included wound infection with septicemia in one patient. Mean maximum postoperative serum creatinine was 1.02 (0.6-1.70) mg/dL. There was no ototoxicity or neuropathy and no perioperative mortality. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two are living disease free at 28 and 32 m and two are living with disease at 12 and 36 m. One patient died at 3 m without evidence of cancer. Two patients who had no residual macroscopic disease at the end of surgery are alive at 32 and 36 m. The combination of IPHC with surgery for recurrent endometrial carcinoma is relatively well tolerated. The unexpectedly long survival seen in this cohort supports a phase II trial of IPHC with cisplatin for recurrent endometrial cancer. PMID:17291254

  17. Technetium-99m Bone Scan and Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Bone Invasion by Oral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    John, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The correct extension of cancer in the bone usually remains undetected on static imaging which may lead to inadequate or over excision. The conventional radiography as well as other anatomical imaging modalities like computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging often fails to detect functional changes in the bone. However, bone scinitigraphy is highly sensitive in detecting earlier changes in the bone but lack anatomical definition. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of combining technetium-99m bone scan and panoramic radiography (Tc scan/PR) over using single diagnostic modality in detection of jaw bone invasion by oral carcinomas. The accuracy of these imaging modalities either alone or in combination were determined by comparing with the histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with biopsy-proven oral malignant tumors were randomly selected from Oral Medicine and Radiology department over a period of two years. All patients were investigated preoperatively by Tc scan and PR. Lewis – Jones’s designed diagnostic criterion was applied on Tc scan/PR to evaluate bone involvement by cancer. To test the accuracy of Tc scan, PR and Tc scan/PR, their results were compared with the histopathological findings of resected specimen. Results: Hybrid Tc scan/PR had higher specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value (83.3%, 94.7%, 92.8%) than Tc scan alone (50%, 84.2%, 81.2%) and higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (100%, 100%) than PR (69.2%, 55.5%). Conclusion: Combination of Tc scan and PR was more accurate in detecting jaw bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma than Tc scan and PR alone. PMID:24995244

  18. Electrochemotherapy in combination with chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of oral carcinomas in advanced stages of disease: efficacy, safety, and clinical outcomes in a small number of selected cases

    PubMed Central

    Domanico, Rossana; Trapasso, Serena; Santoro, Mariaquila; Pingitore, Domenico; Allegra, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a new therapeutic method that is used in oncology as palliative treatment in patients with recurrent head and neck tumors and who are not candidates for standard therapeutic options. The aim of our study was to evaluate the cytoreductive effect of ECT in patients subjected to chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. The primary endpoint of the study was to verify tumor debulking after ECT treatment as neoadjuvant, before conventional chemoradiotherapy. The secondary endpoint was to assess the safety and tolerability of ECT treatment. Materials and methods This experimental study was conducted at the Division of Otolaryngology, University of Catanzaro, Italy. From February 2013 to February 2014, four patients were enrolled, two males and two females, with a mean age of 56 years (range: 47–65 years), and with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in advanced stages of disease (T3–T4). All patients, with their informed consent, received ECT treatment in accordance with the Standard Operating Procedures defined in the European Standard Operating Procedures on Electrochemotherapy (ESOPE) study, followed by conventional chemoradiotherapy. Their response to ECT treatment was assessed after 30 days. For each patient, the following parameters were evaluated with the appropriate forms: local tumor control, control of pain (analgesia postsurgery scale [APS]), and quality of life (Short Form [36] Health Survey [SF-36]; v1). Results Three of four patients (75%) showed a partial response, whereas in one patient (25%), the disease remained stable. The treatment was well-tolerated by all patients, according to the APS and SF-36 results. Conclusion Although the study was conducted on a small number of cases, data from this study show that ECT represents a safe and effective treatment in terms of tumor cytoreduction and locoregional control of the disease. It also allows good control of postoperative pain

  19. Multiple Single-Cell Genomes Provide Insight into Functions of Uncultured Deltaproteobacteria in the Human Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alisha G.; Campbell, James H.; Schwientek, Patrick; Woyke, Tanja; Sczyrba, Alexander; Allman, Steve; Beall, Clifford J.; Griffen, Ann; Leys, Eugene; Podar, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long history of investigation, many bacteria associated with the human oral cavity have yet to be cultured. Studies that correlate the presence or abundance of uncultured species with oral health or disease highlight the importance of these community members. Thus, we sequenced several single-cell genomic amplicons from Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio (class Deltaproteobacteria) to better understand their function within the human oral community and their association with periodontitis, as well as other systemic diseases. Genomic data from oral Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio species were compared to other available deltaproteobacterial genomes, including from a subset of host-associated species. While both groups share a large number of genes with other environmental Deltaproteobacteria genomes, they encode a wide array of unique genes that appear to function in survival in a host environment. Many of these genes are similar to virulence and host adaptation factors of known human pathogens, suggesting that the oral Deltaproteobacteria have the potential to play a role in the etiology of periodontal disease. PMID:23555659

  20. Assessment of risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in Chidambaram, Southern India: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, Rajamanickam; Thangavelu, Annamalai; Mathavan, Bommayasamy; Ramachandran, Chinnamanoor R; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2007-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma, the fifth most common cancer worldwide, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. The effect of lifestyle factors, including tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking, diet and dental care, on the risk of oral cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalainagar, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India during the period 1991-2003. The study included 388 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases and an equal number (388) of age and sex-matched controls. All participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that contained data on demographic factors, family history of cancer, tobacco habits, use of alcohol, frequency, duration, cessation of these habits, dietary practices and oral hygiene. The data were analysed using multiple logistic regression model. Among people with chewing habits, those who chewed betel quid with tobacco [odds ratio (OR) 3.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-2.13] and tobacco alone (OR 2.89) showed a greater risk than controls. Bidi smoking (OR 4.63) and alcohol drinking (OR 1.65) emerged as significant risk factors for oral cancer. These three habits showed increasing risk with increasing frequency and increase in duration of habits. Addition of alcohol to other habits also enhanced the risk for oral cancer. The combination of chewing and smoking together with alcohol drinking showed very high relative risk (OR 11.34). A positive association was observed between non-vegetarian diet, poor oral hygiene and poor dentition with the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The fact that these risk factors are modifiable emphasizes the need for increasing awareness among the general public and policy makers as a first step in the prevention and control of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:17415096

  1. Blockade of TRPM8 activity reduces the invasion potential of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Ohkubo, Tsuyako; Ikebe, Tetsuro; Yamazaki, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP)-channel family are expressed in cancer cells. One, cold/menthol-sensitive TRPM8, is reportedly an important player in carcinogenesis in human prostate cancer, although its involvement in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unclear. The present immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR results revealed intense TRPM8 expression in two SCC cell lines, HSC3 and HSC4, derived from the human tongue. Menthol, icilin, and a more specific TRPM8 agonist (WS-12) induced non-specific cation currents, with Ca2+ permeability being greater than that of Na+ or K+. The novel TRPM8 antagonist RQ-00203078 (RQ) profoundly reduced such agonist-induced cation currents. Intracellular Ca2+ imaging revealed that menthol induced both intracellular Ca2+ release and store-operated Ca2+ entry, with RQ inhibiting each effect. To assess the possible pathophysiological role of TRPM8 in oral SCC, we performed motility and invasion assays, and gelatin zymography. Menthol augmented the migration and invasion abilities of both HSC3 and HSC4 cells by potentiating MMP-9 activity. RQ suppressed all of these effects. These results may aid understanding of the pathophysiological implications of TRPM8 channels in the oral SCC cells, support TRP proteins as valuable targets for pharmaceutical intervention, and inform the targeting of oral SCC in which the prognosis is poor. PMID:22267123

  2. Topical MMP beacon enabled fluorescence-guided resection of oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Laura; Chen, Juan; Wolter, Nikolaus E.; Wilson, Brian; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Each year almost 300,000 individuals worldwide are diagnosed with oral cancer, more than 90% of these being oral carcinoma [N. Engl. J. Med. 328, 184 19938417385]. Surgical resection is the standard of care, but accurate delineation of the tumor boundaries is challenging, resulting in either under-resection with risk of local recurrence or over-resection with increased functional loss and negative impact on quality of life. This study evaluates, in two pre-clinical in vivo tumor models, the potential of fluorescence-guided resection using molecular beacons activated by metalloproteinases, which are frequently upregulated in human oral cancer. In both models there was rapid (<15 min) beacon activation upon local application, allowing clear fluoresecence imaging in vivo and confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence microscopy and HPLC, with minimal activation in normal oral tissues. Although the tissue penetration was limited using topical application, these findings support further development of this approach towards translation to first-in-human trials. PMID:27231609

  3. Gene expression in human oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by risk factor exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheong, S C; Chandramouli, G V R; Saleh, A; Zain, R B; Lau, S H; Sivakumaren, S; Pathmanathan, R; Prime, S S; Teo, S H; Patel, V; Gutkind, J S

    2009-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world health problem and is associated with exposure to different risk factors. In the west, smoking and alcohol consumption are considered to be the main risk factors whilst in India and southeast Asia, betel quid (BQ) chewing is predominant. In this study, we compared the gene expression patterns of oral cancers associated with BQ chewing to those caused by smoking using Affymetrix microarrays. We found that 281 genes were differentially expressed between OSCC and normal oral mucosa regardless of aetiological factors including MMP1, PLAU, MAGE-D4, GNA12, IFITM3 and NMU. Further, we identified 168 genes that were differentially expressed between the BQ and smoking groups including CXCL-9, TMPRSS2, CA12 and RNF24. The expression of these genes was validated using qPCR using independent tissue samples. The results demonstrate that whilst common genes/pathways contribute to the development of oral cancer, there are also other gene expression changes that are specific to certain risk factors. The findings suggest that different carcinogens activate or inhibit specific pathways during cancer development and progression. These unique gene expression profiles should be taken into consideration when developing biomarkers for future use in prognostic or therapeutic applications. PMID:19147396

  4. Comparative study of frequency of micronuclei in normal, potentially malignant diseases and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Varsha Ajit; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Shah, Nishat; Kangane, Suresh; Ghule, Hrishikesh M.; Rani, SR Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Context: The assessment of micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated oral epithelial cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aims: To detect MN in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms and also to detect frequency of MN in premalignant lesions and conditions (potentially malignant diseases [PMD's]) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To correlate frequency of MN in oral exfoliated cells in clinically diagnosed cases of OSCC followed by a histopathological grading. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects (30 smokeless tobacco users, 30 smokers and 30 nontobacco users) consisted of clinically diagnosed cases of PMD's and OSCC were selected for the study. Cytosmears from the groups were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain. MN was identified according to the Tolbert et al. criteria. Results: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers. The frequency of MN was three to four times higher in patients with OSCC as compared to patients in PMD's (P < 0.0001). The frequency of MN correlated with the histopathological grade was statistically significant. Conclusion: MN index can be used as a biomarker/screening test among the high-risk groups particularly the smokeless tobacco users and PMD's. MN can be a candidate to serve as a biomarker for prediction of the grade of OSCC. PMID:27003966

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of p16 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Sharifi, Nourieh; Amirchaghmaghi, Maryam; Ghazi, Narges; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Ghazi, Ala

    2014-08-01

    Epithelial carcinogenesis is a multistep process. Specific genetic events lead to malignant transformation of oral epithelium. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may be preceded by potentially malignant lesions such as oral lichen planus (OLP). The p16 protein functions as a negative regulator of the cell cycle progression. Altered pattern of p16 serves as a biomarker for oral mucosal dysplasia and malignant growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate p16 expression in OSCC and OLP to determine whether it can be a useful marker for early detection of carcinogenesis. We examined p16 expression in 45 OSCCs (15 grade I, 15 grade II, and 15 grade III), 15 OLPs without dysplasia, and 8 normal mucosal specimens with immunohistochemistry. p16 was interpreted as positive if more than 70% of tumor cells showed brown nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. All of the OSCC and control group samples showed negative immunoreactivity, whereas 26.7% of OLP samples were positive for p16. Our findings suggest that p16 expression could not be used as a helpful marker for detection of development toward malignancy in OLP samples. PMID:24850170

  6. Luteolin Impacts on the DNA Damage Pathway in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tjioe, Kellen Cristine; Tostes Oliveira, Denise; Gavard, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) exhibited high chemoresistance to current treatments. Here we aimed at identifying and repositioning approved drugs that could be selectively toxic toward OSCC cells. Through a cell-based drug screening of 1,280 chemical molecules, we selected compounds lethal to oral cancer SCC-25 cells, while sparing normal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Within the chemical library, the natural flavonoid luteolin was identified as a potent cytotoxic agent against oral cancer cells in vitro, along with metixene hydrochloride and nitazoxanide. Of note, they exhibit low toxicity and high efficiency compared to the standard-of-care, such as cisplatin and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor tyrphostin. From a molecular standpoint, luteolin causes phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and H2AX in a DNA repair pathway and can be efficiently combined with a checkpoint kinase (CHK) pharmacological inhibitor. Thus, luteolin emerges as a potent cytotoxic and/or adjuvant therapy in oral cancer, as it is a natural compound presenting better effects in vitro compared to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Future in vivo exploration is next required to provide the proof-of-concept that luteolin could be an efficient anticancer molecule. PMID:27266882

  7. Topical MMP beacon enabled fluorescence-guided resection of oral carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Laura; Chen, Juan; Wolter, Nikolaus E; Wilson, Brian; Zheng, Gang

    2016-03-01

    Each year almost 300,000 individuals worldwide are diagnosed with oral cancer, more than 90% of these being oral carcinoma [N. Engl. J. Med.328, 1841993]. Surgical resection is the standard of care, but accurate delineation of the tumor boundaries is challenging, resulting in either under-resection with risk of local recurrence or over-resection with increased functional loss and negative impact on quality of life. This study evaluates, in two pre-clinical in vivo tumor models, the potential of fluorescence-guided resection using molecular beacons activated by metalloproteinases, which are frequently upregulated in human oral cancer. In both models there was rapid (<15 min) beacon activation upon local application, allowing clear fluoresecence imaging in vivo and confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence microscopy and HPLC, with minimal activation in normal oral tissues. Although the tissue penetration was limited using topical application, these findings support further development of this approach towards translation to first-in-human trials. PMID:27231609

  8. Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of gallic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Talita A; Farias, Lucyana C; Fraga, Carlos A; Feltenberger, John D; Melo, Geraldo A; Coletta, Ricardo D; Souza Santos, Sergio H; de Paula, Alfredo M B; Guimaraes, Andre L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a theoretical model that could explain the mechanism of action of gallic acid (GA) in the oral squamous cell carcinoma context for the first time. The theoretical model was developed using bioinformatics and interaction network analysis to evaluate the effect of GA on oral squamous cell carcinoma. In a second step to confirm theoretical results, migration, invasion, proliferation, and gene expression (Col1A1, E-cadherin, HIF-1α, and caspase-3) were performed under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our study indicated that treatment with GA resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in neoplastic cells. Observation of the molecular mechanism showed that GA upregulates E-cadherin expression and downregulates Col1A1 and HIF-1α expression, suggesting that GA might be a potential anticancer compound. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that GA significantly reduces cell proliferation, invasion, and migration by increasing E-cadherin and repressing Col1A1. PMID:26849170

  9. p63 and E-cadherin Expression in Canine Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, L A; Pissarra, H; Faísca, P B; Bragança, M; Peleteiro, M C; Niza, M M R E

    2015-07-01

    The expression of p63 and E-cadherin was studied in 22 oral squamous cell carcinomas in the dog according to immunohistochemical techniques. The association between these markers and clinicopathologic parameters was assessed. All tumor cells studied showed enhanced p63 expression. Regarding E-cadherin expression, 17 of 22 cases (77.3%) showed decreased immunoreactivity, and in 13 of 22 cases (59.1%), its expression was cytoplasmic. Neither p63 nor E-cadherin expression patterns were associated with tumor size, bone invasion, or lymph node metastasis. p63 score was related to proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferative index (P = .020). A statistically significant correlation between the expression patterns of these 2 markers was noted (P = .026). Furthermore, they were related with tumor grade. An atypical p63 labeling and a cytoplasmic E-cadherin staining were statistically related with a higher tumor grade (P = .022 and P = .017, respectively). These findings suggest that changes in p63 and E-cadherin expression are frequent events in oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs. PMID:25248518

  10. Oral health and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and esophagus: results of two multicentric case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Guha, Neela; Boffetta, Paolo; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Eluf Neto, Jose; Shangina, Oxana; Zaridze, David; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Fernandez, Leticia; Mates, Dana; Daudt, Alexander W; Lissowska, Jolanta; Dikshit, Rajesh; Brennan, Paul

    2007-11-15

    Poor oral health has been reported as a risk factor in the etiology of head and neck cancer. Data on oral health were ascertained as part of two multicenter case-control studies comprising 924 cases and 928 controls in central Europe and 2,286 cases and 1,824 controls in Latin America. Incident cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx) and esophagus, as well as age (in quinquennia)- and sex frequency-matched controls, were enrolled from 1998 to 2003. Poor condition of the mouth (central Europe: odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.74, 4.81; Latin America: OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47, 2.42), lack of toothbrush use (Latin America: OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.28, 4.36), and daily mouthwash use (Latin America: OR = 3.40, 95% CI: 1.96, 5.89) emerged as risk factors for head and neck cancer, independent of tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Missing between six and 15 teeth was an independent risk factor for esophageal cancer (central Europe: OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.26, 6.41; Latin America: OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 4.59). These results indicate that periodontal disease (as indicated by poor condition of the mouth and missing teeth) and daily mouthwash use may be independent causes of cancers of the head, neck, and esophagus. PMID:17761691

  11. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals. PMID:26919318

  12. Distribution of Escherichia coli 0157 and Salmonella on hide surfaces, the oral cavity, and in feces of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T P; Loneragan, G H; Thompson, T W; Sridhara, A; Branham, L A; Pitchiah, S; Brashears, M M

    2007-06-01

    To determine the distribution of pathogens on cattle hides at the feedlot, samples were collected from six hide surface locations (back, flank, hock, neck, perineum, and ventrum), the oral cavity, the rectal-anal junction, and the feces of feedlot cattle and subjected to Escherichia coli 0157 detection via culture methods and to Salmonella detection via PCR. E. coli 0157 was isolated from one or more of the sampling locations from 31 (42.5%) of the 73 animals sampled. Location-specific prevalence of E. coli 0157 was 5% for back samples, 5% for flank samples, 12% for hock samples, 7% for neck samples, 12% for perineum samples, 8% for ventrum samples, 1% for oral cavity samples, 4% for rectal-anal junction swabs, and 23% for fecal grab samples. Salmonella was isolated from one or more of these sample locations from 100% (50 of 50 samples) of all animals sampled. Location-specific prevalence of Salmonella was 76% for back samples, 74% for flank samples, 94% for hock samples, 76% for neck samples, 88% for perineum samples, 86% for ventrum samples, 94% for oral cavity samples, 64% for rectal-anal junction swabs, and 50% for fecal grab samples. The sampling locations that maximized the likelihood of finding E. coli 0157 and Salmonella (84 and 96%, respectively) if the animal was positive at one sampling location or more were the hock, perineum, and fecal grab. These data suggest that the use of multiple sample locations is useful when isolating these pathogens from feedlot cattle. Focusing on one sampling location may underestimate the prevalence. PMID:17612062

  13. The prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers for oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Jeong Seok; Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Seo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Rock Bum

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the prognostic value of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Ki-67, and erythropoietin receptor in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of marker expression was performed on tissue samples from 25 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The Kaplan-Meier method, univariate and multivariate analyses, and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to examine associations between patient and tumor characteristics, and the immunohistochemical results and disease-specific survival. There was no association between the expression of the five markers and disease-specific survival, and there was no statistically significant difference in the hazards ratio according to postoperative radiotherapy. There was no correlation between marker expression and prognosis. There was no association between marker expression and radioresistance or disease-specific survival. Therefore, HIF-1α, CA-IX, COX-2, Ki-67, and erythropoietin receptor are not suitable prognostic markers for tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25169079

  14. Preparation of the Multifunctional Liposome-Containing Microneedle Arrays as an Oral Cavity Mucosal Vaccine Adjuvant-Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the multifunctional liposome-constituted microneedle arrays (LiposoMAs) have been proven to be an interesting vaccine adjuvant-delivery system (VADS) that are stable and can be vaccinated via oral cavity mucosal route. When given to mice at oral mucosa, the LiposoMAs can effectively eliminate the ingredient loss caused by chewing, swallowing, and saliva flowing and can, thus, elicit robust systemic as well as mucosal immunoresponses against the loaded antigens. In addition, the LiposoMAs can induce a mixed Th1/Th2 immunoresponse and strong cellular/humoral immunity due to special adjuvanticity and targeting delivery functions of the nanoparticulate VADS. In this chapter, the preparation, characterization as well as mucosal vaccination of the LiposoMAs are introduced. In addition, the methods for sampling mouse organs, tissues, and cells and for evaluation of the immunization efficacy are mainly included. PMID:27076328

  15. Endoscopy imaging of 5-ALA-induced PPIX fluorescence for detecting early neoplasms in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Olivo, Malini; Sivanandan, Ranjiv; Karuman, Philip; Lim, Tuan-Kay; Soo, K. C.

    2001-10-01

    A digitized fluorescence endoscopy imaging system combined with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) has been developed for the detection of neoplasms in oral cavity. It mainly consists of the illumination console, fluorescence detection unit, computer system for image acquisition, processing and analysis, and online image display system as well. The developed system can produce both the digital and video fluorescence images in real time, and can be used to quantify fluorescence images acquired. Preliminary results from the Head and Neck clinic show that high sensitivity and high specificity can be achieved. Furthermore, applying the intensity ratios at two different wavelength regions, the developed system shows the capability of differentiating between different histopathological stages of oral lesions, suggesting a significant potential for realizing the non-invasive optical biopsy for early cancer diagnosis.

  16. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: current practice and future directions in the clinic and laboratory.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Kalen R; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Cheong, Sok Ching

    2015-02-01

    Despite commendable progress in the prevention, detection, and treatment of a wide variety of solid tumor types, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a significant health burden across the globe. OSCC carcinogenesis involves accumulation of genetic alterations that coincide with the multistep malignant transformation of normal oral epithelium. OSCC is often first diagnosed at late stages of the disease (advanced regional disease and/or metastasis). Delayed diagnosis precludes successful treatment and favorable outcomes. In clinical practice, opportunities exist to identify patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), which precede the development of cancer. This review addresses the current status of laboratory and clinical research on OPMDs, with emphasis on leukoplakia and erythroplakia. OSF is also presented, though there is a paucity of published studies on this disorder. We focus on findings that could translate into earlier diagnosis and more efficacious treatment of those lesions with significant malignant potential. We explore how markers of OPMD malignant transformation might be implemented into current diagnostic practice to help clinicians objectively stratify patients into treatment/follow-up groups according to relative risk. We provide an overview of recently concluded and ongoing OPMD chemoprevention trials. We describe laboratory OPMD models that can be used to not only to reveal the genetic and molecular intricacies of oral cancer but also to develop novel screening methods and therapeutic approaches. Finally, we call for targeted screening programs of at-risk populations in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment of OPMD and early OSCC. PMID:24482244

  17. Incidence and survival trends of lip, intra-oral cavity and tongue base cancers in south-east England

    PubMed Central

    Ekrikpo, U; Lyne, O; Wiseberg, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral cavity cancers are on the increase in the UK. Understanding site-specific epidemiological trends is important for cancer control measures. This study demonstrates the changing epidemiological trends in lip, intra-oral cavity and tongue base cancers in south-east England from 1987 to 2006. Aim: Methods This was a retrospective study using anonymised data obtained from the Thames Cancer Registry (TCR) London. Data were analysed using SPSS v.17 and survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Age standardisation of the incidence rates was performed. It was conducted in south-east England, which has an average population of 12 million. The study analysed 9,318 cases (ICD-10 code C00–C06, C14). Kent Research Ethics Committee UK granted ethical approval. Results Oral cancers were more common in men, with male: female ratio of 1.6:1. Tongue cancers had the highest frequency at 3,088 (33.1%). Incidence varied with each cancer type. Mean incidence (per 1,000,000) ranged from 2.3 (lip cancer) to 13.8 (tongue cancer). There has been a statistically significant increase in incidence for cancers of the tongue base, other parts of tongue, gum and palate (p<0.001). Median survival time varied by sub-site, with lip cancer having the best median survival time (11.09 years) compared with tongue base cancer (2.42 years). Survival analyses showed worse prognosis for men, older age at diagnosis, and presence of synchronous tumours (p<0.001). Conclusion There is a rising incidence of tongue and tongue base, gum and palate cancers in south-east England with wide variability in survival. Oral cancer awareness and screening programmes should be encouraged. PMID:26263810

  18. Melanoma of the Oral Cavity: an Analysis of 46 New Cases with Emphasis on Clinical and Histopathologic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Molly Housley; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Cohen, Donald M; Islam, Nadim M; Fitzpatrick, Sarah G; Montague, Lindsay J; Damm, Douglas D; Fowler, Craig B

    2016-09-01

    Melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare malignancy that carries a poor prognosis. We identified 46 new cases of both primary and metastatic melanoma to the oral cavity. Following IRB approval, these cases were obtained from the Oral Pathology Biopsy Service archives of the UF College of Dentistry (1994-2014), the UK College of Dentistry (1997-2015), and the UM Medical Center (1988-2015). All slides were reviewed. The location, age, race, gender, clinical impression, duration of lesion, histopathologic diagnosis, and histopathologic features were recorded. Cases from the facial skin and those with an ambiguous diagnosis were excluded. Forty-six cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria with 32 primary cases, 11 known metastases, and 3 cases where metastasis could not be excluded. The primary cases included a total of 20 females and 12 males with an average age of 66.7 (range 27-95), and the majority (80 %) of the patients were Caucasian when race was known. Twenty-two of the 32 primary cases (68.8 %) were located in the maxillary mucosa, 5 in the mandibular mucosa or bone, and 5 in other locations. The clinicians' impressions varied from benign fibrous growths to high grade malignancies. The histopathology varied widely among the cases, however two cell types predominated (often in combination): epithelioid cells (50.0 %) and spindle cells (50.0 %). Only 53.1 % demonstrated melanin pigmentation. Oral melanoma remains one of the most diverse clinical and histopathologic diagnoses. Better understanding of this neoplasm may promote earlier diagnosis and may lead to improved outcomes. PMID:26753505

  19. Plasma cell granuloma of the oral cavity: a mucosal manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease or a mimic?

    PubMed

    Laco, Jan; Kamarádová, Kateřina; Mottl, Radovan; Mottlová, Alena; Doležalová, Helena; Tuček, Luboš; Žatečková, Kamila; Slezák, Radovan; Ryška, Aleš

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that oral plasma cell granuloma may represent a mucosal manifestation of immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the oral cavity. The study sample comprised two males and four females, aged 54-79 years (median 62 years). The lesions were localized on gingival/alveolar mucosa (four cases), hard palate, and floor of the mouth, measuring 17-40 mm (median 31 mm). The duration of the lesions ranged from 3 months to several years. Information on IgG4 serum levels was available for two patients, and these were increased to 1.85 and 1.65 g/L, respectively. The follow-up period ranged 11-30 months (median 13 months). None of the lesions recurred, and none of the patients developed any manifestation of IgG4-RD. Microscopically, all cases presented as nodular lesions composed of numerous polyclonal plasma cells admixed with lymphocytes, histiocytes, mast cells, and eosinophils, set within collagenized stroma in variable proportions. Obliterative phlebitis was observed in two cases. The number of IgG4-positive plasma cells ranged between 51 and 142 per HPF (median 114), while the IgG4/IgG ratio values ranged between 0.16 and 0.72 (median 0.44) and were above 0.40 in three cases. Based on international criteria, two cases were diagnosed as definite and one as probable IgG4-RD. Oral plasma cell granuloma is a heterogeneous group of lesions, and a subset may represent a mucosal manifestation of IgG4-RD in the oral cavity. PMID:25522952

  20. Development of a Novel Oral Cavity Compartmental Absorption and Transit Model for Sublingual Administration: Illustration with Zolpidem.

    PubMed

    Xia, Binfeng; Yang, Zhen; Zhou, Haiying; Lukacova, Viera; Zhu, Wei; Milewski, Mikolaj; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2015-05-01

    Intraoral (IO) delivery is an alternative administration route to deliver a drug substance via the mouth that provides several advantages over conventional oral dosage forms. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a novel, physiologically based oral cavity model for projection and mechanistic analysis of the clinical pharmacokinetics of intraoral formulations. The GastroPlus™ Oral Cavity Compartmental Absorption and Transit (OCCAT™) model was used to simulate the plasma concentration versus time profiles and the fraction and rate of intraoral drug transit/absorption for Intermezzo® sublingual tablets (zolpidem tartrate). The model was evaluated by the goodness-of-fit between simulated and observed concentrations and the deviation of key PK parameters (e.g., C max, T max, and AUC). In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to demonstrate the interplay and impact of key modeling parameters on the fraction absorbed via oral mucosa (F a_IO). The OCCAT™ model captured the observed pharmacokinetics for Intermezzo® sublingual tablets (R (2) > 0.9). The predicted deviations (%) for C max, AUC0-inf, AUC0-20 min, and T max were 5.7, 28.0, 11.8, and 28.6%, respectively, indicating good prediction accuracy. The model also estimated ~18% of total drug was absorbed via the IO route. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis indicated that the F a_IO was not only associated with drug diffusivity and unbound fraction in epithelium tissue (f ut) but also depended on the physicochemical properties of compounds for IO delivery (e.g., solubility and logD pH = 7.4). The novel physiologically based IO absorption OCCAT™ model showed satisfactory performance and will be helpful to guide development of future intraoral formulations. PMID:25716146

  1. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25) Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Bułdak, Rafał J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid. PMID:25329614

  2. Prevalence trends of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Mexico City’s General Hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Guerrero, Juan C.; Jacinto-Alemán, Luís F.; Jiménez-Farfán, María D.; Macario-Hernández, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Florentino

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports suggest an increase in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) frequency. To improve programs in public health, it is necessary to understand the epidemiological conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in gender, age, anatomic zone and OSCC stage from Mexico City’s General Hospital patients from 1990 to 2008. Study design: A retrospective review of all OSCC cases diagnosed by the Pathology Department of the Mexico City General Hospital was performed. Demographic data, in addition to anatomic zone and histological degree of differentiation were obtained. Central tendency, dispersion and prevalence rate per 100,000 individuals were determined. Results: A total of 531 patients were diagnosed with OSCC; 58.4% were men, giving a male:female ratio of 1.4:1, and the mean age was 62.5 ± 14.9 years. The predominant anatomic zone was the tongue (44.7%), followed by the lips (21.2%) and gums (20.5%). The most frequent histological degree was moderately differentiated in 325 cases (61.2%). The rates of OSCC prevalence showed similar patterns in terms across time. A significant correlation (P = 0.007) between anatomic zone and age was observed. Conclusion: According to our results, the prevalence of OSCC does not show important variations; however, a relationship between age and anatomic zone was observed. These data could be used as parameters for the diagnosis of OSCC as well as for the development and dissemination of preventive programs for the early detection of oral cancer. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, prevalence, histology degree and anatomic zone. PMID:23385493

  3. Cathepsin B Expression and the Correlation with Clinical Aspects of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-En; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Shu-Hui; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cathepsin B (CTSB), a member of the cathepsin family, is a cysteine protease that is widely distributed in the lysosomes of cells in various tissues. It is overexpressed in several human cancers and may be related to tumorigenesis. The main purpose of this study was to analyze CTSB expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its correlation with patient prognosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Tissue microarrays were used to detect CTSB expression in 280 patients and to examine the association between CTSB expression and clinicopathological parameters. In addition, the metastatic effects of the CTSB knockdown on two oral cancer cell lines were investigated by transwell migration assay. Cytoplasmic CTSB expression was detected in 34.6% (97/280) of patients. CTSB expression was correlated with positive lymph node metastasis (p = 0.007) and higher tumor grade (p = 0.008) but not with tumor size and distant metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed a higher hazard ratio, demonstrating that CTSB expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in buccal mucosa carcinoma patients. Furthermore, the Kaplan–Meier curve revealed that buccal mucosa OSCC patients with positive CTSB expression had significantly shorter overall survival. Moreover, treatment with the CTSB siRNA exerted an inhibitory effect on migration in OC2 and CAL27 oral cancer cells. Conclusions We conclude that CTSB expression may be useful for determining OSCC prognosis, particularly for patients with lymph node metastasis, and may function as a biomarker of the survival of OSCC patients in Taiwan. PMID:27031837

  4. Lupeol evokes anticancer effects in oral squamous cell carcinoma by inhibiting oncogenic EGFR pathway.

    PubMed

    Rauth, Sanchita; Ray, Sudipta; Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mehrotra, Debapriya Ghosh; Alam, Neyaz; Mondal, Goutam; Nath, Partha; Roy, Asoke; Biswas, Jaydip; Murmu, Nabendu

    2016-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is overexpressed in head and neck cancer (HNC). Lupeol, a natural triterpene (phytosterol found in fruits, vegetables, etc.), has been reported to be effective against multiple cancer indications. Here we investigate the antitumor effects of Lupeol and underlying mechanism in oral cancer. Lupeol-induced antitumor response was evaluated in two oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines (UPCI:SCC131 and UPCI:SCC084) by viability (MTT), proliferation, and colony formation assays. Lupeol-mediated induction of apoptosis was examined by caspase 3/7 assay and flow cytometry. Effect of Lupeol on EGFR in the presence or absence of EGF was delineated by Western blot. The mRNA stability assay was performed to check the role of Lupeol on COX-2 mRNA regulation. Lupeol inhibited proliferation of OSCC cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis 48 h post treatment. Ligand-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and subsequent activation of its downstream molecules such as protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), I kappa B (IκB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was also found to be, in part, suppressed. Interestingly, Lupeol suppressed expression of COX-2 at mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Primary explants from oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues further confirmed significant inhibition of proliferation (Ki67) in Lupeol-treated explants as compared to untreated control at 48 h. Together these data suggest that Lupeol may act as a potent inhibitor of the EGFR signaling in OSCC and therefore imply its role in triggering antitumor efficacy. PMID:27206736

  5. LCK, survivin and PI-3K in the molecular biomarker profiling of oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Giacomelli, Luca; Christensen, Russell; Kossan, George; Avezova, Raisa; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    T cell signaling is critical in oral lichen planus (OLP) based on the pathogenesis of this chronic inflammatory autoimmune mucocutaneous lesion. Lck plays a key role in T cell signaling; ultimately this signaling affects other targets such as PI-3K. Excessive activity in PI-3K inhibits apoptosis and promotes uncontrolled cell growth. Molecular biomarker profiling in OLP, Chronic Interface Mucosities (CIM), Epithelial Dysplasia (EpD) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCCA) with application of the principle of biomarker voting may represent a new frontier in the diagnosis, assessment and the arguable debate of OLP transformation to cancer. The presence of Lck, PI-3K and Survivin, a cancer specific anti-apoptotic protein was assessed, using immunohistochemistry and tissue micro-array on patient samples, in OLP, SCCA, CIM and EpD. Lck expression was very high in 78.6 % of OLP patients compared to 3.7% in SCCA; PI-3K was high in 63% of SCCA, 100% of EpD, and 35.7% OLP cases. Survivin was high in 64.3% of OLP cases, 96.3% of SCCA, and 100% of EpD. CIM cases may be slightly different molecularly to OLP. Taken together, our data suggest that biomarker protein voting can be effectively used to isolate high-risk OLP cases. Specifically, we show data with four remarkable cases demonstrating that molecular factors are predictive of histopathology. We conclude that it is safer to treat OLP as premalignant lesions, to adopt aggressive treatment measure in histopathologic described well and moderately differentiated SCCA, and to monitor progress of these diseases molecularly using individualized auto-proteomic approach. The use of Lck inhibitors in OLP management needs to be investigated in the future. PMID:20975919

  6. Assessment of Bax and Bcl-2 Immunoexpression in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nafarzadeh, Shima; Jafari, Sina; Bijani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of probable immune-based etiology. The pathogenesis of LP is unclear, but apoptotic changes in epidermal (epithelial) cells have been reported. Destruction of the basal cell layer is observed and many changes in cell proliferation, cell repair and cell death occur in the injured mucosal epithelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of bax and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus (OLP), well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (WOSCC) and normal mucosa. Sixty one paraffin-embedded biopsy including 11 cases of WOSCC, 30 cases of OLP (n=15 erosive OLP [OLP-E], n=15 reticular OLP [OLP-R]) and 20 normal mucosa were entered in our research. We used immunohistochemistry staining method for assessing bax and bcl-2 expression in epithelial layers. The percentage of stained cells was estimated in 5 randomized microscopic fields and classified as (-): 0%, (+) :< 10%, (++): 10-25%, (+++): 26-50%, (++++): > 50% positive cells. The data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney, Chi Square, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Significant differences in bax expression were observed among OLP, WOSCC compared to normal mucosa (P=0.008). No significant difference in bax expression between OLP-E and OLP-R compared to WOSCC was seen (P>0.05). Bcl-2 was negative for all OLP and normal mucosa samples, and weak positivity was observed in WOSCC samples. According to the findings of our study, it may be possible to correlate the difference of bax and bcl-2 expression levels among the mentioned lesions to the malignant potential of OLP. PMID:24551804

  7. Expression of MUC1 mucin in potentially malignant disorders, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Harish; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Keshavaiah, Roopavathi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Divya, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucins alteration in glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of malignant diseases. Therefore, mucins are used as valuable markers to distinguish normal and disease conditions. Many studies on MUC1 expression have been conducted on variety of neoplastic lesions other than head and neck region. None of the study has made an attempt to show its significance in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Hence, ours is one of the pioneer studies done to assess and evaluate the same. Aims: This study aims to compare and correlate the expression of MUC1 mucin protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), PMD's and OSCC by immunohistochemical method. Materials and Methods: Institutional study, archived tissue sections of OSCC (n = 20), PMD's (n = 20) and NOM (n = 20) were immunostained for MUC1 mucin and percentage of positive cells evaluated. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney test and Student's t-test. Results: The mean MUC1 mucin positive cells in the study groups were as follows, 40% in OSCC, 28% in PMD's and 0.75% in NOM. Higher mean immunohistochemical score was observed in OSCC group followed by PMD's group and NOM group. The difference in immunohistochemical score among the groups was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The result of the current study suggests that determination of MUC1 mucin expression may be a parameter in the diagnosis of malignant behavior of PMD's to OSCC. MUC1 mucin expression may be a useful diagnostic marker for prediction of the invasive/metastatic potential of OSCC. PMID:27601811

  8. Candida species and other yeasts in the oral cavities of type 2 diabetic patients in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, María Inés; de Bernal, Matilde; Collazos, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida species and to study factors associated to oral cavity colonization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 107 diabetics were classified into controlled and uncontrolled according to glycosylated hemoglobin values. Each patient was assessed for stimulated salivary flow rates, pH, and an oral rinse to search for yeast. The study also determined the state of oral health via Klein and Palmer CPO indexes for permanent dentition, dental plaque by O'Leary, and a periodontal chart. Results: We found yeasts in 74.8% of the patients. A total of 36 of the 52 subjects with controlled diabetes presented yeasts and 44 in the uncontrolled; no significant differences (p = 0.2) were noted among the presence of yeasts and the control of blood glucose. The largest number of isolates corresponded to C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. Uncontrolled individuals presented a significantly higher percentage of yeast different from C. albicans (p = 0.049). Conclusions: We found a high percentage of Candida colonization and uncontrolled individuals had greater diversity of species. The wide range of CFU/mL found both in patients with oral candidiasis, as well as in those without it did not permit distinguishing between colonization and disease. We only found association between isolation of yeasts and the low rate of salivary flow. PMID:24892318

  9. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF marker