Sample records for oral morphine tablets

  1. Does Prolonged Oral Treatment with Sustained-Release Morphine Tablets Influence Immune Function?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Palm; Stephan Lehzen; Christian Mignat; Joerg Steinmann; Gerd Leimenstoll; Christoph Maier

    1998-01-01

    Opioids such as morphine are the mainstay of acute and chronic pain treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunosuppressive effects of mor- phine in patients with pain syndromes. We investi- gated 10 patients with chronic pain syndromes under- going treatment with oral sustained-release morphine (30-240 mg\\/d) before and after 1,4, and 12 wk of treat- ment

  2. Ondansetron, orally disintegrating tablets versus intravenous injection for prevention of intrathecal morphine-induced nausea, vomiting, and pruritus in young males.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Arash; Tuncay, Senay F; Torgay, Adnan; Candan, Selim; Arslan, Gulnaz

    2005-11-01

    In this study we compared the efficacy of orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) and IV ondansetron for preventing spinal morphine-induced pruritus and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in healthy young male patients. Patients who received bupivacaine with 0.20 mg morphine for spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to the ODT group (ODT ondansetron 8 mg, n = 50), the IV group (4 mg ondansetron IV, n = 50), or the placebo group (n = 50). Each individual was assessed for pruritus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pain at 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after surgery using three distinct visual analog scales. The frequencies of postoperative nausea and vomiting and frequencies of requirement for rescue antiemetic and antipruritic were recorded. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to incidence or severity of PONV or postoperative pain visual analog scale scores. The incidences of pruritus in the ODT (56%) and IV (66%) groups were significantly different from that in the placebo group (86%) (P < 0.02 for both). Only the ODT group had significantly lower mean pruritus visual analog scale scores at 0, 2, 6, and 12 h postsurgery than the placebo group (P < 0.023 for all). The frequency of requirement for rescue antipruritic was significantly less in the ODT group than the placebo group (P = 0.013). Both ODT ondansetron 8 mg and IV ondansetron 4 mg are more effective than placebo for preventing spinal morphine-induced pruritus, but neither form of this agent reduces spinal morphine-induced postoperative nausea and vomiting in this patient group. PMID:16243989

  3. Oral clonidine reduces postoperative PCA morphine requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Park; Jay Forrest; Rick Kolesar; Dolly Bhola; Scott Beattie; Chris Chu

    1996-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of perioperative oral clonidine on postoperative analgesia and PCA morphine\\u000a requirements in adult patients after major orthopaedic knee surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled study 44 patients undergoing either total knee replacement or hemiarthroplasty\\u000a of the knee were randomly assigned to receive oral placebo or clonidine (5 ?g ·

  4. Oral Clonidine Premedication Enhances Postoperative Analgesia by Epidural Morphine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Goyagi; Makoto Tanaka; Toshiaki Nishikawa

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral clonidine premedication on postoperative analgesia by epidural morphine in a prospective, randomized, double- blinded design. Sixty consenting patients, scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy, were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n 5 20 each); the clonidine- morphine group received oral clonidine 5 mg\\/kg 90 min before arriving in the

  5. Formulation Development of Morphine Sulfate Sustained-Release Tablets and Its Bioequivalence Study in Healthy Thai Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detpon Preechagoon; Viroj Sumyai; Suvatna Chulavatnatol; Poj Kulvanich; Thanee Tessiri; Khanittha Tontisirin; Thaned Pongjanyakul; Verawan Uchaipichat; Sirikul Aumpon; Chaiyasit Wongvipaporn

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop morphine sulfate sustained-release tablet formulations and to evaluate the bioequivalence\\u000a compared with a commercial brand. The physicochemical properties of the formulated and commercial tablets were determined\\u000a and compared. The bioequivalence investigation was carried out in 15 healthy male volunteers who received a single dose in\\u000a a randomized two-way crossover design. After dosing,

  6. Potentiating Effect of Morphine on Oral Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Infection is ?-Opioid Receptor Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Jessica M.; Feng, Pu; Meissler, Joseph J.; Pintar, John E.; Gaughan, John; Adler, Martin W.; Eisenstein, Toby K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that mice treated with morphine pellets are sensitized to Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhimurium infection. However, the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, only partially blocked the effect of morphine, raising the possibility that the opioid might have some of its effects through a nonopioid receptor. To further clarify whether sensitization to infection is an opioid receptor-dependent phenomenon, ?-opioid receptor knock-out (MORKO) mice were used in the present study. Wild type (WT) and MORKO mice were treated with morphine and their sensitivity to oral Salmonella infection assessed by mortality, bacterial burdens in gut associated lymphoid tissue and in blood and peritoneal fluid, and by levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma. MORKO animals treated with morphine were refractory to a sublethal dose of Salmonella, while similar treatment of WT animals resulted in 100% mortality. WT animals treated with morphine had high bacterial loads in all organs tested, while morphine-treated MORKO animals had no culturable Salmonella in any organs. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in morphine treated WT but not MORKO mice infected with Salmonella. These results provide definitive evidence that the morphine-mediated enhancement of oral Salmonella infection is dependent on the ?-opioid receptor. PMID:20688146

  7. Oral pharmacokinetic comparison of different genistein tablets in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Feng, Duiping; Qiu, Feng; Tong, Zhanqi; Xie, Chunming

    2013-04-01

    An accurate and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the quantification of genistein in dog plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Genistein and diclofenac (internal standard) were extracted from the plasma sample using methyl tert-butyl ether and then separated on an Agilent Zorbax C18 column using a gradient mobile phase. The detector was a Q-trap mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization interface operating in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.10-500 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 0.10 ng/mL. The method was shown to be reproducible and reliable, with inter-day and intra-day accuracy and precision within ±15%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic comparison of immediate and extended release tablets in beagle dogs after oral administration. Immediate release tablets showed rapid genistein absorption, with mean peak concentration of 726 ± 199 ng/mL reached at 0.2 ± 0.0 h. However, the absorption of genistein was considerably slower and more sustainable for extended release tablets. The relative bioavailability of the extended release tablet over the immediate release formulation was estimated to be 134 ± 47% based on the AUCInf values from non-compartmental analysis. PMID:22964950

  8. A comparison of regularly dosed oral morphine and on-demand intramuscular morphine in the treatment of postsurgical pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. McCormack; C. Brian Warriner; Marc Levine; Ned Glick

    1993-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted to compare the use of regularly dosed po morphine\\u000a and on-demand im morphine in 47 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Patients were randomized to receive either 20\\u000a mg (initial dose) of regularly dosed morphine (every four hours po) plus breakthrough pain medication on-demand consisting\\u000a of both 10 mg morphine po and placebo

  9. Randomised crossover trial of transdermal fentanyl and sustained release oral morphine for treating chronic non-cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Laurie; Hays, Helen; Jensen, Niels-Henrik; de Waroux, Bernard Le Polain; Bolt, Michiel; Donald, Royden; Kalso, Eija

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To compare patients' preference for transdermal fentanyl or sustained release oral morphine, their level of pain control, and their quality of life after treatment. Design Randomised, multicentre, international, open label, crossover trial. Setting 35 centres in Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and South Africa. Participants 256 patients (aged 26-82 years) with chronic non-cancer pain who had been treated with opioids. Main outcome measures Patients' preference for transdermal fentanyl or sustained release oral morphine, pain control, quality of life, and safety assessments. Results Of 212 patients, 138 (65%) preferred transdermal fentanyl, whereas 59 (28%) preferred sustained release oral morphine and 15 (7%) expressed no preference. Better pain relief was the main reason for preference for fentanyl given by 35% of patients. More patients considered pain control as being “good” or “very good” with fentanyl than with morphine (35% v 23%, P=0.002). These results were reflected in both patients' and investigators' opinions on the global efficacy of transdermal fentanyl. Patients receiving fentanyl had on average higher quality of life scores than those receiving morphine. The incidence of adverse events was similar in both treatment groups; however, more patients experienced constipation with morphine than with fentanyl (48% v 29%, P<0.001). Overall, 41% of patients experienced mild or moderate cutaneous problems associated with wearing the transdermal fentanyl patch, and more patients withdrew because of adverse events during treatment with fentanyl than with morphine (10% v 5%). However, within the subgroup of patients naive to both fentanyl and morphine, similar numbers of patients withdrew owing to adverse effects (11% v 10%, respectively). Conclusion Transdermal fentanyl was preferred to sustained release oral morphine by patients with chronic non-cancer pain previously treated with opioids. The main reason for preference was better pain relief, achieved with less constipation and an enhanced quality of life. What is already known on this topicThe clinical use of potent opioids in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain is supported by retrospective, survey data and small randomised controlled trials showing efficacy and safetyStudies with transdermal fentanyl have shown efficacy and preference over sustained release oral morphine in the treatment of cancer painWhat this study addsThis is the first study to provide comparative data supporting treatment options with potent opioids for chronic non-cancer painBoth transdermal fentanyl and sustained release oral morphine provided effective and well tolerated pain reliefDuring fentanyl treatment patients experienced superior pain relief, higher quality of life, and less constipation; fentanyl was preferred to morphine by 65% of patients PMID:11348910

  10. Retardiert freigesetztes Naloxon oral: Aufhebung der Obstipation durch orales Morphin ohne Beseitigung der Analgesie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Jurna; J. Baldauf

    1993-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Eine längere Anwendung von Morphin zur Schmerztherapie verursacht meist eine Obstipation, die den Einsatz von Laxanzien erfordert,\\u000a von denen die wirksamsten den Elektrolythaushalt empfindlich stören können. Die Obstipation beruht auf einer Bindung von Morphin\\u000a an Opioidrezeptoren im Darm und Zentralnervensystem, wobei der Angriff am Darm von größerer Bedeutung ist. Die besondere Pharmakokinetik\\u000a von Naloxon liefert einen Ansatz für den Versuch,

  11. Oral suspensions of morphine hydrochloride for controlled release: rheological properties and drug release.

    PubMed

    Morales, M E; López, G; Gallardo, V; Ruiz, M A

    2011-04-01

    Recent developments in pharmaceutical technology have facilitated the design and production of modified release formulas for drugs whose physical, chemical or biological properties impede release and thus might compromise their efficacy or safety. One such drug is morphine, whose short half-life requires repeated doses at short intervals. The use of biocompatible polymers such as ethylcellulose has made it possible to develop microencapsulated formulations which facilitate liquid, sustained-release pharmaceutical formulas for oral administration. We developed a stable final formulation of morphine with an acceptable release profile by comparing the rheological properties and stability of formulations with different thickeners (xanthan gum, Carbopol, and carboxymethylcellulose with microcrystalline cellulose) at different concentrations from 0.25% to 1.0%. Release assays in a Franz-type cell were done to determine the most suitable release profile for the formulation. PMID:21271730

  12. Aufhebung einer Morphin- induzierten Obstipation durch orales Naloxon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Latasch; M. Zimmermann; B. Eberhardt; I. Jurna

    1997-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Hintergrund: Häufigste Nebenwirkung einer Therapie chronischer Schmerzen mit Opioiden ist eine Obstipation. Sie beruht größtenteils auf\\u000a einer Bindung der Opiode an Rezeptoren im Magen-Darmtrakt, aus der sie durch oral verabfolgtes Naloxon verdrängt werden können,\\u000a ohne daß die analgetische Wirkung wegen der hohen präsystemischen Elimination des Naloxon aufgehoben wird.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Protokoll: In einem Therapieversuch erhielten 15 Patienten, die wegen chronischer Schmerzen

  13. In vivo bioequivalence of oral antidiabetic agents: pioglitazone tablets.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hong; Ozalp, Yildiz; Lainesse, Audrey; Alpan, Recep Serdar

    2004-09-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the bioequivalence of two pioglitazone (CAS 112529-15-4) formulations. The trial was performed in 26 healthy male volunteers with the aim of comparing a new generic product (tablets containing 30 mg pioglit-azone hydrochloride, test) with the originator product (reference). The trial was performed according to an open, crossover design in one study centre. In each of the two study periods (separated by a wash-out of 14 days) a single oral dose of 30 mg (test or reference) formulation was administered. Blood samples were taken up to 120 h post dose, the plasma was separated and the concentrations of pioglitazone and its principal active metabolite hydroxypioglitazone were determined by LC-MS-MS method. AUC0-inf, AUC0-t, Cmax, and Tmax were calculated for both formulations. The mean Cmax of pioglitazone ranged between 1.01 microg/mL and 1.05 microg/mL, while the mean AUC0-inf and AUC0-t ranged between 10.89 microg x h/mL and 10.98 microg x h/mL as well as between 10.56 microg x h/mL and 10.62 microg x h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The median Tmax for the test tablets was 1.50 h and for the reference was 1.75 h. The ratios test/reference formulation for AUC0-inf, AUC0-t and Cmax were 99.70%, 100.13% and 99.17%, respectively. Furthermore, the 90% geometric confidence intervals of the mean ratio of In-transformed AUC0-inf were narrow and symmetrical around 100%, i.e. 90.59% to 109.72%, for AUC0-t, 90.69% to 110.55%, whereas for Cmax they were 87.52% to 112.37%. As in the case of pioglitazone, mean values of the principal bioequivalence parameters of hydroxypioglitazone did not differ significantly after administration of the test and reference formulations. In the light of the present study it can be concluded that the two evaluated pioglitazone formulations, i.e. test formulation of pioglitazone hydrochloride and reference formulation, are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption. PMID:15497670

  14. Efficacy of oral powder compared with chewable tablets for lanthanum carbonate administration in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2013-10-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) has been administered in a chewable tablet form for patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis. However, some patients have difficulty chewing the tablets. LC oral powder has recently been released in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of LC oral powder form compared with that of chewable tablet form. The efficacy and safety of LC oral powder was retrospectively assessed in hemodialysis patients who switched from chewable tablet form to oral powder form without dose modification. Thirty-six patients (mean age, 66.8 ± 10.5 years; male, 64%; 39% with diabetes; mean duration of dialysis treatment, 99.2 ± 95.6 months) were enrolled in this study between June and July of 2012. Changes in clinical data and adverse events after the switch to oral powder form were investigated. The average dose of LC was 1180 ± 520 mg/day. Serum phosphorus levels were significantly decreased after the switch from chewable tablet form to oral powder form (5.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL at baseline vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 mg/dL at after 1 month after, P = 0.038). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, no significant differences were evident in weight gain after the switch to oral powder form (2.5 ± 1.2 kg at baseline vs. 2.4 ± 1.1 kg at 1 month after the switch, P = 0.29). No serious adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that LC is more effective in oral powder form than chewable tablet form for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24134326

  15. Long-Term High-dose Oral Morphine in Phantom Limb Pain with No Addiction Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Garg, Rakesh; Bharati, Sachidanand Jee; Gupta, Nishkarsh; Bhatanagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) is a type of neuropathic pain, which is located in the missing/amputated limb. Phantom pain is difficult to treat as the exact basis of pain mechanism is still unknown. Various methods of treatment for PLP have been described, including pharmacological (NSAIDs, opioids, antiepileptic, antidepressants) and non-pharmacological (TENS, sympathectomy, deep brain stimulation and motor cortex stimulation). Opioids are used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and dose of opioid is determined based on its effect and thus there is no defined ceiling dose for opioids. We report a case where a patient receiving high-dose oral morphine for chronic cancer pain did not demonstrate signs of addiction. PMID:25709194

  16. Oral mucosal ulceration due to ferrous sulphate tablets: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Jones, Terry A; Parmar, Satyesh C

    2006-12-01

    Recurrent oral ulceration due to underlying iron-deficiency anaemia is already recognized. However, this case report describes a 78-year-old lady who developed severe ulceration of the tongue and floor of the mouth as a result of the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia with ferrous sulphate tablets. Withdrawal of the ferrous sulphate tablets and replacement with ferrous fumarate syrup led to resolution of the lesion. PMID:17209540

  17. Pharmacokinetics of desmopressin administered as tablet and oral lyophilisate formulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Pauline; De Guchtenaere, Ann; Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Raes, Ann; Dehoorne, Jo; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Laecke, Erik; Vande Walle, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Desmopressin 120 ?g oral lyophilisate and 200 ?g tablet are considered bioequivalent, based on extrapolation of studies in a limited number of adults and on one dose-finding study of desmopressin oral lyophilisate in children. However, no comparative pharmacokinetic study in children was executed confirming this statement. No data are available on the influence of food intake on the bioavailability of desmopressin tablet in a pediatric setting, although studies in adults have documented that food intake results in a significantly lower desmopressin plasma concentration. In this study, we analyzed plasma concentrations of desmopressin oral lyophilisate and tablet with concomitant food intake. Twenty-three children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (mean age, 12.7 years) were recruited. Two tests were performed on two separate days in identical conditions with a standardized food and fluid intake. Desmopressin was administered as desmopressin tablet or desmopressin oral lyophilisate immediately after a meal. Desmopressin plasma concentration was measured at 1 h, 2 h, and 6 h postdosing. No significant difference in plasma concentration of 120 ?g desmopressin oral lyophilisate and 200 ?g tablet was demonstrated, even with concomitant food intake. A significant difference in variability was found, identifying a smaller variance for desmopressin oral lyophilisate plasma concentrations at all time points. This study demonstrates comparable plasma levels for desmopressin oral lyophilisate, despite the lower dose. The dosage for desmopressin oral lyophilisate is more predictable due to the significantly smaller variance. Therefore, desmopressin oral lyophilisate seems more suitable, especially in the younger age group for which time interval between dinner and drug administration is limited. PMID:23989967

  18. Enteric-coated tablets improve oral bioavailability of DX-9065, a novel anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshimine; Kanamaru, Taro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shinji; Sakuma, Shinji

    2011-03-18

    Oral bioavailability of DX-9065, a factor Xa inhibitor, was only 3% when it was administered as a conventional capsule formulation in fasted humans, and was further reduced to about one-tenth when it was administered to fed humans. The poor absorption of DX-9065 probably resulted from its low membrane permeability and its electrostatic interaction with bile acid. We designed enteric-coated tablets with the expectation that this pharmaceutical technology will prevent DX-9065 from interacting with bile acid. More than 85% of DX-9065 was released from the tablet coated with hypromellose acetate succinate within 10min in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). Monkey experiments demonstrated that AUC of DX-9065 after oral administration of its enteric-coated tablet was about 5 times that of its aqueous solution in the fasted state. The food effect on drug absorption was also reduced when DX-9065 was administered as an enteric-coated tablet. The average ratio of AUC in a fed state to that in a fasted state was approximately 0.5, even though the ratio was 0.1 when the enteric-coated tablet was substituted with the drug solution. Enteric coating could be a useful method for improving oral absorption of DX-9065 with reduced food effects on drug absorption. PMID:21238588

  19. Absorption of oral lornoxicam in healthy volunteers using a granular formulation in comparison with standard tablets.

    PubMed

    Bareggi, S R; Gambaro, V; Valenti, M; Benvenuti, C

    1997-06-01

    The bioavailability of lornoxicam (CAS 70374-39-9), a novel highly potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, was studied in healthy volunteers after single doses of a new oral formulation (8 mg granules) in comparison to tablets (8 mg). Eighteen healthy volunteers (6 males and 12 females) with a mean age of 29.4 were given a single 8 mg dose of each formulation in an open, cross-over study, with randomised sequences. Lornoxicam plasma levels were determined by an HPLC method. Cmax, AUC0-infinity and t 1/2 beta values were similar for both the granules and tablets, but tmax and lag time values after lornoxicam granules were significantly shorter than after the tablets. During the study, no side-effects were noted with either of the formulations studied. Therefore this study showed that lornoxicam granular formulation had a faster absorption than tablets even though the two formulations can be considered bioequivalent. PMID:9239455

  20. Taste Masking of Lornoxicam by polymer carrier system and formulation of oral disintegrating tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh S. Jadon; Swadesh Nayak; Sabita Amlan; Vikas Deep Vaidya; Prashant Khemariya; Sandip Sumbhate

    2009-01-01

    Lornoxicam is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic properties and belongs to the class oxicams. It is extremely bitter in taste. The purpose of this research was to develop a bitterless oral disintegrating tablet of Lornoxicam. Taste masking was done by complexing Lornoxicam with aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit EPO) in different ratios. In vitro release profile obtained at pH

  1. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, ? and ? crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the ?-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment. PMID:23524122

  2. Investigation of Formulation and Process of Lyophilised Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT) Using Novel Amino Acid Combination

    PubMed Central

    AlHusban, Farhan; ElShaer, Amr M.; Kansara, Jiteen H.; Smith, Alan M.; Grover, Liam M.; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2010-01-01

    Lyophilised orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have achieved a great success in overcoming dysphagia associated with conventional solid dosage forms. However, the extensive use of saccharides within the formulation limits their use in treatment of chronic illnesses. The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using combination of proline and serine to formulate zero sacharide ODTs and investigates the effect of freezing protocol on sublimation rate and tablets characteristics. The results showed that inclusion of proline and serine improved ODT properties when compared to individual counterparts. Additionally, annealing the ODTs facilitated the sublimation process and shortened the disintegration time.

  3. The Role of Oral Controlled Release Matrix Tablets in Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nokhodchi, Ali; Raja, Shaista; Patel, Pryia; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2012-01-01

    Formulations that are able to control the release of drug have become an integral part of the pharmaceutical industry. In particular oral drug delivery has been the focus of pharmaceutical research for many years. This type of drug delivery has been at the centre of research due to its many benefits over conventional dosage. The focus of this review is on matrix tablets due to their widely use and simplicity of the formulation. This includes the discussion of various types of matrix tablets and factors affecting the drug release from these formulations. The mechanism of drug release from HPMC matrices is also discussed. PMID:23678458

  4. The analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myrtha Naef; Michele Curatolo; Steen Petersen-Felix; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Alex Zbinden; Rudolf Brenneisen

    2003-01-01

    From folk medicine and anecdotal reports it is known that Cannabis may reduce pain. In animal studies it has been shown that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has antinociceptive effects or potentiates the antinociceptive effect of morphine. The aim of this study was to measure the analgesic effect of THC, morphine, and a THC-morphine combination (THC-morphine) in humans using experimental pain models. THC

  5. The Relative Potency of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate Compared with Intravenous Morphine in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Postoperative Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lance Lichtor; Ferne B. Sevarino; Girish P. Joshi; Michael A. Busch; Earl Nordbrock; Brian Ginsberg

    1999-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that oral trans- mucosal absorption of fentanyl is relatively rapid com- pared with gastrointestinal absorption, and it results in increased bioavailability. We designed this study to es- tablish the relative potency of oral transmucosal fenta- nyl citrate (OTFC) compared with IV morphine in 133 postoperative patients. The morning after surgery, pa- tients randomly received one dose

  6. Assessment of the relative potency of fentanyl buccal tablet to intravenous morphine in healthy volunteers using a thermally induced hyperalgesia pain model.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David L; Messina, John; Darwish, Mona; Xie, Fang; Leary, Kevin J; Cantilena, Louis R

    2012-06-01

    This exploratory randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 5-treatment, 5-period crossover study was conducted using a thermally induced hyperalgesia pain model in 51 healthy volunteers (33 evaluable) to characterize the relative potency of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) versus intravenous morphine. Relative potency was assessed using the sum of pain intensity differences over 60 minutes after the application of a 43°C, 46°C, and 49°C painful stimulus following thermally induced hyperalgesia. Relative potency was also assessed by pupil diameter and responses to subjective questionnaires. The relative potency of FBT was 46.2 times that of intravenous morphine (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.6-575.3) based on the 49°C stimulus. The relative potency of FBT based on opiate-induced miosis was 44.6 (95% CI, 29.7-77.0) at 60 minutes. These results are an initial relative potency assessment and should not be considered guidance for dose-equivalent switching between agents in clinical practice. PMID:21646442

  7. Orally fast disintegrating tablets: developments, technologies, taste-masking and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yourong; Yang, Shicheng; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kimura, Susumu; Park, Kinam

    2004-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray-drying, moisture treatment, sintering, and use of sugar-based disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and clinical studies are also discussed. PMID:15658933

  8. Development and optimization of buspirone oral osmotic pump tablet.

    PubMed

    Derakhshandeh, K; Berenji, M Ghasemnejad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to design a porous osmotic pump-based drug delivery system for controlling the release of buspirone from the delivery system. The osmotic pump was successfully developed using symmetric membrane coating. The core of the tablets was prepared by direct compression technique and coated using dip-coating technique. Drug release from the osmotic system was studied using USP paddle type apparatus. The effect of various processing variables such as the amount of osmotic agent, the amount of swellable polymer, concentration of the core former, concentration of the plasticizer, membrane thickness, quantum of orifice on drug release from osmotic pump were evaluated. Different kinetic models (zero order, first order and Higuchi model) were applied to drug release data in order to establish the kinetics of drug release. It was found that the drug release was mostly affected by the amount of NaCl as osmotic agent, the swellable polymer; hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), the amount of PEG-400 and cellulose acetate in the coating solution and thickness of the semipermeable membrane. The optimized formulation released buspirone independent of pH and orifice quantum at the osmogen amount of 42%, hydrophilic polymer of 13% and pore size of 0.8 mm on the tablet surface. The drug release of osmotic formulation during 24 h showed zero order kinetics and could be suggested that this formulation as a once-daily regimen improves pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug and enhances patient compliance. PMID:25657794

  9. A Bioequivalence Study of Two Oral Desmopressin Tablet Formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan T. Kaehler; Ilka M. Steiner; Robert Sauermann; Helmut Scheidl; Markus Mueller; Christian Joukhadar

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to test bioequivalence between two different oral desmopressin formulations. Sixty healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to receive the test (T) and reference (R) drug in a two-period two-sequence, crossover, analyst-blinded study design. Subjects received an oral dose of 400 ?g of desmopressin acetate separated by a wash-out period

  10. Oral sustained release tablets of zidovudine using binary blends of natural and synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Emeje, Martins; Olaleye, Olajide; Isimi, Christiana; Fortunak, Joseph; Byrn, Stephen; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus

    2010-01-01

    Oral sustained release matrix tablets of zidovudine (ZDV) were prepared using different types, proportions and blends of carbopol 71G (C71) and a plant gum obtained from Abelmoschus esculentus (AEG). The effect of various formulation factors like polymer proportion, polymer type and pH of the dissolution medium on the in vitro release of the drug was studied, using the half change technique, in 900 ml of dissolution medium, at 100 rpm. Release kinetics were analyzed using Zero-order, Higuchi's square-root and Ritger-Peppas' empirical equations. In vitro release performance as revealed by the time taken for 70% of the drug to be released (t70%), showed that the release rate decreased with increase in polymer proportion. Matrix tablets containing 10 and 20% AEG were found to exhibit immediate-release characteristics. Matrix tablets containing 30% AEG showed t70% value of 204 min and extended the release up to 5 h, while matrix tablets containing 30% carbopol showed t70% value of 234 min and extended the release up to 6 h. Three blends of AEG and C71 at the ratio of 1:2, 2:1 and 1:3 showed t70% values of 132, 312 and 102 min respectively and extended the release up to 8 h. Mathematical analysis of the release kinetics indicated that the nature of drug release from the matrix tablets followed Fickian and anomalous release. Drug release from matrix tablets of zidovudine containing blends of AEG and C71 demonstrates the advantage of blending a natural and synthetic polymer over single polymer use. PMID:20823575

  11. A Novel Multilayered Multidisk Oral Tablet for Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zaheeda; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Pillay, Viness

    2013-01-01

    A Multilayered Multidisk Tablet (MLMDT) comprising two drug-loaded disks enveloped by three drug-free barrier layers was developed for use in chronotherapeutic disorders, employing two model drugs, theophylline and diltiazem HCl. The MLMDT was designed to achieve two pulses of drug release separated by a lag phase. The polymer disk comprised hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and ethylcellulose (EC) granulated using an aqueous dispersion of EC. The polymeric barrier layers constituted a combination of pectin/Avicel (PBL) (1st barrier layer) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) (HBL1 and HBL2) as the 2nd and 3rd barrier layers, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into the diltiazem-containing formulation for delayed drug release. Erosion and swelling studies confirmed the manner in which the drug was released with theophylline formulations exhibiting a maximum swelling of 97% and diltiazem containing formulations with a maximum swelling of 119%. FTIR spectra displayed no interactions between drugs and polymers. Molecular mechanics simulations were undertaken to predict the possible orientation of the polymer morphologies most likely affecting the MLMDT performance. The MLMDT provided two pulses of drug release, separated by a lag phase, and additionally it displayed desirable friability, hardness, and uniformity of mass indicating a stable formulation that may be a desirable candidate for chronotherapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24024200

  12. [Technical scheme of real-time evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine orally disintegrating tablets].

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong; Chen, Xu-dong; Feng, Liang; Gu, Jun-fei; Yuan, Jia-rui; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2014-12-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), a kind of new solid tablet that rapidly disintegrates to work in the mouth, has became the hot form of new drug research in recent years with many advantages, such as the convenient taking, a widely applicable people, fast acting, high bioavailability, good compliance, and so on. ODT has been widely used in chemical medicines, while the application of it in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is still in the stage of development The development of TCMs ODT provides a new direction for the research of Chinese medicine new dosage, accelerates the pace of connecting to the world and modernization of Chinese medicine. This dosage has a broad market prospect, and its quality control and assessment standards, taste, the disintegration time in vitro and evaluation method are the key factors that affect the industrialization, standardization of Chinese medicine ODT. Therefore, this paper reviewed the characteristics, preparation, taste masking technology and quality evaluation with new technology of ODT. Meantime, numerous application examples of ODT used in traditional Chinese medicine were described. We expect to provide the reference and utilization for the development of traditional Chinese medicine orally disinteeratine tablets. PMID:25898566

  13. Adjunct dipyrone in association with oral morphine for cancer-related pain: the sooner the better

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José F. Duarte Souza; Paula P. Lajolo; Hélio Pinczowski; Auro del Giglio

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Adjunct nonopioid analgesics may improve pain control in patients with cancer needing morphine or its derivates. Dypirone\\u000a is a cheap nonopioid analgesic widely used in many countries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The objective of the study was to evaluate, whenever morphine was started, if associating dipyrone with it would improve pain\\u000a control and if this effect was time dependent.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This is a

  14. Sufentanil Sublingual Tablet System vs. Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Morphine for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized, Active-Comparator Trial

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Timothy I; Boyer, David L; Minkowitz, Harold S; Turan, Alparslan; Chiang, Yu-Kun; Evashenk, Mark A; Palmer, Pamela P

    2014-01-01

    Background Problems with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) are well known, including invasive route of delivery and pump programming errors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with a novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (sufentanil sublingual tablet system 15 mcg with a 20-minute lockout interval; SSTS) to IV PCA morphine sulfate 1 mg with a 6-minute lockout interval (IV PCA MS) for the management of acute postoperative pain. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 48-hour non-inferiority study with optional extension to 72 hours at 26 U.S. sites enrolling patients scheduled for elective major open abdominal or orthopedic (hip or knee replacement) surgery. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who responded “good” or “excellent” (collectively “success”) at the 48-hour timepoint on the Patient Global Assessment of method of pain control (PGA48). Results A total of 357 patients received study drug and 78.5% vs. 65.6% of patients achieved PGA48 “success” for SSTS vs. IV PCA MS, respectively, demonstrating non-inferiority (P < 0.001 using the one-side Z-test against the non-inferiority margin) as well as statistical superiority for treatment effect (P = 0.007). Patients using SSTS reported more rapid onset of analgesia and patient and nurse ease of care and satisfaction scores were higher than IV PCA MS. Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups; however, SSTS had fewer patients experiencing oxygen desaturations below 95% compared to IV PCA MS (P = 0.028). Conclusions Sufentanil sublingual tablet system is a promising new analgesic technology that may address some of the concerns with IV PCA. PMID:25155134

  15. Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215

  16. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Rizatriptan 10-mg Tablet and 10-mg Orally Disintegrating Tablet Administered With or Without Water in Healthy Subjects: An Open-Label, Randomized, Single-Dose, 3Period Crossover Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne K. Swan; Harry Alcorn; Anthony Rodgers; Carolyn M. Hustad; Karen E. Ramsey; Susan Woll; Franck Skobieranda

    2006-01-01

    This open-label, 3-period crossover study compared the plasma concentration profiles of rizatriptan tablet, orally disintegrating tablet with water (ODTc), and ODT without water (ODTs) in 24 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 45 years. At each period, subjects received a single dose of either 10-mg rizatriptan tablet, 10-mg rizatriptan ODTs, or 10-mg rizatriptan ODTc. The authors hypothesized that ODTc has a

  17. Development and optimization of taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of clindamycin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Stuart L; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay

    2014-07-01

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to develop an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form containing taste-masked beads of clindamycin HCl. Several formulation strategies were evaluated and a taste-masked ODT of clindamycin HCl was prepared without the use of a waxy cushioning agent. Clindamycin HCl (ca. 46% w/w) was coated onto microcrystalline cellulose beads (Cellets® 200) followed by the addition of a taste-masking layer of amino methacrylate copolymer, NF (Eudragit EPO® (EPO)) coating suspension. The efficiency of both the drug coating process and the taste-masking polymer coating process, as well as the taste masking ODTs was determined using potency and drug release analysis. Magnesium stearate was found to be advantageous over talc in improving the efficiency of the EPO coating suspension. A response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design for the tablets revealed compression force and levels of both disintegrant and talc to be the main factors influencing the ODT properties. Blending of talc to the EPO-coated beads was found to be the most critical factor in ensuring that ODTs disintegrate within 30?s. The optimized ODTs formulation also showed negligible (<0.5%) drug release in 1?min using phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 (which is analogous to the residence time and pH in the oral cavity). By carefully adjusting the levels of coating polymers, the amounts of disintegrant and talc, as well as the compression force, robust ODTs can be obtained to improve pediatric and geriatric patient compliance for clindamycin oral dosage forms. PMID:25000481

  18. Safety and tolerability of slow-release oral morphine versus methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Hämmig, Robert; Köhler, Wilfried; Bonorden-Kleij, Karin; Weber, Bernd; Lebentrau, Karin; Berthel, Toni; Babic-Hohnjec, Lucija; Vollmert, Christian; Höpner, Doris; Gholami, Najibulah; Verthein, Uwe; Haasen, Christian; Reimer, Jens; Ruckes, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Opioid substitution treatment (OST) for opioid dependence may be limited by adverse events (AEs). Increasing the range of therapeutic options optimizes outcomes and facilitates patient management. An international, multi-center, two-phase study investigated the efficacy and safety of slow-release oral morphine (SROM) versus methadone in patients receiving methadone therapy for opioid dependence. In phase 1 (two way cross-over, 11 weeks each period) patients were randomized to SROM or methadone oral solution. In phase 2 (25 weeks), patients continued treatment with SROM (group A) or switched from methadone to SROM (group B). In total, 211 out of 276 completed phase 1 and 198 entered phase 2 (n=95 group A, n=103 group B). Treatment with both SROM and methadone was well tolerated. However, the mean QTc-interval associated with methadone was significantly longer than that under SROM. Higher treatment satisfaction, fewer cravings for heroin, and lower mental stress were reported with SROM. This study adds a significant further weight of evidence that SROM is an effective and well tolerated long-term maintenance treatment for opioid dependence with a beneficial risk profile compared to methadone regarding cardiac effects and supports its clinical utility. PMID:25064422

  19. Development and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets of cilostazol-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag; Prabhakar, Bala

    2014-10-28

    Abstract Context: The clinical applications of cilostazol (CLZ) are limited by its low aqueous solubility (<5?µg/ml) and high biovariability. Objective: The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility of CLZ by forming inclusion complexes (ICs) with beta cyclodextrin (?-CD) and formulating them into oral disintegrating tablets. Methods: Phase solubility study of CLZ with ?-CD was performed in water. Job's plot was constructed to determine the stoichiometry of ICs. ICs, prepared by spray-drying technique, were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance. Molecular modeling studies were performed to understand the mode of interaction of CLZ with ?-CD. The formulation process was undertaken using a reproducible design of experiment generated model, attained by variation of diluents and disintegrants at three levels. Tablets were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time (DT), wetting time (WT) and dissolution profiles. Results and discussion: Phase solubility studies suggested an AL type curve with stability constant (Ks) of 922.52?M(-1). Job's plot revealed 1:2 stoichiometry. All analytical techniques confirmed inclusion complexation. Molecular modeling revealed dispersive van der Waals interaction energy as a major contributor for stabilization of complex. The spray-dried complexes showed higher solubility and faster dissolution compared to plain CLZ. The optimized formulation showed DT of 11.1?±?0.8?s, WT of 8.7?±?0.9?s and almost complete dissolution of CLZ in 15?min. Conclusion: The prepared tablets with low DT and fast dissolution will prove to be a promising drug delivery system with improved bioavailability and better patient compliance. PMID:25350555

  20. Evidence-Based Nanoscopic and Molecular Framework for Excipient Functionality in Compressed Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2014-01-01

    The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2–10 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

  1. Comparative efficacy of patient-controlled administration of morphine, hydromorphone, or sufentanil for the treatment of oral mucositis pain following bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A Coda; Barbara O'Sullivan; Gary Donaldson; Sharol Bohl; C. Richard Chapman; Danny D Shen

    1997-01-01

    A total of 119 bone marrow transplant patients suffering from oral mucositis pain were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial comparing the efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia with morphine, hydromorphone and sufentanil. Patient ratings of pain and side-effects on visual analog scales were gathered daily from the start of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) therapy until the discontinuation of opioid treatment either

  2. Preparation and evaluation of an orally fast disintegrating tablet formulation containing a hydrophobic drug.

    PubMed

    Comoglu, Tansel; Unal, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Orally fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs or ODTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Although the FDT area has passed its infancy, as shown by a large number of commercial products on the market, there are still many aspects to improve in the FDT formulations. Despite advances in the FDT technologies, formulation of hydrophobic drugs is still a challenge, especially when the amount of drug is high. In this study, a new solution is being developed to incorporate higher doses of a model hydrophobic drug; meloxicam, without affecting the fast disintegrating properties of the formulation. In order to enhance the solubilization of meloxicam in FDT formulations, ? cyclodextrin inclusion complex of the drug is prepared and FDTs containing meloxicam--? cyclodextrin inclusion complex (F1 A and F2 A) were compared and evaluated with the FDTs containing pure meloxicam (F1 and F2) by means of in vitro quality control tests. PMID:24295202

  3. Mucoadhesive elementary osmotic pump tablets of trimetazidine for controlled drug delivery and reduced variability in oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Alam, Naushad; Beg, Sarwar; Rizwan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Akifa; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Ali, Asgar; Aqil, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this work was preparation and evaluation of the mucoadhesive elementary osmotic pump tablets of trimetazidine hydrochloride to achieve desired controlled release action and augmentation of oral drug absorption. The drug-loaded core tablets were prepared employing the suitable tableting excipients and coated with polymeric blend of ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylethylcellulose E5 (4:1). The prepared tablets were characterized for various quality control tests and in vitro drug release. Evaluation of drug release kinetics through model fitting suggested the Fickian mechanism of drug release, which was regulated by osmosis and diffusion as the predominant mechanism. Evaluation of mucoadhesion property using texture analyzer suggested good mucoadhesion potential of the developed osmotic systems. Solid state characterization using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy confirmed the absence of any physiochemical incompatibilities between drug and excipients. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the smooth surface appearance of the coated tablets with intact polymeric membrane without any fracture. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits revealed 3.01-fold enhancement in the oral bioavailability vis-à-vis the marketed formulation (Vastarel MR®). These studies successfully demonstrate the bioavailability enhancement potential of the mucoadhesive elementary osmotic pumps as novel therapeutic systems for other drugs too. PMID:24669975

  4. Increased dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drug glyburide tablets produced using supercritical CO? silica dispersion technology.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jibin; Han, Jihong; Zhang, Dong; Chu, Chunxia; Liu, Hongzhuo; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui; Zhang, Tianhong

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design a silica-supported solid dispersion of a water-insoluble drug, glyburide, to increase its dissolution rate and oral absorption using supercritical fluid (SCF) technology. DSC and PXRD results indicated that the encapsulated drug in the optimal solid dispersion was in an amorphous state and the product was stable for 6 months. Glyburide was adsorbed onto the porous silica, as confirmed by the SEM images and BET analysis. Furthermore, FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that there was no change in the chemical structure of glyburide after the application of SCF. The glyburide silica-based dispersion could also be compressed into tablet form. In vitro drug release analysis of the silica solid dispersion tablets demonstrated faster release of glyburide compared with the commercial micronized tablet. In an in vivo test, the AUC of the tablets composed of the new glyburide silica-based solid dispersion was 2.01 times greater than that of the commercial micronized glyburide tablets. In conclusion, SCF technology presents a promising approach to prepare silica-based solid dispersions of hydrophobic drugs because of its ability to increase their release and oral bioavailability. PMID:24184803

  5. Oral methylprednisolone acetate (Medrol Tablets) for seasonal rhinitis: examination of dose and symptom response.

    PubMed

    Brooks, C D; Karl, K J; Francom, S F

    1993-09-01

    The authors compared the effect of several doses an oral corticosteroid on symptom profile and severity in ragweed hay fever. Thirty-one patients were randomized to receive 0, 6, 12, or 24 mg methylprednisolone (Medrol Tablets [MP], Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI). A baseline week in which no treatment was given preceded the treatment comparison. At the end of this week, symptom diaries showed that most of the subjects were experiencing moderate or severe symptoms. The corticoid produced dose-related reduction in all symptoms. The difference between placebo and 24 mg MP was significant for all the symptoms monitored, except itching, which benefited marginally. With 6 mg MP, congestion, drainage, and eye symptoms showed significant drug-placebo differences but itching, running/blowing, and sneezing did not. Not all rhinitis symptoms responded equally to corticoid treatment. Those that responded least could reflect histamine effect, which was not effectively suppressed by low-dose, short-term corticoid treatment. PMID:8227478

  6. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Qian; Yan, Cheng; Bi, Juan; Lv, Wei-Lin; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; Su, Jia-Can; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 ?m to 8 ?m in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics. PMID:21720502

  7. Effect of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of 300-milligram posaconazole in a solid oral tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Kersemaekers, Wendy M; Dogterom, Peter; Xu, Jialin; Marcantonio, Eugene E; de Greef, Rik; Waskin, Hetty; van Iersel, Marlou L P S

    2015-06-01

    Posaconazole in oral suspension must be taken multiple times a day with food (preferably a high-fat meal) to ensure adequate exposure among patients. We evaluated the effect of food on the bioavailability of a new delayed-release tablet formulation of posaconazole at the proposed clinical dose of 300 mg once daily in a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period crossover study with 18 healthy volunteers. When a single 300-mg dose of posaconazole in tablet form (3 tablets × 100 mg) was administered with a high-fat meal, the posaconazole area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h (AUC0-72) and maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) increased 51% and 16%, respectively, compared to those after administration in the fasted state. The median time to Cmax (Tmax) shifted from 5 h in the fasted state to 6 h under fed conditions. No serious adverse events were reported, and no subject discontinued the study due to an adverse event. Six of the 18 subjects reported at least one clinical adverse event; all of these events were mild and short lasting. The results of this study demonstrate that a high-fat meal only modestly increases the mean posaconazole exposure (AUC), ?1.5-fold, after administration of posaconazole tablets, in contrast to the 4-fold increase in AUC observed previously for a posaconazole oral suspension given with a high-fat meal. PMID:25824210

  8. Morphine Stimulates Cell Migration of Oral Epithelial Cells by Delta-Opioid Receptor Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nada Charbaji; Monika Schäfer-Korting; Sarah Küchler

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of chemoradiation regimens and manifestation can be dose-limiting for the therapy, can impair the patient's nutritional condition and quality of life due to severe pain. The therapeutic options are limited; often only an alleviation of the symptoms such as pain reduction by using systemic opioids is possible. Stimulating opioid receptors

  9. [Efficacy of a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet for esophageal cancer pain management in a patient unable to take oral medication].

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Nakahara, Osamu; Ohshima, Shigeki; Baba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    We report a case ofa 60-year old male esophageal cancer patient who was unable to take oral medication, but was successfully treated using a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet. The patient survived a suicide attempt as a youth in which he ingested poison, but was left with a stricture of the esophagus. It became difficult for him to take nutrition orally, and he underwent an esophageal bypass operation, although he still required frequent endoscopic esophageal dilation. He subsequently presented with an anastomotic stenosis due to anastomotic leakage, and oral intake became completely impossible. The onset of esophageal cancer presented as corrosive esophagitis. We used oxycodone hydrochloride to treat a sharp pain resulting from cataplectic cancer in the jejunal tube, but this provided only limited pain relief. We therefore used a fentanyl citrate oral mucosa absorption preparation with a rescue agent, which did provide effective pain relief. Thus a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet could effectively relief pain in cancer patients who are unable to receive oral medication. PMID:25963705

  10. Within-subject comparison of the psychopharmacological profiles of oral oxycodone and oral morphine in non-drug-abusing volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Zacny; Stephanie A. Lichtor

    2008-01-01

    Rationale  Nonmedical use and abuse of prescription opioids is a significant problem in the USA. Little attention has been paid to assessing\\u000a the relative psychopharmacological profile (including abuse liability-related effects) of specific prescription opioids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of this study is to directly compare the psychopharmacological profile of two oral opioids within the same subject.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study was done

  11. Bioequivalence of zonisamide orally dispersible tablet and immediate-release capsule formulations: Results from two open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, two-period, two-treatment crossover studies in healthy male volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob van Maanen; Darren Bentley

    2009-01-01

    Background: To make it easier for patients who are prescribed zonisamide to administer their medicine, a rapidly disintegrating oral tablet formulation has been developed.Objective: These 2 trials assessed the bioequiva-lence of a new orally dispersible tablet formulation of zonisamide (test) versus an immediate-release reference capsule.Methods: Study 1 assessed the bioequivalence of a 100-mg orally dispersible tablet versus a 100-mg reference

  12. Morphine/naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Sean T; Scott, Lesley J

    2010-06-01

    Oral morphine/naltrexone extended release capsules comprise the selective mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine in a sustained-release formulation combined with a sequestered core of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone for use in the management of moderate to severe pain. When morphine/naltrexone is taken as intended, naltrexone exerts no clinically significant effect. However, when the capsule contents are taken after being tampered with by crushing, chewing or dissolution, naltrexone is rapidly released and absorbed, thereby mitigating the effects of morphine. Morphine/naltrexone was effective in the treatment and management of moderate to severe chronic pain in patients with pain due to osteoarthritis of the hip or knee participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study (n = 344). Changes in mean Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average scores from baseline of the double-blind maintenance phase to 12 weeks were significantly better with morphine/naltrexone (20 mg/0.8 mg to 80 mg/3.2 mg twice daily) than with placebo. In a 12-month, open-label safety study, morphine/naltrexone also provided effective pain relief and sustained pain control in patients with chronic, moderate to severe, nonmalignant pain (n = 465 at baseline; 162 at study end). Furthermore, significant mean changes from baseline in BPI worst, least, average and current pain scores were seen from week 1 onwards. Morphine/naltrexone treatment was generally well tolerated in adult patients with chronic moderate to severe nonmalignant pain in clinical trials of up to 1-year duration. PMID:20443648

  13. Influence of Prosolv and Prosolv:Mannitol 200 direct compression fillers on the physicomechanical properties of atorvastatin oral dispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Veeran; Pabari, Ritesh M; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Prosolv® and Prosolv®: Mannitol 200 direct compression (DC) fillers on the physicomechanical characteristics of oral dispersible tablets (ODTs) of crystalline atorvastatin calcium. ODTs were formulated by DC and were analyzed for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution. Three disintegration time (DT) test methods; European Pharmacopoeia (EP) method for conventional tablets (Method 1), a modification of this method (Method 2) and the EP method for oral lyophilisates (Method 3) were compared as part of this study. All ODTs showed low weight variation of <2.5%. Prosolv® only ODTs showed the highest tablet hardness of ?73?N, hardness decreased with increasing mannitol content. Friability of all formulations was <1% although friability of Prosolv®:Mannitol ODTs was higher than for pure Prosolv®. DT of all ODTs was <30?s. Method 2 showed the fastest DT. Method 3 was non-discriminatory giving a DT of 13-15?s for all formulations. Atorvastatin dissolution from all ODTs was >60% within 5?min despite the drug being crystalline. Prosolv® and Prosolv®:Mannitol-based ODTs are suitable for ODT formulations by DC to give ODTs with high mechanical strength, rapid disintegration and dissolution. PMID:24397821

  14. Single-Dose Phase I Study To Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of Posaconazole in New Tablet and Capsule Formulations Relative to Oral Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lei; Martinho, Monika; O'Mara, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Posaconazole oral suspension, a marketed extended-spectrum triazole with proven efficacy as antifungal treatment and prophylaxis, should be taken with food to maximize absorption. New tablet and capsule formulations have been developed in an attempt to optimize absorption and bioavailability. The aims of this exploratory open-label, partially randomized, 2-part, 4-way, single-dose crossover study in 16 healthy adults were to characterize pharmacokinetics for posaconazole tablet and capsule formulations relative to those for posaconazole oral suspension under fasted and fed conditions and to assess safety and tolerability. Under fasted conditions, posaconazole exposures (area under the curve [AUC]) for the tablet and capsule formulations were similar (mean AUC from time zero to infinity [AUC0–?], tablet A, 11,700 ng · h/ml [coefficient of variation {CV}, 26%]; tablet B, 11,300 ng · h/ml [CV, 22%]; capsule, 11,000 ng · h/ml [CV, 25%]) and were substantially higher than the exposure for the oral suspension (mean AUC0–?, 3,420 ng · h/ml [CV, 44%]). Tablets and capsule showed less variability in exposure than the oral suspension. In fed subjects, tablets and capsule resulted in similar AUC values (mean AUC0–?, tablet A, 11,900 ng · h/ml [23%]; tablet B, 12,400 ng · h/ml [CV, 25%]; capsule, 12,300 ng · h/ml [CV, 28%]) and slightly higher exposure than the oral suspension (mean AUC0–?, 8,750 [CV, 24%]). Median times to the maximum concentration of drug in plasma were 4 to 5 h (fasted conditions) and 6 to 8 h (fed conditions). Mean half-lives values were similar for all formulations under fed and fasted conditions (23.1 to 29.2 h). Consistent with previous data, exposure for the oral suspension increased 2.5- to 3-fold when it was given with a high-fat meal. Conversely, exposures for tablets and capsule were not markedly affected by food. All formulations of posaconazole at 100 mg were safe and well tolerated. PMID:22615291

  15. Preparation and characterisation of Kolliphor® P 188 and P 237 solid dispersion oral tablets containing the poorly water soluble drug disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Ramadhani, Nisrina; Shabir, Mehwish; McConville, Christopher

    2014-11-20

    The oral route of administration is the most common and preferred route of drug delivery due to its ease of administration, cost-effectiveness and flexibility in design. However, limited aqueous solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient can result in poor bioavailability, which is a major issue for the pharmaceutical industry. Increasing numbers of new drugs are falling into class II of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), where they have a low solubility and high tissue permeability, meaning that bioavailability is solubility dependent. Here we demonstrate the development and characterisation of solid dispersion oral tablets, containing the poorly water-soluble drug disulfiram, prepared using both the hot melt and solvent evaporation methods and manufactured from two different polymers, Kolliphor(®) P 188 and P 237, specifically designed for the manufacture of solid dispersions. This paper demonstrates that the disulfiram solid dispersions tablets have an enhanced release rate of disulfiram compared to the control tablets. The Kolliphor(®) P 188 polymer control tablets released approximately 48.8% of their disulfiram content over 8h, with the solvent evaporated tablets releasing approximately 65.8%, while the 60 and 80 °C hot melt tablets released approximately 73.2 and 100% of their disulfiram content respectively. A similar trend was seen with Kolliphor(®) P 237 as the control tablets released approximately 50.5% of their disulfiram content over 8h, while the solvent evaporated tablets released approximately 79.5% and the 60 and 80 °C hot melt tablets released 100.2 and 100.3% respectively. Depending on what method and polymer is used to manufacture the solid dispersions the disulfiram is either maintained completely or partially in its amorphous state and it is this which enhances its solubility and release rate from the tablets. The disulfiram in the Kolliphor(®) P 188 solvent evaporated and 60 °C hot melt tablets retained 50.5 and 44.1% of its crystallinity, while the disulfiram in the 80 °C hot melt tablets was completely amorphous. Whereas the disulfiram in the Kolliphor(®) P 237 solvent evaporated tablets retained 45.2% crystallinity, while the disulfiram in both of the hot melt tablets was completely in its amorphous form. PMID:25218186

  16. Bioequivalence of a single 10-mg dose of finasteride 5-mg oral disintegrating tablets and standard tablets in healthy adult male Han Chinese volunteers: A randomized sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Chen; Xuehua Jiang; Liang Huang; Ke Lan; Haiying Wang; Lina Hu; Jing Ren; Xihong Li; Qin Zou

    2009-01-01

    Background: Finasteride, an inhibitor of the steroid 5?-reductase, has been approved for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) 5-mg formulation of finasteride was recently developed. Information regarding its pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence was required to assess the efficacy and safety of this formulation before marketing it in China.Objectives: The aims of this study

  17. Pharmacokinetics of valpromide after oral administration of a solution and a tablet to healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bialer; A. Rubinstein; I. Raz; O. Abramsky

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of valpromide, a primary amide of valproic acid, was investigated in 6 healthy, adult male volunteers, each of whom was given 900 mg as a marketed, enteric-coated tablet and a solution. Valpromide was biotransformed to valproic acid after the administration of the tablet and the solution with a bioavailability of 0.79±0.24 and 0.77±0.12, respectively, relative to a marketed

  18. BIOEQUIVALENCE OF TWO BRANDS OF CITALOPRAM 40 mg TABLETS AFTER SINGLE ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Mendoza; Marián Hajdúchb; Hana Kekulováa; Xenia Svobodová; Vladimír Mihálb; Michal Svoboda; M. Hajdúch; V. Mihál

    A randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was conducted in 26 fasting, healthy, male volunteers to compare two brands of citalopram 40 mg tablets, Citol (Abdi Ibrahim ?laç San. ve Tic A.?., Istanbul, Turkey) as a test and Cipramil® (H. Lundbeck A\\/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) as a reference product. One tablet of either formulation was administered with low-carbonate water after 10 h

  19. Formulation and Bioequivalence of Two Valsartan Tablets After a Single Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Cortesi, Rita; Qaddomi, Aiman; Khammash, Saed

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the quality of Valzan® tablet (160 mg, valsartan immediate release test formulation) by comparing its pharmacokinetic parameters with Diovan® tablet (160 mg, valsartan reference formulation). Valzan® tablets were prepared according to a dry granulation method (roll compaction). To assess the bioequivalence of Valzan® tablets a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy male volunteers. The selected volunteers were divided into two groups of 12 subjects. One group was treated with the reference formulation (Diovan®) and the other one with the generic Valzan®, with a cross-over after the drug washout period of 14 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and valsartan concentrations were determined by a validated HPLC assay method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0–48, AUC0–?, Cmax, Tmax, Ke and T1/2 were determined for both the tablets and were compared statistically to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of valsartan, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any significant difference between the two formulations and 90% confidence intervals (CI) fell within the acceptable range for bioequivalence. Based on this statistical evaluation it was concluded that the test tablets (Valzan®) is well formulated, since it exhibits pharmacokinetic profile comparable to the reference brand Diovan®. PMID:21617777

  20. A new solid oral tablet formulation of posaconazole: a randomized clinical trial to investigate rising single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, G.; Ma, L.; Martinho, M.; Preston, R. A.; O'Mara, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Posaconazole is an extended-spectrum triazole with proven efficacy as antifungal treatment and prophylaxis. The marketed oral suspension should be taken with food to maximize systemic absorption. A new solid oral tablet has been developed with improved bioavailability that can be administered without regard to food. The aim of this study was to evaluate rising single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of the new tablet. Methods This was a single-centre, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase I, rising single- and multiple-dose study of healthy subjects aged 18–65 years who received a posaconazole tablet as 200 mg once daily, 200 mg twice daily or 400 mg once daily. The 24 subjects were studied in two cohorts of 12 subjects each (9 active and 3 placebo). Results After single or multiple oral dose administration of posaconazole tablets (200 and 400 mg), exposure increased in a dose-related manner. Peak posaconazole concentrations were attained at a median Tmax of 4–5 h. Mean half-life was similar for 200 and 400 mg posaconazole doses (25 and 26 h). The accumulation ratio upon multiple doses over 8 days was ?3 for 200 and 400 mg once daily and ?5 for 200 mg twice daily. Cavg values exceeded 1300 ng/mL. The posaconazole oral tablet was safe and well tolerated, although mild, transient elevations in liver function were reported in some patients. Conclusions Posaconazole exposure increased in a dose-related manner. The pharmacokinetics of this new solid oral tablet of posaconazole supports the clinical evaluation of once-daily dosing regimens for fungal infections. PMID:22833639

  1. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

  3. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section...PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications... Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene...Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for...

  4. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section...PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications... Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene...Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for...

  5. Urinary Excretion and Metabolism of Arbutin after Oral Administration of Arctostaphylos uvae ursi Extract as Film-Coated Tablets and Aqueous Solution in Healthy Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gernot Schindler; Ulrich Patzak; Benno Brinkhaus; Alexander von Nieciecki; Jörg Wittig; Nils Krähmer; Ingmar Glöckl; Markus Veit

    2002-01-01

    Bearberry leaves and preparations made from them are traditionally used for urinary tract infections. The urinary excretion of arbutin metabolites was examined in a randomized crossover design in 16 healthy volunteers after the application of a single oral dose of bearberry leaves dry extract (BLDE). There were two groups of application using either film-coated tablets (FCT) or aqueous solution (AS).

  6. Preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets of taste masked phencynonate HCl using ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhenzhong; Yang, Meiyan; Wang, Yuli; Shan, Li; Gao, Chunsheng

    2015-06-01

    This study was intended to design an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation that can mask the extremely bitter and metallic taste of phencynonate HCl by novel ion-exchange resins. The drug-resin complexes (DRCs) were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. In vitro properties (dissolution, wetting time and disintegration time) and in vivo behavior (disintegration time and taste-masking effect) in healthy volunteers of the prepared ODTs were also investigated. The drug was changed from the crystal structure to the amorphous form in the DRC. Compared with commercial tablets, the in vitro and in vivo disintegration of optimized DRC-loaded ODTs with a drug-resin ratio of 1:1 was greatly improved and better palatability with a low bitterness index (0.33) was obtained. The current DRC-loaded ODT could promise a good way to mask the unpleasant taste of certain drugs and accordingly improve the patient compliance. PMID:24785576

  7. Stability of extemporaneous pediatric oral liquids compounded from tablets and drug substance: case of propranolol and theophylline.

    PubMed

    Mu?ko, Monika; Sznitowska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    The stability of theophylline (T) and propranolol hydrochloride (P) in extemporaneously compounded oral suspensions (25 mg/mL or 50 mg/mL for T and 2 mg/mL or 5 mg/mL for P) were studied. Suspension with P and T were prepared with bulk substance or tablets using three different suspending vehicles: Ora-Sweet (M1), modified Ora-Sweet (M2) and simple syrup with glycerol and sorbitol (M3). Each suspension was stored for 35 days in a dark place at 25 degrees C and 4 degrees C. The results demonstrated that the prepared suspensions with P either from tablets or from a substance were stable in all three studied vehicles (more than 95% of initial concentration remaining). However, it is recommended that storage at 4 degrees C of suspensions prepared with M2 should be avoided because of crystallization of the buffer substances. Extemporaneous suspensions with T in an appropriate pediatric concentrations of the drug were not obtained because the problem of fast crystallization of T was not eliminated. PMID:23610969

  8. A bioequivalence study of Levothyroxine tablets versus an oral Levothyroxine solution in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yannovits; E. Zintzaras; A. Pouli; G. Koukoulis; S. Lyberi; E. Savari; S. Potamianos; F. Triposkiadis; I. Stefanidis; E. Zartaloudis; A. Benakis

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Probably for genetic reasons a substantial part of the Greek population requires Levothyroxine treatment. Since commercially\\u000a available Levothyroxine was first marketed, the manufacture and storage of the drug in tablet form has been complicated and\\u000a difficult; and as cases of therapeutic failure have frequently been reported following treatment with this medicinal agent,\\u000a quality control is an essential factor. Due to

  9. Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

  10. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of miconazole after administration via a bioadhesive slow release tablet and an oral gel to healthy male and female subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cardot, J-M; Chaumont, C; Dubray, C; Costantini, D; Aiache, J-M

    2004-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare salivary miconazole pharmacokinetics following once daily application of bioadhesive tablets (50 or 100 mg), vs the current treatment with a gel (3 times a day, 375 mg day?1). Methods A three way cross over study was carried out in 18 healthy subjects (nine males, nine females) with a 1 week washout period between each treatment. Plasma and salivary pharmacokinetics of miconazole were assessed over a 24-h period. Results In all subjects the tablets gave higher and more prolonged salivary miconazole concentrations than the gel. Thus salivary miconazole AUC(0,24 h) was 37.2 times greater for the 100 mg tablet (90% confidence interval [CI] 22.9, 60.5) and 18.9 times greater for the 50 mg tablet (CI 11.7, 30.6) compared with the gel. Similarly, Cmax was 17.2 times greater (CI 11.8, 25.2) and 7.8 times greater (CI 5.3, 11.4) for the 100 mg tablet and 50 mg tablet, respectively. Comparison of the 100 mg and 50 mg tablets gave ratios of 2.2 and 2.0 for Cmax and AUC(0,24 h), respectively (CI 1.5, 3.2 and 1.2, 3.2). The mean time that salivary miconazole concentrations were above 0.4 µg ml?1 (the concentration reached 3 h after application of the oral gel according to published data) or above 1.0 µg ml?1 (the MIC of some Candida species) was greater for both bioadhesive tablets than for the oral gel (10–14 h vs 1.5 h and 7 h vs 0.6 h). Only 19 plasma samples from eight subjects had concentrations of miconazole above 0.4 µg ml?1. Ten of these were taken from five subjects after administration of the gel and nine from three subjects after administration of the tablets. Conclusions These data strongly support the further development of miconazole bioadhesive tablets as a sustained release formulation leading to improved antifungal exposure in the buccal cavity. A single daily application should improve compliance, whereas the low systemic absorption of miconazole will alleviate concerns regarding drug interactions and adverse effects. PMID:15373926

  11. Formulation Optimization of Hydrodynamically Balanced Oral Controlled Release Bioadhesive Tablets of Tramadol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhupinder; Rani, Ashu; Babita; Ahuja, Naveen; Kapil, Rishi

    2010-01-01

    The directly compressible floating-bioadhesive tablets of tramadol were formulated using varying amounts Carbopol 971P (CP) and hydroxy-propylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), along with other requisite excipients. In vitro drug release profile, floatational characteristics and ex vivo bioadhesive strength using texture analyzer were determined, and systematically optimized using a 32 central composite design (CCD). The studies indicated successful formulation of gastroretentive compressed matrices with excellent controlled release, mucoadhesion and hydrodynamic balance. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of the optimized formulation, with optimal composition of CP:HPMC :: 80.0:125.0, with that of the marketed controlled release formulation other indicated analogy of drug release performance with each other. Validation of optimization study using eight confirmatory experimental runs indicated very high degree of prognostic ability of CCD with mean ± SEM of ?0.06% ± 0.37. Further, the study successfully unravels the effect of the polymers on the selected response variables. PMID:21179349

  12. [Method for the evaluation of the stability and usability after opening packages of orally disintegrating tablets: case of amlodipine besilate products].

    PubMed

    Hori, Katsuhito; Yoshida, Naoko; Okumura, Tomonori; Okamura, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2010-08-01

    Orally disintegrating (OD) tablets are widely used in clinical practice. However, drug information on the choice and dispensing based on their stability after opening packages and usability in patients and dispensaries is not sufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate possible evaluation methods of the stability and usability of amlodipine OD tablets. Additives of the brand were changed in April 2009, and therefore the previous and current forms and two generics, current and newly marketed (in November 2009) products of different firms, were used. OD tablets were stored at 25 degrees C and 75% relative humidity for 3 months after opening the packages, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. Their weight, diameter, thickness, and color difference increased slightly from the initial state. The extent of the change in their hardness, disintegration time, and friability was different among products. These physicochemical changes were acceptable in dispensary practice. Storage after opening the packages did not affect their dissolution rate. The dissolution rate at the initial state of the current brand was slower than that of the previous one. All products used were able to be dispensed by an automatic tablet-packing machine and applied to the so-called simple suspension method for intubational administration. Sensory evaluation tests revealed no major difference in the oral disintegration time, taste, impression, and preference among products. In conclusion, the stability and usability of amlodipine OD tablets used in this study were examined using several methods, and they can be used equivalently from the stability and usability viewpoints. PMID:20686207

  13. Preliminary buprenorphine sublingual tablet pharmacokinetic data in plasma, oral fluid and sweat during treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro, Marta; Jones, Hendreé E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Choo, Robin; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine is currently under investigation as a pharmacotherapy to treat pregnant women for opioid dependence. This research evaluates buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenophine (NBUP), buprenorphine-glucuronide (BUP-Gluc) and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (NBUP-Gluc) pharmacokinetics after high dose (14–20 mg) BUP sublingual tablet administration in three opioid-dependent pregnant women. Methods Oral fluid and sweat specimens were collected in addition to plasma specimens for 24 h during gestation weeks 28 or 29 and 34, and 2 months after delivery. Tmax was not affected by pregnancy; however, BUP and NBUP Cmax and AUC0–24h tended to be lower during pregnancy compared to postpartum levels. Results Statistically significant but weak positive correlations were found for BUP plasma and OF concentrations, and BUP/NBUP ratios in plasma and OF. Conclusion Statistically significant negative correlations were observed for times of specimen collection and BUP and NBUP OF/plasma ratios. BUP-Gluc and NBUP-Gluc were detected in only 5% of OF specimens. In sweat, BUP and NBUP were detected in only 4 of 25 (12 or 24 h) specimens in low concentrations (<2.4 ng/patch). These preliminary data describe BUP and metabolite pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and suggest that, like methadone, upward dose adjustments may be needed with advancing gestation. PMID:21860340

  14. Comparative bioavailability of alpha-methyldopa normal and film tablet formulations after single oral administration in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Róna; K. Ary; G. Renczes; B. Gachályi; Gy. Grézal; S. Drabant; I. Klebovich

    2001-01-01

    Summary  In a single dose, randomized, cross-over study, with one week of wash-out period, the relative bioavailability of Dopegyt®\\u000a tablets containing 250 mg alpha-methyldopa (AMD) and Presinol® film tablets with identical active ingredient content was examined\\u000a in 24 healthy volunteers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Since technologically two completely different preparations (a film-tablet and a non-film-tablet) having significantly different\\u000a in vitro dissolution were to be compared,

  15. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of a new film-coated tablet of sodium fusidate administered as a single oral dose to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    MacGowan, A P; Greig, M A; Andrews, J M; Reeves, D S; Wise, R

    1989-03-01

    Single oral doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg of sodium fusidate as one, two, three and four film-coated 250 mg tablets were compared in a cross over design trial with a solution dose of 500 mg in 12 healthy male volunteers. The effect of food on absorption of two-film coated tablets was also studied. Compared with the dose given as a solution, tablets gave complete oral absorption, the area under the curve (AUC) for blood concentration being virtually identical. After administration of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg the mean of the maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) was 11.6 +/- 1.1, 30.6 +/- 2.2, 48.1 +/- 3.0 and 65.2 +/- 4.2 mg/l, respectively, indicating a greater than expected increase in Cmax with increasing dose. This was also apparent with AUC, while there was a significant trend for beta, the terminal slope of the serum/concentration time curve, to decrease. Food significantly reduced Cmax and delayed Tmax but did not affect AUC or beta. Dosage had no effect on parameters of renal, hepatic or haemopoietic function but 25% of the volunteers complained of upper gastro-intestinal symptoms mainly at the highest dose studied. PMID:2732122

  16. Morphine and oxycodone hydrochloride in the management of cancer pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eija Kalso; Anneli Vainio

    1990-01-01

    In a double-blind crossover study, morphine and oxycodone hydrochloride were administered to 20 patients who were experiencing severe cancer pain. The peroral doses were determined on the basis of patient-controlled intravenous titration. The assumed oral bioavailability ratios were 44% (group 1, first 10 patients) and 33% (group 2, last 10 patients) for morphine and 66% (group 1) and 50% (group

  17. [Involvement of zinc in taste disturbance occurring during treatment for malignant tumor in the chest and the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets (a retrospective study)].

    PubMed

    Nakata, Yoko; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kondou, Yoko; Tokuoka, Yoshie; Imazato, Hitomi; Iwata, Kaori; Oomori, Yukari; Yamato, Akihiro; Shimizu, Saburou; Nagao, Sadako; Matsui, Kaoru; Abe, Noriko

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed the correlation between serum zinc levels and taste disturbance, and between patient backgrounds and serum zinc levels or taste disturbance, and evaluated the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets on taste disturbance in 29 patients with lung cancer and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma who were receiving chemotherapy. Taste disturbance developed in 11 (36.7%) out of 30 patients. Serum zinc levels significantly correlated with taste disturbance (p=0.0227). Serum zinc levels were significantly lower (p=0.0235) and taste disturbance tended to be more frequent (p=0.0625) in males. Polaprezinc improved taste disturbance in 5 of 8 patients. PMID:18633224

  18. A novel pH-responsive interpolyelectrolyte hydrogel complex for the oral delivery of levodopa. Part II: characterization and formulation of an IPEC-based tablet matrix.

    PubMed

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Khan, Riaz A; Pillay, Viness

    2015-03-01

    This study was undertaken in order to apply a synthesized interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) of polymethacrylate and carboxymethylcellulose as a controlled release oral tablet matrix for the delivery of the model neuroactive drug levodopa. The IPEC (synthesized in Part I of this work) was characterized by techniques such as Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Advanced DSC (ADSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The tablet matrices were formulated and characterized for their drug delivery properties and in vitro drug release. FTIR confirmed the interaction between the two polymers. The IPEC composite generated tablet matrices with a hardness ranging from 19.152-27.590 N/mm and a matrix resilience ranging between 42 and 46%. An IPEC of polymethacrylate and carboxymethylcellulose was indeed an improvement on the inherent properties of the native polymers providing a biomaterial with the ability to release poorly soluble drugs such as levodopa at a constant rate over a prolonged period of time. PMID:24909309

  19. Oral Doxycycline in the Management of Acne Vulgaris: Current Perspectives on Clinical Use and Recent Findings with a New Double-scored Small Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oral antibiotics have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris for six decades. Among dermatologists, tetracyclines represent at least three-fourths of the oral antibiotics prescribed in clinical practice. Unlike other specialties, antibiotic use in dermatology is predominantly for the treatment of noninfectious disorders, such as acne vulgaris and rosacea, which usually involves prolonged therapy over several weeks to months as compared to short courses used to treat cutaneous infections. At the present time, doxycycline and minocycline are the most commonly prescribed tetracyclines in dermatology, used primarily for treatment of acne vulgaris with a long overall favorable track record of effectiveness and safety. Although both are commonly used, doxycycline may be chosen by clinicians more readily as there is a lower risk of rare yet potentially serious adverse reactions, although doxycycline does warrant preventative measures to reduce the risks of esophagitis and phototoxicity reactions. This article reviews data with a new double-scored small 150mg tablet of doxycycline hyclate that has proven functional scoring, exhibits bioavailability similar to enteric-coated doxycycline, and has been shown to be associated with a low potential for gastrointestinal adverse reactions very comparable to what is achieved with enteric-coated tablets. PMID:26029331

  20. A double-blind, single-dose comparison of the analgesic efficacy of tramadol\\/acetaminophen combination tablets, hydrocodone\\/acetaminophen combination tablets, and placebo after oral surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Fricke; Rezaul Karim; Donna Jordan; Norman Rosenthal

    2002-01-01

    Background: Improved clinical outcomes have been documented with combinations of oral analgesic agents, particularly those with complementary activities. However, because not all combinations or dose ratios lead to enhanced analgesia or reduced adverse events (AEs), each combination and dose ratio must be evaluated individually in carefully designed preclinical and clinical trials.Objective: The goal of the study was to compare the

  1. Double-blind evaluation of transdermal nitroglycerine as adjuvant to oral morphine for cancer pain management 1 1 Sponsored by a financial grant from FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo). Marcelo V Perez received a monthly grant from FAPESP during the realization of this paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela R Lauretti; Marcelo V Perez; Marlene P Reis; Newton L Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine analgesia and adverse effects following transdermal application of nitroglycerine (a nitric oxide generator) combined with oral morphine, in cancer pain patients.Design: Randomized, double-blind study.Setting: Teaching hospital.Patients: 36 patients suffering from cancer pain.Interventions: Patients were divided into two groups (n = 18). All patients were regularly taking oral amitriptyline 50 mg at bedtime. Pain was evaluated using

  2. Single-dose bioavailability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion relative to oral tablets and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion compared with placebo in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Ramael; Florence De Smedt; Nathalie Toublanc; Christian Otoul; Pierre Boulanger; Jean-Michel Riethuisen; Armel Stockis

    2006-01-01

    Background: Antiepileptic drugs are usually administere dorally, but alternative routes of drug delivery may be required when oral administration is not feasible.Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-dose bioavailability of an IV formulation of levetiracetam relative to oral tablets and the multiple-dose tolerability and pharmacokinetics of this formulation compared with placebo in healthy subjects.Methods: This study

  3. Quality assessment of morphine hydrochloride solutions.

    PubMed

    P?otkowiak, Zyta; Popielarz-Brzezi?ska, Maria; Luczak, Jacek; Kluziak, Maciej

    2004-01-01

    The therapeutic substances in solution prepared in pharmaceutical laboratories (prescribed drugs) must preserve their activity. Therefore, they must be stable throughout the period of storage in home conditions. The maintenance of stability is particularly difficult for morphine hydrochloride solutions administered orally to cancer patients at the last stage of the disease being at home. This study, aiming at the assessment of stability of morphine hydrochloride solutions, was performed on samples of 0.5% water solutions of the drug alone, 0.25% and 0.5% solutions of the drug in water with chloroform as well as injection solutions (Morphinum hydrochloricum, 20 mg, Polfa Warsaw). All the samples were kept at 20 degrees C for six months. Throughout this time observations were made to detect changes in their appearence and pH values. Their qualitative composition was determined by TLC and the content of morphine was checked by UV spectrophotometry in an environment of 0.1 mol/l of hydrochloric acid at 285 nm. Results of the kinetic study permitted drawing conclusions as to the mechanism of the decomposition of morphine hydrochloride in the solutions studied - according to a simple first order reaction and determination of the rate constants (k, s(-1)) of the process. Results of the chromatographic and spectrophotometric study did not show differences in the stability of water and chloroform/water solutions of morphine hydrochloride studied after 4 weeks and 6 months. After that time the decrease of morphine content was 10 and 25%, respectively. PMID:15493291

  4. Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence comparison between orally disintegrating and conventional tablet formulations of flurbiprofen: A single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy chinese male volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Mei Liu; Gang-Yi Liu; Yun Liu; Shui-Jun Li; Jing-Ying Jia; Meng-Qi Zhang; Chuan Lu; Yong-Mei Zhang; Xue-Ning Li; Chen Yu

    2009-01-01

    Background: Flurbiprofen, an NSAID, is used for the treatment of inflammation and pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis as well as soft-tissue injuries. A new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of flurbiprofen has recently been developed; this study was conducted to provide support for this drug to obtain marketing authorization in China.Objective: The aim of the study was to compare

  5. Initial pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy evaluation of nasal morphine gluconate for breakthrough pain in cancer patients

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    -dose, dose-ranging and placebo-controlled studies of nasal morphine for cancer pain are warranted. q 2003 Organization, 1996). Adequate treatment of breakthrough pain requires opioids that are rapid in onset. The oral route may not be optimal for treatment for breakthrough pain as conventional oral morphine preparations

  6. 76 FR 53909 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature, Labeling, and Data for Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...subdivision for split tablets.\\1...Characteristics of Scored Tablets,'' Pharmacopeial Forum...functional scores on solid oral dosage form products to ensure the...both NDA and ANDA scored tablet products. To...

  7. Morphine concentrations in stomach contents of intravenous opioid overdose deaths.

    PubMed

    Duflou, Johan; Darke, Shane; Easson, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Death caused by heroin overdose is almost always the result of intravenous injection of the drug in Australia. We briefly describe a case where a heroin overdose was initially thought to be the result of oral ingestion of the drug, primarily as a result of higher concentrations of morphine in stomach contents than in blood. During the subsequent criminal trial and investigation, however, the issue of the entero-hepatic circulation of morphine was raised as a possible reason for the presence of morphine in the stomach contents. In this study, we report on the distribution of opioids in blood, stomach contents, urine, liver, and bile in 29 deaths caused by intravenous heroin overdose. The mean total and free blood morphine concentrations were 0.60 and 0.32 mg/L, respectively, and the mean stomach contents total morphine concentration was 1.16 mg/kg. All cases had detectable morphine in the stomach contents, and 24 of 29 cases (83%) had higher concentrations of total morphine in stomach contents than in blood. The mean total morphine concentration in bile was c. 100 times that in blood, and the liver total morphine concentration averaged twice that of blood levels. We conclude that the entero-hepatic circulation of morphine and subsequent reflux of duodenal contents back into the stomach can result in the deposition of morphine in gastric contents. Consequently, the relative levels of opioids in blood and stomach contents cannot be used to determine the site of administration of the drug. PMID:19674239

  8. Intrathecal morphine pump for neuropathic cancer pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gogia, Vikas; Chaudhary, Prakash; Ahmed, Arif; Khurana, Deepa; Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2012-08-01

    The WHO ladder has been the most widely used approach for management of Cancer Pain. However, oral medications alone may be inadequate, particularly in difficult to treat cancer pain syndromes. Neuropathic pain is one of these refractory syndromes. The role of opioids has always been controversial in pain of neuropathic origin. We report a case of a 61 year old female patient with endometrial carcinoma suffering from severe neuropathic pain in her left lower limb. The pain was refractory to highest tolerable doses of oral morphine and neuromodulator drugs, viz. gabapentin and pregabalin. We managed the patient successfully with intrathecal morphine pump reducing the total morphine dose and improving patient comfort and satisfaction. Intrathecal delivery of Morphine ensured better efficacy with fewer side effects. PMID:21868426

  9. Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Roberts; Chris Gennings; Margaret Shih

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for an analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and morphine was sought using an experimental pain model applied to normal volunteers. The study incorporated a double blinded, four treatment, four period, four sequence, crossover design. Subjects received ?9-THC 5 mg orally or placebo and 90 min later morphine 0.02 mg\\/kg intravenously or placebo. Fifteen minutes later subjects rated the pain

  10. Morphine Bioavailability from a Topical Gel Formulation in Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith A. Paice; Jamie H. Von Roenn; J. Craig Hudgins; Lynn Luong; Tom C. Krejcie; Michael J. Avram

    2008-01-01

    Although available therapies provide relief to many patients with cancer-related pain, swallowing difficulties or intestinal obstruction may preclude oral analgesic delivery in some. Topical morphine might provide an alternate delivery form but morphine bioavailability from a topical gel formulation has not been reported in humans. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study of five volunteers after they provided institutionally-approved,

  11. Nateglinide Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Nateglinide comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken three times daily. Take ... that contain alcohol or sugar; mesoridazine (Serentil); niacin; oral contraceptives (birth control pills); perphenazine (Trilafon); phenelzine (Nardil); ...

  12. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size, Shape, and Other Physical Attributes of Generic Tablets and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...example, studies show that tablet size can affect ease of swallowing, and generic tablets that are significantly...Agency's current thinking on tablet size, shape, and other...attributes of generic solid oral dosage forms. It does not...

  13. Catatonia after epidural morphine.

    PubMed

    Engquist, A; Jørgensen, B C; Andersen, H B

    1981-10-01

    A 43-year-old male with bronchogenic carcinoma was treated with continuous morphine via a thoracic epidural catheter. On the fifth day, after a total dose of 24 mg morphine chloride in 10 or 20 ml saline, he developed hallucinations, hyperthermia, spasticity, narcolepsy and opisthotonos. Respiratory rate and blood pressure were unaffected. Intravenous naloxone reversed all neurological abnormalities. This unusual syndrome was probably caused by a rostal spread of morphine. The location of the catheter and volume seem to be important variables. Hallucinations are important signs of impending intoxication. PMID:6176094

  14. Controlled-release oxycodone and morphine in cancer related pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarja Heiskanen; Eija Kalso

    1997-01-01

    Controlled-release (CR) formulations of oxycodone and morphine were compared in 45 patients with chronic cancer pain. The study was started with an open-label, randomised titration phase to achieve stable pain control for at least 48 h, followed by a double-blind, randomised, crossover phase in two periods, 3–6 days each. To blind the study using available tablet strengths, the dose ratio

  15. Urinary excretion and metabolism of arbutin after oral administration of Arctostaphylos uvae ursi extract as film-coated tablets and aqueous solution in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Gernot; Patzak, Ulrich; Brinkhaus, Benno; von Niecieck, Alexander; Wittig, Jörg; Krähmer, Nils; Glöckl, Ingmar; Veit, Markus

    2002-08-01

    Bearberry leaves and preparations made from them are traditionally used for urinary tract infections. The urinary excretion of arbutin metabolites was examined in a randomized crossover design in 16 healthy volunteers after the application of a single oral dose of bearberry leaves dry extract (BLDE). There were two groups of application using either film-coated tablets (FCT) or aqueous solution (AS). The urine sample analysis was performed by a validated HPLC coolarray method (hydroquinone) and a validated capillary electrophoresis method (hydroquinone-glucuronide, hydroquinone-sulfate). The total amounts of hydroquinone equivalents excreted in the urine from BLDE were similar in both groups. With FCT, 64.8% of the arbutin dose administered was excreted; with AS, 66.7% was excreted (p = 0.61). The maximum mean urinary concentration of hydroquinone equivalents was a little higher and peaked earlier in the AS group versus the FCT group, although this did not reach statistical significance (Cur max = 1.6893 micromol/ml vs. 1.1250 micromol/ml, p = 0.13; tmax (t midpoint) = 3.60 h vs. 4.40 h, p = 0.38). The relative bioavailability of FCT compared to AS was 103.3% for total hydroquinone equivalents. There was substantial intersubject variability. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the metabolite patterns detected (hydroquinone, hydroquinone-glucuronide, and hydroquinone-sulfate). PMID:12162475

  16. Fentanyl buccal tablet for the treatment of cancer-related breakthrough pain.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) (FENTORA) is indicated for the management of breakthrough pain (BTP) in patients with cancer pain and who are tolerant to ?60 mg of oral morphine equivalents, at least with the current availability of the minimal strength of 100 ?g. FBT uses the OraVescent technology to further increase the rate and extent of absorption of fentanyl. Short-term, randomized, controlled, clinical studies of FBT in patients with cancer pain have shown the efficacy of FBT in the management of breakthrough cancer pain. The efficacy was also confirmed in long-term studies on the safety and tolerability of FBT. It has been recommended that administration should be tailored to the patient's individual requirement, through dose titration starting from the lowest dose to find the effective dose. However, recent studies have demonstrated that predictable doses calculated from the basal opioid regimen are safe and more effective than doses achieved after dose titration. PMID:25359295

  17. Effect of hydrophilic natural gums in formulation of oral-controlled release matrix tablets of propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, K S; Venkataraju, M P; Gowda, D V

    2009-04-01

    In order to develop a controlled delivery of highly water-soluble propranolol hydrochloride (PPHCl) using hydrophilic natural gums (xanthan gum [X] and locust bean gum [LBG]) as cost-effective, nontoxic, easily available. The granules of PPHCl were prepared by wet granulation method using a different ratios drug: gum ratios of X, LBG and XLBG(X and LBG in 1:1 ratios). To increase the flowability and compressibility of the granules, and to prevent its adhesion to punch and die, magnesium stearate and talc were added to the granules in 1:2 ratios before punching. The tablet was analysed to determine hardness, friability, % assay and invitro release study was carried out. The release of PPHCl from a gelatinous swollen mass, which controls the diffusion of drug molecules through the polymeric material into aqueous medium. The XLBG matrice shows precise controlled release than the X and LBG matrice because of burst effect and fast release in case of X and LBG matrice respectively and there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymer in XLBG formulation as confirmed by FTIR studies. First pass effect of PPHCl can be avoided by these formulations. Matrices with XLBG show zero-order release via swelling, diffusion and relaxation mechanism. The XLBG matrice leads to more precise result than X and LBG alone by the utilization of synergistic interaction between two biopolymers and uniformity in the hydration layer in dissolution media. However, according to the similarity factor (f(2)) XLBG3 were the most similar formulations to Lol-SR as the reference standard. PMID:19339235

  18. Study of the Intraplantar Injection of Lidocaine and Morphine on Pain Perception and the Influence of Morphine Dependence and Withdrawal on Lidocaine-Induced Analgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zanjani, Taraneh Moini; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Morphine and lidocaine are known to influence the perception of pain. The present study sought to determine the influence of local administration of morphine on lidocaine-induced analgesia in morphine non-dependent (MND), morphine dependent (MD) and morphine withdrawal (MW) animals. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control, MND, MD and MW rats. Lidocaine (0.5, 1 and 2%) and morphine (200, 400 and 800 µg) were injected in the plantar surface of the right paw. MD animals received chronic oral morphine (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/ml in their drinking water) for 20 days. Twenty four hours before experiment, the animals in the MW group were deprived of morphine in their drinking water (physical dependence was observed by precipitating an abstinence syndrome with naloxone 2 mg/kg i.p.). Analgesia was assessed using hot-plate apparatus. Results: Morphine (400 µg) and lidocaine (2%) produce local analgesia in MND group. In MND rats, non-analgesic doses of each drug (200 µg morphine and 1% lidocaine) were used in combination and produced analgesia. In MD animals, all doses of lidocaine produced analgesia, while in MW animals, it failed to produce analgesia. In this situation, local administration of morphine could eventually influence the analgesic effect of lidocaine. Conclusion: Opioid withdrawal is one of the most common problems in clinic. This study determined the analgesic effect of lidocaine in MW animals in which lidocaine had no analgesic effect. In this regard, local administration of morphine with combination of lidocaine could probably produce an effective analgesia. PMID:21283259

  19. Tablet Weaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  20. Comparative study of morphine diffusion from sustained release polymeric suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E Morales; V Gallardo Lara; A. C Calpena; J Doménech; M. A Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, great efforts have been devoted to the design of drug delivery systems. Many polymeric excipients have been studied in order to make drug release fit the desired profiles. The aim of this work was to design a morphine oral suspension, as sustained release pharmaceutical formulations. To this end, two different ethylcellulose suspensions were prepared: one with the

  1. Effects of mu, kappa or delta opioids administered by pellet or pump on oral Salmonella infection and gastrointestinal transit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pu Feng; Rahil T. Rahim; Alan Cowan; Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen; Xiaohui Peng; John Gaughan; Joseph J. Meissler; Martin W. Adler; Toby K. Eisenstein

    2006-01-01

    Our laboratory has shown previously that subcutaneously implanted, slow-release morphine pellets markedly enhanced susceptibility to oral infection with Salmonella typhimurium. Further, morphine, kappa and delta opioid receptor agonists infused via osmotic minipumps were immunosuppressive. The present study compared morphine pellets to morphine pumps and also examined the differential effects of morphine versus U50,488H (kappa agonist), deltorphin II (delta2 agonist), and

  2. Relative bioavailability of the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FEBT) 1080 pg versus Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate 1600 pg and dose proportionality of FEBT 270 to 1300 ?g: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, three-period study in healthy adult volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Darwish; Kenneth Tempero; Mary Kirby; Jeffrey Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Background: The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FEBT) was designed to enhance the rate and extent of absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. FEBT is being investigated for the management of breakthrough pain.Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of FEBT 1080 ?g with that of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC®) 1600 ?g, and

  3. In-depth survey report: control technology assessment of unit operations employed in oral-contraceptive tablet-making operations at Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, New Jersey, June 13-17, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Anastas, M.Y.; Caplan, P.E.; Froehlich, P.A.

    1983-11-01

    An on-site visit was made to the Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation (OPC), Raritan, New Jersey to evaluate methods of controlling exposure to hazardous materials during the manufacturing of medications. OPC produced oral-contraceptive tablets containing norethindrone (NOR), mestranol, and ethynylestradiol (EE). Ventilation was an important engineering control at this site. Other engineering controls included the isolation of work procedures and automation of work practices for weighing ingredients, granulation of substances, tableting, and packaging. Area samples were taken for air monitoring of steroid concentration levels in each manufacturing area. Access to the work areas was only through the locker rooms. Samples taken in the locker rooms revealed no detectable contaminant levels. Workers performing high risk activities wore air supplied vinyl suits and disposable rubber gloves. The vinyl suits had overshoes attached. For moderate risk activities the workers wore a disposable suit, rubber gloves and shoe covers. Appropriate respirators were provided. Workers in low risk activities wore disposable rubber gloves and appropriate respirators. Sampling indicated that processing workers experienced breathing-zone levels outside their vinyl suits of 16.40 and 0.36 micrograms/cubic meter of NOR and EE, respectively.

  4. Controlled-release oxycodone compared with controlled-release morphine in the treatment of cancer pain: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Mucci-LoRusso; Barry S. Berman; Peter T. Silberstein; Marc L. Citron; Linda Bressler; Sharon M. Weinstein; Robert F. Kaiko; Barbara J. Buckley; Robert F. Reder

    1998-01-01

    Controlled-release oral formulations of oxycodone and morphine are both suitable analgesics for moderate to severe pain. They were compared in cancer-pain patients randomized to double-blind treatment with controlled-release oxycodone (n = 48) or controlled-release morphine (n = 52) every 12 h for up to 12 days. Stable analgesia was achieved by 83% of controlled-release oxycodone and 81% of controlled-release morphine

  5. Comparison of Echinacea alkylamide pharmacokinetics between liquid and tablet preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Matthias; R. S. Addison; L. L. Agnew; K. M. Bone; K. Watson; R. P. Lehmann

    2007-01-01

    The relative oral bioavailability of alkylamides from two different Echinacea dosage forms (liquid and tablet) were compared in a small two-way crossover study in humans (n=3). The liquid preparation investigated contained a mixture of Echinacea purpurea root (300mg\\/ml) and Echinacea angustifolia root (200mg\\/ml) extracted in 60% ethanol. The tablet preparation investigated was also a mixture of E. purpurea root (675mg\\/tablet)

  6. Serotonin Syndrome Probably Triggered by a Morphine-Phenelzine Interaction.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Carrasco, Hector; Muñoz-Aguilera, Eva María; García-Torrecillas, Juan Manuel; Abu Al-Robb, Hiba

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by excessive central and peripheral stimulation of serotonin brainstem receptors, usually triggered by inadvertent interactions between agents with serotonergic activity. Evidence supporting an association between nonserotonergic opiates, such as oxycodone or morphine, and serotonin syndrome is very limited and even contradictory. In this case report, we describe a patient who developed serotonergic-adverse effects likely precipitated by an interaction between morphine and phenelzine. A 57-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with complaints of increasing visual hallucinations, restlessness, photophobia, dizziness, neck stiffness, occipital headache, confusion, sweating, tachycardia, and nausea over the previous week. On admission, her blood pressure was 185/65 mm Hg, and clonus was noted in the lower extremities. The patient was hospitalized 10 days earlier for cellulitis of the left breast secondary to a left mastectomy 5 months earlier, and a short course of oral morphine was prescribed for pain control. Her routine medications consisted of aspirin, atorvastatin, bisoprolol, clopidogrel, gabapentin, omeprazole, phenelzine, and ramipril. Supportive measures were initiated on admission. Phenelzine and morphine were discontinued immediately, leading to a progressive resolution of symptoms over the next 48 hours. Phenelzine was restarted on discharge without further complications. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's development of serotonin syndrome and the combination of morphine and phenelzine. The mechanism underlying this interaction, however, remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Clinicians should carefully weigh the risk and benefits of initiating morphine in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors or any other serotonin-enhancing drugs. PMID:25903219

  7. Sensitivity of quantitative sensory models to morphine analgesia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brock, Christina; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Opioid analgesia can be explored with quantitative sensory testing, but most investigations have used models of phasic pain, and such brief stimuli may be limited in the ability to faithfully simulate natural and clinical painful experiences. Therefore, identification of appropriate experimental pain models is critical for our understanding of opioid effects with the potential to improve treatment. Objectives The aim was to explore and compare various pain models to morphine analgesia in healthy volunteers. Methods The study was a double-blind, randomized, two-way crossover study. Thirty-nine healthy participants were included and received morphine 30 mg (2 mg/mL) as oral solution or placebo. To cover both tonic and phasic stimulations, a comprehensive multi-modal, multi-tissue pain-testing program was performed. Results Tonic experimental pain models were sensitive to morphine analgesia compared to placebo: muscle pressure (F=4.87, P=0.03), bone pressure (F=3.98, P=0.05), rectal pressure (F=4.25, P=0.04), and the cold pressor test (F=25.3, P<0.001). Compared to placebo, morphine increased tolerance to muscle stimulation by 14.07%; bone stimulation by 9.72%; rectal mechanical stimulation by 20.40%, and reduced pain reported during the cold pressor test by 9.14%. In contrast, the more phasic experimental pain models were not sensitive to morphine analgesia: skin heat, rectal electrical stimulation, or rectal heat stimulation (all P>0.05). Conclusion Pain models with deep tonic stimulation including C fiber activation and and/or endogenous pain modulation were more sensitive to morphine analgesia. To avoid false negative results in future studies, we recommend inclusion of reproducible tonic pain models in deep tissues, mimicking clinical pain to a higher degree. PMID:25525384

  8. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avine M. Lydon; Thomas Cooke; Finbarr Duggan DSC; George D. Shorten

    1999-01-01

    Purpose  A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enterai feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered\\u000a drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects\\u000a of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine\\u000a (17.5 mg) on the

  9. 21 CFR 520.763a - Dithiazanine iodide tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs immediately after feeding using the following dosage schedule for various parasite infestations: Milligrams per pound of body weight Length of treatment—days Large roundworms (Toxocara canis,...

  10. 21 CFR 520.763a - Dithiazanine iodide tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs immediately after feeding using the following dosage schedule for various parasite infestations: Milligrams per pound of body weight Length of treatment—days Large roundworms (Toxocara canis,...

  11. 21 CFR 520.763a - Dithiazanine iodide tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs immediately after feeding using the following dosage schedule for various parasite infestations: Milligrams per pound of body weight Length of treatment—days Large roundworms (Toxocara canis,...

  12. A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover bioequivalence study of a fixed-dose pediatric combination of lamivudine 40-mg, nevirapine 70-mg, and stavudine 10-mg tablet for oral suspension with individual liquid formulations in healthy adult male volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tausif Monif; Nageshwar Rao Thudi; Sudhakar Koundinya Tippabhotla; Arshad Khuroo; Amit Marwah; Vikesh Kumar Shrivastav; Monika Tandon; Rajeev Raghuvanshi; Shibadas Biswal

    2007-01-01

    Background: Because of the lack of suitable pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) agents, adult fixed-dose ARVs are commonly used in children. This practice poses concerns about dose inaccuracy, which may lead to resistance or toxicity.Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of a new pediatric fixed-dose combination (FDC) ARV tablet for oral suspension as compared with individual

  13. Relative potency of controlled-release oxycodone and controlled-release morphine in a postoperative pain model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Curtis; G. H. Johnson; P. Clark; R. Taylor; J. Brown; R. O'Callaghan; M. Shi; P. G. Lacouture

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The relative analgesic potency of single doses of oral controlled-release oxycodone and oral controlled-release morphine\\u000a were compared in a randomized, double-blind trial using a postoperative pain model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Women (n?=?169) with moderate to severe pain following abdominal hysterectomy received single oral doses of controlled-release oxycodone,\\u000a 20?mg or 40?mg, or controlled-release morphine, 45?mg or 90?mg. Assessments were made at 30?min,

  14. Effects of systemic morphine on the activity of convergent neurons of spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhouane Dallel; Philippe Luccarini; Jean-Louis Molat; Alain Woda

    1996-01-01

    The spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis has been shown to relay nociceptive inputs mainly from the oral and perioral regions. In this study, we examined the effects of intravenous administration of morphine on C-fiber-evoked activities of spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis convergent neurons in halothane-anesthetized rats. Morphine depressed the C-fiber-evoked responses of spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis convergent neurons in a dose-related (3–12

  15. [Modern polymers in matrix tablets technology].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, ?ukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Matrix tablets are the most popular method of oral drug administration, and polymeric materials have been used broadly in matrix formulations to modify and modulate drug release rate. The main goal of the system is to extend drug release profiles to maintain a constant in vivo plasma drug concentration and a consistent pharmacological effect. Polymeric matrix tablets offer a great potential as oral controlled drug delivery systems. Cellulose derivatives, like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are often used as matrix formers. However, also other types of polymers can be used for this purpose including: Kollidon SR, acrylic acid polymers such as Eudragits and Carbopols. Nevertheless, polymers of natural origin like: carragens, chitosan and alginates widely used in the food and cosmetics industry are now coming to the fore of pharmaceutical research and are used in matrix tablets technology. Modern polymers allow to obtain matrix tablets by 3D printing, which enables to develop new formulation types. In this paper, the polymers used in matrix tablets technology and examples of their applications were described. PMID:25739125

  16. Low-dose oral immunization with lyophilized tissue of herbicide-resistant lettuce expressing hepatitis B surface antigen for prototype plant-derived vaccine tablet formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Pniewski; Józef Kapusta; Piotr Boci?g; Jacek Wojciechowicz; Anna Kostrzak; Micha? Gdula; Olga Fedorowicz-Stro?ska; Piotr Wójcik; Halina Otta; S?awomir Samardakiewicz; Bogdan Wolko; Andrzej P?ucienniczak

    2011-01-01

    Efficient immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and other pathogens with plant-based oral vaccines requires appropriate plant expressors and the optimization of vaccine compositions and administration protocols. Previous immunization studies were mainly based on a combination of the injection of a small surface antigen of HBV (S-HBsAg) and the feeding with raw tissue contain- ing the antigen, supplemented with an

  17. Oral administration of the GnRH antagonist acyline, in a GIPET ® -enhanced tablet form, acutely suppresses serum testosterone in normal men: single-dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Kenneth Amory; Thomas W. Leonard; Stephanie T. Page; Edel O’Toole; Michael J. McKenna; William J. Bremner

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  GnRH analogs are useful for the treatment of prostate cancer, but require parenteral administration. The peptide GnRH antagonist\\u000a acyline potently suppresses luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone in man; however, its clinical utility is limited by\\u000a the requirement for frequent injections. The use of a proprietary enhancer system called GIPET®, which is based on medium-chain fatty acids, facilitates the oral bioavailability

  18. Morphine Induces Albuminuria by Compromising Podocyte Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiqian; Rai, Partab; Chandel, Nirupama; Cheng, Kang; Lederman, Rivka; Saleem, Moin A.; Mathieson, Peter W.; Husain, Mohammad; Crosson, John T.; Gupta, Kalpna; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2013-01-01

    Morphine has been reported to accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, whether morphine affects slit diaphragm (SD), the major constituent of glomerular filtration barrier, is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of morphine on glomerular filtration barrier in general and podocyte integrity in particular. Mice were administered either normal saline or morphine for 72 h, then urine samples were collected and kidneys were subsequently isolated for immunohistochemical studies and Western blot. For in vitro studies, human podocytes were treated with morphine and then probed for the molecular markers of slit diaphragm. Morphine-receiving mice displayed a significant increase in albuminuria and showed effacement of podocyte foot processes. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, the expression of synaptopodin, a molecular marker for podocyte integrity, and the slit diaphragm constituting molecules (SDCM), such as nephrin, podocin, and CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), were decreased in morphine-treated podocytes. In vitro studies indicated that morphine modulated podocyte expression of SDCM through opiate mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) receptors. Since morphine also enhanced podocyte oxidative stress, the latter seems to contribute to decreased SDCM expression. In addition, AKT, p38, and JNK pathways were involved in morphine-induced down regulation of SDCM in human podocytes. These findings demonstrate that morphine has the potential to alter the glomerular filtration barrier by compromising the integrity of podocytes. PMID:23555556

  19. Morphine induces albuminuria by compromising podocyte integrity.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiqian; Rai, Partab; Chandel, Nirupama; Cheng, Kang; Lederman, Rivka; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Husain, Mohammad; Crosson, John T; Gupta, Kalpna; Malhotra, Ashwani; Singhal, Pravin C

    2013-01-01

    Morphine has been reported to accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, whether morphine affects slit diaphragm (SD), the major constituent of glomerular filtration barrier, is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of morphine on glomerular filtration barrier in general and podocyte integrity in particular. Mice were administered either normal saline or morphine for 72 h, then urine samples were collected and kidneys were subsequently isolated for immunohistochemical studies and Western blot. For in vitro studies, human podocytes were treated with morphine and then probed for the molecular markers of slit diaphragm. Morphine-receiving mice displayed a significant increase in albuminuria and showed effacement of podocyte foot processes. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, the expression of synaptopodin, a molecular marker for podocyte integrity, and the slit diaphragm constituting molecules (SDCM), such as nephrin, podocin, and CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), were decreased in morphine-treated podocytes. In vitro studies indicated that morphine modulated podocyte expression of SDCM through opiate mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) receptors. Since morphine also enhanced podocyte oxidative stress, the latter seems to contribute to decreased SDCM expression. In addition, AKT, p38, and JNK pathways were involved in morphine-induced down regulation of SDCM in human podocytes. These findings demonstrate that morphine has the potential to alter the glomerular filtration barrier by compromising the integrity of podocytes. PMID:23555556

  20. Effect of roots aqueous extract of Delphinium denudatum on morphine-induced tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Shadab; Ahmad, M Aftab; Siddiqui, Tariq A

    2002-12-01

    The aqueous extract of Delphinium denudatum (Dd) roots showed a significant effect against morphine- (10 mg/kg) induced tolerance and dependence in mice. Oral administration of the extract (200-1600 mg/kg) showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of naloxone- (1 mg/kg) induced withdrawal. PMID:12490211

  1. A paper-based lateral flow assay for morphine.

    PubMed

    Teerinen, Tuija; Lappalainen, Timo; Erho, Tomi

    2014-09-01

    Morphine was used as a model analyte to examine the possibility of using cellulose, physically modified by papermaking and converting techniques, as a capillary matrix in a lateral flow type of diagnostic assay. This research was directed toward low-cost, disposable, and portable paper-based diagnostics, with the aim of addressing the analytical performance of paper as a substrate in the analysis for drugs of abuse. Antibody Fab fragments were used as sensing molecules, and gold nanoparticle detection was employed. Inkjet printing was used to pattern sensing biomolecules as detection zones on paper. To validate the usefulness of paper as a diagnostic platform, the principle of a direct sandwich assay, based on immunocomplex formation between morphine and the anti-morphine Fab fragment and detection of the formed immunocomplex by another Fab fragment, was implemented. Results were compared with that achieved by using nitrocellulose as a reference material. Possible interfering from the sample matrix on assay quality was investigated with spiked oral fluid samples. Under optimized conditions, a visually assessed limit of detection for the sandwich assay was 1 ng/mL, indicating that the paper-based test devices developed in this work can perform screening for drugs of abuse and can fulfill the requirement for a sensitive assay in diagnostically relevant ranges. PMID:25023970

  2. Co-administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium acetate effectively blocks the signs of morphine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Vadizadeh, Ali

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oral administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium acetate on morphine withdrawal syndrome. Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses of morphine. Mice were observed for 30 minutes for the withdrawal signs (jumping or standing events, diarrhea, piloerection, tremor and ptosis). Separate oral administration of magnesium (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) and calcium (500, 750 and 1,000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the jumping, without affecting standing in animals withdrawn from morphine. Co-administration of magnesium (at a fixed dose of 100 mg/kg) and calcium (at a range of doses from 250 to 1,000 mg/kg) resulted in a significant reduction in jumping and standing events (P<0.05). In a similar fashion, the qualitative signs of withdrawal were also reduced when the above combination of calcium and magnesium was administered. Co-administration of calcium/magnesium at 500/50, 750/75 and 1,000/100 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of jumps in morphine-dependent animals without affecting the number of standing events. This study demonstrates the potential activity of the co-administration calcium and magnesium in preventing the signs associated with morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:22429988

  3. Prior Morphine Exposure Enhances Ibogaine Antagonism of Morphine-induced Dopamine Release in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANDRA M PEARL; ISABELLE M MAISONNEUVE; STANLEY D GLICK

    1996-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of prior morphine exposure on ibogaine antagonism of morphine-induced dopamine release. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated once a day for 2 days with morphine (20 mg\\/kg, i.p.) or saline and given a low dose of ibogaine (10 mg\\/kg, i.p.) or saline 5 hr after the last morphine or saline injection. Nineteen hours later, rats

  4. Redesign of a Dioxygenase in Morphine Biosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Runguphan, Weerawat

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces medicinally important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the analgesics codeine and morphine, in the morphinan pathway. We aligned three dioxygenases that were recently ...

  5. The pharmacokinetics of clotiazepam after oral and sublingual administration to volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Benvenuti; V. Bottà; M. Broggini; V. Gambaro; F. Lodi; M. Valenti

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the single dose pharmacokinetics of 5 mg clotiazepam drops, oral tablets, and sublingual tablets in a cross-over study in 6 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years). The formulations had similar systemic availability.

  6. Morphine Induces Desensitization of Insulin Receptor Signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Li; Shoshana Eitan; Jiong Wu; Christopher J. Evans; Brigitte Kieffer; Xiaojian Sun; Roberto D. Polakiewicz

    2003-01-01

    between the MOR and the insulin receptor (IR) signaling cascades. We show that prolonged morphine exposure of cell lines expressing endogenous or transfected MOR, IR, and the insulin substrate 1 (IRS-1) protein specifically desensitizes IR signaling to Akt and ERK cascades. Morphine caused serine phosphory- lation of the IR and impaired the formation of the signaling complex among the IR,

  7. RACK1 affects morphine reward via BDNF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Wan; Yizhou Xie; Lan Su; Yanyou Liu; Yuhui Wang; Zhengrong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Chronic morphine addiction may trigger functional changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which is believed to be the neurobiological substrate of opiate addiction. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in addiction-related pathology in animal studies. Our previous studies have shown that RACK1 is involved in morphine reward in mice. The recent research indicates nuclear RACK1 by localizing at

  8. Delay of Morphine Tolerance by Palmitoylethanolamide

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Corti, Francesca; Micheli, Laura; Zanardelli, Matteo; Ghelardini, Carla

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the potency and efficacy of morphine, its clinical application for chronic persistent pain is limited by the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying morphine tolerance are complex and still unclear. Recently, the activation of glial cells and the release of glia-derived proinflammatory mediators have been suggested to play a role in the phenomenon. N-Palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous compound with antinociceptive effects able to reduce the glial activation. On this basis, 30?mg?kg?1 PEA was subcutaneously daily administered in morphine treated rats (10?mg?kg?1 intraperitoneally, daily). PEA treatment significantly attenuated the development of tolerance doubling the number of days of morphine antinociceptive efficacy in comparison to the vehicle + morphine group. PEA prevented both microglia and astrocyte cell number increase induced by morphine in the dorsal horn; on the contrary, the morphine-dependent increase of spinal TNF-? levels was not modified by PEA. Nevertheless, the immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly higher TNF-? immunoreactivity in astrocytes of PEA-protected rats suggesting a PEA-mediated decrease of cytokine release from astrocyte. PEA intervenes in the nervous alterations that lead to the lack of morphine antinociceptive effects; a possible application of this endogenous compound in opioid-based therapies is suggested. PMID:25874232

  9. Intravenous morphine pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlton D. Dampier; B. N. Y. Setty; Joann Logan; Jacqueline G. Ioli; Roger Dean

    1995-01-01

    To examine the pharmacokinetics of parenteral opioids, such as morphine, in patients with sickle cell disease, we determined the plasma morphine clearances in 18 patients (aged 6 to 19 years) who were receiving continuous intravenous infusions, and the pharmacokinetics of morphine in an additional six patients after single intravenous doses. Plasma morphine clearances ranged from 6.2 to 59.1 ml min-

  10. Managing Morphine-Induced Constipation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R Ramesh; K. Suresh Kumar; M. R Rajagopal; P Balachandran; P. K Warrier

    1998-01-01

    Constipation is a frequent cause of distress in advanced cancer. A palliative care unit in Kerala, a southern state of India, conducted a controlled trial comparing a liquid Ayurvedic (herbal) preparation (Misrakasneham) with a conventional laxative tablet (Sofsena) in the management of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced cancer. Although there was no statistically significant difference in the apparent degree

  11. The combination of mitragynine and morphine prevents the development of morphine tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Fakurazi, Sharida; Rahman, Shamima Abdul; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is the major active alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa Korth. In the present study, we investigated the enhancement of analgesic action of MG when combined with morphine and the effect of the combination on the development of tolerance towards morphine. Mice were administered intraperitoneally with a dose of MG (15 and 25 mg/kg b.wt) combined with morphine (5 mg/kg b.wt) respectively for 9 days. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated by a hot plate test. The protein expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP response element binding (CREB) was analyzed by immunoblot. Toxicological parameters especially liver and kidney function tests were assessed after the combination treatment with MG and morphine. The concurrent administration of MG and morphine showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in latency time when compared to morphine alone group and the outstanding analgesic effects in the combination regimens were maintained until day 9. For the protein expression, there was a significant increment of cAMP and CREB levels (p < 0.05) in group treated with 5 mg/kg morphine but there was no significant change of these protein expressions when MG was combined with morphine. There was a significant changes in toxicological parameters of various treated groups. The combination treatment of MG and morphine effectively reduce the tolerance due to the chronic administration of morphine. PMID:23292329

  12. 76 FR 45267 - Determination That INVERSINE (Mecamylamine Hydrochloride) Tablet and Six Other Drug Products Were...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...SINEQUAN (doxepin Do. HCl) Oral Concentrate, EQ 10 mg base/mL. NDA 019201.................. VOLTAREN (diclofenac Novartis sodium) Delayed- Pharmaceuticals Release Tablet, 75 Corp., One Health mg. Plaza, East Hanover, NJ...

  13. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of sustained release morphine for the management of refractory dyspnoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy P Abernethy; David C Currow; Peter Frith; Belinda S Fazekas; Annie McHugh; Chuong Bui

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of oral morphine in relieving the sensation of breathlessness in patients in whom the underlying aetiology is maximally treated. Design Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover study. Setting Four outpatient clinics at a hospital in South Australia.

  14. Pharmacokinetic comparison of a dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination tablet and a plain dextromethorphan tablet.

    PubMed

    Silvasti, M; Karttunen, P; Happonen, P; Mykkänen, M; Romppanen, T; Tukiainen, H

    1990-06-01

    We compared in this double-blind crossover study the bioavailability of dextromethorphan from a dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination tablet (Redol comp) and from a plain dextromethorphan tablet (Extuson) by determining dextrorphan concentrations after single-dose oral administration in 10 healthy volunteers. The absorption of salbutamol from the combined preparation was also determined. The absorption of dextromethorphan was slightly faster from the plain dextromethorphan preparation. The peak concentration of dextrorphan was achieved at 1.5 h after Extuson and at 2 h after Redol comp (1,053.0 +/- 366.5 ng/ml and 901.5 +/- 210.9 ng/ml, NS). AUC0-12 values of dextrorphan were 4,315.6 +/- 295.0 (ng/ml)h after Extuson and 3,983.8 +/- 205.6 (ng/ml)h after Redol comp (p less than 0.05). Salbutamol was well absorbed from the combined preparation and the peak concentration was achieved at 3 h (6.57 +/- 2.95 ng/ml). Four subjects reported side-effects typical for salbutamol after the combination tablet. No side-effects were reported after the plain dextromethorphan tablet. On the basis of the present study, we conclude that the absorption of dextromethorphan from the preparations tested is almost equal and the dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination can be administered in tablet form for the treatment of cough. PMID:2376428

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of opioid receptor with morphine-7,8-oxide (morphine epoxide)

    SciTech Connect

    Takayanagi, I.; Shibata, R.; Miyata, N.; Hirobe, M.

    1982-05-01

    The opioid receptor mediating inhibitory action of morphine in the electrically stimulated guinea pig ileum was irreversibly photoinactivated by morphine epoxide (3 X 10(-6) M). Morphine epoxide (up to 3 X 10(-5) M) did not influence the responses of rat vas deferens (epsilon-receptor) or rabbit vas deferens (kappa-receptor) to electrical stimulation. Effective concentrations of morphine epoxide were much lower in the guinea pig ileum (mu-receptor) than in the mouse vas deference (delta-receptor). The inhibitory action of (Met)-enkephalin on the twitch responses of the rat vas deferens and mouse vas deferens to electrical stimulation were not influenced after irradiation in the presence of morphine epoxide (3 X 10(-6) M). Therefore, morphine epoxide is probably a useful probe for photoaffinity labeling of the mu-receptor in vitro.

  16. Comparison of Echinacea alkylamide pharmacokinetics between liquid and tablet preparations.

    PubMed

    Matthias, A; Addison, R S; Agnew, L L; Bone, K M; Watson, K; Lehmann, R P

    2007-09-01

    The relative oral bioavailability of alkylamides from two different Echinacea dosage forms (liquid and tablet) were compared in a small two-way crossover study in humans (n=3). The liquid preparation investigated contained a mixture of Echinacea purpurea root (300 mg/ml) and Echinacea angustifolia root (200 mg/ml) extracted in 60% ethanol. The tablet preparation investigated was also a mixture of E. purpurea root (675 mg/tablet) and E. angustifolia root (600 mg/tablet), but was prepared from the dried 60% ethanolic extracts of these two Echinacea species. Alkylamides were found to be rapidly absorbed and measurable in plasma from both preparations. No significant differences in the tetraene alkylamide pharmacokinetic parameters for T(1/2), AUC(t-lin) and C(max) in the two different preparations were found. T(max) increased from 20 min for the liquid to 30 min for the tablet, which is not unexpected as the tablet required time for disintegration before absorption could occur. These results suggested that there was no significant difference in the bioavailability of alkylamides from the liquid and tablet Echinacea formulations. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the absorption site and any alkylamide loss due to digestive processes were similar in both preparations. PMID:17289362

  17. Tablets containing drug-loaded polymeric nanocapsules: an innovative platform.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, R B; Bastos, M O; Fontana, M C; Ourique, A F; Beck, R C R

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility to convert drug-loaded nanocapsule suspensions in a solid dosage form (tablets). Dexamethasone was used as a model drug due to its low aqueous solubility and fast drug release from conventional tablets. Granules containing dexamethasone-loaded nanocapsules were obtained by a wet granulation process using a dispersion of polyvinylpirrolidone/nanocapsules as a binder system. Granules were compressed in an eccentric compression machine (D-NC-T). A control formulation (tablets without nanocapsules) was also prepared (D-T). Tablets were characterized by means of mean weight, hardness, friability, diameter, thickness, disintegration time, drug content, morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in vitro drug release studies. D-NC-T showed adequate physicochemical characteristics according to the pharmacopeial requirements in terms of mean weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug content. Intact nanocapsules in tablets were observed by SEM. In vitro drug release studies showed a slower release of dexamethasone from these tablets (D-NC-T) compared to the control formulation (D-T). Results showed that these tablets represent an interesting platform to the development of oral drug delivery systems containing polymeric nanocapsules. PMID:21133121

  18. Morphine effects on striatal transcriptome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Korostynski, Michal; Piechota, Marcin; Kaminska, Dorota; Solecki, Wojciech; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic opiate use produces molecular and cellular adaptations in the nervous system that lead to tolerance, physical dependence, and addiction. Genome-wide comparison of morphine-induced changes in brain transcription of mouse strains with different opioid-related phenotypes provides an opportunity to discover the relationship between gene expression and behavioral response to the drug. Results Here, we analyzed the effects of single and repeated morphine administrations in selected inbred mouse strains (129P3/J, DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, and SWR/J). Using microarray-based gene expression profiling in striatum, we found 618 (false discovery rate < 1%) morphine-responsive transcripts. Through ontologic classification, we linked particular sets of genes to biologic functions, including metabolism, transmission of nerve impulse, and cell-cell signaling. We identified numerous novel morphine-regulated genes (for instance, Olig2 and Camk1g), and a number of transcripts with strain-specific changes in expression (for instance, Hspa1a and Fzd2). Moreover, transcriptional activation of a pattern of co-expressed genes (for instance, Tsc22d3 and Nfkbia) was identified as being mediated via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Further studies revealed that blockade of the GR altered morphine-induced locomotor activity and development of physical dependence. Conclusion Our results indicate that there are differences between strains in the magnitude of transcriptional response to acute morphine treatment and in the degree of tolerance in gene expression observed after chronic morphine treatment. Using whole-genome transcriptional analysis of morphine effects in the striatum, we were able to reveal multiple physiological factors that may influence opioid-related phenotypes and to relate particular gene networks to this complex trait. The results also suggest the possible involvement of GR-regulated genes in mediating behavioral response to morphine. PMID:17598886

  19. Orodispersible films and tablets with prednisolone microparticles.

    PubMed

    Brniak, Witold; Ma?lak, Ewelina; Jachowicz, Renata

    2015-07-30

    Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) and orodispersible films (ODFs) are solid oral dosage forms disintegrating or dissolving rapidly when placed in the mouth. One of the main issues related to their preparation is an efficient taste masking of a bitter drug substance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the microparticles intended to mask a bitter taste of the prednisolone and use them in further preparation of two orodispersible dosage forms. Microparticles based on the Eudragit E PO or E 100 as a taste-masking agent were prepared with spray-drying technique. Tablets containing microparticles, co-processed ODT excipient Pharmaburst, and lubricant were directly compressed with single-punch tablet press. Orodispersible films were prepared by casting polymeric solutions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing uniformly dispersed microparticles. Physicochemical properties of microparticles were evaluated, as well as mechanical properties analysis, disintegration time measurements and dissolution tests were performed for prepared dosage forms. Both formulations showed good mechanical resistance while maintaining excellent disintegration properties. The dissolution studies showed good masking properties of microparticles with Eudragit E 100. The amount of prednisolone released during the first minute in phosphate buffer 6.8 was around 0.1%. After incorporation into the orodispersible forms, the amount of released prednisolone increased significantly. It was probably the effect of faster microparticles wetting in orodispersible forms and their partial destruction by compression force during tableting process. PMID:25889975

  20. [Afobazole influence on antinociceptive properties of morphine].

    PubMed

    Kolik, L G; Zhukov, V N; Seredenin, S B

    2009-01-01

    The effects of afobazole (1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) on the antinociceptive properties of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) were studied in mice. It is shown that afobazole attenuates the analgesic action of morphine in the "hot plate" and "tail flick" tests. This effect was prevented by sigma 1 receptor antagonist haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Data obtained suggested that a decrease in the morphine antinociceptive action by afobazole is related to its agonistic interaction with sigma 1 receptors at supraspinal and spinal levels. PMID:19334506

  1. Trauma and Substance Abuse: Deadly Consequences of Intravenous Percocet Tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Galante; Salman Ahmad; Elizabeth A. Albers; Matthew J. Sena

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of drug or alcohol addiction among trauma patients approaches 40%, yet many require narcotics during admission for adequate pain control. Provider awareness is the most reasonable option to avoid the devastating consequence of narcotic tablet injection. Objective: To illustrate the misuse of oral narcotics and to heighten provider awareness of a potential cause for acute respiratory failure

  2. Microstructural investigation of tablet compaction and tablet pharmacological properties

    E-print Network

    Mao, Kangyi

    2010-01-01

    In current tablet manufacturing processes, there is a knowledge gap concerning material transformation and the subsequent impact on tablet properties; this gap presents a barrier to rational formulation / process design. ...

  3. A new tablet brittleness index.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-06-01

    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work. PMID:25907006

  4. Does temperature increase induced by tableting contribute to tablet quality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Picker-Freyer; A. G. Schmidt

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine temperature and structural changes caused by tableting and to deduce from the combination\\u000a of temperature measurement and the determination of structural changes whether temperature increase induced by tableting contributes\\u000a to tablet quality. Tablets were produced of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), spray-dried lactose, pregelatinized starch,\\u000a and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) with an instrumented single

  5. Chronic Morphine Induces Downregulation of Spinal Glutamate Transporters: Implications in Morphine Tolerance and Abnormal Pain Sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianren Mao; Backil Sung; Ru-Rong Ji; Grewo Lim

    2002-01-01

    Tolerance to the analgesic effects of an opioid occurs after its chronic administration, a pharmacological phenomenon that has been associated with the development of abnormal pain sensitivity such as hyperalgesia. In the present study, we ex- amined the role of spinal glutamate transporters (GTs) in the development of both morphine tolerance and associated ther- mal hyperalgesia. Chronic morphine administered through

  6. Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Updates by E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice Search the Consumer Updates ... Pharmacists Association. This includes skipping doses and splitting tablets in an effort to save money. Regarding the ...

  7. Granule size distribution of tablets.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Satu; Antikainen, Osmo; Räikkönen, Heikki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the variation in the granule size distribution in a die of an eccentric tableting machine. Theophylline anhydrate and alpha-lactose monohydrate were granulated with an aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone, using an instrumented fluid bed granulator. The granules were tabletted, using an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. Punch forces were recorded and tablets were collected in order during the tableting process. Powder samples, which had the same mass as the tablets, were also collected from the die for particle size determination. The particle size distribution was measured, using a spatial filtering technique. In addition, the segregation of microcrystalline cellulose pellets during tableting was analyzed. The particle size distribution changed dramatically during the tableting process, due to a segregation phenomenon. PMID:19780134

  8. Bioequivalence study of two enalapril maleate tablet formulations in healthy male volunteersPharmacokinetic versus pharmacodynamic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ribeiro; M. N. Muscará; A. R. Martins; H. Moreno Jr.; G. B. Mendes; G. de Nucci

    1996-01-01

    Objective:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Two different conventional release enalapril maleate tablet formulations were evaluated for their relative bioavailability\\u000a (Eupressin tablets 10?mg, Biosintética as the test formulation vs Renitec tablets 10 mg Merck Sharp & Dhome, as the reference\\u000a formulation). A single 20?mg oral dose of each preparation was administered to 18 healthy male adult volunteers and their\\u000a bioequivalence was assessed by comparing the

  9. Vindolanda Tablets Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Written in ink on postcard-sized sheets of wood, the Vindolanda tablets constitute a fascinating record of life in Roman Britain in the area of northern England around Hadrian's Wall during the first and second centuries AD. The tablets and the accompanying visual and printed materials were brought online through the collaborative efforts of the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents and the Academic Computing Development Team at Oxford University. Visitors unfamiliar with the world of Roman Britain would do well to go first to the Exhibition section which contains helpful areas devoted to the world of military life during this period, the tablets themselves, and the excavations at Vindolanda. The Reference section also provides a great deal of context to the commentaries contained on the tablets, providing information about the military units in the Roman army and important dates and events in early Roman Britain. The heart of the site is dedicated to the tablets themselves, which may be browsed by number or searched by such variables as title, author, English translation, or commentary.

  10. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimizing Development of Okara Tablet Formulation as a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zen, Nur Izzati; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsudin, Rosnah; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    The usage of soy is increasing year by year. It increases the problem of financial crisis due to the limited sources of soybeans. Therefore, production of oral tablets containing the nutritious leftover of soymilk production, called okara, as the main ingredient was investigated. The okara tablets were produced using the direct compression method. The percentage of okara, guar gum, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-101), and maltodextrin influenced tablets' hardness and friability which are analyzed using a D-optimal mixture design. Composition of Avicel PH-101 had positive effects for both hardness and friability tests of the tablets. Maltodextrin and okara composition had a significant positive effect on tablets' hardness, but not on percentage of friability of tablets. However, guar gum had a negative effect on both physical tests. The optimum tablet formulation was obtained: 47.0% of okara, 2.0% of guar gum, 35.0% of Avicel PH-101, and 14.0% of maltodextrin. PMID:26171418

  11. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

  12. Morphine-6-glucuronide: actions and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Gavin J; Smith, Terry W

    2005-09-01

    Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) appears to show equivalent analgesia to morphine but to have a superior side-effect profile in terms of reduced liability to induce nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence behind this statement and to identify the possible reasons that may contribute to the profile of M6G. The vast majority of available data supports the notion that both M6G and morphine mediate their effects by activating the micro-opioid receptor. The differences for which there is a reasonable consensus in the literature can be summarized as: (1) Morphine has a slightly higher affinity for the micro-opioid receptor than M6G, (2) M6G shows a slightly higher efficacy at the micro-opioid receptor, (3) M6G has a lower affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor than morphine, and (4) M6G has a very different absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile from morphine. However, none of these are adequate alone to explain the clinical differences between M6G and morphine. The ADME differences are perhaps most likely to explain some of the differences but seem unlikely to be the whole story. Further work is required to examine further the profile of M6G, notably whether M6G penetrates differentially to areas of the brain involved in pain and those involved in nausea, vomiting, and respiratory control or whether micro-opioid receptors in these brain areas differ in either their regulation or pharmacology. PMID:15952175

  13. Detection and identification of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide in nitrite adulterated urine specimens containing morphine and its glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Luong, Susan; Fu, Shanlin

    2014-03-01

    In vitro urine adulteration is a well-documented practice adopted by individuals aiming to evade detection of drug use, when required to undergo mandatory sports and workplace drug testing. Potassium nitrite is an effective urine adulterant due to its oxidizing potential, and has been shown to mask the presence of many drugs of abuse. However, limited research has been conducted to understand its mechanism of action, and to explore the possibility of the drugs undergoing direct oxidation to form stable reaction products. In this study, opiates including morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to potassium nitrite in water and urine to mimic the process of nitrite adulteration. It was found that two stable reaction products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) when morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to nitrite. Isolation and elucidation using spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques revealed that they were 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide, respectively. These reaction products were also formed when an authentic morphine-positive urine specimen was fortified with nitrite. 2-Nitro-morphine was found to be stable enough to undergo the enzymatic hydrolysis procedure and also detectable by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after forming a trimethylsilyl derivative. On the contrary, morphine-3-glucuronide did not appear to be chemically manipulated when exposed to potassium nitrite in urine. These reaction products are not endogenously produced, are relatively stable and can be monitored with both LC-MS and GC-MS confirmatory techniques. As a result, these findings have revealed the possibility for the use of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide as markers for the indirect monitoring of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in urine specimens adulterated with nitrite. PMID:23592389

  14. Tablet Process Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET is a Tablet Process Simulator in which visitors set up and run a tablet press in a virtual 3D environment. The tool requires the program to be downloaded and installed, and gives helpful installation instructions. Users will start by downloading a zip file to their computer.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Tapentadol and Morphine on Conditioned Pain Modulation in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Chris; van Velzen, Monique; Drewes, Asbjørn; Aarts, Leon; Dahan, Albert; Niesters, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Background Modulatory descending pathways, originating at supraspinal sites that converge at dorsal horn neurons, influence pain perception in humans. Defects in descending pain control are linked to chronic pain states and its restoration may be a valuable analgesic tool. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a surrogate marker of descending inhibition that reduces the perception of pain from a primary test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus. Here the effects of the analgesics tapentadol, a combined mu-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and morphine, a strong mu-opioid receptor agonist, were tested on CPM in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 12 healthy pain-free volunteers, to understand possible differences in mechanism of action between these opioids. Methods and Results On three occasions CPM responses were obtained 60-90 and 120-150 min following intake of tapentadol (100 mg immediate release tablet), morphine (40 mg immediate release tablet) or placebo. At both time points, CPM was detectable after treatment with placebo and tapentadol (peak pain ratings reduced by 20-30% after application of the conditioning stimulus) but not after morphine. Compared to placebo morphine displayed significantly less CPM: mean treatment difference 18.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 32.9%) at 60-90 min after drug intake and 19.5% (95% CI 5.7 to 33.2%) at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.001). No difference in CPM between placebo and tapentadol was detected: mean treatment difference 1.5% (95% CI -11.6 to 14.6%) at 60-90 min after drug intake and 1.5% (95% CI -16.0 to 18.9%) at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.60). Conclusions Our data show that in volunteers morphine affects CPM, while tapentadol was without effect despite identical experimental conditions. These data confirm that tapentadol’s main mechanism of action is distinct from that of morphine and likely related to the effect of adrenergic stimulation on descending controls. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2716 PMID:26076171

  16. Evaluation of matrix type mucoadhesive tablets containing indomethacin for buccal application.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Onishi, Hiraku

    2013-09-10

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered for pain relief from oral mucositis. However, the systemic administration of NSAIDs is limited due to systemic side effects. To avoid these side effects and treat local lesions effectively, a matrix type mucoadhesive tablet was developed. A mixture of hard fat, ethylcellulose (EC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as a matrix base, and indomethacin (IMC) was used as the principal agent. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC and IMC, the drug release was sustained. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC, the drug release was relatively increased and IMC existed as the molecular phase or in an amorphous state. The in vitro adhesive force of the tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC was significantly increased as compared with the tablets consisting of hard fat and IMC. A significantly high tissue concentration and significantly low plasma concentration were observed after buccal administration of this matrix type mucoadhesive tablet as compared with that after oral administration of IMC. Thus, the matrix type mucoadhesive tablet has good potential as a preparation for the treatment of pain due to oral aphtha. PMID:23791737

  17. Continuous intraventricular clonidine infusion in controlled morphine withdrawal – case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Lorenz; S Hussein; L Verner

    2002-01-01

    A patient with atypical bilateral facial pain reported the loss of analgesic effect of intracerebroventricular morphine delivered continuously via an implanted pump, accompanied by intolerable adverse side effects associated with the administered high dose of morphine. Clonidine was substituted for morphine over a period of 3 weeks to achieve a drug holiday. The patient did not have significant withdrawal symptoms

  18. Morphine synergizes with lipopolysaccharide in a chronic endotoxemia model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabita Roy; Richard G Charboneau; Roderick A Barke

    1999-01-01

    Emergent or elective surgical procedures may be complicated by sepsis, resulting in critical illness that can lead to organ failure and death. The opioid drug, morphine is widely used to alleviate pain in post-surgical patients; however, it is well documented that chronic treatment of mice with morphine affects the proliferation, differentiation and function of immune cells. Thus, morphine might be

  19. Morphine stimulates nitric oxide release from invertebrate microglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Liu; David Shenouda; Thomas V. Bilfinger; Michelle L. Stefano; Harold I. Magazine; George B. Stefano

    1996-01-01

    Morphine stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in human endothelial cells. To determine whether this mechanism also occurs in invertebrates, the musselMytilus edulis was studied. Exposure of excised ganglia to morphine for 24 h resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in rnicroglial egress that was naloxone sensitive. In coincubating the excised ganglia with morphine and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N

  20. Ventilation in morphine-maintained rhesus monkeys. II: Tolerance to the antinociceptive but not the ventilatory effects of morphine.

    PubMed

    Paronis, C A; Woods, J H

    1997-07-01

    The antinociceptive and ventilatory effects of morphine and other opioid agonists were determined in three rhesus monkeys during a period of morphine maintenance, as well as before and after the chronic exposure to morphine. Before the onset of the daily dosing regimen, morphine increased tail-withdrawal latencies from 50 degrees C water, with an ED50 of 6.4 +/- 2.1 mg/kg. Daily injection of 3.2 mg/kg morphine produced a rightward displacement of the morphine dose-response curve, increasing the ED50 of morphine to 28.4 +/- 12.3 mg/kg. Doubling the daily morphine dose to 6.4 mg/kg resulted in a further shift to the right of the dose-response curve of morphine. After cessation of the daily dosing regimen, the morphine dose-response curve for producing antinociceptive effects returned toward baseline. The antinociceptive effects of the kappa opioid agonist, ethylketazocine, were similar during the period of daily exposure to morphine, and after cessation of the daily dosing regimen. Before the onset of the daily dosing regimen, morphine, ethylketazocine, fentanyl, butorphanol and nalbuphine decreased ventilation in the presence of air or air mixed with CO2. The baseline ED50 value of morphine for decreasing minute volume in the presence of 5% CO2 was 2.9 +/- 0.8 mg/kg. The ventilatory effects of morphine and other mu opioid agonists tested were not attenuated during the daily morphine-dosing regimen. After 40 weeks of daily injections of 3.2 mg/kg morphine, the ED50 of morphine for decreasing minute volume in 5% CO2 was 2.3 +/- 1.0 mg/kg, and when the daily dose was doubled to 6.4 mg/kg morphine, the ED50 of morphine was 1.5 +/- 0.5 mg/kg. The ventilatory depressant effects of the daily injection 3.2 mg/kg morphine were also unchanged during morphine maintenance. The differential development of tolerance to the antinociceptive and ventilatory effects of morphine demonstrates a separation of these two mu opioid agonist effects in rhesus monkeys. PMID:9223574

  1. Morphine directly inhibits nociceptors in inflamed skin.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Heather N; Brederson, Jill-Desiree; Honda, Christopher N

    2006-04-01

    Peripherally delivered opiates attenuate mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in experimental models of inflammation, suggesting that activation of peripheral opioid receptors decreases the excitability of nociceptors in inflamed tissues. The current study examines the effects of peripheral morphine sulfate on response properties of sensory neurons in healthy and inflamed skin. Afferent units (185) were isolated from tibial nerve of rats using an in vitro glabrous skin-nerve teased-fiber preparation. Of these, 107 units were from normal healthy skin, and 78 were from inflamed skin 18 h after intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. As a population, C-fiber units innervating inflamed skin exhibited properties characteristic of sensitization when compared with units innervating healthy control skin. Mechanical thresholds were lowered, responses to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli were elevated, a greater proportion of units was spontaneously active, and the average rate of spontaneous discharge was higher. Response properties in other conduction velocity groups remained unchanged. Fifty-eight percent of C and C/Adelta nociceptors innervating inflamed skin were opiate-sensitive, and their excitability was attenuated by direct application of morphine to their receptive fields. All morphine-sensitive units were nociceptors from inflamed skin with conduction velocities <1.3 m/s. Morphine effects were concentration-dependent and naloxone-sensitive, indicating that the effects were receptor-mediated. These findings provide direct evidence that morphine acts through peripheral opioid receptors to inhibit the activity of cutaneous nociceptors under conditions of inflammation. PMID:16339007

  2. (+)Morphine attenuates the (?)-morphine-produced tail-flick inhibition via the sigma-1 receptor in the mouse spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon F. Tseng; Quinn H. Hogan; Hsiang-En Wu

    AimsWe have previously demonstrated that pretreatment with (+)-morphine given intrathecally attenuates the intrathecal (?)-morphine-produced tail-flick inhibition.The phenomenon has been defined as antianalgesia against (?)-morphine-produced analgesia. Present experiments were then undertaken to determine if the antianalgesic effect induced by (+)-morphine given spinally is mediated by the stimulation of the sigma-1 receptor in the mouse spinal cord.

  3. Mini-tablets versus pellets as promising multiparticulate modified release delivery systems for highly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Dina M; Nafee, Noha; Abdallah, Osama Y

    2015-07-01

    Whether mini-tablets (tablets, diameters ?6mm) belong to single- or multiple-unit dosage forms is still questionable. Accordingly, Pharmacopoeial evaluation procedures for mini-tablets are lacking. In this study, the aforementioned points were discussed. Moreover, their potential for oral controlled delivery was assessed. The antidepressant venlafaxine hydrochloride (Vx), a highly soluble drug undergoing first pass effect, low bioavailability and short half-life was selected as a challenging payload. In an attempt to weigh up mini-tablets versus pellets as multiparticulate carriers, Vx-loaded mini-tablets were compared to formulated pellets of the same composition and the innovator Effexor(®)XR pellets. Formulations were prepared using various polymer hydrogels in the core and ethyl cellulose film coating with increasing thickness. Mini-tablets (diameter 2mm) showed extended Vx release (<60%, 8h). Indeed, release profiles comparable to Effexor(®)XR pellets were obtained. Remarkably higher coating thickness was required for pellets to provide equivalent retardation. Ethyl cellulose in the core ensured faster release due to polymer migration to the surface and pore formation in the coat. mini-tablets showed higher stability to pellets upon storage. Industrially speaking, mini-tablets proved to be superior to pellets in terms of manufacturing, product quality and economical aspects. Results point out the urgent need for standardized evaluation procedures for mini-tablets. PMID:25869450

  4. Redesign of a dioxygenase in morphine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Glenn, Weslee S; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2012-06-22

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces medicinally important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the analgesics codeine and morphine, in the morphinan pathway. We aligned three dioxygenases that were recently discovered in P. somniferum and subsequently identified the nonconserved regions. Two of these enzymes, codeine O-demethylase (PsCODM) and thebaine O-demethylase (PsT6ODM), are known to facilitate regioselective O-demethylation in morphinan biosynthesis. We systematically swapped the residues that were nonconserved between the PsCODM and PsT6ODM sequences to generate 16 mutant PsCODM proteins that could be overexpressed in Escherichia coli. While wild-type PsCODM can demethylate both codeine and thebaine, one engineered PsCODM mutant selectively demethylates codeine. Use of this reengineered enzyme in the reconstitution of morphine biosynthesis could selectively disable a redundant pathway branch and therefore impact the yields of the downstream products codeine and morphine in subsequent metabolic engineering efforts. PMID:22726681

  5. An open-label, randomized bioavailability study with alternative methods of administration of crushed ticagrelor tablets in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Renli; Carlson, Glenn; Hsia, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric tube into the stomach, with a minimum 7-day wash-out between treatments. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 hours post-ticagrelor dose for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety and tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: At 0.5 hours postdose, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were higher with crushed tablets administered orally (148.6 ng/mL and 13.0 ng/mL, respectively) or via nasogastric tube (264.6 ng/mL and 28.6 ng/mL, respectively) compared with whole-tablet administration (33.3 ng/mL and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively). A similar trend was observed at 1 hour postdose. Ticagrelor tmax was shorter following crushed vs. whole-tablet administration (1 vs. 2 hours, respectively). Geometric mean ratios between treatments for AUC and Cmax were contained within the bioequivalence limits of 80 – 125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Ticagrelor administered as a crushed tablet is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration, independent of mode of administration (oral or via nasogastric tube), and resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX at early timepoints. PMID:25500486

  6. Morphine Promotes Tumor Angiogenesis and Increases Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Palma, Giuseppe; Luciano, Antonio; Cuomo, Arturo; Arra, Claudio; Izzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Morphine is considered a highly potent analgesic agent used to relieve suffering of patients with cancer. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that morphine also modulates angiogenesis and regulates tumour cell growth. Unfortunately, the results obtained by these studies are still contradictory. In order to better dissect the role of morphine in cancer cell growth and angiogenesis we performed in vitro studies on ER-negative human breast carcinoma cells, MDA.MB231 and in vivo studies on heterotopic mouse model of human triple negative breast cancer, TNBC. We demonstrated that morphine in vitro enhanced the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of MDA.MB231 cells. In vivo studies performed on xenograft mouse model of TNBC revealed that tumours of mice treated with morphine were larger than those observed in other groups. Moreover, morphine was able to enhance the neoangiogenesis. Our data showed that morphine at clinical relevant doses promotes angiogenesis and increases breast cancer progression.

  7. Neuropharmacology. Author manuscript Effects of chronic morphine and morphine withdrawal on gene expression

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    morphine treatment alters gene expression in brain structures. There are increasing evidences showing Array Sequence Analysis ; RNA, Messenger ; genetics ; metabolism ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome ; genetics ; metabolism ; Time Factors Introduction Opiates are among the most

  8. Qualitative differences between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice in morphine potentiation of brain stimulation reward and intravenous self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, G.I.; Pieper, J.O.; Hamilton, L. R.; Wise, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice are the most common genotypes used to identify chromosomal regions and neurochemical mechanisms of interest in opioid addiction. Unfortunately, outside of the oral two-bottle choice procedure, limited and sometimes controversial evidence is available for determining their relative sensitivity to the rewarding effects of morphine. Objectives The purpose of this study was to utilize classically accepted models of drug abuse liability to determine relative susceptibility to the rewarding effects of morphine. Methods The ability of morphine or amphetamine to potentiate lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation and intravenous morphine self-administration (across three doses in a Fixed Ratio schedule and highest dose in Progressive Ratio schedules) was investigated in both genotypes Results In both measures, C57 and DBA mice differed dramatically in their response to morphine. Morphine potentiated rewarding stimulation in the C57 mice, but antagonized it in the DBA mice. Consistent with these findings, intravenous morphine did not serve as a positive reinforcer in DBA mice under conditions that were effective in the C57 mice using a Fixed Ratio schedule and failed to sustain levels of responding sufficient to maintain a constant rate of drug intake under a Progressive Ratio schedule. In contrast, amphetamine potentiated the rewarding effects of brain stimulation similarly in the two genotypes. Conclusions These findings provide strong evidence that morphine is rewarding in the C57 genotype and not in the DBA genotype. Understanding their relative susceptibility is important given the prominence of these genotypes in candidate gene identification and gene mapping. PMID:20013116

  9. Time Dependent Antinociceptive Effects of Morphine and Tramadol in the Hot Plate Test: Using Different Methods of Drug Administration in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Morteza; Saboory, Ehsan; Mehraban, Sogol; Niakani, Afsaneh; Banihabib, Nafiseh; Azad, Mohamad-Reza; Fereidoni, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Morphine and tramadol which have analgesic effects can be administered acutely or chronically. This study tried to investigate the effect of these drugs at various times by using different methods of administration (intraperitoneal, oral, acute and chronic). Sixty adult female rats were divided into six groups. They received saline, morphine or tramadol (20 to 125 mg/Kg) daily for 15 days. A hot plate test was performed for the rats at the 1st, 8th and 15th days. After drug withdrawal, the hot plate test was repeated at the 17th, 19th, and 22nd days. There was a significant correlation between the day, drug, group, and their interaction (P<0.001). At 1st day (d1), both morphine, and tramadol caused an increase in the hot plate time comparing to the saline groups (P<0.001), while there was no correlation between drug administration methods of morphine and/or tramadol. At the 8th day (d8), morphine and tramadol led to the most powerful analgesic effect comparing to the other experimental days (P<0.001). At the 15th day (d15), their effects diminished comparing to the d8. After drug withdrawal, analgesic effect of morphine, and tramadol disappeared. It can be concluded that the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol increases with the repeated use of them. Thereafter, it may gradually decrease and reach to a level compatible to d1. The present data also indicated that although the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol is dose-and-time dependent, but chronic exposure to them may not lead to altered nociceptive responses later in life. PMID:25561936

  10. Study of the clomipramine-morphine interaction in the forced swimming test in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Eschalier; J. Fialip; O. Varoquaux; M.-C. Makambila

    1987-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant-morphine interactions have been extensively studied on pain tests but less often on tests predictive of antidepressant activity. The effects of clomipramine (CMI) and morphine were tested on the forced swimming test in mice after pretreatment with CMI, morphine or saline. Like CMI, though less so, morphine was significantly active. Morphine pretreatment partially inhibited the effect of CMI irrespective

  11. Comparison of Preference for Rizatriptan 10-mg Wafer versus Sumatriptan 50-mg Tablet in Migraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Pascual; Gennaro Bussone; Jose Fernando Hernandez; Christopher Allen; Krupa Patel

    2001-01-01

    Rizatriptan (MAXALTTM, a registered trademark of Merck & Co. Inc.) is a selective 5-HT1B\\/1D receptor agonist with rapid oral absorption and early onset of action in the acute treatment of migraine. This randomized, open-label, crossover outpatient study assessed the preference of 481 patients for rizatriptan 10-mg rapidly disintegrating tablets versus sumatriptan (IMIGRANTM, a registered trademark of GlaxoWellcome PLC) 50-mg tablets

  12. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy...1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of...

  13. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roxarsone tablets. 520.2088 Section 520.2088 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2088 Roxarsone tablets. (a)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 36 milligrams of roxarsone...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy...1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of...

  18. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roxarsone tablets. 520.2088 Section 520.2088 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2088 Roxarsone tablets. (a)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 36 milligrams of roxarsone...

  20. Applications of poly(ethylene oxide) in controlled release tablet systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lulu; Deng, Li; Chen, Jianming

    2014-07-01

    To improve therapeutic effects and compatibility of patients, controlled release tablet systems based on polymers are of great interest for pharmaceutical technologies. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is a non-ionic linear hydrophilic and uncrosslinked polymer available in a number of molecular weights. It is synthesized by ethylene oxide and has many desirable properties for drug delivery applications. This review article aims to summary the recent developments on physicochemical properties of PEO and focus on the recent efforts and developments on PEO as oral controlled release matrix tablets, bioadhesive hydrophilic matrices and osmotic pump tablets. Commercial products employed PEO were also discussed. PMID:24001212

  1. Mucoadhesive bilayered tablets for buccal sustained release of flurbiprofen.

    PubMed

    Perioli, Luana; Ambrogi, Valeria; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Maurizio; Blasi, Paolo; Rossi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was the design of sustained-release mucoadhesive bilayered tablets, using mixtures of mucoadhesive polymers and an inorganic matrix (hydrotalcite), for the topical administration of flurbiprofen in the oral cavity. The first layer, responsible for the tablet retention on the mucosa, was prepared by compression of a cellulose derivative and polyacrylic derivative blend. The second layer, responsible for buccal drug delivery, was obtained by compression of a mixture of the same (first layer) mucoadhesive polymers and hydrotalcite containing flurbiprofen. Nonmedicated tablets were evaluated in terms of swelling, mucosal adhesion, and organoleptic characteristics; in vitro and in vivo release studies of flurbiprofen-loaded tablets were performed as well. The best results were obtained from the tablets containing 20 mg of flurbiprofen, which allowed a good anti-inflammatory sustained release in the buccal cavity for 12 hours, ensuring efficacious salivary concentrations, and led to no irritation. This mucoadhesive formulation offers many advantages over buccal lozenges because it allows for reduction in daily administrations and daily drug dosage and is suitable for the treatment of irritation, pain, and discomfort associated with gingivitis, sore throats, laryngopharyngitis, cold, and periodontal surgery. Moreover, it adheres well to the gum and is simple to apply, which means that patient compliance is improved. PMID:17915804

  2. Effects of prolonged exposure to morphine and methadone on in vivo parameters of immune function in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. De Waal; J. W. Van Der Laan; H. Van Loveren

    1998-01-01

    In rats, two 6-week repeated dose oral toxicity studies were performed with morphine (250 and 500 mg\\/kg food) and methadone (200 and 400 mg\\/kg food), respectively. Alterations in immune function were studied by assessing primary and secondary immune responses to sheep red blood cells. In addition, the ability to resist challenge with infectious agents was measured in host resistance models

  3. Tabletability Modulation Through Surface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-08-01

    Poor powder tabletability is a common problem that challenges the successful development of high-quality tablet products. Using noncompressible microcrystalline cellulose beads, we demonstrate that surface coating is an effective strategy for modulating tabletability, almost at will, through judicious selection of coating material. This strategy has broad applicability as tabletability of such particles is dictated by the properties of the outermost layer coat regardless the nature of the core. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:2645-2648, 2015. PMID:26059496

  4. Development of a novel tablet machine for a tiny amount of powder and evaluation of capping tendency.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideya; Sugino, Yui; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Watano, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    A novel single punch tablet machine was developed for a tiny amount of powder sample. This tablet machine mainly consists of upper and lower punches, single die, and conical powder feeder equipped with micro-vibrators. By using the powder feeder, mass of discharged powder can be maintained constant even if a tiny amount of powder having poor flowability is used. Motions of both upper and lower punches can be set arbitrarily. Thus, this machine enables us to prepare tablets with a tiny amount of powder sample under the same compression mechanism as conventional rotary tablet machines. Performance of the developed tablet machine was evaluated in a continuous direct tableting using a model powder with poor flowability. Thirty-four tablets (195 mg×34) having acceptable properties can be successfully prepared using no more than 10.0 g of a powder sample. We then proposed a novel in-die evaluation method of capping tendency. A new phase diagram consisting of the elastic recovery energy and the plastic deformation energy was proposed. These energies were calculated from a force-displacement profile, continuously monitored by the developed tablet machine. The results indicate that by using the new diagram the capping tendency of tablets prepared from various model powders can be well discriminated. The developed tablet machine and proposed evaluation method can contribute to a significant cost reduction and speeding up of formulation studies of oral dosage form. PMID:22130374

  5. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of a novel sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablet formulation in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Hjelmström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context Bitter taste, as well as dissolve time, presents a significant challenge for the acceptability of formulations for oral transmucosal drug delivery. Objective To characterize a novel sublingual tablet formulation of buprenorphine/naloxone with regards to pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and formulation acceptability. Methods Dry mixing techniques were employed to produce a small and fast dissolving buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet formulation, OX219 (Zubsolv®), using sucralose and menthol as sweetener and flavor to mask the bitter taste of the active ingredients. Two cross-over studies were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and acceptability of OX219 5.7/1.4?mg tablets compared to the commercially available buprenorphine/naloxone formulations Suboxone® tablets and films (8/2?mg). Results Buprenorphine exposure was equivalent in OX219 and Suboxone tablets. Sublingual dissolve times were significantly shorter for OX219 than for Suboxone tablets and were similar to Suboxone films. The OX219 formulation received significantly higher subjective ratings for taste and overall acceptability than both Suboxone formulations. OX219 was preferred over Suboxone tablet and film formulations by 77.4% and 88.9% of subjects, respectively. Conclusions A sublingual tablet formulation with an improved acceptability has been successfully developed. PMID:24099551

  6. Intravenous Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Morphine in Recreational Opioid Users: Abuse Potential and Relative Potencies

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Hatton, Kevin W.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Nonmedical use and abuse of prescription opioids is an increasing public health problem. Intravenous (IV) administration of opioid analgesics intended for oral use is not uncommon, yet little is known about the relative abuse potential of these drugs when administered intravenously to recreational opioid abusers without physical dependence. Methods This inpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential of IV doses of oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine. Nine healthy adult participants reporting recreational opioid use and histories of IV opioid use completed 11 experimental sessions, including one active-dose practice session. IV doses were infused over 5-min and included three identical doses of each opioid (5, 10 and 20 mg/10 ml) and saline placebo. Physiological, subjective and performance effects were collected before and for 6 h after drug administration. Results All three opioids produced prototypical mu agonist effects (e.g., miosis; increased ratings of liking) that were generally dose-related. Pharmacodynamic effects were observed within 5 min of IV administration. Physiological effects were more prolonged than subjective effects for all three drugs. While the magnitude of effects was generally comparable across drugs and qualitatively similar, valid potency assays indicated the following potency relationship: oxycodone > morphine > hydrocodone. Conclusions There were modest potency differences between oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine, but their overall profile of effects was similar, indicating significant abuse potential when administered intravenously. PMID:20665209

  7. Bioequivalence testing of a new tablet formulation of generic fluoxetine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Jovanovi?; V. KILIBARDAI; S. DORDEVICI; M. JOVANOVICz; J. JOVIC-STOSICz; D. Srdi?; T. Kneževi?

    2006-01-01

    Summary  The pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of fluoxetine capsules (reference) and tablets (test) were compared in 24\\u000a healthy subjects of both sexes after a single 20 mg oral dose of fluoxetine (as a hydrochloride salt).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A randomized, crossover design with a 2-week wash-out period between each dose was applied. Serum samples, obtained before\\u000a dosing and at various appropriate time points up

  8. New insights into segregation during tabletting.

    PubMed

    Lakio, S; Siiriä, S; Räikkönen, H; Airaksinen, S; Närvänen, T; Antikainen, O; Yliruusi, J

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how different granule size distributions affect the tablet compression process. The emphasis was on developing new analytic methods for compression data for entire batch. In all, 18 batches of granules containing theophylline and lactose were tabletted, using an instrumented eccentric tabletting machine. During tablet compression, upper and lower punch forces were recorded. Mathematical methods were developed for analysing the compression data during tabletting. The results suggested two types of undulation in the tabletting data: (1) short-time scale variation or tablet-to-tablet changes in force data and (2) long-time scale undulation describing the changes occurring throughout the tabletting process, such as segregation. These undulation phenomena were analysed, using various mathematical methods. In addition the results suggest that smaller particles have better tabletting properties, to a certain limit. However particle size alone cannot explain the tabletability of granules. PMID:20600718

  9. Systemic naloxone enhances cerebral blood flow in anesthetized morphine-dependent rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roya Zamani; Saeed Semnanian; Yaghoub Fathollahi; Sohrab Hajizadeh

    2000-01-01

    Laser–Doppler flowmetry was used to study cerebral cortical blood flow responses to morphine and naloxone in morphine-naive and -dependent rats. The experiments were performed in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats. Morphine (10 mg\\/kg, i.p.) administration reduced regional cerebral blood flow in control, sham-operated and morphine-dependent rats, but the depressant effect of morphine in morphine-dependent animals was less than that in control

  10. Tablet PCs: The Write Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

  11. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  12. Ketorolac potentiates morphine in postoperative patient-controlled analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Picard; Jean E Bazin; Nathalie Conio; Franck Ruiz; Pierre Schoeffler

    1997-01-01

    The authors conducted a prospective randomised double-blind comparison of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), with a combination of morphine and ketorolac versus morphine alone and ketorolac alone in the management of postoperative pain after orthopaedic surgery. Forty-two patients were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 was given 1 mg\\/ml morphine, group 2 was given 3 mg\\/ml ketorolac and group 3 half-doses

  13. Poisoning with delayed-release tablets

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, S. R.; Leeson, Gerald A.

    1974-01-01

    Accidental poisoning with delayed-release tablets causes symptoms at a time when the tablets can no longer be retrieved from the stomach. A child died from eating 23 tablets of Debendox, which is a delayed-release tablet containing dicyclomine and doxylamine. A second child survived a similar overdose, having been subjected to vigorous purgation and peritoneal dialysis. PMID:4830120

  14. Efficacy, safety and early response of paliperidone extended-release tablets (paliperidone ER): Results of a 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Davidson; Robin Emsley; Michelle Kramer; Lisa Ford; Guohua Pan; Pilar Lim; Mariëlle Eerdekens

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundPaliperidone extended-release tablet (paliperidone ER) is an oral psychotropic agent developed for schizophrenia treatment. Paliperidone (9-OH-risperidone, metabolite of risperidone), when used with OROS technology has a unique pharmacokinetic profile undergoing limited hepatic metabolism.

  15. Relative bioavailability of oral dosage forms of tenoxicam.

    PubMed

    Guentert, T W; Stebler, T; Banken, L; Defoin, R; Schmitt, M

    1994-09-01

    The bioavailability of tenoxicam (Ro 12-0068, Tilcotil, CAS 59804-37-4) from an effervescent tablet and an instant milk drink formulation relative to the commercial 20 mg tablet was investigated in a randomized cross-over study. Twelve healthy male volunteers (age 18-35 years; weight 63-95 kg) received on three different occasions a single oral tablet, an effervescent tablet or an instant milk drink (dissolved in water) with each dose containing 20 mg of tenoxicam. The wash-out period between two consecutive treatments was at least 5 weeks. Plasma concentrations after dosing were determined with a specific HPLC method. With the effervescent tablet and the milk drink, maximum concentrations were obtained at the same time (0.5-3.0 h) as with the reference tablet (0.5-4.0 h). Plasma peak concentrations appeared highest after the commercial tablet (mean +/- SD: Cmax 2.8 +/- 0.55 mg/l), but the difference to the effervescent tablet (2.7 +/- 0.41 mg/l) and the milk formulation (2.5 +/- 0.41 mg/l) was negligible. Similar mean elimination half-lives of 73, 77, and 77 h were obtained with the effervescent tablet, the milk drink, and the commercial tablet, respectively. Average bioavailability relative to the tablet was for the effervescent tablet and for the milk drink 96% with a coefficient of variation of 8%. The 90%-confidence intervals of the mean differences between the test and standard preparations in log-transformed AUC0-infinity and Cmax were within 20% around the respective mean parameter value calculated for the standard preparation allowing to conclude bioequivalence of the three oral formulations. PMID:7986242

  16. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...

  18. The Comparison of Intrathecal Morphine and IV Morphine PCA on Pain Control, Patient Satisfaction, Morphine Consumption, and Adverse Effects in Patients Undergoing Reduction Mammoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akda?, Osman; Kara, ?nci; Y?ld?ran, Gokce Unal; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following breast reduction procedures, the level of postoperative pain can be severe, and sufficient pain control influences a patient's physiological, immunological, and psychological status. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the use of intrathecal morphine (ITM) in breast reduction surgery with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Methods: Sixty-two female patients who underwent breast reductions with the same technique participated in this study. The study group (ITM + PCA) included 32 patients; a single shot (0.2 mg) of ITM and intravenous morphine with PCA were administered. In the control group, morphine PCA alone was intravenously administered to 30 patients. Comparisons between the groups of cumulative morphine consumption, visual analog scale scores, and patient satisfaction scores, which were the primary outcome measures, and adverse effects, which were the secondary outcome measures, were conducted. Results: The patients in the 2 groups had similar degrees of pain and satisfaction scores. The study group had lower cumulative morphine consumption (P = .001) than the PCA-only control group; there was no statistically significant difference in adverse effects between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Intrathecal morphine may effectively control pain with lower total morphine consumption following breast reduction surgery. PMID:25987940

  19. Differential effects of oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine on the responses of D2/D3 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Emery, Michael A; Bates, M L Shawn; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2015-05-01

    Oxycodone and hydrocodone are opioids which are widely used for pain management and are also commonly misused and abused. The exposure to opioid analgesics has been associated with altered responses of D2-like dopamine receptors (D2DRs). Our recent results suggest that various opioids will differentially modulate the responses of D2DRs. The D2DRs are known to be involved in the pathology of addiction and other mental illnesses, indicating the need to improve our understanding of the effects of opioid analgesics on the responses of the D2DRs. Thus, in this study, we first established equianalgesic oral doses of oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine using the tail withdrawal assay. Then, mice were orally administered (gavage) with the various opioids or saline once daily for 6 days. Twenty-four hours later, the mice were tested for their locomotor response to quinpirole, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist. Mice pretreated with oxycodone showed significantly greater locomotor supersensitivity to quinpirole than did morphine-pretreated mice, while hydrocodone-pretreated mice showed sensitivity in between that of mice treated with morphine and oxycodone. This finding suggests that various opioids differentially modulate the responses of D2DRs. It provides further evidence supporting of the notion that various opioids carry differential risks to the dopamine reward system. PMID:25617530

  20. Slow-release of famotidine from tablets consisting of chitosan/sulfobutyl ether ?-cyclodextrin composites.

    PubMed

    Anraku, Makoto; Hiraga, Ayumu; Iohara, Daisuke; Pipkin, James D; Uekama, Kaneto; Hirayama, Fumitoshi

    2015-06-20

    An intermolecular complex formed from a 1:1 weight ratio of chitosan (CS, molecular weight 30kDa) and sulfobutyl ether ?-cyclodextrin (SBE-?-CyD, degree of substitution 7) was less soluble than either of the original components. The release of famotidine from tablets composed of a simple mixture of CS and SBE-?-CyD is slower in media at pH 1.2 than at 6.8. Macroscopic observation of tablets and a kinetic analysis of release profiles suggested that, at pH 1.2, the drug was slowly released from the less-soluble CS/SBE-?-CyD complex formed on the surface of the tablet immediately after exposure to water, accompanied by the dissolution of the interpolymer complex and, ultimately, the erosion and disintegration of the tablet. In the case of the medium at pH 6.8, the formation of a gel by CS was the cause of the slow release, especially for CS/SBE-?-CyD tablets which were significantly gelated and both the diameter and thickness of the tablet had expanded. The in vitro slow releasing characteristic of the CS/SBE-?-CyD tablet was reflected in the in vivo absorption of the drug after oral administration to rats. These results suggest that a simple mixing of CS and SBE-?-CyD is potentially useful for the controlled release of a drug. PMID:25882010

  1. Risedronate-loaded Eudragit S100 microparticles formulated into tablets.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Aline A; Mattiazzi, Juliane; Ferreira, Luana M; Pohlmann, Lauren; Silva, Cristiane B; Rolim, Clarice M B; Cruz, Letícia

    2014-05-01

    Risedronate, an anti-osteoporotic drug, is associated with low patient compliance due to the upper gastrointestinal side-effects and stringent dosing regimes. This study aimed to prepare and characterize risedronate-loaded Eudragit® S100 microparticles and develop a final dosage form by the compression of microparticles using direct tableting excipients. Microparticles were prepared by spray-drying and presented yield of 54%, encapsulation efficiency higher than 90%, mean diameter of 3.3?µm, moisture content around 8% and exhibited spherical shape and poor flowability. At pH 1.2, 23% of risedronate was released from microparticles in 120?min, while at pH 6.8 the drug took 90?min to reach 99.5%. Microparticles were compressed into tablets using microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide and 2 polyvinylpyrrolidone concentrations (5% and 15%). Tablets presented low variations in weight, thickness and drug content. Besides, the formulations showed sufficient hardness, low friability and disintegrated in less than 15 min. In acid medium, no more than 16% of the drug was released in 120?min, while in intestinal medium the formulations prolonged the risedronate release for 240?min. Finally, the developed tableted microparticles can be considered a promising dosage form for oral risedronate administration. PMID:23506303

  2. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jahangiri, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl) tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame) were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties. PMID:24312854

  3. Characterization of neonatal rat morphine tolerance and dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne R Thornton; Alicia F Wang; Forrest L Smith

    1997-01-01

    The administration of morphine and fentanyl by continuous intravenous infusion has been shown to produce analgesic tolerance and physical dependence in human neonates. In animals, daily repeated morphine bolus injections is a common method of inducing neonatal rat tolerance and dependence. Yet this method differs from the intravenous route reported to affect human neonates. Alzet osmotic minipumps were implanted in

  4. Morphine and alternative opioids in cancer pain: the EAPC recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G W Hanks; F de Conno; N Cherny; M Hanna; E Kalso; H J McQuay; S Mercadante; J Meynadier; P Poulain; C Ripamonti; L Radbruch; J Roca i Casas; J Sawe; R G Twycross; V Ventafridda

    2001-01-01

    An expert working group of the European Association for Palliative Care has revised and updated its guidelines on the use of morphine in the management of cancer pain. The revised recommendations presented here give guidance on the use of morphine and the alternative strong opioid analgesics which have been introduced in many parts of the world in recent years. Practical

  5. Potentiation action of ibogaine (bogadin TM) on morphine analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Schneider; Marie McArthur

    1956-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Ibogain-hydrochlorid zeigte an der Maus einen ausgesprochen potenzierenden Effekt auf die analgetische Wirkung von Morphin und morphinähnlichen Analgetika und erhöhte, bei derselben Tierart, auch die Toxizität von Morphin. Die analgetische Wirkung von Aminopyrin hingegen wurde selbst durch hohe Dosen von Ibogain nicht beeinflusst.

  6. Morphine-Fluoxetine Interactions in Healthy Volunteers: Analgesia and Side Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miklavz K. Erjavec; Barbara A. Coda; Quynh Nguyen; Gary Donaldson; Linda Risler; Danny D. Shen

    2000-01-01

    The authors evaluated the ability of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), to enhance the analgesic potency of morphine. Fifteen volunteers participated in this double-blind crossover study. All received combinations of morphine or saline with either fluoxetine 30 mg or placebo. The authors used individual morphine pharmacokinetics to program an infusion pump to achieve plasma morphine levels of 15,

  7. The role of nitric oxide in diabetes-induced changes of morphine tolerance in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khojasteh Joharchi; Masoumeh Jorjani

    2007-01-01

    Several neuroendocrine complications including diabetes change the morphine antinociception and the development of tolerance to the drug. Morphine antinociception was reduced significantly in morphine tolerant diabetic rats compared to the non-diabetic animals. The exact mechanism of this effect is not known. This study was performed to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) on morphine tolerance in diabetic state. Nociceptive

  8. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section 520.82a Food...DRUGS § 520.82a Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains...

  9. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section 520.82a Food...DRUGS § 520.82a Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains...

  10. Effectiveness and medication acceptance of olanzapine disintegrating tablets compared to standard olanzapine tablets in acutely treated psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Czekalla, Jörg; Wagner, Thomas; Schacht, Alexander; Kluge, Michael; Kinon, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study compared effectiveness and acceptance of orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets (ODT) with standard-coated tablets (SOT) in acutely ill psychiatric patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals for emergency treatment. Methods: Large, prospective, observational study at hospital emergency units across Germany in patients with a diagnosis or tentative diagnosis of acute schizophrenia treated with ODT or SOT. Clinical (CGI-S and CGI-I) outcomes, attitudes towards medication (Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance, NAMA) scale, suicidal ideation, and adverse events were assessed at start of treatment and after 2 weeks. Results: Both olanzapine formulations, ODT (N = 247) and SOT (N = 207), showed similar effectiveness after 2 weeks. CGI-I improved in 92.1% of patients (ODT: 91.8%, SOT: 92.3%). In patients receiving both formulations suicidal ideations were reduced (ODT from 53.9% to 20.6%, SOT from 51.2% to 22.7%). ODT was preferably given to severely ill (SOT: 49.8%, ODT: 64.4%) and aggressive patients. Adverse events were reported for 6.5% of ODT- and 2.9% of SOT-patients. This difference was possibly caused by the characteristics of patients receiving ODT. Conclusions: This non-randomized, observational study shows comparable outcomes and tolerability in patients treated with both olanzapine formulations. In an acute treatment setting, orally disintegrating tablets were preferably used for more severely ill and aggressive patients with low medication acceptance. PMID:19956444

  11. Biphasic release of indomethacin from HPMC\\/pectin\\/calcium matrix tablet: II. Influencing variables, stability and pharmacokinetics in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baojian Wu; Daoyin Deng; Yi Lu; Wei Wu

    2008-01-01

    The pectin\\/calcium interaction, which is the basis for biphasic release of indomethacin from the HPMC\\/pectin\\/calcium chloride matrix tablet, is susceptible to influence of a variety of variables that is supposed to be encountered by the oral route. In this study, the effect of influencing variables on biphasic release characteristics, the stability and the pharmacokinetics of the hybrid matrix tablet were

  12. Postoperative morphine requirements, nausea and vomiting following anaesthesia for tonsillectomy. Comparison of intravenous morphine and non-opioid analgesic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mather, S J; Peutrell, J M

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be as effective as opioid analgesia following tonsillectomy in children. Opioids are still frequently used but tonsillectomy is associated with a high incidence of vomiting. This study has attempted to assess postoperative analgesic consumption and nausea and vomiting after general anaesthesia for tonsillectomy using either paracetamol premedication, paracetamol plus a NSAID or intravenous morphine to provide postoperative analgesia. Some children required a rescue dose of morphine in the recovery room, including some who had received intravenous morphine at induction. Least supplementary morphine was required by those who had received paracetamol plus ketorolac. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly less in the two groups which were not given intraoperative morphine. The number of vomiting incidents was also much less. We conclude that the preoperative administration of paracetamol alone provides satisfactory analgesia in many children but that supplementary analgesia is still required for some. PMID:7489439

  13. Treatment of schizophrenia with paliperidone extended-release tablets: A 6-week placebo-controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kane; F. Canas; M. Kramer; L. Ford; C. Gassmann-Mayer; P. Lim; M. Eerdekens

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundPaliperidone extended-release tablet (paliperidone ER) is an investigational oral psychotropic developed for schizophrenia treatment. It utilizes OROS® technology to provide a unique pharmacokinetic profile, eliminating the need for titration and potentially leading to improved tolerability. Furthermore, paliperidone undergoes limited hepatic metabolism.

  14. Tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal in the left ventricle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar Almela; Maria Victoria Milanés; Maria Luisa Laorden

    2009-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that morphine withdrawal induced hyperactivity of cardiac noradrenergic pathways. The purpose\\u000a of the present study was to evaluate the effects of morphine withdrawal on site-specific tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation\\u000a in the rat left ventricle. Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day s.c. implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal\\u000a was precipitated on day 8 by

  15. Morphine tolerance offers protection from radiogenic performance deficits

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Burrows, J.M.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-02-01

    When rats are exposed to a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation they exhibit lethargy, hypokinesia, and deficits in performance. These and other behavioral changes parallel those often observed in this species after a large dose of morphine. Since the release of endogenous opiates has been implicated in some stress reactions, we sought to determine if they might play a part in radiogenic behavioral deficits. Rats were trained to criterion on a signaled avoidance task. Some subjects were then implanted with a pellet containing 75 mg of morphine. Other animals received placebo implants. Over a number of days, morphine tolerance was evaluated by measurement of body temperature changes. Prior to 2500 rad /sup 60/Co exposure or sham irradiation, morphine (or placebo) pellets were removed. Twenty-four hours later rats were retested to assess their performance on the avoidance task. Morphine-tolerant subjects performed significantly better than the irradiated placebo-implanted group and no differently than morphine-tolerant/sham-irradiated animals. Morphine tolerance seems to provide a degree of behavioral radiation resistance. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous opiate hyperexcretion may play some part in the behavioral deficits often observed after irradiation.

  16. Tablets of pre-liposomes govern in situ formation of liposomes: concept and potential of the novel drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Vani?, Željka; Planinšek, Odon; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Tho, Ingunn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel drug delivery system for challenging drugs with potential for scale-up manufacturing and controlled release of incorporated drug. Pre-liposomes powder containing metronidazole, lecithin and mannitol, prepared by spray-drying, was mixed with different tableting excipients (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch, pectin or chitosan) and compressed into tablets. The delivery system was characterized with respect to (i) dry powder characteristics, (ii) mechanical tablet properties and drug release, and (iii) liposomal characteristics. The pre-liposomes powder was free-flowing, and tablets of similarly high qualities as tablets made of physical mixtures were prepared with all excipients. Liposomes were formed in situ upon tablet disintegration, dissolution or erosion depending on the type of tablet excipient used. The liposomal characteristics and drug release were found to depend on the tablet excipient. The new delivery system offers a unique synergy between the ability of liposomes to encapsulate and protect drugs and increased stability provided by compressed formulations. It can be adjusted for drug administration via various routes, e.g. oral, buccal and vaginal. PMID:24929211

  17. Formulation of aspirin-magaldrate double-layer tablets: in vitro evaluation and cytoprotective activity in rats.

    PubMed

    al Gohary, O M; el Din, K; el Tahir, H

    1996-01-01

    Double layer 325 mg oral aspirin tablets buffered with magaldrate antacid, 100, 150, 175 and 200 mg (F1, F2, F3 and F4, respectively) were prepared by direct compression. The new formulae were of remarkable hardness and friability. The tablets complied with the requirements of the acid neutralizing capacity, uniformity of dosage units, disintegration and dissolution tests (USP XXIII) for buffered aspirin tablets. The in vitro release pattern of F1 and F1 followed first order kinetics (r = 0.999), while F3 and F4 were released according to a zero order model (r = 0.993). Formulations F2, F3 and F4 as well as the marketed preparations, pure Aspro tablets (Acetylsalicylic acid 320 mg per tablet), or Ascriptin tablets (aspirin 325 mg plus 150 mg Maalox per tablet) were administered to fasted rats by gavage at doses that provided 400 mg aspirin kg-1 and the extent of the induced gastric damage was quantified 6 h later. Ascriptin, F3 and F4 preparations produced significantly less gastric damage (p < 0.05, n = 6) when compared with pure Aspro tablets. There was a clear dose-dependent decrease in the gastric damage following treatment with F2, F3 and F4 preparations, but there was no significant difference between the effects of F3 and F4 which were equipotent with Ascriptin. PMID:9035555

  18. Modeling inter- and intra-tablet coating variability of pan coated tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjun Vivek Kalbag

    2009-01-01

    This thesis work is focused on the modeling of inter- and intra-tablet coating variability of pan coated tablets. Tablets are coated for a number of reasons such as controlling the bioavailability and release profile of the drug (functional coatings), ensuring product identification and aesthetics, masking odor and taste and protecting the tablet core. Due to the critical nature of functional

  19. Morphine dependence and withdrawal induced changes in cholinergic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Nichole M.; Einstein, Emily B.; Lopez, Maria B.; McClure-Begley, Tristan D.; Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic signaling is thought to be involved in morphine dependence and withdrawal, but the specific mechanisms involved remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify alterations in the cholinergic system that may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [3H]-epibatidine binding were evaluated in order to determine if morphine dependence and withdrawal induces alterations in cholinergic signaling or expression of high affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the midbrain (MB), medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). The effect of cholinergic signaling through nAChRs on morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior was then determined. Lastly, the contribution of ?4-containing nAChRs receptors in the MHb to morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior and neuronal activity as indicated by c-fos expression was assessed. Chronic morphine administration decreased AChE activity in MB and MHb, an effect that was no longer present following precipitated withdrawal. Morphine dependent mice showed increased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) levels in MB. Further, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and lobeline (3 mg/kg) decreased jumping behavior while mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect. Knock-down of ?4 subunit-containing nAChRs in the MHb attenuated c-fos activation, but did not decrease morphine withdrawal-induced jumping. Thus, morphine withdrawal induces cholinergic signaling in the MHb, but this does not appear to be responsible for the effects of cholinergic drugs on somatic signs of opiate withdrawal, as measured by jumping behavior. PMID:23651795

  20. Mechanistic basis of altered morphine disposition in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dzierlenga, Anika L; Clarke, John D; Hargraves, Tiffanie L; Ainslie, Garrett R; Vanderah, Todd W; Paine, Mary F; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2015-03-01

    Morphine is metabolized in humans to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and the pharmacologically active morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). The hepatobiliary disposition of both metabolites relies upon multidrug resistance-associated proteins Mrp3 and Mrp2, located on the sinusoidal and canalicular membrane, respectively. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the severe stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alters xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether NASH contributes to the large interindividual variability and postoperative adverse events associated with morphine therapy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet to induce NASH. Radiolabeled morphine (2.5 mg/kg, 30 µCi/kg) was administered intravenously, and plasma and bile (0-150 or 0-240 minutes), liver and kidney, and cumulative urine were analyzed for morphine and M3G. The antinociceptive response to M6G (5 mg/kg) was assessed (0-12 hours) after direct intraperitoneal administration since rats do not produce M6G. NASH caused a net decrease in morphine concentrations in the bile and plasma and a net increase in the M3G/morphine plasma area under the concentration-time curve ratio, consistent with upregulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase Ugt2b1. Despite increased systemic exposure to M3G, NASH resulted in decreased biliary excretion and hepatic accumulation of M3G. This shift toward systemic retention is consistent with the mislocalization of canalicular Mrp2 and increased expression of sinusoidal Mrp3 in NASH and may correlate to increased antinociception by M6G. Increased metabolism and altered transporter regulation in NASH provide a mechanistic basis for interindividual variability in morphine disposition that may lead to opioid-related toxicity. PMID:25512370

  1. Ciprofloxacin Absorption Is Impaired in Patients Given Enteral Feedings Orally and via Gastrostomy and Jejunostomy Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL P. HEALY; MARY C. BRODBECK; ANDCHRIS E. CLENDENING

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-six hospitalized patients participated in a randomized crossover study to evaluate the effect of enteral feedings on ciprofloxacin absorption when given orally or via gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes. Patients in the oral group received an intact 500-mg ciprofloxacin tablet alone or ciprofloxacin plus three oral doses of Sustacal (240 ml given 8 h before, with, and 4 h after ciprofloxacin

  2. E-Books and the Tablet PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin-Jones, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the emerging technologies of e-books, electronic versions of texts, and the Tablet PC, a new hybrid laptop computer and personal digital assistant that features a writing tablet and stylus-based input/navigation. (Author/VWL)

  3. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Conditions of use —(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  4. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Conditions of use —(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  5. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  6. Cholescintigraphy in acute cholecystitis: use of intravenous morphine

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Shi, E.C.; McLean, R.G.; Hoschl, R.; Murray, I.P.C.; Ham, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional cholescintigraphy (60 patients) and a modified protocol (59 patients) were compared in 74 females and 45 males with acute cholecystitis. In the modified protocol, intravenous morphine was administered whenever the gallbladder was not seen 40 minutes after injection of Tc-99m-pyroxylidene-glutamate. Accuracy was 98% with morphine, compared with 88% for the conventional protocol; specificity improved from 83% to 100% with no loss of sensitivity. Low doses of morphine are well tolerated and can result in a highly accurate diagnosis of acute cholecystitis without the need for delayed imaging.

  7. Stress antagonizes morphine-induced analgesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Shannon, L.; Heybach, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to restraint stress resulted in antagonism of the analgesic effect of administered morphine in adult male rats. This antagonism of morphine-induced analgesia by restraint stress was not affected by adrenalectomy one day prior to testing, suggesting that stress-induced secretion of corticosteroids is not critical to this antagonism. In addition, parenteral administration of exogenous adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) mimicked the effect of stress in antagonizing morphine's analgesic efficacy. The hypothesis that ACTH is an endogenous opiate antagonist involved in modulating pain sensitivity is supported.

  8. Spray drying of a poorly water-soluble drug nanosuspension for tablet preparation: formulation and process optimization with bioavailability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Ni, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-06-01

    Spray drying experiments of an itraconazole nanosuspension were conducted to generate a dry nanocrystal powder which was subsequently formulated into a tablet formulation for direct compression. The nanosuspension was prepared by high pressure homogenization and characterized for particle-size distribution and surface morphology. A central composite statistical design approach was applied to identify the optimal drug-to-excipient ratio and spray drying temperature. It was demonstrated that the spray drying of a nanosuspension with a mannitol-to-drug mass ratio of 4.5 and at an inlet temperature of 120?°C resulted in a dry powder with the smallest increase in particle size as compared with that of the nanosuspension. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystalline structure of the drug was not altered during the spray-drying process. The tablet formulation was identified by determining the micromeritic properties such as flowability and compressibility of the powder mixtures composed of the spray dried nanocrystal powder and other commonly used direct compression excipients. The dissolution rate of the nanocrystal tablets was significantly enhanced and was found to be comparable to that of the marketed Sporanox®. No statistically significant difference in oral absorption between the nanocrystal tablets and Sporanox® capsules was found. In conclusion, the nanosuspension approach is feasible to improve the oral absorption of a BCS Class II drug in a tablet formulation and capable of achieving oral bioavailability equivalent to other well established oral absorption enhancement method. PMID:24785575

  9. A review of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide's pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in experimental and clinical pain.

    PubMed

    Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Lund, Trine Meldgaard; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Christrup, Lona Louring; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2015-07-10

    Morphine is a widely used opioid for treatment of moderate to severe pain, but large interindividual variability in patient response and no clear guidance on how to optimise morphine dosage regimen complicates treatment strategy for clinicians. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models can be used to quantify dose-response relationships for the population as well as interindividual and interoccasion variability. Additionally, relevant covariates for population subgroups that deviate from the typical population can be identified and help clinicians in dose optimisation. This review provides a detailed overview of the published human population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies for morphine analgesia in addition to basic drug disposition and pharmacological properties of morphine and its analgesic active metabolite, morphine-6-glucuronide, that may help identify future covariates. Furthermore, based on simulations from key pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models, the contribution of morphine-6-glucuronide to the analgesic response in patients with renal insufficiency was investigated. Simulations were also used to examine the impact of effect-site equilibration half-life on time course of response. Lastly, the impact of study design on the likelihood of determining accurate pharmacodynamic parameters for morphine response was evaluated. PMID:25861720

  10. The effects of morphine and morphine conditioned context on 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisation in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Adam; Taracha, Ewa; Szyndler, Janusz; Krz??cik, Pawe?; Lehner, Ma?gorzata; Maciejak, Piotr; Skórzewska, Anna; P?a?nik, Adam

    2012-04-15

    The 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) that are emitted by rats are dependent on activity of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the limbic and cortical structures. According to many experimental data, emission of the 50 kHz USV reflects a positive emotional state. The appetitive calls are also emitted in response to the administration of drugs of abuse, e.g., cocaine or amphetamine (AMPH), or in a reply to a positively conditioned context. However, there is no strong evidence in the literature that morphine can also modulate 50 kHz USVs. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of morphine and morphine-conditioned context on 50 kHz USVs, using spontaneously or drug-modulated 50 kHz USVs. Our results showed that acute administration of morphine to rats after withdrawal period inhibited the emission of 50 kHz USVs. The stimulating effect of morphine-conditioned context on 50 kHz USVs appeared on the post-withdrawal challenge day immediately before drug injection, 14 days after the last episode of morphine-induced context conditioning. The context-induced 50 kHz USVs can be used as a sensitive test for drug dependency. The current study also shows that 50 kHz USVs can be useful tool for studying the mechanisms of long lasting central effects of morphine. PMID:22326697

  11. Next generation effects of female adolescent morphine exposure: sex-specific alterations in response to acute morphine emerge before puberty

    PubMed Central

    Vassoler, Fair M.; Johnson-Collins, Nicole L.; Carini, Lindsay M.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription opiate use by adolescent girls has increased significantly in the past decade. Preclinical studies using rats report alterations in morphine sensitivity in the adult offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed females (MOR-F1) when compared with the offspring of adolescent saline-exposed females (SAL-F1). To begin to elucidate the development of these next generation modifications, the present study examined the effects of acute morphine administration on sedation and corticosterone secretion in prepubescent SAL-F1 and MOR-F1 male and female rats. In addition, alterations in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus, as well as in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and ?-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene expressions in the ventral tegmental area, were analyzed using quantitative PCR, to determine whether differential regulation of these genes was correlated with the observed behavioral and/or endocrine effects. Increased morphine-induced sedation, coupled with an attenuation of morphine-induced corticosterone secretion, was observed in MOR-F1 males. Significant alterations in both POMC and OPRM1 gene expressions were also observed in MOR-F1 males, with no change in TH mRNA expression. Overall, these data suggest that the transgenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure can be discerned before pubertal development and are more pronounced in males, and suggest dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in the offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed females. PMID:24561499

  12. Ultrasonic determination of Young's moduli of the coat and core materials of a drug tablet.

    PubMed

    Akseli, Ilgaz; Becker, Douglas C; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2009-03-31

    Many modern tablet presses have system controls that monitor the force exerted to compress the solid oral dosage forms; however this data provides only limited information about the mechanical state of the tablet due to various process and materials uncertainties. A contact pulse/echo ultrasonic scheme is presented for the determination of the local Young's moduli of the coat and the core materials of enteric-coated and monolayer coated tablets. The Young's modulus of a material compacted into solid dosage can be related to its mechanical hardness and, consequently, its dissolution rate. In the current approach, short ultrasonic pulses are generated by the active element of a delay line transducer and are launched into the tablet. The waveforms reflected from the tablet coat-core interface are captured by the same transducer and are processed for determining the reflection and transmission coefficients of the interface from partially overlapping echoes. The Young's moduli of the coat and the core materials are then extracted from these coefficients. The results are compared to those obtained by an air-coupled acoustic excitation study, and good agreement is found. The described measurement technique provides greater insight into the local physical properties of the solid oral dosage form and, as a result, has the potential to provide better hardness-related performance predictability of compacts. PMID:19059326

  13. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

  14. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  15. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food and...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains either 1.0, 2.5, 5.0,...

  16. Scaffolding Equals Success in Teaching Tablet PCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Jeremy; Williams, Scott; Browning, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of using the mouse and keyboard as the primary means of computer input, people are seeing a strong surge into a new generation of input technologies such as tablet PCs. As more professionals adopt tablet PCs for use in the workplace, there is a subsequent increased demand for tablet PC instruction in the classroom. Examples of…

  17. 21 CFR 520.1616 - Orbifloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orbifloxacin tablets. 520.1616 Section 520.1616 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1616 Orbifloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 5.7, 22.7, or 68...

  18. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

  19. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

  1. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

  3. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  4. Proportion: a tablet app for collaborative learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Rick

    2012-01-01

    Everyday computing technology is transitioning from PCs to more natural user interfaces. At the forefront of this trend are multi-touch tablets. Each year, tablets become more affordable, capable and widespread. Now is the time for research to shape how they will be used to support learning. In this paper, I introduce the Proportion tablet application as both a concrete vision

  5. TEACHING WITH TABLET PC'S Kenrick Mock

    E-print Network

    Mock, Kenrick

    powerful desktop machines. An "official" Tablet PC, as designated by Microsoft, is essentially an x86-based or recognized as text. As a Windows XP machine, the Tablet PC has the benefit that it can directly execute anyTEACHING WITH TABLET PC'S Kenrick Mock University of Alaska Anchorage Anchorage, AK 99508 kenrick

  6. Comparative study of epidural application of morphine versus gelfoam soaked in morphine for lumbar laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Sandeep; Gupta, Vishnu; Bansal, Hanish; Grewal, Anju; Katyal, Sunil; Choudhary, Ashwini Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidural application of morphine has been used for postoperative analgesia following spine surgery but short duration of action of single application limits its widespread use. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy were randomly allocated to two groups of 75 patients each. Anesthetic technique was standardized in both the groups. In Group I, at the completion of laminectomy, a 5 × 1-cm strip of gelfoam soaked in 5 mg morphine (1 mg/ml) was contoured to be placed in the epidural space whereas, in group II, gelfoam soaked in saline was placed in the epidural space and 5 mg morphine (1mg/ml) was instilled over the intact epidural space. Analgesic consumption for 48 hours, time-of first analgesic request, time of ambulation, time of discharge from post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and hospital and adverse effects were recorded. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Mean analgesic consumption in 48 hours was significantly less in group I (8.47 ± 3.674 mg) as compared to group II (24.80 ± 6.009 mg). Supplemental analgesia was requested at 30.03 ± 6.796 hours in Group I, vs 10.25 ± 2.243 in group II (P < 0.001). Group I patients were discharged earlier from PACU as compared to group II (P < 0.001) though time of discharge from hospital was similar in both the groups. There were no major adverse effects except pruritis, which was observed in 30.6% patients in group I and 37.3% in group II (statistically insignificant (P > 0.01)). Conclusion: Epidural application of morphine soaked in gelfoam is an effective method for prolonging the postoperative analgesia after spine surgery. PMID:24574593

  7. Bioequivalence study of 400 and 100 mg imatinib film-coated tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ostrowicz, Andrzej; Miko?ajczak, Przemys?aw L; Wierzbicka, Marzena; Boguradzki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioavailability of a generic product of 100 mg and 400 mg imatinib film-coated tablets (test) as compared to that of a branded product (reference) at the same strength to determine bioequivalence. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate tolerability of both products. An open-label, randomized, crossover, two-period, single-dose, comparative study was conducted in 43 (Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg film-coated tablet) and in 42 (Imatynib-Biofarm 400 mg film-coated tablet), brand name Imatenil, Caucasian healthy volunteers in fed conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was separated by 14-day washout period. The imatinib and its metabolite N-desmethyl imatinib concentrations were determined using a validated LC MS/MS method. The results of the single-dose study in healthy volunteers indicated that the film-coated tablets of Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Biofarm Sp. z o.o. (test products) are bioequivalent to those of Glivec 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Novartis Pharma GmbH (reference products). Both products in the two doses of imatinib were well tolerated. PMID:25362813

  8. In vivo absorption comparison of nanotechnology-based silybin tablets with its water-soluble derivative.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Ni, Rui; Sun, Wei; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the in vivo oral absorption of a nanocrystal tablet formulation of a BCS II poorly water-soluble drug was compared with that of its water-soluble salt form. Silybin is used as the model drug, and its nanosuspension was prepared by high-pressure homogenization. Effect of process and formulation parameters on properties of the nansuspensions was investigated. Dried powder of the nanosuspension was prepared by spray drying and used for preparing tablets. A pharmacokinetic study was performed in Beagle dogs to compare the absorption for tablets of silybin nanocrystals and silybin meglumine. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was determined. X-ray powder diffraction results indicated that silybin existed in a crystalline state after homogenization. In vivo absorption study in rats showed that the peroral absorption of silybin was enhanced remarkably by decreasing particle size. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was comparable with that of the commercially available tablet of the water-soluble salt form of silybin. In conclusion, it is possible to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by preparing its water-soluble derivative. PMID:24495272

  9. Quantitative analysis of visible surface defect risk in tablets during film coating using terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Masahiro; Hiraishi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-30

    Tablets are the most common form of solid oral dosage produced by pharmaceutical industries. There are several challenges to successful and consistent tablet manufacturing. One well-known quality issue is visible surface defects, which generally occur due to insufficient physical strength, causing breakage or abrasion during processing, packaging, or shipping. Techniques that allow quantitative evaluation of surface strength and the risk of surface defect would greatly aid in quality control. Here terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to evaluate the surface properties of core tablets with visible surface defects of varying severity after film coating. Other analytical methods, such as tensile strength measurements, friability testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were used to validate TPI results. Tensile strength and friability provided no information on visible surface defect risk, whereas the TPI-derived unique parameter terahertz electric field peak strength (TEFPS) provided spatial distribution of surface density/roughness information on core tablets, which helped in estimating tablet abrasion risk prior to film coating and predicting the location of the defects. TPI also revealed the relationship between surface strength and blending condition and is a nondestructive, quantitative approach to aid formulation development and quality control that can reduce visible surface defect risk in tablets. PMID:24300215

  10. Predictive model for tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets based on local hardness measurements.

    PubMed

    Juban, Audrey; Nouguier-Lehon, Cécile; Briancon, Stéphanie; Hoc, Thierry; Puel, François

    2015-07-25

    In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage forms for oral administration. During the manufacture of tablets, measures are taken to assure that they possess a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling while ensuring disintegration after administration. Accordingly, the tensile strength is an essential parameter to consider. In the present study, microscopic hardness and macroscopic tensile strength of binary tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose and caffeine in various proportions were measured. A relationship between these two mechanical properties was found for binary mixture. The proposed model was based on two physical measurements easily reachable: hardness and tablet density. Constants were determined from the two extreme compositions of this given system. This model was validated with experimental results, and a comparison was made with the one developed by Wu et al. (2005). Both models are relevant for this studied system. Nonetheless, with this model, the tablet tensile strength can be connected with a tablet characteristic at microscopic scale in which porosity is not needed. PMID:26043825

  11. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto(®)) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto (®)) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ? 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  12. Physical compatibility of binary and ternary mixtures of morphine and methadone with other drugs for parenteral administration in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Destro, Massimo; Ottolini, Luca; Vicentini, Lorenza; Boschetti, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    The parenteral administration of combinations of drugs is often necessary in palliative medicine, particularly in the terminal stage of life, when patients are no longer able to take medication orally. The use of infusers to administer continuous subcutaneous infusions is a well-established practice in the palliative care setting and enables several drugs to be given simultaneously, avoiding the need for repeated administrations and the effects of peaks and troughs in the doses of medication. The method is also appreciated by patients and caregivers in the home care setting because the devices and infusion sites are easy to manage. Despite their frequent use, however, the mixtures of drugs adopted in clinical practice are sometimes not supported by reliable data concerning their chemical and physical compatibility. The present study investigates the chemical compatibility of binary mixtures (morphine with ketorolac) and the physical compatibility of binary (morphine or methadone with ketorolac) or ternary mixtures (morphine with ketorolac and/or haloperidol, and/or dexamethasone, and/or metoclopramide, and/or hyoscine butylbromide) with a view to reducing the aleatory nature of the empirical use of such combinations, thereby increasing their safety and clinical appropriateness. PMID:22252547

  13. Tablet Analysis Using Gravimetric Dilutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, Larry A.

    2001-10-01

    This experiment introduces the concept of gravimetric dilutions in the context of tablet analysis. Caffeine tablets are analyzed by absorbance at 274 nm with reference to a standard calibration graph and tested for compliance with the USP criterion. All samples and standards are prepared using gravimetric dilutions without reference to volume or density. This experiment is appropriate for high school and college freshman chemistry courses and may be useful at higher levels. It is only necessary that students have had exposure to Beer's law.

  14. Absolute Oral Bioavailability and Disposition of Deferasirox in Healthy Human Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romain Séchaud; Anna Robeva; Rossella Belleli; Sebastien Balez

    2008-01-01

    Deferasirox is a novel iron chelator formulated as tablets for dispersion (suspension) for once-a-day oral administration. The current study evaluated the absolute bioavailability of a single 375-mg oral dose of deferasirox administered in the form of tablets compared with a 130-mg intravenous infusion of deferasirox. Since this was a first-in-man study using the deferasirox intravenous (IV) formulation, the safety and

  15. Novel gastroretentive sustained-release tablet of tacrolimus based on self-microemulsifying mixture: in vitro evaluation and in vivo bioavailability test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-ping; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xin-xin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a self-microemulsifying (SME) lipid mixture for improving the oral absorption of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Methods: Liquid SME mixture, composed of Cremophor RH40 and monocaprylin glycerate, was blended with polyethylene oxide, chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone and mannitol, and then transformed into tablets via granulation, with ethanol as the wetting agent. The tablets were characterized in respect of swelling, bioadhesive and SME properties. In vitro dissolution was conducted using an HCl buffer at pH 1.2. Oral bioavailability of the tablets was examined in fasted beagle dogs. Results: The tablet could expand to 13.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm in thickness during the initial 20 min of contact with the HCl buffer at pH 1.2. The bioadhesive strength was as high as 0.98±0.06 N/cm2. The SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets preserved the SME capability of the liquid SME formations under transmission electron microscope. The drug-release curve was fit to the zero-order release model, which was helpful in reducing fluctuations in blood concentration. Compared with the commercially available capsules of tacrolimus, the relative bioavailability of the SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets was 553.4%±353.8%. Conclusion: SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets can enhance the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus with poor solubility and a narrow absorption window. PMID:21927013

  16. Evaluation of some compression aids in tableting of roller compacted swellable core drug layer.

    PubMed

    Golchert, D; Bines, E; Carmody, A

    2013-09-10

    Swellable core technology (SCT) represents a broadly applicable oral osmotic drug delivery platform for the controlled release of drugs. SCT tablets control drug delivery by using osmosis to regulate the influx of water into the tablet's core. The tablet consists of two layers; drug layer and sweller layer, with a semi-permeable membrane coating and delivery port located in the drug layer side of the tablet. The key component of SCT formulations is polyethylene oxide (PEO), which is typically wet granulated with organic solvents to prevent rapid gel hydration observed during contact with aqueous environments. However, the use of organic solvents has their own environmental and cost considerations which make this form of processing undesirable. To overcome this issue, dry granulation can be employed. However, PEO is a very plastic material and problems may be encountered during the tableting process, when work hardening occurs upon double compression. The addition of compression aids to the drug layer will help to increase the roll force when generating ribbons - reducing fines and segregation potential - while also reducing work hardening effects which impact tablet friability. The five compression aids used in this study were microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, di-calcium phosphate (anhydrous), lactose monohydrate and starch. The work undertaken here studies the compression properties of the drug layer blends with different levels of the five compression aids as part of the formulation. Roller compaction properties are also varied to provide granules with differing solid fractions. The results of this study indicate that addition of microcrystalline cellulose in the formulation in levels between 10% and 30% significantly improve the tablet hardness at lower tablet compression forces. Further work is required to investigate the impact on dissolution. PMID:23796839

  17. Simulation of roller compaction with subsequent tableting and characterization of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M; Langridge, John

    2008-01-01

    Tablets are by far the most common solid oral dosage forms, and many drugs need to be granulated before they can be tableted. Increasingly roller compaction is being used as a dry granulation technique; however it is a very time and material intensive method. Thus some mini roller compactors and simulations of the roller compaction process have been developed as a means of studying the technique at small scale. An important factor in the selection of materials for roller compaction is their ability to be recompressed into tablets after the initial roller compaction and milling steps. In this paper the roller compaction process was simulated on the basis of some models by Gereg and Cappola (2002) and Zinchuk et al. (2004). An eccentric tableting machine was used to make compacts from alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous beta-lactose, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.6-0.9). These compacts were milled immediately to granules with a rotary granulator. The properties of the granules were analyzed and compared to the properties of the original powders. These granules and powders were then tableted at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.75-0.95) and their properties including elastic recovery, crushing force and 3D-model were analyzed. The properties of the tablets made from the granules were compared to the properties of the tablets made from the powders to determine which excipients are most suitable for the roller compaction process. The study showed that anhydrous beta-lactose is the preferred form of lactose for use in roller compaction since compaction did not affect tablet crushing force to a large extent. With the simulation of roller compaction process one is able to find qualified materials for use in roller compaction without the necessity of a great deal of material and time. PMID:18728996

  18. The Impact of Morphine After a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Michelle A.; Liu, Grace T.; Washburn, Stephanie N.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bopp, Anne C.; Huie, John R.; Grau, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Nociceptive stimulation, at an intensity that elicits pain-related behavior, attenuates recovery of locomotor and bladder functions, and increases tissue loss after a contusion injury. These data imply that nociceptive input (e.g., from tissue damage) can enhance the loss of function after injury, and that potential clinical treatments, such pretreatment with an analgesic, may protect the damaged system from further secondary injury. The current study examined this hypothesis and showed that a potential treatment (morphine) did not have a protective effect. In fact, morphine appeared to exacerbate the effects of nociceptive stimulation. Experiment 1 showed that after spinal cord injury 20 mg/kg of systemic morphine was necessary to induce strong antinociception and block behavioral reactivity to shock treatment, a dose that was much higher than that needed for sham controls. In Experiment 2, contused rats were given one of three doses of morphine (Vehicle, 10, 20 mg/kg) prior to exposure to uncontrollable electrical stimulation or restraint alone. Despite decreasing nociceptive reactivity, morphine did not attenuate the long-term consequences of shock. Rats treated with morphine and shock had higher mortality rates, and displayed allodynic responses to innocuous sensory stimuli three weeks later. Independent of shock, morphine per se undermined recovery of sensory function. Rats treated with morphine alone also had significantly larger lesions than those treated with saline. These results suggest that nociceptive stimulation affects recovery despite a blockade of pain-elicited behavior. The results are clinically important because they suggest that opiate treatment may adversely affect the recovery of function after injury. PMID:17383022

  19. Stability of morphine hydrochloride in a portable pump reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Roos; J. H. Glerum; J. W. Meilink

    1992-01-01

    The stability of morphine hydrochloride in an admixture with sodium chloride 0.9% injection in a portable pump reservoir was investigated. Duplicate samples containing morphine hydrochloride 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg\\/ml were stored in original 100 ml plastic drug reservoirs at 32 °C for 60 days. An amount of 3 ml was removed immediately after preparation and at fixed intervals in

  20. Extended-release formulation of morphine for subcutaneous administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taehee Kim; Joon Kim; Sinil Kim

    1993-01-01

    Pain arising from cancer tends to be chronic and chemotherapy of cancer pain usually requires narcotics. Most injectable narcotics, however, have short half-lives (T1\\/2) and require either continuous infusion or repeated frequent injections which are both inconvenient and uncomfortable. An extended-release formulation of morphine sulfate (Depo\\/Morphine) in a lipid-based drug-delivery system was characterized and tested in an animal model. The

  1. Intrathecal morphine for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Metz; Nanette Schwann; Wael Hassanein; Brian Yuskevich; Todd Nixon

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if preinduction intrathecal morphine is associated with successful intraoperative extubation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.Design: A retrospective noncontrolled chart review of all patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.Setting: Single university hospital.Participants: One hundred twelve patients.Interventions: One hundred twelve of 150 patients received preinduction intrathecal morphine as part of routine anesthetic care for off-pump

  2. Enhanced Immune Sensitivity to Stress Following Chronic Morphine Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Ballard; Trisha C. Pellegrino; Norma C. Alonzo; Alexandria L. Nugent; Barbara M. Bayer

    2006-01-01

    Chronic administration of escalating doses ofmorphine leads to neuroadaptive changes precipitating development of tolerance\\u000a to many of the acute effects of morphine, such as analgesia, activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and\\u000a suppression of immune cell activities. Interestingly, morphine tolerance has also been shown to be accompanied by heightened\\u000a immunosuppressive effects of restraint stress using a rodent model. These observations

  3. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented. PMID:8258772

  4. Endogenous morphine and its metabolites in mammals: history, synthesis, localization and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Laux-Biehlmann, A; Mouheiche, J; Vérièpe, J; Goumon, Y

    2013-03-13

    Morphine derived from Papaver somniferum is commonly used as an analgesic compound for pain relief. It is now accepted that endogenous morphine, structurally identical to vegetal morphine-alkaloid, is synthesized by mammalian cells from dopamine. Morphine binds mu opioid receptor and induces antinociceptive effects. However, the exact role of these compounds is a matter of debate although different links with infection, sepsis, inflammation, as well as major neurological pathologies (Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia) have been proposed. The present review describes endogenous morphine and morphine derivative discovery, synthesis, localization and potential implications in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23266549

  5. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  6. Mitragynine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-withdrawn zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  7. The effect of prolonged exposure to morphine on canine cerebral 5-HT2A receptors measured with (123)I-R91150 SPECT.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Vermeire, Simon; Waelbers, Tim; Croubels, Siska; Duchateau, Luc; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Eersels, Jos; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-07-01

    Down-stream neuronal alterations, including changes in the 5-HT-2A receptor system, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of depression. The present study examined the effect of prolonged opioid treatment on cerebral 5-HT2A receptors. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor availability was estimated in seven healthy five-year-old female neutered Beagle dogs pre and post 10-day morphine treatment (oral sustained release morphine 20mg twice daily for 10 days) with (123)I-R-91150, a 5-HT2A selective radioligand, and SPECT. 5-HT2A receptor binding indices (BI) for the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex and the subcortical region were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear mixed-effect model with treatment as fixed effect and dog as random effect. Morphine treatment significantly (P?0.05) lowered 5-HT2A BIs in the right and left frontal cortex, the right and left temporal cortex, the right and left parietal cortex, and the subcortical region. The decreased cerebral 5-HT2A receptor availability following prolonged morphine exposure provides further evidence for an interaction between the opioid and serotonergic system. PMID:24726581

  8. Evaluating the toxicity of novel Zn-DTPA tablet formulation in dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Gita N; Potharaju, Suresh; Green, Carol E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this research work is to evaluate toxicity of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid zinc trisodium salt (Zn-DTPA) tablets, a novel oral solid dosage form containing permeation enhancers in beagle dogs and Sprague Dawley rats. (Zn-DTPA) in tablet dosage form was administered once daily for 7 days to beagle dogs at low (840?mg/dog/day), mid (2520?mg/dog/day), or high (7560?mg/dog/day). On day 8, all treated and control groups were necropsied. The novel Zn-DTPA tablet formulation showed rapid absorption with the T(max) at 1?h. Plasma concentrations as high as 270??g/mL were observed after 7 days of administration. Exposure to DTPA, based on area under the curve (AUC(last)) and maximum concentration (C(max)), was dose dependent but not dose proportional. No biologically relevant changes in hematology or clinical chemistry that were related to DTPA exposure were observed, and there were no changes in body weight in treated dogs compared with controls. Zn-DTPA was well tolerated, with minor toxicological effects of emesis and diarrhea, following oral tablet administration for 7 consecutive days. Based on the endpoints evaluated in this study, the maximum tolerated dose is considered to be greater than 7560?mg/dog/day (2535??mol/kg/day, 1325?mg/kg/day), and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be approximately 1325?mg/kg/day per oral when given to male and female beagle dogs. For rats, the NOAEL was estimated to be greater than 1000?mg/kg/day when administered by oral gavage of the crushed Zn-DTPA tablets as suspension once daily (qd) to male and female Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24648048

  9. Absolute bioavailability of a new high dose methylprednisolone tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Groenewoud, G; Hundt, H K; Luus, H G; Müller, F O; Schall, R

    1994-12-01

    This was a single-blind, single-dose, randomized crossover study to determine the absolute bioavailability of Medrol, a new high dose (100 mg) methylprednisolone tablet product, by comparing it with 100 mg methylprednisolone from an intravenous formulation, Solu-Medrol. Fourteen healthy, non-smoking, Caucasian male volunteers took part. On treatment days volunteers remained recumbent for 4 hours after drug administration, with food and fluid intake standardized over this period. Serial blood samples were drawn over a 14-hour period after drug administration. Plasma methylprednisolone concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The geometric means of AUCi.v. and AUCtablet were 4,049 and 3,334 ng.h/ml, respectively. The absolute bioavailability of the tablet product was 82%, which is in agreement with published data for other oral dosage forms of methylprednisolone. Volunteers displayed the expected rise in peripheral blood neutrophil count, but no other clinically relevant changes in hematology or clinical chemistry were observed. No adverse drug reactions were recorded. It is concluded that the tablet product can be used as a substitute for parenteral methylprednisolone in situations requiring high-dose therapy. PMID:7881703

  10. Echinacea alkamide disposition and pharmacokinetics in humans after tablet ingestion.

    PubMed

    Matthias, A; Addison, R S; Penman, K G; Dickinson, R G; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R P

    2005-09-01

    Echinacea is a widely used herbal remedy for the treatment of colds and other infections. However, almost nothing is known about the disposition and pharmacokinetics of any of its components, particularly the alkamides and caffeic acid conjugates which are thought to be the active phytochemicals. In this investigation, we have examined serial plasma samples from 9 healthy volunteers who ingested echinacea tablets manufactured from ethanolic liquid extracts of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea immediately after a standard high fat breakfast. Caffeic acid conjugates could not be identified in any plasma sample at any time after tablet ingestion. Alkamides were rapidly absorbed and were measurable in plasma 20 min after tablet ingestion and remained detectable for up to 12 h. Concentration-time curves for 2,4-diene and 2-ene alkamides were determined. The maximal concentrations for the sum of alkamides in human plasma were reached within 2.3 h post ingestion and averaged 336+/-131 ng eq/mL plasma. No obvious differences were observed in the pharmacokinetics of individual or total alkamides in 2 additional fasted subjects who took the same dose of the echinacea preparation. This single dose study provides evidence that alkamides are orally available and that their pharmacokinetics are in agreement with the one dose three times daily regimen already recommended for echinacea. PMID:15919096

  11. Preparation and evaluation of sublingual tablets of zolmitriptan

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Shailesh T; Patel, Manoj V; Patel, Chhaganbhai N

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Zolmitriptan is a 5-HT receptor agonist (1B/1D). It is used in the acute treatment of migraine having low bioavailability about 40% orally due to hepatic first pass metabolism. The purpose of the present research was to formulate fast acting sublingual tablets of zolmitriptan. Materials and Methods: Sublingual tablets were prepared using ispaghula husk powder, gellan gum, sodium alginate as super disintegrating polymers and citric acid, tartaric acid and camphor as permeation enhancers by direct compressible technique and evaluated for weight variation, thickness, friability, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, wetting time, in-vitro drug release, in-vitro and ex-vivo permeation study. Stability study of optimized formulation was performed as per ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) guideline. Results: The in-vitro disintegration time of the optimized formulation (D5) was 9 ± 2 s and all formulations showed 100% of dissolution within 6 ± 2 min. Formulation containing 4% of gellan gum (D5) showed highest disintegration and 2% of citric acid formulation (P3) showed highest permeation 88% within 30 min and ex-vivo permeation was 52% within 30 min. Optimized formulation was stable for 1 month during stability study as per ICH guideline. Conclusion: The sublingual tablet formulation gives better results using natural super disintegrant for fast onset of action. PMID:24678459

  12. Bromocriptine tablet of self-microemulsifying system adsorbed onto porous carrier to stimulate lipoproteins secretion for brain cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Thongrangsalit, Sirigul; Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C

    2015-07-01

    Both low solubility and high hepatic metabolism cause low oral bioavailability of bromocriptine mesylate (BM) leading to very low drug amount in brain. Self-microemulsion (SME) tablets were developed to improve solubility, stimulate lipoprotein synthesis to promote lymphatic transport, avoid hepatic metabolism and target drug to brain. SME liquid containing castor oil, Tween(®) 80 and Cremophor(®) EL was prepared and then adsorbed onto solid carries, Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 or NeusilinUS2(®), yielding SME powders. The optimal ratios of SME liquid to carriers determined from flowability and scanning electron photomicrographs before tableting were 1.5:1, 2:1 and 2.5:1 for Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 and NeusilinUS2(®), respectively. Only Aeroperl(®)300 SME tablet had comparable dissolution to BM commercial tablet. From in vitro study in Caco-2 cells, fluorescein loaded SME tablet showed higher uptake than fluorescein loaded in either oil or surfactant. Although significantly lower amount of drug was permeated from SME tablet than from commercial tablet, higher drug uptake was obviously observed (P<0.05). In addition, higher lipoprotein synthesis expressing as content of apolipoprotein B (apo-B) found in secreted chylomicron resulted in higher drug uptake in co-culture of brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and astrocytes (CTX TNA2) from drug loaded SME tablet when compared to commercial tablet (P<0.05) due to binding of apo-B to LDL receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. Therefore, tablet of SME adsorbed onto porous carrier potentially delivered BM to brain via lymphatic transport by increasing the lipoprotein synthesis. PMID:25988280

  13. Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 ? M) had mixed effects (?20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

  14. The effects of morphine treatment and morphine withdrawal on the dynorphin and enkephalin systems in sprague-dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Nylander; M. Vlaskovska; L. Terenius

    1995-01-01

    The effect of morphine tolerance and withdrawal on prodynorphin peptides was studied in relevant brain areas and in the pituitary gland of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and compared with effects on the proenkephalin-derived peptide Met-enkephalin. After 8 days of morphine injections (twice daily), dynorphin A and B levels increased in the nucleus accumbens and dynorphin A levels increased also in the

  15. Application of guar gum biopolymer in the prescription of tablets with sodium ibuprofen--quality tests and pharmaceutical availability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berner-Strzelczyk, Aneta; Ko?odziejska, Justyna; Zgoda, Marian Miko?aj

    2006-01-01

    The increasing interest of the technology of drug form in natural biopolymers has become the reason for undertaking investigations on the possibility of guar gum application in the prescription of oral solid form of a drug. Alternative compositions and technology of the production of tablets of regulated in time sodium ibuprofen release were worked out for children. Two series of tablets were prepared with guar gum (5 and 10% content) and a series without the biopolymer. The tablet mass in each case contained keryostatic sorbitol and bioadhesive polyvinylpyrrolidone. All tablets were tested as regards the quality of production, compliance with the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia VI and potential therapeutic usefulness, manifestation of which is pharmaceutical availability of the therapeutic agent (sodium ibuprofen). The tests demonstrated that the produced tablets with sodium ibuprofen have proper physicochemical properties, in compliance with Polish Pharmacopoeia VI requirements. Application of biopolymer of guar gum type as adjuvant substance contributes to the improvement of the tablet hardness parameters and prevents technological problems (lining mixture of powders to tableting machine punch). The designed tablets demonstrate proper pharmaceutical availability of over 80%. Introduction of guar gum into their prescription prolonged their disintegration time and the rate of sodium ibuprofen release, which predisposes the produced form of a drug to have the function of a tablet with slowed-down release. PMID:17402228

  16. The chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in hippocampus area CA1.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-12-01

    The current practical tests were designed to study in vitro interactions in the field potential between salicylate and morphine analgesics in the hippocampus area CA1 taken from morphine-(7 days) or salicylate (6 days)-treated rats. For this, morphine or salicylate was applied in vitro to the hippocampal slices derived from chronically drug-treated or saline-injected rats and drug-induced changes in evoked field potentials of area CA1 were evaluated. Chronic treatment in vivo of morphine or salicylate had no impact on baseline field EPSP and population spikes (PS) but a leftward shift in fEPSP/PS (E/S) curves and an increase in paired pulse ratio at 10 ms IPI were seen. Acute in vitro salicylate produced a durable PS potentiation in morphine-treated group, whereas an increase in PS of all groups was observed after long-term exposure to in vitro salicylate. Acute in vitro morphine caused a stable PS potentiation in control and salicylate treated groups, but not in morphine treated group. A potentiated fEPSP and a greater PS potentiation in salicylate treated group were observed after long-term exposure to in vitro morphine. It is concluded that the chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine incites lasting changes in the CA1 circuitry, which alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in a way that an increase in reactivity or tolerance to the acute salicylate or morphine administration was observed. PMID:24095667

  17. Phosphoproteomics and Bioinformatics Analyses of Spinal Cord Proteins in Rats with Morphine Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Wen-Jinn; Tsao, Cheng-Ming; Huang, Go-Shine; Wu, Chin-Chen; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Shui, Hao-Ai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Morphine is the most effective pain-relieving drug, but it can cause unwanted side effects. Direct neuraxial administration of morphine to spinal cord not only can provide effective, reliable pain relief but also can prevent the development of supraspinal side effects. However, repeated neuraxial administration of morphine may still lead to morphine tolerance. Methods To better understand the mechanism that causes morphine tolerance, we induced tolerance in rats at the spinal cord level by giving them twice-daily injections of morphine (20 µg/10 µL) for 4 days. We confirmed tolerance by measuring paw withdrawal latencies and maximal possible analgesic effect of morphine on day 5. We then carried out phosphoproteomic analysis to investigate the global phosphorylation of spinal proteins associated with morphine tolerance. Finally, pull-down assays were used to identify phosphorylated types and sites of 14-3-3 proteins, and bioinformatics was applied to predict biological networks impacted by the morphine-regulated proteins. Results Our proteomics data showed that repeated morphine treatment altered phosphorylation of 10 proteins in the spinal cord. Pull-down assays identified 2 serine/threonine phosphorylated sites in 14-3-3 proteins. Bioinformatics further revealed that morphine impacted on cytoskeletal reorganization, neuroplasticity, protein folding and modulation, signal transduction and biomolecular metabolism. Conclusions Repeated morphine administration may affect multiple biological networks by altering protein phosphorylation. These data may provide insight into the mechanism that underlies the development of morphine tolerance. PMID:24392096

  18. Combined morphine-bupivacaine caudals for reconstructive penile surgery in children: systemic absorption of morphine and postoperative analgesia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, A R; Hughes, D; Hobbs, A J; Prys-Roberts, C

    1991-02-01

    We wished to determine if the addition of a small dose of morphine (0.05 mg.kg-1) to a caudal solution of 0.25% bupivacaine could extend the duration of analgesia after major reconstructive penile surgery and also to measure the systemic absorption of morphine after caudal injection. Thirty children undergoing reconstructive penile surgery received a caudal injection of 0.25% bupivacaine 0.75 ml.kg-1 with or without morphine 0.05 mg.kg-1. All patients awoke pain-free, but eight of the fifteen patients receiving bupivacaine alone required supplementary injections of opioid postoperatively, whereas none of the patients receiving the bupivacaine-morphine mixture required additional opioids. The incidence of side-effects was similar for the two groups. Morphine was absorbed rapidly after caudal injection to reach a peak plasma level of 21.2 (+/- 4.8) ng.ml-1 at ten minutes and then fell to 10.1 (+/- 3.8) ng.ml-1 at one hour and 4.1 (+/- 2.6) ng.ml-1 at three hours. These levels are low compared with plasma levels associated with systemic analgesia. We conclude that the extended duration of analgesia from morphine 0.05 mg/kg given caudally is due at least in part to specific spinal analgesia. PMID:2012289

  19. HPLC with laser-induced native fluorescence detection for morphine and morphine glucuronides from blood after immunoaffinity extraction.

    PubMed

    Hupka, Y; Beike, J; Roegener, J; Brinkmann, B; Blaschke, G; Köhler, H

    2005-05-01

    A new immunoaffinity solid phase extraction of morphine and its phase II metabolites, morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide and morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide is described. An immunoadsorber was applied which was created for the first time by the immobilisation of specific antibodies (polyclonal, host: rabbit) by the sol-gel method. The extraction method in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence determination has been validated and shown to be applicable to blood samples of heroin victims in a low concentration range. Blood extracts were essentially free of interfering matrix components when compared to C8-extracts. Additionally, a novel, sensitive and selective detection system for wavelength-resolved analysis of laser-induced fluorescence coupled to HPLC was developed. The analytes were excited with a frequency tripled Ti:Sa laser (lambda=244 nm quasi cw). The total emission spectrum was recorded with a detection system consisting of an imaging spectrograph and a back-illuminated CCD camera. This technique of detection, combined with an extended optical path (at least 6 mm could be illuminated by the laser), resulted in an optimal fluorescence intensity of the analytes. The method permitted the analysis of morphine, morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide and morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide in a low concentration range and could be applied to a complex matrix such as postmortem blood samples because analyte peaks could be discriminated from matrix peaks by their characteristic emission spectra. PMID:15657745

  20. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  1. The pharmacokinetics of clotiazepam after oral and sublingual administration to volunteers.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, C; Bottà, V; Broggini, M; Gambaro, V; Lodi, F; Valenti, M

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the single dose pharmacokinetics of 5 mg clotiazepam drops, oral tablets, and sublingual tablets in a cross-over study in 6 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years). The formulations had similar systemic availability. Compared with oral tablets the sublingual route gave a lower peak concentration and a delayed peak time, while drops gave a greater maximum concentration with a similar peak time. The use of drops is suggested for a more marked initial effect and the sublingual route for easier administration, especially in the elderly. PMID:2575522

  2. Methylergonovine Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Methylergonovine comes as a tablet to take by mouth three or four times a day. Follow the ... upset stomach vomiting diarrhea headache bad taste in mouth If you experience any of the following symptoms, ...

  3. Simultaneous, quantitative determination of opiates, amphetamines, cocaine and benzoylecgonine in oral fluid by liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjell A. Mortier; Kristof E. Maudens; Willy E. Lambert; Karine M. Clauwaert; Jan F. Van Bocxlaer; Dieter L. Deforce; Carlos H. Van Peteghem; André P De Leenheer

    2002-01-01

    A method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry is described for the determination of drugs of abuse in oral fluid. The method is able to simultaneously quantify amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA and MDEA), opiates (morphine and codeine), cocaine and benzoylecgonine. Only 200 ?l of oral fluid is spent for analysis. The sample preparation is easy and consists

  4. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corá, L. A.; Andreis, U.; Romeiro, F. G.; Américo, M. F.; Oliveira, R. B.; Baffa, O.; Miranda, J. R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t50) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 ± 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process.

  5. Role of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption and clinical effects of morphine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan D. Kharasch; Christine Hoffer; Dale Whittington; Pam Sheffels

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: There is considerable and unexplained individual variability in the morphine dose-effect relationship. The efflux pump P-glycoprotein regulates brain access and intestinal absorption of numerous drugs. Morphine is a P-glycoprotein substrate in vitro, and P-glycoprotein affects morphine brain access and pharmacodynamics in animals. However, the role of P-glycoprotein in human morphine disposition and clinical effects is unknown. This investigation tested

  6. Morphine tolerance and dependence in the nucleus paragigantocellularis: single unit recording study in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbas Haghparast; Saeed Semnanian; Yaghoub Fathollahi

    1998-01-01

    In this study, a single unit activity was recorded in the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi), located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of anesthetized, morphine-dependent rats. The spontaneous activity of PGi neurons was significantly decreased by administration of morphine (10 mg\\/kg; i.p.) in sham-operated, control and morphine-dependent rats. However, in PGi neurons of morphine-dependent rats, the firing rate decreased significantly less than

  7. ? Opioid receptor knockout in mice: effects on ligand-induced analgesia and morphine lethality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horace H Loh; Hsien-Ching Liu; Antonella Cavalli; Wanling Yang; Yuh-Fung Chen; Li-Na Wei

    1998-01-01

    The ? opioid receptor gene (MOR) was mutated in mice by a gene targeting procedure. In these MOR-knockout mice, the analgesic effects of morphine, its major metabolites, morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) and morphine-6-ethereal sulfate (M-6-S), and endomorphin-2, as well as morphine-induced lethality, were drastically reduced, whereas the effects of DPDPE and U50488 remained unchanged. It is concluded that analgesic effects of ?-specific

  8. Oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  9. Raman spectroscopic measurement of tablet-to-tablet coating variability.

    PubMed

    Romero-Torres, Saly; Pérez-Ramos, José D; Morris, Kenneth R; Grant, Edward R

    2005-06-15

    We report new results suggesting the feasibility of Raman spectrometry as a tool by which to examine the variability of tablet coatings. Our experiments feature a probe that can operate with a revolving laser focus to average content and coating non-uniformity. Raman spectral changes are correlated with tablet exposure times in a pan coater by means of partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis. Statistical models are found to be improved by pre-processing schemes that emphasize spectral changes while minimizing the effects of background light scattering and fluorescence. These pre-processing techniques include multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation, used in concert with Savitzky-Golay second derivative smoothing (SGSD). The two approaches give comparable results yielding R2 values for PLS calibration and cross-calibrated prediction variance regression of 0.999 and 0.997, respectively. Correlation results and model residual values demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy serves sensitively to reflect the coating thickness of the tablets studied. PMID:15925218

  10. Single-dose evaluation of safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of newly formulated hydromorphone immediate-release and hydrophilic matrix extended-release tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Kaoru; Uchida, Naoki; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Sambe, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    This single dose, open-label study investigated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of newly formulated immediate-release (IR) and hydrophilic matrix extended-release (ER) hydromorphone tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist under fasting and fed conditions. Plasma and urinary concentrations of hydromorphone and metabolites were measured by liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectroscopy. Following administration of the ER tablet, plasma concentrations of hydromorphone slowly increased with a median tmax of 5.0?h and the Cmax decreased to 37% of the IR tablet, while the AUC0-inf was comparable with that of the IR tablet when administered at the same dose. The degree of fluctuation in the plasma concentration for the ER tablet was much lower than that of the IR tablet and certain levels of plasma concentrations were maintained after 24?h of ER dosing. The AUC0-inf and Cmax increased with food for both IR and ER tablets. The AUC0-inf of hydromorphone-3-glucoside was one-tenth of that of hydromorphone-3-glucuronide. A single oral administration of the hydromorphone tablets would be well-tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects despite a lack of co-administration of an opioid antagonist and the newly developed ER hydromorphone tablets may have the appropriate PK characteristics for once-daily dosing. PMID:25807927

  11. Role of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption and clinical effects of morphine

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    : There is considerable and unexplained individual variability in the morphine dose-effect rela- tionship. The efflux pumpRole of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption and clinical effects of morphine Introduction P-glycoprotein regulates brain access and intestinal absorption of numerous drugs. Morphine is a P

  12. Central administration of selective melanocortin 4 receptor antagonist HS014 prevents morphine tolerance and withdrawal hyperalgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annasaheb S. Kalange; Dadasaheb M. Kokare; Praful S. Singru; Manoj A. Upadhya; Chandrabhan T. Chopde; Nishikant K. Subhedar

    2007-01-01

    Major problem involved in treatment of chronic pain with morphine is the development of tolerance and dependence. Previous studies have demonstrated the participation of melanocortin (MC) system in the development of tolerance to antinociceptive effect of morphine. However, the impact of supraspinal MC4 receptors (MC4 R) modulation on this phenomenon and morphine withdrawal hyperalgesia remained unexplored. We investigated the role

  13. Addition of noradrenaline to intrathecal morphine augments the postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Yokota; Kiyoshi Uehara; Yukiko Nomoto

    2004-01-01

    Purpose Intrathecal administration of morphine has been shown to suppress natural killer (NK) cell activity. We tested the hypothesis that combined administration of morphine and noradrenaline would further modify NK cell activity in patients undergoing hysterectomy. Methods Thirty female patients were randomly divided into three groups of ten patients each. Groups MN and M received intrathecal morphine (0.5?mg) dissolved in

  14. Morphine-induced macrophage apoptosis: oxidative stress and strategies for modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajani S. Bhat; Madhu Bhaskaran; Anil Mongia; Naoko Hitosugi; Pravin C. Singhal

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence of macrophage apoptosis has been implicated for the altered immune func- tion found in an opiate milieu. In the present study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress in morphine-induced macrophage apoptosis. Mor- phine promoted the apoptosis of macrophages. This effect of morphine was associated with the production of superoxide and nitric oxide (NO). Antioxidants provided protection against morphine-

  15. The role of nitric oxide in diabetes-induced changes of morphine tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Joharchi, Khojasteh; Jorjani, Masoumeh

    2007-09-10

    Several neuroendocrine complications including diabetes change the morphine antinociception and the development of tolerance to the drug. Morphine antinociception was reduced significantly in morphine tolerant diabetic rats compared to the non-diabetic animals. The exact mechanism of this effect is not known. This study was performed to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) on morphine tolerance in diabetic state. Nociceptive responses in alloxan-induced diabetic morphine tolerated rats were measured by the hot-plate test. The urinary nitric oxide level was measured spectrophotometrically with Griess reagent. For the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, vanadium chloride was used. The results showed that experimental diabetes increased morphine analgesia. Conversely, degree of tolerance to morphine was diminished in diabetic state. The urinary nitrite content in diabetic morphine tolerated rats was higher than non-diabetic groups. L-arginine significantly increased the NO production in diabetic morphine tolerated animals, whereas aminoguanidine decreased it. Appropriately, L-arginine increased the latency time of reaction to noxious stimuli in diabetic compared to non-diabetic rats. L-arginine-treated animals also showed more tolerance to morphine analgesia. As expected, aminoguanidine deducted the level of morphine tolerance in diabetic animals. It is suggested that NO has a modulatory role in the effects of diabetes on morphine analgesia and tolerance. PMID:17599829

  16. Morphine reduces local cytokine expression and neutrophil infiltration after incision

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J David; Shi, Xiaoyou; Li, Xiangqi; Qiao, Yanli; Liang, DeYong; Angst, Martin S; Yeomans, David C

    2007-01-01

    Background Inflammation and nociceptive sensitization are hallmarks of tissue surrounding surgical incisions. Recent studies demonstrate that several cytokines may participate in the enhancement of nociception near these wounds. Since opioids like morphine interact with neutrophils and other immunocytes, it is possible that morphine exerts some of its antinociceptive action after surgical incision by altering the vigor of the inflammatory response. On the other hand, keratinocytes also express opioid receptors and have the capacity to produce cytokines after injury. Our studies were directed towards determining if opioids alter cytokine production near incisions and to identify cell populations responsible for producing these cytokines. Results A murine incisional model was used to measure the effects of acute morphine administration (0.1–10 mg/kg) on nociceptive thresholds, neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production in hind paw skin 30 minutes and 2 hours after incision. Incised hind paws displayed profound allodynia which was reduced by morphine (0.1–10 mg/kg) in the 2 hours following incision. Skin samples harvested from these mice showed enhanced levels of 5 cytokines: IL-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC). Morphine reduced these incision-stimulated levels. Separate analyses measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) and using immunohistochemistry demonstrated that morphine dose-dependently reduced the infiltration of neutrophils into the peri-incisional tissue. The dose of morphine required for reduction of cytokine accumulation, however, was below that required for inhibition of peri-incisional neutrophil infiltration. Additional immunohistochemical studies revealed wound edge keratinocytes as being an important source of cytokines in the acute phase after incision. Conclusion Acute morphine administration of doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg reduces peri-incisional cytokine expression. A reduction in neutrophil infiltration does not provide a complete explanation for this effect, and keratinocytes may be responsible for some incision area cytokine production. These studies suggest that morphine may alter the inflammatory milieu of incisional wounds, but these alterations do not likely contribute significantly to analgesia in the acute setting. PMID:17908329

  17. [Afobazole decreases severity of morphine withdrawal syndrome: experimental evidence].

    PubMed

    Konstantinopol'ski?, M A; Cherniakova, I V

    2011-01-01

    Effect of afobazole upon morphine dependency has been studied in rats upon the administration of incremental doses of morphine (10-20 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 days. The state of dependency was evaluated by monitoring sixteen specific behavioral indices of "spontaneous" (24 h after the last morphine injection) or naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome. The effect of afobazole (a single dose of 5 mg/kg injected before the test or subchronically for 5 days) was estimated through its influence upon the total index of withdrawal syndrome, which was calculated using the set of behavioural signs. It is established that afobazole upon either single or subchronic injections significantly decreased the expression of spontaneous morphine withdrawal syndrome. The effect was also statistically significant but less pronounced in the case of naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome. The obtained data suggest that afobazole can be considered as potential effective drug for the correction of various clinical symptoms of morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:22238980

  18. Effect of morphine on conditioned place preference in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianHong; Wu, XuJing; Li, ChuanYu; Wei, JingKuang; Jiang, HuiHui; Liu, CiRong; Yu, ChengYang; Carlson, Synnöve; Hu, XinTian; Ma, Hua; Duan, Wei; Ma, YuanYe

    2012-05-01

    In rodents, a conditioned place preference (CPP) can be induced by morphine. In the current study, we designed a biased place conditioning paradigm to test the rewarding effects of morphine in freely moving rhesus monkeys. Five monkeys were first placed in three serial rooms with the doors open between them for three days. After this habituation period, during which baseline preference for each of the two end rooms was measured, CPP conditioning occurred when the monkeys were injected intramuscularly with morphine at an increasing dose (1.5, 3, 4.5 mg/kg) before they entered the non-preferred room and on alternate days, with saline before they entered the preferred room. Morphine and saline treatment lasted for six days, respectively. CPP was tested 24 hours after the end of CPP training. The result showed that in all five monkeys, CPP was induced by the morphine treatment. The preference lasted for at least 15.3 ± 1.7 months. PMID:21309951

  19. Persistent pain maintains morphine-seeking behavior after morphine withdrawal through reduced MeCP2 repression of GluA1 in rat central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yuan-Yuan; Cai, You-Qing; Pan, Zhizhong Z

    2015-02-25

    As long-term opioids are increasingly used for control of chronic pain, how pain affects the rewarding effect of opioids and hence risk of prescription opioid misuse and abuse remains a healthcare concern and a challenging issue in current pain management. In this study, using a rat model of morphine self-administration, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of pain on operant behavior of morphine intake and morphine seeking before and after morphine withdrawal. We found that rats with persistent pain consumed a similar amount of daily morphine to that in control rats without pain, but maintained their level-pressing behavior of morphine seeking after abstinence of morphine at 0.2 mg/kg, whereas this behavior was gradually diminished in control rats. In the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), a limbic structure critically involved in the affective dimension of pain, proteins of GluA1 subunits of glutamate AMPA receptors were upregulated during morphine withdrawal, and viral knockdown of CeA GluA1 eliminated the morphine-seeking behavior in withdrawn rats of the pain group. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) was enriched in the promoter region of Gria1 encoding GluA1 and this enrichment was significantly attenuated in withdrawn rats of the pain group. Furthermore, viral overexpression of CeA MeCP2 repressed the GluA1 level and eliminated the maintenance of morphine-seeking behavior after morphine withdrawal. These results suggest direct MeCp2 repression of GluA1 function as a likely mechanism for morphine-seeking behavior maintained by long-lasting affective pain after morphine withdrawal. PMID:25716866

  20. 21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains pyrantel pamoate equivalent to...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520.1331 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520.1242e Section 520.1242e Food...1242e Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 907 milligrams of levamisole...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520.1331 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of...

  5. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5 or 20 milligrams of megestrol...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains pyrantel pamoate equivalent to...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

  10. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

  11. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.2582 Section 520.2582 Food and...520.2582 Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 25...

  13. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

  14. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180...

  15. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520.246 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.246 Butorphanol tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of...

  16. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. 520.1446 Section 520.1446 Food...520.1446 Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications —(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg)...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5 or 20 milligrams of megestrol...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. 520.1446 Section 520.1446 Food...520.1446 Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications —(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg)...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.2582 Section 520.2582 Food and...520.2582 Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 25...

  2. Comparison of Risperidone Orodispersible Tablet and Intramuscular Haloperidol in the Treatment of Acute Psychotic Agitation: A Randomized Open, Prospective Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Kook Lim; Jung Jin Kim; Chi Un Pae; Chang Uk Lee; Chul Lee; In Ho Paik

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Psychotic agitation of psychiatric patients is a common manifestation that needs emergent management. Traditionally, parenteral or intramuscular injection of antipsychotics was conducted for treatment of psychotic agitation. Considering that the rapidly absorbed form of risperidone (risperidone orodispersible tablet) could be used for the agitated patient, comparison of oral risperidone and intramuscular haloperidol was performed in emergency treatment of psychotic

  3. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Tablet Chlorination

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Secondary treatment system Pump tank Tablet chlorinator Onsite wastewater treatment systems Tablet chlorination L-5344 9-08 Figure 1: The most common form of disinfection for onsite systems is tablet chlorination. W astewater that is sprayed onto... lawns must first be disinfected to prevent odors and remove disease-causing microorganisms. Wastewater can be disinfected with chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet light. For onsite wastewater treatment systems, the most common form of disin- fection...

  4. Tablet Content Analysis Using Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Spencer; Everett H. Jefferson; Ajaz S. Hussain; David Newnham; Thomas Lo

    2007-01-01

    A group of pressed tablets with acetaminophen content between 60 mg and 120 mg were scanned in the terahertz spectral region\\u000a (2 cm?1–120 cm?1) in transmission mode. Tablet acetaminophen content was determined by a standard HPLC method. Despite the lack of discernible\\u000a spectral features and the tablets being opaque above 45 cm?1, a working partial least squares model could be constructed. The results show the

  5. An in vitro and in vivo comparative study of directly compressed solid dispersions and freeze dried sildenafil citrate sublingual tablets for management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Reham; Kamel, Amany O; Shukr, Marwa; El-Shamy, Abd El-Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Sildenafilcitrate (SILD) orodispersable sublingual tablets (ODSTs) have been developed using two comparative techniques for improving their oral disintegration, dissolution and bioavailability in order to manage acute attacks of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The techniques employed were direct compression of SILD-poloxamer 188 solid dispersions (SDs) and freeze drying using various excipients. The physicochemical and solid-state properties, as well as the dissolution behavior of the tablets were evaluated. Moreover, SILD bioavailability in human volunteers from the prepared ODSTs was compared to that of the conventional oral tablet. Incorporation of SD of poloxamer188 in sublingual tablets together with Pharmaburst using the direct compression technique enhanced the extent and dissolution rate of SILD with 100% of drug being dissolved after 7 minutes. However, the lyophilization process was superior in enhancing dissolution and 100% of SILD was dissolved after only one minute. Moreover, the in vivo study showed that the AUC???? of lyophilized tablets was significantly higher than that of directly compressed tablets, with bioavailability values of 159.81 and 140.85%, respectively, compared to the commercial oral product. PMID:23470352

  6. Epinephrine inhibits analgesic tolerance to intrathecal administrated morphine and increases the expression of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha.

    PubMed

    Satarian, Leila; Javan, Mohammad; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2008-01-17

    Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis inhibits development of morphine tolerance. Also, the expression of CaMKIIalpha is increased following chronic administration of morphine. In the current study, we tried to examine the effect of epinephrine, on the development of morphine tolerance; and also evaluate the expression of CaMKIIalpha as a molecular index for tolerance development. Analgesic tolerance was induced by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of morphine 15 microg/rat, twice a day for 5 days. To study the effect of epinephrine on development or reversal of morphine tolerance, epinephrine was administrated 20 min before morphine injections. Analgesia was assessed using tail flick test. Gene expression assays were done using RT-PCR. Following 5 days of combined administration of morphine and epinephrine (2, 5 or 10 microg/rat), in day 6, morphine produced potent analgesia. Administration of saline and morphine during days 1-5, caused reduced analgesic effect of morphine on day 6. After tolerance induction during 5 days, co-administration of epinephrine and morphine for another 5 days, significantly reversed the tolerance. Both morphine and epinephrine increased the expression of CaMKIIalpha. The expression of CaMKIIalpha was highly increased following combined administration of epinephrine and morphine. Our results showed the inhibition and reversal of analgesic tolerance to local administrated morphine by epinephrine. We observed the increased expression of CaMKIIalpha without development of morphine tolerance in animals treated with combined epinephrine and morphine. PMID:18053645

  7. Interaction of prenatal stress and morphine alters prolactin and seizure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30min. In the morphine/saline group, pregnant rats received morphine (10, 12 and 15mg/kg, IP, on GD17, GD18 and GD19, respectively) or saline (1ml, IP). In the morphine/saline-stressed group, the rats received morphine or saline and then exposed to stress. On postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 and P15), blood samples were obtained and PBL was determined. At P15 and P25, the rest of the pups was injected with PTZ to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were observed individually. Latency of first convulsion decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increased in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15 (P=0.04). Number of tonic-clonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to control-saline group at P15 (P=0.02). PBL increased in stressed-saline, control-morphine and stress-morphine groups compared to control-saline rats. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure of rats to forced-swim stress and morphine changed their susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure and PBL during infancy and prepubertal period. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on epileptic behaviors. PMID:26056076

  8. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  9. Prolonged morphine treatment alters ? opioid receptor post-internalization trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ong, E W; Xue, L; Olmstead, M C; Cahill, C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The ? opioid receptor (DOP receptor) undergoes internalization both constitutively and in response to agonists. Previous work has shown that DOP receptors traffic from intracellular compartments to neuronal cell membranes following prolonged morphine treatment. Here, we examined the effects of prolonged morphine treatment on the post-internalization trafficking of DOP receptors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglia neurons, we measured the co-localization of endogenous DOP receptors with post-endocytic compartments following both prolonged and acute agonist treatments. KEY RESULTS A departure from the constitutive trafficking pathway was observed following acute DOP receptor agonist-induced internalization by deltorphin II. That is, the DOP receptor underwent distinct agonist-induced post-endocytic sorting. Following prolonged morphine treatment, constitutive DOP receptor trafficking was augmented. SNC80 following prolonged morphine treatment also caused non-constitutive DOP receptor agonist-induced post-endocytic sorting. The ? opioid receptor (MOP receptor) agonist DAMGO induced DOP receptor internalization and trafficking following prolonged morphine treatment. Finally, all of the alterations to DOP receptor trafficking induced by both DOP and MOP receptor agonists were inhibited or absent when those agonists were co-administered with a DOP receptor antagonist, SDM-25N. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The results support the hypothesis that prolonged morphine treatment induces the formation of MOP–DOP receptor interactions and subsequent augmentation of the available cell surface DOP receptors, at least some of which are in the form of a MOP/DOP receptor species. The pharmacology and trafficking of this species appear to be unique compared to those of its individual constituents. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24819092

  10. Absorption of effervescent paracetamol tablets relative to ordinary paracetamol tablets in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rygnestad; K. Zahlsen; F. A. Samdal

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of absorption between ordinary paracetamol tablets and effervescent paracetamol\\u000a tablets.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers participated in an open randomised crossover study and were given a 1000-mg dose of either ordinary\\u000a paracetamol tablets (2??500?mg Panodil tablets, SmithKline Beecham) or effervescent paracetamol tablets (2??500?mg Pinex\\u000a Brusetablett, Alpharma AS) with a 3-week

  11. Precipitated and conditioned withdrawal in morphine-treated rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ginger L. Becker; Lisa R. Gerak; Jun-Xu Li; Wouter Koek; Charles P. France

    2010-01-01

    Rationale  Stimuli that are paired with opioid withdrawal can themselves produce effects similar to withdrawal that might promote relapse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  This study compared precipitated and conditioned withdrawal and tested whether withdrawal is modified by clonidine or morphine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Morphine-treated rats (10 mg\\/kg\\/12 h) received naloxone (3.2 mg\\/kg) in a novel environment (conditioned stimuli [CS]). Other\\u000a rats received naloxone in the absence of the CS. Body weight

  12. Morphine and alternative opioids in cancer pain: the EAPC recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, G W; Conno, F de; Cherny, N; Hanna, M; Kalso, E; McQuay, H J; Mercadante, S; Meynadier, J; Poulain, P; Ripamonti, C; Radbruch, L; Casas, J Roca i; Sawe, J; Twycross, R G; Ventafridda, V

    2001-01-01

    An expert working group of the European Association for Palliative Care has revised and updated its guidelines on the use of morphine in the management of cancer pain. The revised recommendations presented here give guidance on the use of morphine and the alternative strong opioid analgesics which have been introduced in many parts of the world in recent years. Practical strategies for dealing with difficult situations are described presenting a consensus view where supporting evidence is lacking. The strength of the evidence on which each recommendation is based is indicated. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11237376

  13. Effect of food on the bioavailability of oxybutynin from a controlled release tablet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lukkari; P. Castrèn-Kortekangas; A. Juhakoski; E. Löyttyniemi; K. Aranko; P. J. Neuvonen

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The effect of food on the bioavailability of oxybutynin was assessed in a randomised cross-over study in 23 healthy volunteers.\\u000a A single oral 10?mg dose of a controlled release oxybutynin tablet was administered after a high fat breakfast and to fasting\\u000a subjects. The AUC, Cmax, tmax, t1\\/2 and MRT of oxybutynin and its active metabolite N-desethyloxybutynin were determined.\\u000a \\u000a Results:

  14. Design and evaluation of matrix-based controlled release tablets of diclofenac sodium and chondroitin sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia Avachat; Vikram Kotwal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and characterize an oral controlled release drug delivery system for concomitant\\u000a administration of diclofenac sodium (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). A hydrophilic matrix-based tablet using different concentrations\\u000a of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) was developed using wet granulation technique to contain 100 mg of DS and 400 mg of\\u000a CS. Formulations prepared were evaluated

  15. Comparative bioavailability of two immediate release tablets of cisapride in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Maya; C. R. Domingos; M. T. Guerreiro; A. P. Filipe; J. A. Morais

    1998-01-01

    Summary  Relative bioavailability of cisapride was investigated after oral administration of a test versus a reference formulation\\u000a of immediate release tablets of cisapride, both with 10 mg per unit. The study was conducted in a two-way cross-over design,\\u000a as a single dose open-label randomised trial. The two formulations were administered in two treatment days, separated by a\\u000a washout period of 6

  16. Bioequivalence Study of 30 mg Pioglitazone Tablets in Thai Healthy Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somruedee Chatsiricharoenkul; Piyapat Pongnarin

    Material and Method: A randomized, single dose, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were recruited at Siriraj Clinical Research Unit. Each subject received a 30 mg pioglitazone tablet of both formulations with at least a week washout period. Blood samples were collected over 48 h after the oral administration. The plasma fractions were analyzed for pioglitazone

  17. Comparative bioavailability of two immediate release tablets of enalapril\\/hydrochlorothiazide in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela T. Maya; Nuno J. Goncalves; Nuno E. Silva; Augusto E. P. Filipe; José A. Morais; M. C. Caturla; M. Rovira

    2002-01-01

    Summary  A bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of 20\\/12.5 mg tablets of enalapril\\/hydrochlorothiazide was carried out in\\u000a 20 healthy male volunteers according to a single dose, two-sequence, crossover randomized design. One washout period of nine\\u000a days was observed between the two periods. Multiple samples were collected over 96 hours post-dosing. Bioavailability was\\u000a evaluated on the basis of plasma concentrations of

  18. Effects of opioids in morphine-treated pigeons trained to discriminate among morphine, the low-efficacy agonist nalbuphine, and saline.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ellen A; Picker, Mitchell J; Granger, Arthur; Dykstra, Linda A

    2004-07-01

    In opioid-dependent subjects, the low-efficacy mu agonist nalbuphine generally precipitates withdrawal or withdrawal-like stimulus effects. To provide a more complete characterization of the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine in opioid-treated subjects, seven White Carneux pigeons were treated daily with 10 mg/kg morphine i.m. and trained 6 h later to discriminate among 10 mg/kg morphine, 1.0 mg/kg nalbuphine, and saline by responding on one of three different keys. When tested, morphine produced morphine-key responding and nalbuphine produced nalbuphine-key responding. Replacing the daily morphine injection with saline produced nalbuphine-key responding, and this effect was reversed by the administration of morphine. In substitution tests with other compounds, the antagonists naltrexone (i.m.) and CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Tryp-Lys-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2) (i.c.v.) produced nalbuphine-key responding. High-efficacy agonists fentanyl and etorphine produced morphine-key responding. The intermediate-efficacy agonists buprenorphine, dezocine, and butorphanol produced a pattern of morphine-, saline-, and/or nalbuphine-key responding that differed across individual pigeons. The lower efficacy agonists nalorphine and levallorphan produced predominantly nalbuphine-key responding. The kappa agonists spiradoline and U50,488 [trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate], the nonopioid d-amphetamine, and saline produced predominantly saline-key responding. Naltrexone and nalbuphine dose dependently reversed the morphine-key responding produced by the training dose of morphine. Together, these data suggest that the discriminative-stimulus effects of the low-efficacy micro agonist nalbuphine in morphine-treated pigeons are similar to those of other low-efficacy agonists, naltrexone, and the termination of daily morphine treatment. PMID:15044559

  19. Alleviation of Morphine Withdrawal Signs but Not Tolerance by the Essential Oil of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff.

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Izadi, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute treatment of the essential oil (EO) of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. on the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Mice were rendered tolerant to and dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine over a period of 5 days. Tolerance was assessed using the tail-pinch test and withdrawal signs of morphine were precipitated by injecting naloxone 2?h after the final morphine injection. Repeated injection of the EO of K. odoratissima (5 and 10?mg/kg) for 4 days significantly suppressed morphine-withdrawal jumps, a sign of the development of dependence to opiate as assessed by naloxone precipitation withdrawal on day 5 of testing. A single injection (25, 50, 100?mg/kg) of the EO on day 5, 1?h prior to morphine failed to produce any significant change in morphine withdrawal signs. Neither the acute nor the chronic administration of EO of the K. odoratissima did significantly influence the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. Alleviation in morphine signs of withdrawal after chronic injection with K. odoratissima is indicative of reversal of neuronal adaptation that takes place during morphine presence in the brain. PMID:22829859

  20. Orexin receptor type-1 antagonist SB-334867 inhibits the development of morphine analgesic tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Slamloo, Yadollah; Azizi, Hossein; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Semnanian, Saeed

    2012-05-01

    Herein the effect of orexin receptor type-1 antagonist SB-334867 on the development of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine was studied in rats. To incite tolerance, morphine sulfate was injected intraperitoneally (i.p., 10mg/kg) once a day for 7 days. The tail flick test was used to evaluate antinociceptive effects of the morphine. A selective OxR1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867, was microinjected (i.c.v.) into the right cerebral ventricle (10 ?g/10 ?l) immediately before each morphine injection. Repeated morphine application resulted in tolerance to morphine analgesic effects as a decreasing trend during 7 days. Also, repeated administration of SB-334867 (i.c.v.) alone was without significant effect on the nociception as compared to control. Microinjection of SB-334867 prior to each morphine injection inhibited the development of tolerance, so that the analgesic effects of morphine were significantly higher in SB-334867 plus morphine treated rats than that of vehicle plus morphine treated ones on days 4-7. It is concluded that orexin receptor type-1 might be involved in the development of tolerance to morphine analgesic effects. PMID:22421510

  1. Voluntary and forced exercises prevent the development of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shokraviyan, Monireh; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Vaezi, Gholam Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Morphine is widely used to treat chronic pain. However, its utility is hindered by the development of tolerance to its analgesic effects. Despite the renowned beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive functions and signs of morphine withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats, little is known about the roles of voluntary and forced exercises in tolerance to analgesic effect of morphine in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, rats were injected with 10 mg/kg of morphine, once daily, SC over a period of 8 days of either voluntary or treadmill exercise. Following these injections, the percent of maximum possible effect (%MPE) of morphine was measured on the 1st, 4th, and 8th days by hot plate test. Results: Both voluntary and forced exercises significantly increased pain threshold compared to the sedentary group (P<0.05). Voluntary and forced exercises also significantly increased potency of morphine compared to sedentary morphine group (P<0.05). Thus, we concluded that voluntary and forced exercises blocked the development of tolerance during 8 daily simultaneously treatments. When exercising rats were returned to sedentary conditions, sensitivity to the analgesic effects of morphine increased significantly and persisted during sedentary period in the exercising rats. In other words, %MPE of the exercising morphine-group increased significantly compared to saline group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that voluntary and forced exercises may be possible methods for treating the development of tolerance to analgesic effect of morphine in rats. PMID:24904720

  2. The effect of chitosan on the stability and morphological parameters of tablets with Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. extract.

    PubMed

    Marczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bodek, Kazimiera Henryka

    2007-01-01

    The study is a continuation of research on manufacturing oral solid drug form containing extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. This study aims at investigating the usefulness of selected high-molecular substances with particular consideration of chitosan (Ch), silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv) and croscarmellose sodium (Vivasol) as a carrier of E. parviflorum Schreb. extract in oral solid drug form in the process of direct tableting. In one series the alternative technological process (with initial granulation) was applied. The polymer carriers of extract were selected so as to obtain shorter disintegration time in relation to the earlier published studies and stability after longer time of storage. The effect of chitosan was estimated on selected morphological parameters of practical relevance during storage. The obtained results allow to state that the applied high-molecular adjuvant substances proved to be useful in adequate proportions in the production of tablets from dry extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. through direct pressing of the tablet mass. The tablet properties in all series were in accordance with obligatory standards also after longer time of storage (12-month). The tablets formed from E. parviflorum Schreb. extract with chitosan can be included into preparations of sustained release time of the biologically active substances. PMID:18251200

  3. Tablet PCs: A Physical Educator's New Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computers in education have come a long way from the abacus of 5,000 years ago to the desktop and laptop computers of today. Computers have transformed the educational environment, and with each new iteration of smaller and more powerful machines come additional advantages for teaching practices. The Tablet PC is one. Tablet PCs are fully…

  4. Enhancing Student Performance Using Tablet Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Amelito G.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive…

  5. Pharmaceutical Tablet Inspection Emil Sauer Lynge

    E-print Network

    Pharmaceutical Tablet Inspection Emil Sauer Lynge Kongens Lyngby 2012 IMM-B.Sc.-2012-06 #12;Summary (English) The goal of this thesis is to investigate, how an industrial machine vision solution can implementation. The results thus only reects the explanatory power of the tablets spectral response. A method

  6. Putting Tablet PCs to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirian, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Like many educators, the author and her colleagues (five faculty members and two IT techs) in the department of Media Communications and Technology at East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania were interested to find out the status of tablet PCs in education. Microsoft listed 10 manufacturers of tablet PCs following two forms: the slate and the…

  7. Enhanced bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride via cup and core buccal tablets: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; Elmeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2014-03-10

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T(??%)) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar® tablets. Conducting level A in vitro/in vivo correlation showed good correlation (r²=0.9805) between fractions dissolved in vitro and fractions absorbed in vivo. PMID:24412520

  8. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  9. Loin pain hematuria syndrome: Pain relief with intrathecal morphine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua P. Prager; Antonio DeSalles; Alan Wilkinson; Marilyn Jacobs; Marie Csete

    1995-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS) is characterized by hematuria and incapacitating loin pain. The pain experienced with LPHS is, in general, extremely difficult to treat. Many surgical and pharmacologic therapies have been directed at LPHS pain without success. This report documents successful pain control in a patient with LPHS using long-term intrathecal morphine delivered via an implantable pump. Intrathecal narcotic

  10. Morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.; Lowry, P.; Nguyen, M.; Pollack, M.

    1986-12-01

    Cholescintigraphy is a sensitive procedure for diagnosing or excluding acute cholecystitis. However, when rapid diagnosis is critical, the requirement for delayed images (4 hr or more after injection) to minimize the false-positive rate diminishes its utility. We prospectively evaluated 40 cholescintigraphic examinations that did not visualize the gallbladder 1 hr after injection of 99mTc diisopropyliminodiacetic acid. These examinations were then augmented by administration of IV morphine, followed by an additional 30 min of imaging. After the morphine, 18 of these examinations demonstrated visualization of the gallbladder; none subsequently required surgical exploration. Of the remaining 22, who demonstrated persistent nonvisualization of the gallbladder post-morphine, 11 were explored surgically and found to be abnormal. The 11 others were treated medically. Low-dose morphine administered when the gallbladder fails to visualize after 1 hr is a useful adjunct to conventional cholescintigraphy because it reduces the time required to obtain a diagnostic result and decreases the number of false-positive results.

  11. Narcotic tapering in pregnancy using long-acting morphine

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Roisin; Dooley, Joe; Antone, Irwin; Guilfoyle, John; Gerber-Finn, Lianne; Kakekagumick, Kara; Cromarty, Helen; Hopman, Wilma; Muileboom, Jill; Brunton, Nicole; Kelly, Len

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document the management of and outcomes for patients receiving narcotic replacement and tapering with long-acting morphine preparations during pregnancy. Design A prospective cohort study over 18 months. Setting Northwestern Ontario. Participants All 600 births at Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Sioux Lookout, Ont, from January 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013, including 166 narcotic-exposed pregnancies. Intervention Narcotic replacement and tapering of narcotic use with long-acting morphine preparations. Main outcome measures Prenatal management of maternal narcotic use, incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome, and other neonatal outcomes. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome fell significantly to 18.1% of pregnancies exposed to narcotics (from 29.5% in a previous 2010 study, P = .003) among patients using narcotic replacement and tapering with long-acting morphine preparations. Neonatal outcomes were otherwise equivalent to those of the nonexposed pregnancies. Conclusion In many patients, long-acting morphine preparations can be safely used and tapered in pregnancy, with a subsequent decrease in observed neonatal withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25821873

  12. Use of morphine in cholescintigraphy for obstructive cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Nguyen, M.; Pjura, G.; Pollack, M.; Gobuty, A.

    1985-05-01

    Non-visualization of the gallbladder (GB) during the first hour of cholescintigraphy is observed in cystic duct obstruction (e.g. in acute cholecystitis) but may also occur in chronic cholecystitis, hepatocellular disease, alcoholism and prolonged total parenteral nutrition. Low dose morphine is shown to improve the specificity of the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (from 85% to 100%) with no loss in sensitivity (98%) at a small cost in terms of additional study time. The authors reviewed 27 selected cholescintigraphic examinations augmented by intravenous (IV) morphine (0.04 mg/Kg). Of the 16 cases with persistent nonvisualization of the GB, ultrasound revealed gallstones in 5 cases, sludge in 4, acalculous cholecystitis in 3, one distended GB, one contracted GB and 2 normal GB's. Of the 4 patients taken to surgery, one with gallstones and one with acalculous cholecystitis were confirmed to have acute cholecystitis while another with gallstones had chronic cholecystitis and the final patient, who was sonographically normal, presented a single common duct stone. The authors conclude that the use of IV morphine is an effective adjunct to cholescintigraphy in the evaluation of gallbladder disease, especially when visualization post morphine rules out acute cholecystitis.

  13. Subcutaneous morphine pump for postoperative hemorrhoidectomy pain management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsa T. Goldstein; Paul R. Williamson; Sergio W. Larach

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many anorectal procedures are currently being performed on an outpatient basis, hemorrhoidectomy being the exception because of the need for parenteral narcotics postoperatively. We investigated the effectiveness of a subcutaneous morphine pump (SQMP) for outpatient posthemorrhoidectomy pain control. METHODS: In Phase 1 of our study, 22 patients undergoing radical hemorrhoidectomy were started on an SQMP protocol postoperatively. Twenty-nine patients

  14. [Tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets].

    PubMed

    Yokotsuka, Shoko; Kato, Jitsu

    2013-07-01

    Tramadol/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination tablets (Tramse) combine tramadol, a centrally acting week opioid analgesic, with low-dose acetaminophen. The action of tramadol may be described as a weak agonist at the mu-opioid receptor, inhibition of serotonin reuptake, and inhibition of noradrenaline reuptake. The second component in these tablets, acetaminophen mainly appears to act through central mechanism. Chronic pain may be broadly classified into nociceptive, neuropathic and mixed. Tramset may exert additive or synergic benefits in treating the multiple mechanism of pain. Clinical studies have revealed its efficacy and safety for a variety of pain condition such as chronic low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It is expected that Tramset is going to induce pain relief and to improve disturbance of daily life in patients with intractable chronic pain. However overuse of Tramset may induce severe adverse effects such as addiction, abuse and hepatotoxicity. Therefore clinician should continuously assess pain intensity, activity of daily life, mode of its consumption, and adverse effects after prescription. PMID:23905401

  15. Torsemide Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Torsemide comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken once a day. To help you remember to take torsemide, take it around the same time ... Dexpak, Dexasone, others), fludrocortisone (Floriner), hydrocortisone (Cortef, ... others), prednisone (Rayos), and triamcinolone (Aristocort, Azmacort); ...

  16. Influence of fentanyl and morphine on intestinal circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of fentanyl and morphine on the intestinal circulation was evaluated in an isolated loop preparation in 37 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital intravenously. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mm Hg. A mixture of /sup 86/Rb and 9-micron spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A strong correlation was found between the clearances of rubidium and microspheres (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001), suggesting that the shunting of 9-micron spheres through the intestines reflects the shunting of blood through nonnutritive vessels. Intravenous fentanyl decreased oxygen uptake (O/sub 2/up), and vascular resistance (VR), and increased blood flow (BF), rubidium and microsphere clearances (Cl-Rb, Cl-Sph, respectively), and permeability--surface area product (PS) in a dose-related fashion. Intravenous morphine in a dose of 1 mg X kg-1 increased Cl-Rb (nutritive BF) without changes in total (nutritive and nonnutritive) BF. This increase in nutritive BF is probably related to morphine-induced histamine release. Morphine in a dose of 5 mg X kg-1 was accompanied by vasoconstriction that was completely abolished by alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. The data suggest that morphine-induced intestinal vasoconstriction is mediated via a release of epinephrine, apparently from the adrenal medulla. It is concluded that changes in the intestinal circulation during anesthesia with narcotics might play a certain role in the cardiovascular homeostasis during anesthesia and surgery. An increase in oxygen content in portal venous blood, resulting from a decrease in intestinal oxygen uptake, should facilitate hepatic oxygenation.

  17. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

  18. Development of antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence following morphine i.c.v. infusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Lenard, Natalie R; Roerig, Sandra C

    2005-12-19

    The chronic i.c.v. infusion of morphine has been reported for rats but not for mice. In the current report, the antinociceptive tolerance to both i.c.v. morphine infusion and s.c. implantation of morphine pellets in mice was compared. Physical dependence after i.c.v. morphine infusion was also evaluated. Osmotic minipumps were filled with morphine (50 mM), connected to i.c.v. cannulae, and implanted s.c. to deliver 50 nmol/h for 3 days (i.e., 3.6 micromol total). Robust jumping precipitated by naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.) indicated the development of physical dependence. Tolerance to i.c.v., i.t., and i.v. morphine (6.3-, 2.0-, and 4.4-fold, respectively) was observed using the tail flick test. Mice implanted with pellets containing 75 mg morphine for 3 days (i.e., approximately 260 micromol total) were also tolerant to morphine (6.5-, 7.5- and 18-fold, respectively). Thus, the tolerance developed using the two methods was not identical. These results allow comparison of morphine tested by 3 different routes (i.c.v., i.t., and i.v.) after chronic morphine treatment by two routes (i.c.v. and s.c.) in a single study. PMID:16316655

  19. Pharmacokinetics of morphine are not altered in subjects with Gilbert's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Skarke, Carsten; Schmidt, Helmut; Geisslinger, Gerd; Darimont, Jutta; Lötsch, Jörn

    2003-01-01

    Aims To verify that Gilbert's syndrome, which is caused by decreased glucuronidation capacity of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT)1A1, does not account for impaired morphine clearance. Methods Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters for morphine and its glucuronide metabolites were compared between five carriers of Gilbert's syndrome and six noncarriers after a 7.5 mg (19.8 µmol) intravenous injection of morphine sulphate pentahydrate. To estimate the amount of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) formed from morphine, 1 mg of deuterized M6G was injected intravenously at the same time. Results No differences were detected between carriers and noncarriers of Gilbert's syndrome in the clearance of morphine (80.1 ± 12 l h?1vs 87.9 ± 22 l h?1) and in the percentage of morphine that was metabolized to M6G (10.9 ± 1.4 vs 13 ± 2). The areas under the plasma concentration vs time curves of morphine, M6G and morphine-3-glucuronide also did not differ between carriers and noncarriers of Gilbert's syndrome. Conclusions Gilbert's syndrome is not a factor to be considered when prescribing morphine. PMID:12895198

  20. Oral electricity.

    PubMed

    Certosimo, A J; O'Connor, R P

    1996-01-01

    "Oral electricity," "electrogalvanism," or "galvanic currents" has long been recognized as a potential source of oral pain and discomfort. This phenomenon of oral galvanism results from the difference in electrical potential between dissimilar restorative metals located in the mouth. In this case report, the literature is reviewed, and an interesting case study'is presented. The patient's clinical presentation, and the duration and constancy of the oral symptoms, pose diagnostic challenges. A simple, yet effective treatment regimen is proposed. PMID:8957826

  1. Proteome Analysis of Rat Hippocampus Following Morphine-induced Amnesia and State-dependent Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jafarinejad-Farsangi, Saeideh; Farazmand, Ali; Rezayof, Ameneh; Darbandi, Niloufar

    2015-01-01

    Morphine’s effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under post-training morphine influence. In the hippocampus, a total of 18 proteins were identified whose MASCOT (Modular Approach to Software Construction Operation and Test) scores were inside 95% confidence level. Of these, five hippocampal proteins altered in morphine-induced amnesia and ten proteins were found to change in the hippocampus of animals that had received post-training and pre-test morphine. These proteins show known functions in cytoskeletal architecture, cell metabolism, neurotransmitter secretion and neuroprotection. The findings indicate that the effect of morphine on memory formation in passive avoidance learning has a morphological correlate on the hippocampal proteome level. In addition, our proteomicscreensuggests that morphine induces memory impairment and state-dependent learning through modulating neuronal plasticity. PMID:25901168

  2. Morphine metabolism in the opium poppy and its possible physiological function. Biochemical characterization of the morphine metabolite, bismorphine.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Suemori, K; Moriwaki, J; Taura, F; Tanaka, H; Aso, M; Tanaka, M; Suemune, H; Shimohigashi, Y; Shoyama, Y

    2001-10-12

    We identified a novel metabolic system of morphine in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). In response to stress, morphine is quickly metabolized to bismorphine consisting of two morphine units, followed by accumulation in the cell wall. This bismorphine binds predominantly to pectins, which possess high galacturonic acid residue contents, through ionical bonds. Our newly developed method using artificial polysaccharides demonstrated that bismorphine bridges are formed between the two amino groups of bismorphine and the carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid residues, resulting in cross-linking of galacturonic acid-containing polysaccharides to each other. The ability of bismorphine to cross-link pectins is much higher than that of Ca2+, which also acts as a cross-linker of these polysaccharides. Furthermore, we confirmed that cross-linking of pectins through bismorphine bridges leads to resistance against hydrolysis by pectinases. These results indicated that production of bismorphine is a defense response of the opium poppy. Bismorphine formation is catalyzed by anionic peroxidase that pre-exists in the capsules and leaves of opium poppies. The constitutive presence of morphine, together with bismorphine-forming peroxidase, enables the opium poppy to rapidly induce the defense system. PMID:11498543

  3. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

  4. Terahertz technology: a boon to tablet analysis.

    PubMed

    Wagh, M P; Sonawane, Y H; Joshi, O U

    2009-05-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from approximately 0.3 THz to approximately 10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  5. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ?0.3 THz to ?10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  6. Development and optimization of carvedilol orodispersible tablets: enhancement of pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Aljimaee, Yazeed HM; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama AA; El-Say, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Background Carvedilol (CVD) is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, heart failure, and systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Due to its lower aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of CVD does not exceed 30%. To overcome these drawbacks, the objective of this work was to improve the solubility and onset of action of CVD through complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and formulation of the prepared complex as orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Methods Compatibility among CVD and all tablet excipients using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, complexation of CVD with different polymers, and determination of the solubility of CVD in the prepared complexes were first determined. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effect of tablet formulation variables on the characteristics of the prepared tablets and to optimize preparation conditions. According to BBD design, 15 formulations of CVD-ODTs were prepared by direct compression and then evaluated for their quality attributes. The relative pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized CVD-ODTs were compared with those of the marketed CVD tablet. A single dose, equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg CVD, was administered orally to New Zealand white rabbits using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Results The solubility of CVD was improved from 7.32 to 22.92 mg/mL after complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (CVD to cyclodextrin). The formulated CVD-ODTs showed satisfactory results concerning tablet hardness (5.35 kg/cm2), disintegration time (18 seconds), and maximum amount of CVD released (99.72%). The pharmacokinetic data for the optimized CVD-ODT showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in maximum plasma concentration from 363.667 to 496.4 ng/mL, and a shortening of the time taken to reach maximum plasma concentration to 2 hours in comparison with the marketed tablet. Conclusion The optimized CVD-ODTs showed improved oral absorption of CVD and a subsequent acceleration of clinical effect, which is favored for hypertensive and cardiac patients. PMID:25834396

  7. Comparison of the Halving of Tablets Prepared with Eccentric and Rotary Tablet Presses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sovány; P. Kása Jr.; K. Pintye-Hódi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the densification of powder mixtures on eccentric and rotary tablet presses and to establish\\u000a relationships with the halving properties of the resulting scored tablets. This is an important problem because the recent\\u000a guidelines of EU require verification of the equal masses of tablet halves. The models of Walker, Heckel, and Kawakita were

  8. Pharmacokinetics of furosemide in man after intravenous and oral administration. Application of moment analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Hammarlund; L. K. Paalzow; B. Odlind

    1984-01-01

    Furosemide 40 mg was administered to 8 healthy subjects as an i.v. bolus dose, as 1 tablet in the fasting state, and as 1 tablet and a solution after food intake. The i.v. data gave a total body clearance of 162±10.8 ml\\/min and a renal clearance of 117±11.3 ml\\/min; the volume of distribution at steady state was 8.3±0.61. Oral administration

  9. Preparation and In Vitro/In Vivo Characterization of Porous Sublingual Tablets Containing Ternary Kneaded Solid System of Vinpocetine with ?-Cyclodextrin and Hydroxy Acid

    PubMed Central

    Aburahma, Mona H.; El-Laithy, Hanan M.; Hamza, Yassin El-Said

    2010-01-01

    The demand for sublingual tablets has been growing during the previous decades especially for drugs with extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Vinpocetine, a widely used neurotropic agent, has low oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and marked first-pass metabolism. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to develop tablets for the sublingual delivery of vinpocetine. Initially, the feasibility of improving vinpocetine’s poor aqueous solubility by preparing kneaded solid systems of the drug with ?-Cyclodextrin and hydroxy acids (citric acid and tartaric acid) was assessed. The solid system with improved solubility and dissolution properties was incorporated into porous tablets that rapidly disintegrate permitting fast release of vinpocetine into the sublingual cavity. The pores were induced into these tablets by directly compressing the tablets’ excipients with a sublimable material, either camphor or menthol, which was eventually sublimated leaving pores. The obtained results demonstrated that the tablets prepared using camphor attained sufficient mechanical strength for practical use together with rapid disintegration and dissolution. In vivo absorption study performed in rabbits indicated that the sublingual administration of the proposed porous tablets containing vinpocetine solid system with ?-Cyclodextrin and tartaric acid could be useful for therapeutic application. PMID:21179352

  10. Design and Development of Polyethylene Oxide Based Matrix Tablets for Verapamil Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadhara, S.; Sasidhar, R. L. C.; Nagaraju, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler), swellable filler (starch 1500), microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers) on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve(0-t) and area under first moment curve(0-t) were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h. PMID:24019567

  11. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  12. Molecular interactions between DPPC and morphine derivatives: a DSC and EPR study.

    PubMed

    Budai, M; Szabó, Zs; Szogyi, M; Gróf, Pál

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between different morphine derivatives (morphine, codeine, N-methyl-morphine, N-methyl-codeine) and alpha-L-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes was studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Small unilamellar DPPC-liposomes with the given morphine-derivative were prepared by sonication. The size distribution of liposomes was checked by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The amount of entrapped morphine was determined spectrophotometrically. Our results indicate that the morphine and its derivatives principally interact with the lipid head groups, and this interaction leads to a decrease in the mobility of the polar head groups, especially in case of codeine and N-methyl-codeine. PMID:12480289

  13. Tablets for Timely Design Documentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brown, Cordelia

    One of the biggest challenges we have experienced in supervising digital systems senior design projects is the quality and completeness of the individual lab notebooks. Of the five outcomes we continuously track for this capstone course, the lab notebooks have consistently received the lowest quantitative scores. A significant improvement was achieved three years ago when we transitioned from carbon paper and pen notebooks to on-line (HTML) notebooks. Many teams took advantage of (and put to good use) the ability to post digital pictures of prototyping setups, provide hyperlinks to all their device datasheets, post their latest schematics and software listings for evaluation, and post video clips of their project in action (as verification of their project success criteria). The primary drawback has been the need for students to be in front of a networked computer to make lab notebook entries; consequently, the notebook updates still tended to be done in spurts (typically after the fact) rather than in real time. Project work (and inspiration), in fact, does not always occur in a lab setting, where networked computers are readily available, nor does it occur when all team members are working in the same physical location. Our hypothesis is that equipping each project team with wireless Tablet PCs should not only significantly improve the spontaneity (and regularity) with which the on-line lab notebooks are updated, but also facilitate collaboration among team members working on the design project at different locations. An HP Technology for Teaching Grant has provided a critical mass of Tablet PCs to test this hypothesis. A description of how the equipment provided is being utilized, along with a discussion of the preliminary results obtained, is presented in this paper.

  14. Intra-articular glucocorticoid, bupivacaine and morphine reduces pain, inflammatory response and convalescence after arthroscopic meniscectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sten Rasmussen; Allan S. Larsen; Søren T. Thomsen; Henrik Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Convalescence after arthroscopic meniscectomy is dependent on pain and the inflammatory response. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the effect of intra-articular bupivacaine+morphine+methylprednisolone versus bupivacaine+morphine or saline on post-meniscectomy pain, mobilisation and convalescence. In a double-blind randomized study 60 patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscectomy were allocated to intra-articular saline, intra-articular bupivacaine 150 mg+morphine 4 mg or the same

  15. Tolerance and dependence after continuous morphine infusion from osmotic pumps measured by operant responding in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill U. Adams; Stephen G. Holtzman

    1990-01-01

    Food-deprived rats were trained to lever-press on a fixed interval 3-min schedule of food presentation. Using a cumulative dosing procedure, morphine and naltrexone were tested weekly for effects on rates of responding. A separate group of subjects was tested weekly for morphine analgesia using the tail-flick assay. Chronic morphine infusion (10 mg\\/kg\\/day, SC, from a 4-week osmotic pump) induced tolerance

  16. Aspects of intrathecal morphine for postoperative pain relief in major orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Slappendel

    2000-01-01

    The optimal site to administer opioids e.g. morphine is as close as possible to the opiate receptor site (spinal cord) by the intrathecal route, as it is the place of effectiveness. To improve the clinical effectiveness of intrathecal morphine two strategies\\u000a are proposed: 1. to lower the intrathecal dose of morphine and thereby reduce the supraspinal adverse effects while maintaining

  17. Continuous intrathecal morphine treatment for chronic pain of nonmalignant etiology: long-term benefits and efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna Kumar; Michael Kelly; Tyler Pirlot

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDTo analyze, prospectively, the long-term effects of continuous intrathecal morphine infusion therapy in 16 patients with chronic nonmalignant pain syndromes.METHODSTwenty-five patients with severe, chronic, nonmalignant pain that had proven refractory to conservative management were considered candidates for trial of intrathecal spinal morphine. Sixteen patients achieved more than 50% pain relief after a trial period of intrathecal morphine infusion. They were

  18. Effects of Papaver rhoeas extract on the expression and development of morphine-dependence in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Pourmotabbed; Baharak Rostamian; Gilla Manouchehri; Gilla Pirzadeh-Jahromi; Hedayat Sahraei; Hassan Ghoshooni; Homeira Zardooz; Mohammad Kamalnegad

    2004-01-01

    The problem of drug dependence still remains unresolved. In the present study, the effects of water–alcohol extract of Papaver rhoeas on the expression and acquisition of naloxone-induced jumping and diarrhea in morphine-dependent mice were investigated. Administration of three daily doses of morphine (12.5, 25 and 50mg\\/kg) for three days in order to develop dependence to morphine caused a significant and

  19. Association of ABCB1\\/MDR1 and OPRM1 Gene Polymorphisms With Morphine Pain Relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Campa; A Gioia; A Tomei; P Poli; R Barale

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine are under the control of several polymorphic genes, which can account for part of the observed interindividual variation in pain relief. We focused on two such genes: ABCB1\\/MDR1, a major determinant of morphine bioavailability, and OPRM1, which encodes for the ?-opioid receptor, the primary site of action for morphine. One hundred and forty-five patients

  20. Morphine modulates HIV1 gp160-induced murine macrophage and human monocyte apoptosis by disparate ways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditi A. Kapasi; Salvatore A. Coscia; Manish P. Pandya; Pravin C. Singhal

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of HIV-1 gp160 protein and morphine on murine macrophage and human monocyte apoptosis. gp160 not only promoted murine macrophage apoptosis but also enhanced macrophage iNOS expression\\/NO generation. gp160 also altered macrophage bax and bcl-2 expression. Morphine enhanced (P<0.001) the effect of gp160 on macrophage apoptosis as well as iNOS expression\\/NO generation. Nevertheless, both morphine- and gp160-induced

  1. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Tablet Chlorination 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Wastewater that is sprayed onto lawns must first be disinfected to prevent odors and remove disease-causing organisms. This publication explains how tablet chlorinators disinfect wastewater and gives tips on how to maintain them....

  2. Clinical Chemical Reagent Tablet Weight Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Melvin Gindler; Robert T. Ishizaki

    A study of the weights of 121 tablets, intended for clinical chemical purposes,showed a normal distribution, with 95% of the tablets being within ±8% of the mean weight (21.8 mg.). The substrate is pH 10.2 (370), falling about 0.6 pH units when serum is added. T1HE1tE APPEAR TO BE virtually no published studies OH the weight (list ributiOllof tabletsintended for

  3. Sex differences in morphine-induced analgesia of visceral pain are supraspinally and peripherally mediated.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yaping; Murphy, Anne Z; Traub, Richard J

    2006-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests there is a sex difference in opioid analgesia of pain arising from somatic tissue. However, the existence of a sex difference in visceral pain and opioid analgesia is unclear. This was examined in the colorectal distention (CRD) model of visceral pain in the current study. The visceromotor response (vmr) to noxious CRD was recorded in gonadally intact male and female rats. Subcutaneous injection of morphine dose-dependently decreased the vmr in both groups without affecting colonic compliance. However, morphine was significantly more potent in male rats than females. Because systemic morphine can act at peripheral tissue and in the central nervous system (CNS), the source of the sex difference in morphine analgesia was determined. The peripherally restricted mu-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist naloxone methiodide dose-dependently attenuated the effects of systemic morphine. Systemic administration of the peripherally restricted MOR agonist loperamide confirmed peripherally mediated morphine analgesia and revealed greater potency in males compared with females. Spinal administration of morphine dose-dependently attenuated the vmr, but there was no sex difference. Intracerebroventricular administration of morphine also dose-dependently attenuated the vmr with significantly greater potency in male rats. The present study documents a sex difference in morphine analgesia of visceral pain that is both peripherally and supraspinally mediated. PMID:16556902

  4. Determination of morphine by capillary zone electrophoresis immunoassay combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jian-Qiu; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Chang, Wen-Bao

    2004-01-01

    A competitive immunoassay for detecting morphine in bio-samples was established by capillary zone electrophoresis combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CZE-LIF). The antigen of morphine was labeled with isothiocyano-fluorescein (FITC) and then incubated with morphine monoclonal antibody and samples. The linear range was 50-1000 ng/mL, which was suitable for clinical and forensic applications. The detection limit can reach 40 ng/mL, based on S/N = 2. The recoveries of morphine from serum were satisfactory. PMID:15038617

  5. Pre-conditioned place preference treatment of chloral hydrate interrupts the rewarding effect of morphine.

    PubMed

    Sun, YongMei; Zong, Wei; Zhou, MuRu; Ma, YuanYe; Wang, JianHong

    2015-08-01

    The medical use of morphine as a pain killer is hindered by its side effects including dependence and further addiction. As the prototypical ? receptor agonist, morphine's rewarding effect can be measured by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms in animals. Chloral hydrate is a clinical sedative. Using a morphine CPP paradigm that mainly contains somatosensory cues, we found that pre-CPP treatment in rats using chloral hydrate for 6 consecutive days could disrupt the establishment of CPP in a U shape. Chloral hydrate had no effect on the body weight of rats. Our results indicate that prior treatment with chloral hydrate can interrupt the rewarding effect of morphine. PMID:26013578

  6. Prefrontal cortex gates acute morphine action on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changliang; Fang, Xing; Wu, Qianqian; Jin, Guozhang; Zhen, Xuechu

    2015-08-01

    Morphine excites dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), an effect mediated by both local and systemic mechanisms. While the importance of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) - VTA circuit in opiate addiction is well established, little is known about how the PFC regulates the activity of VTA DA neurons upon morphine stimulation. One major challenge is that VTA DA neurons are highly heterogeneous in terms of projection and regulation, making their responses to PFC manipulations variable. Our previous work has identified a subgroup of VTA DA neurons exhibiting significant slow oscillation in their firing sequence, and demonstrated that most of these neurons are functionally connected with the PFC. In the present study, we focus our efforts only on VTA DA neurons expressing strong slow oscillation, and report that blocking the neuronal activity in the PFC remarkably attenuates the morphine-induced excitation of these neurons. Using in vivo microdialysis, we find that inactivation of the PFC also reduces the morphine-induced elevation of DA levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, 24 h after only single morphine exposure, PFC-inactivation failed to prevent subsequent morphine challenge from exciting VTA DA neurons, which is paralleled by altered response of PFC pyramidal neurons to morphine stimulation. Our results indicate that the PFC gates acute morphine action on a subset of VTA DA neurons, which is highly plastic and can be functionally remodeled by morphine exposure. PMID:25882828

  7. A new brittleness index for compacted tablets.

    PubMed

    Sonnergaard, Jørn M

    2013-12-01

    A dimensionless index that quantifies the brittle or ductile character of tablets is presented. The work of failure (WOF) of crushed or broken flat tablets is calculated by numerical integration of the force-displacement measurement in a flexure tester. The ratio between WOF and the crushing force (F) corrected for the diameter of the tablet (D) is proposed to express the brittle/ductile index (BDI). [Formula: see text] This dimensionless index quantitatively denotes the brittle/ductile character of the compacted material as the normalized deformation in percentage of a cylindrical tablet at the breaking point. For ideal brittle materials, the BDI value will be 0 and for complete plastic deformation, that is, a total compression of the tablet without fracture, BDI will be 100. The validity and discriminative power is demonstrated on mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. The robust measure of brittleness with an acceptable accuracy is obtained with only a minor influence of the tablet diameter and the speed of platen. PMID:24258281

  8. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  9. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  10. Continuous intravenous morphine for pain relief after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, D. C.; Drummond, G. B.

    1988-01-01

    We studied prospectively 247 consecutive patients given morphine by continuous intravenous infusion for 24 h to provide pain relief following elective abdominal surgery. Using a dose of 1 mg/kg supplemented by additional intramuscular morphine 5 mg as necessary, only 26% required more than two additional intramuscular doses for discomfort. In 71 patients, the infusion was discontinued temporarily, mostly because of low respiratory rates. These patients were older (P less than 0.01), and their mean respiratory rate over the 24 h was significantly less (P less than 0.001) than those in whom the infusion was continuous. The technique was inexpensive, easy to use in a general surgical ward, and safe provided certain rules were observed. PMID:3190130

  11. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. 520.1872 Section 520.1872 Food and...Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet or chewable tablet contains either:...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. 520.1872 Section 520.1872 Food and...Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet or chewable tablet contains either:...

  13. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. 520.82b Section 520.82b Food...Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains both...

  14. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. 520.82b Section 520.82b Food...Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains both...

  15. Intraoperative clonidine enhances postoperative morphine patient-controlled analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc F. De Kock; Georges Pichon; Jean-Louis Scholtes

    1992-01-01

    In this prospective study, the postoperative analgesic effects of intraoperative iv clonidine were evaluated. Two hundred\\u000a consecutive patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to either balanced anaesthesia with iv clonidine\\u000a (Group 1)or balanced anaesthesia alone (Group 2). A PCA infuser was connected immediately after tracheal extubation. It was\\u000a programmed to deliver morphine “on demand” iv boluses at doses

  16. A randomized, open-label, comparative efficacy trial of artemether-lumefantrine suspension versus artemether-lumefantrine tablets for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A Juma; Charles O Obonyo; Willis S Akhwale; Bernhards R Ogutu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Artemether\\/lumefantrine (AL) has been adopted as the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria in Kenya and other countries in the region. Six-dose artemether\\/lumefantrine tablets are highly effective and safe for the treatment of infants and children weighing between five and 25 kg with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, oral paediatric formulations are urgently needed, as the tablets are difficult

  17. [Intrathecal morphine treatment in advanced cancer pain patients].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Seiji; Sano, Hiromi; Tanaka, Kiyotaka; Yokota, Miyuki

    2009-11-01

    For more than 20 years morphine for spinal analgesia in patients with refractory cancer pain has been one of the cornerstones for the management of chronic, medically intractable pain. In general, most types of cancer pain are treatable following the guideline of Cancer Pain Relief well established by the WHO. However, some patient are unable to tolerate pain only following the guideline and often suffer with side-effects from high doses of opioid and from prescribed multiple adjuvant drugs. Due to the proximity to the receptor sites, the therapeutic efficacy of intrathecal opioid application lasts longer and also reduces systemic side effects. Intrathecal drug application is cost effective and can significantly improve the quality of life in selected patients with limited life expectancy. However, an intensive training of physicians, careful patient selection, awareness of specific complications, and arrangement of social back-up medical system are essential to commence intrathecal morphine application using implantable access port. This article introduces the basic idea of intrathecal morphine therapy with implantable access port (not pumps) as cost effective, alternative therapy for cancer patient suffering from intractable pain. PMID:19928505

  18. Bioequivalence study of atorvastatin tablets.

    PubMed

    Koytchev, Rossen; Ozalp, Yildiz; Erenmemisoglu, Aydin; van der Meer, Mike John; Alpan, Recep Serdar

    2004-09-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the relative bioavailability of two formulations of atorvastatin (CAS 134523-03-8). A bioequivalence study was carried out in 24 healthy male volunteers who received four 10 mg tablets of the test formulation (Kolestor) and the same dose of the originator product. The trial was performed according to an open, crossover design with a wash-out period of 7 days in one study center. Blood samples were taken up to 48 h post dose, the plasma was separated and the concentrations of atorvastatin were determined by HPLC-MS-MS method. The mean Cmax were 16.37 ng/mL and 17.05 ng/mL, while the mean AUC0-t were 103.61 ng x h/mL and 102.55 ng x h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The mean AUC0-inf were 118.10 ng x h/mL and 117.13 ng x h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The median tmax was 0.67 h for both the test tablet and the reference product. The mean t(1/2 el) was 11.85 h for the test formulation and 13.28 h for the reference formulation. No significant differences of pharmacokinetic parameters between the two studied formulations were found. The 90% confidence intervals for the primary target parameters, intra-individual ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax of atorvastatin, were between 0.85 and 1.05 (AUC0-t) and between 0.84 and 1.23 (Cmax), respectively, and thus within the acceptance ranges. Concerning the secondary parameter tmax the 90% confidence interval for the intra-individual differences was between -0.17 and 0.17 h. In the light of the present study it can be concluded that the two evaluated atorvastatin formulations, i.e. test formulation of atorvastatin and reference preparation are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption. PMID:15497662

  19. Classical conditioning of a morphine abstinence phenomenon, reinforcement of opioid-drinking behavior and “relapse” in morphine-addicted rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Wikler; Frank T. Pescor

    1967-01-01

    1.For 6-week periods in two studies, rats made tolerant to and maintained on intraperitoneal injection of morphine (200 mg\\/kg) once daily in the morning resided on alternate nights in one end of a 3-compartment linear maze with water for drinking and on the intervening nights in the other end-compartment with etonitazene (10 meg\\/ml) for drinking. On this schedule, temporal contiguity

  20. Morphine inhibits acid-sensing ion channel currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qi; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Qiu, Fang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Liu, Yu-Min; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2014-03-20

    Extracellular acidosis is a common feature in pain-generating pathological conditions. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), pH sensors, are distributed in peripheral sensory neurons and participate in nociception. Morphine exerts potent analgesic effects through the activation of opioid receptors for various pain conditions. A cross-talk between ASICs and opioid receptors in peripheral sensory neurons has not been shown so far. Here, we have found that morphine inhibits the activity of native ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Morphine dose-dependently inhibited proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs in the presence of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine. Morphine shifted the proton concentration-response curve downwards, with a decrease of 51.4±3.8% in the maximum current response but with no significant change in the pH0.5 value. Another ?-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO induced a similar decrease in ASIC currents compared with morphine. The morphine inhibition of ASIC currents was blocked by naloxone, a specific opioid receptor antagonist. Pretreatment of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, or the addition of cAMP reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine. Moreover, morphine altered acid-evoked excitability of rat DRG neurons and decreased the number of action potentials induced by acid stimuli. Finally, peripheral applied morphine relieved pain evoked by intraplantar of acetic acid in rats. Our results indicate that morphine can inhibit the activity of ASICs via ?-opioid receptor and cAMP dependent signal pathway. These observations demonstrate a cross-talk between ASICs and opioid receptors in peripheral sensory neurons, which was a novel analgesic mechanism of morphine. PMID:24491633

  1. Evaluation of a method for simultaneous quantification of codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine in serum, blood, and postmortem blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mußhoff; Th. Daldrup

    1993-01-01

    Summary A solid-phase extraction and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of codeine, dihydrocodeine, morphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine in serum, blood or postmortem blood is described. The extraction technique allows the determination of free or total morphine (morphine plus morphine glucuronide). Experiments with spiked blood samples resulted in recoveries of 96.4% ± 4.2% for codeine, 95.8% ± 5.1% for

  2. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander B Forster; Peter W Reeh; Karl Messlinger; Michael JM Fischer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine and its derivatives are key drugs in pain control. Despite its well-known analgesic properties morphine at high concentrations may be proalgesic. Particularly, short-lasting painful sensations have been reported upon dermal application of morphine. To study a possible involvement of TRP receptors in the pro-nociceptive effects of morphine (0.3 – 10 mM), two models of nociception were employed using

  3. 3D printing of modified-release aminosalicylate (4-ASA and 5-ASA) tablets.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Buanz, Asma B M; Hatton, Grace B; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of fused-deposition 3-dimensional printing (FDM 3DP) to produce modified-release drug loaded tablets. Two aminosalicylate isomers used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, mesalazine) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), were selected as model drugs. Commercially produced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filaments were loaded with the drugs in an ethanolic drug solution. A final drug-loading of 0.06% w/w and 0.25% w/w was achieved for the 5-ASA and 4-ASA strands, respectively. 10.5mm diameter tablets of both PVA/4-ASA and PVA/5-ASA were subsequently printed using an FDM 3D printer, and varying the weight and densities of the printed tablets was achieved by selecting the infill percentage in the printer software. The tablets were mechanically strong, and the FDM 3D printing was shown to be an effective process for the manufacture of the drug, 5-ASA. Significant thermal degradation of the active 4-ASA (50%) occurred during printing, however, indicating that the method may not be appropriate for drugs when printing at high temperatures exceeding those of the degradation point. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the formulated blends confirmed these findings while highlighting the potential of thermal analytical techniques to anticipate drug degradation issues in the 3D printing process. The results of the dissolution tests conducted in modified Hank's bicarbonate buffer showed that release profiles for both drugs were dependent on both the drug itself and on the infill percentage of the tablet. Our work here demonstrates the potential role of FDM 3DP as an efficient and low-cost alternative method of manufacturing individually tailored oral drug dosage, and also for production of modified-release formulations. PMID:25497178

  4. Randomized controlled trial of sodium phosphate tablets vs polyethylene glycol solution for colonoscopy bowel cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Lee, Chang Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Eun, Chang Soo; Han, Dong Soo; Park, Dong Il

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare efficacy, patient compliance, acceptability, satisfaction, safety, and adenoma detection rate of sodium phosphate tablets (NaP, CLICOLONTM) to a standard 4 L polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel cleansing for adults undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, prospective, investigator-blind study, the relatively young (19-60 years) healthy outpatients without comorbidity were randomly assigned to one of two arms. All colonoscopy were scheduled in the morning. The NaP group was asked to take 4 tablets, 5 times the evening before and 4 tablets, 3 times early on the morning of the colonoscopy. The PEG group was asked to ingest 2 L of solution the evening before and 2 L early in the morning of the procedure. Adequacy of bowel preparation was scored using the Boston bowel preparation scale. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the NaP group (n = 158) and PEG group (n = 162) in bowel cleansing quality (adequate preparation 93.0% vs 92.6%, P = 0.877), patient compliance (P = 0.228), overall adverse events (63.3% vs 69.1%, P = 0.269), or adenoma detection rate (34.8% vs 35.2%, P = 0.944). Patient acceptability, satisfaction, and patient rating of taste were higher in the NaP group than in the PEG group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: NaP tablets, compared with PEG solution, produced equivalent colon cleansing, did not cause more side effects, and had better patient acceptability and satisfaction in the relatively young (age < 60 years) healthy individuals without comorbidity. An oral tablet formulation could make bowel preparation less burdensome, resulting in greater patient participation in screening programs. PMID:25400471

  5. Formulation Development and evaluation of fast disintegrating tablets of Lamotrigine using liqui-solid technique

    PubMed Central

    Koteswari, Poluri; Sunium, Suvarnala; Srinivasababu, Puttugunta; Babu, Govada Kishore; Nithya, Pinnamraju Durga

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder. Lamotrigine is an alternative to lithium for the treatment of epilepsy, and its oral bioavailability is 98%; however, its poor aqueous solubility hinders its oral absorption. Among the techniques available to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and bio availability of poorly soluble drugs, liqui-solid technique is a novel and promising approach. The objectives of the investigation are to formulate, optimize lamotrigine liqui-solid compacts using 23 factorial experiments, validate experimental designs statistically and to compare with the marketed tablets using similarity and difference factors. Materials and Methods: Based on solubility studies tween 20 as nonvolatile liquid, avicel pH 101 as a carrier and aerosil 200 as a coating material were used. Liquid load factor other flow and compression characteristics were determined for different ratios of carrier and coat materials. Suitable quantities of carrier and coat materials were taken, according to the experimental designs other excipients were added, liqui-solid tablets were prepared by direct compression and evaluated. Drug excipient compatibility was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The hardness, disintegration time and T75% were considered for validation of experimental designs. Results: The physicochemical properties of tablets such as hardness (1.5 ± 0.8–4.95 ± 0.96 kg), in vitro disintegration time (40 ± 20–320 ± 25 s) and Friability (0.39 ± 0.5–1.45 ± 0.2% also <1%) possess all the Indian pharmacopoeal requirements. The T75% was calculated and found to be 6.62–22.8 min. The rate of drug release followed first order kinetics. f1 and f2 values indicated the similarity in dissolution profiles between marketed and the optimized formulation and 63.64% similar with that of the marketed fast disintegrating tablets. FTIR studies revealed the absence of drug excipient incompatibility. PMID:25426442

  6. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    PubMed

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101?>?DCP/Avicel PH101?>?Starch?>?DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input. PMID:24171692

  7. Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be caused by several things, including: Poor oral hygiene Some foods Dentures Gum disease Dry mouth Tobacco use Respiratory, ... other health problems Some medicines Practicing good oral hygiene and avoiding tobacco and some foods often helps people with bad-smelling breath. You ...

  8. Tramadol extended-release tablets.

    PubMed

    Hair, Philip I; Curran, Monique P; Keam, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting opioid analgesic. An extended-release tablet formulation of tramadol (tramadol ER) allows gradual release of the active drug, permitting once-daily administration. Tramadol ER administered once daily is equivalent in bioavailability to immediate-release tramadol administered four times daily, with prolonged absorption and lower peak plasma concentrations. Tramadol ER was significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of moderate to moderately severe chronic pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip in randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In a flexible-dose trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, the mean reduction from baseline in pain intensity scores over 12 weeks was significantly greater in recipients of tramadol ER than in placebo recipients. In a fixed-dose trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip, the mean improvements from baseline in the pain and physical function subscale scores of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index over 12 weeks were significantly greater in tramadol ER than placebo recipients. Common adverse events reported in patients with moderate to moderately severe chronic pain treated with tramadol ER 100-300 mg once daily were dizziness (excluding vertigo), nausea, constipation, somnolence and flushing. PMID:17100415

  9. A prospective, within-patient, crossover study of continuous intravenous and subcutaneous morphine for chronic cancer pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine A. Nelson; Paul A. Glare; Declan Walsh; Eileen S. Groh

    1997-01-01

    The dose, efficacy, and side effects of continuous intravenous infusion (CIVI) of morphine were compared with continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) of morphine in patients with chronic cancer pain. Eligible patients were referred to the Palliative Care Program and were receiving a stable dose of CIVI of morphine. The design was a within -patient, one-way crossover, in which each patient provided

  10. Dependence on morphine impairs the induction of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Salmanzadeh, Fereshteh; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Semnanian, Saeed; Shafizadeh, Mahshid

    2003-03-01

    The effect of chronic morphine treatment on hippocampal CA1-long-term potentiation (LTP) was examined in vitro. The field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) was recorded from stratum radiatum of area CA1 following stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in slices taken from control and morphine-dependent rats. To induce LTP, a 100-Hz primed burst stimulation (PBs) was used. Slices from rats exposed to chronic morphine showed no effect on baseline synaptic responses. Slices from control rats or rats exposed to chronic morphine maintained in ACSF with either morphine or naloxone also had no effect on baseline synaptic responses. Control slices perfused with medium containing either morphine or naloxone as well as both drugs exhibited hippocampal CA1 LTP. Similarly, slices from morphine-dependent rats maintained in ACSF with either naloxone or just morphine free ACSF also exhibited hippocampal CA1 LTP. However, slices from morphine-dependent rats maintained in ACSF with morphine significantly attenuated hippocampal CA1 LTP. These findings suggest that hippocampal CA1-LTP can still be achieved in slices from morphine-dependent rats exhibiting morphine withdrawal through mechanisms that may be inhibited by opiate exposure. Such studies can be helpful in understanding the neurophysiological substrate of memory deficits seen in opiate addicts. PMID:12591126

  11. Comparison of the peripheral and central effects of the opioid agonists loperamide and morphine in the formalin test in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harlan E. Shannon; Elizabeth A. Lutz

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the peripherally restricted opioid agonist loperamide were compared to those of morphine in the formalin test in rats. Both loperamide and morphine were efficacious in producing antihyperalgesia after both subcutaneous and intracisternal administration. The antihyperalgesic effects of peripherally administered loperamide and morphine were antagonized by both naloxone and its quaternary derivative naloxone methiodide. The effects of intracisternally

  12. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Alexander B; Reeh, Peter W; Messlinger, Karl; Fischer, Michael JM

    2009-01-01

    Background Morphine and its derivatives are key drugs in pain control. Despite its well-known analgesic properties morphine at high concentrations may be proalgesic. Particularly, short-lasting painful sensations have been reported upon dermal application of morphine. To study a possible involvement of TRP receptors in the pro-nociceptive effects of morphine (0.3 – 10 mM), two models of nociception were employed using C57BL/6 mice and genetically related TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals, which were crossed and generated double knockouts. Hindpaw skin flaps were used to investigate the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide indicative of nociceptive activation. Results Morphine induced release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and sensitized the release evoked by heat or the TRPA1 agonist acrolein. Morphine activated HEK293t cells transfected with TRPV1 or TRPA1. Activation of C57BL/6 mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture was investigated with calcium imaging. Morphine induced a dose-dependent rise in intracellular calcium in neurons from wild-type animals. In neurons from TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals activation by morphine was markedly reduced, in the TRPV1/A1 double knockout animals this morphine effect was abrogated. Naloxone induced an increase in calcium levels similar to morphine. The responses to both morphine and naloxone were sensitized by bradykinin. Conclusion Nociceptor activation and sensitization by morphine is conveyed by TRPV1 and TRPA1. PMID:19371406

  13. Comparison of patient-controlled analgesia with and without nighttime morphine infusion following lower extremity surgery in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. McNeely; Noreen C. Trentadue

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a concurrent nighttime morphine infusion in pediatric patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), 36 school-age children undergoing elective lower extremity surgery were randomly assigned to receive morphine by PCA alone, or PCA with a nighttime infusion of morphine (PCA + BI). Postoperatively, patients breathed air and had oxygen saturation recorded continuously for the duration of PCA use. Total

  14. Picomolar concentrations of morphine in human urine determined by dansyl derivatization and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Lamshöft; Nadja Grobe; Michael Spiteller

    2011-01-01

    Morphine is present in varying amounts as an endogenous product in human urine. Derivatization of morphine contained in urine with dansyl chloride yields a known product, which can be quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with high selectivity and sensitivity. Urine samples of 51 healthy individuals were spiked with stable-isotope labeled morphine, hydrolyzed and subjected to solid phase extraction followed

  15. Drug release from drug-polyanion complex tablets: poly(acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate sodium -co- methyl methacrylate)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nandini Konar; Cherng-ju Kim

    1999-01-01

    A new erodible, anionic carrier for cationic drugs has been synthesized for oral drug delivery systems. The release properties of tablets prepared from this new material, poly(acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate sodium -co- methyl methacrylate) (PAMPSNa\\/MMA), are discussed. Pseudo-linear release profiles were obtained and the hydrophobicities of both the polymeric carrier and the bound drugs were found to be an important controlling factor in

  16. Controlled Release Matrix Tablets of Zidovudine: Effect of Formulation Variables on the In Vitro Drug Release Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Punna Rao Ravi; Udaya Kanth Kotreka; Ranendra Narayan Saha

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to design oral controlled release (CR) matrix tablets of zidovudine (AZT) using hydroxypropyl\\u000a methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC) and carbopol-971P (CP) and to study the effect of various formulation factors\\u000a on in vitro drug release. Release studies were carried out using USP type 1 apparatus in 900 ml of dissolution media. Release kinetics\\u000a were analyzed

  17. SANCTUARY : asymmetric interfaces for game-based tablet learning

    E-print Network

    Haas, Jason M. (Jason Matthew)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the production of Sanctuary, a multiplayer learning game to be played on two tablet computers. Sanctuary's principle innovation is the splitting of the user interface onto two tablets, separating ...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  3. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  4. In vivo morphine treatment synergistically increases LPS-induced caspase activity in immune organs

    PubMed Central

    Olin, Michael; Lee, Brian; Roy, Sabita; Molitor, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism for the elimination of infected cells, which would normally serve as hosts for further pathogen replication. Apoptosis is initiated through complex pathways involving a family of cysteine proteases known as caspases. The detection of apoptosis is essential for understanding the long-term health effects inflicted by the therapeutic use of opiate drugs such as morphine for pain treatment following major trauma or disease and abusive use of such drugs in addiction. Common practices of apoptosis detection involve the removal of tissues, which subsequently induce spontaneous apoptosis unrelated to the actual effects of the opioid drug exposure. The objective of this study was to develop an in vivo detection method for assessing morphine’s ability to directly induce apoptosis, and in the combination of morphine following an inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were administered saline, morphine, LPS, or a combination of morphine and LPS. Prior to sacrifice, mice were injected with a poly-caspase-specific apoptosis detection probe, to detect internal caspase activity in vivo. Administration of morphine alone did not directly induce apoptosis. However, morphine significantly enhanced the LPS induced apoptosis in splenocyte and bone marrow cells as well as in spleen, liver, and thymus tissues. The use of a poly-caspase detection probe methodology, to label apoptotic cells in vivo, provides a powerful quantitative tool for the in vivo analysis of caspase activity. PMID:20390371

  5. Diazepam as an adjuvant analgesic to morphine for pain due to skeletal muscle spasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Srivastava; Declan Walsh

    2003-01-01

    Side effects of morphine are common when it is given in titrated doses to control severe pain in advanced cancer. We describe a case of severe back pain resistant to parenteral morphine accompanied by muscle spasm, in which the addition of diazepam both had an opioid-sparing effect and provided superior symptomatic relief. Diazepam appears to have a specific role as

  6. Differential Response to Morphine of the Oligomeric State of ?-Opioid in the Presence of ?-Opioid Receptors†

    PubMed Central

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Johnston, Jennifer M.; Devi, Lakshmi; Filizola, Marta; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged morphine treatment induces extensive desensitization of the ?-opioid receptor (?OR) which is the G protein-coupled receptor that primarily mediates the cellular response to morphine. To date, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is unknown. Here, we have used live cell fluorescence imaging to investigate whether prolonged morphine treatment affects the physical environment of ?OR, or its coupling with G proteins, in two neuronal cell lines. We find that chronic morphine treatment does not change the amount of enhanced yellow fluorescence protein (eYFP)-tagged ?OR on the plasma membrane, and only slightly decreases its association with G protein subunits. Additionally, morphine treatment does not have a detectable effect on the diffusion coefficient of eYFP-?OR. However, in the presence of another family member, the ?–opioid receptor (?OR), prolonged morphine exposure results in a significant increase in the diffusion rate of ?OR. Number and brightness measurements suggest that ?OR exists primarily as a dimer that will oligomerize with ?OR into tetramers, and morphine promotes the dissociation of these tetramers. To provide a plausible structural context to these data, we used homology modeling techniques to generate putative configurations of ?OR-?OR tetramers. Overall, our studies provide a possible rationale for morphine sensitivity. PMID:21361347

  7. Differential response to morphine of the oligomeric state of ?-opioid in the presence of ?-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Johnston, Jennifer M; Devi, Lakshmi; Filizola, Marta; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2011-04-12

    Prolonged morphine treatment induces extensive desensitization of the ?-opioid receptor (?OR) which is the G-protein-coupled receptor that primarily mediates the cellular response to morphine. To date, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is unknown. Here, we have used live cell fluorescence imaging to investigate whether prolonged morphine treatment affects the physical environment of ?OR, or its coupling with G-proteins, in two neuronal cell lines. We find that chronic morphine treatment does not change the amount of enhanced yellow fluorescence protein (eYFP)-tagged ?OR on the plasma membrane, and only slightly decreases its association with G-protein subunits. Additionally, morphine treatment does not have a detectable effect on the diffusion coefficient of eYFP-?OR. However, in the presence of another family member, the ?-opioid receptor (?OR), prolonged morphine exposure results in a significant increase in the diffusion rate of ?OR. Number and brightness measurements suggest that ?OR exists primarily as a dimer that will oligomerize with ?OR into tetramers, and morphine promotes the dissociation of these tetramers. To provide a plausible structural context to these data, we used homology modeling techniques to generate putative configurations of ?OR-?OR tetramers. Overall, our studies provide a possible rationale for morphine sensitivity. PMID:21361347

  8. Effect of loperamide, haloperidol and methadone in rats trained to discriminate morphine from saline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Gianutsos; Harbans Lal

    1975-01-01

    In an operant procedure of lever pressing at FR10 schedule of food reinforcement, rats were trained to respond differentially in order to discriminate the effects of morphine (10 mg\\/kg) injection from those of saline injection. These rats learned to press a lever on one side after morphine injection and a lever on the opposite side after saline injection. In subsequent

  9. Altered morphine glucuronide and bile acid disposition in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ferslew, B C; Johnston, C K; Tsakalozou, E; Bridges, A S; Paine, M F; Jia, W; Stewart, P W; Barritt, A S; Brouwer, K L R

    2015-04-01

    The functional impact of altered drug transport protein expression on the systemic pharmacokinetics of morphine, hepatically derived morphine glucuronide (morphine-3- and morphine-6-glucuronide), and fasting bile acids was evaluated in patients with biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) compared to healthy subjects. The maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-last ) of morphine glucuronide in serum were increased in NASH patients (343 vs. 225 nM and 58.8 vs. 37.2 µM*min, respectively; P???0.005); morphine pharmacokinetics did not differ between groups. Linear regression analyses detected an association of NASH severity with increased morphine glucuronide Cmax and AUC0-last (P < 0.001). Fasting serum glycocholate, taurocholate, and total bile acid concentrations were associated with NASH severity (P < 0.006). Increased hepatic basolateral efflux of morphine glucuronide and bile acids is consistent with altered hepatic transport protein expression in patients with NASH and may partially explain differences in efficacy and/or toxicity of some highly transported anionic drugs/metabolites in this patient population. PMID:25669174

  10. Morphine effects on unit activity in dopaminergic and noradrenergic brain areas

    E-print Network

    Forney, Ellen

    1981-01-01

    1f1cantly lower turnover of DA in morphine-dependent rats compared to non-dependent. Costal and Naylor (1974) found that morphine-induced catalepsy was potentiated by extra- pyramidal lesion (lesion of the caudate-putamen and globus pallidus...

  11. Use of morphine sulphate by South African paramedics for prehospital pain management

    PubMed Central

    Vincent-Lambert, Craig; de Kock, Joalda Marthiné

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature highlights the fact that acute pain in the prehospital setting remains poorly managed. Morphine remains the most commonly used analgesic agent in the South African prehospital emergency care setting. Although guidelines and protocols relating to the dosage and administration of morphine exist, little data are available describing its use by South African paramedics. OBJECTIVES: To document and describe the way in which morphine is administered by a sample of South African paramedics for the management of acute pain in the prehospital setting. METHODS: An Internet-based survey was conducted. Sixty South African paramedics responded by completing the online questionnaire documenting and describing their use of morphine for management of acute pain. RESULTS: Results revealed that participants appeared to be overly cautious of potential adverse effects associated with administration of morphine. Although the majority of participants calculated the dose of morphine to be administered correctly according to the patient’s weight, the majority do not appear to be administering this as a bolus; rather, they administer the calculated loading dose in a titrated manner over time. This method may result in a delay and or failure to adequately achieve therapeutic serum levels. CONCLUSION: Failure to administer an appropriate bolus or ‘loading dose’ when administering morphine intravenously may result in ineffective and delayed pain management. The authors recommend more clearly defined protocols be developed to guide the use of morphine sulphate by paramedics in the local emergency medical services environment. PMID:25996767

  12. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  13. Immunosuppression by Morphine-Induced Lymphocyte Apoptosis: Is It a Real Issue?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Ohara; Tsunetoshi Itoh; Masahiko Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Morphine has been an optimal choice for cancer pain management. However, several recent studies suggested that morphine induces apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), raising a serious concern about the use of opioid-based analgesic strategies. In this study, therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether mor- phine induced apoptosis in cultured human PBLs. Ap- optotic events were assessed by flow-cytometrical

  14. Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Prior work has shown that a high dose (20?mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24?h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90??g) of intrathecal morphine 24?h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-?g dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90??g of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord. PMID:19388818

  15. Attenuation of morphine-induced delirium in palliative care by substitution with infusion of oxycodone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Maddocks; Andrew Somogyi; Fay Abbott; Peter Hayball; Deborah Parker

    1996-01-01

    We have observed among patients of the Southern Community Hospice Programme that up to 25% experience acute delirium when treated with morphine and improve when the opioid is changed to oxycodone or fentanyl. This study aimed to confirm by a prospective trial that oxycodone produces less delirium than morphine in such patients. Oxycodone was administered by a continuous subcutaneous infusion,

  16. Radiolabeling of morphine with (131)i and its biodistribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Hüseyin; Unak, Perihan; Yurt-Lambrecht, Fatma; Biber-Müftüler, Fazilet Z; Seyito?lu, Beyza; Yurt, Ayfer; Yolcular, Seniha; Medine, Ilker; Bulduk, Ibrahim

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the possible radiopharmaceutical potential of morphin labeled with (131)I. Morphine was extracted from dry capsules of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), purified by high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. The purified compound was labeled with (131)I. Male Albino Wistar rats (18) were used for receptor blockage and unblockage biodistribution studies. Tissue distribution studies showed that radiolabeled morphine had higher uptake in lung, liver, small intestines, large intestines, and stomach than the other tissues. The highest uptake of radiolabeled compounds in rats' brain was found to be in the midbrain and hypothalamus. After receptor blockage with morphine, uptake of (131)I-morphine decreased in the lungs, liver, kidney, testis, prostate, spinal cord, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, and temporal cortex with respect to receptor unblockage studies of rats. This study concludes that the labeling yield of (131)I-morphine was high, high amount of (131)I-morphine was found in the hypothalamus, and (131)I-morphine has enough stability for diagnostic scanning. PMID:20707720

  17. Morphine Patient-Controlled Analgesia Is Superior to Meperidine Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Postoperative Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Plummer; Harry Owen; Anthony H. Ilsley; Stuart Inglis

    1997-01-01

    The choice between morphine and meperidine for post- operative pain is usually based on the preference of the prescriber, as few objective comparative data are avail- able. This blind, randomized study compared the effi- cacy and side effects of morphine and meperidine ad- ministered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain. One hundred two consenting pa- tients scheduled for major

  18. Impact of Vibration and Agitation Speed on Dissolution of USP Prednisone Tablets RS and Various IR Tablet Formulations.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Nicole; Lange, Sigrid; Klein, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Dissolution testing is an in vitro procedure which is widely used in quality control (QC) of solid oral dosage forms and, given that real biorelevant test conditions are applied, can also be used as a predictive tool for the in vivo performance of such formulations. However, if a dissolution method is intended to be used for such purposes, it has to deliver results that are only determined by the quality of the test product, but not by other variables. In the recent past, more and more questions were arising on how to address the effects of vibration on dissolution test results. The present study was performed to screen for the correlation of prednisone dissolution of USP Prednisone Tablets RS with vibration caused by a commercially available vibration source as well as to investigate how drug release from a range of immediate release formulations containing class 1-4 drugs of the biopharmaceutical classification scheme is affected by vibration when performing dissolution experiments at different agitation rates. Results of the present study show that the dissolution process of oral drug formulations can be affected by vibration. However, it also becomes clear that the degree of which a certain level of vibration impacts dissolution is strongly dependent on several factors such as drug properties, formulation parameters, and the design of the dissolution method. To ensure the establishment of robust and predictive dissolution test methods, the impact of variation should thus be considered in method design and validation. PMID:26104919

  19. Indirect competitive assays on DVD for direct multiplex detection of drugs of abuse in oral fluids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Li, Xiaochun; Li, Yunchao; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    On-site oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse has become prominent in order to take immediate administrative action in an enforcement process. Herein, we report a DVD technology-based indirect competitive immunoassay platform for the quantitative detection of drugs of abuse. A microfluidic approach was adapted to prepare multiplex immunoassays on a standard DVD-R, an unmodified multimode DVD/Blu-Ray drive to read signal, and a free disc-quality analysis software program to process the data. The DVD assay platform was successfully demonstrated for the simultaneous, quantitative detection of drug candidates (morphine and cocaine) in oral fluids with high selectivity. The detection limit achieved was as low as 1.0 ppb for morphine and 5.0 ppb for cocaine, comparable with that of standard mass spectrometry and ELISA methods. PMID:25540088

  20. Formulation and Evaluation of Fixed-Dose Combination of Bilayer Gastroretentive Matrix Tablet Containing Atorvastatin as Fast-Release and Atenolol as Sustained-Release

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanjay; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Mazumder, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop bilayer tablets of atorvastatin and atenolol that are characterized by initial fast-release of atorvastatin in the stomach and comply with the release requirements of sustained-release of atenolol. An amorphous, solvent evaporation inclusion complex of atorvastatin with ?-cyclodextrin, present in 1?:?3 (drug/cyclodextrin) molar ratio, was employed in the fast-release layer to enhance the dissolution of atorvastatin. Xanthan gum and guar gum were integrated in the sustained-release layer. Bilayer tablets composed of sustained-release layer (10% w/w of xanthan gum and guar gum) and fast-release layer [1?:?3 (drug/cyclodextrin)] showed the desired release profile. The atorvastatin contained in the fast-release layer showed an initial fast-release of more than 60% of its drug content within 2?h, followed by sustained release of the atenolol for a period of 12?h. The pharmacokinetic study illustrated that the fast absorption and increased oral bioavailability of atorvastatin as well as therapeutic concentration of atenolol in blood were made available through adoption of formulation strategy of bilayer tablets. It can be concluded that the bilayer tablets of atorvastatin and atenolol can be successfully employed for the treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia together through oral administration of single tablet. PMID:24527446

  1. Increased Sensitivity to Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice Undergoing Withdrawal from Morphine Is Associated with Suppression of Interleukin12

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pu Feng; Qiana M. Wilson; Joseph J. Meissler; Martin W. Adler; Toby K. Eisenstein

    2005-01-01

    We have shown previously that withdrawal from morphine induces immunosuppression in mice. The present study reports the effects of morphine withdrawal on infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mice were made dependent on morphine by the implantation of a slow-release morphine pellet for 96 h. Controls received a placebo pellet. Withdrawal was induced by pellet removal. Mice were inoculated intra-

  2. 21 CFR 520.2345b - Tetracycline tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tetracycline tablets. 520.2345b Section 520.2345b Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345b Tetracycline tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 250, or 500 milligrams of...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2345b - Tetracycline tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline tablets. 520.2345b Section 520.2345b Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345b Tetracycline tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 250, or 500 milligrams of...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet: a pooled analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Xie, Fang

    2012-04-01

    Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is indicated for the treatment of breakthrough pain in patients who are already receiving and are tolerant to opioid therapy for underlying, persistent cancer pain. FBT is designed to enhance the rate and efficiency of absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. FBT was shown to be dose proportional from 100 to 1,300 ?g. This analysis provides an overview of the pharmacokinetic profile of FBT based on pooled data from nine pharmacokinetic studies. In all, 365 healthy non-opioid-tolerant adults receiving naltrexone were included in the analysis. Single-dose (100 to 1,300 ?g) pharmacokinetic parameters were dose normalized to 100 ?g. Pharmacokinetic measures included maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), plasma drug concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-?)), time to reach C(max) (T(max)), apparent plasma terminal elimination rate constant, and elimination half-life. After FBT administration, fentanyl was rapidly absorbed, with T(max) ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours postdose. Mean AUC(0-?) was 1.49 ng•hour/mL, and mean C(max) was 0.237 ng/mL. However, plasma fentanyl concentration reached 80% of C(max) within 25 minutes and was maintained through 2 hours after administration. Based on the individual studies, bioequivalence was shown for sublingual and buccal tablet placement, and no significant effect of dwell time (duration of FBT presence in the oral cavity) was observed. The pharmacokinetic profile of FBT was characterized by rapid absorption, which is consistent with the rapid-onset efficacy profile of FBT observed in clinical studies. PMID:21831253

  5. Bowel function recovery after radical hysterectomies: Thoracic epidural bupivacaine-morphine versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar A. de Leon-Casasola; Dora Karabella; Mark J. Lema

    1996-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine if the use of continuous epidural bupivacaine-morphine in the perioperative period is associated with a significant decrease in the recovery time of postoperative ileus when compared with parenteral morphine administration.Design: Prospective (quality of analgesia) and retrospective (bowel function recovery), nonrandomized study.Setting: Inpatient gynecology-oncology patients at a university-affiliated tertiary cancer center hospital.Patients: 68 women who experienced uncomplicated

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver microsomal morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by ( sup 3 H)flunitrazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassin, J.; Tephly, T.R. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepines have been shown to competitively inhibit morphine glucuronidation in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Flunitrazepam exerted a potent competitive inhibition of rat hepatic morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activity (Ki = 130 microM). It has no effect on the activity of p-nitrophenol, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid, or 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGTs. Because flunitrazepam is an effective photoaffinity label for benzodiazepine receptors, studied were performed in solubilized rat hepatic microsomes and with partially purified preparations of morphine UDPGT to determine the enhancement of flunitrazepam inhibition and binding to morphine UDPGT promoted by exposure to UV light. Under UV light, flunitrazepam inhibition was markedly enhanced. UV light exposure also led to a marked increase in binding of (3H)flunitrazepam to microsomal protein, which was protected substantially by preincubation with morphine. Testosterone, androsterone, and UDP-glucuronic acid did not protect against UV-enhanced flunitrazepam binding, and morphine did not reverse flunitrazepam binding once binding had occurred. As morphine UDPGT was purified, a good correlation was found between the increases in specific activity of morphine UDPGT and flunitrazepam binding to protein. Chromatofocusing chromatography showed that flunitrazepam bound only to fractions containing active morphine UDPGT, and no binding to 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGT was observed. Fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel of solubilized hepatic microsomes that had been treated with (3H) flunitrazepam under UV light revealed a band with a monomeric molecular weight between 54,000 and 58,000. This monomeric molecular weight compares favorably with the reported monomeric molecular weight of homogeneous morphine UDPGT (56,000).

  7. Nicotine-morphine interactions at ?4?2, ?7 and ?3(?) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Talka, Reeta; Salminen, Outi; Whiteaker, Paul; Lukas, Ronald J; Tuominen, Raimo K

    2013-02-15

    Nicotine and opioids share several behavioral and rewarding properties. Although both opioids and nicotine have their own specific mechanism of action, there is empirical and experimental evidence of interactions between these drugs. We studied receptor-level interactions of nicotine and morphine at ?4?2, ?7 and ?3(?) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. [(3)H]epibatidine displacement was used to determine if morphine binds competitively to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional interactions of morphine and nicotine were studied with calcium fluorometry and (86)Rb(+) efflux assays. Morphine displaced [(3)H]epibatidine from nicotinic agonist binding sites in all cell lines studied. The Ki values for morphine were 13.2?M in SH-EP1-h?4?2 cells, 0.16?M and 126?M in SH-SY5Y cells and 43.7?M in SH-EP1-h?7 cells. In SH-EP1-h?4?2 cells expressing ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, morphine acted as a partial agonist of (86)Rb(+) efflux comparable to cytisine (with EC50 values of 53.3?M for morphine and 5.38?M for cytisine). The effect of morphine was attenuated concentration-dependently by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. In the SH-SY5Y cell line expressing several subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors morphine had an inhibitory effect on nicotine induced (86)Rb(+) ion efflux mediated by ?3(?) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These results suggest that morphine acts as a partial agonist at ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and as a weak antagonist at ?3(?) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:23340223

  8. Ethanol Reversal of Cellular Tolerance to Morphine in Rat Locus Coeruleus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Javier; Withey, Sarah; Rivero, Guadalupe; Cunningham, Margaret; Cooke, Alex; Saxena, Kunal; McPherson, Jamie; Oldfield, Sue; Dewey, William L.; Bailey, Chris P.; Kelly, Eamonn; Henderson, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of ethanol is a considerable risk factor for death in heroin overdose. We sought to determine whether a mildly intoxicating concentration of ethanol could alter morphine tolerance at the cellular level. In rat locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, tolerance to morphine was reversed by acute exposure of the brain slice to ethanol (20 mM). Tolerance to the opioid peptide [d-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly-ol]-enkephalin was not reversed by ethanol. Previous studies in LC neurons have revealed a role for protein kinase C (PKC)? in ?-opioid receptor (MOPr) desensitization by morphine and in the induction and maintenance of morphine tolerance, but we have been unable to demonstrate that 20 mM ethanol produces significant inhibition of PKC?. The ability of ethanol to reverse cellular tolerance to morphine in LC neurons was absent in the presence of the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, indicating that dephosphorylation is involved. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing the MOPr, ethanol reduced the level of MOPr phosphorylation induced by morphine. Ethanol reversal of tolerance did not appear to result from a direct effect on MOPr since acute exposure to ethanol (20 mM) did not modify the affinity of binding of morphine to the MOPr or the efficacy of morphine for G-protein activation as measured by guanosine 5?-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding. Similarly, ethanol did not affect MOPr trafficking. We conclude that acute exposure to ethanol enhances the effects of morphine by reversing the processes underlying morphine cellular tolerance. PMID:23716621

  9. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of morphine and its major metabolites following intravenous administration of four doses to horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Steffey, E P; McKemie, D S

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of morphine and its metabolites following intravenous administration to the horse. A total of eight horses (two per dose group) received a single intravenous dose of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5 mg/kg morphine. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h postdrug administration, analyzed using LC-MS/MS and pharmacokinetic parameters determined. Behavior, step counts, and gastrointestinal activity were also assessed. The beta and gamma half-life for morphine ranged from 0.675 to 2.09 and 6.70 to 18.1 h, respectively, following administration of the four different IV doses. The volume of distribution at steady-state and systemic clearance ranged from 6.95 to 15.8 L/kg and 28.3 to 35.7 mL · min/kg, respectively. The only metabolites identified in blood samples were the primary metabolites identified in other species, 3-morphine-glucuronide and 6-morphine-glucuronide. Muscle fasciculations were observed at 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg and ataxia noted at 0.5 mg/kg. Gastrointestinal activity was decreased in all dose groups (for up to 8 h in 7/8 horses and 24 h in one horse). This study extends previous studies and is the first report describing the metabolites of morphine in the horse. Plasma concentrations of morphine-3-glucuronide, a metabolite with demonstrated neuro-excitatory activity in mice, far exceeded that of morphine-6-glucuronide. Further study is warranted to assess whether the high levels of the morphine-3-glucuronide contribute to the dose-dependent excitation observed at high morphine doses. PMID:24479785

  10. Blood–brain barrier transport of morphine in patients with severe brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ederoth, Per; Tunblad, Karin; Bouw, René; Johan, C; Lundberg, F; Ungerstedt, Urban; Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2004-01-01

    Aims In experimental studies, morphine pharmacokinetics is different in the brain compared with other tissues due to the properties of the blood–brain barrier, including action of efflux pumps. It was hypothesized in this clinical study that active efflux of morphine occurs also in human brain, and that brain injury would alter cerebral morphine pharmacokinetics. Methods Patients with traumatic brain injury, equipped with one to three microdialysis catheters in the brain and one in abdominal subcutaneous fat for metabolic monitoring, were studied. The cerebral catheter locations were classified as ‘better’ and ‘worse’ brain tissue, referring to the degree of injury. Morphine (10 mg) was infused intravenously over a 10-min period in seven patients in the intensive care setting. Tissue and plasma morphine concentrations were obtained during the subsequent 3-h period with microdialysis and regular blood sampling. Results The area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) ratio of unbound morphine in brain tissue to plasma was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.40, 0.87) in ‘better’ brain tissue (P < 0.05 vs. the subcutaneous fat/plasma ratio), 0.78 (0.49, 1.07) in ‘worse’ brain tissue and 1.00 (0.86, 1.13) in subcutaneous fat. The terminal half-life and Tmax were longer in the brain vs. plasma and fat, respectively. The relative recovery for morphine was higher in ‘better’ than in ‘worse’ brain tissue. The Tmax value tended to be shorter in ‘worse’ brain tissue. Conclusions The unbound AUC ratio below unity in the ‘better’ human brain tissue demonstrates an active efflux of morphine across the blood–brain barrier. The ‘worse’ brain tissue shows a decrease in relative recovery for morphine and in some cases also an increase in permeability for morphine over the blood–brain barrier. PMID:15025740

  11. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo characterization of porous sublingual tablets containing ternary kneaded solid system of vinpocetine with î-cyclodextrin and hydroxy Acid.

    PubMed

    Aburahma, Mona H; El-Laithy, Hanan M; Hamza, Yassin El-Said

    2010-01-01

    The demand for sublingual tablets has been growing during the previous decades especially for drugs with extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Vinpocetine, a widely used neurotropic agent, has low oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and marked first-pass metabolism. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to develop tablets for the sublingual delivery of vinpocetine. Initially, the feasibility of improving vinpocetineâs poor aqueous solubility by preparing kneaded solid systems of the drug with Î-Cyclodextrin and hydroxy acids (citric acid and tartaric acid) was assessed. The solid system with improved solubility and dissolution properties was incorporated into porous tablets that rapidly disintegrate permitting fast release of vinpocetine into the sublingual cavity. The pores were induced into these tablets by directly compressing the tabletsâ excipients with a sublimable material, either camphor or menthol, which was eventually sublimated leaving pores. The obtained results demonstrated that the tablets prepared using camphor attained sufficient mechanical strength for practical use together with rapid disintegration and dissolution. In vivo absorption study performed in rabbits indicated that the sublingual administration of the proposed porous tablets containing vinpocetine solid system with Î-Cyclodextrin and tartaric acid could be useful for therapeutic application. PMID:21179352

  12. Time and pH-dependent colon-specific drug delivery for orally administered diclofenac sodium and 5-aminosalicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Cheng; Mei-Juan Zou; Jin Sun; Xiu-Hua Hao; Yun-Xia He

    AIM: To investigate Time- and pH-dependent colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) for orally administered diclofenac sodium (DS) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), respectively. METHODS: DS tablets and 5-ASA pellets were coated by ethylcellulose (EC) and methacrylic acid copolymers (Eudragit® L100 and S100), respectively. The in vitro release behavior of the DS coated tablets and 5-ASA coated pellets were examined, and then

  13. Food effect on the oral bioavailability of Manidipine: single dose, randomized, crossover study in healthy male subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. ROSILLONl; A. STOCKISl; G. Poli; D. Acerbi; R. Lins; B. Jeanbaptiste

    1998-01-01

    Summary  The effect of food on the oral bioavailability of a manidipine 20 mg tablet was studied after a single administration in 12\\u000a male healthy subjects. The clinical trial was conducted as an open, randomised, crossover study. In two different administration\\u000a sessions, the subjects received a 20 mg manidipine tablet either in the fasting state or after a standardized breakfast. Plasma

  14. Glial activation and midkine and pleiotrophin transcription in the ventral tegmental area are modulated by morphine administration.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Daniel; Luisa Laorden, M; Núñez, Cristina; Victoria Milanés, M

    2014-09-15

    Opiates cause persistent restructuring in the mesolimbic reward system. Although a possible role for midkine and pleiotrophin cytokines in the field of synaptic plasticity has been proposed, it has not been assessed whether morphine administration regulates astrogliosis and midkine and pleiotrophin transcription. We observed that single morphine injection and chronic morphine increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Interestingly, single morphine injection and chronic morphine increased VTA midkine and pleiotrophin mRNA expression. Given these results, we hypothesize a role for these cytokines in mediating, at least in part, acute neuroprotective effects and chronic neurotrophic adaptations that contribute to drug dependence. PMID:25108770

  15. Morphine deteriorates spatial memory in sodium salicylate treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Naghdi, Nasser; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-03-15

    Tolerance and cross-tolerance for the effects of morphine (M) and sodium salicylate on nociception and learning were examined. The anti-nociceptive effects were measured by using the classic tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests and learning was measured with the Morris water maze (MWM). Tolerance or cross-tolerance was induced by daily injection (i.p.) of morphine sulfate (10mg/kg for 7 days) or sodium salicylate (300 mg/kg for 6 days). The injection of sodium salicylate increased both TF and HP latencies. This anti-nociceptive effect was progressively decreased across six injections and tolerance to sodium salicylate was developed. When M was injected to sodium salicylate-tolerant rats, a weakened anti-nociceptive effect was seen, indicating cross-tolerance to M. Acute treatment with M also increased TF latency. This anti-nociceptive effect was successively decreased across seven injections and tolerance to M was developed. When sodium salicylate was injected to M-tolerant rats, a diminished anti-nociceptive effect was seen, indicating cross-tolerance to sodium salicylate. Acute M impaired water maze performance, while chronic M and sodium salicylate had no effects on MWM performance. However, when M was injected to rats that had received sodium salicylate after each training trial for 7 days, these rats spent less time in target quadrant as compared to M and saline groups. It is concluded that chronic sodium salicylate induces tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of M and vice versa. Also chronic salicylate may produce lasting metaplastic changes in brain mechanisms behind spatial learning and memory, which can be visualized in cross-sensitization to morphine. PMID:23461854

  16. Three-dimensional modeling to determine properties of tableting materials on rotary machines using a rotary tableting machine simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina M Picker

    2000-01-01

    A new three-dimensional modeling technique of tableting data has been used for data measured with a rotary tableting machine simulator. The use of the tableting machine simulator is helpful in this case because a scale up or a change of equipment is easily possible. The model substances used were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 15.000), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101), dicalcium phosphate

  17. [Clonidine in oral medicine. Literature review and our experience].

    PubMed

    Mutzbauer, Till S; Obwegeser, Joachim A; Grätz, Klaus W

    2005-01-01

    There is a large experience in premedication with clonidine (Catapresan) for general anaesthesia. Clonidine is an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist exerting central sympatholytic effects. Premedication with clonidine blunts the stress response to surgical stimuli and the narcotic and anaesthetic dose can be reduced. Furthermore, perioperative myocardial ischemic events can be prevented by preoperative application of clonidine. Oral clonidine at a dose of 1.5-2 microg/kg BW combines the advantages of benzodiazepines and morphine: anxiolysis, sedation and analgesia with stable hemodynamics and respiration. Clonidine does not have morphine related side effects such as nausea and vomiting. Doses of up to 5 microg/kg BW have been administered to young and healthy patients preoperatively in dental and maxillofacial surgery without significant side effects. However, Clonidine 2 microg/kg BW should be an adequate oral premedication dose for young and healthy patients scheduled for dental and facial surgery procedures performed under local anaesthesia in the ambulatory setting. In elderly patients clonidine 2 microg/kg BW administered orally should not be exceeded to avoid excessive hypotension and sedation. Bradycardia is a contraindication for the use of clonidine. PMID:15832656

  18. Ampicillin Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ... blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), atenolol (Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell ...

  19. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  20. Oral Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  2. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  3. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  4. Potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture during tableting.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S; Adogah, J T

    2009-01-01

    Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch mucilage (20%w/v). Resulting granules were separated into different size fractions which were separately compressed into tablets with and without a centre hole (as in- built defect) using different compression loads. The tablets were evaluated for tensile strength and the data used to calculate the brittle fracture index (BFI), using the expression: BFI = 0.5(T/T(0)-1) where T0 and T are the tensile strength of tablets with and without a centre hole respectively. The BFI values were significantly lower (p<0.05) in tablets made with carnuba wax compared with tablets made with maize starch as binders. Increase in particle size of the granules or lowering of the compression load further ameliorated the brittle fracture tendency of the tablets. Using granules with the larger particle size (850microm) and applying the lowest unit of load (6 arbitrary unit on the load scale of the tableting machine) the BFI values were 0.03 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.11 (maize starch tablets). When the conditions were reversed (i.e., a highest load, 8 units and the smallest particle size, 212microm) the BFI values now became 0.17 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.26 (maize starch tablets). The indication is that the use of large granules and low compression loads to form tablets can further enhance the potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture tendency of tablets during their manufacture. PMID:19168422

  5. Oral feeding.

    PubMed

    Alvárez-Falcón, Ana; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning oral alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the oral care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely oral alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of oral medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received oral nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving oral nutritional support. PMID:23075585

  6. Formulation and in vivo human bioavailability of dissolving tablets containing a self-nanoemulsifying itraconazole solid dispersion without precipitation in simulated gastrointestinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Piao, Zong-Zhu; Choe, Jae-Seung; Oh, Kyung Teak; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2014-01-23

    To investigate the performance of a solid-state self-nanoemulsifying system with no precipitation in gastric and intestinal fluid, itraconazole (ITZ) was selected as a model drug because of its practically insoluble nature in intestinal fluid. A self-nanoemulsifying ITZ solid dispersion (SNESD) system was prepared as follows: (1) establishment of self-nanoemulsifying composition via the hot melting method, (2) solidification with fumed silicon dioxide (Aerosil 300) via adsorption to prepare SNESD and (3) preparation of a directly compressible tablet containing SNESD. This SNESD was easily formulated in the form of a dissolving tablet and provided a favourable nanoemulsifying microenvironment with no precipitation in the testing media. The SNESD and SNESD-loaded tablet displayed highly enhanced dissolution via nanomisation (266.8 nm and 258.3 nm at 60 min and 120 min, respectively), whereas the drug alone or a reference ITZ Sporanox® capsule displayed very low dissolution and precipitated immediately in intestinal fluid. Drug precipitation in intestinal fluid may affect the in vivo performance of poorly soluble weakly basic drugs and was estimated according to the crystal growth theory. The superdisintegrant and surfactant in the formulation of the tablet were very crucial to the dissolution of the SNESD-loaded tablet. The drug contents and dissolution rates of the SNESD-loaded tablets were also stable during storage in terms of dissolution and drug content. The SNESD-loaded tablet displayed significantly increased oral bioavailability in healthy human volunteers compared with the reference Sporanox® capsule. The current solid-state SNESD-loaded tablet could provide an alternative to liquid-based emulsifying preparations for various poorly water-soluble drugs without precipitation in testing media. PMID:24012590

  7. Compression-coated tablets of glipizide using hydroxypropylcellulose for zero-order release: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiqin; Wu, Zhenghong; Qi, Xiaole; Zhang, Huiting; Chen, Qin; Xing, Jiayu; Chen, Haiyan; Rui, Yao

    2013-03-25

    Compression coating, which presents some advantages like short manufacturing process and non-solvent residue over liquid coating, has been introduced to the oral administration systems for decades. The purpose of this study was to design a zero-order release of compression-coated tablets using hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as the coating layer and glipizide which was solubilized by manufacturing the inclusion complex of ?-cyclodextrin as a model drug. The effects of the weight ratio of drug and the viscosity of HPC on the release profile were investigated by "f2" factor with Glucotrol XL(®). The uptake and erosion study, the correlation coefficient (R) and the exponent (n) were used as indicators to justify drug release mechanism. Bioavailability in vivo was determined by administering the compression-coated tablets to rabbits in contrast with Glucotrol XL(®). It was found that the formulation presented a well zero-order behavior at the weight ratio of drug 11:14 (core:layer) and the combination of HPC-L (8.0 mPa s) and HPC-M (350 mPa s) (8:9), with the "f2" of 66.90. The mechanism for zero-order release of these compression-coated tablets was solvent penetration into the dosage form and drug dissolution from the erosion of the gelled HPC matrix. The parameter AUC0-? of the compression coated tablets and the market tablets were 37,255.93±1474.08 h ng/ml and 43265.40±1015.28 h ng/ml, while the relative bioavailability was 87.66±1.56%. These studies demonstrate that the designed compression-coated tablets may be a promising strategy for peroral controlled release delivery system of water-insoluble drugs. PMID:23370433

  8. Gene Expression Profile of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II? in Rat's Hippocampus during Morphine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Shamseddin; Amiri, Shahin; Rafieenia, Fatemeh; Rostamzadeh, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) which is highly expressed in the hippocampus is known to play a pivotal role in reward-related memories and morphine dependence. Methods In the present study, repeated morphine injections once daily for 7 days was done to induce morphine tolerance in male Wistar rats, after which gene expression profile of ?-isoform of CaMKII (CaMKII?) in the hippocampus was evaluated upon discontinuation of morphine injection over 21 days of morphine withdrawal. Control groups received saline for 7 consecutive days. For gene expression study, rats’ brains were removed and the hippocampus was dissected in separate groups on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 since discontinuation of of morphine injection. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR method was used to evaluate the gene expression profile. Results Tolerance to morphine was verified by a significant decrease in morphine analgesia in a hotplate test on day 8 (one day after the final repeated morphine injections). Results showed that gene expression of CaMKII? at mRNA level on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of morphine withdrawal was significantly altered as compared to the saline control group. Post hoc Tukey's test revealed a significantly enhanced CaMKII? gene expression on day 14. Discussion It can be concluded that CaMKII? gene expression during repeated injections of morphine is increased and this increase continues up to 14 days of withdrawal then settles at a new set point. Therefore, the strong morphine reward-related memory in morphine abstinent animals may, at least partly be attributed to, the up-regulation of CaMKII? in the hippocampus over 14 days of morphine withdrawal. PMID:25337341

  9. Persistent Peripheral Inflammation Attenuates Morphine-induced Periaqueductal Gray Glial Cell Activation and Analgesic Tolerance in the Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Eidson, Lori N.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2014-01-01

    Morphine is among the most prevalent analgesics prescribed for chronic pain. However, prolonged morphine treatment results in the development of analgesic tolerance. An abundance of evidence has accumulated indicating that CNS glial cell activity facilitates pain transmission and opposes morphine analgesia. While the midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is an important neural substrate mediating pain modulation and the development of morphine tolerance, no studies have directly assessed the role of PAG-glia. Here we test the hypothesis that morphine-induced increases in vlPAG glial cell activity contribute to the development of morphine tolerance. As morphine is primarily consumed for the alleviation of severe pain, the influence of persistent inflammatory pain was also assessed. Administration of morphine, in the absence of persistent inflammatory pain, resulted in the rapid development of morphine tolerance and was accompanied by a significant increase in vlPAG glial activation. In contrast, persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia, induced by intraplantar administration of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA), significantly attenuated the development of morphine tolerance. No significant differences were noted in vlPAG glial cell activation for CFA-treated animals versus controls. These results indicate that vlPAG glia are modulated by a persistent pain state, and implicate vlPAG glial cells as possible regulators of morphine tolerance. Perspective The development of morphine tolerance represents a significant impediment to its use in the management of chronic pain. We report that morphine tolerance is accompanied by increased glial cell activation within the vlPAG, and that the presence of a persistent pain state prevented vlPAG glial activation and attenuated morphine tolerance. PMID:23395474

  10. Blood-brain barrier transport of morphine in patients with severe brain trauma: Morphine pharmacokinetics in human brain tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Ederoth; Karin Tunblad; René Bouw; C. Johan F. Lundberg; Urban Ungerstedt; Carl-Henrik Nordström; Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes

    2004-01-01

    Results The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of unbound morphine in brain tissue to plasma was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.40, 0.87) in 'better' brain tissue ( P < 0.05 vs. the subcutaneous fat\\/plasma ratio), 0.78 (0.49, 1.07) in 'worse' brain tissue and 1.00 (0.86, 1.13) in subcutaneous fat. The terminal half-life and T max were longer in

  11. Capillary electrophoretic assay for the stability of tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Foteeva, Lidia S; Stolyarova, Natalya V; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2008-09-10

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for testing the stability of a novel oral anticancer metallodrug, tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (KP46), is proposed. As both the intact drug and its eventual impurity or/and decomposition product, 8-quinolinol, are not charged (at most of the pH range), the micellar-mediated CE mode based on using micellar concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate was employed. The running electrolyte conditions were optimized in order to resolve the peak of KP46 from the signal of 8-quinolinol, as well as from these of tablet matrix components. The stability of KP46 in different organic and water-organic solvent systems was studied regarding its limited solubility and the following recovering experiments. The method thus developed was applied to the determination of KP46 in tablet formulations, for which sample preparation method, namely powdering and ultrasound-assisted extraction (with 50% aqueous acetone), was tested and optimized in terms of procedure time (10 min). Different in the content of the active substance (10-30%) batches of tablets stored for two years after preparation were validated and recoveries obtained at the level from 97 to 102% confirmed sufficient drug stability. This principal finding was verified by means of an independent method, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:18579328

  12. Design, development and in-vitro evaluation of metoprolol tartrate tablets containing xanthan-tragacanth.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Akhtar; Iqbal, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Waqas, Muhammad K; Hanif, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat A; Bhatti, Naveed S

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop oral sustained release tablets of metoprolol tartrate using natural hydrophilic matrix formers (xanthan gum and tragacanth). Sustained release matrix tablets of metoprolol tartrate were prepared by using different ratios of drug, xanthan gum and tragacanth. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used as diluent. The polymer was incorporated into a matrix system using direct compression technique. All the lubricated formulations were compressed using concave punches in compression machine. Compressed tablets were evaluated for diameter, hardness, friability, weight variation and in vitro dissolution using USP dissolution apparatus-II. Different formulations were evaluated with respect to dissolution profile in 900 mL phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), 0.1 M HCl solution and distilled water for 12 h at 37 degrees C. Increasing the amount of polymer (xanthan gum) in the formulation led to slow release of drug and decreasing the amount of polymer gave enhanced release of metoprolol tartrate. The kinetic treatment showed the best fitted different mathematical models (Zero order, First order, Higuchi's and Hixson-Crowell). Most of the solid matrix formulations followed Higuchi or zero order kinetics. The formulations F1, F2, F3 and F7, F8, F9 showed maximum linearity while the formulations F4, F5, F6 were not of linear behavior. The results showed that the formulation F9 containing 30% xanthan gum and 10% gum tragacanth is the most similar to that of the reference marketed preparation. PMID:20873420

  13. Morphine protects against intracellular amyloid toxicity by inducing estradiol release and upregulation of Hsp70.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jia; Wang, Yunfeng; Dong, Qiping; Wu, Shimin; Xiao, Xianzhong; Hu, Jianying; Chai, Zhen; Zhang, Yan

    2011-11-01

    Certain experimental models support morphine can play a beneficial role against damage in the neuronal system. In this study, we find morphine as well as endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 can protect against intracellular amyloid ? (iA?) toxicity in human and rat primary neuronal cultures and in rat brains in vivo. Morphine reverses the electrophysiological changes induced by iA?, including current density, resting membrane potential and capacitance. Also morphine improves the spatial memory performance in rats infected by iA? packaged virus and in APP/PS1 mice in Morris water maze tests. Morphine protection is mediated through inducing estradiol release in hippocampal neurons measured by ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, possibly by increasing P450 cytochrome aromatase activity. Released estradiol induces upregulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). Hsp70 protects against intracellular amyloid toxicity by rescuing proteasomal activity which is impaired by iA?. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that induction of estradiol release in hippocampal neurons by morphine is reported. Our data may contribute to both Alzheimer's disease therapy and pain clinics where morphine is widely used. PMID:22072674

  14. Morphine and galectin-1 modulate HIV-1 infection of human monocytes-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Jessica L.; Law, Wing Cheung; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E.; Mammen, Manoj J.; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hui, Rui; Prasad, Paras N.; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2012-01-01

    Morphine is a widely abused, addictive drug that modulates immune function. Macrophages are a primary reservoir of HIV-1; therefore, they not only play a role in the development of this disease but also impact the overall course of disease progression. Galectin-1 is a member of a family of ?-galactoside-binding lectins that are soluble adhesion molecules and that mediate direct cell-pathogen interactions during HIV-1 viral adhesion. Since the drug abuse epidemic and the HIV-1 epidemic are closely interrelated we propose that increased expression of galectin-1 induced by morphine may modulate HIV-1 infection of human monocytes-derived macrophages (MDM). Here, we show that galectin-1 gene and protein expression are potentiated by incubation with morphine. Confirming previous studies, morphine alone or galectin-1 alone enhance HIV-1 infection of MDM. Concomitant incubation with exogenous galectin-1 and morphine potentiated HIV-1 infection of MDM. We utilized a nanotechnology approach that uses gold nanorod-galectin-1 siRNA complexes (nanoplexes) to inhibit gene expression for galectin-1. We found that nanoplexes silenced gene expression for galectin-1 and the nanoplexes reversed the effects of morphine on galectin-1 expression. Furthermore, the effects of morphine on HIV-1 infection were reduced in the presence of the nanoplex. PMID:22430735

  15. Quantitative analysis of naloxone antagonism of the discriminative stimulus properties of morphine in the pigeon.

    PubMed

    Wessinger, W D; McMillan, D E

    1986-07-01

    Pigeons were trained to discriminate morphine (5.0 mg/kg) from saline under a second-order fixed ratio 10 (fixed-ratio 5) color-tracking schedule for food reinforcement. After reliable stimulus control was established, cumulative graded doses of morphine (0.3-30.0 mg/kg) were tested and resulted in dose-dependent increases in morphine-appropriate key pecking and decreases in response rate. Cumulative doses of naloxone (0.1-10.0 mg/kg) or consecutive injections of saline did not elicit morphine-appropriate responding or affect response rate. Pre-treatment with naloxone (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) before determination of cumulative dose-effect curves for morphine caused the morphine generalization curves to be shifted, in a parallel manner, rightward. Dose-ratio analysis of naloxone antagonism of morphine generalization, using a Schild plot with the slope constrained to -1, gave an apparent pA2 value (95% confidence limits) of 6.53 (6.18-6.89). PMID:3749228

  16. Morphine Modulates Interleukin-4- or Breast Cancer Cell-induced Pro-metastatic Activation of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Khabbazi, Samira; Goumon, Yannick; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment play a key role in the control of invasiveness, metastasis and angiogenesis. Macrophages display a range of activation states in specific pathological contexts and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages can promote tumour aggressiveness. Opioids are able to modulate tumour growth and metastasis. We tested whether morphine modulates the activation of macrophages induced by (i) interleukin-4 (IL-4), the prototypical M2 polarization-inducing cytokine, or (ii) coculture with breast cancer cells. We showed that IL-4 causes increased MMP-9 production and expression of the alternative activation markers arginase-1 and MRC-1. Morphine prevented IL-4-induced increase in MMP-9 in a naloxone- and methylnaltrexone-reversible fashion. Morphine also prevented IL-4-elicited alternative activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. Expression of MMP-9 and arginase-1 were increased when RAW264.7 were subjected to paracrine activation by 4T1 cells, and this effect was prevented by morphine via an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism. Morphine further decreased 4T1 breast cancer cell invasion elicited by co-culture with RAW264.7. Reduction of MMP-9 expression and alternative activation of macrophages by morphine was confirmed using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that morphine may modulate tumour aggressiveness by regulating macrophage protease production and M2 polarization within the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26078009

  17. Morphine Modulates Interleukin-4- or Breast Cancer Cell-induced Pro-metastatic Activation of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Khabbazi, Samira; Goumon, Yannick; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment play a key role in the control of invasiveness, metastasis and angiogenesis. Macrophages display a range of activation states in specific pathological contexts and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages can promote tumour aggressiveness. Opioids are able to modulate tumour growth and metastasis. We tested whether morphine modulates the activation of macrophages induced by (i) interleukin-4 (IL-4), the prototypical M2 polarization-inducing cytokine, or (ii) coculture with breast cancer cells. We showed that IL-4 causes increased MMP-9 production and expression of the alternative activation markers arginase-1 and MRC-1. Morphine prevented IL-4-induced increase in MMP-9 in a naloxone- and methylnaltrexone-reversible fashion. Morphine also prevented IL-4-elicited alternative activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. Expression of MMP-9 and arginase-1 were increased when RAW264.7 were subjected to paracrine activation by 4T1 cells, and this effect was prevented by morphine via an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism. Morphine further decreased 4T1 breast cancer cell invasion elicited by co-culture with RAW264.7. Reduction of MMP-9 expression and alternative activation of macrophages by morphine was confirmed using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that morphine may modulate tumour aggressiveness by regulating macrophage protease production and M2 polarization within the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26078009

  18. Bergenin decreases the morphine-induced physical dependence via antioxidative activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaesuk; Lee, Yeonju; Yun, Kyunghwa; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in the development of physical dependence induced by morphine. Bergenin, a polyphenol found in many Asian, African, and South American medicinal plants, is a potent antinarcotic agent with wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including antioxidant action. In the present study, we observed that bergenin decreased the development of physical dependence induced by morphine in mice and the antioxidant activity of bergenin plays a role in the antinarcotic effects through adapting to morphine-induced oxidative stress in the brain. The naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptom (jumping frequency) was significantly ameliorated (50 % of control group) by administration of bergenin (20 mg/kg) in morphine-treated mice. Furthermore, morphine-induced down-regulation of glutathione (GSH) contents was reversed by bergenin administration in the frontal cortex and liver. Bergenin had no effects on the increased levels of nfr2-dependent antioxidant enzyme HO1 and NQO1 in the frontal cortex, striatum, and liver of morphine-treated mice. However, the morphine-induced increase in nrf2 nuclear translocation in the frontal cortex and striatum was inhibited by bergenin treatment. These results suggest that bergenin has a potential antinarcotic effect via regulation of GSH contents and oxidative stress. PMID:25542428

  19. Morphine Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy Involves Two Cell Types: Sieve Elements and Laticifers[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M.; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F.; Schriemer, David C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type–specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy. PMID:24104569

  20. Morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy involves two cell types: sieve elements and laticifers.

    PubMed

    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type-specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy. PMID:24104569

  1. You May Now Open Your Test Tablets...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Tony Alpert, chief operating officer for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC), ponders whether to allow tablet computers--and particularly iPads--to be used for summative testing online. As Alpert points out, not only would student cheating compromise the validity of the individual student's test event, "worse yet, it could expose…

  2. Using Tablet Technology for University Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Tablet PCs provide numerous benefits over traditional electronically projected lectures that use software such as PowerPoint. Flexibility and spontaneity can be achieved by editing or creating notes in real-time. The input pen or stylus is a very useful tool, especially for courses that involve the extensive use of equations or mathematical…

  3. Touch Tablet Surprises: A Preschool Teacher's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifflet, Rena; Toledo, Cheri; Mattoon, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    A year and a half ago, Rena, Cheri, and Cassandra were introduced to each other by a colleague because they shared an interest in exploring the impact newer technologies have on learning in early childhood classrooms. They meet regularly to share ideas and information on how to incorporate tablets using best practices. Cassandra's preschool…

  4. MEASUREMENT OF BOUNDARIES USING A DIGITIZER TABLET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perimeter is the most error prone of the primary measurements (length, perimeter and area) made when using a device such as a digitizer tablet to trace profiles on micrographs. o allow for minimization of this error an expression is developed relating the error in the perimet...

  5. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30-mg tablet. (c) Special considerations. Cythioate is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Do not use this product in animals simultaneously with or within a few days before or after treatment with or...

  6. Graphics Tablet for the BBC Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whale, R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive solution to the problem of transferring pictures onto a television screen using the analog part of the Model "B" BBC Microcomputer. Instruction for building the graphics tablet (which can easily be constructed by secondary students), program listing for required software, and documentation are included. (JN)

  7. Problems of powder flow in tabletting processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Hersey

    1965-01-01

    Summary The flow of non-compacted granules in the tablet machine hopper is discussed with relevance to the unit dose of drug, which is required to be dispensed. The various factors used to describe powder flow such as angle of repose, interparticulate cohesion and friction, flow through apertures, bulk density and die fillability are considered. The effects of humidity and of

  8. Formulation of a extended release tablet containing dexibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong Gi; Chi, Moon Hyuk; Kim, Yong-Il; Woo, Jong Soo; Park, Eun-Seok

    2008-12-01

    Dexibuprofen, or S(+)-ibuprofen, is the pharmacologically effective enantiomer of racemic ibuprofen. Since dexibuprofen has a low melting point, the amorphous form having a high melting point was prepared with the fused solid dispersion method. With the fused solid dispersion of dexibuprofen, immediate release tablets, extended release tablets, and dual release tablets were compressed and their dissolution profiles compared. The dissolution profiles of the extended release and the dual release tablet depended on the amount of used release modulators (PEO 5,000,000). The release profiles of extended release tablets and extended release part of dual release tablets were well fitted to zero-order release model. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.982 to 0.995. A pharmacokinetic evaluation where healthy volunteers took tablets of DRT-1 (300 mg) once and the reference drug, two tablets of conventional immediate release tablet (Daxfen, 300 mg), with a 6-h interval between them was studied. The 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmically transformed AUC (0-24 h), Cmax (0-6 h), and Cmax (6-24 h) values of the dual release tablet compared to those of the conventional immediate release tablet were calculated to be between 0.9176 and 1.0007, 0.9240 and 1.1968, and 0.8713 and 1.1414, respectively. When the immediate release tablet was taken two times with a six hour interval between doses it showed a bioequivalent effect to taking the dual release tablet once within 12 h. The Cmax was reached due to the rapid absorption of the immediate release portion of the dual release tablet and the AUC was maintained due to continuous absorption of the extended release portion. PMID:19099235

  9. Stability studies of aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets.

    PubMed

    al-Gohary, O M; al-Kassas, R S

    2000-04-01

    Accelerated stability testing was performed on aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets as well as aspirin-maalox marketed double layer tablets (Ascriptin) in order to evaluate the effect of the presence of the alkaline moieties of the antacid (magaldrate and maalox) on the chemical stability of aspirin. The results were compared simultaneously with that obtained from the marketed Aspro plain tablets. The results revealed that the presence of the alkaline moieties in the tested tablets has increased the rate of aspirin decomposition and reduced its shelf-life. This effect was more pronounced for aspirin tablets containing magaldrate antacid. Determination of shelf-lives at 25 degrees C for the prepared and the marketed tablets was carried out using Arrhenius plots and the results showed that they were 35, 34.5 and 13.5 months for Aspro, Ascriptin and aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets, respectively. The effect of storage for 50 days and at different temperatures, on the crushing strength and the disintegration time of the prepared and the marked tablets showed a slight decrease in the disintegration time and the crushing strength of the tablets as the storage temperature increased. Aspro tablets did not produce the same results. The in vitro release data of the prepared aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets and the marketed Ascriptin tablets stored for 50 days and at different storage temperatures as well as Aspro tablets stored at 70 degrees C were best fitted to the first-order kinetics model. The release data of Aspro tablets stored at 50 and 60 degrees C for 50 days were best fitted to Higuchi's model. PMID:10812933

  10. Effects of voluntary exercise on hippocampal long-term potentiation in morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Miladi-Gorji, H; Rashidy-Pour, A; Fathollahi, Y; Semnanian, S; Jadidi, M

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of voluntary exercise on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were randomly distributed into the saline-sedentary (Sal/Sed), the dependent-sedentary, the saline-exercise (Sal/Exc), and the dependent-exercise (D/Exc) groups. The Sal/Exc and the D/Exc groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 10 days. The Sal/Sed and the morphine-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same extent of time. Morphine (10 mg/kg) was injected bi-daily (12 h interval) during 10 days of voluntary exercise. On day 11, 2h after the morphine injection, the in vivo LTP in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was examined. The theta frequency primed bursts were delivered to the perforant path for induction of LTP. Population spike (PS) amplitude and the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) slope were measured as indices of increase in synaptic efficacy. Chronic morphine increased the mean basal EPSP, and augmented PS-LTP. Exercise significantly increased the mean baseline EPSP and PS responses, and augmented PS-LTP in both saline and morphine-treated groups. Moreover, the increase of PS-LTP in the morphine-exercise group was greater (22.5%), but not statistically significant, than that of the Sal/Exc group. These results may imply an additive effect between exercise and morphine on mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Such an interaction between exercise and chronic morphine may influence cognitive functions in opiate addicts. PMID:24141180

  11. Nitric oxide in central amygdala potentiates expression of conditioned withdrawal induced by morphine

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Manizheh; Rahimpour, Mahnaz; Karimi, Sara; Sahraei, Hedayat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate if nitric oxide (NO) in the central amygdala (CeA) is involved in the expression of withdrawal aspects induced by morphine. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g) were bilaterally cannulated in the CeA and conditioned to morphine using an unbiased paradigm. Morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected once a day throughout the conditioning phase of the procedure. This phase also included 3-saline paired sessions. Naloxone (0.1-0.4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]), an antagonist of opioid receptors, was administered i.p. 10 min prior to testing of morphine-induced withdrawal features. The NO precursor, L-arginine (0.3-3 ?g/rat) was intra-CeA injected prior to testing of naloxone response. To evaluate the involvement of NO system an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (0.3-3 ?g/rat), was injected ahead of L-arginine. Control group received saline solely instead of drug. As a complementary study, the activation of NOS was studied by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d). Results: Morphine induced a significant increase in wet dog shaking and grooming behaviors compared with controls. Injection of naloxone pre-testing of morphine response significantly reversed the response to morphine. However, pre-microinjection of L-arginine intra-CeA recovered the response to morphine. Injection of L-NAME intra-CeA ahead of L-arginine though had no effect behaviorally, but, inhibited the NOS which has been evidenced by NADPH-d. Conclusion: The present study shows that NO in the CeA potentiates the expression of conditioned withdrawal induced by morphine paired with naloxone. PMID:24550586

  12. Different interaction of codeine and morphine with DNA: a concept for simultaneous determination.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Heydari-Bafrooei, E; Rezaei, B

    2013-03-15

    In this study, the interaction between codeine and morphine with dsDNA was assessed at pH 7.0. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDDA, was used as a dispersant of MWCNTs. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at pencil graphite electrode (PGE) showed that both molecules were electrochemically oxidized due to the presence of phenolic and amino groups in their structures. When DNA was added to the solution, the electrochemical signal of codeine and morphine was decreased and shifted to more negative and positive potentials, respectively. The interaction modes were respectively electrostatic for codeine and intercalation for morphine with two anodic peaks of codeine being merged into them when DNA concentration was increased. At high DNA concentrations, a sharp anodic wave for codeine and a clear discrimination of codeine and morphine oxidation peaks were observed. Finally, a pencil graphite electrode was modified with carbon nanotubes and DNA was tested in order to determine codeine and morphine in solution. Electrochemical oxidation of codeine and morphine bonded on dsDNA/MWCNTs-PDDA/PGE was used to obtain an analytical signal. Allowing five min as an accumulation time, a linear dependence was observed between 0.05 and 40 ?g mL(-1) for codeine and 0.05 and 42 ?g mL(-1) for morphine. Detection limits of 0.041 and 0.043 ?g mL(-1) were obtained for codeine and morphine, respectively. The biosensor was applied to validate its capability for the analysis of codeine and morphine in blood serum, urine samples and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:23079341

  13. Intra-accumbal CB1 receptor blockade reduced extinction and reinstatement of morphine.

    PubMed

    Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar, Hossein; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-10-01

    The limbic dopaminergic reward system is the main target of morphine-like drugs which begins from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends its dopaminergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Cannabinoid receptors exist in afferent neurons from these areas to the NAc and can modulate glutamate synaptic transmission in the NAc. Cannabinoids can interact with the opiate system in reward-related behaviors; nevertheless these systems' interaction in extinction duration and reinstatement has not been shown. In the present study, the effects of bilateral intra-accumbal administration of AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist, on the duration of the extinction phase and reinstatement to morphine were investigated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Forty eight adult male albino Wistar rats were used. Bilateral intra-accumbal administration of AM251 (15, 45 and 90?M/0.5?l DMSO per side) was performed. Subcutaneous administration of morphine (5mg/kg) in three consecutive days was used to induce CPP. The results showed that administration of the maximal dose of AM251 during the extinction period significantly reduces duration of extinction and reinstatement to morphine. Administration of the middle dose during the extinction period significantly attenuated reinstatement to morphine. A single microinjection of the middle dose just before the reinstatement phase significantly attenuated reinstatement to morphine only, while bilateral intra-accumbal administration of neither the lowest dose nor the vehicle (DMSO) had any effects. These results for the first time indicated that CB1 receptors within the NAc are involved in the maintenance of morphine rewarding properties, and morphine seeking behaviors in extinguished morphine-induced CPP rats. PMID:26057574

  14. Postoperative analgesia after paediatric orchidopexy: evaluation of a bupivacaine-morphine mixture.

    PubMed

    Wolf, A R; Hughes, D; Wade, A; Mather, S J; Prys-Roberts, C

    1990-04-01

    The value of combining morphine with bupivacaine for caudal analgesia was investigated. Thirty children, undergoing orchidopexy, received a caudal block of 0.125% bupivacaine with or without morphine 0.05 mg kg-1. Analgesia, side-effects, ventilatory frequency and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were recorded after operation. None of the 15 patients receiving the bupivacaine-morphine mixture required post-operative opioids, whereas eight of 15 patients receiving bupivacaine alone needed additional opioid analgesia. The incidence of side effects after surgery was similar for the two groups and there was no detectable difference in ventilatory frequency or SaO2. PMID:1970738

  15. Exploration of cancer pain treatment by morphine infusion through an embedded device.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ying; Huang, Xin-En; Lu, Yan-Yan; Wu, Xue-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Cancer pain treatment with morphine presents particular problems in patients with renal failure needing haemodialysis. We here explore the various possibilities of intrathecal opioid administration for intractable chronic and acute cancer pain. Morphine, as the only opioid approved by the Food and Drug Agency for administration, has been increasingly utilized for this purpose. For over 3 decades, there have been numerous reports on non- nociceptive side effects associated with ever increasing long-term intrathecal morphine usage. Our review of the literature and our own experience suggests that a subarachnoid device allows good pain control effect after patient controlled intravenous infusion failure at the time of haemodialysis. PMID:22394006

  16. Comparison of oral with rectal mesalazine in the treatment of ulcerative proctitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gionchetti; F. Rizzello; A. Venturi; M. Ferretti; C. Brignola; M. Miglioli; M. Campieri

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral mesalazine with mesalazine suppositories in patients with active ulcerative proctitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A four-week, randomized, single-blind trial was performed in 58 patients with active, histologically confirmed ulcerative proctitis (?15 cm) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral 800-mg mesalazine tablets taken three times

  17. Beyaz®: an oral contraceptive fortified with folate.

    PubMed

    Fruzzetti, Franca

    2012-01-01

    Beyaz(®) (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany) consists of 28 film-coated tablets: 24 tablets each containing 3 mg drospirenone plus 20 µg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 451 µg levomefolate calcium followed by four tablets, each containing 451 µg levomefolate calcium. It has the same indications of the parent compound 20 µg EE/3 mg drospirenone in a 24/4-day regimen (i.e., contraception, moderate acne, premenstrual dysforic disorder). In addition, the 24-day regimen with 20 µg EE/3 mg drospirenone/levomefolate calcium assure significant increases in red blood cell and plasma folate levels reaching values indicated to be protective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects. A progressive decrease in folate levels has been observed in women taking a 30 µg EE pill fortified with the same dose of levomefolate calcium upon discontinuation. At 4 and 8 weeks following cessation of the oral contraceptive, red blood cell folate levels >906 nmol/l were measured in 85 and 60% of women respectively. Because of this, the folate-containing pill may aid in reducing the risk of neural tube defects in a pregnancy conceived during use or shortly after the discontinuation of the product. PMID:22171769

  18. Electrolyte-induced compositional heterogeneity: A novel approach for rate-controlled oral drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viness Pillay; Reza Fassihi

    1999-01-01

    In this work a new approach for in situ interactions between drug and electrolyte(s) is devised to control the release of highly water soluble drugs from oral hydrophilic monolithic systems. The model drug diltiazem hydrochloride (water solubility in excess of 50% at 25 °C), in conjunction with specific electrolytes, was principally employed in the design of swellable tablet formulations comprised

  19. Oral Therapy of Skeletal Muscle Spasm with Combined Orphenadrine-Fluphenazine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pennington Warter; Ward M. Schultz; James L Brady

    1963-01-01

    The oral use of combined orphenadrine fluphenazine (Orpitil®) for relief of skeletal muscle spasm or stiffness was evaluated in 111 patients with acute and chronic musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders. Given usually in a dosage of one tablet twice daily, the combination was a therapeutically effective and generally well tolerated skeletal muscle spasmolytic.The results of exploratory trials in 47 patients admitted

  20. Zero-order absorption and linear disposition of oral colchicine in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Thomas; C. Girre; J. M. Scherrmann; P. Francheteau; J. L. Steimer

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of colchicine has been studied in nine healthy male volunteers after oral doses of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg as tablets. Plasma and urine samples were collected over 48 h and analysed for colchicine by radioimmunoassay.