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Sample records for oral morphine tablets

  1. Morphine Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine extended-release tablets and capsules are only used ... controlled by the use of other pain medications. Morphine extended-release tablets and capsules should not be ...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of morphine 3-esters after oral administration in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Otter, K; Mignat, C; Heber, D; Ziegler, A

    2001-06-01

    Pharmacokinetics of three morphine 3-esters-3-(2,2-dimethylvaleroyl) morphine (A), 3-(2-phenylbenzoyl) morphine (B), and 3-(2,2-diphenylpropionyl) morphine (C) was characterized after single oral administration in rabbits. Blood was sampled up to 24 h and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) was collected with the last blood sample. The concentration of the morphine 3-esters, morphine, morphine 3-glucuronide and morphine 6-glucuronide were determined in plasma and CSF using HPLC UV-detection. The morphine 3-esters were suggested to be a subject to marked presystemic elimination, since, in comparison to the administration of the un-esterified morphine, relatively low concentrations of morphine and morphine glucuronides were detected in plasma. The rate of disposition of morphine was dependent on the hydrolytic stability of the esters. The mean (+/- S.E.) plasma half-life of morphine was 0.9 +/- 0.2 h, 2.5 +/- 0.6 h and 3.5 +/- 3.5 h after the administration of A, B and C, respectively, compared to 0.9 +/- 0.2 h as estimated after the administration of non-esterified morphine. An analgesic effect will be achieved, since morphine was detected in CSF even 24 h after the application of the ester pro-drugs. It is concluded that esterification at the 3-position may be adapted to obtain sustained plasma levels of morphine. PMID:11446167

  3. Rifampin reduces oral morphine absorption: a case of transdermal buprenorphine selection based on morphine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fudin, Jeffrey; Fontenelle, Dania Vanesta; Payne, Annette

    2012-12-01

    A 51-year-old male was referred to the Stratton Veterans Affairs Medical Center Pain Service after hospital admission for endocarditis with a history of heroin use and chronic low back pain. During his hospital stay he experienced a reduction in his serum morphine level ostensibly as a result of concomitant rifampin administration. We hypothesize that diminished absorption was from rifampin-mediated intestinal P-glycoprotein induction, ultimately decreasing serum free morphine and metabolites. The case became more complex in an attempt to balance managed pain, history of substance abuse, completion of antibiotic therapy, and a reasonable pain regimen upon discharge. Ultimately, the patient was titrated onto a buprenorphine transdermal patch, the initiation of which was based on serum free morphine and an extrapolated oral morphine dose by calculation. PMID:23216174

  4. High prevalence of 6-acetylmorphine in morphine-positive oral fluid specimens.

    PubMed

    Presley, Lance; Lehrer, Michael; Seiter, William; Hahn, Dawn; Rowland, Barbara; Smith, Melissa; Kardos, Keith W; Fritch, Dean; Salamone, Sal; Niedbala, R Sam; Cone, Edward J

    2003-04-23

    Identification of 6-acetylmorphine, a specific metabolite of heroin, is considered to be definitive evidence of heroin use. Although 6-acetylmorphine has been identified in oral fluid following controlled heroin administration, no prevalence data is available for oral fluid specimens collected in the workplace. We evaluated the prevalence of positive test results for 6-acetylmorphine in 77,218 oral fluid specimens collected over a 10-month period (January-October 2001) from private workplace testing programs. Specimens were analyzed by Intercept immunoassay (cutoff concentration=30 ng/ml) and confirmed by GC-MS-MS (cutoff concentrations=30 ng/ml for morphine and codeine, and 3 ng/ml for 6-acetylmorphine). Only morphine-positive oral fluid specimens were tested by GC-MS-MS for 6-acetylmorphine. A total of 48 confirmed positive morphine results were identified. An additional 107 specimens were confirmed for codeine only. Of the 48 morphine-positive specimens, 32 (66.7%) specimens were positive for 6-acetylmorphine. Mean concentrations (+/-S.E.M.) of morphine, 6-acetylmorphine and codeine in the 32 specimens were 755+/-201, 416+/-168 and 196+/-36 ng/ml, respectively. Concentrations of 6-acetylmorphine in oral fluid ranged from 3 to 4095 ng/ml. The mean ratio (+/-S.E.M.) of 6-acetylmorphine/morphine was 0.33+/-0.06. It is suggested that, based on controlled dose studies of heroin administration, ratios >1 of 6-acetylmorphine/morphine in oral fluid are consistent with heroin use within the last hour before specimen collection. The confirmation of 6-acetylmorphine in 66.7% of morphine-positive oral fluid specimens indicates that oral fluid testing for opioids may offer advantages over urine in workplace drug testing programs and in testing drugged drivers for recent heroin use. PMID:12742685

  5. Morphine and codeine in oral fluid after controlled poppy seed administration.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Newmeyer, Matthew N; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ron; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-07-01

    Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programmes. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only two addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45?g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7?mg morphine and 3.1?mg codeine, 8?h apart to 17 healthy adults. All OF specimens were screened by on-site OF immunoassay Draeger DrugTest 5000, and confirmed with OF collected with Oral-Eze device and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (1?g/L morphine and codeine limits of quantification). Specimens (n?=?459) were collected before and up to 32?h after the first dose. All specimens screened positive 0.5?h after dosing and remained positive for 0.5-13?h at Draeger 20?g/L morphine cut-off. Maximum OF morphine and codeine concentrations (Cmax ) were 177 and 32.6?g/L, with times to Cmax (Tmax ) of 0.5-1?h and 0.5-2.5?h post-dose, respectively. Windows of detection after the second dose extended at least 24?h for morphine and to 18?h for codeine. After both doses, the last morphine positive OF result was 1?h with 40?g/L 2004 proposed US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cut-off, and 0.5?h with 95?g/L cut-off, recently recommended by the Driving under the Influence of Drugs and Medicines project. Positive OF morphine results are possible 0.5-1?h after ingestion of 15.7?mg of morphine in raw poppy seeds, depending on the cut-off employed. PMID:25345619

  6. Oral administration of morphine versus ibuprofen to manage postfracture pain in children: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Poonai, Naveen; Bhullar, Gina; Lin, Kangrui; Papini, Adam; Mainprize, David; Howard, Jocelyn; Teefy, John; Bale, Michelle; Langford, Cindy; Lim, Rodrick; Stitt, Larry; Rieder, Michael J.; Ali, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent warnings from Health Canada regarding codeine for children have led to increased use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and morphine for common injuries such as fractures. Our objective was to determine whether morphine administered orally has superior efficacy to ibuprofen in fracture-related pain. Methods: We used a parallel group, randomized, blinded superiority design. Children who presented to the emergency department with an uncomplicated extremity fracture were randomly assigned to receive either morphine (0.5 mg/kg orally) or ibuprofen (10 mg/kg) for 24 hours after discharge. Our primary outcome was the change in pain score using the Faces Pain Scale Revised (FPS-R). Participants were asked to record pain scores immediately before and 30 minutes after receiving each dose. Results: We analyzed data from 66 participants in the morphine group and 68 participants in the ibuprofen group. For both morphine and ibuprofen, we found a reduction in pain scores (mean prepost difference standard deviation for dose 1: morphine 1.5 1.2, ibuprofen 1.3 1.0, between-group difference [?] 0.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) ?0.2 to 0.6]; dose 2: morphine 1.3 1.3, ibuprofen 1.3 0.9, ? 0 [95% CI ?0.4 to 0.4]; dose 3: morphine 1.3 1.4, ibuprofen 1.4 1.1, ? ?0.1 [95% CI ?0.7 to 0.4]; and dose 4: morphine 1.5 1.4, ibuprofen 1.1 1.2, ? 0.4 [95% CI ?0.2 to 1.1]). We found no significant differences in the change in pain scores between morphine and ibuprofen between groups at any of the 4 time points (p = 0.6). Participants in the morphine group had significantly more adverse effects than those in the ibuprofen group (56.1% v. 30.9%, p < 0.01). Interpretation: We found no significant difference in analgesic efficacy between orally administered morphine and ibuprofen. However, morphine was associated with a significantly greater number of adverse effects. Our results suggest that ibuprofen remains safe and effective for outpatient pain management in children with uncomplicated fractures. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01690780. PMID:25349008

  7. Morphine mouthwash for the management of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarvizadeh, Mostafa; Hemati, Simin; Meidani, Mohsen; Ashouri, Moghtada; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Shahsanai, Armindokht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral mucositis is a debilitating side effect of cancer treatment for which there is not much successful treatments at yet. We evaluated the effectiveness of topical morphine compared with a routine mouthwash in managing cancer treatment-induced mucositis. Materials and Methods: Thirty head and neck cancer patients with severe mucositis (World Health Organization Grade III or IV) were randomized into the morphine and magic mouthwash groups. Patients received morphine sulfate 2% or magic solution (contained magnesium aluminum hydroxide, viscous lidocaine, and diphenhydramine), 10 ml for every 3 h, six times a day, for 6 days. Both groups received same dietary and oral hygiene instructions and care. Mucositis was graded at baseline and every 3 days after treatment. Patients satisfaction and drug effect maintenance were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (mean age of 49.5 13.2 years, 63.3% female) completed the trial; 15 in the morphine group and 13 in the magic group. There was a decrease in mucositis severity in both of the morphine (P < 0.001) and magic (P = 0.049) groups. However, at the 6th day, more reduction was observed in mucositis severity in the morphine compared with magic group (P = 0.045). Drug effect maintenance was similar between the two groups, but patients in the morphine group were more satisfied by their treatments than those in the magic group (P = 0.008). Conclusions: Topical morphine is more effective and more satisfactory to patients than the magic mouthwash in reducing severity of cancer treatment-induced oral mucositis. More studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up are required in this regard. PMID:25789270

  8. Within-subject comparison of the psychopharmacological profiles of oral oxycodone and oral morphine in non-drug-abusing volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lichtor, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Nonmedical use and abuse of prescription opioids is a significant problem in the USA. Little attention has been paid to assessing the relative psychopharmacological profile (including abuse liability-related effects) of specific prescription opioids. Objectives The aim of this study is to directly compare the psychopharmacological profile of two oral opioids within the same subject. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study was done in which 20 non-drug-abusing volunteers ingested 10 and 20 mg of oxycodone, 30 and 60 mg of morphine, and placebo in separate sessions. Drug doses were equated on an objective measure of opiate effects: miosis. Subjective, psychomotor, reinforcing, and physiological effects of the opioids were assessed. Results In general, the two opioids at equimiotic doses produced similar prototypic opiate-like effects and psychomotor impairment of similar magnitude. However, several effects were found only with 20 mg oxycodone. Both drugs produced abuse liability-related subjective effects but also dysphoric effects, particularly with 60 mg morphine. Neither drug at either dose functioned as a reinforcer, as measured by the Multiple Choice Procedure. Relative potency ratios indicated an average oxycodone:morphine ratio of 1:3. Conclusions The psychopharmacological profile of oxycodone and morphine at equimiotic doses had many similarities; however, differences were found in producing abuse liability-related and dysphoric effects. In the medical community, it is commonly accepted that oral oxycodone is 1.5 to 2 times as potent as oral morphine in producing analgesia; using this ratio, although patients may experience similar degrees of pain relief, those receiving oxycodone may be experiencing stronger and potentially different psychopharmacological effects. PMID:17899018

  9. Effects of oral morphine on breathlessness and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Light, R W; Muro, J R; Sato, R I; Stansbury, D W; Fischer, C E; Brown, S E

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that opiates increase the maximal external work performed at exhaustion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanism responsible for this improvement in exercise tolerance is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an oral morphine solution (0.8 mg/kg) on the exercise tolerance, perception of dyspnea, and arterial blood gases of patients with COPD. Thirteen eucapnic patients with stable COPD (FEV1 = 0.99 +/- 0.48) underwent duplicate incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion (Emax) after the ingestion of placebo and after the ingestion of morphine. After the ingestion of morphine, the maximal workload increased by 18% (p less than 0.001) and the VO2 increased by 19.3% (p less than 0.001). Ten of the 13 patients had a higher ventilation at Emax after morphine ingestion. Despite the higher ventilation at Emax after morphine, the mean Borg score was not significantly higher. At Emax after morphine ingestion, the PaO2 (65.8 +/- 11.6 mm Hg) was significantly lower and the PaCO2 (43.5 +/- 8.3 mm Hg) was significantly higher than at Emax after placebo (71.9 +/- 15.5 and 38.3 +/- 8.5, respectively). When data at the highest equivalent workload were analyzed, the ventilation and the Borg scores were significantly lower, whereas the VO2 and VCO2 were comparable. From this study, we conclude that the administration of opiates can substantially increase the exercise capacity of patients with COPD. The improved exercise tolerance appears to be related to both a higher PaCO2 resulting in lowered ventilation requirements for a given workload and also to a reduced perception of breathlessness for a given level of ventilation. PMID:2492170

  10. Morphine stimulates cell migration of oral epithelial cells by delta-opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Charbaji, Nada; Schfer-Korting, Monika; Kchler, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of chemoradiation regimens and manifestation can be dose-limiting for the therapy, can impair the patient's nutritional condition and quality of life due to severe pain. The therapeutic options are limited; often only an alleviation of the symptoms such as pain reduction by using systemic opioids is possible. Stimulating opioid receptors on peripheral neurons and dermal tissue, potent analgesic effects are induced e.g. in skin grafted patients. Advantageous effects on the cell migration and, thus, on the wound healing process are described, too. In this study, we investigated whether opioid receptors are also expressed on oral epithelial cells and if morphine can modulate their cell migration behavior. The expression of the opioid receptors MOR, DOR and KOR on primary human oral epithelial cells was verified. Furthermore, a significantly accelerated cell migration was observed following incubation with morphine. The effect even slightly exceeded the cell migration stimulating effect of TGF-: After 14 h of morphine treatment about 86% of the wound area was closed, whereas TGF- application resulted in a closed wound area of 80%. With respect to morphine stimulated cell migration we demonstrate that DOR plays a key role and we show the involvement of the MAPK members Erk 1/2 and p38 using Western blot analysis.Further studies in more complex systems in vitro and in vivo are required. Nevertheless, these findings might open up a new therapeutic option for the treatment of oral mucositis. PMID:22900034

  11. Randomised crossover trial of transdermal fentanyl and sustained release oral morphine for treating chronic non-cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Laurie; Hays, Helen; Jensen, Niels-Henrik; de Waroux, Bernard Le Polain; Bolt, Michiel; Donald, Royden; Kalso, Eija

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To compare patients' preference for transdermal fentanyl or sustained release oral morphine, their level of pain control, and their quality of life after treatment. Design Randomised, multicentre, international, open label, crossover trial. Setting 35 centres in Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and South Africa. Participants 256 patients (aged 26-82 years) with chronic non-cancer pain who had been treated with opioids. Main outcome measures Patients' preference for transdermal fentanyl or sustained release oral morphine, pain control, quality of life, and safety assessments. Results Of 212 patients, 138 (65%) preferred transdermal fentanyl, whereas 59 (28%) preferred sustained release oral morphine and 15 (7%) expressed no preference. Better pain relief was the main reason for preference for fentanyl given by 35% of patients. More patients considered pain control as being good or very good with fentanyl than with morphine (35% v 23%, P=0.002). These results were reflected in both patients' and investigators' opinions on the global efficacy of transdermal fentanyl. Patients receiving fentanyl had on average higher quality of life scores than those receiving morphine. The incidence of adverse events was similar in both treatment groups; however, more patients experienced constipation with morphine than with fentanyl (48% v 29%, P<0.001). Overall, 41% of patients experienced mild or moderate cutaneous problems associated with wearing the transdermal fentanyl patch, and more patients withdrew because of adverse events during treatment with fentanyl than with morphine (10% v 5%). However, within the subgroup of patients naive to both fentanyl and morphine, similar numbers of patients withdrew owing to adverse effects (11% v 10%, respectively). Conclusion Transdermal fentanyl was preferred to sustained release oral morphine by patients with chronic non-cancer pain previously treated with opioids. The main reason for preference was better pain relief, achieved with less constipation and an enhanced quality of life. What is already known on this topicThe clinical use of potent opioids in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain is supported by retrospective, survey data and small randomised controlled trials showing efficacy and safetyStudies with transdermal fentanyl have shown efficacy and preference over sustained release oral morphine in the treatment of cancer painWhat this study addsThis is the first study to provide comparative data supporting treatment options with potent opioids for chronic non-cancer painBoth transdermal fentanyl and sustained release oral morphine provided effective and well tolerated pain reliefDuring fentanyl treatment patients experienced superior pain relief, higher quality of life, and less constipation; fentanyl was preferred to morphine by 65% of patients PMID:11348910

  12. Formulation of multiparticulate systems as lyophilised orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Alhusban, Farhan; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2011-11-01

    The current study aimed to exploit the electrostatic associative interaction between carrageenan and gelatin to optimise a formulation of lyophilised orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) suitable for multiparticulate delivery. A central composite face centred (CCF) design was applied to study the influence of formulation variables (gelatin, carrageenan and alanine concentrations) on the crucial responses of the formulation (disintegration time, hardness, viscosity and pH). The disintegration time and viscosity were controlled by the associative interaction between gelatin and carrageenan upon hydration which forms a strong complex that increases the viscosity of the stock solution and forms tablet with higher resistant to disintegration in aqueous medium. Therefore, the levels of carrageenan, gelatin and their interaction in the formulation were the significant factors. In terms of hardness, increasing gelatin and alanine concentration was the most effective way to improve tablet hardness. Accordingly, optimum concentrations of these excipients were needed to find the best balance that fulfilled all formulation requirements. The revised model showed high degree of predictability and optimisation reliability and therefore was successful in developing an ODT formulation with optimised properties that were able deliver enteric coated multiparticulates of omeprazole without compromising their functionality. PMID:21693189

  13. Further improvement of orally disintegrating tablets using micronized ethylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Yutaka; Irisawa, Yosuke; Okimoto, Kazuto; Osawa, Takashi; Yamashita, Shinji

    2012-02-28

    The aim of this study is to design a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing micronized ethylcellulose (MEC). The new ODT was prepared by physical mixing of rapidly disintegrating granules (RDGs) with MEC. To obtain RDGs, mannitol was spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch and crospovidone (9:1, w/w ratio) using a fluidized-bed granulator (suspension spray-coating method). The new ODTs were evaluated for their hardness, friability, thickness, internal structure (X-ray-CT scanning), in vivo disintegration time, and water absorption rate. Since MEC increases tablet hardness by increasing the contact frequency between the granules, the new ODTs could obtain high hardness (>50 N) and low friability (<0.5 %) with relatively low compression force. In addition, fine capillary channels formed in ODTs facilitated the wicking action and enabled rapid disintegration in vivo (<30 s). On the other hand, since MEC has low hygroscopicity, the tablet hardness of ODTs containing MEC remained high for 1 month in high-humidity conditions. In conclusion, the new ODTs containing MEC developed in this study possessed superior properties for clinical use and are expected to be applied for a wide range of functionally released drugs for bitter taste masking, sustained release, and controlled release (pH-dependent film coating, matrix, and microcapsule). PMID:22138608

  14. Formulation study for orally disintegrating tablet using partly pregelatinized starch binder.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Kazuki; Kanada, Ken; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Masaki; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to design orally disintegrating tablets by employing a formulation design approach that enables the production of such tablets in the same facilities used for the production of solid dosage forms on an industrial scale. First, we examined the relationships between the types of binders used in the tablets and the properties of orally disintegrating tablets prepared by the wet granulation method. Results revealed that partly pregelatinized starch is a relatively suitable binder for orally disintegrating tablets as it also serves as a disintegrant. Next, we employed a central composite design for 2 factors, namely, corn starch and partly pregelatinized starch, in order to design granules suited for orally disintegrating tablets composed of D-mannitol, corn starch or partly pregelatinized starch. The effects of these 2 factors on 3 types of responses, namely, 50% granule size, compressing index and disintegrating index, were analyzed with a software package, and responses to changes in the factors were predicted. This study investigated the effects of binder type and binder content in orally disintegrating tablets, and provided evidence that the binder exerts a strong influence on tablet properties, and is therefore an important component of orally disintegrating tablets. PMID:21804239

  15. Effects of Jitai tablet, a traditional Chinese medicine, on spontaneous withdrawal symptoms and modulation of dopaminergic functions in morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shaoang; Gao, Jinlong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Jinming; Huang, Yiyun; Xu, Shasha; Han, Mei; Liang, Jianhui

    2015-05-01

    Chronic opioid abuse can cause damage to dopamine neurons. However, there are currently no effective pharmacotherapies to reverse this damage, even though progress has been made in the development of therapeutic strategies for opioid dependence. The Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine formulation most commonly used for opioid addiction treatment in China. In a morphine spontaneous withdrawal rat model we investigated the effects of JTT, either given before (pre-treatment) or after (post-treatment) morphine administration, on the dopamine system. Our study has shown the following: (1) pre- and post-treatment with JTT were effective at alleviating the wet dog shakes and episodes of writhing; (2) pre-treatment with JTT inhibited the morphine-induced decreases in dopamine transporter (DAT), dopamine D2 receptor (D2 R) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels in the striatum (p?morphine group) and maintained them at normal levels; and (3) post-treatment with JTT restored the densities of DAT, D2 R and TH in the striatum to normal levels (p?morphine group). These results support the notion that modulation of the dopamine system in the striatum may play a role for JTT's therapeutic effect on the alleviation of opioid withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25626992

  16. Enhanced oral bioavailability of felodipine by novel solid self-microemulsifying tablets.

    PubMed

    Jing, Boyu; Wang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Rui; Zheng, Xia; Zhao, Jia; Tang, Si; He, Zhonggui

    2016-03-01

    The novel self-microemulsifying (SME) tablets were developed to enhance the oral bioavailability of a poor water-soluble drug felodipine (FDP). Firstly, FDP was dissolved in the optimized liquid self-microemusifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing Miglyol 812, Cremophor RH 40, Tween 80 and Transcutol P, and the mixture was solidified with porous silicon dioxide and crospovidone as adsorbents. Then after combining the solidified powders with other excipients, the solid SME tablets were prepared by wet granulation-compression method. The prepared tablets possessed satisfactory characterization; the droplet size of the SME tablets following self-emulsification in water was nearly equivalent to the liquid SMEDDS (68.4??14.0 and 64.4??12.0?nm); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) analysis demonstrated that FDP in SME tablets had undergone a polymorphism transition from a crystal form to an amorphous state, which was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A similar dissolution performance of SME tablets and liquid SMEDDS was also obtained under the sink condition (85% within 10?min), both significantly higher than commercial tablets. The oral bioavailability was evaluated for the SME tablets, liquid SMEDDS and commercial conventional tablets in the fasted beagle dogs. The AUC of FDP from the SME tablets was about 2-fold greater than that of conventional tablets, but no significant difference was found when compared with the liquid SMEDDS. Accordingly, these preliminary results suggest that this formulation approach offers a useful large-scale producing method to prepare the solid SME tablets from the liquid SMEDDS for oral bioavailability equivalent enhancement of poorly soluble FDP. PMID:26177197

  17. The Influence of Formulation and Manufacturing Process Parameters on the Characteristics of Lyophilized Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rhys J.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Levina, Marina; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2011-01-01

    Gelatin is a principal excipient used as a binder in the formulation of lyophilized orally disintegrating tablets. The current study focuses on exploiting the physicochemical properties of gelatin by varying formulation parameters to determine their influence on orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) characteristics. Process parameters, namely pH and ionic strength of the formulations, and ball milling were investigated to observe their effects on excipient characteristics and tablet formation. The properties and characteristics of the formulations and tablets which were investigated included: glass transition temperature, wettability, porosity, mechanical properties, disintegration time, morphology of the internal structure of the freeze-dried tablets, and drug dissolution. The results from the pH study revealed that adjusting the pH of the formulation away from the isoelectric point of gelatin, resulted in an improvement in tablet disintegration time possibly due to increase in gelatin swelling resulting in greater tablet porosity. The results from the ionic strength study revealed that the inclusion of sodium chloride influenced tablet porosity, tablet morphology and the glass transition temperature of the formulations. Data from the milling study showed that milling the excipients influenced formulation characteristics, namely wettability and powder porosity. The study concludes that alterations of simple parameters such as pH and salt concentration have a significant influence on formulation of ODT. PMID:24310589

  18. Evaluation of coprocessed disintegrants produced from tapioca starch and mannitol in orally disintegrating paracetamol tablet.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated two novel coprocessed excipients (with two methods) as disintegrants in an orally disintegrating paracetamol tablet formulation. The tablets produced were assessed for mechanical properties with the use of friability and tensile strength while the release properties were assessed with wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The results obtained showed that the methods of coprocessing and disintegrant incorporation influenced the activities of the disintegrants. The novel disintegrant enhanced the mechanical properties of the tablets containing them as shown by lower friability and higher tensile strength of the tablets. The result further showed that the rate and amount of water absorbed, type of disintegrant and the method of disintegrant incorporation influenced the total amount of paracetamol released. The study concluded that the novel disintegrants will be effective in the formulation of orally disintegrating paracetamol tablets. PMID:25362809

  19. [Preparation of orally disintegrating tablets for masking of unpleasant taste: comparison with corrective-adding methods].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yayoi; Ito, Akihiko; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    Many orally disintegrating tablets have recently been developed to improve oral ingestion and usability and are widely administered clinically, resulting in improved quality of life for patients. Since orally disintegrating tablets rapidly disintegrate in the mouth, the masking of unpleasant taste is important. We investigated the masking of the taste of furosemide (FU) as a model drug with correctives and prepared orally disintegrating tablets. Using maltitol (MA) as a corrective, granules were prepared employing mixing, coating, and mixing/coating methods using a desktop granulator. Each preparation was subjected to tasting. The taste was masked well when granules were prepared by the mixing and mixing/coating methods. Tablets were prepared from these granules with mannitol and crystalline cellulose added as fillers. Tablets made from granules prepared by the mixing and mixing/coating methods showed appropriate strength and disintegrated rapidly. When the amount of MA was increased in the mixing method, the disintegration time was prolonged, and thus the amount should be determined considering both taste masking and disintegration property. The results showed that orally disintegrating tablets of insoluble drugs with an unpleasant taste such as FU should be prepared with the taste masked employing the methods used in this study. PMID:20046069

  20. Long-Term High-dose Oral Morphine in Phantom Limb Pain with No Addiction Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Garg, Rakesh; Bharati, Sachidanand Jee; Gupta, Nishkarsh; Bhatanagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) is a type of neuropathic pain, which is located in the missing/amputated limb. Phantom pain is difficult to treat as the exact basis of pain mechanism is still unknown. Various methods of treatment for PLP have been described, including pharmacological (NSAIDs, opioids, antiepileptic, antidepressants) and non-pharmacological (TENS, sympathectomy, deep brain stimulation and motor cortex stimulation). Opioids are used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and dose of opioid is determined based on its effect and thus there is no defined ceiling dose for opioids. We report a case where a patient receiving high-dose oral morphine for chronic cancer pain did not demonstrate signs of addiction. PMID:25709194

  1. Development and evaluation of cetirizine HCl taste-masked oral disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Douroumis, Dionysios Dennis; Gryczke, Andreas; Schminke, Silke

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to mask the taste of cetirizine HCl and to incorporate the granules produced in oral disintegrating tablets (ODT). The bitter, active substance was coated by fluidized bed coating using Eudragit RL30-D at levels between 15% and 40% w/w. The ODTs were developed by varying the ratio of superdisintegrants such as sodium croscarmellose, crospovidone grades and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC). A direct compression process was used to compress the ODTs under various compaction forces to optimize tablet robustness. The properties of the compressed tablets including porosity, hardness, friability and dissolution profiles were further investigated. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the tablet disintegration times showed almost identical rapid disintegration below 10 s at the optimal levels of each superdisintegrant. Finally, the taste and sensory evaluation in human volunteers demonstrated excellence in masking the bitter active and tablet palatability. PMID:21181510

  2. Development and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing Ibuprofen granules prepared by hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Gryczke, Andreas; Schminke, Silke; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Beck, Julien; Douroumis, Dennis

    2011-09-01

    In the current study Ibuprofen was embedded in a methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit EPO) matrix to produce solid dispersions by hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing. The obtained granules were incorporated in orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). The tablets were developed by varying the ratio of superdisintegrants such as sodium croscarmellose and crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone grades while a direct compression process was used to compress the ODTs under various compaction forces to optimize tablet robustness. The properties of the compressed tablets which included porosity, hardness, friability and dissolution profiles were further evaluated and compared with Nurofen Meltlet ODTs. The taste and sensory evaluation in human volunteers demonstrated excellence in masking the bitter active and improved tablet palatability. PMID:21592751

  3. Oral Disintegration Tablets of Stavudine for HIV Management: A New Technological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, V.; Ramakrishna, B.; Devi, P. Shalini; Karthik, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stavudine oral disintegration tablets were formulated to minimize the bitter taste and to reduce the first-pass hepatic metabolism. The various precompression parameters like the angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and Hausner's ratio were determined for the powder blend. In this study, 14 formulations of stavudine oral disintegration tablet were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, percentage friability, disintegration time, hardness, wetting time and water absorption ratio. The in vitro dissolution study results of the batch S1 (stavudine+crospovidone+sodium starch glycollate) are encouraging as highest dissolution rate (99.2% in 100 min) and lowest time of disintegration (56 s) was achieved. The in vivo drug release studies were carried out in rabbits and the relative bioavailability of formulation S1 was found to be 2.83 times greater than that of conventional tablets. PMID:23798782

  4. Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Dan; Liang, Zhong-Yuan; Cen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, He; Han, Mei-Gui; Tian, Yun-Qiao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Da-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101), lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS). The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT), in vitro drug release (DR), thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS) on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics. PMID:26640367

  5. Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Dan; Liang, Zhong-Yuan; Cen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, He; Han, Mei-Gui; Tian, Yun-Qiao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Da-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101), lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS). The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT), in vitro drug release (DR), thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS) on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics. PMID:26640367

  6. Enteric-coated tablets improve oral bioavailability of DX-9065, a novel anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshimine; Kanamaru, Taro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shinji; Sakuma, Shinji

    2011-03-18

    Oral bioavailability of DX-9065, a factor Xa inhibitor, was only 3% when it was administered as a conventional capsule formulation in fasted humans, and was further reduced to about one-tenth when it was administered to fed humans. The poor absorption of DX-9065 probably resulted from its low membrane permeability and its electrostatic interaction with bile acid. We designed enteric-coated tablets with the expectation that this pharmaceutical technology will prevent DX-9065 from interacting with bile acid. More than 85% of DX-9065 was released from the tablet coated with hypromellose acetate succinate within 10min in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). Monkey experiments demonstrated that AUC of DX-9065 after oral administration of its enteric-coated tablet was about 5 times that of its aqueous solution in the fasted state. The food effect on drug absorption was also reduced when DX-9065 was administered as an enteric-coated tablet. The average ratio of AUC in a fed state to that in a fasted state was approximately 0.5, even though the ratio was 0.1 when the enteric-coated tablet was substituted with the drug solution. Enteric coating could be a useful method for improving oral absorption of DX-9065 with reduced food effects on drug absorption. PMID:21238588

  7. The effects of preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirement in patients undergoing laparatomy

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Senniye Ulgen; Saracoglu, Ayten; Eti, Zeynep; Umuroglu, Tumay; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the effects of preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative morphine requirement, adverse effects, patients satisfaction, mobilization, time to first defecation and time to discharge in patients undergoing laparotomy. METHODS: Eighty patients (18 to 65 years of age) undergoing elective laparotomy were randomly divided into four groups (n=20 in each group): group C, placebo capsules and normal saline infusion perioperatively (control); group L, placebo capsules and lidocaine 1 mg/kg intravenous bolus dose followed by 2 mg/kg/h infusion until skin closure; group P, 150 mg oral pregabalin and normal saline infusion perioperatively; and group PL, 150 mg oral pregabalin and lidocaine 2 mg/kg/h infusion until skin closure. Hemodynamic parameters, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, analgesic consumption, side effects, time to mobilization, time to first defecation, time to discharge and patients satisfaction were recorded. RESULTS: VAS scores of group L, group P and group PL were lower than group C (P<0.05). Morphine consumption of group P and group PL was lower than group C (P<0.05). Incidence of nausea in group C was higher than group L and group PL. Time to first defecation and mobilization were shorter in group L and group PL compared with group C (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Preoperative oral pregabalin and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion decreased postoperative VAS scores. Preoperative oral pregabalin decreased morphine requirement and perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion hastened gastrointestinal motility and mobilization, and decreased the incidence of nausea in patients undergoing laparotomy. Therefore, preoperative pregabalin with or without lidocaine provides superior pain relief in patients undergoing laparatomy. PMID:25950425

  8. Hair testing in postmortem diagnosis of substance abuse: An unusual case of slow-release oral morphine abuse in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Baillif-Couniou, Valérie; Kintz, Pascal; Sastre, Caroline; Pok, Phak-Rop Pos; Chèze, Marjorie; Pépin, Gilbert; Leonetti, Georges; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2015-11-01

    Morphine sulfate misuse is essentially observed among regular heroin injectors. To our knowledge, primary addiction to morphine sulfate is exceptional, especially among young adolescents. A 13-year-old girl, with no history of addiction, was found dead with three empty blisters of Skenan(®) LP 30 mg at her side. Opiates were detected in biological fluids and hair by chromatographic methods. Blood analyses confirmed morphine overdose (free morphine: 428 ng/mL; total morphine: 584 ng/mL) and segmental hair analysis confirmed regular exposure over several months (maximum morphine concentration 250 pg/mg). Suspecting the victim's mother of recreational use of Skenan(®), the magistrate ordered analysis of her hair, with negative results. From an epidemiological viewpoint, this case of oral morphine sulfate abuse in an adolescent with no previous history suggests the emergence of a new trend of morphine sulfate consumption. From a toxicological viewpoint, it demonstrates the value of hair testing, which documented the victim's regular exposure and made an important contribution to the police investigation. PMID:26492165

  9. Comparison of Glucosamine Absorption After Administration of Oral Liquid, Chewable, and Tablet Formulations to Dogs.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Lara K; Regier, Penny; Achanta, Satyanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Glucosamine (GS) is commonly administered as a nutritional supplement to support joint function. Although many supplements are available, the effect of formulation on oral absorption in dogs is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative bioavailability of GS for liquid, chewable, and tablet formulations containing GS sulfate or hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate. In a randomized cross-over design, supplements were administered daily for 8 days with a 1 wk washout period between treatments. Liquid or Tablet A was administered to four dogs, whereas Liquid or Tablet B was administered to four additional dogs. When nutraceutical exposure was normalized to the administered dose of GS free base, similar relative bioavailabilities were determined for all three formulations. However, the dose-normalized maximum plasma GS concentration was higher for the liquid supplement (5.5 ± 0.5 μg/mL) than for the two tablets (3.1 ± 0.6 and 2.1 ± 0.6 μg/mL, P < 0.001). Similarly, the time at which maximal plasma GS concentrations occurred was shorter for the liquid formulation (0.7 ± 0.5 hr) than for the two tablets (4.2 ± 0.6 and 5.0 ± 0.6 hr, P < 0.001). These data show that the formulation of joint supplements affects the oral absorption of GS in dogs. PMID:26808433

  10. Risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets: A robust-product for pediatrics.

    PubMed

    El-Say, Khalid M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Abdelbary, Maged F; Ali, Bahaa E; Aljaeid, Bader M; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets) as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1), swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2), and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3). Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for preand post-compression characteristics. The prepared ODmini- tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2) and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use. PMID:26677895

  11. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, ? and ? crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the ?-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment. PMID:23524122

  12. Tablets based on compressed zein microspheres for sustained oral administration: design, pharmacokinetics, and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Sheng-Ju; Sun, Shi-Xuan; Sun, Qing-Shen; Wang, Jin-Ye; Liu, Xin-Ming; Liu, Guo-Yan

    2011-08-01

    In our previous study, we reported a novel tablet based on compressed zein microspheres as a universal drug delivery system using the hydrophobic protein zein, which shows zero-order release in the presence of pepsin. However, this formulation had difficulty with disintegration under physiological conditions within 48 h, and thus could not be used directly for oral administration. In the present study, a formulation of ivermectin (IVM) tablets based on compressed zein microspheres was improved as a new dosage form. The plasma disposition pharmacokinetics of IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres after oral administration was studied over a 7-day period with six dogs (Canis familiaris), using a commercial IVM tablet (5 mg/piece, Yilijia() ) as a control. Clinical efficacy was tested using 270 dogs presented as veterinary patients for the treatment of demodicidosis. A formulation with disintegration time within 15 min could be obtained. The acquired C( max), T(max), and AUC were 9.89 0.34 ng/mL, 11.33 2.63 h, and 883.87 ng h/mL for IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres and 9.64 1.05 ng/mL, 7.26 2.09 h, and 666.30 ng h/mL for Yilijia(), respectively. The bioavailability of the tablets based on compressed zein microspheres was 132.65% that of Yilijia( ). Efficacy for the dogs in all the IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres-treated groups reached 100% at 7, 14, and 21 days post administration. PMID:20418265

  13. The Role of Oral Controlled Release Matrix Tablets in Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nokhodchi, Ali; Raja, Shaista; Patel, Pryia; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2012-01-01

    Formulations that are able to control the release of drug have become an integral part of the pharmaceutical industry. In particular oral drug delivery has been the focus of pharmaceutical research for many years. This type of drug delivery has been at the centre of research due to its many benefits over conventional dosage. The focus of this review is on matrix tablets due to their widely use and simplicity of the formulation. This includes the discussion of various types of matrix tablets and factors affecting the drug release from these formulations. The mechanism of drug release from HPMC matrices is also discussed. PMID:23678458

  14. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and ?-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.952.80% drug release in 60min was observed in comparison to 24.852.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.661.52s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed ?-CD-ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. PMID:26478377

  15. Orally Administered Nano-curcumin to Attenuate Morphine Tolerance: Comparison between Negatively Charged PLGA and Partially and Fully PEGylated Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hao; Hu, Xiaoyu; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Liu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    We have formulated hydrophobic curcurmin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] into stable nanoparticle suspensions (nano-curcumin) to overcome its relatively low bioavailability, high rate of metabolism and rapid elimination and clearance from the body. Employing the curcumin nanoformulations as the platform, we discovered that curcumin has the potential to alleviate morphine tolerance. The two types of stable polymeric nanoparticles - poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) - and the hybrid of the two were generated using flash nanoprecipitation integrated with spray drying. The optimized formulations have high drug loading (>45%), small particles size with narrow distribution, and controlled surface properties. Mice behavioral studies (tail-flick and hot-plate tests) were conducted to verify the effects of nano-curcumin on attenuating morphine tolerance. Significant analgesia was observed in mice during both tail-flick and hot-plate tests using orally administrated nano-curcumin following subcutaneous injections of morphine. However, unformulated curcumin at the same dose showed no effect. Compared with PEGylated nano-curcumin, negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles showed better functionality. PMID:24195658

  16. Orally fast disintegrating tablets: developments, technologies, taste-masking and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yourong; Yang, Shicheng; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kimura, Susumu; Park, Kinam

    2004-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray-drying, moisture treatment, sintering, and use of sugar-based disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and clinical studies are also discussed. PMID:15658933

  17. Development and optimization of buspirone oral osmotic pump tablet.

    PubMed

    Derakhshandeh, K; Berenji, M Ghasemnejad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to design a porous osmotic pump-based drug delivery system for controlling the release of buspirone from the delivery system. The osmotic pump was successfully developed using symmetric membrane coating. The core of the tablets was prepared by direct compression technique and coated using dip-coating technique. Drug release from the osmotic system was studied using USP paddle type apparatus. The effect of various processing variables such as the amount of osmotic agent, the amount of swellable polymer, concentration of the core former, concentration of the plasticizer, membrane thickness, quantum of orifice on drug release from osmotic pump were evaluated. Different kinetic models (zero order, first order and Higuchi model) were applied to drug release data in order to establish the kinetics of drug release. It was found that the drug release was mostly affected by the amount of NaCl as osmotic agent, the swellable polymer; hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), the amount of PEG-400 and cellulose acetate in the coating solution and thickness of the semipermeable membrane. The optimized formulation released buspirone independent of pH and orifice quantum at the osmogen amount of 42%, hydrophilic polymer of 13% and pore size of 0.8 mm on the tablet surface. The drug release of osmotic formulation during 24 h showed zero order kinetics and could be suggested that this formulation as a once-daily regimen improves pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug and enhances patient compliance. PMID:25657794

  18. Sufentanil sublingual tablet system vs. intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine for postoperative pain control: a randomized, active-comparator trial.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Melson TI; Boyer DL; Minkowitz HS; Turan A; Chiang YK; Evashenk MA; Palmer PP

    2014-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Problems with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) are well known, including invasive route of delivery and pump programming errors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with a novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (sufentanil sublingual tablet system 15 mcg with a 20-minute lockout interval; SSTS) to IV PCA morphine sulfate 1 mg with a 6-minute lockout interval (IV PCA MS) for the management of acute postoperative pain.METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, 48-hour non-inferiority study with optional extension to 72 hours at 26 U.S. sites enrolling patients scheduled for elective major open abdominal or orthopedic (hip or knee replacement) surgery. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who responded "good" or "excellent" (collectively "success") at the 48-hour timepoint on the Patient Global Assessment of method of pain control (PGA48).RESULTS: A total of 357 patients received study drug and 78.5% vs. 65.6% of patients achieved PGA48 "success" for SSTS vs. IV PCA MS, respectively, demonstrating non-inferiority (P < 0.001 using the one-side Z-test against the non-inferiority margin) as well as statistical superiority for treatment effect (P = 0.007). Patients using SSTS reported more rapid onset of analgesia and patient and nurse ease of care and satisfaction scores were higher than IV PCA MS. Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups; however, SSTS had fewer patients experiencing oxygen desaturations below 95% compared to IV PCA MS (P = 0.028).CONCLUSIONS: Sufentanil sublingual tablet system is a promising new analgesic technology that may address some of the concerns with IV PCA.

  19. Sufentanil Sublingual Tablet System vs. Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Morphine for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized, Active-Comparator Trial

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Timothy I; Boyer, David L; Minkowitz, Harold S; Turan, Alparslan; Chiang, Yu-Kun; Evashenk, Mark A; Palmer, Pamela P

    2014-01-01

    Background Problems with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) are well known, including invasive route of delivery and pump programming errors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with a novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (sufentanil sublingual tablet system 15 mcg with a 20-minute lockout interval; SSTS) to IV PCA morphine sulfate 1 mg with a 6-minute lockout interval (IV PCA MS) for the management of acute postoperative pain. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 48-hour non-inferiority study with optional extension to 72 hours at 26 U.S. sites enrolling patients scheduled for elective major open abdominal or orthopedic (hip or knee replacement) surgery. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who responded “good” or “excellent” (collectively “success”) at the 48-hour timepoint on the Patient Global Assessment of method of pain control (PGA48). Results A total of 357 patients received study drug and 78.5% vs. 65.6% of patients achieved PGA48 “success” for SSTS vs. IV PCA MS, respectively, demonstrating non-inferiority (P < 0.001 using the one-side Z-test against the non-inferiority margin) as well as statistical superiority for treatment effect (P = 0.007). Patients using SSTS reported more rapid onset of analgesia and patient and nurse ease of care and satisfaction scores were higher than IV PCA MS. Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups; however, SSTS had fewer patients experiencing oxygen desaturations below 95% compared to IV PCA MS (P = 0.028). Conclusions Sufentanil sublingual tablet system is a promising new analgesic technology that may address some of the concerns with IV PCA. PMID:25155134

  20. A novel multilayered multidisk oral tablet for chronotherapeutic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheeda; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Pillay, Viness

    2013-01-01

    A Multilayered Multidisk Tablet (MLMDT) comprising two drug-loaded disks enveloped by three drug-free barrier layers was developed for use in chronotherapeutic disorders, employing two model drugs, theophylline and diltiazem HCl. The MLMDT was designed to achieve two pulses of drug release separated by a lag phase. The polymer disk comprised hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and ethylcellulose (EC) granulated using an aqueous dispersion of EC. The polymeric barrier layers constituted a combination of pectin/Avicel (PBL) (1st barrier layer) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) (HBL1 and HBL2) as the 2nd and 3rd barrier layers, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into the diltiazem-containing formulation for delayed drug release. Erosion and swelling studies confirmed the manner in which the drug was released with theophylline formulations exhibiting a maximum swelling of 97% and diltiazem containing formulations with a maximum swelling of 119%. FTIR spectra displayed no interactions between drugs and polymers. Molecular mechanics simulations were undertaken to predict the possible orientation of the polymer morphologies most likely affecting the MLMDT performance. The MLMDT provided two pulses of drug release, separated by a lag phase, and additionally it displayed desirable friability, hardness, and uniformity of mass indicating a stable formulation that may be a desirable candidate for chronotherapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24024200

  1. A Novel Multilayered Multidisk Oral Tablet for Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zaheeda; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Pillay, Viness

    2013-01-01

    A Multilayered Multidisk Tablet (MLMDT) comprising two drug-loaded disks enveloped by three drug-free barrier layers was developed for use in chronotherapeutic disorders, employing two model drugs, theophylline and diltiazem HCl. The MLMDT was designed to achieve two pulses of drug release separated by a lag phase. The polymer disk comprised hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and ethylcellulose (EC) granulated using an aqueous dispersion of EC. The polymeric barrier layers constituted a combination of pectin/Avicel (PBL) (1st barrier layer) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) (HBL1 and HBL2) as the 2nd and 3rd barrier layers, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into the diltiazem-containing formulation for delayed drug release. Erosion and swelling studies confirmed the manner in which the drug was released with theophylline formulations exhibiting a maximum swelling of 97% and diltiazem containing formulations with a maximum swelling of 119%. FTIR spectra displayed no interactions between drugs and polymers. Molecular mechanics simulations were undertaken to predict the possible orientation of the polymer morphologies most likely affecting the MLMDT performance. The MLMDT provided two pulses of drug release, separated by a lag phase, and additionally it displayed desirable friability, hardness, and uniformity of mass indicating a stable formulation that may be a desirable candidate for chronotherapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24024200

  2. Miconazole nitrate oral disintegrating tablets: in vivo performance and stability study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tarek A; El-Say, Khalid M; Mahmoud, Maged F; Samy, Ahmed M; Badawi, Alia A

    2012-09-01

    The interest in and need for formulating miconazole nitrate (MN), a broad-spectrum antifungal, as an oral disintegrating tablet for treatment of some forms of candidiasis have increased. Formulation of MN in this dosage form will be more advantageous, producing dual effect: local in the buccal cavity and systemic with rapid absorption. Four formulations were prepared utilizing the foam granulation technique. The prepared tablets were characterized by measuring the weight uniformity, thickness, tensile strength, friability, and drug content. In addition, tablet disintegration time, in vitro dissolution, and in vivo disintegration time were also evaluated. Stability testing for the prepared tablets under stress and accelerated conditions in two different packs were investigated. Each pack was incubated at two different elevated temperature and relative humidity (RH), namely 40 2C/75 5% RH and 50 2C/75 5% RH. The purpose of the study is to monitor any degradation reactions which will help to predict the shelf life of the product under the defined storage conditions. Finally, in vivo study was performed on the most stable formula to determine its pharmacokinetic parameters. The results revealed that all the prepared tablets showed acceptable tablet characteristics and were stable under the tested conditions. The most stable formula was that containing magnesium stearate as lubricant, hydrophobic Aerosil R972 as glidant, low urea content, mannitol/microcrystalline cellulose ratio 2:1, and 9% Plasdone XL100 as superdisintegrant. The in vivo results revealed that the tested formula showed rapid absorption compared to the physical blend (t (max) were 1 and 4 h, respectively), while the extent of absorption was almost the same. PMID:22585373

  3. Formulation and evaluation of taste-masked levocetirizine dihydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Devireddy, Srinivas Reddy; Gonugunta, Chandra Sekhara Rao; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2009-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets of levocetirizine dihydrochloride were formulated with different superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycollate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone) using mannitol as a diluent. Tulsion-335, Indion-204, and poly kyron T-134 cation exchange resins were used as taste-masking agents. The drug and resin complex was prepared by the kneading method. Ten formulations were prepared with varying combinations of superdisintegrants and ion-exchange resins by the wet granulation technique, using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 as the binder. The prepared tablets were evaluated for degree of taste masking, weight variation, hardness, friability, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, content uniformity, and water absorption ratio. Dissolution studies were performed in two dissolution media: 0.1N HCl and distilled water. The corresponding dissolution rates were compared with the marketed formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were carried out on the drug-resin complexes. Prepared tablets were good in appearance and showed acceptable results for hardness and friability. In vitro and in vivo disintegration times for the optimum formulation (F-1) were found to be 22 and 55 s, respectively. Relatively acceptable taste was achieved with both Indion-204 and Tulsion-335. Rapid disintegration time was achieved in tablets containing crosspovidone as the superdisintegrant. Dissolution studies indicated the formation of the complex of drug and resin. Differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated the formation of drug-resin complex. PMID:20169858

  4. Morphine Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    Rectal morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Rectal morphine comes as a suppository to insert in the rectum. It is usually inserted every 4 hours. Use ...

  5. [Technical scheme of real-time evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine orally disintegrating tablets].

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong; Chen, Xu-dong; Feng, Liang; Gu, Jun-fei; Yuan, Jia-rui; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2014-12-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), a kind of new solid tablet that rapidly disintegrates to work in the mouth, has became the hot form of new drug research in recent years with many advantages, such as the convenient taking, a widely applicable people, fast acting, high bioavailability, good compliance, and so on. ODT has been widely used in chemical medicines, while the application of it in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is still in the stage of development The development of TCMs ODT provides a new direction for the research of Chinese medicine new dosage, accelerates the pace of connecting to the world and modernization of Chinese medicine. This dosage has a broad market prospect, and its quality control and assessment standards, taste, the disintegration time in vitro and evaluation method are the key factors that affect the industrialization, standardization of Chinese medicine ODT. Therefore, this paper reviewed the characteristics, preparation, taste masking technology and quality evaluation with new technology of ODT. Meantime, numerous application examples of ODT used in traditional Chinese medicine were described. We expect to provide the reference and utilization for the development of traditional Chinese medicine orally disinteeratine tablets. PMID:25898566

  6. A new modified wetting test and an alternative disintegration test for orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Patrick; Lasher, Jason; Alexander, Kenneth S; Baki, Gabriella

    2016-02-20

    Industrial manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms require quality tests, such as friability, hardness, and disintegration. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) disintegration test uses 900mL of water. However, recent studies of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have shown that this volume does not accurately portray the oral environment. In our study, various tests were conducted with a more moderate amount of water that accurately resembles the oral environment. A simulated wetting test was performed to calculate the water absorption ratio. Results showed that wetting was comparable to disintegration. Although the wetting test worked for most types of ODTs, it had limitations that produced inaccurate results. This led to the use of a modified shaking water bath test. This test was found to work for all types of ODT products and was not subject to the limitations of the wetting test. The shake test could provide disintegration times rather than water permeation times; however, it could not be used to calculate the water absorption ratio. A strong correlation was observed between the standardized shake test and the USP disintegration times for the tablets. This shake test could be used during the development stages and quality tests for ODTs with relative ease. PMID:26774944

  7. A phase I pharmacokinetic and safety evaluation of oral pazopanib dosing administered as crushed tablet or oral suspension in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Heath, Elisabeth I; Forman, Karen; Malburg, Lisa; Gainer, Shelby; Suttle, A Benjamin; Adams, Laurel; Ball, Howard; LoRusso, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Because cancer patients may have difficulty swallowing whole tablets, crushing tablets or ingesting an oral suspension is a practical alternative. This open-label, 2-part, randomized crossover, phase I study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of pazopanib administered as a crushed tablet or an oral suspension relative to whole tablet in patients with advanced cancer (Part 1). Patients completing Part 1 were eligible for continuous daily pazopanib 800 mg (Part 2). Administration of a single pazopanib 400 mg crushed tablet increased the area under the curve from 0 to 72 h (AUC((0-72)); 46%) and maximum observed plasma concentration (C(max); ~2-fold), and decreased time to achieve maximum plasma concentration (T(max); ~2 h), indicating increased rate and extent of oral absorption relative to whole-tablet administration. Similarly, a single dose of pazopanib 400 mg suspension increased AUC((0-72)) (33%) and C(max) (29%), and decreased T(max) (1 h). These changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were not associated with increases in the magnitude or duration of short-term (ie, up to 72 h) blood pressure elevation compared with whole-tablet administration. PMID:21811833

  8. Design, development, and optimization of orally disintegrating tablets of etoricoxib using vacuum-drying approach.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dharmesh; Shah, Mohit; Shah, Sunny; Shah, Tejal; Amin, Avani

    2008-01-01

    Etoricoxib is a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor that selectively inhibits the COX-2 enzyme and decreases the incidences of side effects associated with these agents. It is commonly prescribed for acute pain, gouty arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conventional tablets of etoricoxib are not capable of rapid action, which is required for faster drug effect onset and immediate relief from pain. Thus, the aim of the present investigation is to formulate orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of etoricoxib. A combination of the superdisintegrants with a sublimation technique was used to prepare the tablets. Tablets were prepared using a direct compression method employing superdisintegrants such as low substituted hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (L-HPMC), low substituted hydroxyl-propyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate. Tablets of etoricoxib prepared using L-HPC exhibited the least friability and disintegration time (approximately 65 s). To decrease the disintegration time further, a sublimation technique was used along with the superdisintegrants for the preparation of ODTs. The use of sublimating agents including camphor, menthol, and thymol was explored. The addition of camphor lowered the disintegration time (approximately 30 s) further, but the percent friability was increased. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the joint influence of the amount of superdisintegrant (L-HPC) and the amount of sublimating agent (camphor) on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining an effective ODT of etoricoxib, higher percentages of L-HPC and camphor should be used. Checkpoint batches were prepared to validate the evolved mathematical model. A response surface plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. The approach using the optimization technique helped to produce a detailed understanding of the effects of formulation parameters. PMID:18661871

  9. Total coenzyme Q10 concentrations in Asian men following multiple oral 50-mg doses administered as coenzyme Q10 sustained release tablets or regular tablets.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lu WL; Zhang Q; Lee HS; Zhou TY; Sun HD; Zhang DW; Zheng L; Lee M; Wong SM

    2003-01-01

    Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)), a highly lipophilic compound present in the inner mitochondrial membrane, is essential for production of cellular energy in the form of ATP. CoQ(10) is used as a dietary supplement and for treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. Our goal was to compare the CoQ(10) levels in Asians following multiple oral doses administered as sustained release or regular tablets. Twenty healthy male volunteers (19-23 years old) were divided into two equal groups. Each subject in Group I received 50 mg oral doses of coenzyme Q(10) as sustained release tablets once a day for fifteen days, while subject in Group II received 50 mg doses of coenzyme Q(10) regular tablets. The CoQ(10) levels were measured by HPLC-UV (reverse phase ODS column, 10 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm; oven temperature 30 degrees C). Mobile phase was constituted by methanol-ethanol 9 : 1 v/v. Flow rate was 1.5 ml/min and UV detection was carried out at 275 nm. Coenzyme Q(9) was used as an internal standard. CoQ(10) baseline in the morning was 0.88+/-0.48 mg/l. Following 1 week 50 mg/d dosing of CoQ(10), plasma CoQ(10) concentrations increased to 1.85+/-1.03 mg/l for sustained release tablets and up to 1.37+/-0.74mg/l for regular tablets. The net increment proportion in AUC for sustained release and regular tablets were 148.26+/-176.56%, 102.57+/-130.00%, respectively. Both preparations significantly increased the systemic exposure when compared to endogenous baseline.

  10. Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Gopi M; Stevens, Phillip J; Lai, Jin-Wang

    2012-12-01

    Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson's-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215

  11. Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinsons-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215

  12. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Samano, Kimberly L.; Clouette, Randal E.; Rowland, Barbara J.; Sample, R.H. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze® Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ∼3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC–MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155–1,408 (roll) and 294–4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140–194 (roll) and 121–664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7–143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  13. Concentrations of Morphine and Codeine in Paired Oral Fluid and Urine Specimens Following Ingestion of a Poppy Seed Roll and Raw Poppy Seeds.

    PubMed

    Samano, Kimberly L; Clouette, Randal E; Rowland, Barbara J; Sample, R H Barry

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of opiate drug test results can be challenging due to casual dietary consumption of poppy seeds, which may contain variable opiate content. Opiate concentrations in paired oral fluid (OF), collected with the Oral-Eze() Oral Fluid Collection System, and urine were analyzed after ingestion of poppy seeds from the same source, consumed raw or contained in a roll. In Part 1, 12 individuals consumed equal portions of a poppy seed roll. For Part 2, the same individuals consumed an equivalent quantity of raw poppy seeds, containing ?3.2 mg of morphine and 0.6 mg of codeine. Specimens were analyzed both by enzyme immunoassay (opiates) and by GC-MS (morphine/codeine). Urinary morphine was between 155-1,408 (roll) and 294-4,213 ng/mL (raw), measured at 2, 4, 6 and 20 h post-ingestion. Urinary codeine concentrations between 140-194 (roll) and 121-664 ng/mL (raw) were observed up to 6 h post-ingestion. Following consumption of raw poppy seeds, OF specimens were positive, above LOQ, from 0.25 to 3.0 h with morphine ranging from 7 to 600 ng/mL and codeine from 8 to 112 ng/mL. After poppy seed roll consumption, morphine concentrations of 7-143 ng/mL were observed up to 1.5 h with codeine detected in only 5.5% of OF specimens and ranging from 8 to 28 ng/mL. Combined with the existing poppy seed literature, these results support previous findings and provide guidance for interpretation of OF opiate testing. PMID:26378141

  14. Oral Morphine Pharmacokinetic in Obesity: The Role of P-Glycoprotein, MRP2, MRP3, UGT2B7, and CYP3A4 Jejunal Contents and Obesity-Associated Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lloret-Linares, Célia; Miyauchi, Eisuke; Luo, Huilong; Labat, Laurence; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Mouly, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Bergmann, Jean-François; Declèves, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    The objective of our work was to study the association between the jejunal expression levels of P-gp, MRP2, MRP3, UGT2B7, CYP3A4, the ABCB1 c.3435C > T polymorphism, and several obesity-associated biomarkers, as well as oral morphine and glucuronides pharmacokinetics in a population of morbidly obese subjects. The pharmacokinetics of oral morphine (30 mg) and its glucuronides was performed in obese patients candidate to bariatric surgery. A fragment of jejunal mucosa was preserved during surgery. Subjects were genotyped for the ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.3435C > T. The subjects were 6 males and 23 females, with a mean body mass index of 44.8 (35.4-61.9) kg/m(2). The metabolic ratios AUC0-inf M3G/morphine and AUC0-inf M6G/morphine were highly correlated (rs = 0.8, p < 0.0001) and were 73.2 ± 24.6 (34.7-137.7) and 10.9 ± 4.1 (3.8-20.6). The pharmacokinetic parameters of morphine and its glucuronides were not associated with the jejunal contents of P-gp, CYP3A4, MRP2, and MRP3. The jejunal content of UGT2B7 was positively associated with morphine AUC0-inf (rs = 0.4, p = 0.03). Adiponectin was inversely correlated with morphine Cmax (rs = -0.44, p = 0.03). None of the factors studied was associated with morphine metabolic ratios. The interindividual variability in the jejunal content of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, the ABCB1 gene polymorphism, and the low-grade inflammation did not explain the variability in morphine and glucuronide exposure. High morphine metabolic ratio argued for an increased morphine glucuronidation in morbidly obese patients. PMID:26751618

  15. Retrospective Comparison of Posaconazole Levels in Patients Taking the Delayed-Release Tablet versus the Oral Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Durani, Urshila; Tosh, Pritish K.; Barreto, Jason N.; Estes, Lynn L.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    While posaconazole prophylaxis decreases the risk of invasive fungal infection compared to fluconazole, low bioavailability of the oral-suspension formulation limits its efficacy. A new delayed-release tablet formulation demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile in healthy volunteers. However, serum levels for the two formulations have not been compared in clinical practice. This study compared achievement of therapeutic posaconazole levels in patients taking the delayed-release tablet to those taking the oral suspension. This retrospective cohort study included 93 patients initiated on posaconazole between 2012 and 2014 and had at least one serum posaconazole level measured. The primary measure was the proportion of patients achieving an initial therapeutic level (>700 ng/ml). An initial therapeutic posaconazole level was seen in 29 of 32 (91%) patients receiving tablets and 37 of 61 (61%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.003). Among patients with a steady-state level measured 5 to 14 days after initiation, a therapeutic level was observed in 18 of 20 (90%) patients receiving tablets and 25 of 43 (58%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.01). In these patients, the median posaconazole level of the tablet cohort (1655 ng/ml) was twice that of the suspension cohort (798 ng/ml) (P = 0.004). In this cohort study, the improved bioavailability of delayed-release posaconazole tablets translates into a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving therapeutic serum levels than in the cohort receiving the oral suspension. The results of this study strongly support the use of delayed-release tablets over suspension in patients at risk for invasive fungal infection. PMID:26055378

  16. Strategies to improve dissolution and oral absorption of glimepiride tablets: solid dispersion versus micronization techniques.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xiao; Sun, Jin; Han, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yue; Yan, Zhongtian; Han, Jihong; He, Zhonggui

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare two different dissolution-enhancing strategies, solid dispersion (SD) and micronized techniques, for improving oral absorption of poorly soluble glimepiride, and to decide which strategy is suitable for its solubilization. The formulation of glimepiride SD was prepared by a solvent-evaporation process with povidone k-30 (PVPk30) at a weight ratio of 1:9 (drug:carrier). The other was prepared via a modified micronization technique, where glimepiride was premilled together with lactose and Lutrol F68 until the milled material passes through a 500 mesh ASTM sieve (30 ?m). The dissolution results indicated that the two techniques were both capable of enhancing the dissolution rate and extent of glimepiride. The release profiles of the two prepared products were similar to the marketed product (Amaryl) in various types of dissolution media. Furthermore, the oral bioavailability was evaluated for the three formulations in fasted beagle dogs. Statistical analysis indicated that there were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters among the two prepared formulations and a marketed product, especially for AUC????, C(max), and T(max). The dissolution parameters (D?? and AUC????) in Tris buffer demonstrated the good in vitro/in vivo relationship with T(max) values for the three formulations. In conclusion, our studies confirmed that both SD and micronization techniques were capable of improving dissolution and oral absorption of glimepiride tablets to a similar extent as the marketed product, and the three glimepiride tablets were bioequivalent in the case of the rate and extent of absorption in dogs. PMID:21204747

  17. Development and optimization of taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of clindamycin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Stuart L; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form containing taste-masked beads of clindamycin HCl. Several formulation strategies were evaluated and a taste-masked ODT of clindamycin HCl was prepared without the use of a waxy cushioning agent. Clindamycin HCl (ca. 46% w/w) was coated onto microcrystalline cellulose beads (Cellets 200) followed by the addition of a taste-masking layer of amino methacrylate copolymer, NF (Eudragit EPO (EPO)) coating suspension. The efficiency of both the drug coating process and the taste-masking polymer coating process, as well as the taste masking ODTs was determined using potency and drug release analysis. Magnesium stearate was found to be advantageous over talc in improving the efficiency of the EPO coating suspension. A response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design for the tablets revealed compression force and levels of both disintegrant and talc to be the main factors influencing the ODT properties. Blending of talc to the EPO-coated beads was found to be the most critical factor in ensuring that ODTs disintegrate within 30?s. The optimized ODTs formulation also showed negligible (<0.5%) drug release in 1?min using phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 (which is analogous to the residence time and pH in the oral cavity). By carefully adjusting the levels of coating polymers, the amounts of disintegrant and talc, as well as the compression force, robust ODTs can be obtained to improve pediatric and geriatric patient compliance for clindamycin oral dosage forms. PMID:25000481

  18. Further development of a morphine hydrogel suppository.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, L; Hanning, C D; Robertson, S; Quinn, K

    1990-01-01

    1. A sustained release monolithic morphine hydrogel suppository (MHS) was developed and administered to five volunteers. 2. The MHS delivered a mean of 55 mg morphine over 12 h. The mean plasma morphine concentration was 15 ng ml-1 from 2 to 12 h after administration. 3. Plasma morphine concentrations were comparable with those reported for the same dose given orally over the same time period. 4. The morphine hydrogel suppository appears to be an effective means of delivering morphine and may be of value in the management of chronic pain. PMID:2288824

  19. Evidence-based nanoscopic and molecular framework for excipient functionality in compressed orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2014-01-01

    The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2-10 m2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

  20. Evidence-Based Nanoscopic and Molecular Framework for Excipient Functionality in Compressed Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2014-01-01

    The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2–10 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

  1. Formulation and Evaluation of a Novel Matrix-Type Orally Disintegrating Ibuprofen Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Tayebi, Hoda; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are capable of turning quickly into a liquid dosage form in contact with the saliva, thus possessing the advantages of both the solid dosage forms particularly stability and liquid dosage forms specially ease of swallowing and pre-gastric absorption of drug. The aim of this study was to prepare a novel matrix-type buccal fast disintegrating ibuprofen tablet formulation using special polymers, water soluble excipients, super-disintegrants and quickly soluble granules. For this purpose different tablet formulations of ibuprofen were prepared. The amount of ibuprofen in each formulation was 100 mg. Eight groups of formulation were prepared (A-H series), accounting for a total number of 45 formulations. Formulations prepared were examined in terms of different physicochemical tests including powder/granule flowability, appearance, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Results of formulation F22a (in series F), was found to be acceptable, making it the chosen formulation for further studies. Then, by adding various flavorants and sweeteners to this formulation, complementary series of formulations, named G and H, were prepared. Following the comparison of their taste with each other through asking 10 volunteers, the most suitable formulation regarding the taste, being formulation F22s, was chosen as the ultimate formulation. This formulation had PVP, ibuprofen and croscarmellose as the intra-granular components and xylitol and saccharin as the extra-granular ingredients. Formulation F22s was found to be acceptable in terms of physicochemical tests conducted, showing quick disintegration within the buccal cavity, appropriate hardness and rather low friability. Hence formulation F22s was selected as the final formulation. PMID:24250378

  2. Effect of granule properties on rough mouth feel and palatability of orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Uchida, Shinya; Kanada, Ken; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2015-04-30

    In this study, we evaluated the palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing core granules with different particle sizes, coating, and types of materials using visual analog scales (VAS). Tableting the core granules into ODTs reduced rough mouth feel and improved overall palatability compared to the ingestion of core granules alone. Moreover, the evaluation performed immediately after spitting out ODTs demonstrated differences in rough mouth feel between ODTs containing placebo and core granules. Rough mouth feel was found to be significantly more intense with core granules with particle sizes ? 200 ?m. Since ODTs may contain taste-masked particles, palatability of ODTs containing coated core granules was also evaluated. Although coating with polymers impairs palatability, it was improved by coating the outer layer with d-mannitol. The effects on palatability of materials constituting core granules were also evaluated, with reduced rough mouth feel observed with core granules composed of water-soluble additives. Based on these data, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the threshold VAS scores at which the subjects felt roughness and discomfort. In addition, the threshold particle size of the core granule contained within the ODT required for feeling roughness was determined to be 244 ?m. This study elucidated the effect of the properties of masking particles on the rough mouth feel and palatability of ODTs. PMID:25681720

  3. Development and optimization of dextromethorphan hydrobromide oral disintegrating tablets: effect of formulation and process variables.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Haitham Fady; Ibrahim, Mohamed Abbas; Sakr, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which disintegrate rapidly (<1?min) in the mouth and do not require water for administration, have become a very popular dosage form. The study aims to develop a simple and inexpensive method of manufacturing ODTs of a sparingly water-soluble drug, Dextromethorphan hydrobromide. Two factors, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize the diluent, microcrystalline cellulose (X(1)) and superdisintegrant, croscarmellose sodium (X(2)) concentrations. Disintegration time, hardness and T(50) values for all the formulations varied from 12.5 to 152.6 s, 3.58 to 4.92 kp and 0.8 to 2.8?min, respectively. The results indicated that the selected variables have a strong influence on disintegration time, hardness and T(50) of the ODTs. The manufactured ODTs formula composed of 30% microcrystalline cellulose in combination with 3% croscarmellose sodium was chosen as optimized formula, as it showed the lowest disintegration time (12.5??1.22 s), low T(50) (0.8?min.) and hard tablets (4.92??0.28 kp) amongst other tested ODTs formulations. Hardness of DM ODTs was not affected by changing the type of superdisintegrant and lubricant. The disintegration time was significantly (p < 0.05) increased by using sodium starch glycolate instead of croscarmellose sodium. PMID:22881389

  4. Mucoadhesive elementary osmotic pump tablets of trimetazidine for controlled drug delivery and reduced variability in oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Alam, Naushad; Beg, Sarwar; Rizwan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Akifa; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Ali, Asgar; Aqil, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this work was preparation and evaluation of the mucoadhesive elementary osmotic pump tablets of trimetazidine hydrochloride to achieve desired controlled release action and augmentation of oral drug absorption. The drug-loaded core tablets were prepared employing the suitable tableting excipients and coated with polymeric blend of ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylethylcellulose E5 (4:1). The prepared tablets were characterized for various quality control tests and in vitro drug release. Evaluation of drug release kinetics through model fitting suggested the Fickian mechanism of drug release, which was regulated by osmosis and diffusion as the predominant mechanism. Evaluation of mucoadhesion property using texture analyzer suggested good mucoadhesion potential of the developed osmotic systems. Solid state characterization using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy confirmed the absence of any physiochemical incompatibilities between drug and excipients. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the smooth surface appearance of the coated tablets with intact polymeric membrane without any fracture. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits revealed 3.01-fold enhancement in the oral bioavailability vis-à-vis the marketed formulation (Vastarel MR®). These studies successfully demonstrate the bioavailability enhancement potential of the mucoadhesive elementary osmotic pumps as novel therapeutic systems for other drugs too. PMID:24669975

  5. [Investigation of pharmacokinetics of crushed imidafenacin 0.1-mg tablet after single oral administration in healthy men].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Katsumi; Shitamura, Takahiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki

    2011-12-01

    The crushing of tablets and opening of capsules should not be performed without proper care, as these actions may adversely affect the pharmaceutical release mechanisms. However, various clinical circumstances occasionally necessitate these actions. The long-term stability of the commercial formulation of imidafenacin was confirmed after crushing of tablets. For the safe administration of crushed imidafenacin tablets, we examined the pharmacokinetics of crushed imidafenacin 0. 1-mg tablet after single oral administration in healthy men. Plasma concentrations were measured in 6 male volunteers (age, 33.3 10.6 years) orally administered crushed imidafenacin under fasting conditions. Imidafenacin was rapidly absorbed and plasma concentrations peaked (Cmax) at 414 108 pg/ml after 1.5 h (Tmax ; median), after which the drug was rapidly eliminated with a half-life (t1/2) of 2.8 0. 3 h. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-10) was 1,680 334 pg?h/ml. There were no significant differences in Cmax, Tmax and t1/2 between the crushed and tablet medications. Thus, crushing has almost no influence on the pharmacokinetics of imidafenacin. Consequently, this study was made available as information for patients requiring crushed anticholinergic agents. PMID:22240300

  6. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of Olanzapine-2-Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ajit Shankarrao, Kulkarni; Dhairysheel Mahadeo, Ghadge; Pankaj Balavantrao, Kokate

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design orally disintegrating tablets of Olanzapine and to complex Olanzapine with 2-hydroxypropyl-?- cyclodextrin with special emphasis on disintegration and dissolution studies. Phase solubility studies demonstrated the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex by kneading method. Tablets were prepared by using superdisintegrants namely, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, tulsion 339, and indion 414. Complex was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, drug content estimation, saturated solubility study, diffrerential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium showed the minimum disintegration time 39 1.76 sec and in-vitro drug release 99.19 0.18% within 6 min. In general, solubility of Olanzapine can be improved by complexing with 2-hydroxypropyl-?- cyclodextrin. Croscarmellose sodium can be used for faster disintegration of tablets. PMID:24381598

  7. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of Olanzapine-2-Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex.

    PubMed

    Ajit Shankarrao, Kulkarni; Dhairysheel Mahadeo, Ghadge; Pankaj Balavantrao, Kokate

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design orally disintegrating tablets of Olanzapine and to complex Olanzapine with 2-hydroxypropyl-?- cyclodextrin with special emphasis on disintegration and dissolution studies. Phase solubility studies demonstrated the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex by kneading method. Tablets were prepared by using superdisintegrants namely, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, tulsion 339, and indion 414. Complex was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, drug content estimation, saturated solubility study, diffrerential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium showed the minimum disintegration time 39 1.76 sec and in-vitro drug release 99.19 0.18% within 6 min. In general, solubility of Olanzapine can be improved by complexing with 2-hydroxypropyl-?- cyclodextrin. Croscarmellose sodium can be used for faster disintegration of tablets. PMID:24381598

  8. Expanding the application of the tablet processing workstation to support the sample preparation of oral suspensions.

    PubMed

    Opio, Alex Manuel; Nickerson, Beverly; Xue, Gang; Warzeka, John; Norris, Ken

    2011-06-01

    Sample preparation is the most time-consuming part of the analytical method for powder for oral suspension (POS) assay, purity, and preservative analysis, as this involves multiple dilution and filtration steps. The Tablet Processing Workstation (TPW) was used to automate the sample preparation of a POS formulation. Although the TPW is typically used to automate the preparation of solid oral dosage forms and powders, it contains all of the necessary components to perform POS sample preparation. The TPW exhibited acceptable repeatability in testing 3 lots using 10 replicate preparations per lot. Acceptable linearity of the drug and preservative in the presence of excipients was demonstrated over the range corresponding to 50-150% of intent. Accuracy showed suitable recoveries for all points evaluated. TPW results were shown to correlate to results obtained with the manual method. The TPW method was used to prepare samples in support of manufacturing scale-up efforts. With the efficiencies gained using the TPW, it was possible to analyze a large number of samples generated during process development activities for the POS formulation with minimal human intervention. The extensive data enabled trending of the manufacturing development runs and helped to identify optimization strategies for the process. PMID:21609706

  9. Formulation strategy and evaluation of nanocrystal piroxicam orally disintegrating tablets manufacturing by freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Pini, Elena; Corrias, Francesco; Perricci, Jacopo; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sinico, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Piroxicam (PRX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug characterized by a poor water solubility and consequently by a low oral bioavailability. In this work, different nanocrystal orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) were prepared to enhance piroxicam dissolution rate and saturation solubility. PRX nanocrystals were prepared by means of high pressure homogenization technique using poloxamer 188 as stabilizer. Three different ODTs were prepared with the same nanosuspension using different excipients in order to study their effect on the PRX dissolution properties. PRX nanocrystal size and zeta potential were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Additional characterization of PRX nanocrystal ODT was carried out by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution study was performed in distilled water (pH 5.5) and compared with PRX coarse suspension ODT, PRX/poloxamer 188 physical mixture, bulk PRX samples and a PRX commercial ODT. All PRX nanocrystal ODT formulations showed a higher drug dissolution rate than coarse PRX ODT. PRX nanocrystal ODT prepared using gelatin or croscarmellose as excipient showed a higher PRX dissolution rate compared with the commercial formulation and ODT prepared using xanthan gum. Overall results confirmed that improved PRX dissolution rate is due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio due to the nanosized drug particle but also revealed the important role of different excipients used. PMID:24680963

  10. Intra-gastric performance and bioavailability study of a new per-oral bioadhesive Verapamil HCl matrix tablet in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Alaa Eldeen B; Alkhaled, F; al-Suwayeh, S; Elkheshen, S

    2003-09-01

    In a previous study, we developed a per-oral extended--release bioadhesive matrix tablet for verapamil HCl (VP). The system combined both strong bioadhesion and sustained release properties in vitro. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vivo performance of the prepared bioadhesive tablets (B). The conduction of a periodic X-ray imaging of the abdomen of beagle dogs, after administration of B containing 12% barium sulfate, was used to evaluate the intra-gastric performance. The VP concentrations in blood samples taken at specified times after oral administration of B to fasted beagle dogs were determined and compared with those obtained after administration of a commercial sustained release VP tablets (Manidon 120 R). The X-ray images showed that bioadhesive tablets remained almost at the same place in the stomach for at least 6 hours while it disappeared after 1 hour in case of the control tablets. No statistical difference was seen between the Cmax, tmax, AUC, t1/2, and MRT for B compared to Manidon. The Cmax was found to be 51.4 +/- 15.5 and 48.6 +/- 17.9 (ng/ml) for Manidon and B, respectively and the corresponding tmax were 7.0 +/- 1.9 and 6.0 +/- 0, respectively. The AUCO-. for Manidon and B were 949.84 +/- 245.11 and 722.92 +/- 144.42 ng.h/ml, respectively. So, the prepared B tablets can be considered bioequivalent to the commercial Manidon Retard product. PMID:14677272

  11. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Qian; Yan, Cheng; Bi, Juan; Lv, Wei-Lin; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; Su, Jia-Can; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 μm to 8 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics. PMID:21720502

  12. Effect of a High-Fat Meal on the Pharmacokinetics of 300-Milligram Posaconazole in a Solid Oral Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Kersemaekers, Wendy M.; Dogterom, Peter; Xu, Jialin; de Greef, Rik; Waskin, Hetty; van Iersel, Marlou L. P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Posaconazole in oral suspension must be taken multiple times a day with food (preferably a high-fat meal) to ensure adequate exposure among patients. We evaluated the effect of food on the bioavailability of a new delayed-release tablet formulation of posaconazole at the proposed clinical dose of 300 mg once daily in a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period crossover study with 18 healthy volunteers. When a single 300-mg dose of posaconazole in tablet form (3 tablets × 100 mg) was administered with a high-fat meal, the posaconazole area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h (AUC0–72) and maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) increased 51% and 16%, respectively, compared to those after administration in the fasted state. The median time to Cmax (Tmax) shifted from 5 h in the fasted state to 6 h under fed conditions. No serious adverse events were reported, and no subject discontinued the study due to an adverse event. Six of the 18 subjects reported at least one clinical adverse event; all of these events were mild and short lasting. The results of this study demonstrate that a high-fat meal only modestly increases the mean posaconazole exposure (AUC), ∼1.5-fold, after administration of posaconazole tablets, in contrast to the 4-fold increase in AUC observed previously for a posaconazole oral suspension given with a high-fat meal. PMID:25824210

  13. [Efficacy of a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet for esophageal cancer pain management in a patient unable to take oral medication].

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Nakahara, Osamu; Ohshima, Shigeki; Baba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    We report a case ofa 60-year old male esophageal cancer patient who was unable to take oral medication, but was successfully treated using a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet. The patient survived a suicide attempt as a youth in which he ingested poison, but was left with a stricture of the esophagus. It became difficult for him to take nutrition orally, and he underwent an esophageal bypass operation, although he still required frequent endoscopic esophageal dilation. He subsequently presented with an anastomotic stenosis due to anastomotic leakage, and oral intake became completely impossible. The onset of esophageal cancer presented as corrosive esophagitis. We used oxycodone hydrochloride to treat a sharp pain resulting from cataplectic cancer in the jejunal tube, but this provided only limited pain relief. We therefore used a fentanyl citrate oral mucosa absorption preparation with a rescue agent, which did provide effective pain relief. Thus a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet could effectively relief pain in cancer patients who are unable to receive oral medication. PMID:25963705

  14. Combination effect of physical and gustatory taste masking for propiverine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets on palatability.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Rakan; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing propiverine hydrochloride (which is extremely bitter and leaves a feeling of numbness in the mouth) were prepared with a combined use of physical and organoleptic taste masking. Propiverine-loaded masking particles (PLMPs) were prepared with different amounts of gastric-soluble coatings as physical masking. ODTs without organoleptic masking were prepared by mixing each group of PLMPs with Ludiflash®, crospovidone, and magnesium stearate. ODTs with organoleptic masking were also prepared by addition of L-menthol, aspartame, thaumatin, and cinnamon. Fifteen-minute dissolution of propiverine in solutions with pH 1.2 was ≥ 85% for all ODTs, whereas that in pH 6.8 solutions was ≤ 85% and increased with physical masking. A single blind randomized crossover trial was conducted. Ten healthy volunteers were asked to quantify the bitterness, numbness, and overall palatability using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) at the period of disintegration as well as 1 and 5 min later. VAS scores of bitterness, numbness, and overall palatability improved along with increasing amounts of physical masking, and the effects persisted for 5 min. VAS scores for numbness increased over time regardless of the amount of physical masking. Bitterness, numbness, and overall palatability were significantly improved by organoleptic masking if the amount of physical masking was small. Combined use of physical and organoleptic masking is useful for improving palatability of ODTs containing propiverine. PMID:25744453

  15. The prediction of the palatability of orally disintegrating tablets by an electronic gustatory system.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideshi; Uchida, Shinya; Sugiura, Takeshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2015-09-30

    In this study, the human gustatory palatability sensation of taste-masked famotidine and amlodipine orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) was quantitatively predicted by an electronic gustatory system (?-Astree e-Tongue). Furthermore, its use in formulation design was evaluated. The famotidine- and amlodipine-containing ODTs, which were bitter- and highly bitter-tasting, respectively, were prepared using a physical (granules spray-coated with ethyl cellulose) or organoleptic (the addition of a sweetener and a flavor) masking method and combinations thereof. The taste-masking effects of different masking methods on the ODTs were investigated in a human gustatory sensation test. In the test, volunteers scored the overall palatability using a 100mm visual analog scale (VAS). The electronic gustatory system was evaluated using the Euclidean distance (the distance between each drug-containing ODT and its corresponding placebo) and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis of the sensor response values. A good linear relationship was observed between each ODT's Euclidean distance analysis, PLS regression analysis, and clinical VAS scores. Cross-validation verification of each analysis confirmed the model's predictive power. This study suggests that the ?-Astree can quantitatively evaluate physical and organoleptic taste masking and that the palatability of unknown formulations can be predicted by Euclidean distance and PLS regression data analysis. PMID:26216412

  16. High-Amylose Sodium Carboxymethyl Starch Matrices: Development and Characterization of Tramadol Hydrochloride Sustained-Release Tablets for Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Nabais, Teresa; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100 mg and 200 mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed. These SR formulations presented high crushing forces, which facilitate further tablet processing and handling. When exposed to both a pH gradient simulating the pH variations through the gastrointestinal tract and a 40% ethanol medium, a very rigid gel formed progressively at the surface of the tablets providing controlled drug-release properties. These properties indicated that SD HASCA was a promising and robust excipient for oral, sustained drug-release, which may possibly minimize the likelihood of dose dumping and consequent adverse effects, even in the case of coadministration with alcohol. PMID:25006518

  17. A bioequivalence study of levothyroxine tablets versus an oral levothyroxine solution in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yannovits, N; Zintzaras, E; Pouli, A; Koukoulis, G; Lyberi, S; Savari, E; Potamianos, S; Triposkiadis, F; Stefanidis, I; Zartaloudis, E; Benakis, A

    2006-01-01

    Probably for genetic reasons a substantial part of the Greek population requires Levothyroxine treatment. Since commercially available Levothyroxine was first marketed, the manufacture and storage of the drug in tablet form has been complicated and difficult; and as cases of therapeutic failure have frequently been reported following treatment with this medicinal agent, quality control is an essential factor. Due to the unreliability of Levothyroxine-based commercial products, in the present study we decided to follow the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines*, and use a Levothyroxine solution as reference product. The bioavailability of the Levothyroxine sodium tablet formulation THYROHORMONE/Ni-The Ltd (0.2 mg/tab) and that of a reference oral solution (0.3 mg/100 ml) under fasting conditions were compared in an open, randomized, single-dose two-way crossover study. Twenty four healthy Caucasian volunteers (M/F=15/9, mean age=32.9+/-7.4yr) participated in the study. Bioavailability was assessed by pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under plasma concentration-time curve from time zero up to the measurable last time point (AUC(last)) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax). Heparinized venous blood samples were collected pre-dose and up to a 48-hour period post-dose. Levothyroxine sodium in plasma samples was assayed by a validated electrochemiluninescent immunoassay technique. Statistical analysis showed that the post-dose thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05). Regarding Levothyroxine (T4), the point estimate of the test formulation to the reference formulation ratios (T/R) for AUC(last) and Cmax was 0.92 with 90% confidence limits (0.90, 0.94) and 0.93 with 90% confidence limits (0.91, 0.94), respectively. Regarding triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the point estimate for the T/R ratios of AUC(last) and Cmax was 0.92 with 90% confidence limits (0.90, 0.95) and 0.94 with 90% confidence limits (0.92, 0.95), respectively. The 90% confidence limits for the pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(last) and Cmax lie within the acceptance limits for bioequivalence (0.80, 1.25), for both T3 and T4. PMID:16898074

  18. Enhancement of the Oral Bioavailability of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride via Cremophor® El-Based Liquisolid Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Soad Ali; El-Ridi, Mohamed Shafik; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; El-Sherif, Nolwa Gamal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current work aimed to develop promising Fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD) liquisolid tablets able to increase its oral bioavailability and shorten time to reach maximum plasma concentrations (Tmax). Methods: Eighteen liquisolid powders were developed based on 3 variables; (i) vehicle type [Propylene glycol (PG) or Cremophor® EL (CR)], (ii) carrier [Avicel® PH102] to coat [Aerosil® 200] ratio (15, 20, 25) and (iii) FXD concentration in vehicle (30, 35, 40 %, w/w). Pre-compression studies involved identification of physicochemical interactions and FXD crystallinity (FT-IR, DSC, XRD), topographic visualization (SEM) and estimation of flow properties (angle of repose, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio). CR-based liquisolid powders were compressed as liquisolid tablets (LST 9 – 18) and evaluated for weight-variation, drug-content, friability-percentage, disintegration-time and drug-release. The pharmacokinetics of LST-18 was evaluated in healthy volunteers relative to Allegra® tablets. Results: Pre-compression studies confirmed FXD dispersion in vehicles, conversion to amorphous form and formation of liquisolid powders. CR-based liquisolid powders showed acceptable-to-good flow properties suitable for compaction. CR-based LSTs had appropriate physicochemical properties and short disintegration times. Release profile of LST-18 showed a complete drug release within 5 min. Conclusion: LST-18 succeeded in increasing oral FXD bioavailability by 62% and reducing Tmax to 2.16 h. PMID:26819931

  19. The effect of sucralfate tablets vs. suspension on oral doxycycline absorption in dogs.

    PubMed

    KuKanich, K; KuKanich, B

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent sucralfate (tablet or suspension) on doxycycline pharmacokinetics and to determine the effects of delaying sucralfate by 2h on doxycycline absorption. Five dogs were included in a crossover study receiving: doxycycline alone; doxycycline concurrently with sucralfate tablet; doxycycline followed 2h by sucralfate tablet; doxycycline concurrently with sucralfate suspension; and doxycycline followed 2h by sucralfate suspension. Doxycycline plasma concentrations were evaluated with liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. No interaction was seen when sucralfate was administered as a tablet. Sucralfate tablet fragments were frequently observed in some dogs' feces. The area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (CMAX ) were significantly lower (P<0.001) in the concurrent sucralfate suspension group (AUC 7.2h?g/mL, CMAX 0.43?g/mL) than with doxycycline alone (AUC 36.0h?g/mL, CMAX 2.53?g/mL) resulting in a relative bioavailability of 20%. Delaying sucralfate suspension by 2h after doxycycline administration resulted in no difference in doxycycline absorption as compared with doxycycline administration alone with a relative bioavailability of 74%. The lack of an interaction with sucralfate tablets suggests sucralfate should be administered as a suspension rather than tablet in dogs. PMID:25233871

  20. Single-Dose Phase I Study To Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of Posaconazole in New Tablet and Capsule Formulations Relative to Oral Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lei; Martinho, Monika; O'Mara, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Posaconazole oral suspension, a marketed extended-spectrum triazole with proven efficacy as antifungal treatment and prophylaxis, should be taken with food to maximize absorption. New tablet and capsule formulations have been developed in an attempt to optimize absorption and bioavailability. The aims of this exploratory open-label, partially randomized, 2-part, 4-way, single-dose crossover study in 16 healthy adults were to characterize pharmacokinetics for posaconazole tablet and capsule formulations relative to those for posaconazole oral suspension under fasted and fed conditions and to assess safety and tolerability. Under fasted conditions, posaconazole exposures (area under the curve [AUC]) for the tablet and capsule formulations were similar (mean AUC from time zero to infinity [AUC0?], tablet A, 11,700 ng h/ml [coefficient of variation {CV}, 26%]; tablet B, 11,300 ng h/ml [CV, 22%]; capsule, 11,000 ng h/ml [CV, 25%]) and were substantially higher than the exposure for the oral suspension (mean AUC0?, 3,420 ng h/ml [CV, 44%]). Tablets and capsule showed less variability in exposure than the oral suspension. In fed subjects, tablets and capsule resulted in similar AUC values (mean AUC0?, tablet A, 11,900 ng h/ml [23%]; tablet B, 12,400 ng h/ml [CV, 25%]; capsule, 12,300 ng h/ml [CV, 28%]) and slightly higher exposure than the oral suspension (mean AUC0?, 8,750 [CV, 24%]). Median times to the maximum concentration of drug in plasma were 4 to 5 h (fasted conditions) and 6 to 8 h (fed conditions). Mean half-lives values were similar for all formulations under fed and fasted conditions (23.1 to 29.2 h). Consistent with previous data, exposure for the oral suspension increased 2.5- to 3-fold when it was given with a high-fat meal. Conversely, exposures for tablets and capsule were not markedly affected by food. All formulations of posaconazole at 100 mg were safe and well tolerated. PMID:22615291

  1. Differential pharmacokinetics and the brain distribution of morphine and ephedrine constitutional isomers in rats after oral administration with Keke capsule using rapid-resolution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Song, Yonggui; Su, Dan; Lu, Tulin; Mao, Chunqin; Ji, De; Liu, Yali; Wei, Binbin; Fan, Ronghua

    2014-02-01

    Opioid and ephedra alkaloids known as the active ingredients for Keke capsule, which is used to treat coughs and bronchial asthma, could have potential adverse effects on the central nervous system. Therefore, an efficient, sensitive rapid-resolution LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of morphine, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine in rat plasma and brain tissue homogenate has been developed. The method was validated in the plasma and brain tissue samples, showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r(2) > 0.99). The intra- and interday assay variability was less than 15% for all analytes, and the accuracy was between -8.8 and 5.7%. The study provided the pharmacokinetics profiles and the brain regional distribution of the three active alkaloids after oral administration of Keke capsule. The results also indicated that significant difference in pharmacokinetics parameters of the epimers was observed between ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. PMID:24318005

  2. Maintenance treatment for opioid dependence with slow-release oral morphine: a randomized cross-over, non-inferiority study versus methadone

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Thilo; Haasen, Christian; Verthein, Uwe; Walcher, Stephan; Schuler, Christoph; Backmund, Markus; Ruckes, Christian; Reimer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Aims To compare the efficacy of slow-release oral morphine (SROM) and methadone as maintenance medication for opioid dependence in patients previously treated with methadone. Design Prospective, multiple-dose, open label, randomized, non-inferiority, cross-over study over two 11-week periods. Methadone treatment was switched to SROM with flexible dosing and vice versa according to period and sequence of treatment. Setting Fourteen out-patient addiction treatment centres in Switzerland and Germany. Participants Adults with opioid dependence in methadone maintenance programmes (dose ?50 mg/day) for ?26 weeks. Measurements The efficacy end-point was the proportion of heroin-positive urine samples per patient and period of treatment. Each week, two urine samples were collected, randomly selected and analysed for 6-monoacetyl-morphine and 6-acetylcodeine. Non-inferiority was concluded if the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) in the difference of proportions of positive urine samples was below the predefined boundary of 10%. Findings One hundred and fifty-seven patients fulfilled criteria to form the per protocol population. The proportion of heroin-positive urine samples under SROM treatment (0.20) was non-inferior to the proportion under methadone treatment (0.15) (least-squares mean difference 0.05; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.08; P > 0.01). The 95% CI fell within the 10% non-inferiority margin, confirming the non-inferiority of SROM to methadone. A dose-dependent effect was shown for SROM (i.e. decreasing proportions of heroin-positive urine samples with increasing SROM doses). Retention in treatment showed no significant differences between treatments (period 1/period 2: SROM: 88.7%/82.1%, methadone: 91.1%/88.0%; period 1: P = 0.50, period 2: P = 0.19). Overall, safety outcomes were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Slow-release oral morphine appears to be at least as effective as methadone in treating people with opioid use disorder. PMID:24304412

  3. Pharmacokinetics of ketoconazole administered intravenously to dogs and orally as tablet and solution to humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Baxter, J G; Brass, C; Schentag, J J; Slaughter, R L

    1986-05-01

    The single-dose pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of three ketoconazole formulations were evaluated using HPLC in five healthy human volunteers and six male mongrel dogs. The human volunteers received 400 mg po of ketoconazole as tablet (Ktab) and solution (Ksol) formulations. The dogs received 400 mg po of Ktab and Ksol, and 376 mg iv of an intravenous dose (Kiv). In humans the AUC value for Ksol (62.21 +/- 21.2 microgram X h/ml; mean +/- SD) was significantly greater than for Ktab (50.0 +/- 15.2 micrograms X h/ml; p less than 0.05). Peak serum concentrations (Cmax), time to peak serum concentrations (tmax), t1/2, and the terminal elimination rate constant (kel) did not differ between Ktab and Ksol. This suggests that the administration of Ksol may be a useful alternative to dosage increases in situations where low bioavailability of ketoconazole in tablet form is suspected. The mean systemic clearance (CLs) of Kiv in dogs was 2.74 +/- 1.10 mL/min/kg, the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) was 0.72 +/- 0.28 L/kg, and the half-life was 2.7 +/- 1.6 h. Considerable variability was seen in the AUC of ketoconazole, particularly with the oral preparations. The absolute bioavailability of Ktab was 0.50 +/- 0.38, which did not differ statistically from that of Ksol, 0.56 +/- 0.23. The Ksol showed less variability in AUC, Cmax, and F values than did Ktab, and two dogs with low bioavailability with Ktab (0.04 and 0.07) had substantially greater bioavailability with Ksol (F = 0.96 and 0.57, respectively). Evaluation of Kiv in dogs confirms decreased bioavailability from orally administered tablet formulations of ketoconazole. PMID:3735080

  4. Development and Efficacy Assessment of an Enteric Coated Porous Tablet Loaded With F4 Fimbriae for Oral Vaccination of Piglets against F4+ Escherichia coli Infections.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, D V; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Siddaramaiah

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is one of the major causes contributing to the development of diarrhoea and mortality in new born, suckling and newly weaned piglets. To date, no preventive/treatment strategy showed promising results, which could be due to the lack of potent vaccines, and/or due to the development of resistance of ETEC to antibiotics. Therefore, in the present investigation, a novel porous sodium alginate (SA) tablet formulation loaded with F4 fimbriae antigen was developed and tested for efficacy against ETEC infections in piglet models. Precompression parameters of the powder mixes and post compression parameters of tablets have been evaluated and results were found to be satisfactory. Loading of F4 fimbrial antigens into the tablets was achieved by inducing pores in the tablets via the sublimation of camphor followed by incubation with purified F4 fimbriae. The loaded tablets have been coated with Eudragit L100 to protect the F4 fimbriae from (a) highly acidic gastric environment; (b) proteolytic cleavage by pepsin; and (c) to promote subsequent release in the intestine. Evaluation of developed F4 fimbrial tablets in a Pig model demonstrated induction of mucosal immunity, and a significant reduction of F4+ E. coli in faeces. Therefore, F4 fimbriae loaded porous tablets could be a novel oral vaccination candidate to induce mucosal and systemic immunity against ETEC infections. PMID:26212139

  5. Development and characterisation of sustained release solid dispersion oral tablets containing the poorly water soluble drug disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Shergill, Mandip; Patel, Mina; Khan, Siraj; Bashir, Ayesha; McConville, Christopher

    2016-01-30

    Administration of drugs via the oral route is the most common and preferred route due to its ease of administration, cost-effectiveness and flexibility in design. However, if the drug being administered has limited aqueous solubility it can result in poor bioavailability. Furthermore, the low pH of the stomach as well as enzymatic activity can result in drugs delivered via the oral route being rapidly metabolised and degraded. Here we demonstrate the development and characterisation of sustained release solid dispersion oral tablets, containing the poorly water-soluble drug disulfiram (DSF). The tablets, which are manufactured from two different polymers (Kolliphor() P 188 and P 237) specifically designed for the manufacture of solid dispersions and two different polymers (Kollidon() SR and HPMC) specifically designed to provide sustained release, can enhance the solubility of DSF, sustain its release, while protecting it from degradation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The paper demonstrates that when using the hot melt method at 80C the DSF loading capacity of the Kolliphor() P 188 and P 237 polymers is approximately 43 and 46% respectively, with the DSF completely in an amorphous state. The addition of 80% Kollidon() SR to the formulation completely protected the DSF in SGF for up to 70min with 16% degradation after 120min, while 75% degradation occurred after 120min with the addition of 80% HPMC. The release rate of DSF can be manipulated by both the loading and type of sustained release polymer used, with HPMC providing for a much faster release rate compared to Kollidon() SR. PMID:26608620

  6. Preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets of taste masked phencynonate HCl using ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhenzhong; Yang, Meiyan; Wang, Yuli; Shan, Li; Gao, Chunsheng

    2015-06-01

    This study was intended to design an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation that can mask the extremely bitter and metallic taste of phencynonate HCl by novel ion-exchange resins. The drug-resin complexes (DRCs) were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. In vitro properties (dissolution, wetting time and disintegration time) and in vivo behavior (disintegration time and taste-masking effect) in healthy volunteers of the prepared ODTs were also investigated. The drug was changed from the crystal structure to the amorphous form in the DRC. Compared with commercial tablets, the in vitro and in vivo disintegration of optimized DRC-loaded ODTs with a drug-resin ratio of 1:1 was greatly improved and better palatability with a low bitterness index (0.33) was obtained. The current DRC-loaded ODT could promise a good way to mask the unpleasant taste of certain drugs and accordingly improve the patient compliance. PMID:24785576

  7. A clinical evaluation of amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis and comparison with amlexanox oral tablets: a randomized, placebo controlled, blinded, multicenter clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wenxia; Dong, Yi; Liu, Jie; Wang, Zhi; Zhong, Xiaobo; Chen, Ruiyang; Zhou, Hongmei; Lin, Mei; Jiang, Lu; Gao, Feng; Xu, Tao; Chen, Qianming; Zeng, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Background Amlexanox has been developed as a 5 percent topical oral paste for the treatment of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) in most European countries. However, it is not yet available in China and has not been generally accepted in clinical treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous ulcers, and compare the results with those of amlexanox oral adhesive tablets in order to analyse the difference between the two dosage forms of amlexanox. Methods We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel, multicenter clinical study. A total of 216 patients with minor recurrent aphthous ulcers (MiRAU) were recruited and randomized to amlexanox pellicles or placebo pellicles. Pellicles were consecutively applied four times per day, for five days. The size and pain level of ulcers were measured and recorded on treatment days 0, 4 and 6. Finally, the results were compared with those of our previous 104 cases treated with amlexanox tablets. Results Amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles significantly reduced ulcer size (P= 0.017 for day 4, P=0.038 for day 6) and alleviated ulcer pain (P=0.021 for day 4, P=0.036 for day 6). No significant difference was observed in the treatment effectiveness between the pellicle and tablet form of amlexanox. Conclusions Amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles are as effective and safe as amlexanox oral adhesive tablets in the treatment of MiRAU for this Chinese cohort. However, pellicles seem to be more comfortable to use when compared with the dosage form of tablets. Therefore, in clinical practice, amlexanox oral adhesive pellicles may be a better choice for RAS patients. Trials registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR1727. PMID:19419555

  8. Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

  9. Sumatriptan (50 mg tablets vs. 25 mg suppositories) in the acute treatment of menstrually related migraine and oral contraceptive-induced menstrual migraine: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Fabio; Allais, Gianni; Nappi, Rossella E; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Genazzani, Andrea R; Bellafronte, Manuela; Roncolato, Maurizio; Benedetto, Chiara

    2010-10-01

    Migraine attacks are common in the perimenstrual period (menstrually-related migraine, MRM) and can be particularly exacerbated by the cyclic suspension of oral contraceptives (oral contraceptive-induced menstrual migraine, OCMM). This cross-over, randomised study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of rectal (25?mg) and oral (50?mg) sumatriptan in the treatment of 232 menstrual migraine attacks (135 MRM and 97 OCMM). Two hours after suppository administration, 72% of patients in the MRM group achieved pain relief and 24% were pain free; after tablet administration, the percentages were 66% and 27%, respectively. In the OCMM group 55% of patients improved at 2?h with suppositories and 46% with tablets, 27% of patients were pain-free after suppositories and 18% after tablets. Fifty percent of patients given suppositories were pain-free at 4?h post-treatment and 47% of those given tablets. Sumatriptan also effectively alleviated symptoms associated with migraine, such as nausea, vomiting and photo/phonophobia. A single dose of medication sufficed for pain relief without relapse in 47.4% of the attacks (MRM: 66%; OCMM: 33%). Both formulations were well tolerated. PMID:20528213

  10. Enteric-coated tablet of risedronate sodium in combination with phytic acid, a natural chelating agent, for improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong S; Jang, Sun W; Son, Miwon; Kim, Byoung M; Kang, Myung J

    2016-01-20

    The oral bioavailability (BA) of risedronate sodium (RS), an antiresorptive agent, is less than 1% due to its low membrane permeability as well as the formation of non-absorbable complexes with multivalent cations such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)) in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, to increase oral BA of the bisphosphonate, a novel enteric-coated tablet (ECT) dosage form of RS in combination with phytic acid (IP6), a natural chelating agent recognized as safe, was formulated. The chelating behavior of IP6 against Ca(2+), including a stability constant for complex formulation was characterized using the continuous variation method. Subsequently, in vitro dissolution profile and in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the novel ECT were evaluated comparatively with that of the marketed product (Altevia, Sanofi, US), an ECT containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a chelating agent, in beagle dogs. The logarithm of stability constant for Ca(2+)-IP6 complex, an equilibrium constant approximating the strength of the interaction between two chemicals to form complex, was 19.05, which was 3.9-fold (p<0.05) and 1.7-fold (p<0.05) higher than those of Ca(2+)-RS and Ca(2+)-EDTA complexes. The release profile of RS from both enteric-coated dosage forms was equivalent, regardless of the type of chelating agent. An in vivo absorption study in beagle dogs revealed that the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of RS after oral administration of IP6-containing ECT were approximately 7.9- (p<0.05) and 5.0-fold (p<0.05) higher than those of the marketed product at the same dose (35mg as RS). Therefore, our study demonstrates the potential usefulness of the ECT system in combination with IP6 for an oral therapy with the bisphosphonate for improved BA. PMID:26594027

  11. A canine biorelevant dissolution method for predicting in vivo performance of orally administered sustained release matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Paul L; Bothe, Jameson R; Bhardwaj, Sunny; Hu, Mengwei; Nofsinger, Rebecca; Xia, Binfeng; Persak, Steven; Pennington, Justin; Bak, Annette

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical species are a crucial component of drug development, but critical differences in physiology and anatomy need to be taken into account when attempting to extrapolate to humans or between species. The same is true when trying to develop oral formulations for preclinical species, especially unconventional formulations, such as sustained release tablets. During the evaluation of such specialized dosage forms, dissolution can be a critical in vitro tool used to rank-order formulations and ultimately choose the desired release rate. Here, the development of a canine biorelevant dissolution method for the prediction of the in vivo performance of sustained release matrix tablets in beagle dogs is described. The method accounts for differences in physiology between humans and dogs such as gastrointestinal fluid composition, gastric emptying forces, and gastric residence time. The most critical dissolution method parameters were found to be the paddle speed used to simulate the gastric emptying forces as well as the time spent in simulated gastric fluid. The resulting differences in method conditions are further explored through in silico models of the hydrodynamic forces applied to a dosage form. Two case studies are reported showing that the method was able to obtain excellent in vitro-in vivo relationships (slopes ranging from 1.08-1.01) which are significantly (p < 0.01-0.05) improved compared to human biorelevant dissolution used to predict in vivo performance in humans (slopes ∼1.5-1.75). The quality of the method's predictive ability allows for it to help drive the development of matrix sustained release formulations intended for preclinical studies. PMID:26339722

  12. Safety of fluralaner chewable tablets (BravectoTM), a novel systemic antiparasitic drug, in dogs after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide that provides long acting efficacy in dogs after a single oral treatment. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of fluralaner in chewable tablets to dogs at the highest recommended treatment dose and at multiples of this dose. Methods Thirty-two (16 male and 16 female) healthy 8-week old Beagle dogs weighing 2.0 - 3.6 kg at first administration were included in the study. Fluralaner was administered on three occasions at 8-week intervals at doses of up to 56, 168, and 280 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 1, 3, and 5 times the highest recommended treatment dose of fluralaner; sham dosed dogs served as controls. During the study, all dogs were clinically observed, and their health was carefully monitored including body weight development, food consumption and measurement of hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry (including measurement of levels of ACTH and C-reactive protein) and urinalysis. Following euthanasia of the dogs, complete gross post mortem examination, including organ weight determination, and histopathological examination of multiple tissues were conducted. Results There were no clinical findings related to fluralaner treatment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control group were observed for some clinical pathology parameters and organ weights; none of these findings were considered to be of clinical relevance. Conclusions Oral administration of fluralaner at the highest recommended treatment dose (56 mg/kg) at 8-week intervals is well tolerated and has a safety margin of more than five in healthy dogs eight weeks of age or older and weighing at least 2 kg. PMID:24606886

  13. Swimming reduces the severity of physical and psychological dependence and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Fadaei, Atefeh; Gorji, Hossein Miladi; Hosseini, Shahrokh Makvand

    2015-01-15

    Previous studies have indicated that voluntary exercise decreases the severity of the anxiogenic-like behaviors in both morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. This study examined the effects of regular swimming exercise during the development of dependency and spontaneous morphine withdrawal on the anxiety-depression profile and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine dependent rats. The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12h intervals) of morphine over a period of 14 days. The exercising rats were allowed to swim (45 min/d, five days per a week, for 14 or 21 days) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice paradigm in animal models of craving. The results showed that withdrawal signs were decreased in swimmer morphine dependent rats than sedentary rats (P<0.05). Also, the swimmer morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries (P<0.05), higher levels of sucrose preference (P<0.001) than sedentary rats. Voluntary consumption of oral morphine was less in the swimmer morphine-withdrawn rats than the sedentary groups during four periods of the intake of drug (P<0.01). We conclude that regular swimming exercise reduces the severity of morphine dependence and voluntary morphine consumption with reducing anxiety and depression in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Thus, swimming exercise may be a potential method to ameliorate some of the deleterious behavioral consequences of morphine dependence. PMID:25498794

  14. [Method for the evaluation of the stability and usability after opening packages of orally disintegrating tablets: case of amlodipine besilate products].

    PubMed

    Hori, Katsuhito; Yoshida, Naoko; Okumura, Tomonori; Okamura, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2010-08-01

    Orally disintegrating (OD) tablets are widely used in clinical practice. However, drug information on the choice and dispensing based on their stability after opening packages and usability in patients and dispensaries is not sufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate possible evaluation methods of the stability and usability of amlodipine OD tablets. Additives of the brand were changed in April 2009, and therefore the previous and current forms and two generics, current and newly marketed (in November 2009) products of different firms, were used. OD tablets were stored at 25 degrees C and 75% relative humidity for 3 months after opening the packages, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. Their weight, diameter, thickness, and color difference increased slightly from the initial state. The extent of the change in their hardness, disintegration time, and friability was different among products. These physicochemical changes were acceptable in dispensary practice. Storage after opening the packages did not affect their dissolution rate. The dissolution rate at the initial state of the current brand was slower than that of the previous one. All products used were able to be dispensed by an automatic tablet-packing machine and applied to the so-called simple suspension method for intubational administration. Sensory evaluation tests revealed no major difference in the oral disintegration time, taste, impression, and preference among products. In conclusion, the stability and usability of amlodipine OD tablets used in this study were examined using several methods, and they can be used equivalently from the stability and usability viewpoints. PMID:20686207

  15. Enhancement of Solubility of Lamotrigine by Solid Dispersion and Development of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Using 32 Full Factorial Design

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinderpal; Garg, Rajeev; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Present investigation deals with the preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of lamotrigine using β-cyclodextrin and PVP-K30 as polymers for the preparation of solid dispersion which help in enhancement of aqueous solubility of this BCS CLASS-II drug and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crospovidone as a superdisintegrating agent, to reduce disintegration time. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were developed with different ratios of superdisintegrating agents. All the formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 rpm using 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl maintained at 37°C ± 0.5°C as the dissolution medium. On the basis of evaluation parameters formulations were prepared using β-CD 1 : 1 solid dispersion. Then 32 full factorial design was applied using SSG and crospovidone in different ratios suggested by using design expert 8.0.7.1 and optimized formulation was prepared using amount of SSG and crospovidone as suggested by the software. The optimized formulation prepared had disintegrating time of 15 s, wetting time of 24 s, and % friability of 0.55. PMID:26634173

  16. Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; García-Flores, M.; Valladares-Méndez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martínez-Alfaro, M.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

  17. Application of the BCS biowaiver approach to assessing bioequivalence of orally disintegrating tablets with immediate release formulations.

    PubMed

    Ono, Asami; Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2014-11-20

    The aim of this study was to compare the dissolution profiles of oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) and immediate release (IR) formulations in order to experimentally validate the regulatory biowaiver scheme (BWS) for biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class III drugs. We examined six drugs that show clinical bioequivalence between the ODTs and IR formulations: taltirelin, olopatadine, droxidopa, famotidine, fexofenadine, and hydrochlorothiazide. The dissolution profiles of these drugs were evaluated using the compendium paddle apparatus at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Taltirelin and olopatadine showed very rapid dissolution and met the dissolution criteria in the BWS, whereas droxidopa, famotidine, fexofenadine, and hydrochlorothiazide did not. Furthermore, in the case of famotidine, fexofenadine, and hydrochlorothiazide, the ODTs and IR formulations showed dissimilar dissolution profiles. The dose-to-solubility ratio (D:S) of these drugs was larger than that of the other drugs. The results of this study suggest that extension of the BCS-BWS to ODTs and IR formulations of BCS class III drugs is appropriate. Furthermore, for BCS class III drugs with relatively high D:S, clinical bioequivalence would be achievable even when two formulations showed different dissolution profiles in vitro. PMID:25151946

  18. Formulation, preparation, and evaluation of novel orally disintegrating tablets containing taste-masked naproxen sodium granules and naratriptan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Stange, Ulrike; Fhrling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and manufacture novel freeze-dried orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for migraine therapy containing taste-masked naproxen sodium and naratriptan hydrochloride. The formulation was optimized based on freeze-drying of sucrose solutions with different binders (hydroxyethylstarch, sodium alginate, methylcellulose, and gelatin) and varying amounts of Eudragit E-coated naproxen sodium granules. Excellent product performance of the ODTs in terms of hardness and disintegration time (<10 s) independent of the mass of particles embedded was found for the solution consisting of sucrose and hydroxyethylstarch. Poloxamer 188, menthol flavor, naratriptan hydrochloride, and taste-masked naproxen sodium granules corresponding to 200 mg of naproxen were then added, and the final batches of ODTs for migraine therapy were produced. The ODTs were fully characterized, and subsequently stored for 1 month at room temperature and at 40C. The amount of free naproxen sodium after freeze-drying and storage was below the threshold bitterness value, and the coating remained intact. Additionally, the particle size distribution of taste-masked granules was preserved, and more than 90 % naproxen sodium was released after 30 min. Naratriptan hydrochloride was dissolved immediately after disintegration, hence facilitating buccal absorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:24532095

  19. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  2. Preparation and optimization of mouth/orally dissolving tablets using a combination of glycine, carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate: a comparison with superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Vora, Nishant; Rana, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to prepare metoclopramide HCl mouth/orally dissolving tablets (MDTs) using glycine, carboxy methyl cellulose and sodium alginate with sufficient mechanical integrity and disintegration time comparable to superdisintegrants. Application of Plackett-Burman design revealed that concentration of glycine (X(1)), concentration of carboxy methyl cellulose (X(2)) and tablet crushing strength (X(4)) were found to actively influence the dependent variables (disintegration time in oral cavity (DT), wetting time (WT), porosity (P(0)) and water absorption ratio (WA). Additional MDTs were prepared utilizing central composite design for estimating extended effect in a spherical domain. The regression statistics (performed using Statistica(R)-7.0) of quadratic model revealed that DT, WT, P(0) were 97% correlated with active factors (X(1), X(2) or X(4)). The results revealed that optimized MDTs were capable of simulating DT comparable to MDTs containing croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone. Further, it can be envisaged that optimized MDTs were found to be superior to MDTs containing croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone in terms of friability and tablet crushing strength. PMID:18484492

  3. Cocaine and morphine interaction in acute and chronic cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Kaiko, R F; Kanner, R; Foley, K M; Wallenstein, S L; Canel, A M; Rogers, A G; Houde, R W

    1987-10-01

    An evaluation of the analgesic, mood and side effects of the combination of intramuscular morphine and oral cocaine was conducted in 17 patients with postoperative pain and 19 others with chronic malignant pain for the purpose of assessing the therapeutic merits of so-called 'euphoriant' elixirs in the management of pain in cancer patients. The study was designed as a randomized and double-blind single dose but complete cross-over comparison of the combination of 10 mg intramuscular morphine and 10 mg oral cocaine with morphine alone, cocaine alone, and placebo. While patients clearly discriminated between the analgesic effects of morphine and placebo, there were no differences in the analgesic responses to cocaine and placebo, or in responses to morphine and the combination of morphine and cocaine in either patient group. Side effects were predominantly morphine-like and occurred in 59% of patients after the combination, 43% after morphine, 34% after cocaine and 25% after placebo. Interaction effects between cocaine and morphine were observed in terms of positive changes toward selected aspects of mood (e.g., cheerful, friendly) in postoperative patients but toward negative aspects of mood (e.g., sad, serious) in patients with chronic pain. PMID:3320880

  4. [Involvement of zinc in taste disturbance occurring during treatment for malignant tumor in the chest and the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets (a retrospective study)].

    PubMed

    Nakata, Yoko; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kondou, Yoko; Tokuoka, Yoshie; Imazato, Hitomi; Iwata, Kaori; Oomori, Yukari; Yamato, Akihiro; Shimizu, Saburou; Nagao, Sadako; Matsui, Kaoru; Abe, Noriko

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed the correlation between serum zinc levels and taste disturbance, and between patient backgrounds and serum zinc levels or taste disturbance, and evaluated the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets on taste disturbance in 29 patients with lung cancer and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma who were receiving chemotherapy. Taste disturbance developed in 11 (36.7%) out of 30 patients. Serum zinc levels significantly correlated with taste disturbance (p=0.0227). Serum zinc levels were significantly lower (p=0.0235) and taste disturbance tended to be more frequent (p=0.0625) in males. Polaprezinc improved taste disturbance in 5 of 8 patients. PMID:18633224

  5. The Effects of Screw Configuration and Polymeric Carriers on Hot-Melt Extruded Taste-Masked Formulations Incorporated into Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Morott, Joseph T.; Pimparade, Manjeet; Park, Jun-Bom; Worley, Chelsea P.; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Lian, Zhuoyang; Pinto, Elanor; Bi, Yunxia; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to produce successfully taste masked formulations of Sildenafil Citrate (SC) using hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology. Multiple screw configurations and polymeric carriers were evaluated for their effects on taste masking efficiency, which was assessed by both E-tongue analysis and in vitro dissolution in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.8 artificial saliva). The screw configurations were further assessed for their effects on the morphology of the API using PXRD, FT-IR and mid-infrared chemical imaging. It was determined that the screw configuration had a profound effect on the taste masking efficiency of the formulations as a result of altering the physical state of the API. Selected extruded formulations using ethylcellulose (EC) with a pore former were further formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which were optimized by varying the grade and percentage of the superdisintegrant used. An optimized disintegration time of approximately 8 seconds was achieved. The final ODT formulation exhibited excellent taste masking properties with over 85% drug release in gastric media as well as physical tablet properties. Interestingly, friability, which tends to be a common concern when formulating ODTs, was well within the acceptable limits (<1%) for common tablets. PMID:25410968

  6. The effects of screw configuration and polymeric carriers on hot-melt extruded taste-masked formulations incorporated into orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Morott, Joseph T; Pimparade, Manjeet; Park, Jun-Bom; Worley, Chelsea P; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Lian, Zhuoyang; Pinto, Elanor; Bi, Yunxia; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to produce successfully taste masked formulations of Sildenafil Citrate (SC) using hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology. Multiple screw configurations and polymeric carriers were evaluated for their effects on taste masking efficiency, which was assessed by both E-tongue analysis and in vitro dissolution in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.8 artificial saliva). The screw configurations were further assessed for their effects on the morphology of the API using PXRD, FT-IR and mid-infrared chemical imaging. It was determined that the screw configuration had a profound effect on the taste masking efficiency of the formulations as a result of altering the physical state of the API. Selected extruded formulations using ethylcellulose (EC) with a pore former were further formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which were optimized by varying the grade and percentage of the superdisintegrant used. An optimized disintegration time of approximately 8 seconds was achieved. The final ODT formulation exhibited excellent taste masking properties with over 85% drug release in gastric media as well as physical tablet properties. Interestingly, friability, which tends to be a common concern when formulating ODTs, was well within the acceptable limits (<1%) for common tablets. PMID:25410968

  7. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC0–∞ (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

  8. Oral Doxycycline in the Management of Acne Vulgaris: Current Perspectives on Clinical Use and Recent Findings with a New Double-scored Small Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oral antibiotics have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris for six decades. Among dermatologists, tetracyclines represent at least three-fourths of the oral antibiotics prescribed in clinical practice. Unlike other specialties, antibiotic use in dermatology is predominantly for the treatment of noninfectious disorders, such as acne vulgaris and rosacea, which usually involves prolonged therapy over several weeks to months as compared to short courses used to treat cutaneous infections. At the present time, doxycycline and minocycline are the most commonly prescribed tetracyclines in dermatology, used primarily for treatment of acne vulgaris with a long overall favorable track record of effectiveness and safety. Although both are commonly used, doxycycline may be chosen by clinicians more readily as there is a lower risk of rare yet potentially serious adverse reactions, although doxycycline does warrant preventative measures to reduce the risks of esophagitis and phototoxicity reactions. This article reviews data with a new double-scored small 150mg tablet of doxycycline hyclate that has proven functional scoring, exhibits bioavailability similar to enteric-coated doxycycline, and has been shown to be associated with a low potential for gastrointestinal adverse reactions very comparable to what is achieved with enteric-coated tablets. PMID:26029331

  9. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of five tripterygium pyridine alkaloids in dog plasma and its application to their pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of tripterygium glycosides tablets.

    PubMed

    Su, Meng-xiang; Song, Min; Yang, Da-song; Shi, Jin-fang; Di, Bin; Hang, Tai-jun

    2015-05-15

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of five pyridine alkaloids contained in tripterygium glycosides tablets (triptolide, wilforine, wilforgine, wilfording and wilfortrine) in dog plasma. The analysis was carried out on a Sepax GP-Phenyl column using a mixture of methanol and 10mmol/L ammonium formate buffer solution containing 0.1% formic acid (75:25, v/v) as the mobile phase pumped at a flow-rate of 1.0mL/min. All MS data were obtained in the positive ESI mode with selective multiple reaction monitoring of ion transitions. The method was fully validated to be accurate and precise with a linear range of 0.2-1000ng/mL for triptolide and 0.05-1000ng/mL for the other four pyridine alkaloids. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) were within 10.6% and 14.0%, respectively, and the relative error (RE, %) were all less than 13.1%. The method was successfully applied to multi-components pharmacokinetic study of the five pyridine alkaloids in beagle dogs after a single oral administration of 3mg/kg and 30mg/kg tripterygium glycosides tablets, respectively, and a multiple oral administration of 30mg/kg for 6 consecutive days. PMID:25855315

  10. Low-dose oral immunization with lyophilized tissue of herbicide-resistant lettuce expressing hepatitis B surface antigen for prototype plant-derived vaccine tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Pniewski, Tomasz; Kapusta, Jzef; Boci?g, Piotr; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Kostrzak, Anna; Gdula, Micha?; Fedorowicz-Stro?ska, Olga; Wjcik, Piotr; Otta, Halina; Samardakiewicz, S?awomir; Wolko, Bogdan; P?ucienniczak, Andrzej

    2011-05-01

    Efficient immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and other pathogens with plant-based oral vaccines requires appropriate plant expressors and the optimization of vaccine compositions and administration protocols. Previous immunization studies were mainly based on a combination of the injection of a small surface antigen of HBV (S-HBsAg) and the feeding with raw tissue containing the antigen, supplemented with an adjuvant, and coming from plants conferring resistance to kanamycin. The objective of this study was to develop a prototype oral vaccine formula suitable for human immunization. Herbicide-resistant lettuce was engineered, stably expressing through progeny generation micrograms of S-HBsAg per g of fresh weight and formed into virus-like particles (VLPs). Lyophilized tissue containing a relatively low, 100-ng VLP-assembled antigen dose, administered only orally to mice with a long, 60-day interval between prime and boost immunizations and without exogenous adjuvant, elicited mucosal and systemic humoral anti-HBs responses at the nominally protective level. Lyophilized tissue was converted into tablets, which preserved S-HBsAg content for at least one year of room temperature storage. The results of the study provide indications on immunization methodology using a durable, efficacious, and convenient plant-derived prototype oral vaccine against hepatitis B. PMID:21107787

  11. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel....

  12. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel....

  13. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel....

  14. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either...

  15. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  16. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cefpodoxime tablets. 520.370 Section 520.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or...

  18. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cefpodoxime tablets. 520.370 Section 520.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...

  19. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cefpodoxime tablets. 520.370 Section 520.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  5. Morphine concentrations in stomach contents of intravenous opioid overdose deaths.

    PubMed

    Duflou, Johan; Darke, Shane; Easson, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Death caused by heroin overdose is almost always the result of intravenous injection of the drug in Australia. We briefly describe a case where a heroin overdose was initially thought to be the result of oral ingestion of the drug, primarily as a result of higher concentrations of morphine in stomach contents than in blood. During the subsequent criminal trial and investigation, however, the issue of the entero-hepatic circulation of morphine was raised as a possible reason for the presence of morphine in the stomach contents. In this study, we report on the distribution of opioids in blood, stomach contents, urine, liver, and bile in 29 deaths caused by intravenous heroin overdose. The mean total and free blood morphine concentrations were 0.60 and 0.32 mg/L, respectively, and the mean stomach contents total morphine concentration was 1.16 mg/kg. All cases had detectable morphine in the stomach contents, and 24 of 29 cases (83%) had higher concentrations of total morphine in stomach contents than in blood. The mean total morphine concentration in bile was c. 100 times that in blood, and the liver total morphine concentration averaged twice that of blood levels. We conclude that the entero-hepatic circulation of morphine and subsequent reflux of duodenal contents back into the stomach can result in the deposition of morphine in gastric contents. Consequently, the relative levels of opioids in blood and stomach contents cannot be used to determine the site of administration of the drug. PMID:19674239

  6. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for...

  7. Successful management of a difficult cancer pain patient by appropriate adjuvant and morphine titration.

    PubMed

    Rana, Shiv Ps; Ahmed, Arif; Kumar, Vindo; Chaudhary, Prakash K; Khurana, Deepa; Mishra, Seema

    2011-05-01

    Morphine has been used for many years to relieve cancer pain. Oral morphine (in either immediate release or modified release form) remains the analgesic of choice for moderate or severe cancer pain. The dose of oral morphine is titrated up to achieve adequate relief from pain with minimal side effects. Antidepressant and anticonvulsant drugs, when used in addition to conventional analgesics, give excellent relief from cancer pain. Most cancer pain responds to pharmacological measures with oral morphine but some pain like neuropathic and bony pain, pain in children and elderly age group, and advanced malignancy pain are very difficult to treat. Here, we report the management of a similar patient of severe cancer pain and the difficulty that we came across during dose titration of oral morphine and adjuvant analgesic. PMID:21976860

  8. The effect of perinatal lead exposure on dopamine receptor D2 expression in morphine dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Listos, Joanna; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Piotr; Orzelska, Jolanta; Fidecka, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Rybicka, Marta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and molecular effects of pre- and postnatal lead (Pb) exposure on the expression of morphine withdrawal and tolerance in adult rats. Rats were orally treated with 0.1% (1000ppm) lead acetate from conception, through gestation, up to postnatal day (PND) 28. Subsequently, behavioral experiments were conducted on adult (PND 60) male rats. To assess behavioral effects of morphine dependence in Pb-exposed rats two experimental models were used: naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs and the assessment of morphine tolerance to antinociceptive effect in the tail-immersion test. Morphine withdrawal and tolerance were more expressed in Pb-exposed morphine administered rats than in morphine administered rats. In the case of morphine withdrawal signs the analysis of protein (Western blotting) and mRNA (RT PCR) expression revealed significantly higher dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum and hippocampus, in Pb-exposed morphine administered rats than in morphine administered rats. Differently, in the case of morphine tolerance the significant upregulation of D2R protein and mRNA expression in hippocampus, but not in prefrontal cortex or striatum, was demonstrated in Pb-exposed and morphine administered rats in comparison with morphine administered. These findings suggest that in morphine withdrawal and tolerant rats the perinatal Pb-exposure can affect D2R expression in brain region-specific manner. Immunohistochemical assessment of D2R expression in hippocampus showed translocation of D2R from membrane-cytoplasm in control rats to nucleus in morphine administered rats. Perinatal Pb-exposure did not induce the changes in the localization of D2R irrespective of morphine effect. PMID:23702354

  9. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  13. In vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking using orally disintegrating tablet containing ion exchange resin-drug complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Il; Cho, Sang-Min; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri; Oh, Euichaul; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-10-15

    Although the taste-masking of bitter drug using ion exchange resin has been recognized, in vitro testing using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) and in vivo bitterness test by human panel test was not fully understood. In case of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing bitter medicine, in vitro and in vivo disintegration is also importance for dosage performance. Donepezil hydrochloride was chosen as a model drug due to its bitterness and requires rapid disintegration for the preparation of ODT. In this study, ion exchange resin drug complex (IRDC) at three different ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) was prepared using a spray-drying method and then IRDC-loaded ODT containing superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate) were prepared by the direct compression method. The physical properties and morphologies were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and electrophoretic laser scattering (ELS), respectively. The in vitro taste-masking efficiency was measured with an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). In vivo bitterness scale was also evaluated by human volunteers and then we defined new term, "bitterness index (BI)" to link in vitro e-Tongue. There was a good correlation of IRDC between in vitro e-Tongue values and in vivo BI. Furthermore, IRDC-loaded ODT showed good in vitro/in vivo correlation in the disintegration time. The optimal IRDC-loaded ODTs displayed similar drug release profiles to the reference tablet (Aricept() ODT) in release media of pH 1.2, pH 4.0, pH 6.8 and distilled water but had significantly better palatability in vivo taste-masking evaluation. The current IRDC-loaded ODT according to the in vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking could provide platforms in ODT dosage formulations of donepezil hydrochloride for improved patient compliances. PMID:23933050

  14. [The enantioselective pharmacokinetic study of desvenlafaxine sustained release tablet in Chinese healthy male volunteers after oral administration].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-xia; Du, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Yi-fan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhong, Da-fang

    2015-04-01

    A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 ?m). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature. PMID:26223133

  15. [New option in the management of cancer pain in Hungary: short acting oral opioid therapy].

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tams; Sip?cz, Istvn; Csiks, gnes; Pintr, Tams

    2015-06-21

    Short acting oral morphine has recently been registered again in Hungary. Short acting oral morphine has two essential indications: dose titration at initiation of major analgesic therapy and treatment of breakthrough pain appearing beside round the clock major analgesic therapy. The clinical management of short acting oral morphine is summarised in this article. PMID:26170088

  16. Simultaneous determination by UPLC-MS/MS of seven bioactive compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba tablets: application to a pharmacokinetic study*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-ping; Liu, Na; Kang, Qian; Du, Pei-pei; Lan, Yi; Zhao, Bo-chen; Chen, Yan-yan; Zhang, Qing; Li, Hui; Zhang, Ye-wen; Wu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, reliable, and sensitive method was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source for determination of seven bioactive compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba tablets (GBTs). The method simultaneously detects bilobalide (BB), ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC), quercetin (QCT), kaempferol (KMF), and isorhamnetin (ISR) for pharmacokinetic study. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were extracted from rat plasma by acetidin. An MS/MS detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and operating in the negative ionization mode. The calibration curve ranges were 5500, 5500, 2.5250, 1100, 1100, 1100, and 1100 ng/ml for BB, GA, GB, GC, QCT, KMF, and ISR, respectively. The mean recovery of the analytes ranged from 68.11% to 84.42%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 2.33%9.86% and the accuracies were between 87.67% and 108.37%. The method was used successfully in a pharmacokinetic study of GBTs. The pharmacokinetic parameters of seven compounds were analyzed using a non-compartment model. Plasma concentrations of the seven compounds were determined up to 48 h after administration, and their pharmacokinetic parameters were in agreement with previous studies. PMID:25367786

  17. LC-MS/MS determination and urinary excretion study of seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minlu; Liu, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-25

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine in human urine. The sample preparation procedure involved the four-fold dilution of the urine samples with acetonitrile/water (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% formic acid as the mobile phase. The mass detection was performed in the positive mode. Calibration curves of the seven alkaloids showed good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9973) over their concentration ranges. To meet the requirements of urinary excretion study for each alkaloid in human, the lower limit of quantification was set at different values from 0.05063ng/mL to 2.034ng/mL for the seven alkaloids, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy were all within 15%. No matrix effect was observed for the analytes. The validated method was applied to the excretion study for the seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets. The average 72h cumulative urinary excretion of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine accounted for 1.81%, 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.046%, 0.027%, 0.010% and 0.021% of the respective administered dose. PMID:26519688

  18. Further evidence that morphine-6 beta-glucuronide is a more potent opioid agonist than morphine.

    PubMed

    Frances, B; Gout, R; Monsarrat, B; Cros, J; Zajac, J M

    1992-07-01

    The antinociceptive properties of morphine-6 beta-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine (oral, i.c.v. and s.c.) were examined in two tests involving different nociceptive stimuli [i.e., cutaneous-thermal (tail-flick) and chemical-visceral (acetic acid-writhing)] in both naive and chronically treated mice. Twenty min after i.c.v. injection, M6G was 47 and 360 times more potent than morphine in the writhing and tail-flick tests, respectively. This difference was not due to differences in affinity because M6G displayed lower apparent affinities (Ki) for mu and kappa binding sites in vitro. After systemic injection, the two opiates were equieffective, although M6G produced a 10-fold longer antinociceptive effect. These differences with route of administration partially result from the hydrophilic nature of M6G because its inflow into the brain compartment was at least 10-fold lower than that of morphine, whereas the rate of elimination of the parent molecule was 3 times greater. After chronic treatment, mice readily develop tolerance and marked physical dependence to the antinociceptive effects of M6G. In vivo binding studies showed that M6G exerts its antinociceptive effect at low (less than 1%) fractional occupancy of [3H]diprenorphine-specific binding sites. In contrast, morphine needs to occupy 9.5 (writhing) to 47 (tail-flick) times more opioid binding sites to produce the same antinociceptive activity. M6G thus appears to have greater pharmacological potency than morphine, which in comparison possesses a low intrinsic efficacy. PMID:1320685

  19. Effect of hydrophilic natural gums in formulation of oral-controlled release matrix tablets of propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, K S; Venkataraju, M P; Gowda, D V

    2009-04-01

    In order to develop a controlled delivery of highly water-soluble propranolol hydrochloride (PPHCl) using hydrophilic natural gums (xanthan gum [X] and locust bean gum [LBG]) as cost-effective, nontoxic, easily available. The granules of PPHCl were prepared by wet granulation method using a different ratios drug: gum ratios of X, LBG and XLBG(X and LBG in 1:1 ratios). To increase the flowability and compressibility of the granules, and to prevent its adhesion to punch and die, magnesium stearate and talc were added to the granules in 1:2 ratios before punching. The tablet was analysed to determine hardness, friability, % assay and invitro release study was carried out. The release of PPHCl from a gelatinous swollen mass, which controls the diffusion of drug molecules through the polymeric material into aqueous medium. The XLBG matrice shows precise controlled release than the X and LBG matrice because of burst effect and fast release in case of X and LBG matrice respectively and there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymer in XLBG formulation as confirmed by FTIR studies. First pass effect of PPHCl can be avoided by these formulations. Matrices with XLBG show zero-order release via swelling, diffusion and relaxation mechanism. The XLBG matrice leads to more precise result than X and LBG alone by the utilization of synergistic interaction between two biopolymers and uniformity in the hydration layer in dissolution media. However, according to the similarity factor (f(2)) XLBG3 were the most similar formulations to Lol-SR as the reference standard. PMID:19339235

  20. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name....

  1. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name....

  2. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  3. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  4. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  5. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  6. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2345b - Tetracycline tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline tablets. 520.2345b Section 520.2345b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345b Tetracycline tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 250, or 500 milligrams of tetracycline (as...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single dose. Dogs weighing 5 to 10 pounds are administered one-half tablet twice during a single day. All...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single dose. Dogs weighing 5 to 10 pounds are administered one-half tablet twice during a single day. All...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single dose. Dogs weighing 5 to 10 pounds are administered one-half tablet twice during a single day. All...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single dose. Dogs weighing 5 to 10 pounds are administered one-half tablet twice during a single day. All...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single dose. Dogs weighing 5 to 10 pounds are administered one-half tablet twice during a single day. All...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  16. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  17. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different medications or doses, are taken in ... 28-tablet packets have certain color tablets that contain different amounts of estrogen and progestin, but also ...

  18. Sucrose esters with various hydrophilic-lipophilic properties: novel controlled release agents for oral drug delivery matrix tablets prepared by direct compaction.

    PubMed

    Chansanroj, K; Betz, G

    2010-08-01

    Sucrose esters (SE) are esters of sucrose and fatty acids with various hydrophilic-lipophilic properties which have attracted interest from being used in pharmaceutical applications. This study aimed to gain insight into the use of SE as controlled release agents for direct compacted matrix tablets. The study focused on the effect of hydrophilic-lipophilic properties on tableting properties and drug release. Sucrose stearate with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values ranging from 0 to 16 was systematically tested. Tablet formulations contained SE, metoprolol tartrate as a highly soluble model drug and dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate as a tablet formulation filler in the ratio 1:1:2. The compaction behaviour of matrix tablets was compared with the compacts of individual starting materials as reference. SE incorporation improved the plasticity, compressibility and lubricating property of powder mixtures. The hydrophilic-lipophilic properties of SE affected tableting properties, drug release rate and release mechanism. Increasing hydrophilicity corresponding to the increased monoesters in SE composition increased the relative porosity, elastic recovery and tensile strength of the tablets due to the increased hydrogen bonding between the monoesters. This also facilitated the swelling behaviour of SE, which sustained the drug release rate. A sustained release effect prevailed in tablets containing SE with HLB values of 3-16. The ability to improve the tableting properties as well as sustain the drug release rate of the highly soluble model drug via gelation of SE highlights SE as promising controlled release regulators for direct compacted matrix tablets comprising drugs with various solubilities according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. PMID:20132913

  19. A double-blind, randomized, parallel group study to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of slow-release oral morphine versus methadone in opioid-dependent in-patients willing to undergo detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Madlung-Kratzer, Ekkehard; Spitzer, Berhard; Brosch, Renate; Dunkel, Dirk; Haring, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Aims Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of slow-release oral morphine (SROM) compared with methadone for detoxification from methadone and SROM maintenance treatment. Design Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, comparative multi-centre study with parallel groups. Setting Three psychiatric hospitals in Austria specializing in in-patient detoxification. Participants Male and female opioid dependents (age > 18 years) willing to undergo detoxification from maintenance therapy in order to reach abstinence. Interventions Abstinence was reached from maintenance treatment by tapered dose reduction of either SROM or methadone over a period of 16 days. Measurements Efficacy analyses were based on the number of patients per treatment group completing the study, as well as on the control of signs and symptoms of withdrawal [measured using Short Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)] and suppression of opiate craving. In addition, self-reported somatic and psychic symptoms (measured using Symptom Checklist SCL-90-R) were monitored. Findings Of the 208 patients enrolled into the study, 202 were eligible for analysis (SROM: n = 102, methadone: n = 100). Completion rates were 51% in the SROM group and 49% in the methadone group [difference between groups: 2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?12% to 16%]. The rate of discontinuation in the study was high mainly because of patients voluntarily withdrawing from treatment. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were found in terms of signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal, craving for opiates or self-reported symptoms. SROM and methadone were both well tolerated. Conclusions Detoxification from maintenance treatment with tapered dose reduction of SROM is non-inferior to methadone. PMID:19686525

  20. Tablet Weaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  1. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Ryan M; Morton, Terri; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK) of biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) oxycodone (OC)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crossover trials enrolling healthy adult (1855 years old) participants (three trials) and nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids (one trial) with a body weight of ?59 kg. Participants received IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets in single doses of 7.5/325 mg (one tablet), 15/650 mg (two tablets), or 30/1,300 mg (four tablets) under fasted or fed conditions. Six variables were examined: sex, race, age, weight, height, and body mass index. Single-dose population PK was analyzed using first-order conditional estimation methods. A total of 151 participants were included in the analysis under fasted conditions, and 31 participants were included in the fed analysis. Under fasted conditions, a 10% change in body weight was accompanied by ~7.5% change in total body clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) of OC and APAP. Black participants had 17.3% lower CL/F and a 16.9% lower V/F of OC compared with white participants. Under fed conditions, the absorption rate constant of OC and APAP decreased significantly, although there was no effect on CL/F and V/F. Considering that the recommended dose for IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets is two tablets every 12 hours, adjustments of <50% are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment may be necessary for large deviations from average body weight, but the small PK effects associated with race and consumption of a meal are not clinically relevant. PMID:26316698

  2. Investigation of the bioequivalence of montelukast chewable tablets after a single oral administration using a validated LC-MS/MS method

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Abualhasan, Murad N; Watson, David G; Mousa, Ayman; Ghazal, Nadia; Bustami, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Background Montelukast (MT) is a leukotriene D4 antagonist. It is an effective and safe medicine for the prophylaxis and treatment of chronic asthma. It is also used to prevent acute exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and as a symptomatic relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence (BE) of two drug products: generic MT 5 mg chewable tablets versus the branded drug Singulair pediatric 5 mg chewable tablets among Mediterranean volunteers. Methods An open-label, randomized two-period crossover BE design was conducted in 32 healthy male volunteers with a 9-day washout period between doses and under fasting conditions. The drug concentrations in plasma were quantified by using a newly developed and fully validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model. The ratio for generic/branded tablets using geometric least squares means was calculated for both the MT products. Results The relationship between concentration and peak area ratio was found to be linear within the range 6.098365.855 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient (R2) was always greater than 0.99 during the course of the validation. Statistical comparison of the main pharmacokinetic parameters showed no significant difference between the generic and branded products. The point estimates (ratios of geometric means) were 101.2%, 101.6%, and 98.11% for area under the curve (AUC)0?last, AUC0?inf, and Cmax, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals were within the predefined limits of 80.00%125.00% as specified by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for BE studies. Conclusion Broncast pediatric chewable tablets (5 mg/tablet) are bioequivalent to Singulair pediatric chewable tablets (5 mg/tablet), with a similar safety profile. This suggests that these two formulations can be considered interchangeable in clinical practice. PMID:26451086

  3. Where there is no morphine: The challenge and hope of palliative care delivery in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Mervyn; Hartwig, Kari; Mmbando, Paul Z.; Sayed, Abduraoof; de Vries, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background In Tanzania, a country of 42 million, access to oral morphine is rare. Aim To demonstrate the effectiveness of palliative care teams in reducing patients pain and in increasing other positive life qualities in the absence of morphine; and to document the psychological burden experienced by their clinical providers, trained in morphine delivery, as they observed their patients suffering and in extreme pain. Setting One hundred and forty-five cancer patients were included from 13 rural hospitals spread across Tanzania. Method A mixed method study beginning with a retrospective quantitative analysis of cancer patients who were administered the APCA African POS tool four times. Bivariate analyses of the scores at time one and four were compared across the domains. The qualitative arm included an analysis of interviews with six nurses, each with more than five years palliative care experience and no access to strong opioids. Results Patients and their family caregivers identified statistically significant (p < 0.001) improvements in all of the domains. Thematic analysis of nurse interviews described the patient and family benefits from palliative care but also their great distress when bad cases arose who would likely benefit only from oral morphine. Conclusion People living with chronic cancer-related pain who receive palliative care experience profound physical, spiritual and emotional benefits even without oral morphine. These results demonstrate the need for continued advocacy to increase the availability of oral morphine in these settings in addition to palliative care services. PMID:26245417

  4. Modulation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence by co-administration of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaee, Amirhossein; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Naghizadeh, Bahareh

    2015-10-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are widely used in the management of different diseases beyond their primary indication for lowering cholesterol. Previous studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of simvastatin in different animal models. In the present study, we examined the effects of simvastatin (30, 60, 100 and 300mg/kg, p.o.) on the development and expression of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice. For the induction of morphine tolerance and dependence, mice were twice daily treated with morphine (10mg/kg, s.c.) for 5 consecutive days. Tolerance was evaluated by the hot-plate test and physical dependence by naloxone challenge, on the sixth day. The results showed that oral administration of simvastatin produced antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent way. Co-administration of simvastatin with morphine did not affect the acute morphine-induced analgesia (10mg/kg, s.c.). However, repeated co-administration of simvastatin with morphine significantly attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine and inhibited the naloxone (5mg/kg, s.c.)-precipitated withdrawal signs (jumping and body weight loss). Also, simvastatin at doses of 100 and 300mg/kg attenuated the expression of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence. These data indicated that, while simvastatin can alleviate both development and expression of morphine-induced tolerance, it cannot enhance morphine-induced antinociception. Taken together, simvastatin may be used as an adjutant therapeutic agent in combination with morphine and or other opioids in patients with severe chronic pain. PMID:26255154

  5. Use of sedation and ropivacaine-morphine epidural for femoral head and neck ostectomy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Aarnes, T K; Hubbell, J A E; Hildreth, B E

    2014-06-01

    A five-year-old male German shepherd dog presented with traumatic craniodorsal luxation of the right coxofemoral joint with pre-existing moderate hip dysplasia. A femoral head and neck ostectomy was performed. The patient was sedated with acepromazine and morphine administered intramuscularly. A?lumbosacral epidural was performed using a combination of morphine and ropivacaine. Intraoperatively, an infusion of medetomidine, morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine was administered intravenously, and oxygen was administered via facemask. Heart rate, respiratory rate and oscillometric arterial blood pressures were monitored. Postoperatively, carprofen was administered once subcutaneously. On the day of hospital discharge, carprofen and tramadol were administered orally every 12?hours. Twenty-one days later, the dog was doing well and the surgical staples were removed. Sedation with acepromazine and morphine, administration of an epidural containing morphine and ropivacaine, and intraoperative sedation with medetomidine, morphine, lidocaine and ketamine were suitable for femoral head and neck ostectomy. PMID:24602054

  6. Three-way, three-period, crossover bioequivalence study of single oral dose of three brands of 300 mg phenytoin sodium tablets marketed in India, on healthy Indian human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Maulik S.; Naik, Anuja A.; Mehta, Mohit R.; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.; Menon, Mala D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the bioavailability of two brands of phenytoin sodium tablets available in the Indian market using Eptoin as the reference. Materials and Methods: A randomized, assessor-blind, three-way crossover design study was carried out over a period of 6 months after approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Twenty-two healthy male participants received a single oral 300 mg oral tablet of either of the formulations with a 2-week washout. Blood samples were collected predose and at regular intervals postdose. Plasma phenytoin levels were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Calculation of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-? was done by the linear trapezoidal rule and 90-110% margin (90% confidence interval (CI)) was used to assess bioequivalence. Results: Twenty volunteers completed the study. It was seen that the log-transformed values of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-? of the test formulations were not within the specified limits. Conclusion: Bioinequivalence of available phenytoin brands indicates that switching brands could lead to variations in blood concentrations and thus impact safety and efficacy. If a brand switch is done for any reason, stringent drug-level monitoring is advised. PMID:24250200

  7. Peripheral postmortem redistribution of morphine.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Veronica M; Molina, D Kimberley

    2014-06-01

    It is known that postmortem drug concentrations can vary depending on the sampling site and that, in general, central sites have higher drug concentrations than do peripheral sites. It has also been suggested that clamping the femoral vessel before drawing the sample may eliminate possible contribution from central sites. Morphine is a commonly prescribed and commonly encountered opiate medication that is often found in postmortem examinations, both as a cause of death and also as an incidental finding. It is important to understand the degree of postmortem redistribution of morphine to peripheral sites and whether clamping the femoral vessel can eliminate postmortem redistribution of morphine to ensure the correct interpretation of postmortem morphine concentrations. Morphine drug concentrations were evaluated in clamped and unclamped femoral vein blood samples at 3 different times before autopsy, and no significant change in either the clamped or the unclamped femoral vein morphine concentration was seen over time. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the clamped and unclamped blood concentrations at any period. Therefore, it can be concluded that for morphine, unclamped femoral blood samples do not show significant redistribution from central sites within the first 24 hours after death in bodies kept refrigerated at 4C. PMID:24781405

  8. A (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer)-dispersed sustained-release tablet for imperialine to simultaneously prolong the drug release and improve the oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Fu, Yu; Li, Jia; Qu, Mengke; Deng, Li; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-11-15

    Imperialine, extracted from Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, is an efficient antitussive and expectorant medicine. However, its short half-life and stomach degradation limited imperialine from further clinical use. The current study was conducted to develop a sustained-release tablet for imperialine both to prolong absorption time and to improve the oral bioavailability of the drug. The tablets were prepared by a direct compression method formulated on optimized solid dispersion (SD) for imperialine based on polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus(®)) with imperialine/Soluplus(®) ratio of 1:8 (w/w). In order to obtain the optimized formulation, factors that affected the drug release were investigated by in vitro dissolution studies in the media of pH1.2, 5.8, 7.0 and 7.4. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope confirmed that the imperialine in SD was amorphous instead of crystalline, and still stayed amorphous even after the direct compression. And besides, pharmacokinetic study in Beagle dogs was performed to inspect the in vivo sustained release. Plasma concentration-time curves and pharmacokinetic parameters were gained. As a result, the Cmax of imperialine was one-fold reduced and Tmax was two-fold prolonged, and the mean AUC0-24 was expressed as 89.581±21.243μgh/L, which showed that the oral bioavailability of imperialine was 2.46-fold improved. Moreover, the in vitro-in vivo correlation was recommended to carry out, demonstrating the percentages of drug release in vitro were well-correlated with the absorptive fraction in vivo with the correlation coefficients above 0.9900. By mathematically modeling and moment imaging of the drug release, Peppas equation was selected as the most fitted model for the sustained-release tablets with the diffusional coefficient in the range of 0.59-0.62, indicating the release of imperialine from the sustained-release tablets was an anomalous process involving polymer swelling, drug diffusion and matrix erosion. PMID:26349052

  9. Role of various natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic polymers on drug release kinetics of losartan potassium oral controlled release tablets

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, J.; Sivaneswari, S.; Hemalatha, G.; Preethi, N.; Mounika, B.; Murthy, S. Vasudeva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present work was to formulate and to characterize controlled release matrix tablets of losartan potassium in order to improve bioavailability and to minimize the frequency of administration and increase the patient compliance. Materials and Methods: Losartan potassium controlled release matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression technique by the use of different natural, synthetic and semisynthetic polymers such as gum copal, gum acacia, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K100 (HPMC K100), eudragit RL 100 and carboxy methyl ethyl cellulose (CMEC) individually and also in combination. Studies were carried out to study the influence of type of polymer on drug release rate. All the formulations were subjected to physiochemical characterization such as weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, drug content, and swelling index. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for first 2 h and followed by simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) up to 24 h, and obtained dissolution data were fitted to in vitro release kinetic equations in order to know the order of kinetics and mechanism of drug release. Results and Discussion: Results of physiochemical characterization of losartan potassium matrix tablets were within acceptable limits. Formulation containing HPMC K100 and CMEC achieved the desired drug release profile up to 24 h followed zero order kinetics, release pattern dominated by Korsmeyer Peppas model and mechanism of drug release by nonfickian diffusion. The good correlation obtained from Hixson-Crowell model indicates that changes in surface area of the tablet also influences the drug release. Conclusion: Based on the results, losartan potassium controlled release matrix tablets prepared by employing HPMC K100 and CMEC can attain the desired drug release up to 24 h, which results in maintaining steady state concentration and improving bioavailability. PMID:25426439

  10. [History of opium poppy and morphine].

    PubMed

    Norn, Svend; Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith

    2005-01-01

    Opium has been known for millennia to relieve pain and its use for surgical analgesia has been recorded for several centuries. The Sumerian clay tablet (about 2100 BC) is considered to be the world's oldest recorded list of medical prescriptions. It is believed by some scholars that the opium poppy is referred to on the tablet. Some objects from the ancient Greek Minoan culture may also suggest the knowledge of the poppy. A goddess from about 1500 BC shows her hair adorned probably with poppy-capsules and her closed eyes disclose sedation. Also juglets probably imitating the poppy-capsules were found in that period in both Cyprus and Egypt. The first authentic reference to the milky juice of the poppy we find by Theophrastus at the beginning of the third century BC. In the first century the opium poppy and opium was known by Dioscorides, Pliny and Celsus and later on by Galen. Celsus suggests the use of opium before surgery and Dioscorides recommended patients should take mandrake (contains scopolamine and atropine) mixed with wine, before limb amputation. The Arabic physicians used opium very extensively and about 1000 AD it was recommended by Avicenna especially in diarrhoea and diseases of the eye. Polypharmacy, including a mixture of nonsensical medications were often used. Fortunately for both patients and physicians many of the preparations contained opium. The goal was a panacea for all diseases. A famous and expensive panacea was theriaca containing up to sixty drugs including opium. Simplified preparations of opium such as tinctura opii were used up to about 2000 in Denmark. In the early 1800s sciences developed and Sertrner isolated morphine from opium and was the founder of alkaloid research. A more safe and standardized effect was obtained by the pure opium. Several morphine-like drugs have been synthesized to minimize adverse effects and abuse potential. Opioid receptors were identified and characterized in binding assays and their localization examined. However, the complexity of the system including interaction with several neurons and transmitters indicate the goal of nonaddictive opiates to be elusive. Combination therapy, innovative delivery systems and long-acting formulations may improve clinical utility. PMID:17152761

  11. Serotonin syndrome probably triggered by a morphine-phenelzine interaction.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Carrasco, Hector; Muoz-Aguilera, Eva Mara; Garca-Torrecillas, Juan Manuel; Abu Al-Robb, Hiba

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by excessive central and peripheral stimulation of serotonin brainstem receptors, usually triggered by inadvertent interactions between agents with serotonergic activity. Evidence supporting an association between nonserotonergic opiates, such as oxycodone or morphine, and serotonin syndrome is very limited and even contradictory. In this case report, we describe a patient who developed serotonergic-adverse effects likely precipitated by an interaction between morphine and phenelzine. A 57-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with complaints of increasing visual hallucinations, restlessness, photophobia, dizziness, neck stiffness, occipital headache, confusion, sweating, tachycardia, and nausea over the previous week. On admission, her blood pressure was 185/65mm Hg, and clonus was noted in the lower extremities. The patient was hospitalized 10days earlier for cellulitis of the left breast secondary to a left mastectomy 5months earlier, and a short course of oral morphine was prescribed for pain control. Her routine medications consisted of aspirin, atorvastatin, bisoprolol, clopidogrel, gabapentin, omeprazole, phenelzine, and ramipril. Supportive measures were initiated on admission. Phenelzine and morphine were discontinued immediately, leading to a progressive resolution of symptoms over the next 48hours. Phenelzine was restarted on discharge without further complications. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's development of serotonin syndrome and the combination of morphine and phenelzine. The mechanism underlying this interaction, however, remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Clinicians should carefully weigh the risk and benefits of initiating morphine in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors or any other serotonin-enhancing drugs. PMID:25903219

  12. Sensitivity of quantitative sensory models to morphine analgesia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brock, Christina; Sverrisdttir, Eva; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam; Drewes, Asbjrn Mohr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Opioid analgesia can be explored with quantitative sensory testing, but most investigations have used models of phasic pain, and such brief stimuli may be limited in the ability to faithfully simulate natural and clinical painful experiences. Therefore, identification of appropriate experimental pain models is critical for our understanding of opioid effects with the potential to improve treatment. Objectives The aim was to explore and compare various pain models to morphine analgesia in healthy volunteers. Methods The study was a double-blind, randomized, two-way crossover study. Thirty-nine healthy participants were included and received morphine 30 mg (2 mg/mL) as oral solution or placebo. To cover both tonic and phasic stimulations, a comprehensive multi-modal, multi-tissue pain-testing program was performed. Results Tonic experimental pain models were sensitive to morphine analgesia compared to placebo: muscle pressure (F=4.87, P=0.03), bone pressure (F=3.98, P=0.05), rectal pressure (F=4.25, P=0.04), and the cold pressor test (F=25.3, P<0.001). Compared to placebo, morphine increased tolerance to muscle stimulation by 14.07%; bone stimulation by 9.72%; rectal mechanical stimulation by 20.40%, and reduced pain reported during the cold pressor test by 9.14%. In contrast, the more phasic experimental pain models were not sensitive to morphine analgesia: skin heat, rectal electrical stimulation, or rectal heat stimulation (all P>0.05). Conclusion Pain models with deep tonic stimulation including C fiber activation and and/or endogenous pain modulation were more sensitive to morphine analgesia. To avoid false negative results in future studies, we recommend inclusion of reproducible tonic pain models in deep tissues, mimicking clinical pain to a higher degree. PMID:25525384

  13. Combination of morphine with nortriptyline for neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Gilron, Ian; Tu, Dongsheng; Holden, Ronald R; Jackson, Alan C; DuMerton-Shore, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    First-line neuropathic pain drugs, including tricyclic antidepressants, are not always effective, and opioids have been recommended as second line. This trial evaluates a nortriptyline-morphine combination, compared with each monotherapy. In this randomized, double-blind crossover trial, patients with neuropathic pain were enrolled at 1 site between January 25, 2010, and May 22, 2014, and randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio using a balanced Latin square design to receive oral nortriptyline, morphine, and their combination. During each of three 6-week periods, doses were titrated toward maximal tolerated dose (MTD). The primary outcome was average daily pain at MTD, and secondary outcomes included other pain, mood and quality of life measures, and adverse effects. Sixty-two patients were screened, 52 enrolled, and 39 completed at least 2 treatment periods. Average daily pain (0-10) at baseline was 5.3 and at MTD was 2.6 for combination vs 3.1 for nortriptyline (P = 0.046) and 3.4 for morphine (P = 0.002). Brief Pain Inventory scores for average and present pain were also significantly lower for combination vs each monotherapy. Combination treatment resulted in moderate-severe constipation in 43% vs 46% with morphine (P = 0.82) and 5% with nortriptyline (P < 0.0001). Combination treatment resulted in moderate-severe dry mouth in 58% vs 49% with nortriptyline (P = 0.84) and 13% with morphine (P < 0.0001). This trial suggests superior efficacy of a nortriptyline-morphine combination over either monotherapy with constipation, dry mouth, and somnolence as the most frequent adverse effects. PMID:25749306

  14. In-depth survey report: control technology assessment of unit operations employed in oral-contraceptive tablet-making operations at Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, New Jersey, June 13-17, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Anastas, M.Y.; Caplan, P.E.; Froehlich, P.A.

    1983-11-01

    An on-site visit was made to the Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation (OPC), Raritan, New Jersey to evaluate methods of controlling exposure to hazardous materials during the manufacturing of medications. OPC produced oral-contraceptive tablets containing norethindrone (NOR), mestranol, and ethynylestradiol (EE). Ventilation was an important engineering control at this site. Other engineering controls included the isolation of work procedures and automation of work practices for weighing ingredients, granulation of substances, tableting, and packaging. Area samples were taken for air monitoring of steroid concentration levels in each manufacturing area. Access to the work areas was only through the locker rooms. Samples taken in the locker rooms revealed no detectable contaminant levels. Workers performing high risk activities wore air supplied vinyl suits and disposable rubber gloves. The vinyl suits had overshoes attached. For moderate risk activities the workers wore a disposable suit, rubber gloves and shoe covers. Appropriate respirators were provided. Workers in low risk activities wore disposable rubber gloves and appropriate respirators. Sampling indicated that processing workers experienced breathing-zone levels outside their vinyl suits of 16.40 and 0.36 micrograms/cubic meter of NOR and EE, respectively.

  15. Analgesia and central side-effects: two separate dimensions of morphine response

    PubMed Central

    Droney, Joanne M; Gretton, Sophy K; Sato, Hiroe; Ross, Joy R; Branford, Ruth; Welsh, Kenneth I; Cookson, William; Riley, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Aims To present a statistical model for defining interindividual variation in response to morphine and to use this model in a preliminary hypothesis-generating multivariate genetic association study. Methods Two hundred and sixty-four cancer patients taking oral morphine were included in a prospective observational study. Pain and morphine side-effect scores were examined using principal components analysis. The resulting principal components were used in an exploratory genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genes coding for the three opioid receptors, OPRM1, OPRK1 and OPRD1. Associations in multivariate models, including potential clinical confounders, were explored. Results Two principal components corresponding to residual pain and central side-effects were identified. These components accounted for 42 and 18% of the variability in morphine response, respectively, were independent of each other and only mildly correlated. The genetic and clinical factors associated with these components were markedly different. Multivariate regression modelling, including clinical and genetic factors, accounted for only 12% of variability in residual pain on morphine and 3% of variability in central side-effects. Conclusions Although replication is required, this data-driven analysis suggests that pain and central side-effects on morphine may be two separate dimensions of morphine response. Larger study samples are necessary to investigate potential genetic and clinical associations comprehensively. PMID:23072578

  16. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications....

  17. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications....

  18. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications....

  19. 21 CFR 520.2220d - Sulfadimethoxine-ormetoprim tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine-ormetoprim tablets. 520.2220d Section 520.2220d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.2220d Sulfadimethoxine-ormetoprim tablets....

  20. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a Section 520.622a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.622a Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. (a) Sponsors....

  1. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a Section 520.622a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.622a Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. (a) Sponsors....

  2. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications....

  4. 21 CFR 520.540c - Dexamethasone chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dexamethasone chewable tablets. 520.540c Section 520.540c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.540c Dexamethasone chewable tablets. (a) Specifications....

  5. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section 520.2098 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.2098 Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 520.420 - Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. 520.420 Section 520.420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.420 Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. (a)(1)...

  7. 21 CFR 520.420 - Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. 520.420 Section 520.420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.420 Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. (a)(1)...

  8. 21 CFR 520.420 - Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. 520.420 Section 520.420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.420 Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. (a)(1)...

  9. 21 CFR 520.420 - Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. 520.420 Section 520.420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.420 Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. (a)(1)...

  10. Anti-morphine antibody contributes to the development of morphine tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyangin; Oh, Saecheol; Sung, Backil; Tian, Yinghong; Yang, Liling; Wang, Shuxing; Mao, Jianren

    2010-08-23

    Previous studies have shown that tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine develops after a prolonged exposure, but its mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined whether anti-morphine antibody produced by chronic morphine exposure would contribute to the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance in rats. Our results showed that anti-morphine antibody was present in rats rendered tolerance to antinociception after intrathecal morphine exposure for seven consecutive days. Superfusion of anti-morphine antibody onto spinal cord slice dose-dependently produced an inward excitatory current in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, which surpassed morphine-induced outward inhibiting current. Co-administration of morphine with a monoclonal antibody (2.4G(2)) against Fc receptors for seven days significantly attenuated the production of anti-morphine antibody as well as the behavioral manifestation of morphine tolerance in same rats. These results indicate that anti-morphine antibody produced by morphine exposure may contribute to the development of morphine tolerance possibly through counteracting the inhibitory morphine effect on spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. PMID:20561567

  11. EDX-Element Analysis of the In Vitro Effect of Fluoride Oral Hygiene Tablets on Artificial Caries Lesion Formation and Remineralization in Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eggerath, J; Kremniczky, T; Gaengler, P; Arnold, W.H

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this in-vitro-study was to assess the remineralization potential of a tooth cleaning tablet with different fluoride content quantitatively using EDX analysis. Twenty three caries free impacted third molars were examined; enamel surfaces were wax coated leaving two 3x4mm windows for exposure to demineralization/remineralization cycles. The teeth were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 control and 6 experimental teeth each. Demineralization by standardized HEC-gel, pH 4.7 at 37C for 72h, was alternated by rinsing in remineralization solution, pH 7.0 at 37C for 72h, total challenge time 432h. The negative control group N was treated during remineralization cycles with saline; positive control group P was treated with remineralization solution; experimental group D1 was exposed to remineralization solution containing Denttabs-tablets with 1450 ppm F; experimental group D2 was exposed to remineralization solution and Denttabs-tablets with 4350 ppm F. Each tooth was cut into serial sections and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with EDX element analysis for assessment of the different zones of the lesions in 3 representative sections. Statistical analysis was based on the AVOVA test for repeated measurements and post hoc Bonferroni adjustment. The results showed a significantly higher Ca and P content in the body of the lesion in both fluoride treated groups compared to the controls. It can be concluded that higher concentrations of NaF may be more effective in remineralization of early advanced caries lesions. PMID:21687564

  12. Minocycline suppresses morphine-induced respiratory depression, suppresses morphine-induced reward, and enhances systemic morphine-induced analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Northcutt, Alexis L.; Chao, Lindsey W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Yingning; Berkelhammer, Debra L.; Loram, Lisa C.; Rozeske, Robert R.; Bland, Sondra T.; Maier, Steven F.; Gleeson, Todd T.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest that opioids can activate immune-like cells of the central nervous system (glia). This opioid-induced glial activation is associated with decreased analgesia, owing to the release of proinflammatory mediators. Here we examine in rats whether the putative microglial inhibitor, minocycline, may affect morphine-induced respiratory depression and/or morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference). Systemic co-administration of minocycline significantly attenuated morphine-induced reductions in tidal volume, minute volume, inspiratory force and expiratory force, but did not affect morphine-induced reductions in respiratory rate. Minocycline attenuation of respiratory depression was also paralleled with significant attenuation by minocycline of morphine-induced reductions in blood oxygen saturation. Minocycline also attenuated morphine conditioned place preference. Minocycline did not simply reduce all actions of morphine, as morphine analgesia was significantly potentiated by minocycline co-administration. Lastly, morphine dose-dependently increased cyclooxygenase-1 gene expression in a rat microglial cell line, an effect that was dose-dependently blocked by minocycline. Together, these data support that morphine can directly activate microglia in a minocycline-suppressible manner and suggest a pivotal role for minocycline-sensitive processes in the mechanisms of morphine-induced respiration depression, reward, and pain modulation. PMID:18706994

  13. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate equivalent to 100... use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer orally to provide 10 mg per pound (lb) of body weight twice...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) Used as an anabolic steroid treatment in dogs and cats. (2) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to...

  15. Speed of kill efficacy and efficacy of flavored spinosad tablets administered orally to cats in a simulated home environment for the treatment and prevention of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Meyer, Katherine A; Wiseman, Scott; Trout, Candace M; Young, David R

    2013-09-23

    The efficacy of spinosad against adult fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats was evaluated in two separate controlled, blinded studies-one to determine flea knockdown and speed of flea kill (SOFK) on experimentally infested cats, another to assess the ability of spinosad to prevent flea infestations in a simulated home environment (SHE) study design. In each study, pre-treatment live flea counts were used as a blocking factor to randomize cats to treatment, and treated in the fed state, with flavored tablets containing either no active ingredient (control) or spinosad (50-100mg/kg in the SOFK study; 50-75 mg/kg body weight in the SHE study). In the SOFK study, 6 cats per group were infested with unfed adult fleas on Day -1. Groups 1-5 received control tablets; groups 6-10 received spinosad tablets. Flea counts were conducted at 0.5, 2, 4, 8 and 24h post-dosing. In the SHE study, 12 flea-free cats per group, treated on Days 0, 30 and 60, were maintained in solid-sided cages with solid carpeted floors. Each cat was infested on Days 1, 7 and 14 with 100 unfed adult fleas. Individual flea comb counts were performed on Days 3, 9, 16, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 95. After each count, except Day 95, up to 300 live fleas were replaced on each cat. To augment flea challenge, the carpeted area in each cage was sprinkled weekly with larval flea growth media (dried blood, yeast). In the SOFK study, reductions in mean flea counts in the spinosad groups were observed at all post-treatment assessments, beginning at 0.5h post-infestation with significant differences (p<0.0001) from vehicle-treated cats from 2h post-treatment when efficacy was >90%, through the final flea counts 24h post-infestation when no fleas were found on spinosad treated cats. In the SHE study, GM post-treatment flea counts in the control group ranged between 38.9 and 107.0 (arithmetic means 58.8-118.1); no live fleas were combed from spinosad-treated cats (100% effectiveness) at any time point post-treatment. No adverse events that were attributable to the treatments were observed in either study. These studies demonstrated that spinosad administered orally to cats is safe and effective, providing >90% efficacy from 2h post-dosing and 100% knockdown at 24h, and preventing infestations over a 95 day study period from a flea-contaminated simulated home environment. PMID:23522900

  16. MTN-001: Randomized Pharmacokinetic Cross-Over Study Comparing Tenofovir Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Vaginal Tissue and Other Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ≥90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ≥130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir’s antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124 PMID:23383037

  17. 21 CFR 520.960 - Flumethasone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.960 Flumethasone tablets. (a... nephritis, cushingoid syndrome, or where peptic ulcers occur, except for emergency therapy. Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 520.960 - Flumethasone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.960 Flumethasone tablets. (a... nephritis, cushingoid syndrome, or where peptic ulcers occur, except for emergency therapy. Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 520.960 - Flumethasone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.960 Flumethasone tablets. (a... nephritis, cushingoid syndrome, or where peptic ulcers occur, except for emergency therapy. Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1880 - Prednisolone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1880 Prednisolone tablets. (a.... Systemic therapy with prednisolone is contraindicated in animals with peptic ulcer, corneal ulcer,...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1880 - Prednisolone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1880 Prednisolone tablets. (a.... Systemic therapy with prednisolone is contraindicated in animals with peptic ulcer, corneal ulcer,...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1880 - Prednisolone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1880 Prednisolone tablets. (a.... Systemic therapy with prednisolone is contraindicated in animals with peptic ulcer, corneal ulcer,...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1880 - Prednisolone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1880 Prednisolone tablets. (a.... Systemic therapy with prednisolone is contraindicated in animals with peptic ulcer, corneal ulcer,...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1880 - Prednisolone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1880 Prednisolone tablets. (a.... Systemic therapy with prednisolone is contraindicated in animals with peptic ulcer, corneal ulcer,...

  5. Influence of alprazolam on opioid analgesia and side effects during steady-state morphine infusions.

    PubMed

    Coda, B A; Mackie, A; Hill, H F

    1992-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether alprazolam pretreatment can increase the analgesic potency of morphine without increasing opioid side-effect intensities. We employed computer-controlled, variable-rate morphine infusions based on each subject's pharmacokinetic profile for morphine derived from a tailoring bolus dose of the drug administered 1 or 2 weeks before the infusion test sessions. On each of 2 test days, we used dental electrical stimulation to determine stimulus intensity that produced consistent reports of strong (but tolerable) pain; this intensity was used for the rest of that session. Then, we measured baseline (no drug) pain intensity reports, pain-related evoked potentials recorded from vertex, and other parameters typically affected by opioids (subjective side effects). We administered alprazolam (1 mg) or placebo (lactose) orally to the subject and then repeated the test battery 30 min later. One hour after the alprazolam or placebo dose, we initiated the tailored morphine infusion to reach target plasma morphine concentration plateaus of 16, 32 and 64 ng/ml (45-min duration each) on both test days. The test battery used during baseline was then repeated at each target concentration plateau. The order of alprazolam versus placebo pretreatments was counterbalanced across subjects and known only to the investigator operating the infusion system. Results suggest that alprazolam at the dose studied did not alter analgesic potency of morphine. However, alprazolam did clearly decrease the intensity of nausea reported by subjects during and after termination of the morphine infusions. Of special interest, alprazolam alone (30 min after oral dosing) decreased evoked potential amplitude consistently without affecting pain intensity reports.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1454387

  6. Review of oral oxymorphone in the management of pain

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cancer and nonmalignant pain (CNMP) is a common and major health problem afflicting approximately 40 million persons in the US. Most cancer patients, and many patients with CNMP, require opioid analgesics to obtain adequate pain relief. Oral oxymorphone is a new formulation of an existing parenteral opioid that has become available for the treatment of significant pain: acute postoperative, chronic arthritis, chronic low back, and chronic cancer pain. Oxymorphone is a typical mu-opioid agonist that is effective in both immediate- and extended-release (IR and ER) formulations. Oxymorphone is more lipid soluble than morphine, resulting in a rapid onset of action when given in tablet formulation, with a duration of action of approximately 46 hours in IR and 12 hours in ER preparations. Oxymorphone provides excellent pain relief for significant pain, with typical opioid side effects that are usually mild or moderate in intensity. Multiple double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the clinical efficacy and safety of this new oral opioid preparation. Oral oxymorphone is an effective opioid that provides a new therapeutic option for the physician. PMID:19209260

  7. [Modern polymers in matrix tablets technology].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, ?ukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Matrix tablets are the most popular method of oral drug administration, and polymeric materials have been used broadly in matrix formulations to modify and modulate drug release rate. The main goal of the system is to extend drug release profiles to maintain a constant in vivo plasma drug concentration and a consistent pharmacological effect. Polymeric matrix tablets offer a great potential as oral controlled drug delivery systems. Cellulose derivatives, like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are often used as matrix formers. However, also other types of polymers can be used for this purpose including: Kollidon SR, acrylic acid polymers such as Eudragits and Carbopols. Nevertheless, polymers of natural origin like: carragens, chitosan and alginates widely used in the food and cosmetics industry are now coming to the fore of pharmaceutical research and are used in matrix tablets technology. Modern polymers allow to obtain matrix tablets by 3D printing, which enables to develop new formulation types. In this paper, the polymers used in matrix tablets technology and examples of their applications were described. PMID:25739125

  8. Attenuation of morphine analgesic tolerance by rosuvastatin in nave and morphine tolerance rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongle; Shu, Yinyin; Ji, Qing; Liu, Jian; He, Xiaoyun; Li, Weiyan

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies suggested that statins have anti-inflammatory effects beyond their lipid-lowering properties. Since inflammation in the central nervous system was highly related to morphine tolerance, we sought to investigate whether statins could affect morphine tolerance by mediating glia-derived proinflammatory cytokines secretion. We have undertaken two separate studies: Firstly, we determined the effect of rosuvastatin on nave rats during induction of morphine tolerance. Secondly, we investigated whether rosuvastation could attenuate the morphine analgesic tolerance in rats that the morphine tolerance established previously. Results demonstrated that peroral rosuvastatin not only delays, but also partially reverses the tolerance to morphine analgesia in rats. The administration of rosuvastatin during induction of morphine tolerance attenuated the activation of ERK and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the lumbar spinal cord. Similar outcomes were observed in rats were morphine tolerance was established previously. Moreover, our study also found that repeated administration of morphine could activate the astrocytes in the spinal cord while rosuvastation succeeds in suppressing the activation of astrocytes. Our results support the idea that targeting glia-derived proinflammatory effects during morphine treatment is a novel and clinically promising method for enhancing analgesic effects of morphine. We identify a potential new application of statins in the treatment of morphine analgesic tolerance. PMID:25261133

  9. A paper-based lateral flow assay for morphine.

    PubMed

    Teerinen, Tuija; Lappalainen, Timo; Erho, Tomi

    2014-09-01

    Morphine was used as a model analyte to examine the possibility of using cellulose, physically modified by papermaking and converting techniques, as a capillary matrix in a lateral flow type of diagnostic assay. This research was directed toward low-cost, disposable, and portable paper-based diagnostics, with the aim of addressing the analytical performance of paper as a substrate in the analysis for drugs of abuse. Antibody Fab fragments were used as sensing molecules, and gold nanoparticle detection was employed. Inkjet printing was used to pattern sensing biomolecules as detection zones on paper. To validate the usefulness of paper as a diagnostic platform, the principle of a direct sandwich assay, based on immunocomplex formation between morphine and the anti-morphine Fab fragment and detection of the formed immunocomplex by another Fab fragment, was implemented. Results were compared with that achieved by using nitrocellulose as a reference material. Possible interfering from the sample matrix on assay quality was investigated with spiked oral fluid samples. Under optimized conditions, a visually assessed limit of detection for the sandwich assay was 1ng/mL, indicating that the paper-based test devices developed in this work can perform screening for drugs of abuse and can fulfill the requirement for a sensitive assay in diagnostically relevant ranges. PMID:25023970

  10. Simultaneous determination of four phenolic acids and seven alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-xu; Ge, Ai-hua; Yu, Xie-an; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; Li, Jin; He, Jun; Tian, Ji; Liu, Wei; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-li; Gao, Xiu-mei

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four phenolic acids (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and ferulic acid) and seven alkaloids (berberine, epiberberine, coptisine, magnoflorine, berberubine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine) in rat plasma. After mixing with the internal standards tetrahydropalmatine (IS1) and rosmarinic acid (IS2), plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation using acetonitrile. The HPLC analysis was performed on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 (4.6 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) column with mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). The detection was accomplished for the analytes and internal standards using positive electrospray ionization for the alkaloids and negative electrospray ionization for the phenolic acids in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range (r(2)>0.99). The lower limit of quantification of seven alkaloids was lower than 2 ng mL(-1) and that of four phenolic acids was less than 20 ng mL(-1). The developed method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of 11 components after oral administration of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet in rats. PMID:26340557

  11. A new transmucosal drug delivery system for patients with breakthrough cancer pain: the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet.

    PubMed

    Freye, Enno

    2008-01-01

    Breakthrough pain, a transitory severe pain with the background of otherwise controlled persistent pain has a prevalence between 52% and 67% in outpatients with cancer. Medications for such sudden-onset pain require non-invasive delivery of a potent and short-acting opioid for rapid pain relief. Although oral transmucosal delivery of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been shown to provide better pain relief than a typical oral opioid administration such as morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) in the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer-related pain, newer delivery systems offer a potential for further enhancement of pain relief. The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FBT) formulation employs a novel drug delivery system that relies on an effervescence reaction to improve buccal fentanyl absorption. Using the effervescence reaction results in the production and dissipation of carbon dioxide with a dynamic shift in pH as the tablet dissolves. The induced low pH favors dissolution of fentanyl citrate in saliva (higher water solubility). The subsequent increase in pH thereafter favors the buccal absorption of non-ionized fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. Such a pH "pumping" mechanism increases the permeation of fentanyl into and through the buccal to the vascular system from where the agent is transported to the specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS. Compared with OTFC, data in healthy volunteers show that the effervescence reaction employed in FBT increases the total amount and the speed of absorption of fentanyl being absorbed. Compared with OTFC there is an increase in peak fentanyl blood concentrations, and an enhancement of the amount of buccal delivery of fentanyl. Such favorable data are underlined by the results of clinical studies where the FBT technology was studied in patients with breakthrough pain in chronic malignant pathologies. PMID:21197291

  12. Synthetic substances with morphine-like effect

    PubMed Central

    Braenden, Olav J.; Eddy, Nathan B.; Halbach, H.

    1955-01-01

    For morphine-, morphinan-, pethidine-, methadone-, and dithienyl-butenylamine groups of analgesic compounds a systematic survey is given of how analgesic activity is quantitatively affected by alteration of the chemical constitution. Features common to the structural formulae of substances with morphine-like analgesic effect are pointed out. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 1(Contd.) PMID:13284565

  13. Synthetic substances with morphine-like effect

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Nathan B.; Halbach, H.; Braenden, Olav J.

    1956-01-01

    For compounds of the morphine, morphinan, pethidine, hexamethyleneimine, methadone, and dithienylbutenylamine groups, the analgesic and physical-dependence-producing properties are compared. On the basis of a parellelism in intensity of these properties, conclusions are drawn regarding their interrelationship and the chemical features common to substances with morphine-like addiction liability. PMID:13342924

  14. Delay of Morphine Tolerance by Palmitoylethanolamide

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Corti, Francesca; Micheli, Laura; Zanardelli, Matteo; Ghelardini, Carla

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the potency and efficacy of morphine, its clinical application for chronic persistent pain is limited by the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying morphine tolerance are complex and still unclear. Recently, the activation of glial cells and the release of glia-derived proinflammatory mediators have been suggested to play a role in the phenomenon. N-Palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous compound with antinociceptive effects able to reduce the glial activation. On this basis, 30?mg?kg?1 PEA was subcutaneously daily administered in morphine treated rats (10?mg?kg?1 intraperitoneally, daily). PEA treatment significantly attenuated the development of tolerance doubling the number of days of morphine antinociceptive efficacy in comparison to the vehicle + morphine group. PEA prevented both microglia and astrocyte cell number increase induced by morphine in the dorsal horn; on the contrary, the morphine-dependent increase of spinal TNF-? levels was not modified by PEA. Nevertheless, the immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly higher TNF-? immunoreactivity in astrocytes of PEA-protected rats suggesting a PEA-mediated decrease of cytokine release from astrocyte. PEA intervenes in the nervous alterations that lead to the lack of morphine antinociceptive effects; a possible application of this endogenous compound in opioid-based therapies is suggested. PMID:25874232

  15. Delay of morphine tolerance by palmitoylethanolamide.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Corti, Francesca; Micheli, Laura; Zanardelli, Matteo; Ghelardini, Carla

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the potency and efficacy of morphine, its clinical application for chronic persistent pain is limited by the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying morphine tolerance are complex and still unclear. Recently, the activation of glial cells and the release of glia-derived proinflammatory mediators have been suggested to play a role in the phenomenon. N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous compound with antinociceptive effects able to reduce the glial activation. On this basis, 30?mg?kg(-1) PEA was subcutaneously daily administered in morphine treated rats (10?mg?kg(-1) intraperitoneally, daily). PEA treatment significantly attenuated the development of tolerance doubling the number of days of morphine antinociceptive efficacy in comparison to the vehicle + morphine group. PEA prevented both microglia and astrocyte cell number increase induced by morphine in the dorsal horn; on the contrary, the morphine-dependent increase of spinal TNF-? levels was not modified by PEA. Nevertheless, the immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly higher TNF-? immunoreactivity in astrocytes of PEA-protected rats suggesting a PEA-mediated decrease of cytokine release from astrocyte. PEA intervenes in the nervous alterations that lead to the lack of morphine antinociceptive effects; a possible application of this endogenous compound in opioid-based therapies is suggested. PMID:25874232

  16. Wettability studies of morphine sulfate powders.

    PubMed

    Prestidge, C A; Tsatouhas, G

    2000-04-01

    A capillary penetration technique was used to determine the wettability of morphine sulfate powders by a range of wetting and partially wetting liquids. Wetting rates were found to be dependent on both the properties of the wetting liquid and the morphine sulfate batch. A number of liquids were established as perfectly wetting, and the critical surface tension for morphine sulfate wetting was estimated to be approximately 40 mN m(-1). Effective capillary radii for packed beds of morphine sulfate powders were determined in the range 0.3-0.6 microm; these are compared with particle size, shape and surface area data. From the Washburn approach, the advancing water-particle contact angles for the different morphine sulfate samples were determined to be in the range 57-79 degrees, with errors less than +/-3 degrees. Sessile drop measurements on the same samples were unable to determine reproducible equilibrium contact angles and could not differentiate between the batches. The role of surface chemistry, crystal morphology and crystal structure in controlling morphine sulfate powder wettability was explored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. Contact angles were shown to correlate with both the aspect ratio of the morphine sulfate crystals and the nitrogen-to-oxygen surface atomic concentration ratio, determined by SEM and XPS, respectively. The relative exposure of different crystal faces is considered to play an important role in controlling the wettability of morphine sulfate powders. PMID:10767569

  17. The Trouble with Tablets.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    The biggest recommendation is to get your tablet screen up. This can be done by using a case or a tablet stand. Avoid using the tablet on your lap because posture follows vision. If you must use it on your lap, try placing it on a pillow to raise its height and reduce dangerous neck flexion. Whenever possible, set the tablet on a table rather than holding it with your hands because hands and forearms fatigue quickly. Consider finding an external keyboard that can be separated from the tablet screen. This way, you can set the tablet on a higher surface to elevate the screen and have a lower keyboard to eliminate some of the wrist extension when keying. PMID:26495616

  18. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of acetaminophen nano-fiber tablets: Application of a solvent-based electrospinning method for tableting.

    PubMed

    Hamori, Mami; Nagano, Kana; Kakimoto, Sayaka; Naruhashi, Kazumasa; Kiriyama, Akiko; Nishimura, Asako; Shibata, Nobuhito

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we developed nano-fiber-based tablets with acetaminophen (AAP; LogPow=0.51) for controlled-release delivery systems and evaluated in vitro drug dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats. Nano-fibers made from methacrylic acid copolymer S (MAC; EUDRAGIT(®) S100) and containing AAP were prepared using a solvent-based electrospinning (ES) method. In vitro dissolution rate profiles of AAP showed tableting pressure-dependent decreases and pH-dependent increases. The results of tablet tracking by X-ray irradiation showed tablets based on MAC nano-fibers did not disintegrate in the upper intestinal lumen and had the properties of a long-term-acting tablet. In addition, the in vitro release profiles of AAP from nano-fiber tablets prepared by dissolving MAC with AAP (NFT), nano-fiber tablets prepared by adsorbing AAP to drug-free MAC nano-fibers (NFTadso), and tablets prepared by adsorbing half the amount of AAP to MAC nano-fibers containing the remaining amount of AAP (NFThalf) showed independent controlled-release aspects of AAP compared with physical mixture tablets (PMT). In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats after intraduodenal administration of 14mg/rat AAP in NFT, NFTadso, and NFThalf demonstrated that all these tablets based on MAC nano-fibers showed sustained-release profiles compared with PMT, and showed ultra-sustained release properties for AAP. These new tablets based on MAC nano-fibers did not disintegrate in the intestine in the lower pH region, and the tablets could regulate the release of AAP in a pH-dependent manner. The ES method is a useful technique to prepare nano-fibers and showed promising results as an oral delivery system for sustained-release regulation. PMID:26898420

  19. 21 CFR 862.3640 - Morphine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Morphine test system. 862.3640 Section 862.3640....3640 Morphine test system. (a) Identification. A morphine test system is a device intended to measure morphine, an addictive narcotic pain-relieving drug, and its analogs in serum, urine, and gastric...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3640 - Morphine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Morphine test system. 862.3640 Section 862.3640....3640 Morphine test system. (a) Identification. A morphine test system is a device intended to measure morphine, an addictive narcotic pain-relieving drug, and its analogs in serum, urine, and gastric...

  1. 21 CFR 862.3640 - Morphine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Morphine test system. 862.3640 Section 862.3640....3640 Morphine test system. (a) Identification. A morphine test system is a device intended to measure morphine, an addictive narcotic pain-relieving drug, and its analogs in serum, urine, and gastric...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3640 - Morphine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Morphine test system. 862.3640 Section 862.3640....3640 Morphine test system. (a) Identification. A morphine test system is a device intended to measure morphine, an addictive narcotic pain-relieving drug, and its analogs in serum, urine, and gastric...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3640 - Morphine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Morphine test system. 862.3640 Section 862.3640....3640 Morphine test system. (a) Identification. A morphine test system is a device intended to measure morphine, an addictive narcotic pain-relieving drug, and its analogs in serum, urine, and gastric...

  4. The combination of mitragynine and morphine prevents the development of morphine tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Fakurazi, Sharida; Rahman, Shamima Abdul; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is the major active alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa Korth. In the present study, we investigated the enhancement of analgesic action of MG when combined with morphine and the effect of the combination on the development of tolerance towards morphine. Mice were administered intraperitoneally with a dose of MG (15 and 25 mg/kg b.wt) combined with morphine (5 mg/kg b.wt) respectively for 9 days. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated by a hot plate test. The protein expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP response element binding (CREB) was analyzed by immunoblot. Toxicological parameters especially liver and kidney function tests were assessed after the combination treatment with MG and morphine. The concurrent administration of MG and morphine showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in latency time when compared to morphine alone group and the outstanding analgesic effects in the combination regimens were maintained until day 9. For the protein expression, there was a significant increment of cAMP and CREB levels (p < 0.05) in group treated with 5 mg/kg morphine but there was no significant change of these protein expressions when MG was combined with morphine. There was a significant changes in toxicological parameters of various treated groups. The combination treatment of MG and morphine effectively reduce the tolerance due to the chronic administration of morphine. PMID:23292329

  5. Driving under the influence of opiates: concentration relationships between morphine, codeine, 6-acetyl morphine, and ethyl morphine in blood.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Wayne; Holmgren, Anita; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2008-05-01

    Morphine and codeine are frequently identified in blood samples from impaired drivers. But whether these opiates reflect the use of prescription analgesics or abuse of the illicit drug heroin (diacetyl morphine) is not always obvious. Opiates, either alone or together with other drugs, were determined in 2,573 blood specimens from impaired drivers by sensitive and specific methods of analysis. The specific metabolite of heroin 6-acetyl morphine (6-AM) was quantifiable in only 52 cases (2%) at mean, median, and highest concentrations of 0.015, 0.010, and 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The mean, median, and highest concentrations of morphine were 0.046, 0.03, and 1.13 mg/L, respectively (N = 2,029). The corresponding concentrations of codeine (N = 1,391) were 0.047, 0.01, and 2.40 mg/L. Ethyl morphine was identified in 63 cases at a mean concentration of 0.055 mg/L (median 0.03 mg/L). When 6-AM was present in urine (N = 324), the mean morphine/codeine ratio in blood was 7.5 (median 6.7), and this important ratio was less than unity in only two cases. This study finds compelling evidence that approximately 90% of apprehended drivers in Sweden with morphine and codeine in their blood had used heroin. PMID:18430293

  6. Novel approach of aceclofenac fast dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Dave, Vivek; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil; Vishwakarma, Pushpendra; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever increasing demand during the last decade, and the ?eld has become a hastily growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orally for the treatment of bone and connective tissue disorder and thus the formulation of the same resulted in development of several FDT technologies. The present aim is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action: analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action. Besides, the conventional tablets also show poor patient compliance an attempt had been made to formulate for FDT of aceclofenac by using various super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crosspovidone (polyplasdone XL) and PEG 6000 followed by novel technique. The tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies and drug content studies. It was concluded that the batch which was prepared by using combination of crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrant shows excellent disintegration time, enhance dissolution rate, taste masking and hence lead to improve efficacy and bioavailability of drug. PMID:25553683

  7. Studies on sustained-release suppositories. III. Rectal absorption of morphine in rabbits and prolongation of its absorption by alginic acid addition.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, S; Inoue, Y; Shimeno, T; Fujiwara, H

    1990-02-01

    Rectal absorption of morphine from various kinds of suppository bases was investigated. The extent of bioavailability of morphine by rectal administration varied with the bases used (30.5-97.5%), but every value was higher than that in the case of oral administration (13.5%). Witepsol bases were preferable to macrogol base for the rectal absorption of morphine. In particular, Witepsol S-55 or W-35 gave a higher plasma peak level than H-15 or E-75, whereas the difference in the mean residence times obtained from these bases could not be regarded as significant. Sustained-release suppositories of morphine could be prepared simply by mixing alginic acid (Alg) with morphine in a suppository base. Further, prolonged rectal absorption could be obtained by using these sustained-release suppositories, and the absorption rate was controlled by the amount of Alg added. It seems likely that the sustained release was due to the binding of morphine to Alg from the results of partition coefficient and binding ratio measurements in aqueous solution. The rapid initial absorption and the subsequent prolonged absorption of morphine simultaneously obtained from the morphine-Alg suppository may be useful in the clinical context. PMID:2337965

  8. 21 CFR 520.763a - Dithiazanine iodide tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide tablets. 520.763a Section 520.763a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.763a Dithiazanine iodide tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-Ethyl-2-...

  9. Using Raman spectroscopy in tablet moisture surface analysis: tablet surface markers.

    PubMed

    Atef, Eman; Chauhan, Harsh; Ceresia, Michelle; Pidgeon, Charles

    2010-12-01

    A method was developed to monitor the hydration of a tablet surface using chemical functional groups able to bind atmospheric water through H-bonding. In this study, generic oral dissolving loratadine tablets were used. These tablets have relatively high mannitol and lactose concentrations. Both mannitol and lactose have C-OH alcohol functional groups, several of which are potentially available for H-bonding with atmospheric water. The Raman intensity of the alcohol functional groups decreases upon hydration. This observation can be used to indirectly monitor water adsorbed to tablet surfaces at the alcohol sites. The hydration assay is based on the change in the Raman peak intensity of the alcohol C-OH stretching at 875.5 cm(-1). Consequently the decrease in the Raman intensity of this vibration can be used to monitor water adsorption. The Raman measurement of tablet surface water was compared to the direct moisture measurement method using a microbalance. The Raman spectroscopy is used to monitor the water that is specifically bound to the C-OH alcohol functional groups available for hydration. The microbalance was used to monitor the tablets' weight change during water adsorption and desorption. The distribution of the ratio of the Raman intensity of C-OH peak at 875.5 cm(-1) divided by the intensity of loratadine's C-Cl peak at 712.6 cm(-1) was experimentally determined to be a Gaussian distribution with a mean of 3.22+/-0.277. Raman analysis indicates that there is both tightly and loosely bound water at the tablet surface. This can be a useful technique with regard to inspecting and controlling the tablet drying process. PMID:20674214

  10. Photoaffinity labeling of opioid receptor with morphine-7,8-oxide (morphine epoxide)

    SciTech Connect

    Takayanagi, I.; Shibata, R.; Miyata, N.; Hirobe, M.

    1982-05-01

    The opioid receptor mediating inhibitory action of morphine in the electrically stimulated guinea pig ileum was irreversibly photoinactivated by morphine epoxide (3 X 10(-6) M). Morphine epoxide (up to 3 X 10(-5) M) did not influence the responses of rat vas deferens (epsilon-receptor) or rabbit vas deferens (kappa-receptor) to electrical stimulation. Effective concentrations of morphine epoxide were much lower in the guinea pig ileum (mu-receptor) than in the mouse vas deference (delta-receptor). The inhibitory action of (Met)-enkephalin on the twitch responses of the rat vas deferens and mouse vas deferens to electrical stimulation were not influenced after irradiation in the presence of morphine epoxide (3 X 10(-6) M). Therefore, morphine epoxide is probably a useful probe for photoaffinity labeling of the mu-receptor in vitro.

  11. Formulation of novel nano-encapsulated Newcastle disease vaccine tablets for vaccination of village chickens.

    PubMed

    Wambura, Philemon N

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of nano-encapsulated vaccine tablet is a novel technique for the delivery of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to village chickens. Vaccine tablets were prepared using gelatin, trehalose and casein as thermostabilisers and binders, respectively, and each vaccine tablet contained a nominal oral dose of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain I-2 for a single chicken. These ND vaccine tablets maintained a titre of 10(8.5) EID(50)/0.1mL for 90days at ambient room temperatures (25-34C). When these vaccine tablets were given to village chickens, a single oral administration of the vaccine produced protective antibody response (?3.0 log(2)) against challenge with virulent NDV. The findings from the present study showed that, if the vaccine tablet formulation technique is optimised, it will allow the delivery of the ND vaccine without depending on cold chains to rural areas in tropical countries. PMID:20683657

  12. Medical student knowledge of morphine for the management of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Sloan, P A; Montgomery, C; Musick, D

    1998-06-01

    Inadequate training of physicians contributes to the undertreatment of cancer pain. To address these concerns, the University of Kentucky has introduced a 4-week course for final-year medical students that teaches the principles of clinical pharmacology and pain management. The purposes of this study are to assess the knowledge deficits of final-year medical students about the use of morphine for cancer pain and to assess the efficacy of a short course on cancer pain management. Eighty-six final-year medical students completed a 22-item questionnaire assessing their knowledge and attitudes toward the use of morphine for cancer pain. Students indicated their agreement with each statement on a four-point scale (one, strongly disagree; four, strongly agree). All students then completed a compulsory short course on pain management. The course content included a 1-hr lecture on chronic nonmalignant pain, a 1-hr lecture on acute pain management, and a 1-hr lecture on cancer pain management. In addition, students completed small-group, problem-based learning modules on several aspects of pain management. After the course, all students completed the same 22-item survey. The alpha reliability score of the pretest instrument was 0.55, and the posttest reliability was 0.86. Upon course completion, students agreed most strongly (mean +/- SEM) that morphine should be given on a regular schedule for cancer pain (3.41 +/- 0.08), that cancer pain management frequently requires co-analgesics (3.36 +/- 0.06), and that patients with good pain relief function better than those with continuing pain (3.39 +/- 0.08). A comparison of pretest and posttest means on specific items suggested that the greatest amount of learning took place in the following content areas: morphine is a good oral analgesic; increases in cancer pain should be treated by increasing the morphine dose; respiratory depression is not a concern for cancer pain patients; and morphine can be used over a wide range of doses. The regular use of morphine was recognized as the treatment drug of choice for cancer pain. The students showed improved knowledge scores on ten of the 22 items on the posttest survey. A significant increase in learning occurred on six knowledge and attitude items. On only one item (nausea as a side effect of morphine) did the knowledge scores decrease on the posttest. A significant minority (40%) of senior medical students had deficits in knowledge about the use of morphine for cancer pain. The risk of addiction, respiratory depression, and tolerance were misunderstood by a significant minority (25%) of students. PMID:9670636

  13. Morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    PubMed Central

    Hain, Richard D W; Hardcastle, A; Pinkerton, C R; Aherne, G W

    1999-01-01

    Aims To measure morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children following a single intravenous dose of morphine. Methods Twenty-nine paired samples of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma were collected from children with leukaemia undergoing therapeutic lumbar puncture. An intravenous dose of morphine was administered at selected intervals before the procedure. Concentrations of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were measured in each sample. Morphine was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay (r.i.a.) and M6G was measured using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The ELISA for measuring M6G was highly sensitive. The intra-and interassay variations were less than 15%. Using a two-compartment model for plasma morphine, the area under the curve to infinity (AUC, 7143 ng ml?1 min), volume of distribution (3.6 l kg?1) and elimination half-life (88 min) were comparable with those reported in adults. Clearance (35 ml min?1) was higher than that in adults. Morphine-6-glucuronide was readily synthesized by the children in this study. The elimination half-life (321 min) and AUC (35507 ng ml?1 min) of plasma M6G were much greater than those of morphine. Conclusions Extensive metabolism of morphine to M6G in children with cancer has been demonstrated. These data provide further evidence to support the importance of M6G accumulation after multiple doses. There was no evidence that morphine passed more easily into the CSF of children than adults. PMID:10383558

  14. Effect of environmental enrichment on physical and psychological dependence signs and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats.

    PubMed

    Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Arezoo; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependency and withdrawal on the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days following rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for withdrawal signs after naloxone injection, anxiety (the elevated plus maze) and depression-related behavior (sucrose preference test), and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm, in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats. The results showed that EE decreased naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, but not anxiety or sucrose preference during dependence on morphine. The EE-withdrawn rats showed an increase in the elevated plus maze open arm time and entries and higher levels of sucrose preference than SE rats. Voluntary consumption of morphine was lower in the EE-withdrawn rats than in the SE groups in the second period of drug intake. Thus, exposure to EE reduced the severity of morphine dependence and voluntary consumption of morphine, alongside reductions in anxiety and depression-related behavior in morphine-withdrawn rats. PMID:26397757

  15. The effect of sustained-release morphine on breathlessness and quality of life in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Poole, P J; Veale, A G; Black, P N

    1998-06-01

    Morphine has been proposed as a treatment for breathlessness in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but there is uncertainty as to whether or not it is effective. Orally administered sustained-release morphine was compared with placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial with two 6-wk treatment periods separated by a 2-wk washout period. The primary end point was quality of life measured using the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ). Secondary end points included 6-min walk (6MW), distance, and breathlessness scores. Sixteen subjects with a mean age 70.7 yr, FEV1 of 0.6 L, and VC of 1.90 L were studied. There was no change in the total CRQ score with either treatment, but the score on the Mastery subscale was significantly worse with morphine (p = 0.02). The 6MW distance increased by 21 m from the beginning to the end of the placebo treatment period, but it decreased by 35 m with morphine (p = 0.04). There were no differences between treatments in breathlessness scored on daily diary cards or on the Dyspnea subscale of the CRQ. Almost all the subjects experienced adverse effects related to morphine. Sustained-release morphine was not a useful treatment for breathlessness in these patients with severe COPD. PMID:9620921

  16. Calcification prevention tablets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  17. 21 CFR 520.2260c - Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets. 520.2260c Section 520.2260c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.2260c Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets....

  18. 21 CFR 520.2260c - Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets. 520.2260c Section 520.2260c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.2260c Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets....

  19. Is intramuscular morphine satisfying frontline medical personnels’ requirement for battlefield analgesia in Helmand Province, Afghanistan? A questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Lorna M; Claydon, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Background: All deployed British Army personnel carry intramuscular (IM) morphine auto-injectors to treat battlefield casualties. No other nation supplies parenteral opiate analgesia on individual issue. Studies highlight this agent’s inefficacy and safety issues, but are limited by a relative lack of inclusion of frontline personnel. We aimed to determine the opinions of frontline medical personnel on current battlefield analgesia. Methods: We surveyed 88 British Army frontline medical personnel (medical officers (n = 12), nurses (n = 7), combat medical technicians (CMTs) (n = 67), paramedics (n = 1) and health-care assistants (n = 1)) upon completion of a six-month deployment (September 2011 to April 2012) to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, using Likert scale questions on the efficacy of battlefield analgesia, complications of IM morphine, safety of morphine auto-injectors and its suitability for treating child casualties. Results: A total of 88/88 questionnaires were returned. Of these, 61/88 had treated casualties on the battlefield, 26/86 agreed that current battlefield analgesia is effective, 80/87 agreed that a more potent analgesic with a faster onset than IM morphine is desirable in the first hour following injury, 47/65 CMTs agreed that they can manage complications of current battlefield analgesia and 53/86 respondents correctly disagreed that current battlefield analgesia is suitable for child casualties. The potential for accidental self-injection was reported. Conclusions: A more potent, faster onset analgesic than IM morphine is desirable in the first hour following injury. Pre-deployment training should emphasise management of complications of opiate analgesics and treatment of child casualties. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate is now being issued to all frontline medical personnel. IM morphine will remain on individual issue to all deployed soldiers for environments where an oral agent is not suitable, for example, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear warfare. Summary points Frontline medical personnel agree that a more potent, faster onset analgesic than IM morphine is desirable in the first hour following injury. The two most desirable features of the ideal analgesic were ranked as rapid onset of action, and when fully onset produces a high degree of pain relief. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has now been issued to all frontline medical personnel as an adjunct to IM morphine. IM morphine will remain on individual issue for situations where parenteral analgesia is required. Consideration should be given to individual issue of OTFC to all deployed personnel in the future. Pre-deployment training should emphasise management of complications of opiate analgesics and treatment of child casualties. PMID:26516566

  20. Simultaneous determination of six hydrophilic components in rat plasma after oral administration of Jitai tablet by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Ping; Liu, Lei; Wang, Ling-Ling; Jiang, Peng; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Run-Hui

    2013-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of amygdalin (ADL), danshensu (DSS), ferulic acid (FA), hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), salvianolic acid A (SAA) and salvianolic acid B (SAB) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. LC separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0mm×100mm I.D, 1.8μm) with gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. ESI-MS spectra was acquired in negative ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 456.0→323.1, m/z 197.3→178.8, m/z 193.0→133.9, m/z 611.1→325.2, m/z 493.0→295.0, and m/z 717.0→519.0 for ADL, DSS, FA, HSYA, SAA and SAB, respectively. All analytes showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (r>0.99). The lower limit of quantification was 7ng/mL, 2ng/mL, 4ng/mL, 1ng/mL, 2ng/mL, and 4ng/mL for ADL, DSS, FA, HSYA, SAA and SAB, respectively. The mean recovery of the analytes ranged from 86.29% to 93.16%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 1.50-9.98% and the accuracies were between 91.17% and 99.46%. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the six hydrophilic components in rat plasma after oral administration of Jitai tablet. PMID:23261824

  1. How human neuroblastoma cells make morphine

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Chotima; Fellermeier, Monika; Boettcher, Christian; Drger, Birgit; Zenk, Meinhart H.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) are capable of synthesizing morphine, the major active metabolite of opium poppy. Now our experiments are further substantiated by extending the biochemical studies to the entire morphine pathway in this human cell line. l-[1,2,3-13C3]- and [ring-2?,5?,6?-2H3]dopa showed high isotopic enrichment and incorporation in both the isoquinoline and the benzyl moiety of the endogenous morphine. [2,2-2H2]Dopamine, however, was exclusively incorporated only into the isoquinoline moiety. Neither the trioxygenated (R,S)-[1,3-13C2]norcoclaurine, the precursor of morphine in the poppy plant, nor (R)-[1,3,4-2H3]norlaudanosoline showed incorporation into endogenous morphine. However, (S)-[1,3,4-2H3]norlaudanosoline furnished a good isotopic enrichment and the loss of a single deuterium atom at the C-9 position of the morphine molecule, indicating that the change of configuration from (S)- to (R)-reticuline occurs via the intermediacy of 1,2-dehydroreticuline. Additional feeding experiments with potential morphinan precursors demonstrated substantial incorporation of [7-2H]salutaridinol, but not 7-[7-2H]episalutaridinol, and [7-2H,N-C2H3]oripavine, and [6-2H]codeine into morphine. Human morphine biosynthesis involves at least 19 chemical steps. For the most part, it is a reflection of the biosynthesis in opium poppy; however, there is a fundamental difference in the formation of the key intermediate (S)-reticuline: it proceeds via the tetraoxygenated initial isoquinoline alkaloid (S)-norlaudanosoline, whereas the plant morphine biosynthesis proceeds via the trioxygenated (S)-norcoclaurine. Following the plant biosynthetic pathway, (S)-reticuline undergoes a change of configuration at C-1 during its transformation to salutaridinol and thebaine. From thebaine, there is a bifurcate pathway leading to morphine proceeding via codeine or oripavine, in both plants and mammals. PMID:15937106

  2. 21 CFR 520.2260c - Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520... response within 2 to 3 days, reevaluate therapy. Do not crush tablets. Treated animals must not...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2260c - Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520... response within 2 to 3 days, reevaluate therapy. Do not crush tablets. Treated animals must not...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2260c - Sulfamethazine sustained-release tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520... response within 2 to 3 days, reevaluate therapy. Do not crush tablets. Treated animals must not...

  5. Orodispersible films and tablets with prednisolone microparticles.

    PubMed

    Brniak, Witold; Ma?lak, Ewelina; Jachowicz, Renata

    2015-07-30

    Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) and orodispersible films (ODFs) are solid oral dosage forms disintegrating or dissolving rapidly when placed in the mouth. One of the main issues related to their preparation is an efficient taste masking of a bitter drug substance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the microparticles intended to mask a bitter taste of the prednisolone and use them in further preparation of two orodispersible dosage forms. Microparticles based on the Eudragit E PO or E 100 as a taste-masking agent were prepared with spray-drying technique. Tablets containing microparticles, co-processed ODT excipient Pharmaburst, and lubricant were directly compressed with single-punch tablet press. Orodispersible films were prepared by casting polymeric solutions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing uniformly dispersed microparticles. Physicochemical properties of microparticles were evaluated, as well as mechanical properties analysis, disintegration time measurements and dissolution tests were performed for prepared dosage forms. Both formulations showed good mechanical resistance while maintaining excellent disintegration properties. The dissolution studies showed good masking properties of microparticles with Eudragit E 100. The amount of prednisolone released during the first minute in phosphate buffer 6.8 was around 0.1%. After incorporation into the orodispersible forms, the amount of released prednisolone increased significantly. It was probably the effect of faster microparticles wetting in orodispersible forms and their partial destruction by compression force during tableting process. PMID:25889975

  6. Formulation and evaluation of omeprazole tablets for duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, A; Das, S; Bahadur, S; Saha, S; Roy, A

    2010-07-01

    Omeprazole pellets containing mucoadhesive tablets were developed by direct punch method. Three mucoadhesive polymers namely hydroxypropylemethylcellulose K4M, sodium carboxy methylcellulose, carbopol-934P and ethyl cellulose were used for preparation of tablets which intended for prolong action may be due to the attachment with intestinal mucosa for relief from active duodenal ulcer. Mucoadhesive tablets were coated with respective polymer and coated with Eudragit L100 to fabricate enteric coated tablets. The prepared tablets were evaluated for different physical parameters and dissolution study were performed in three dissolution mediums like 0.1N hydrochloric acid for 2h, pH 6.5 and pH 7.8 phosphate buffer solution for 12hr. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose showed above 95% release within 10 h where as carbopol-934P showed slow release about 88% to 92% over a period of 12 h. having excellent mucoadhesive strength but ethyl cellulose containing tablets showed less than 65% release. The release mechanism of all formulation was diffusion controlled confirmed from Higuchi's plot. Thus, the present study concluded that, carbopol-934P containing mucoadhesive tablets of omeprazole pellets can be used for local action in the ulcer disease as well as for oral controlled release drug delivery. PMID:21218061

  7. Pleiotrophin modulates morphine withdrawal but has no effects on morphine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Gramage, Esther; Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2015-09-14

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a neurotrophic factor with important functions in addiction and neurodegenerative disorders. Morphine administration induces an increase in the expression of PTN and Midkine (MK), the only other member of this family of cytokines, in brain areas related with the addictive effects of drug of abuse, like the Ventral Tegmental Area or the hippocampus. In spite of previous studies showing that PTN modulates amphetamine and ethanol rewarding effects, and that PTN is involved in morphine-induced analgesia, it was still unknown if the rewarding effects of morphine may be regulated by endogenous PTN. Thus, we aim to study the role of PTN in the reward and physical dependence induced by morphine. We used the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) and wild type (WT) mice to assess the rewarding effects of morphine in absence of endogenous PTN. Second, to study if PTN may be involved in morphine physical dependence, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome was induced in PTN-/- and WT morphine dependent mice. Although the increase in the time spent in the morphine-paired compartment after conditioning tended to be more pronounced in PTN-/- mice, statistical significance was not achieved. The data suggest that PTN does not exert an important role in morphine reward. However, our results clearly indicate that PTN-/- mice develop a more severe withdrawal syndrome than WT mice, characterized as a significant increase in the time standing and in the total incidences of forepaw licking, forepaw tremors, wet dog shake and writhing. The data presented here suggest that PTN is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in morphine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26222257

  8. Fast disintegrating tablets: Opportunity in drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ved; Maan, Saurabh; Deepika; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Hemlata; Jogpal, Vikas

    2011-10-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed. PMID:22247889

  9. Fast disintegrating tablets: Opportunity in drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Ved; Maan, Saurabh; Deepika; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Hemlata; Jogpal, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed. PMID:22247889

  10. Intramuscular meptazinol and morphine in postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Kaiko, R F; Wallenstein, S L; Rogers, A G; Canel, A; Jacobs, B; Houde, R W

    1985-05-01

    Meptazinol is an agonist-antagonist opioid analgesic believed to be unique in its selectivity for mu1 (high affinity) receptors and its cholinergic activity. Our objectives were to determine the relative analgesic potency of intramuscular meptazinol and morphine and to compare mood and side effects in 102 patients with cancer who have postoperative pain. Meptazinol (50, 100, and 200 mg) and morphine (4, 8, and 16 mg) were given for moderate to severe pain in a double-blind, randomized but balanced, incomplete block design. Serial multiple assessments of pain, relief, mood, and side effects were made. The most precise estimates of relative analgesic potency indicate that meptazinol is equivalent to 10 mg morphine at 120 mg (95% confidence interval 80 to 170 mg) for peak effect and at 175 mg (95% confidence interval 125 to 270 mg) for total effect. Mean (+/- SE) times to peak effect and to remedication were 0.9 +/- 0.1 and 3.6 +/- 0.2 hours for meptazinol and 1.4 +/- 0.1 and 4.8 +/- 0.4 hours for morphine at equianalgesic peak effects. The percentages of subjects with one or more side effects were 18, 49, and 73 for graded meptazinol doses and 32, 49, and 65 for graded morphine doses. Mean numbers of side effects per subject were 0.3, 1.5, and 3.5 for meptazinol and 0.5, 0.7, and 1.7 for morphine. Profiles of side effects differed. Mood improvement and overall satisfaction were dose related and greater for morphine than for meptazinol. Side effects may limit the use of meptazinol in doses that relieve severe postoperative pain. PMID:3987183

  11. Morphine-6-glucuronide: actions and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Gavin J; Smith, Terry W

    2005-09-01

    Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) appears to show equivalent analgesia to morphine but to have a superior side-effect profile in terms of reduced liability to induce nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence behind this statement and to identify the possible reasons that may contribute to the profile of M6G. The vast majority of available data supports the notion that both M6G and morphine mediate their effects by activating the micro-opioid receptor. The differences for which there is a reasonable consensus in the literature can be summarized as: (1) Morphine has a slightly higher affinity for the micro-opioid receptor than M6G, (2) M6G shows a slightly higher efficacy at the micro-opioid receptor, (3) M6G has a lower affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor than morphine, and (4) M6G has a very different absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile from morphine. However, none of these are adequate alone to explain the clinical differences between M6G and morphine. The ADME differences are perhaps most likely to explain some of the differences but seem unlikely to be the whole story. Further work is required to examine further the profile of M6G, notably whether M6G penetrates differentially to areas of the brain involved in pain and those involved in nausea, vomiting, and respiratory control or whether micro-opioid receptors in these brain areas differ in either their regulation or pharmacology. PMID:15952175

  12. Inhibition of the development of morphine tolerance by a potent dual mu-delta-opioid antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-Lys-NH-CH2-Ph.

    PubMed

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa D; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2008-10-01

    Three analogues of the dual mu-/delta-antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-R-NH-CH2-Ph (R = 1, Lys-Z; 2, Lys-Ac; 3, Lys) were examined in vivo: 1 and 2 exhibited weak bioactivity, while 3 injected intracerebroventricularly was a potent dual antagonist for morphine- and deltorphin C-induced antinociception comparable to naltrindole (delta-antagonist), but 93% as effective as naloxone (nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist) and 4% as active as CTOP, a mu antagonist. Subcutaneous or oral administration of 3 antagonized morphine-induced antinociception indicating passage across epithelial and blood-brain barriers. Mice pretreated with 3 before morphine did not develop morphine tolerance indicative of a potential clinical role to inhibit development of drug tolerance. PMID:18571706

  13. A new tablet brittleness index.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-06-01

    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work. PMID:25907006

  14. Ultra-low doses of naltrexone or etorphine increase morphine's antinociceptive potency and attenuate tolerance/dependence in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, K F; Crain, S M

    1997-05-23

    In previous studies we showed that low (pM) concentrations of naloxone (NLX), naltrexone (NTX) or etorphine selectively antagonize excitatory, but not inhibitory, opioid receptor-mediated functions in nociceptive types of sensory neurons in culture. Cotreatment of these neurons with pM NTX or etorphine not only results in marked enhancement of the inhibitory potency of acutely applied nM morphine [or other bimodally-acting (inhibitory/excitatory) opioid agonists], but also prevents development of cellular manifestations of tolerance and dependence during chronic exposure to microM morphine. These in vitro studies were confirmed in vivo by demonstrating that acute cotreatment of mice with morphine plus a remarkably low dose of NTX (ca. 10 ng/kg) does, in fact, enhance the antinociceptive potency of morphine, as measured by hot-water tail-flick assays. Furthermore, chronic cotreatment of mice with morphine plus low doses of NTX markedly attenuates development of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-jumping in physical dependence assays. The present study provides systematic dose-response analyses indicating that NTX elicited optimal enhancement of morphine's antinociceptive potency in mice when co-administered (i.p.) at about 100 ng/kg together with morphine (3 mg/kg). Doses of NTX as low as 1 ng/kg or as high as 1 microg/kg were still effective, but to a lesser degree. Oral administration of NTX in the drinking water of mice was equally effective as i.p. injections in enhancing the antinociceptive potency of acute morphine injections and even more effective in attenuating development of tolerance and NLX-precipitated withdrawal-jumping during chronic cotreatment. Cotreatment with a subanalgesic dose of etorphine (10 ng/kg) was equally effective as NTX in enhancing morphine's antinociceptive potency and attenuating withdrawal-jumping after chronic exposure. These studies provide a rationale for the clinical use of ultra-low-dose NTX or etorphine so as to increase the antinociceptive potency while attenuating the tolerance/dependence liability of morphine or other conventional bimodally-acting opioid analgesics. PMID:9200746

  15. The Role of GABAB Receptors in Morphine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ramshini, Effat; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Alaei, Samaneh; Shahidani, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is only little information about the effects of GABA receptors agonist and antagonist on morphine self-administration. Present study was designed to assess role of GABAB receptors in the regulation of morphine-reinforced self-administration. Methods: This study was performed in four groups of rats: (1) Saline group, which received saline in the self-administration session. (2) Morphine group, which received morphine in saline solution in the self-administration session. (3) Baclofen + Morphine group, which received both baclofen 20 min before self- administration test and morphine in the self-administration session. (4) Phaclofen + Morphine group, which received both phaclofen 20 min before self- administration test and morphine in the self-administration session. The number of lever pressing and self-infusion were recorded. Results: Morphine significantly increased the number of active lever pressing dose dependently in self-administration session in comparative with saline group. Administration of baclofen, 20 min before morphine self-administration produced significant decrease in the initiation of morphine self-administration during all session. Conversely, pre-treatment of phaclofen increased the number of active lever pressing and self-infusion in this test. Conclusion: Our results indicated a short-term treatment by baclofen, reduced morphine-maintenance response in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that GABAB receptor agonists could be useful for reversing the neuroadaptations related to opiates. PMID:23542877

  16. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1157 Iodinated...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1157 Iodinated...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520.1720a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS ...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2280 - Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets. 520.2280 Section 520.2280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.2280 Sulfamethizole and methenamine...

  20. Granule size distribution of tablets.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Satu; Antikainen, Osmo; Räikkönen, Heikki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the variation in the granule size distribution in a die of an eccentric tableting machine. Theophylline anhydrate and alpha-lactose monohydrate were granulated with an aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone, using an instrumented fluid bed granulator. The granules were tabletted, using an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. Punch forces were recorded and tablets were collected in order during the tableting process. Powder samples, which had the same mass as the tablets, were also collected from the die for particle size determination. The particle size distribution was measured, using a spatial filtering technique. In addition, the segregation of microcrystalline cellulose pellets during tableting was analyzed. The particle size distribution changed dramatically during the tableting process, due to a segregation phenomenon. PMID:19780134

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Tapentadol and Morphine on Conditioned Pain Modulation in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Chris; van Velzen, Monique; Drewes, Asbjrn; Aarts, Leon; Dahan, Albert; Niesters, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Background Modulatory descending pathways, originating at supraspinal sites that converge at dorsal horn neurons, influence pain perception in humans. Defects in descending pain control are linked to chronic pain states and its restoration may be a valuable analgesic tool. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a surrogate marker of descending inhibition that reduces the perception of pain from a primary test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus. Here the effects of the analgesics tapentadol, a combined mu-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and morphine, a strong mu-opioid receptor agonist, were tested on CPM in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 12 healthy pain-free volunteers, to understand possible differences in mechanism of action between these opioids. Methods and Results On three occasions CPM responses were obtained 60-90 and 120-150 min following intake of tapentadol (100 mg immediate release tablet), morphine (40 mg immediate release tablet) or placebo. At both time points, CPM was detectable after treatment with placebo and tapentadol (peak pain ratings reduced by 20-30% after application of the conditioning stimulus) but not after morphine. Compared to placebo morphine displayed significantly less CPM: mean treatment difference 18.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 32.9%) at 60-90 min after drug intake and 19.5% (95% CI 5.7 to 33.2%) at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.001). No difference in CPM between placebo and tapentadol was detected: mean treatment difference 1.5% (95% CI -11.6 to 14.6%) at 60-90 min after drug intake and 1.5% (95% CI -16.0 to 18.9%) at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.60). Conclusions Our data show that in volunteers morphine affects CPM, while tapentadol was without effect despite identical experimental conditions. These data confirm that tapentadols main mechanism of action is distinct from that of morphine and likely related to the effect of adrenergic stimulation on descending controls. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2716 PMID:26076171

  2. Tabletability Modulation Through Surface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-08-01

    Poor powder tabletability is a common problem that challenges the successful development of high-quality tablet products. Using noncompressible microcrystalline cellulose beads, we demonstrate that surface coating is an effective strategy for modulating tabletability, almost at will, through judicious selection of coating material. This strategy has broad applicability as tabletability of such particles is dictated by the properties of the outermost layer coat regardless the nature of the core. PMID:26059496

  3. Synthetic substances with morphine-like effect

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Nathan B.; Halbach, H.; Braenden, Olav J.

    1957-01-01

    A review of effects in man of morphine-like drugs which have been brought under international narcotics control is presented in the form of individual monographs. These are based on controlled observations with quantitative data and significant reports of results obtained in medical practice. In a summarizing section, the drugs are compared with respect to effectiveness, side-effects and addiction liability. Morphine-like drugs of natural and synthetic origin now cover a wide range of potency (analgesic, antitussive), not necessarily paralleled by incidence of side-effects or addiction liability. PMID:13511135

  4. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimizing Development of Okara Tablet Formulation as a Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zen, Nur Izzati; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsudin, Rosnah; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    The usage of soy is increasing year by year. It increases the problem of financial crisis due to the limited sources of soybeans. Therefore, production of oral tablets containing the nutritious leftover of soymilk production, called okara, as the main ingredient was investigated. The okara tablets were produced using the direct compression method. The percentage of okara, guar gum, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-101), and maltodextrin influenced tablets' hardness and friability which are analyzed using a D-optimal mixture design. Composition of Avicel PH-101 had positive effects for both hardness and friability tests of the tablets. Maltodextrin and okara composition had a significant positive effect on tablets' hardness, but not on percentage of friability of tablets. However, guar gum had a negative effect on both physical tests. The optimum tablet formulation was obtained: 47.0% of okara, 2.0% of guar gum, 35.0% of Avicel PH-101, and 14.0% of maltodextrin. PMID:26171418

  5. The Use of D-Optimal Mixture Design in Optimizing Development of Okara Tablet Formulation as a Dietary Supplement.

    PubMed

    Zen, Nur Izzati Mohamad; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Shamsudin, Rosnah; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard

    2015-01-01

    The usage of soy is increasing year by year. It increases the problem of financial crisis due to the limited sources of soybeans. Therefore, production of oral tablets containing the nutritious leftover of soymilk production, called okara, as the main ingredient was investigated. The okara tablets were produced using the direct compression method. The percentage of okara, guar gum, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-101), and maltodextrin influenced tablets' hardness and friability which are analyzed using a D-optimal mixture design. Composition of Avicel PH-101 had positive effects for both hardness and friability tests of the tablets. Maltodextrin and okara composition had a significant positive effect on tablets' hardness, but not on percentage of friability of tablets. However, guar gum had a negative effect on both physical tests. The optimum tablet formulation was obtained: 47.0% of okara, 2.0% of guar gum, 35.0% of Avicel PH-101, and 14.0% of maltodextrin. PMID:26171418

  6. Dysregulation of dopaminergic regulatory mechanisms in the mesolimbic pathway induced by morphine and morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Daniel; López-Bellido, Roger; Rodríguez, Raquel E; Laorden, M Luisa; Núñez, Cristina; Milanés, M Victoria

    2015-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is thought to represent a teaching signal and has been implicated in the induction of addictive behaviours. Previously, it has been proposed that the transcription factors Nurr1 and Pitx3, which are critical for transcription of a set of genes involved in DA metabolism in the mesolimbic pathway, are associated with addiction pathology. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in the mesolimbic pathway associated with morphine dependence and withdrawal. Using quantitative real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, HPLC and Western blotting, here we studied the effects of single morphine administration, morphine dependence and morphine withdrawal on Nurr1 and Pitx3 expression as well as on the DA marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the turnover of DA in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or nucleus accumbens. We showed that the three experimental conditions caused induction of Nurr1 and Pitx3 in the VTA, which correlated with changes in TH expression during chronic morphine administration. Present data also confirmed the colocalization of Nurr1 and Pitx3 with TH-positive neurons in the posterior VTA. Furthermore, during morphine dependence, Nurr1 was detected in the nucleus compartment of VTA TH-positive neurons, whereas Pitx3 was strongly detected in the nucleus of TH-positive neurons after single morphine administration and during morphine withdrawal. The number of TH neurons, number of Nurr1 or Pitx3-positive cells, and the number of TH neurons expressing Nurr1 or Pitx3 were not modified in the subpopulations of DA neurons. Present data provide novel insight into the potential correlation between Nurr1 and Pitx3 and DA neurons plasticity during opiate addiction in the mesolimbic pathway. PMID:24706046

  7. Optical properties of aqueous morphine solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Gracheva, Anna A.; Zlobin, Vladimir A.; Nazarov, Georgy V.; Kuznetsova, Nina B.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

    2003-10-01

    We have studied morphine action on mobility and structure of water by means of fluorescent investigations and light scattering analysis. Wave-like concentration dependences have been plotted in the both cases. Theoretical description of the discovered effect has been made based on the formalism of N.N.Bogolubov.

  8. CES 2011: Tablet Crazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David

    2011-01-01

    Ereaders are so last year. Tablets were the watchword at this year's annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, January 6-9. This year, the show set new records, with some 2700 companies from around the world exhibiting at the multiple exhibition halls and 30,000 attendees gawking at the products. What did they see? There were still some

  9. CES 2011: Tablet Crazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David

    2011-01-01

    Ereaders are so last year. Tablets were the watchword at this year's annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, January 6-9. This year, the show set new records, with some 2700 companies from around the world exhibiting at the multiple exhibition halls and 30,000 attendees gawking at the products. What did they see? There were still some…

  10. Intrathecal Morphine Plus General Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery: Effects on Pulmonary Function, Postoperative Analgesia, and Plasma Morphine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Luciana Moraes; Santos, Vernica Cavani Jorge; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo S; Carmona, Maria Jos Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intrathecal morphine on pulmonary function, analgesia, and morphine plasma concentrations after cardiac surgery. INTRODUCTION: Lung dysfunction increases morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Regional analgesia may improve pulmonary outcomes by reducing pain, but the occurrence of this benefit remains controversial. METHODS: Forty-two patients were randomized for general anesthesia (control group n=22) or 400 ?g of intrathecal morphine followed by general anesthesia (morphine group n=20). Postoperative analgesia was accomplished with an intravenous, patient-controlled morphine pump. Blood gas measurements, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV), and FVC/FEV ratio were obtained preoperatively, as well as on the first and second postoperative days. Pain at rest, profound inspiration, amount of coughing, morphine solicitation, consumption, and plasma morphine concentration were evaluated for 36 hours postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed using the repeated measures ANOVA or Mann-Whiney tests (*p<0.05). RESULTS: Both groups experienced reduced FVC postoperatively (3.24 L to 1.38 L in control group; 2.72 L to 1.18 L in morphine FEV1 (p=0.085), group), with no significant decreases observed between groups. The two groups also exhibited similar results for FEV1/FVC (p=0.68) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p=0.08). The morphine group reported less pain intensity (evaluated using a visual numeric scale), especially when coughing (18 hours postoperatively: control group= 4.73 and morphine group= 1.80, p=0.001). Cumulative morphine consumption was reduced after 18 hours in the morphine group (control group= 20.14 and morphine group= 14.20 mg, p=0.037). The plasma morphine concentration was also reduced in the morphine group 24 hours after surgery (control group= 15.87 ng.mL?1 and morphine group= 4.08 ng.mL?1, p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine administration did not significantly alter pulmonary function; however, it improved patient analgesia and reduced morphine consumption and morphine plasma concentration. PMID:19488583

  11. The analgesic action of morphine-N-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Fennessy, M. R.

    1968-01-01

    1. The analgesic activity of morphine-N-oxide in mice and rats has been investigated and compared with that of morphine. 2. Both morphine and morphine-N-oxide were more active when given subcutaneously than when given intraperitoneally. 3. Given subcutaneously, morphine was 11-22 times more potent than morphine-N-oxide and when given intraperitoneally it was 39-89 times more potent. The potencies depended on the test situation and the species of animal used. 4. In animals pretreated with amiphenazole or tacrine, the analgesic activities of morphine and morphine-N-oxide were increased. The potencies of these analgesic drugs given intraperitoneally were increased to a greater extent than were the potencies obtained by subcutaneous administration. 5. A possible explanation for the increase in analgesic potency of morphine-N-oxide produced by pretreatment with amiphenazole or tacrine may be that morphine-N-oxide is rapidly inactivated in the liver and this inactivation is impaired by amiphenazole and tacrine. PMID:5687589

  12. Morphine upregulates kappa-opioid receptors of human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Chuang, T K; Chuang, L F; Doi, R H; Chuang, R Y

    2001-01-01

    Opioids such as morphine are potent analgesic and addictive compounds. Chronic morphine use also induces immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, as especially evident in HIV-infected patients. Morphine acts on the immune cells primarily through its binding to mu-opioid receptors on the plasma membrane. However, morphine modulation of immune functions still exists in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, suggesting that in addition to the mu opioid receptors, morphine may also act by mechanisms mediated by either delta or kappa opioid receptors. To determine whether morphine activates kappa opioid receptors (KOR), a quantitative competitive RT-PCR procedure was utilized to quantify the KOR gene expression of morphine-treated cells. A segment of KOR transcript spanning the second extracellular loop, which has the reported dynorphin specificity, and the seventh transmembrane domain of the receptor was amplified from the total RNA of morphine-treated CEM x174 lymphocytes, along with a competitor molecule. The competitor was constructed by deleting a 33-nucleotide fragment from KOR. The results of the competitive RT/PCR indicated that CEM x174 cells expressed KOR mRNA constitutively, in the order of femto-grams. Treatment of 10 microM of morphine resulted in the up-regulation of KOR gene expression 24 hr post-treatment. The observed morphine effect could be reversed by treating the cells with either naloxone (a KOR-partially selective antagonist) or nor-Binaltorphimine (a KOR-selective antagonist). PMID:11727785

  13. Time Dependent Antinociceptive Effects of Morphine and Tramadol in the Hot Plate Test: Using Different Methods of Drug Administration in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Morteza; Saboory, Ehsan; Mehraban, Sogol; Niakani, Afsaneh; Banihabib, Nafiseh; Azad, Mohamad-Reza; Fereidoni, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Morphine and tramadol which have analgesic effects can be administered acutely or chronically. This study tried to investigate the effect of these drugs at various times by using different methods of administration (intraperitoneal, oral, acute and chronic). Sixty adult female rats were divided into six groups. They received saline, morphine or tramadol (20 to 125 mg/Kg) daily for 15 days. A hot plate test was performed for the rats at the 1st, 8th and 15th days. After drug withdrawal, the hot plate test was repeated at the 17th, 19th, and 22nd days. There was a significant correlation between the day, drug, group, and their interaction (P<0.001). At 1st day (d1), both morphine, and tramadol caused an increase in the hot plate time comparing to the saline groups (P<0.001), while there was no correlation between drug administration methods of morphine and/or tramadol. At the 8th day (d8), morphine and tramadol led to the most powerful analgesic effect comparing to the other experimental days (P<0.001). At the 15th day (d15), their effects diminished comparing to the d8. After drug withdrawal, analgesic effect of morphine, and tramadol disappeared. It can be concluded that the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol increases with the repeated use of them. Thereafter, it may gradually decrease and reach to a level compatible to d1. The present data also indicated that although the analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol is dose-and-time dependent, but chronic exposure to them may not lead to altered nociceptive responses later in life. PMID:25561936

  14. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of acyclovir sustained-release tablets in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Hu, Qin

    2006-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of acyclovir sustained-release tablets in dogs were investigated. Blood concentrations of acyclovir were determined by RP-HPLC after a single oral dose of two kinds of acyclovir tablets given separately to 6 beagle dogs. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of the acyclovir sustained-release tablet were as follows: T1/2, Tmax and Cmax were 4.10 +/- 0.20 h, 4.05 +/- 0.54 h and 6.90 +/- 0.68 [microg x ml(-1), respectively. MRT was 9.02 +/- 0.44 h. Using acyclovir standard tablet as control, relative bioavailability of the acyclovir sustained-release tablet was 152.2 +/- 49.90%. According to the two-tailed t-test, there was a distinct difference in the data for Tmax, Cmax and AUC between acyclovir sustained-release tablets and acyclovir standard tablets, and the absorbability of acyclovir sustained-release tablets was much better than that of the acyclovir standard tablets. PMID:16715778

  15. Regulation of dopaminergic markers expression in response to acute and chronic morphine and to morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Daniel; Núñez, Cristina; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Dopamine (DA) is thought to represent a teaching signal and has been implicated in the induction of addictive behaviours. Dysfunction of DA homeostasis leading to high or low DA levels is causally linked to addiction. Previously, it has been proposed that the transcription factors Nurr1 and Pitx3, which are critical for transcription of a set of genes involved in DA metabolism in the mesolimbic pathway, are associated with addiction pathology. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence and Western blotting, we studied the effects of single morphine administration, morphine dependence and withdrawal on the DA markers DA transporters (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT2) and DA 2 receptor subtype (DRD2), DA 1 receptor subtype as well as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition, Nurr1 and Pitx3 expression was also measured. Present data showed a high degree of colocalization of Nurr1 and Pitx3 with TH(+) neurons in the VTA. We found that the increased Nurr1 and/or Pitx3 levels during morphine dependence and in morphine-withdrawn rats were associated to an increase of DAT, VMAT2 and DRD2. Altogether, present data indicate that morphine dependence and withdrawal induced consistent alterations of most of the DA markers, which was correlated with transcription factors involved in the maintenance of DA neurons in drug-reward pathways, suggesting that Nurr1 and Pitx3 regulation might be associated with controlling adaptation to chronic morphine and to morphine withdrawal-induced alterations of DA neurons activity in the mesolimbic pathway. PMID:25522207

  16. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  17. Fentanyl buccal tablet.

    PubMed

    Messina, John; Darwish, Mona; Fine, Perry G

    2008-01-01

    Studies of populations with chronic cancer pain have shown a high prevalence of breakthrough pain (BTP), defined as transitory, severe flares of pain that occur on a background of otherwise controlled, persistent pain. High BTP prevalence rates have also been reported in patients with chronic noncancer pain, although data in these patient populations are more limited. The incidence of BTP appears to be associated with progression of chronic disease, with more than 80% of patients reporting BTP with far-advanced, end-stage cancer and noncancer terminal conditions (1). The most widely accepted therapeutic approach for the management of BTP involves use of short-acting opioids taken as needed in addition to the around-the-clock opioid regimen being used for the continuous component of the persistent pain syndrome. For some patients, an optimal treatment outcome for BTP may be unattainable because of a mismatch between the time course of the BTP episode and the onset of analgesia of short-acting opioids. Breakthrough pain typically reaches peak intensity within a few minutes, whereas the onset of analgesia with traditional, orally administered short-acting opioids is between 30 and 60 minutes (2-7). Consequently, treatment outcomes for BTP are likely to be improved with agents that have a more rapid onset of analgesia. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is a new formulation of fentanyl indicated for the management of BTP in patients with cancer who are already receiving, and who are tolerant to, opioid therapy for their underlying persistent cancer pain. The FBT formulation uses OraVescent (Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA) drug delivery technology to provide rapid absorption of fentanyl through the buccal mucosa. In pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers, FBT demonstrated high, early systemic absorption. In addition, FBT delivered a larger proportion of the fentanyl dose transmucosally and produced a greater early systemic exposure than oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC), which is also indicated for the management of BTP in opioid-tolerant cancer patients. A number of short-term studies have evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of FBT in the management of BTP in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic pain. All these studies included an open-label dose-titration phase prior to randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind treatment. Pain Intensity of a BTP episode was measured using an 11-point scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain), and the primary outcome measure was the Summed Pain Intensity Difference (SPID) at a specified time point. Secondary efficacy measures included Pain Relief, Pain Intensity Differences, and the proportion of BTP episodes demonstrating >or=33% and >or=50% improvement in Pain Intensity scores at each time point postdose, and the proportion of BTP episodes requiring supplemental medication. In a pivotal study of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related chronic pain and BTP, the primary outcome measure, SPID at 30 minutes (SPID(30)), significantly favored FBT compared with placebo (mean +/- SE: 3.0 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.18, p<0.0001). Better efficacy was also observed with FBT compared with placebo for pain relief, Pain Intensity Differences, and the proportion of episodes showing >or=33% and >or=50% improvement in Pain Intensity Scores. Treatment with FBT was generally well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and typical of those associated with opioid use (e.g., nausea, dizziness) (8). Similar results have been observed in studies of opioid-tolerant patients with BTP in association with noncancer-related chronic pain. In a study of patients with chronic low back pain, the primary outcome measure, SPID(60), significantly favored FBT over placebo (mean +/- SE: 8.3 +/- 0.66 vs. 3.6 +/- 0.57, p <0.0001). All secondary efficacy measures were similarly improved, with Pain Intensity Differences and Pain Relief scores showing significant differences versus placebo as early as 10 and 15 minutes, respectively. As in the study of cancer patient

  18. [Sanhuang tablets research].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-zhe; Chen, Da-wei

    2007-09-01

    Sanhuang tablets is one of common traditional Chinese patent preparation, it has effects of clear fever, detoxifcation, dispel inflammation, purgation. It was contained in the ministerial standards of Ministry of Health in 1997, and was contained in Chinese pharmacopoeia version 1 of 2000 and 2005. Its improvement of dosage form, preparation technique, quality analysis, pharmacology and clinical usage were reviewed in this paper. PMID:17993010

  19. Acetylcholine antirelease effect of morphine and its modification by calcium.

    PubMed

    Sanfaon, G; Labrecque, G

    1977-12-19

    The effects of morphine (10 mg/kg) and calcium (10 mg/kg) were studied on the neocortical release of acetylcholine (ACh) in ketamine-anesthetized rats. Morphine decreased ACh release as measured by the dorsal leech muscle as well as by an enzymatic assay. Calcium was ineffective alone but antagonized the action of morphine. This study supports the hypothesis that the ACh antirelease action of narcotics is mediated through an interaction with calcium. PMID:414274

  20. Intravenous Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Morphine in Recreational Opioid Users: Abuse Potential and Relative Potencies

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Hatton, Kevin W.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Nonmedical use and abuse of prescription opioids is an increasing public health problem. Intravenous (IV) administration of opioid analgesics intended for oral use is not uncommon, yet little is known about the relative abuse potential of these drugs when administered intravenously to recreational opioid abusers without physical dependence. Methods This inpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential of IV doses of oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine. Nine healthy adult participants reporting recreational opioid use and histories of IV opioid use completed 11 experimental sessions, including one active-dose practice session. IV doses were infused over 5-min and included three identical doses of each opioid (5, 10 and 20 mg/10 ml) and saline placebo. Physiological, subjective and performance effects were collected before and for 6 h after drug administration. Results All three opioids produced prototypical mu agonist effects (e.g., miosis; increased ratings of liking) that were generally dose-related. Pharmacodynamic effects were observed within 5 min of IV administration. Physiological effects were more prolonged than subjective effects for all three drugs. While the magnitude of effects was generally comparable across drugs and qualitatively similar, valid potency assays indicated the following potency relationship: oxycodone > morphine > hydrocodone. Conclusions There were modest potency differences between oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine, but their overall profile of effects was similar, indicating significant abuse potential when administered intravenously. PMID:20665209

  1. The Neurodevelopmental Impact of Neonatal Morphine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Attarian, Stephanie; Tran, Lan Chi; Moore, Aimee; Stanton, George; Meyer, Eric; Moore, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Medical management of newborn infants often necessitates recurrent painful procedures, which may alter nociceptive pathways during a critical developmental period and adversely effect neuropsychological outcomes. To mitigate the effects of repeated painful stimuli, opioid administration for peri-procedural analgesia and ICU (intensive care unit) sedation is common in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit). A growing body of basic and animal evidence suggests potential long-term harm associated with neonatal opioid therapy. Morphine increases apoptosis in human microglial cells, and animal studies demonstrate long-term changes in behavior, brain function, and spatial recognition memory following morphine exposure. This comprehensive review examines existing preclinical and clinical evidence on the long-term impacts of neonatal pain and opioid therapy. PMID:24961764

  2. An open-label, randomized bioavailability study with alternative methods of administration of crushed ticagrelor tablets in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Renli; Carlson, Glenn; Hsia, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric tube into the stomach, with a minimum 7-day wash-out between treatments. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48hours post-ticagrelor dose for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety and tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: At 0.5hours postdose, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were higher with crushed tablets administered orally (148.6ng/mL and 13.0ng/mL, respectively) or via nasogastric tube (264.6ng/mL and 28.6ng/mL, respectively) compared with whole-tablet administration (33.3ng/mL and 5.2ng/mL, respectively). A similar trend was observed at 1hour postdose. Ticagrelor tmax was shorter following crushed vs. whole-tablet administration (1 vs. 2 hours, respectively). Geometric mean ratios between treatments for AUC and Cmax were contained within the bioequivalence limits of 80125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Ticagrelor administered as a crushed tablet is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration, independent of mode of administration (oral or via nasogastric tube), and resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX at early timepoints. PMID:25500486

  3. Effect of morphine on PC12 cells with molecular radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chen; Yu, Xiaoli; Lu, Jiuyi; Zhang, Chunyang; Jin, Lei; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Dacheng; Chen, Die Yan

    2000-10-01

    Molecular Radar (MR) is a new method to detect biological processes in living cells at the level of molecular, it is also the newest means to get intracellular information. In this paper we study the effect of morphine on PC12 cells using MR. The results show that the effect of morphine on PC12 cells is time- and concentration-dependent. Morphine treating for short time induces the increase and fluctuation of intracellular (CA2+), while morphine treating for long time induces chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondria membrane potential apoptosis.

  4. Pediatric drugs--a review of commercially available oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Strickley, Robert G; Iwata, Quynh; Wu, Sylvia; Dahl, Terrence C

    2008-05-01

    Pediatric oral formulations can be quite scientifically challenging to develop and the prerequisites for both a measurable dosage form to administer based upon bodyweight, and also taste-masking are two of the challenges unique for pediatric oral formulations. The physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the active drug substance such as solubility, chemical stability, and taste along with the intended dose can determine which formulations are feasible to develop. Oral pediatric formulations are available in 17 different varieties and can be either a ready-to-use formulation such as a solution, syrup, suspension, tablet, scored tablet, chewable tablet, orally disintegrating tablet, or thin strip, or can also be a formulation that requires manipulation such as a powder for constitution to a suspension, tablet for constitution to a suspension, powder for constitution to a solution, drops for reconstitution to a suspension, concentrated solution for dilution, effervescent tablet, bulk oral granules, bulk oral powder, or solid in a capsule to mix with food or drink. Recently there has been an increase in pediatric formulation development inspired by increased regulatory incentives. The intent of this review is to educate the reader on the various types of formulations administered orally to pediatrics, the rationale in deciding which type of formulation to develop, the excipients used, development challenges, the in-use handling of oral pediatric formulations, and the regulatory incentives. PMID:17823956

  5. Formulation and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Someshwar, Komuravelly; Chithaluru, Kalyani; Ramarao, Tadikonda; Kumar, K K Kalyan

    2011-06-01

    Tizanidine hydrochloride is an orally administered prokinetic agent that facilitates or restores motility through-out the length of the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present investigation was to develop effervescent floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34-40 %) and short biological half life (4.2 h). Tablets were prepared by the direct compression method, using different viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M, K15M and K100M). Tablets were evaluated for various physical parameters and floating properties. Further, tablets were studied for in vitro drug release characteristics in 12 hours. Drug release from effervescent floating matrix tablets was sustained over 12 h with buoyant properties. DSC study revealed that there is no drug excipient interaction. Based on the release kinetics, all formulations best fitted the Higuchi, first-order model and non-Fickian as the mechanism of drug release. Optimized formulation (F9) was selected based on the similarity factor (f2) (74.2), dissolution efficiency at 2, 6 and 8 h, and t50 (5.4 h) and was used in radiographic studies by incorporating BaSO4. In vivo X-ray studies in human volunteers showed that the mean gastric residence time was 6.2 0.2 h. PMID:21684848

  6. Cingulate metabolites during pain and morphine treatment as assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Tine Maria; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Simonsen, Carsten Wiberg; Drewes, Asbjrn Mohr; Frkjr, Jens Brndum

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental investigation of cerebral mechanisms underlying pain and analgesia are important in the development of methods for diagnosis and treatment of pain. The aim of the current study was to explore brain metabolites in response to pain and treatment with morphine. Methods Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate cortex was performed in 20 healthy volunteers (13 males and seven females, aged 24.92.6 years) during rest and acute pain before and during treatment with 30 mg of oral morphine or placebo in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study design. Pain was evoked by skin stimulation applied to the right upper leg using a contact heat-evoked potential stimulator. Results Data from 12 subjects were valid for analysis. Painful stimulation induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate/creatine compared with rest (F=5.5, P=0.04). During treatment with morphine, painful stimulation induced decreased glutamate/creatine (F=7.3, P=0.02), myo-inositol/creatine (F=8.38, P=0.02), and N-acetylaspartate/creatine (F=13.8, P=0.004) concentrations, whereas an increase in the pain-evoked N-acetylaspartate/creatine concentration (F=6.1, P=0.04) was seen during treatment with placebo. Conclusion This explorative study indicates that neuronal metabolites in the anterior cingulate cortex, such as N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, and myo-inositol, could be related to the physiology of pain and treatment with morphine. This experimental method has the potential to enable the study of brain metabolites involved in pain and its treatment, and may in the future be used to provide further insight into these mechanisms. PMID:24899823

  7. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of nimodipine capsules and tablets in 8 Chinese healthy men.

    PubMed

    Guo, L Q; Tan, H S; Chen, G

    1993-07-01

    A single oral dose of tablets or capsules of 239 mumol nimodipine was given to 8 healthy volunteers of Han nationality in a randomized crossover study. Plasma levels were determined with HPLC method. The plasma concentration-time curve fitted to a first order absorption, 1-compartment open model, and the T1/2K was around 2 h. Although the capsules could reach peak level faster, the bioavailability was not significantly different from that of the tablets. PMID:8249618

  8. Solid self-microemulsifying dispersible tablets of celastrol: formulation development, charaterization and bioavailability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Jiayi; Ma, Ning; Chou, Xiaohua; Wu, Zhenghong

    2014-09-10

    The aims of this study were to choose a suitable adsorbent of self-microemulsion and to develop a fine solid self-microemulsifying dispersible tablets for promoting the dissolution and oral bioavailability of celastrol. Solubility test, self-emulsifying grading test, droplet size analysis and ternary phase diagrams test were performed to screen and optimize the composition of liquid celastrol self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). Then microcrystalline cellulose KG 802 was added as a suitable adsorbent into the optimized liquid celastrol-SMEDDS formulation to prepare the dispersible tablets by wet granulation compression method. The optimized formulation of celastrol-SMEDDS dispersible tablets was finally determinated by the feasibility of the preparing process and redispersibility. The in vitro study showed that the dispersible tablets could disperse in the dispersion medium within 3 min with the average particle size of 25.32 3.26 nm. In vivo pharmacokinetic experiments of rats, the relative bioavailability of celastrol SMEDDS and SMEDDS dispersible tablets compared to the 0.4% CMC-Na suspension was 569 7.07% and 558 6.77%, respectively, while there were no significant difference between the SMEDDS and SMEDDS dispersible tablets. The results suggest the potential use of SMEDDS dispersible tablets for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble terpenes drugs, such as celastrol. PMID:24929011

  9. Fluctuations in plasma levodopa and motor responses with liquid and tablet levodopa/carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Metman, L V; Hoff, J; Mouradian, M M; Chase, T N

    1994-07-01

    To evaluate the ability of orally administered liquid levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD) to stabilize plasma levodopa levels and reduce motor response fluctuations in Parkinson's disease, five patients received LD/CD hourly, as standard tablets or as an aqueous solution on two separate days in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Except for a slightly earlier peak plasma levodopa level, no significant advantage of the liquid formulation over tablet therapy was found. However, liquid LD/CD could be helpful in quickly resolving "off" states and by facilitating small dose adjustments that are not possible with tablets. PMID:7969216

  10. Pharmacokinetics study of bio-adhesive tablet of Panax notoginseng saponins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) is the main active gradient of Chinese traditional medicine Panax notoginseng. Although its prominent therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated by various researchers, the broader application is restricted by the low bioavailability of PNS. This article aims to discuss PNS's plasma pharmacokinetics after oral administration of bio-adhesive tablet of PNS to beagle dogs and improve its bioavailability in comparison with normal tablet. The bio-adhesive tablet was prepared according to our previous patent, using chitosan as main excipient. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the analysis of PNS in dog's plasma was developed in our previous study, and was validated to apply in the pharmacokinetics study in this work. Three ingredients: Notoginsenoside R1 (R1), Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) (Figure 1), were chosen as indicators of PNS to analyze it in vivo. Statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in pharmacokinetic parameters of PNS including AUC and Tmax for R1, Rg1 and Rb1, Cmax for R1 and Rb1, MRT for Rg1 were obtained after oral administration of bio-adhesive tablet of PNS comparing with its normal tablet. The formulation modification of using chitosan to prepare bio-adhesive tablet for oral administration is effective in improving the bioavailability of PNS, thereby enhancing its potential therapeutic effect and broadening its clinical application. PMID:21658246

  11. Morphine, but not Trauma, Sensitizes to Systemic Acinetobacter baumannii Infection

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Jessica M.; Monroy, M. Alexandra; Daly, John M.; Meissler, Joseph J.; Gaughan, John; Adler, Martin W.; Eisenstein, Toby K.

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen in civilian intensive care units. Recently the incidence has increased in wounded military personnel. Morphine is documented in numerous animal studies to be immunosuppressive and to sensitize to infection. The hypotheses were tested that morphine, administered for analgesia in the battlefield, predisposes to Acinetobacter infection, and that the opioid may have an additive or synergistic effect with trauma. To test these hypotheses, an intraperitoneal infection model was established in mice using several Acinetobacter strains. Morphine administered for 48 hr by implantation of a slow-release morphine pellet increased mortality compared to animals receiving a placebo pellet, an effect that was blocked by the mu-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone. Acinetobacter burdens in the blood, spleens, livers, and lungs of morphine-treated mice, were significantly higher than those in placebo-treated animals, confirming that mortality was due to potentiated growth of the bacteria. There were also elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in morphine-treated versus placebo-treated mice. Morphine caused a reduction in the total number of cells in the peritoneal cavity, a decrease in the percentage and total numbers of neutrophils, and a decrease in the total number of macrophages. Morphine treatment also suppressed levels of the neutrophil-inducing molecules, IL-17A and KC/CXCL1. However, IL-17A?/? mice given morphine were not sensitized to Acintobacter infection to a greater degree than similarly treated wild-type mice. Trauma alone did not sensitize to Acinetobacter infection, and there was no additive effect between morphine and trauma. These results support the hypothesis that morphine potentiates Acinetobacter infection. PMID:21826405

  12. Novel levocetirizine HCl tablets with enhanced palatability: synergistic effect of combining taste modifiers and effervescence technique

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Gihan S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Levocetirizine HCl, a second-generation piperazine derivative and H1-selective antihistaminic agent, possesses few side effects. The first objective of the study was to compare and evaluate the taste-masking effect of different ratios of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and mannitol on levocetirizine HCl using an inclusion complex and solid dispersion, respectively. The second objective was to study the possibility of preparing and evaluating effervescent tablets from the best-chosen taste-masked blends for the purpose of their use either as orodispersible tablets or as water-soluble effervescent tablets, according to patients’ will. Materials and methods Prepared taste-masked blends were prepared and subjected to palatability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Tablets containing different percentages of effervescent mixtures were prepared by direct compression on the selected taste-modified blends. Evaluation tests were conducted, including flowability and compressibility on the precompressed blends and hardness, friability, wetting time, effervescent time, in vitro, in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution study on the compressed tablets. Formulated tablets were evaluated and compared to marketed orodispersible tablets for mouth feel and palatability. Results All prepared tablets showed convenient physical and palatability properties compared to the selected brand. The in vitro drug-release study revealed fast release of levocetirizine HCl within 5 minutes from all prepared tablets. Conclusion Levocetirizine HCl effervescent tablets are likely to increase patient compliance with drug administration. Moreover, the use of these effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form. PMID:26379426

  13. The Comparison of Intrathecal Morphine and IV Morphine PCA on Pain Control, Patient Satisfaction, Morphine Consumption, and Adverse Effects in Patients Undergoing Reduction Mammoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akdağ, Osman; Kara, İnci; Yıldıran, Gokce Unal; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following breast reduction procedures, the level of postoperative pain can be severe, and sufficient pain control influences a patient's physiological, immunological, and psychological status. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the use of intrathecal morphine (ITM) in breast reduction surgery with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Methods: Sixty-two female patients who underwent breast reductions with the same technique participated in this study. The study group (ITM + PCA) included 32 patients; a single shot (0.2 mg) of ITM and intravenous morphine with PCA were administered. In the control group, morphine PCA alone was intravenously administered to 30 patients. Comparisons between the groups of cumulative morphine consumption, visual analog scale scores, and patient satisfaction scores, which were the primary outcome measures, and adverse effects, which were the secondary outcome measures, were conducted. Results: The patients in the 2 groups had similar degrees of pain and satisfaction scores. The study group had lower cumulative morphine consumption (P = .001) than the PCA-only control group; there was no statistically significant difference in adverse effects between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Intrathecal morphine may effectively control pain with lower total morphine consumption following breast reduction surgery. PMID:25987940

  14. Development of tablets containing probiotics: Effects of formulation and processing parameters on bacterial viability.

    PubMed

    Klayraung, Srikanjana; Viernstein, Helmut; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2009-03-31

    The probiotic products available in the market nowadays are mostly in the form of liquid or semisolid formulations which show low cell viability after oral administration, mainly because the bacteria do not survive the harsh conditions in the stomach. The development of suitable dry dosage forms enable higher bacterial survival and consequently is the main aim of the present study. An anticipated advantage is that due to the low water-activity lyophilized bacterial cells will preserve their viability. Further, by a proper selection of a tablet forming matrix, it is foreseen that the entrapped bacteria are protected against the low pH in the stomach. In this study, the effects on bacterial survival in tablets were investigated concerning compression force, matrix forming excipients such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) or other swelling agents. The results showed that the proportion of matrix forming excipients in tablets and the compression force affected the properties of probiotic tablets in terms of tensile strength and disintegration as well as the survival of the bacteria. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase of HPMCP content. Tablets manufactured with high compression force showed a slow disintegration time and high bacterial cell viability (more than 80%). Incorporation of sodium alginate in the tablets resulted in higher cell survival in simulated GI fluid (>90%) and a suitable disintegration time (approximately 5h). By a proper design of the formulation, tablets with a fast disintegration time and a high preservation of bacterial cell viability were developed. PMID:19059323

  15. Evaluation of binders in the preparation of medicinal carbon tablets by wet granule compression.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akihiko; Onishi, Hiraku; Yamamoto, Kenta; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2006-04-01

    Medicinal carbon (MC) tablets were prepared to obtain an oral dosage form that can be easily taken. The MC tablets were made by the wet granule compression method, in which hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC-Na) and maltitol (MT) were applied as binders. Brilliant Blue FCF (BB) was used as a model drug. The binders were evaluated in terms of formability of the granules and tablets, their strength, disintegration of the tablets, and their effect on the adsorption potential of MC. HPC and CMC-Na gave the strong granules at a fairly low concentration, but more MT was needed to obtain the strong granules. The tablets could be formed only when using MT at 120% (w/w) of the MC amount. The tablet displayed good hardness and rapid disintegration. The adsorption potential was not affected by CMC-Na, and slightly prevented by MT. However, the adsorption ability of MC was lowered more with the increase in HPC. The granules and tablets exhibited similar adsorption potentials, which were a little lower than that of MC suspended in MT aqueous solution. Similar adsorption characteristics were also observed in a real drug, acetaminophen. It is suggested that the MC tablets prepared by the wet granule compression using MT as a binder should be useful as a compact dosage form of MC. PMID:16596024

  16. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of a novel sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablet formulation in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Hjelmstrm, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context Bitter taste, as well as dissolve time, presents a significant challenge for the acceptability of formulations for oral transmucosal drug delivery. Objective To characterize a novel sublingual tablet formulation of buprenorphine/naloxone with regards to pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and formulation acceptability. Methods Dry mixing techniques were employed to produce a small and fast dissolving buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet formulation, OX219 (Zubsolv), using sucralose and menthol as sweetener and flavor to mask the bitter taste of the active ingredients. Two cross-over studies were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and acceptability of OX219 5.7/1.4?mg tablets compared to the commercially available buprenorphine/naloxone formulations Suboxone tablets and films (8/2?mg). Results Buprenorphine exposure was equivalent in OX219 and Suboxone tablets. Sublingual dissolve times were significantly shorter for OX219 than for Suboxone tablets and were similar to Suboxone films. The OX219 formulation received significantly higher subjective ratings for taste and overall acceptability than both Suboxone formulations. OX219 was preferred over Suboxone tablet and film formulations by 77.4% and 88.9% of subjects, respectively. Conclusions A sublingual tablet formulation with an improved acceptability has been successfully developed. PMID:24099551

  17. Assessing Student Writing on Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Orr, Aline; Kong, Xiaojing; Lin, Chow-Hong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing expectation that schools should be able to use tablets for a range of instructional and assessment purposes. This article considers the comparability of student writing on tablets and laptops to ensure that writing assessment is conducted in a way that is fair to all students. Data were collected from a sample of 826 students

  18. Assessing Student Writing on Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Orr, Aline; Kong, Xiaojing; Lin, Chow-Hong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing expectation that schools should be able to use tablets for a range of instructional and assessment purposes. This article considers the comparability of student writing on tablets and laptops to ensure that writing assessment is conducted in a way that is fair to all students. Data were collected from a sample of 826 students…

  19. Tablet PCs: The Write Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

  20. Dissolution testing of nitroglycerin tablets.

    PubMed

    Gaglia, C A; Lomner, J J; Leonard, B L; Chafetz, L

    1976-11-01

    The available types of dissolution testing apparatus for tablets and capsules are inapplicable to sublingual tablets, since these tablets are formulated to release their drug content within minutes in a small volume of fluid. A simple dissolution test method was developed for nitroglycerin tablets based on the reduction of nitroglycerin at a rotating platinum electrode, which provides reproducible stirring. The system provides instantaneous and continuous measurement of dissolved nitroglycerin in a small constant volume of buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution over a period of seconds to several minutes, when reduction is complete as shown by the current-time curve. Since the height of the curve is directly proportional to the amount of nitroglycerin in solution, the method also can be used to determine the drug content of individual tablets. PMID:825635

  1. Morphine delays and attenuates ticagrelor exposure and action in patients with myocardial infarction: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled IMPRESSION trial

    PubMed Central

    Kubica, Jacek; Adamski, Piotr; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Sikora, Joanna; Kubica, Julia Maria; Sroka, Wiktor Dariusz; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Buszko, Katarzyna; Navarese, Eliano Pio; Jilma, Bernd; Siller-Matula, Jolanta Maria; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Rość, Danuta; Koziński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Aims The currently available data indicate a drug–drug interaction between morphine and oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, when administered together. The aim of this trial was to assess the influence of infused morphine on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AR-C124910XX) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods and results In a single-centre, randomized, double-blind trial, patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenously either morphine (5 mg) or placebo, followed by a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor. Pharmacokinetics was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and ticagrelor antiplatelet effects were measured with up to three different platelet function tests: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay, multiple electrode aggregometry and VerifyNow. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment was performed in 70 patients (35 in each study group). Morphine lowered the total exposure to ticagrelor and its active metabolite by 36% (AUC(0–12): 6307 vs. 9791 ng h/mL; P = 0.003), and 37% (AUC(0–12): 1503 vs. 2388 ng h/mL; P = 0.008), respectively, with a concomitant delay in maximal plasma concentration of ticagrelor (4 vs. 2 h; P = 0.004). Multiple regression analysis showed that lower AUC(0–12) values for ticagrelor were independently associated with the administration of morphine (P = 0.004) and the presence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (P = 0.014). All three methods of platelet reactivity assessment showed a stronger antiplatelet effect in the placebo group and a greater prevalence of high platelet reactivity in patients receiving morphine. Conclusions Morphine delays and attenuates ticagrelor exposure and action in patients with myocardial infarction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02217878. PMID:26491112

  2. Sedation in intensive care: morphine and renal function.

    PubMed

    Bion, J F; Logan, B K; Newman, P M; Brodie, M J; Oliver, J S; Aitchison, T C; Ledingham, I M

    1986-01-01

    Intravenous morphine infusions have been administered to 12 critically-ill patients during controlled ventilation. Acute oliguric renal failure was present in 4 patients, who were treated with a combination of haemofiltration and haemodialysis. Severity of physiological disturbance was assessed using a modified APACHE Score, level of sedation by a linear-analogue scale, and blood morphine levels by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Morphine clearance was impaired in renal failure, and was dependent on haemofiltration volumes; accumulation of morphine did not occur during this form of treatment. Conscious level was clearly more closely related to the degree of physiological disturbance than blood morphine levels; and for a given blood morphine level, depression of consciousness was more pronounced the greater the degree of physiological disturbance. Use of a physiological sickness score may help to clarify some of the factors influencing cerebral function during critical illness. Careful clinical monitoring of level of sedation is important in patients with oliguric renal failure receiving morphine, and haemofiltration appears to reduce the risk of morphine accumulation in these patients. PMID:3771914

  3. Tests for addiction (chronic intoxication) of morphine type

    PubMed Central

    Halbach, H.; Eddy, Nathan B.

    1963-01-01

    A survey is presented of laboratory and clinical methods for the determination of addiction liability of substances with morphine-like effects. Since physical dependence is the outstanding pharmacological criterion of addiction of morphine type, the procedures for its qualitative and quantitative assessment are described in detail. PMID:13952049

  4. Research studies on the quality of bio-mucoadhesive tablets containing miconazole nitrate.

    PubMed

    Birsan, Magdalena; Popovici, Iuliana; Palade, Laura; Cojocaru, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    Biomucoadhesive tablets are widely used to formulate topical antifungal drugs for treating acute oral candidiasis. The research focuses on the pharmaco-technological control of certain bio-mucoadhesive tablets containing miconazole nitrate, formulas developed and prepared by the authors based on the original formulas. The analyzed parameters were: macroscopic aspect, physical-chemical (pH) and pharmacotechnical properties (hardness, friability, mass uniformity, in vitro disintegration).The used methods are described in literature, most of them included in the Romanian and European Pharmacopoeia. The obtained results allow us to conclude that of the five original formulas, two (formulas IV and V) meet the criteria for oral mucosa drug by their tolerance (pH 5.77 to 5.84) and retention time (65-90 min.), the intimate contact of the tablet with the oral mucosa determining a high concentration of active substance. PMID:24505925

  5. Invitro morphine metabolism by rat microglia.

    PubMed

    Togna, Anna Rita; Antonilli, Letizia; Dovizio, Melania; Salemme, Adele; De Carolis, Lorenza; Togna, Giuseppina I; Patrignani, Paola; Nencini, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Morphine is mainly transformed to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in the liver. Glucuronidation is also performed by rat brain homogenates and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are present in the brain. Here we investigated the possibility that microglia transforms morphine into its metabolites M3G and M6G. Primary cultures of neonatal rat microglia were incubated for different intervals of time in basal conditions or with different concentrations of morphine. The following measures were performed on these cultures and/or in the medium: (i) morphine as well as M3G and M6G concentrations; (ii) levels of mRNA coding for UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, and UGT2B1 as well as their protein levels; (iii) released prostaglandin (PG)E2 and nitrite concentrations. Results show that in basal conditions morphine and M3G are produced by microglia; accordingly, these cells expressed UGT1A1, UGT1A6 and UGT1A7, but not UGT2B1. When cultures were exposed to different concentrations of exogenous morphine, M6G was also synthesized. This shift in the glucuronidation was associated with variations in the expression of UGT isozymes. In particular, UGT1A7 expression was rapidly upregulated and this event was translated into enhanced protein levels of UGT1A7; lesser effects were exerted on UGT1A1 and UGT1A6. Upon prolonged exposure to morphine, microglial cell UGT expression returned to baseline conditions or even to reduced levels of expression. Morphine exposure did not affect the synthesis of both PGE2 and nitrites, ruling out a generalized priming of microglia by morphine. In conclusion, this study suggests that morphine glucuronides found in the cerebrospinal liquor upon peripheral morphine administration may at least in part be brain-born, reconciling the conceptual gap between the high hydrophilic features of morphine glucuronides and their presence beyond the blood-brain barrier. PMID:23988259

  6. Orodispersible tablets: A new trend in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Dey, Paramita; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2010-07-01

    The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug-delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other oral formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to super disintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper peroral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method of preparation is the compression method. Other special methods are molding, melt granulation, phase-transition process, sublimation, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and effervescent method. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test, and dissolution test. PMID:22096326

  7. A Traditional Chinese Medicine Xiao-Ai-Tong Suppresses Pain through Modulation of Cytokines and Prevents Adverse Reactions of Morphine Treatment in Bone Cancer Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yan; Sun, Kefu; He, Xueming; Li, Jinxuan; Dong, Yanbin; Zheng, Bin; Tan, Xiao; Song, Xue-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Treating cancer pain continues to possess a major challenge. Here, we report that a traditional Chinese medicine Xiao-Ai-Tong (XAT) can effectively suppress pain and adverse reactions following morphine treatment in patients with bone cancer pain. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used for patient's self-evaluation of pain intensity and evaluating changes of adverse reactions including constipation, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia, respectively, before and after treatment prescriptions. The clinical trials showed that repetitive oral administration of XAT (200?mL, bid, for 7 consecutive days) alone greatly reduced cancer pain. Repetitive treatment with a combination of XAT and morphine (20?mg and 30?mg, resp.) produced significant synergistic analgesic effects. Meanwhile, XAT greatly reduced the adverse reactions associated with cancer and/or morphine treatment. In addition, XAT treatment significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? and increased the endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in blood. These findings demonstrate that XAT can effectively reduce bone cancer pain probably mediated by the cytokine mechanisms, facilitate analgesic effect of morphine, and prevent or reduce the associated adverse reactions, supporting a use of XAT, alone or with morphine, in treating bone cancer pain in clinic. PMID:26617438

  8. Synthetic substances with morphine-like effect*

    PubMed Central

    Braenden, Olav J.; Wolff, P. O.

    1954-01-01

    As a basis for a series of studies on the pharmacological, therapeutic, and addictive properties of synthetic drugs with morphine-like effect, this paper deals with chemical aspects of the compounds of this type so far known. Four major groups, each with a fundamentally different chemical structure, are described: pethidine, methadone, morphinan, and dithienylbutenylamine. For each substance belonging to these groups, the formula, synonyms, and methods of synthesis are indicated. A description of pethidine according to the specifications of the Pharmacopoea Internationalis is annexed to the paper. PMID:13199662

  9. Potentiation of morphine analgesia by caffeine.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, A. L.; Pontani, R. B.; Vadlamani, N. L.

    1985-01-01

    Significant potentiation of morphine (5 mg kg-1 s.c. or 1 mg kg-1 i.v.) analgesia (tail-withdrawal reflex at 55 degrees C) was observed in caffeine-treated (100 mg kg-1 i.p.) rats as compared to the control group and lower doses of caffeine (2mg kg-1 i.p.) did not show this effect. Potentiated analgesia was reversed by naloxone. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors appear to be involved in part in this potentiation. PMID:4005485

  10. Differential effects of oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine on the responses of D2/D3 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Emery, Michael A; Bates, M L Shawn; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2015-05-01

    Oxycodone and hydrocodone are opioids which are widely used for pain management and are also commonly misused and abused. The exposure to opioid analgesics has been associated with altered responses of D2-like dopamine receptors (D2DRs). Our recent results suggest that various opioids will differentially modulate the responses of D2DRs. The D2DRs are known to be involved in the pathology of addiction and other mental illnesses, indicating the need to improve our understanding of the effects of opioid analgesics on the responses of the D2DRs. Thus, in this study, we first established equianalgesic oral doses of oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine using the tail withdrawal assay. Then, mice were orally administered (gavage) with the various opioids or saline once daily for 6 days. Twenty-four hours later, the mice were tested for their locomotor response to quinpirole, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist. Mice pretreated with oxycodone showed significantly greater locomotor supersensitivity to quinpirole than did morphine-pretreated mice, while hydrocodone-pretreated mice showed sensitivity in between that of mice treated with morphine and oxycodone. This finding suggests that various opioids differentially modulate the responses of D2DRs. It provides further evidence supporting of the notion that various opioids carry differential risks to the dopamine reward system. PMID:25617530

  11. Postoperative morphine requirements, nausea and vomiting following anaesthesia for tonsillectomy. Comparison of intravenous morphine and non-opioid analgesic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mather, S J; Peutrell, J M

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be as effective as opioid analgesia following tonsillectomy in children. Opioids are still frequently used but tonsillectomy is associated with a high incidence of vomiting. This study has attempted to assess postoperative analgesic consumption and nausea and vomiting after general anaesthesia for tonsillectomy using either paracetamol premedication, paracetamol plus a NSAID or intravenous morphine to provide postoperative analgesia. Some children required a rescue dose of morphine in the recovery room, including some who had received intravenous morphine at induction. Least supplementary morphine was required by those who had received paracetamol plus ketorolac. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly less in the two groups which were not given intraoperative morphine. The number of vomiting incidents was also much less. We conclude that the preoperative administration of paracetamol alone provides satisfactory analgesia in many children but that supplementary analgesia is still required for some. PMID:7489439

  12. Biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of ethylmorphine after a single oral dose.

    PubMed Central

    Aasmundstad, T A; Xu, B Q; Johansson, I; Ripel, A; Bjørneboe, A; Christophersen, A S; Bodd, E; Mørland, J

    1995-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of ethylmorphine after administration of a single dose of the cough mixture Cosylan were investigated in 10 healthy subjects. 2. The median urinary recovery of ethylmorphine and measured metabolites was 77% over 48 h. The median tmax of unchanged ethylmorphine was 45 min, and the terminal elimination t1/2 was 2 h. Ethylmorphine-6-glucuronide was found to be the major metabolite. 3. Two subjects had significantly lower urinary recovery (0.48 h) of morphine and morphine-glucuronides than the remainder. Furthermore, these two had urinary metabolic ratios (MRO) and partial metabolic clearances (CLmO) for O-deethylation of ethylmorphine tentatively classifying them phenotypically as poor metabolisers of the debrisoquine/sparteine type. 4. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 alleles revealed five homozygote (wt/wt) and five heterozygote subjects. Two subjects phenotypically classified as poor metabolisers were genotypically CYP2D6A/wt and CYP2D6D/wt, respectively. 5. Serum and urine samples taken more than 8 and 24 h after administration of ethyl-morphine respectively, contained morphine and morphine-glucuronides, but no ethylmorphine, ethylmorphine-6-glucuronide or (serum only) norethylmorphine. Norethylmorphine could be detected after hydrolysis of urine samples in all subjects. The urinary recovery of the active metabolites morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide after administration of ethylmorphine varied by a factor of 9 between individuals. 6. The wide variation in recovery of morphine and morphine-glucuronides after oral administration of ethylmorphine could not be explained simply by a difference in CYP2D6 genotype. Constitutional variation in other enzymatic pathways involved in ethylmorphine metabolism is probably crucial. Ratios of morphine to parent drug cannot be used to distinguish the source of morphine after administration of ethylmorphine. Norethylmorphine should be included in urine assays for opiates in forensic toxicology, and no firm conclusions about the source of morphine are possible based on serum samples obtained more than 24 h after drug administration. PMID:7654478

  13. Biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of ethylmorphine after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Aasmundstad, T A; Xu, B Q; Johansson, I; Ripel, A; Bjrneboe, A; Christophersen, A S; Bodd, E; Mrland, J

    1995-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of ethylmorphine after administration of a single dose of the cough mixture Cosylan were investigated in 10 healthy subjects. 2. The median urinary recovery of ethylmorphine and measured metabolites was 77% over 48 h. The median tmax of unchanged ethylmorphine was 45 min, and the terminal elimination t1/2 was 2 h. Ethylmorphine-6-glucuronide was found to be the major metabolite. 3. Two subjects had significantly lower urinary recovery (0.48 h) of morphine and morphine-glucuronides than the remainder. Furthermore, these two had urinary metabolic ratios (MRO) and partial metabolic clearances (CLmO) for O-deethylation of ethylmorphine tentatively classifying them phenotypically as poor metabolisers of the debrisoquine/sparteine type. 4. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 alleles revealed five homozygote (wt/wt) and five heterozygote subjects. Two subjects phenotypically classified as poor metabolisers were genotypically CYP2D6A/wt and CYP2D6D/wt, respectively. 5. Serum and urine samples taken more than 8 and 24 h after administration of ethyl-morphine respectively, contained morphine and morphine-glucuronides, but no ethylmorphine, ethylmorphine-6-glucuronide or (serum only) norethylmorphine. Norethylmorphine could be detected after hydrolysis of urine samples in all subjects. The urinary recovery of the active metabolites morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide after administration of ethylmorphine varied by a factor of 9 between individuals. 6. The wide variation in recovery of morphine and morphine-glucuronides after oral administration of ethylmorphine could not be explained simply by a difference in CYP2D6 genotype. Constitutional variation in other enzymatic pathways involved in ethylmorphine metabolism is probably crucial. Ratios of morphine to parent drug cannot be used to distinguish the source of morphine after administration of ethylmorphine. Norethylmorphine should be included in urine assays for opiates in forensic toxicology, and no firm conclusions about the source of morphine are possible based on serum samples obtained more than 24 h after drug administration. PMID:7654478

  14. [Research progress on the oral solid rapidly disintegrating dosage form].

    PubMed

    Shen, Lan; Lin, Xiao; Xu, De-sheng; Feng, Yi

    2005-01-01

    Oral solid rapidly-disintegrating dosage form has aroused general concern increasingly because of its characteristics about convenient taking, rapid absorption, high bioavailability and not serious adverse drug reaction. This article introduced its mechanism, which was rapid disintegration, fast dissolution or the promoting dissolving action of supplementary material. This dosage form included dispersible tablets, fast dissolving tablets, fast releasing tablets, droppills, granules and tablets by solid dispersible technology, quick-liquefying chewable tablets and dry elixir. It will become a new way for promoting bioavailability in traditional Chinese medicine difficultly-dissolving composition, create up a new dosage form for treating emergency case by traditional Chinese medicine and give a new thinking for studying new supplementary materials. In brief, oral solid rapidly-disintegrating dosage form will have good prospect in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:15714807

  15. Morphine versus Hydromorphone: Does Choice of Opioid Influence Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Gulur, Padma; Koury, Katharine; Arnstein, Paul; Lee, Hang; McCarthy, Patricia; Coley, Christopher; Mort, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Morphine has traditionally been considered the first line agent for analgesia in hospitals; however, in the last few years there has been a shift towards the use of hydromorphone as a first line agent. We conducted a hospital population based observational study to evaluate the increasing use of hydromorphone over morphine in both medical and surgical populations. Additionally, we assessed the effect of this trend on three key outcomes, including adverse events, length of stay, and readmission rates. We evaluated data from the University Health Systems Consortium. Data from 38 hospitals from October 2010 to September 2013 was analyzed for patients treated with either hydromorphone or morphine. The use of morphine steadily decreased while use of hydromorphone increased in both medical and surgical groups. Rescue drugs were used more frequently in patients treated with hydromorphone in comparison to patients treated with morphine (p < 0.01). Patients receiving morphine tended to stay in the hospital for almost one day longer than patients receiving hydromorphone. However, 30-day all cause readmission rates were significantly higher in patients treated with hydromorphone (p < 0.01). Our study highlights that the choice of hydromorphone versus morphine may influence outcomes. There are implications related to resource utilization and these outcomes. PMID:26609431

  16. Endogenous Cholinergic Neurotransmission Contributes to Behavioral Sensitization to Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Dusica; Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Spalding, Allegra L.; Berde, Charles B.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is critical for behavioral adaptations associated with opioid reward and addiction. These processes may be influenced by cholinergic transmission arising from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg), a main source of acetylcholine to mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. To examine this possibility we asked if chronic systemic morphine administration affects expression of genes in ventral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray at the level of the LDTg using rtPCR. Specifically, we examined gene expression changes in the area of interest using Neurotransmitters and Receptors PCR array between chronic morphine and saline control groups. Analysis suggested that chronic morphine administration led to changes in expression of genes associated, in part, with cholinergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, using a quantitative immunofluorescent technique, we found that chronic morphine treatment produced a significant increase in immunolabeling of the cholinergic marker (vesicular acetylcholine transporter) in neurons of the LDTg. Finally, systemic administration of the nonselective and noncompetitive neuronal nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (0.5 or 2 mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked the expression, and to a lesser extent the development, of locomotor sensitization. The same treatment had no effect on acute morphine antinociception, antinociceptive tolerance or dependence to chronic morphine. Taken together, the results suggest that endogenous nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission selectively contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine and this process may, in part, involve cholinergic neurons within the LDTg. PMID:25647082

  17. Morphine tolerance offers protection from radiogenic performance deficits

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Burrows, J.M.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-02-01

    When rats are exposed to a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation they exhibit lethargy, hypokinesia, and deficits in performance. These and other behavioral changes parallel those often observed in this species after a large dose of morphine. Since the release of endogenous opiates has been implicated in some stress reactions, we sought to determine if they might play a part in radiogenic behavioral deficits. Rats were trained to criterion on a signaled avoidance task. Some subjects were then implanted with a pellet containing 75 mg of morphine. Other animals received placebo implants. Over a number of days, morphine tolerance was evaluated by measurement of body temperature changes. Prior to 2500 rad /sup 60/Co exposure or sham irradiation, morphine (or placebo) pellets were removed. Twenty-four hours later rats were retested to assess their performance on the avoidance task. Morphine-tolerant subjects performed significantly better than the irradiated placebo-implanted group and no differently than morphine-tolerant/sham-irradiated animals. Morphine tolerance seems to provide a degree of behavioral radiation resistance. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous opiate hyperexcretion may play some part in the behavioral deficits often observed after irradiation.

  18. Micturition in naive and morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, F. G.

    1986-01-01

    Voiding responses were recorded in conscious water-loaded rats. Morphine sulphate (5 mg kg-1) elevated the volume threshold for micturition (MV); the group mean MV of 16 rats after morphine was 40% larger than control. Micturition was nevertheless complete since no urine remained in the bladder afterwards. The implantation of 2 or 4 morphine-base pellets (150 or 300 mg morphine) elevated for 12 days the MV in water-loaded rats. On the 3rd to the 10th day following implantation the group mean was approximately twice that of untreated controls. After micturition was over no residual urine was found in the bladder. Within 3 days the rats became tolerant to the antinociceptive action of the morphine-base pellets but little apparent tolerance developed to their action on micturition. On the 1st day after the pellets were removed, the mean MV was reduced. When withdrawal was precipitated by the administration of naloxone the MV was often too small to measure. This component of a withdrawal syndrome could be elicited in the rats throughout the 12 days of morphine pellet implantation. The administration of 20 mg kg-1 morphine sulphate to anaesthetized rats did not decrease the contractions of the urinary bladder to repetitive stimulation of its motor nerves at 1 and 20 Hz. PMID:3708205

  19. Morphine in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema--Why?

    PubMed

    Ellingsrud, C; Agewall, S

    2016-01-01

    Morphine has for a long time, been used in patients with acute pulmonary oedema due to its anticipated anxiolytic and vasodilatory properties, however a discussion about the benefits and risks has been raised recently. A literature search in Medline and Embase using the keywords "pulmonary oedema" OR "lung oedema" OR "acute heart failure" AND "morphine" was performed. A certain vasodilation has been described after morphine administration, but the evidence for this mechanism is relatively poor and morphine-induced anxiolysis may possibly be the most important factor of morphine in pulmonary oedema and therefore some authors have suggested benzodiazepines as an alternative treatment. Respiratory depression seems to be a less relevant clinical problem according to the literature, whereas vomiting is common, which may cause aspiration. In the largest outcome study, based on the ADHERE registry, morphine given in acute decompensated heart failure was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality, with an odds ratio of 4.8 (95% CI: 4.52-5.18, p<0.001). Other, smaller studies have shown a significant association between morphine administration and mortality, which was lost after adjusting for confounding factors. Morphine is still used for pulmonary oedema in spite of poor scientific background data. A randomised, controlled study is necessary in order to determine the effect--and especially the risk--when using morphine for pulmonary oedema. Since the positive effects are not sufficiently documented, and since the risk for increased mortality cannot be ruled out, one can advocate that the use should be avoided. PMID:26476045

  20. Morphine dependence and withdrawal induced changes in cholinergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Nichole M; Einstein, Emily B; Lopez, Maria B; McClure-Begley, Tristan D; Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R

    2013-08-01

    Cholinergic signaling is thought to be involved in morphine dependence and withdrawal, but the specific mechanisms involved remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify alterations in the cholinergic system that may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and [³H]-epibatidine binding were evaluated in order to determine if morphine dependence and withdrawal induces alterations in cholinergic signaling or expression of high affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the midbrain (MB), medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). The effect of cholinergic signaling through nAChRs on morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior was then determined. Lastly, the contribution of β4-containing nAChRs receptors in the MHb to morphine-withdrawal induced jumping behavior and neuronal activity as indicated by c-fos expression was assessed. Chronic morphine administration decreased AChE activity in MB and MHb, an effect that was no longer present following precipitated withdrawal. Morphine dependent mice showed increased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) levels in MB. Further, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and lobeline (3 mg/kg) decreased jumping behavior while mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect. Knock-down of β4 subunit-containing nAChRs in the MHb attenuated c-fos activation, but did not decrease morphine withdrawal-induced jumping. Thus, morphine withdrawal induces cholinergic signaling in the MHb, but this does not appear to be responsible for the effects of cholinergic drugs on somatic signs of opiate withdrawal, as measured by jumping behavior. PMID:23651795

  1. Risedronate-loaded Eudragit S100 microparticles formulated into tablets.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Aline A; Mattiazzi, Juliane; Ferreira, Luana M; Pohlmann, Lauren; Silva, Cristiane B; Rolim, Clarice M B; Cruz, Letcia

    2014-05-01

    Risedronate, an anti-osteoporotic drug, is associated with low patient compliance due to the upper gastrointestinal side-effects and stringent dosing regimes. This study aimed to prepare and characterize risedronate-loaded Eudragit S100 microparticles and develop a final dosage form by the compression of microparticles using direct tableting excipients. Microparticles were prepared by spray-drying and presented yield of 54%, encapsulation efficiency higher than 90%, mean diameter of 3.3?m, moisture content around 8% and exhibited spherical shape and poor flowability. At pH 1.2, 23% of risedronate was released from microparticles in 120?min, while at pH 6.8 the drug took 90?min to reach 99.5%. Microparticles were compressed into tablets using microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide and 2 polyvinylpyrrolidone concentrations (5% and 15%). Tablets presented low variations in weight, thickness and drug content. Besides, the formulations showed sufficient hardness, low friability and disintegrated in less than 15 min. In acid medium, no more than 16% of the drug was released in 120?min, while in intestinal medium the formulations prolonged the risedronate release for 240?min. Finally, the developed tableted microparticles can be considered a promising dosage form for oral risedronate administration. PMID:23506303

  2. FDA-Approved Natural Polymers for Fast Dissolving Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Tausif; Parvez, Nayyar; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of different drugs because it is regarded as safest, most convenient, and economical route. Fast disintegrating tablets are very popular nowadays as they get dissolved or facilely disintegrated in mouth within few seconds of administration without the need of water. The disadvantages of conventional dosage form, especially dysphagia (arduousness in swallowing), in pediatric and geriatric patients have been overcome by fast dissolving tablets. Natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. Natural polymers like locust bean gum, banana powder, mango peel pectin, Mangifera indica gum, and Hibiscus rosa-sinenses mucilage ameliorate the properties of tablet and utilized as binder, diluent, and superdisintegrants increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural polymers are obtained from the natural origin and they are cost efficacious, nontoxic, biodegradable, eco-friendly, devoid of any side effect, renewable, and provide nutritional supplement. It is proved from the studies that natural polymers are more safe and efficacious than the synthetic polymers. The aim of the present article is to study the FDA-approved natural polymers utilized in fast dissolving tablets. PMID:26556207

  3. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jahangiri, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl) tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame) were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties. PMID:24312854

  4. FDA-Approved Natural Polymers for Fast Dissolving Tablets.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Tausif; Parvez, Nayyar; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of different drugs because it is regarded as safest, most convenient, and economical route. Fast disintegrating tablets are very popular nowadays as they get dissolved or facilely disintegrated in mouth within few seconds of administration without the need of water. The disadvantages of conventional dosage form, especially dysphagia (arduousness in swallowing), in pediatric and geriatric patients have been overcome by fast dissolving tablets. Natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. Natural polymers like locust bean gum, banana powder, mango peel pectin, Mangifera indica gum, and Hibiscus rosa-sinenses mucilage ameliorate the properties of tablet and utilized as binder, diluent, and superdisintegrants increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural polymers are obtained from the natural origin and they are cost efficacious, nontoxic, biodegradable, eco-friendly, devoid of any side effect, renewable, and provide nutritional supplement. It is proved from the studies that natural polymers are more safe and efficacious than the synthetic polymers. The aim of the present article is to study the FDA-approved natural polymers utilized in fast dissolving tablets. PMID:26556207

  5. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  6. Cholescintigraphy in acute cholecystitis: use of intravenous morphine

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Shi, E.C.; McLean, R.G.; Hoschl, R.; Murray, I.P.C.; Ham, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional cholescintigraphy (60 patients) and a modified protocol (59 patients) were compared in 74 females and 45 males with acute cholecystitis. In the modified protocol, intravenous morphine was administered whenever the gallbladder was not seen 40 minutes after injection of Tc-99m-pyroxylidene-glutamate. Accuracy was 98% with morphine, compared with 88% for the conventional protocol; specificity improved from 83% to 100% with no loss of sensitivity. Low doses of morphine are well tolerated and can result in a highly accurate diagnosis of acute cholecystitis without the need for delayed imaging.

  7. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Morphine and Related Alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chida, Noritaka

    Morphine, an alkaloid isolated from the opium poppy, has been widely used as an analgesic, and has been a fascinating synthetic target of organic chemists. After the first total synthesis reported in 1952, a number of synthetic studies toward morphine have been reported, and findings obtained in such studies have greatly contributed to the progress of synthetic organic chemistry as well as medicinal chemistry. This review provides an overview of recent studies toward the total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids. Work reported in the literature since 2004 will be reviewed.

  8. Stress antagonizes morphine-induced analgesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Shannon, L.; Heybach, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to restraint stress resulted in antagonism of the analgesic effect of administered morphine in adult male rats. This antagonism of morphine-induced analgesia by restraint stress was not affected by adrenalectomy one day prior to testing, suggesting that stress-induced secretion of corticosteroids is not critical to this antagonism. In addition, parenteral administration of exogenous adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) mimicked the effect of stress in antagonizing morphine's analgesic efficacy. The hypothesis that ACTH is an endogenous opiate antagonist involved in modulating pain sensitivity is supported.

  9. Next generation effects of female adolescent morphine exposure: sex-specific alterations in response to acute morphine emerge before puberty.

    PubMed

    Vassoler, Fair M; Johnson-Collins, Nicole L; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2014-04-01

    Prescription opiate use by adolescent girls has increased significantly in the past decade. Preclinical studies using rats report alterations in morphine sensitivity in the adult offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed females (MOR-F1) when compared with the offspring of adolescent saline-exposed females (SAL-F1). To begin to elucidate the development of these next generation modifications, the present study examined the effects of acute morphine administration on sedation and corticosterone secretion in prepubescent SAL-F1 and MOR-F1 male and female rats. In addition, alterations in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus, as well as in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene expressions in the ventral tegmental area, were analyzed using quantitative PCR, to determine whether differential regulation of these genes was correlated with the observed behavioral and/or endocrine effects. Increased morphine-induced sedation, coupled with an attenuation of morphine-induced corticosterone secretion, was observed in MOR-F1 males. Significant alterations in both POMC and OPRM1 gene expressions were also observed in MOR-F1 males, with no change in TH mRNA expression. Overall, these data suggest that the transgenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure can be discerned before pubertal development and are more pronounced in males, and suggest dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed females. PMID:24561499

  10. Blockade of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Attenuates Morphine Tolerance and Facilitates the Pain Relieving Properties of Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Eidson, Lori N.

    2013-01-01

    The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is an integral locus for morphine action. Although it is clear that glia contribute to the development of morphine tolerance, to date, the investigation of their role has been limited to spinal and medullary loci. Opioids induce a neuroinflammatory response that opposes acute and long-term analgesia, thereby limiting their efficacy as therapeutic agents. Recent data suggest that the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), along with its coreceptor myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), mediates these effects. To date, the brain loci through which TLR4 modulates morphine tolerance have not been identified. We have previously demonstrated that chronic subcutaneous morphine results in tolerance that is accompanied by increases in vlPAG glial cell activity. Using in vivo pharmacological manipulations of vlPAG glia and TLR4 in the adult male rat, we show that intra-vlPAG administration of the general glial cell metabolic inhibitor propentofylline or the astrocyte activity inhibitor fluorocitrate attenuate tolerance to morphine. Characterization of MD-2 expression within the PAG revealed dense MD-2 expression throughout the vlPAG. Further, antagonizing vlPAG TLR4 dose dependently prevented the development of morphine tolerance, and vlPAG microinjections of TLR4 agonists dose dependently produced a “naive” tolerance to subsequent challenge doses of morphine. Finally, using a model of persistent inflammatory pain and pharmacological manipulation of TLR4 we demonstrate that systemic antagonism of TLR4 potentiated acute morphine antihyperalgesia. These results, together, indicate that vlPAG glia regulate morphine tolerance development via TLR4 signaling, and implicate TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. PMID:24089500

  11. Solid dispersion tablets of breviscapine with polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 for improved dissolution and bioavailability to commercial breviscapine tablets in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wenjuan; Shen, Lan; Xu, Desheng; Zhao, Lijie; Ruan, Kefeng; Feng, Yi

    2014-09-01

    Breviscapine, one of cardiovascular drugs extracted from a Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapinus, has been frequently used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary heart disease and stroke. However, its poor water solubility and low bioavailability in vivo severely restrict the clinical application. To overcome these drawbacks, breviscapine solid dispersion tablets consisting of breviscapine, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30), microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone were appropriately prepared. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that breviscapine released percentage of solid dispersion tablets reached 90 %, whereas it was only 40 % for commercial breviscapine tablets. Comparative pharmacokinetic study between solid dispersion tablets and commercial products was investigated on the normal beagle dogs after oral administration. Results showed that the bioavailability of breviscapine was greatly increased by 3.45-fold for solid dispersion tablets. The greatly improved dissolution rate and bioavailability might be attributed to intermolecular hydrogen bonding reactions between PVP K30 and scutellarin. These findings suggest that our solid dispersion tablets can greatly improve the bioavailability as well as the dissolution rate of breviscapine. PMID:24061692

  12. Reduced nocturnal morphine analgesia in mice following a geomagnetic disturbance.

    PubMed

    Ossenkopp, K P; Kavaliers, M; Hirst, M

    1983-10-10

    Latency to respond to an aversive thermal stimulus and the degree of analgesia induced by morphine were examined in mice injected with either isotonic saline or morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg) during midscotophase of a 12:12 h LD cycle. When mean response latencies were compared to the degree of geomagnetic disturbance (Ap index) present on test days, it was found that during the geomagnetic storm on December 17th, 1982, a significant reduction (P less than 0.01) in response latency was evident in both saline- and morphine-treated mice. The reduction in response latencies was greater, and lasted longer in the morphine-treated animals. It is suggested that the pineal gland may mediate this biomagnetic effect. PMID:6646507

  13. The role of fluoride tablets in the prophylaxis of dental caries. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tomasin, Lisa; Pusinanti, Luca; Zerman, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim Doing a meta-analysis to answer the question: Does fluoride tablets prevent dental caries among children and adolescents? Materials and methods A review of the literature is performed using the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, NHS Evidence Oral Health, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Metalib. The keywords used are dental fluoride, fluoride tablets. The studies analyzed was limited to English language with free abstract. For the studies selection was taken into consideration the criteria proposed by the Cochrane Oral Health Group. Results Few studies with good quality were identified in general. Only 3 out of 779 studies were acceptable. Conclusions Evident disagreements among the results show that theres a limited effectiveness on fluoride tablets. PMID:26161245

  14. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice.

    PubMed

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshft, Marc; Orth, Robert G; Drger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M; Zenk, Meinhart H; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-05-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D(3)]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD(3)]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD(3)]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD(3)]-codeine and [N-CD(3)]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors. PMID:20421505

  15. Mitragynine Attenuates Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Withdrawn Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Amar Jamil, Mohd Fadzly; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Chong Shu-Chien, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  16. Mitragynine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-withdrawn zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway. PMID:22205946

  17. Endogenous morphine: up-to-date review 2011.

    PubMed

    Stefano, G B; Ptáček, R; Kuželová, H; Kream, R M

    2012-01-01

    Positive evolutionary pressure has apparently preserved the ability to synthesize chemically authentic morphine, albeit in homeopathic concentrations, throughout animal phyla. Despite the establishment of a progressively rigorous and mechanistically focused historical literature extending from the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s that supported the expression of chemically authentic morphine by animal cellular and organ systems, prejudicial scepticism and early dismissal by scientists and clinicians most often obscured widespread acceptance of the biological importance and medical implications of endogenous morphine. The current critical paper presents and evaluates key recent coordinated studies in endogenous morphine research, highlighting those that have advanced our understanding of the functional roles of cognate alkaloid-selective μ(3) and μ(4) opiate receptors. We propose that the expression of endogenous morphine by animal and human cells is designed to mediate homeopathic regulation of metabolic activity via activation of cognate μ(3) and μ(4) receptors that serve as transductive conduits for shortcircuit Ca(++) fluxes. The implications of endogenous morphine coupling to nitric oxide regulation of mitochondrial function, with special reference to the cardiovascular system, are now formulated after many years of neglect. PMID:22578954

  18. 76 FR 51037 - Determination That Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing Two Bisacodyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... applications (ANDAs) for bowel prep kits containing PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and... Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (PEG- 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride...

  19. Acute morphine alters GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal: role of cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Michal; Madamba, Samuel G.; Roberto, Marisa; Siggins, George R.

    2014-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in opioid addiction. Therefore, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (WD) on GABAergic transmission in rat CeA neurons using whole-cell recordings with naloxone in the bath. The basal frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) increased in CeA neurons from WD compared to placebo rats. Acute morphine (10 μ M) had mixed effects (≥20% change from baseline) on mIPSCs in placebo and WD rats. In most CeA neurons (64%) from placebo rats, morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. In 32% of placebo neurons, morphine significantly increased mIPSC amplitudes but had no effect on mIPSC frequency. In WD rats, acute morphine significantly increased mIPSC frequency but had no effect on mIPSC amplitude in 41% of CeA neurons. In 45% of cells, acute morphine significantly decreased mIPSC frequency and amplitude. Pre-treatment with the cyclic AMP inhibitor (R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium (RP), prevented acute morphine-induced potentiation of mIPSCs. Pre-treatment of slices with the Gi/o G-protein subunit inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) did not prevent the acute morphine-induced enhancement or inhibition of mIPSCs. PTX and RP decreased basal mIPSC frequencies and amplitudes only in WD rats. The results suggest that inhibition of GABAergic transmission in the CeA by acute morphine is mediated by PTX-insensitive mechanisms, although PTX-sensitive mechanisms cannot be ruled out for non-morphine responsive cells; by contrast, potentiation of GABAergic transmission is mediated by activated cAMP signaling that also mediates the increased basal GABAergic transmission in WD rats. Our data indicate that during the acute phase of WD, the CeA opioid and GABAergic systems undergo neuroadaptative changes conditioned by a previous chronic morphine exposure and dependence. PMID:24926240

  20. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  1. Characterization of omega-3 tablets.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Omega-3 nutraceuticals are extensively used as health supplements worldwide. Various administration forms for delivery of omega-3 are available. However, the niche omega-3 tablets have so far remained unexplored. In this work tablets containing 25-40% (w/w) omega-3 oil as triglycerides or ethyl esters were prepared utilizing a direct compaction grade powder with β-cyclodextrin as encapsulating agent. It was found that powders with up to 35% (w/w) triglyceride oil and 30% (w/w) ethyl ester oil, respectively, can be directly compressed into tablets of excellent quality. Physical properties of omega-3 containing powders and tablets are described. The powder X-ray diffractograms of the powders and crushed tablets show evidence of the formation of new crystalline phases not present in β-cyclodextrin. In addition, (1)H NMR data suggest that the ethyl esters form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. Compaction of other, commercially available, omega-3 powders was performed as a comparison and deemed unsuccessful. PMID:26616980

  2. A fixed-dose combination tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release has comparable pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability profiles to separate tablets in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Howard; Oh, Jaeseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Jung, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combination (FDC) can provide the complementary benefits of correction of multiple pathophysiologic defects such as dysfunctions in glycemic or metabolic control while improving compliance compared with separate tablets taken together. The objective of the study reported here was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and extended-release metformin (metformin XR) between FDC and separate tablets. Methods A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 28 healthy male volunteers. Two FDC tablets of gemigliptin/metformin 25/500 mg or separate tablets of gemigliptin (50 mg ×1) and metformin XR (500 mg ×2) were orally administered in each period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours post-dose to determine dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) activity using spectrophotometric assay and concentrations of gemigliptin and metformin using tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of FDC to separate tablet formulations and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the PD and PK parameters between the two formulations. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results The plasma DPP-4 activity–time curves of the FDC and the separate tablets almost overlapped, leading to a GMR (90% CI) of the FDC to separate tablets for the plasma DPP-4 activity and its maximum inhibition of 1.00 (0.97–1.04) and 0.92 (0.82–1.05), respectively. Likewise, all of the GMRs (90% CIs) of FDC to separate tablets for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and maximum plasma concentration of gemigliptin and metformin fell entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.80–1.25. Both the FDC and separate tablets were well tolerated. Conclusion The PD, PK, and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and metformin XR in FDC and separate tablets were found to be comparable. The FDC tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release can be a convenient therapeutic option in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus requiring a combination approach. PMID:25678778

  3. Tablets of pre-liposomes govern in situ formation of liposomes: concept and potential of the novel drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Vani?, eljka; Planinek, Odon; kalko-Basnet, Nataa; Tho, Ingunn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel drug delivery system for challenging drugs with potential for scale-up manufacturing and controlled release of incorporated drug. Pre-liposomes powder containing metronidazole, lecithin and mannitol, prepared by spray-drying, was mixed with different tableting excipients (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch, pectin or chitosan) and compressed into tablets. The delivery system was characterized with respect to (i) dry powder characteristics, (ii) mechanical tablet properties and drug release, and (iii) liposomal characteristics. The pre-liposomes powder was free-flowing, and tablets of similarly high qualities as tablets made of physical mixtures were prepared with all excipients. Liposomes were formed in situ upon tablet disintegration, dissolution or erosion depending on the type of tablet excipient used. The liposomal characteristics and drug release were found to depend on the tablet excipient. The new delivery system offers a unique synergy between the ability of liposomes to encapsulate and protect drugs and increased stability provided by compressed formulations. It can be adjusted for drug administration via various routes, e.g. oral, buccal and vaginal. PMID:24929211

  4. Prediction of dissolution profiles by non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy in tablets subjected to different levels of strain.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Eduardo; Pawar, Pallavi; Keyvan, Golshid; Wang, Yifan; Velez, Natasha; Callegari, Gerardo; Cuitino, Alberto; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Muzzio, Fernando J; Romaach, Rodolfo J

    2016-01-01

    This study describes how the strain on formulation components affects dissolution and how near infrared spectroscopy can be used to predict dissolution. Strain (exposure to shear stress) applied during powder mixing affects the interaction between formulation components. Particles experience shear strain when they move relative to each other in a process affecting the properties of the final product. This stress affects the dissolution of oral solid dosages forms. However, dissolution testing destroys the entire tablet, making it impossible to further evaluate tablet properties when an out of specification result is obtained. Thus, a nondestructive technique such as near infrared spectroscopy is desirable to predict dissolution. The aim of this study was to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain (shear) using near infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis. Shear was induced using a modified Couette cell on the powder mixture and tablets from these mixtures were produced using a tablet press emulator. Tablets produced with different strain levels were measured using near infrared spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained in diffuse reflectance mode and pretreated with baseline correction to maintain the physical and chemical information of the tablets. Dissolution profiles were obtained using USP Apparatus 2 as a reference method. Principal component analysis was used to study the sources of variation in the spectra obtained. Partial least squares 2 was used to predict dissolution on tablets with different levels of strain. PMID:26604167

  5. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  6. Combined morphine-bupivacaine caudals for reconstructive penile surgery in children: systemic absorption of morphine and postoperative analgesia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, A R; Hughes, D; Hobbs, A J; Prys-Roberts, C

    1991-02-01

    We wished to determine if the addition of a small dose of morphine (0.05 mg.kg-1) to a caudal solution of 0.25% bupivacaine could extend the duration of analgesia after major reconstructive penile surgery and also to measure the systemic absorption of morphine after caudal injection. Thirty children undergoing reconstructive penile surgery received a caudal injection of 0.25% bupivacaine 0.75 ml.kg-1 with or without morphine 0.05 mg.kg-1. All patients awoke pain-free, but eight of the fifteen patients receiving bupivacaine alone required supplementary injections of opioid postoperatively, whereas none of the patients receiving the bupivacaine-morphine mixture required additional opioids. The incidence of side-effects was similar for the two groups. Morphine was absorbed rapidly after caudal injection to reach a peak plasma level of 21.2 (+/- 4.8) ng.ml-1 at ten minutes and then fell to 10.1 (+/- 3.8) ng.ml-1 at one hour and 4.1 (+/- 2.6) ng.ml-1 at three hours. These levels are low compared with plasma levels associated with systemic analgesia. We conclude that the extended duration of analgesia from morphine 0.05 mg/kg given caudally is due at least in part to specific spinal analgesia. PMID:2012289

  7. Mesoaccumbens dopamine signaling alteration underlies behavioral transition from tolerance to sensitization to morphine rewarding properties during morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linlin; Hu, Ling; Li, Yijing; Cui, Cailian

    2014-09-01

    Although the firing activity of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the behavioral response to morphine rewarding properties alter as opiate withdrawal, little is known about the dynamic changes in DA signal pathway from the VTA to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during prolonged withdrawal, and whether the changes are indicative of vulnerability to relapse of drug abuse. Here we report that morphine spontaneously withdrawn (SW) rats are incapable of responding to small dose of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) from 24h-SW to 30d-SW, but recover response at 45d-SW. Interestingly, mesoaccumbens DA signaling, including the firing of DA neurons in the VTA, contents of DA and its metabolic ratio, and the membrane level of dopamine D1 receptor in the NAc elicited by morphine challenge, display a similar pattern of time-dependent changes during morphine withdrawal. Moreover, blockade of D1 receptor abolishes this behavioral transition. In addition, a strong correlation was found between % change in CPP score and membrane D1 receptor level induced by morphine challenge. These results indicate a time-dependent behavioral switch from tolerance to sensitization during the prolonged withdrawal, which could offer a window for therapeutic intervention via manipulations of D1 receptors. PMID:23775491

  8. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews

  9. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  10. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on

  11. Scaffolding Equals Success in Teaching Tablet PCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Jeremy; Williams, Scott; Browning, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of using the mouse and keyboard as the primary means of computer input, people are seeing a strong surge into a new generation of input technologies such as tablet PCs. As more professionals adopt tablet PCs for use in the workplace, there is a subsequent increased demand for tablet PC instruction in the classroom. Examples of

  12. Behavioral effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition on morphine withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Siamak; Hasanein, Parisa

    2011-08-10

    Chronic morphine exposure causes tolerance and dependence. The cessation of morphine consumption induces a withdrawal syndrome that may involve cannabinoids and is characterized by undesirable psychological and physical signs. The present study examined whether augmentation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase could suppress the morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine dependency was induced by 7 consecutive days of morphine injection. The morphine-addicted rats received URB597 (1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03 mg/kg), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, before the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone. Withdrawal symptoms including jumping, teeth chattering, paw tremor, wet dog shakes, face grooming, penis licking, standing, rearing, sniffing and percent of weight loss were recorded during 30 min after naloxone injection. The results showed that the morphine withdrawal precipitated rats had significantly more withdrawal symptoms than naive control rats and the administration of URB597 (all doses except 0.03 mg/kg) reduced most of the morphine withdrawal symptoms. We conclude that the administration of URB597 modulated morphine withdrawal symptoms. This finding shows that endocannabinoids interact with the opioid system during the morphine withdrawal period and that potentiation of the endogenous cannabinoid system by URB597 may be a new target strategy for the management of morphine addiction. PMID:21763761

  13. Purification and characterization of guinea pig liver morphine 6-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yamano, S; Kageura, E; Ishida, T; Toki, S

    1985-05-10

    Morphine 6-dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the dehydrogenation of morphine to morphinone, has been purified about 440-fold from the soluble fraction of guinea pig liver with a yield of 38%. The purified enzyme was a homogeneous protein on polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 29,000 and 7.6, respectively. The enzyme utilizes both NAD and NADP as a cofactor, and the Km values were 0.12 mM for NAD and 0.42 mM for NADP. The Vmax values for morphine were 588 milliunits/mg of protein (with NAD) and 1600 milliunits/mg of protein (with NADP). The Km values for morphine were 0.12 mM (with NAD) and 0.49 mM (with NADP). The enzyme also exhibited activity for morphine-related compounds: nalorphine, normorphine, codeine, and ethylmorphine; however, 7,8-saturated congeners such as dihydromorphine and dihydrocodeine were poor substrates. The enzyme was inactivated by removal of 2-mercaptoethanol from the enzyme solution. The inactivated enzyme was rapidly recovered by the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol. Phenylarsine oxide and CdCl2 (dithiol modifiers) inhibited competitively toward cofactor binding and noncompetitively toward morphine binding. These results suggest that the enzyme possesses the essential thiol groups, probably vicinal dithiol, at or near the cofactor-binding site. Using the partially purified enzyme, 8-(2-hydroxyethylthio)dihydromorphinone was isolated as the product and identified by UV, mass, and NMR spectra. It was confirmed that morphinone proposed as the dehydrogenation product was nonenzymatically and covalently bound to 2-mercaptoethanol. Accordingly, the isolated morphinone-2-mercaptoethanol conjugate must be formed by two steps: enzymatic production of morphinone from morphine and then nonenzymatic binding of 2-mercaptoethanol to morphinone. PMID:2580834

  14. Intrathecal ketorolac enhances intrathecal morphine analgesia following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, Gabriela R; Righeti, Claudia C F; Mattos, Anita L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Total knee arthroplasty represents one of the most painful surgeries. The aim of the study was to compare analgesia and adverse effects of intrathecal (IT) ketorolac versus IT morphine, versus the combination of IT ketorolac and morphine. Materials and Methods: After ethical approval and patient consent, 80 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty were randomized to one of 4 groups. All groups received 15 mg IT bupivacaine plus IT test drug (2 ml). The control group (CG) received saline as IT test drug. The morphine group (MG) received IT 200 g morphine, the ketorolac group (KG) IT 2 mg ketorolac and the morphine-ketorolac group (MKG) 200 g morphine + 2 mg ketorolac as test drugs. Pain and adverse effects were evaluated. P > 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The MG and KG were similar in their times to time to first rescue analgesic (440 38 min and 381 44 min, respectively). Both groups were longer when compared to the CG (170 13 min) (P > 0.01). The MG and KG had lesser ketoprofen consumption compared to the CG (P > 0.05). The time to first rescue analgesic was longer to the MKG (926 222 min) (15 h) compared to CG (P > 0.001) and to the MG and the KG (P > 0.01). MKG displayed lesser ketoprofen consumption compared to MG and KG (P > 0.05) and to the CG (P > 0.02). Conclusions: The data suggest a role for spinal ketorolac and morphine in orthopaedic surgery because this combination of agents provided 15 h of analgesia compared to 7 h after each drug alone, with no significant side-effects. PMID:24249988

  15. Predictive model for tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets based on local hardness measurements.

    PubMed

    Juban, Audrey; Nouguier-Lehon, Ccile; Briancon, Stphanie; Hoc, Thierry; Puel, Franois

    2015-07-25

    In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage forms for oral administration. During the manufacture of tablets, measures are taken to assure that they possess a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling while ensuring disintegration after administration. Accordingly, the tensile strength is an essential parameter to consider. In the present study, microscopic hardness and macroscopic tensile strength of binary tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose and caffeine in various proportions were measured. A relationship between these two mechanical properties was found for binary mixture. The proposed model was based on two physical measurements easily reachable: hardness and tablet density. Constants were determined from the two extreme compositions of this given system. This model was validated with experimental results, and a comparison was made with the one developed by Wu et al. (2005). Both models are relevant for this studied system. Nonetheless, with this model, the tablet tensile strength can be connected with a tablet characteristic at microscopic scale in which porosity is not needed. PMID:26043825

  16. Quantitative analysis of visible surface defect risk in tablets during film coating using terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Masahiro; Hiraishi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-30

    Tablets are the most common form of solid oral dosage produced by pharmaceutical industries. There are several challenges to successful and consistent tablet manufacturing. One well-known quality issue is visible surface defects, which generally occur due to insufficient physical strength, causing breakage or abrasion during processing, packaging, or shipping. Techniques that allow quantitative evaluation of surface strength and the risk of surface defect would greatly aid in quality control. Here terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to evaluate the surface properties of core tablets with visible surface defects of varying severity after film coating. Other analytical methods, such as tensile strength measurements, friability testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were used to validate TPI results. Tensile strength and friability provided no information on visible surface defect risk, whereas the TPI-derived unique parameter terahertz electric field peak strength (TEFPS) provided spatial distribution of surface density/roughness information on core tablets, which helped in estimating tablet abrasion risk prior to film coating and predicting the location of the defects. TPI also revealed the relationship between surface strength and blending condition and is a nondestructive, quantitative approach to aid formulation development and quality control that can reduce visible surface defect risk in tablets. PMID:24300215

  17. Bioequivalence study of 400 and 100 mg imatinib film-coated tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ostrowicz, Andrzej; Mikołajczak, Przemysław L; Wierzbicka, Marzena; Boguradzki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioavailability of a generic product of 100 mg and 400 mg imatinib film-coated tablets (test) as compared to that of a branded product (reference) at the same strength to determine bioequivalence. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate tolerability of both products. An open-label, randomized, crossover, two-period, single-dose, comparative study was conducted in 43 (Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg film-coated tablet) and in 42 (Imatynib-Biofarm 400 mg film-coated tablet), brand name Imatenil, Caucasian healthy volunteers in fed conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was separated by 14-day washout period. The imatinib and its metabolite N-desmethyl imatinib concentrations were determined using a validated LC MS/MS method. The results of the single-dose study in healthy volunteers indicated that the film-coated tablets of Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Biofarm Sp. z o.o. (test products) are bioequivalent to those of Glivec 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Novartis Pharma GmbH (reference products). Both products in the two doses of imatinib were well tolerated. PMID:25362813

  18. In vivo absorption comparison of nanotechnology-based silybin tablets with its water-soluble derivative.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Ni, Rui; Sun, Wei; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the in vivo oral absorption of a nanocrystal tablet formulation of a BCS II poorly water-soluble drug was compared with that of its water-soluble salt form. Silybin is used as the model drug, and its nanosuspension was prepared by high-pressure homogenization. Effect of process and formulation parameters on properties of the nansuspensions was investigated. Dried powder of the nanosuspension was prepared by spray drying and used for preparing tablets. A pharmacokinetic study was performed in Beagle dogs to compare the absorption for tablets of silybin nanocrystals and silybin meglumine. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was determined. X-ray powder diffraction results indicated that silybin existed in a crystalline state after homogenization. In vivo absorption study in rats showed that the peroral absorption of silybin was enhanced remarkably by decreasing particle size. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was comparable with that of the commercially available tablet of the water-soluble salt form of silybin. In conclusion, it is possible to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by preparing its water-soluble derivative. PMID:24495272

  19. Spray drying of a poorly water-soluble drug nanosuspension for tablet preparation: formulation and process optimization with bioavailability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Ni, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-06-01

    Spray drying experiments of an itraconazole nanosuspension were conducted to generate a dry nanocrystal powder which was subsequently formulated into a tablet formulation for direct compression. The nanosuspension was prepared by high pressure homogenization and characterized for particle-size distribution and surface morphology. A central composite statistical design approach was applied to identify the optimal drug-to-excipient ratio and spray drying temperature. It was demonstrated that the spray drying of a nanosuspension with a mannitol-to-drug mass ratio of 4.5 and at an inlet temperature of 120?C resulted in a dry powder with the smallest increase in particle size as compared with that of the nanosuspension. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystalline structure of the drug was not altered during the spray-drying process. The tablet formulation was identified by determining the micromeritic properties such as flowability and compressibility of the powder mixtures composed of the spray dried nanocrystal powder and other commonly used direct compression excipients. The dissolution rate of the nanocrystal tablets was significantly enhanced and was found to be comparable to that of the marketed Sporanox. No statistically significant difference in oral absorption between the nanocrystal tablets and Sporanox capsules was found. In conclusion, the nanosuspension approach is feasible to improve the oral absorption of a BCS Class II drug in a tablet formulation and capable of achieving oral bioavailability equivalent to other well established oral absorption enhancement method. PMID:24785575

  20. Pharmacokinetics and safety of posaconazole delayed-release tablets for invasive fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent with potent activity against various pathogenic fungi, including yeast and moulds. Clinical studies have demonstrated that this agent is efficacious as prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients at high risk, and may also be useful as salvage therapy against invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. However, the bioavailability of posaconazole following administration by oral suspension, which was the only formulation clinically available for many years, is highly variable and negatively influenced by several factors. Because of this, many patients had subtherapeutic or undetectable posaconazole levels when the oral suspension was used. To overcome this limitation, a delayed-release tablet was developed and is now available for clinical use. Hot-melt extrusion technology is used to combine a pH-sensitive polymer with posaconazole to produce a formulation that releases the drug in the elevated pH of the intestine where absorption occurs rather than in the low-pH environment of the stomach. This results in enhanced bioavailability and increased posaconazole exposure. Studies in healthy volunteers have demonstrated significantly higher and more consistent exposures with the tablet formulation compared to the oral suspension. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters following administration of the tablets were not significantly affected by medications that raise gastric pH or increase gastric motility, and the tablets could also be administered without regard to food. Similar results have also been found in patients at high risk for invasive fungal infections who have received posaconazole tablets. The tablet formulation also appears to be well tolerated to date, although data regarding clinical efficacy are needed. PMID:26730212

  1. Pharmacokinetics and safety of posaconazole delayed-release tablets for invasive fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent with potent activity against various pathogenic fungi, including yeast and moulds. Clinical studies have demonstrated that this agent is efficacious as prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients at high risk, and may also be useful as salvage therapy against invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. However, the bioavailability of posaconazole following administration by oral suspension, which was the only formulation clinically available for many years, is highly variable and negatively influenced by several factors. Because of this, many patients had subtherapeutic or undetectable posaconazole levels when the oral suspension was used. To overcome this limitation, a delayed-release tablet was developed and is now available for clinical use. Hot-melt extrusion technology is used to combine a pH-sensitive polymer with posaconazole to produce a formulation that releases the drug in the elevated pH of the intestine where absorption occurs rather than in the low-pH environment of the stomach. This results in enhanced bioavailability and increased posaconazole exposure. Studies in healthy volunteers have demonstrated significantly higher and more consistent exposures with the tablet formulation compared to the oral suspension. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters following administration of the tablets were not significantly affected by medications that raise gastric pH or increase gastric motility, and the tablets could also be administered without regard to food. Similar results have also been found in patients at high risk for invasive fungal infections who have received posaconazole tablets. The tablet formulation also appears to be well tolerated to date, although data regarding clinical efficacy are needed. PMID:26730212

  2. The release and analgesic activities of morphine and its ester prodrug, morphine propionate, formulated by water-in-oil nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hung, Chi-Feng; Yeh, Chi-Hui; Fang, Jia-You

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the feasibility of water-in-oil (w/o) nanoemulsions as sustained-release systems for morphine, following subcutaneous administration in rats. The ester prodrug of morphine, morphine propionate (MPR), was also utilized in this study. A variety of nanoemulsions were prepared using soybean oil or sesame oil as the external phase. Span 80, Tween 80, Plurol diisostearique and Brij 98 were used as surfactants in the w/o interface. The effects of the formulation variables on the characteristics of the nanoemulsions, such as inner droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, drug partitioning, drug release and pharmacological effect, were evaluated. Mean sizes of nanoemulsions of 50-200 nm were obtained. The initial surface charge of the emulsions was found to be around - 3 to - 4 mV, except that the Plurol-containing vehicle showed a highly negative charge of - 23 mV. The loading of morphine and MPR into the nanoemulsions resulted in slower sustained-release behavior as compared with the drug/prodrug in aqueous solution. The rate of morphine released across the membrane was found to be highly dependent on the choice of oil and surfactant types. On the other hand, discrepancies in MPR release rates among the various formulations were minimal. The in vivo analgesic duration of morphine by targeting the drug to central nerve system could be prolonged from 1 to 3 h by incorporating the drug into nanoemulsions using Span 80 or Tween 80 as the surfactant. These results suggest that w/o nanoemulsions are well suited to provide sustained morphine delivery for therapeutic purposes. PMID:18446608

  3. Review of Prescribing Practices for Intermittent Bolus Administration of Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Sine, Keith; Vaillancourt, Rgis; Pascuet, Elena; Martelli, Brenda; Lamontagne, Christine; Ellis, Jacqueline; Wong, Elaine; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several changes to medication safety practices were proposed in a pediatric hospital, including changing the period of patient observation after administration of opioids and limiting the availability of various concentrations of morphine in the patient care unit. Objective: To document and review postoperative pain management for children on a surgical ward, specifically with regard to intermittent IV bolus administration of morphine, to help in assessing the impact of the proposed nursing practice changes. Methods: Data were collected from records for narcotics and controlled drugs for the surgical ward over a 3-month period (April to June 2006). For each patient, data had been recorded for up to 7 consecutive days after surgery. A patients data were included in the review if he or she had received at least 2 doses of morphine by IV bolus, except for the review of weight-based dosing pattern (mg/kg), for which all patients who had received at least one dose of IV morphine were included. Results: Charts for 193 patients were audited. Of these, 163 patients (84.5%) had recieved up to 0.1 mg/kg per dose, and 53 (27.5%) had received only one dose of morphine. Among patients who received more than one dose, the median dose was 0.080 mg/kg on day 1, with a decrease by day 5 to 0.065 mg/kg. Most patients received morphine over the first 2 days after surgery. The median time elapsed between doses was 4.3 h on day 1 and 6.2 h on day 2. Of the 1020 doses included in the analysis, most (801 [78.5%]) were 4 mg or less. Conclusion: The intermittent administration of IV bolus doses of morphine at the study hospital followed common standards for the treatment of postoperative pain. Most doses were no more than 4 mg. On the basis of this information, only 2-mg vials of morphine are now stocked on the ward. The hospitals change in monitoring practices will increase the surveillance of patients receiving IV bolus doses of morphine. PMID:22479025

  4. Extended-release morphine sulfate in treatment of severe acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Robert J; Trescot, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Morphine is the archetypal opioid analgesic. Because it is a short-acting opioid, its use has been limited to the management of acute pain. The development of extended-release formulations have resulted in the increased utilization of morphine in chronic pain conditions. This review documents the history of morphine use in pain treatment, and describes the metabolism, pharmacodynamics, formulations, and efficacy of the currently available extended-release morphine medications. PMID:21197323

  5. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ? 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  6. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Morphine on Some Blood Biochemical Parameters in an Inflammatory Condition in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chahkandi, Mohadeseh; Askari, Nayerreh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background Opiates affect blood factors as well as pain and inflammation in a gender-dependent manner. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of morphine on serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea in gonadectomized and inflammation conditions. Methods Animals were divided as follows: control group, carrageenan and chronic morphine recipients, acute morphine recipients, chronic morphine recipients, carrageenan recipients, acute morphine and carrageenan recipients, gonadectomized group, gonadectomized recipients of carrageenan, gonadectomized recipients of morphine, gonadectomized recipients of chronic morphine, gonadectomized recipients of carrageenan and chronic morphine, gonadectomized recipients of acute morphine and carrageenan. Findings Our results have shown that acute and chronic morphine elevates blood glucose level in the acute and chronic morphine group. Cholesterol level has shown to be increasing in the morphine and carrageenan recipient group compared with a group which merely received morphine. Triglyceride has shown to be decreasing in acute and chronic morphine recipient group compared with control group. A significant increase in serum urea was observed in acute and chronic morphine recipients compared with the carrageenan recipient group. Conclusion Morphine alters the serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and urea in the normal and inflammatory conditions differently, hence, this finding should be considered in the patients who use morphine as a relief of pain, especially in an inflammatory condition. PMID:26885349

  7. Evaluation of some compression aids in tableting of roller compacted swellable core drug layer.

    PubMed

    Golchert, D; Bines, E; Carmody, A

    2013-09-10

    Swellable core technology (SCT) represents a broadly applicable oral osmotic drug delivery platform for the controlled release of drugs. SCT tablets control drug delivery by using osmosis to regulate the influx of water into the tablet's core. The tablet consists of two layers; drug layer and sweller layer, with a semi-permeable membrane coating and delivery port located in the drug layer side of the tablet. The key component of SCT formulations is polyethylene oxide (PEO), which is typically wet granulated with organic solvents to prevent rapid gel hydration observed during contact with aqueous environments. However, the use of organic solvents has their own environmental and cost considerations which make this form of processing undesirable. To overcome this issue, dry granulation can be employed. However, PEO is a very plastic material and problems may be encountered during the tableting process, when work hardening occurs upon double compression. The addition of compression aids to the drug layer will help to increase the roll force when generating ribbons - reducing fines and segregation potential - while also reducing work hardening effects which impact tablet friability. The five compression aids used in this study were microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, di-calcium phosphate (anhydrous), lactose monohydrate and starch. The work undertaken here studies the compression properties of the drug layer blends with different levels of the five compression aids as part of the formulation. Roller compaction properties are also varied to provide granules with differing solid fractions. The results of this study indicate that addition of microcrystalline cellulose in the formulation in levels between 10% and 30% significantly improve the tablet hardness at lower tablet compression forces. Further work is required to investigate the impact on dissolution. PMID:23796839

  8. Simulation of roller compaction with subsequent tableting and characterization of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M; Langridge, John

    2008-01-01

    Tablets are by far the most common solid oral dosage forms, and many drugs need to be granulated before they can be tableted. Increasingly roller compaction is being used as a dry granulation technique; however it is a very time and material intensive method. Thus some mini roller compactors and simulations of the roller compaction process have been developed as a means of studying the technique at small scale. An important factor in the selection of materials for roller compaction is their ability to be recompressed into tablets after the initial roller compaction and milling steps. In this paper the roller compaction process was simulated on the basis of some models by Gereg and Cappola (2002) and Zinchuk et al. (2004). An eccentric tableting machine was used to make compacts from alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous beta-lactose, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.6-0.9). These compacts were milled immediately to granules with a rotary granulator. The properties of the granules were analyzed and compared to the properties of the original powders. These granules and powders were then tableted at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.75-0.95) and their properties including elastic recovery, crushing force and 3D-model were analyzed. The properties of the tablets made from the granules were compared to the properties of the tablets made from the powders to determine which excipients are most suitable for the roller compaction process. The study showed that anhydrous beta-lactose is the preferred form of lactose for use in roller compaction since compaction did not affect tablet crushing force to a large extent. With the simulation of roller compaction process one is able to find qualified materials for use in roller compaction without the necessity of a great deal of material and time. PMID:18728996

  9. Reversal of Morphine Analgesic Tolerance by Ethanol in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hull, L. C.; Gabra, B. H.; Bailey, C. P.; Henderson, G.

    2013-01-01

    The chronic use of opioids in humans, accompanied by the development of tolerance, is a dangerous phenomenon in its own right. However, chronic opioid use is often made more dangerous by the coconsumption of other substances. It has been observed that the blood level of opioids in postmortem analyses of addicts, who consumed ethanol along with the opioid, was much less than that observed in individuals who died from opioids alone. This relationship between ethanol and opioids led us to investigate the hypothesis that ethanol alters tolerance to opioids. In the present study, we report that ethanol significantly and dose-dependently reduced the antinociceptive tolerance produced by morphine and the cross-tolerance between [d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine in the mouse tail-flick test. The reversal of morphine tolerance was partially blocked by both the gamma receptor blocker bicuculline and by the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor blocker phaclofen and the administration of both inhibitors completely reversed the effects of ethanol on morphine tolerance. Diazepam, like ethanol, decreased morphine tolerance. However, this inhibition was reversed by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline but not by the GABAB antagonist phaclofen. These findings have important implications for individuals who abuse opioids and ethanol as well as suggest a mechanism to reduce the amount of opioid needed in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23528610

  10. The effect of morphine on fear extinction in rats.

    PubMed

    Morris, M D; Gebhart, G F

    1978-05-31

    Rats were trained on an appetitive discretetrial discriminated-punishment task in which they learned to suppress responding when an intense flashing light predicting punishment was present and to respond rapidly on trials when the flashing light was absent. Once animals were performing discriminatively, 0.75, 3.0, or 6.0 mg/kg of morphine (base) was administered and a fear extinction session consisting of 60 nonshocked presentations of the flashing light was given. Two saline control groups, one that received fear extinction and one that did not, were also included in the experiment. On the day following fear extinction, all rats were tested in the undrugged state on the discriminated punishment problem, but without shock. The rats receiving 3.0 and 6.0 mg/kg of morphine before the fear extinction session were suppressed by the flashing light more than the saline extinction group or the 0.75 mg/kg morphine treatment group. Moreover, the two higher dose morphine groups were suppressed as readily as the saline group that received no fear extinction. These results are attributed to the antiemotionality effects of morphine. PMID:97707

  11. Effect of morphine on sympathetic nerve activity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Sauder, Charity L.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    There are conflicting reports for the role of endogenous opioids on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercise in humans. A number of studies have utilized naloxone (an opioid-receptor antagonist) to investigate the effect of opioids during exercise. In the present study, we examined the effect of morphine (an opioid-receptor agonist) on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses at rest and during isometric handgrip (IHG). Eleven subjects performed 2 min of IHG (30% maximum) followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) before and after systemic infusion of morphine (0.075 mg/kg loading dose + 1 mg/h maintenance) or placebo (saline) in double-blinded experiments on separate days. Morphine increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; 17 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 2 bursts/min; P < 0.01) and increased mean arterial pressure (MAP; 87 +/- 2 to 91 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.02), but it decreased heart rate (HR; 61 +/- 4 to 59 +/- 3; P < 0.01). However, IHG elicited similar increases for MSNA, MAP, and HR between the control and morphine trial (drug x exercise interaction = not significant). Moreover, responses to PEMI were not different. Placebo had no effect on resting, IHG, and PEMI responses. We conclude that morphine modulates cardiovascular and sympathetic responses at rest but not during isometric exercise.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Against Morphine.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Susan; Shams, Ali; Ghahremani, Hossein; Paknejad, Maliheh

    2015-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) was produced by immunization of a BALB/c mouse with a conjugated morphine C6-hemisuccinated derivative (MHS) to cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA). The hybridoma clones were screened by indirect ELISA using MHS-BSA. The best hybridoma clone was subcloned thrice by limiting dilution. This hybridoma was found to be of IgG2b class and subclass and contained lambda light chain. The affinity of the MAb to morphine was obtained 2.810(9) M(-1). The titer of the cell culture supernatant was at least 1:800. The MAb was cross-reacted with codeine (100%) and apomorphine (16.5%), but not with heroin, naloxone, naltrexone, or papaverine. Morphine was conjugated to HRP using a mixed anhydride method and a direct competitive ELISA was designed using anti-morphine MAb. The assay was sensitive over the 50?ng/mL to 5??g/mL concentration range. In conclusion, this MAb is useful for the development of immunoassays to measure morphine in urine. PMID:26301931

  13. [Simultaneous determination of 5 kinds of alkaloids in Kechuanning tablets by SPE-UPLC under different UV-vis wavelength].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-li; Li, Dong-mei; Feng, Li; Yuan, Hao

    2011-05-01

    The paper is to establish a method for simultaneous determination of 5 kinds of alkaloids in ephedra and poppy which are in Kechuanning tablets. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was adopted in pretreatment, and a UPLC method with 2 different wavelengths had been developed: 210 nm for the detection of morphine, codeine phosphate, ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, and 251 nm for papaverine hydrochloride. The column used was Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm ID, 1.7 microm) with linear gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.4 mL.min-1, and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. The linear response range was 0.375 0 - 12.50 microg.mL-1 for morphine, 0.064 32 - 2.144 microg.mL-1 for codeine phosphate, 0.030 06 - 1.002 microg.mL-1 for papaverine hydrochloride, 1.126 - 37.52 microg.mL-1 for ephedrine hydrochloride, 0.287 8 - 9.592 microg.mL-1 for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (r = 0.999 7). The average recoveries of these compounds were 99.26%, 100.6%, 95.29%, 100.1% and 97.48%, respectively. This is a more reasonable and credible method of quality control for Kechuanning tablets. PMID:21800548

  14. Novel gastroretentive sustained-release tablet of tacrolimus based on self-microemulsifying mixture: in vitro evaluation and in vivo bioavailability test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-ping; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xin-xin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a self-microemulsifying (SME) lipid mixture for improving the oral absorption of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Methods: Liquid SME mixture, composed of Cremophor RH40 and monocaprylin glycerate, was blended with polyethylene oxide, chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone and mannitol, and then transformed into tablets via granulation, with ethanol as the wetting agent. The tablets were characterized in respect of swelling, bioadhesive and SME properties. In vitro dissolution was conducted using an HCl buffer at pH 1.2. Oral bioavailability of the tablets was examined in fasted beagle dogs. Results: The tablet could expand to 13.5mm in diameter and 15mm in thickness during the initial 20min of contact with the HCl buffer at pH 1.2. The bioadhesive strength was as high as 0.980.06 N/cm2. The SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets preserved the SME capability of the liquid SME formations under transmission electron microscope. The drug-release curve was fit to the zero-order release model, which was helpful in reducing fluctuations in blood concentration. Compared with the commercially available capsules of tacrolimus, the relative bioavailability of the SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets was 553.4%353.8%. Conclusion: SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets can enhance the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus with poor solubility and a narrow absorption window. PMID:21927013

  15. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference and effects of morphine pre-exposure in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Koek, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Given the increasing abuse of prescription opioids, particularly in adolescents, surprisingly few preclinical studies have explored effects of opioids in adolescents (versus adults). Objectives This study compared the conditioned rewarding effects of morphine, without (experiment 1) and with morphine pre-exposure (experiment 2), in adolescent and adult male mice. Methods Experiment 1: on each of three consecutive days, one of the two conditioning sessions was preceded by an injection of a particular dose of morphine (0.1, 0.32, 1, 3.2, 10, 32, or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) and the other by saline; place preference was tested on day 4. Experiment 2: mice received once daily injections of saline or a particular dose of morphine (17.8 or 56 mg/kg) for 4 days, and 3 days later, place conditioning with morphine (0.32, 1, 3.2, or 10 mg/kg) began. Results In both experiments, morphine induced conditioned place preference along similar inverted U-shaped dose-response curves in adolescent and adult mice, with maximal effects between 0.3210 mg/kg. Morphine pre-exposure did not sensitize morphine-induced conditioned place preference; instead, tolerance occurred, but only in adults. Adolescents were more sensitive than adults to morphine-induced locomotor stimulation. Response to novelty predicted the locomotor stimulating effects of morphine in adolescents, but not its rewarding effects. Conclusions The rewarding effects of morphine were similar in adolescent and adult mice, but showed differential tolerance after morphine pre-exposure. Adolescents were more sensitive than adults to the acute locomotor stimulating effects of morphine, consistent with dopamine systems involved in locomotor activity being overactive during adolescence. PMID:25066361

  16. Persistent Pain Maintains Morphine-Seeking Behavior after Morphine Withdrawal through Reduced MeCP2 Repression of Glua1 in Rat Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yuan-Yuan; Cai, You-Qing

    2015-01-01

    As long-term opioids are increasingly used for control of chronic pain, how pain affects the rewarding effect of opioids and hence risk of prescription opioid misuse and abuse remains a healthcare concern and a challenging issue in current pain management. In this study, using a rat model of morphine self-administration, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of pain on operant behavior of morphine intake and morphine seeking before and after morphine withdrawal. We found that rats with persistent pain consumed a similar amount of daily morphine to that in control rats without pain, but maintained their level-pressing behavior of morphine seeking after abstinence of morphine at 0.2 mg/kg, whereas this behavior was gradually diminished in control rats. In the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), a limbic structure critically involved in the affective dimension of pain, proteins of GluA1 subunits of glutamate AMPA receptors were upregulated during morphine withdrawal, and viral knockdown of CeA GluA1 eliminated the morphine-seeking behavior in withdrawn rats of the pain group. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) was enriched in the promoter region of Gria1 encoding GluA1 and this enrichment was significantly attenuated in withdrawn rats of the pain group. Furthermore, viral overexpression of CeA MeCP2 repressed the GluA1 level and eliminated the maintenance of morphine-seeking behavior after morphine withdrawal. These results suggest direct MeCp2 repression of GluA1 function as a likely mechanism for morphine-seeking behavior maintained by long-lasting affective pain after morphine withdrawal. PMID:25716866

  17. [Comparison of bioavailability between nimotop and nimodipine tablet].

    PubMed

    Shi, X J; Wang, H T; Wei, Y; Zhang, J H; Zhang, L L; Zhong, M K

    1997-09-01

    A new analytical method was established for determining plasma level of nimodipine using HPLC and its application to determine the bioavailability of nimodipine. Experiments were performed on a Waters Model Baseline 810 System instrument. A 3.9 mm x 200 mm stainless steel column was packed with YWG-C18(10 microns) as the stationary phase. The mobile phase was a mixture solution of methanol--water (60/40, v/v) with 1.00 ml.min-1 at 35 degrees C. The detector was set at 358 nm. The plasma samples were extracted with ether--n-hexane (1:1). Calibration curve was linear (gamma = 0.9999) in the concentration range of 5-300 ng.ml-1. The within-day and between-day precision (RSD) were less than 3% and 5%, respectively, with average recoveries of 97.67%-102.3%. The study on bioavailability of numodipine between tablet A (made in China) and nimotop (Bayer, Germany) was carried out in 8 volunteers at the oral dose of 120 mg by cross-over method. Two-compartment open model was suitable for describing the disposition of nimodipine. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were shown in Tab 1 and mean plasma concentration--time curve of nimodipine was shown in Fig 1. The results indicate that tablet A exhibited a lower bioavailability (relative to nimotop). We suggest that the product tablet A must be improved in formula and technology. PMID:11596299

  18. Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and tablet cutter

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Walid A.; Alanizi, Abdulaziz S.; Abdelhamid, Magdi M.; Alanizi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablets or half-tablets drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content=6.43%, weight=8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for medications with a narrow therapeutic-toxic range. On the basis of our results, we recommend to avoid tablet splitting whenever possible or the use of an accurate tablet splitting device when splitting cannot be avoided. PMID:25473334

  19. Bromocriptine tablet of self-microemulsifying system adsorbed onto porous carrier to stimulate lipoproteins secretion for brain cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Thongrangsalit, Sirigul; Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C

    2015-07-01

    Both low solubility and high hepatic metabolism cause low oral bioavailability of bromocriptine mesylate (BM) leading to very low drug amount in brain. Self-microemulsion (SME) tablets were developed to improve solubility, stimulate lipoprotein synthesis to promote lymphatic transport, avoid hepatic metabolism and target drug to brain. SME liquid containing castor oil, Tween(®) 80 and Cremophor(®) EL was prepared and then adsorbed onto solid carries, Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 or NeusilinUS2(®), yielding SME powders. The optimal ratios of SME liquid to carriers determined from flowability and scanning electron photomicrographs before tableting were 1.5:1, 2:1 and 2.5:1 for Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 and NeusilinUS2(®), respectively. Only Aeroperl(®)300 SME tablet had comparable dissolution to BM commercial tablet. From in vitro study in Caco-2 cells, fluorescein loaded SME tablet showed higher uptake than fluorescein loaded in either oil or surfactant. Although significantly lower amount of drug was permeated from SME tablet than from commercial tablet, higher drug uptake was obviously observed (P<0.05). In addition, higher lipoprotein synthesis expressing as content of apolipoprotein B (apo-B) found in secreted chylomicron resulted in higher drug uptake in co-culture of brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and astrocytes (CTX TNA2) from drug loaded SME tablet when compared to commercial tablet (P<0.05) due to binding of apo-B to LDL receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. Therefore, tablet of SME adsorbed onto porous carrier potentially delivered BM to brain via lymphatic transport by increasing the lipoprotein synthesis. PMID:25988280

  20. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  1. Abrupt or precipitated withdrawal from morphine induces immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Rahil T; Adler, Martin W; Meissler, Joseph J; Cowan, Alan; Rogers, Thomas J; Geller, Ellen B; Eisenstein, Toby K

    2002-06-01

    The present studies tested the effect of withdrawal from morphine by two different paradigms, abrupt withdrawal (AW) or precipitated withdrawal (PW), on the capacity of murine spleen cells to mount an in vitro antibody response. Mice were made dependent by chronic treatment using s.c. implanted morphine slow-release pellets. Splenocytes were harvested at various time points after withdrawal and the number of antibody-forming cells determined using a plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay. The results indicate that induction of abstinence from morphine in dependent mice by either paradigm caused marked immunosuppression between 24 and 48 h post-withdrawal. However, the kinetics of onset and recovery from immunosuppression were different in AW and PW. PMID:12044979

  2. Pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation of triphalaguggulkalpa tablets

    PubMed Central

    Savarikar, Shreeram S.; Barbhind, Maneesha M.; Halde, Umakant K.; Kulkarni, Alpana P.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the Study: Development of standardized, synergistic, safe and effective traditional herbal formulations with robust scientific evidence can offer faster and more economical alternatives for the treatment of disease. The main objective was to develop a method of preparation of guggulkalpa tablets so that the tablets meet the criteria of efficacy, stability, and safety. Materials and Methods: Triphalaguggulkalpa tablet, described in sharangdharsanhita and containing guggul and triphala powder, was used as a model drug. Preliminary experiments on marketed triphalaguggulkalpa tablets exhibited delayed in vitro disintegration that indicated probable delayed in vivo disintegration. The study involved preparation of triphalaguggulkalpa tablets by Ayurvedic text methods and by wet granulation, dry granulation, and direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for loss on drying, volatile oil content, % solubility, and steroidal content. The tablets were evaluated for performance tests like weight variation, disintegration, and hardness. Results: It was observed that triphalaguggulkalpa tablets, prepared by direct compression method, complied with the hardness and disintegration tests, whereas tablets prepared by Ayurvedic text methods failed. Conclusion: Direct compression is the best method of preparing triphalaguggulkalpa tablets. PMID:21731383

  3. Modulation of drug release kinetics of shellac-based matrix tablets by in-situ polymerization through annealing process.

    PubMed

    Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Limmatvapirat, Chutima; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2008-08-01

    A new oral-controlled release matrix tablet based on shellac polymer was designed and developed, using metronidazole (MZ) as a model drug. The shellac-based matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation using different amounts of shellac and lactose. The effect of annealing temperature and pH of medium on drug release from matrix tablets was investigated. The increased amount of shellac and increased annealing temperature significantly affected the physical properties (i.e., tablet hardness and tablet disintegration) and MZ release from the matrix tablets. The in-situ polymerization played a major role on the changes in shellac properties during annealing process. Though the shellac did not dissolve in acid medium, the MZ release in 0.1N HCl was faster than in pH 7.3 buffer, resulting from a higher solubility of MZ in acid medium. The modulation of MZ release kinetics from shellac-based matrix tablets could be accomplished by varying the amount of shellac or annealing temperature. The release kinetics was shifted from relaxation-controlled release to diffusion-controlled release when the amount of shellac or the annealing temperature was increased. PMID:18362064

  4. Effect of cinitapride in isolated ileum obtained from guinea-pigs treated with morphine.

    PubMed

    Colado, M I; Alfaro, M J; del Val, V L; Martn, M I

    1991-01-01

    1. Cinitapride enhanced the contractile response induced by electrical stimulation in the guinea-pig myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle strip preparations. 2. The contractile force was significantly increased in strips pretreated with morphine "in vitro" and in tolerant strips. 3. However when tissues were obtained from tolerant guinea-pigs and morphine was not added to the organ bath (morphine-abstinence), the cinitapride effect was significantly decreased. 4. Although further work is required to explain the changes in the effect of cinitapride after acute morphine treatment and in morphine tolerant tissues, the changes observed suggest that some of the cinitapride effects could be linked with the peripheral opioid system. PMID:1662171

  5. Morphine with adjuvant ketamine versus higher dose of morphine alone for acute pain: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xibing; Jin, Shuqing; Niu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Xiang; Ren, Hao; Tong, Yao; Li, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Ketamine is currently the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blocker in clinical use. Morphine in pain management is usually limited by adverse effect such as nausea and vomiting. Adjuvant treatment with ketamine may be value in giving better analgesia with fewer adverse effects. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the differences when patients received morphine with adjuvant ketamine (MK) compared with higher dose of morphine (MO) for acute pain. Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases were searched (Last search performed on July 1, 2014) by two reviewers independently. Data were extracted independently by the same two individuals who searched the studies. Results: A total of 7 trials involving 492 patients were included in the current analysis. We found pain scores were lower in the MK group compared to the MO group [MD 2.19, 95% CI (1.24, 3.13) P<0.00001]. And more patients in the MO required diclofenac [OR 1.97, 95% CI (1.06, 3.67) P=0.03]. Furthermore, morphine plus ketamine can reduced post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) [OR 3.71, 95% CI (2.37, 5.80) P<0.00001]. Importantly, the wakefulness scores for the MK group were consistently and significantly better than those for the MO group [MD -1.53, 95% CI (-2.67, -0.40) P=0.008]. Conclusion: The use of ketamine plus 1/4~2/3 the dose of morphine is better than higher dose of morphine alone in reducing pain scores, and rescuing analgesic requirement. It also improved PONV and wakefulness. PMID:25356103

  6. A randomized, double-blind comparison of OROS hydromorphone and controlled-release morphine for the control of chronic cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Magdi; Thipphawong, John

    2008-01-01

    Background Long-acting opioid formulations are advocated for maintaining pain control in chronic cancer pain. OROS hydromorphone is a sustained-release formulation of hydromorphone that requires dosing once daily to maintain therapeutic concentrations. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the clinical equivalence of immediate-release and sustained-release formulations of hydromorphone and morphine for chronic cancer pain. Methods 200 patients with cancer pain (requiring ? 540 mg/d of oral morphine) participated in this double-blind, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to receive hydromorphone or morphine (immediate-release for 29 days, sustained-release for 1015 days). Efficacy was assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), investigator and patient global evaluations, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. The primary endpoint was the 'worst pain in the past 24 hours' item of the BPI, in both the immediate-release and sustained-release study phases, with treatments deemed equivalent if the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the between-group differences at endpoint were between -1.5 and 1.5. No equivalence limits were defined for secondary endpoints. Results Least-squares mean differences (95% CI) between groups were 0.2 (-0.4, 0.9) in the immediate-release phase and -0.8 (-1.6, -0.01) in the sustained-release phase (intent-to-treat population), indicating that the immediate-release formulations met the pre-specified equivalence criteria, but that the lower limit of the 95% CI (-1.6) was outside the boundary (-1.5) for the sustained-release formulations. BPI 'pain now PM' was significantly lower with OROS hydromorphone compared with controlled-release morphine (least-squares mean difference [95% CI], -0.77 [-1.49, -0.05]; p = 0.0372). Scores for other secondary efficacy variables were similar between the two sustained-release treatments. At endpoint, > 70% of investigators and patients rated both treatments as good to excellent. The safety profiles of hydromorphone and morphine were similar and typical of opioid analgesics. Conclusion Equivalence was demonstrated for immediate-release formulations of hydromorphone and morphine, but not for the sustained-release formulations of OROS hydromorphone and controlled-release morphine. The direction of the mean difference between the treatments (-0.8) and the out-of-range lower limit of the 95% CI (-1.6) were in favor of OROS hydromorphone. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0041054 PMID:18976472

  7. Pharmacokinetics of morphine and its metabolites in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Newby, N C; Robinson, J W; Vachon, P; Beaudry, F; Stevens, E D

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we injected morphine sulfate IP into rainbow trout and measured the concentration of morphine and all potential metabolites in plasma using LC-MS/MS at a series of times after the injection. The pharmacokinetics of morphine were similar to those previously reported for seawater-acclimated rainbow trout, i.e. they were about one order of magnitude slower than in similarly sized mammals. The only metabolite of morphine present in the plasma was morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide (M3G); morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide (M6G) was not detected. M3G gradually increased after the morphine injection, peaked about 2 days later, then gradually decreased. In mammals, M3G plasma levels exceed morphine levels extremely rapidly, i.e. in less than an hour, regardless of dose, route of administration, or species. In trout, it took 2 days for M3G levels to exceed morphine levels. This is the first study of the metabolites of morphine in any ectotherm. We conclude that trout can metabolize morphine, but at a rate much slower than in mammals. PMID:18307503

  8. A comparison of morphine analgesic tolerance in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Kest, B; Palmese, C; Hopkins, E

    2000-10-01

    Studies comparing morphine tolerance in males and females are rare, and all studies to date have utilized the rat. To generalize from findings with rats morphine tolerance was investigated in male and female mice using the tail-withdrawal test. Three and 7 days of systemic morphine injections produced significant but unequal rightward shifts in the morphine dose-response curve such that females displayed greater increases in analgesic ED(50) values when compared to males. In a separate experiment, males and females displayed similar reductions in morphine analgesic sensitivity when %MPE (maximum possible effect) and %total (area under the curve) were compared after 3 days of morphine. Differences in initial morphine sensitivity between sexes were not observed in either study. The data demonstrate that, in contrast to rats, female mice undergo greater reductions in morphine analgesia relative to males following chronic morphine, but this sex difference may depend on the method of assessing analgesia. Furthermore, the duration and/or cumulative dose of morphine treatment does not affect the expression of sex differences in morphine tolerance. PMID:11011001

  9. Morphine/Codeine Ratio, a Key in Investigating a Case of Doping

    PubMed Central

    Seif-Barghi, Tohid; Moghadam, Navid; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Consumption of codeine can lead to positive urine test for morphine in athletes. Morphine is classified as a prohibited doping drug while Codeine is not. Morphine/codeine ratio is used in forensic medicine to distinguish the consumption of codeine from abuse of morphine and other narcotics. Case Presentation: We present an athlete with positive urine test for morphine with a history of consumption of codeine. The disciplinary committee came to conclusion that the athlete had not consumed morphine and did not violate doping code based on morphine/codeine ratio. Conclusions: Analysis of codeine to morphine metabolism rate is needed when we are using morphine/codeine ratio to rule out abuse of narcotics. WADA should consider analysis for the CYP2D6 alleles (main metabolizer of codeine) in case of including morphine/codeine ratio in future prohibited list. The possibility of ultra-rapid CYP2D6 cannot be ruled out in certain results of morphine/codeine near the cut point. PMID:26715976

  10. Effects of voluntary exercise on anxiety-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in rat pups borne from morphine-dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haydari, Sakineh; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Mokhtari, Amin; Safari, Manouchehr

    2014-08-22

    Exposure to morphine during pregnancy produced long-term effects in offspring behaviors. Recent studies have shown that voluntary exercise decreases the severity of anxiety behaviors in both morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Thus, the aims of the present study were to examine whether maternal exercise decreases prenatal dependence-induced anxiety and also, voluntary consumption of morphine in animal models of craving in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with access to a running wheel that lasted at least 21 days. Then, anxiety-like behaviors using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm (TBC) were tested in male rat pups. The results showed that the rat pups borne from exercising morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time (P<0.0001) and entries (P<0.05) as compared with the sedentary groups. In animal models of craving showed that voluntary consumption of morphine in the rat pups borne from exercising morphine-dependent mothers was less in the second (P<0.032) and third (P<0.014) periods of intake as compared with the sedentary group. This study showed that maternal exercise decreases the severity of the anxiogenic-like behaviors and voluntary consumption of morphine in rat pups. PMID:24973610

  11. Pharmacokinetics of ambroxol and clenbuterol tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong-Ge; Song, Li-Xue; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Xue-Ting; Di, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol Tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers after a single or multiple dosages oral administration. Methods: A total of 9 healthy adult subjects were given Ambroxol and Clenbuterol Tablets in a single dosage or multiple dosages respectively. LC/MS/MS were used for the determination of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol of in plasma. The important pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software (compartment model). Results: Single and multiple dosage groups of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol were all fitted two-compartment model. The pharmacokinetics fitted first order kinetics process. No difference in pharmacokinetics of Ambroxol in single and multiple dosage groups volunteers was observed, Which showed no marked changes, suggesting that multiple dosing did not influence the velocity of drug metabolism. Moreover, parameters of Clenbuterol had significant difference between the single and multiple dosage groups (P<0.05), showing there was accumulation in the body. 9 subjects had completed single or multiple dosages oral administration test, with no adverse drug reactions appeared during the test. Conclusion: There was no obvious accumulation of Ambroxol after repeated dosing. But obvious accumulation of Clenbuterol was noted in multiple-dose administration. The established method is sensitive, accurate, reliable and specific, and it can meet the requirement of clinical pharmacokinetic trial. PMID:26770490

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of buccal tablet formulations of ritodrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hiraku; Sakata, Osamu; Yumoto, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Buccal tablets of ritodrine (RD) hydrochloride (HCl), called RD-HCl, were prepared using the direct compression method with alginate (AL), lactose (LC), magnesium stearate (ST), and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients. The tablets were evaluated based on hardness, and tablets weighing 80?mg and with hardness of greater than 30?N were chosen as appropriate ones. As a result, tablets composed of RD-HCl (4?mg)/LC (38.5?mg)/ST (0.5?mg)/MC (37?mg) and RD-HCl (4?mg)/AL(7?mg)/LC (28.5?mg)/ST (0.5?mg)/MC (37?mg), called D9 and D10, respectively, were selected. These tablets were further evaluated based on in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies in rats. D9 rapidly released RD, achieved an effective plasma concentration from 15?min to 7?h after its buccal administration, and did not exceed the toxic plasma level of 80?ng/mL. D10 gradually released RD, and maintained an effective concentration from 1?h to 7?h after its buccal administration, without exceeding the toxic plasma level. The absorption was more prolonged in D10 than D9. Their in vivo release was considered to be caused gradually from the amount of RD remaining in the oral cavity at 7?h, in particular D10. The superior retention of D10 in plasma and oral cavity appeared to be related to its higher mucoadhesive properties. Although these results were obtained using rats, they suggest that the chosen tablets should have adequate characteristics from the viewpoints of plasma levels. PMID:26027834

  13. Role of dorsal hippocampal orexin-1 receptors in memory restoration induced by morphine sensitization phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Alijanpour, S; Tirgar, F; Zarrindast, M-R

    2016-01-15

    The present study was examined the blockade of CA1 orexin-1 receptors (OX1Rs) of the dorsal hippocampus in the induction or expression phase on morphine sensitization-induced memory restoration using the Morris water maze (MWM) apparatus. Results showed that pre-training administration of morphine (5mg/kg, s.c.) increases escape latency and traveled distance, while does not alter swimming speed. This supports the impairing effect of morphine on the spatial memory acquisition in male adult rats. Also, in the retrieval session (probe trial) this treatment decreased the time spent in the target quadrant. Moreover, morphine-induced sensitization (15 or 20mg/kg, s.c.; once daily for 3days and followed by 5days no drug treatment) restored the memory acquisition/retrieval deficit which had been induced by pre-training administration of morphine (5mg/kg, s.c.). Intra-CA1 microinjection of subthreshold doses of SB-334867 (OX1Rs antagonist; 10, 20 and 40nmol/rat), 5min before morphine (20mg/kg/day×3days, s.c.; induction phase for morphine sensitization) did not alter restoration of memory acquisition/retrieval produced by the morphine sensitization phenomenon. In contrast, microinjection of subthreshold doses of SB-334867 (10, 20 and 40nmol/rat) into the CA1 region in the training session, 5min prior to morphine (5mg/kg, s.c.; expression phase for morphine sensitization) blocked the spatial memory acquisition/retrieval in morphine-sensitized rats. In conclusion, these findings show that morphine sensitization reverses morphine-induced amnesia. Furthermore, the blockade of CA1 OX1Rs in the expression phase, but not in the induction phase, disrupts memory restoration induced by morphine sensitization. PMID:26592714

  14. Morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.; Lowry, P.; Nguyen, M.; Pollack, M.

    1986-12-01

    Cholescintigraphy is a sensitive procedure for diagnosing or excluding acute cholecystitis. However, when rapid diagnosis is critical, the requirement for delayed images (4 hr or more after injection) to minimize the false-positive rate diminishes its utility. We prospectively evaluated 40 cholescintigraphic examinations that did not visualize the gallbladder 1 hr after injection of 99mTc diisopropyliminodiacetic acid. These examinations were then augmented by administration of IV morphine, followed by an additional 30 min of imaging. After the morphine, 18 of these examinations demonstrated visualization of the gallbladder; none subsequently required surgical exploration. Of the remaining 22, who demonstrated persistent nonvisualization of the gallbladder post-morphine, 11 were explored surgically and found to be abnormal. The 11 others were treated medically. Low-dose morphine administered when the gallbladder fails to visualize after 1 hr is a useful adjunct to conventional cholescintigraphy because it reduces the time required to obtain a diagnostic result and decreases the number of false-positive results.

  15. Temperament and Character Dimensions: Correlates of Impulsivity in Morphine Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Abassi, Moslem; Abolghasemi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the role of temperament and character dimensions on impulsivity in addicts, the purpose of this study was to temperament and character dimensions: correlates of impulsivity in morphine addicts. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine and verify the association of temperament and character dimensions with impulsivity in morphine addicts. Patients and Methods: The research method was descriptive and correlational. The study sample consisted of 120 morphine addicts referred to drug addiction treatment centers in Ardabil city in 2013. The participants were selected through convenience sampling method from 5 centers. We used impulsivity scale as well as temperament and character inventory to collect data. Results: The results showed that significant relationship existed between impulsivity and characteristics such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness, while no significant relationship between impulsivity and self-transcendence was observed. The results of the multiple regression analysis showed that 47% of the impulsivity variance was explained by temperament and character dimensions. Conclusions: These findings suggest that temperament and character dimensions are associated with impulsivity. The findings also have important implications for prevention, pathology, and treatment in the morphine addicts. PMID:26870706

  16. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, D C; Pickworth, W B; Neider, G L

    1981-01-01

    1 This study was performed because dose-related effects of heroin on human sleep had not been described previously, and to discover if heroin produces a morphine-like insomnia. 2 After three adaptation nights, the sleep of seven male nondependent opiate addicts was studied following i.m. doses of heroin (3, 6, 12 mg/70 kg), morphine (10, 20 mg/70 kg) or placebo at weekly intervals in a randomized double-blind crossover design. 3 Heroin produces a dose-related increase in wakefulness, drowsiness episodes, muscle tension, and shifts in sleep-waking states. 4 Heroin produces a dose-related decrease in total sleep, sleep efficiency, delta sleep and REM sleep (REMS). 5 Heroin is about twice as potent as morphine in producing this type of insomnia. 6 'Morphine insomnia' appears to be a characteristic initial effect of several opioids, at least in nondependent opiate addicts, and might serve as a model insomnia for evaluation of hypnotics. PMID:7213520

  17. Use of morphine in cholescintigraphy for obstructive cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Nguyen, M.; Pjura, G.; Pollack, M.; Gobuty, A.

    1985-05-01

    Non-visualization of the gallbladder (GB) during the first hour of cholescintigraphy is observed in cystic duct obstruction (e.g. in acute cholecystitis) but may also occur in chronic cholecystitis, hepatocellular disease, alcoholism and prolonged total parenteral nutrition. Low dose morphine is shown to improve the specificity of the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (from 85% to 100%) with no loss in sensitivity (98%) at a small cost in terms of additional study time. The authors reviewed 27 selected cholescintigraphic examinations augmented by intravenous (IV) morphine (0.04 mg/Kg). Of the 16 cases with persistent nonvisualization of the GB, ultrasound revealed gallstones in 5 cases, sludge in 4, acalculous cholecystitis in 3, one distended GB, one contracted GB and 2 normal GB's. Of the 4 patients taken to surgery, one with gallstones and one with acalculous cholecystitis were confirmed to have acute cholecystitis while another with gallstones had chronic cholecystitis and the final patient, who was sonographically normal, presented a single common duct stone. The authors conclude that the use of IV morphine is an effective adjunct to cholescintigraphy in the evaluation of gallbladder disease, especially when visualization post morphine rules out acute cholecystitis.

  18. Morphine stimulates nitric oxide release in human mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Mantione, Kirk J; Capellan, Lismary; Casares, Federico M; Challenger, Sean; Ramin, Rohina; Samuel, Joshua M; Snyder, Christopher; Kream, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    The expression of morphine by plants, invertebrate, and vertebrate cells and organ systems, strongly indicates a high level of evolutionary conservation of morphine and related morphinan alkaloids as required for life. The prototype catecholamine, dopamine, serves as an essential chemical intermediate in morphine biosynthesis, both in plants and animals. We surmise that, before the emergence of specialized plant and animal cells/organ systems, primordial multi-potential cell types required selective mechanisms to limit their responsiveness to environmental cues. Accordingly, cellular systems that emerged with the potential for recruitment of the free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) as a multi-faceted autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule, were provided with extremely positive evolutionary advantages. Endogenous morphinergic signaling, in concert with NO-coupled signaling systems, has evolved as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of metabolic homeostasis, energy metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and energy production. Basic physiological processes involving morphinergic/NO-coupled regulation of mitochondrial function, with special emphasis on the cardiovascular system, are critical to all organismic survival. Key to this concept may be the phenomenon of mitochondrial enslavement in eukaryotic evolution via endogenous morphine. PMID:26350413

  19. Narcotic tapering in pregnancy using long-acting morphine

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Roisin; Dooley, Joe; Antone, Irwin; Guilfoyle, John; Gerber-Finn, Lianne; Kakekagumick, Kara; Cromarty, Helen; Hopman, Wilma; Muileboom, Jill; Brunton, Nicole; Kelly, Len

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document the management of and outcomes for patients receiving narcotic replacement and tapering with long-acting morphine preparations during pregnancy. Design A prospective cohort study over 18 months. Setting Northwestern Ontario. Participants All 600 births at Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Sioux Lookout, Ont, from January 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013, including 166 narcotic-exposed pregnancies. Intervention Narcotic replacement and tapering of narcotic use with long-acting morphine preparations. Main outcome measures Prenatal management of maternal narcotic use, incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome, and other neonatal outcomes. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome fell significantly to 18.1% of pregnancies exposed to narcotics (from 29.5% in a previous 2010 study, P = .003) among patients using narcotic replacement and tapering with long-acting morphine preparations. Neonatal outcomes were otherwise equivalent to those of the nonexposed pregnancies. Conclusion In many patients, long-acting morphine preparations can be safely used and tapered in pregnancy, with a subsequent decrease in observed neonatal withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25821873

  20. Mighty Morphin Power Ranger Play: Research and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosser, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Explores the question of whether or not Mighty Morphin Power Rangers-type aggressive play is developmentally appropriate for the early childhood classroom. Compares results from research in child development to the reality of television programming, highlighting the relationship between television violence and children's aggressive behavior. (AA)

  1. Single-dose evaluation of safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of newly formulated hydromorphone immediate-release and hydrophilic matrix extended-release tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Kaoru; Uchida, Naoki; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Sambe, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    This single dose, open-label study investigated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of newly formulated immediate-release (IR) and hydrophilic matrix extended-release (ER) hydromorphone tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist under fasting and fed conditions. Plasma and urinary concentrations of hydromorphone and metabolites were measured by liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectroscopy. Following administration of the ER tablet, plasma concentrations of hydromorphone slowly increased with a median tmax of 5.0?h and the Cmax decreased to 37% of the IR tablet, while the AUC0-inf was comparable with that of the IR tablet when administered at the same dose. The degree of fluctuation in the plasma concentration for the ER tablet was much lower than that of the IR tablet and certain levels of plasma concentrations were maintained after 24?h of ER dosing. The AUC0-inf and Cmax increased with food for both IR and ER tablets. The AUC0-inf of hydromorphone-3-glucoside was one-tenth of that of hydromorphone-3-glucuronide. A single oral administration of the hydromorphone tablets would be well-tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects despite a lack of co-administration of an opioid antagonist and the newly developed ER hydromorphone tablets may have the appropriate PK characteristics for once-daily dosing. PMID:25807927

  2. The effects of serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and serotonin receptor agonist on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ercan; Gursoy, Sinan; Bagcivan, Ihsan

    2012-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have important roles in morphine analgesia and tolerance. However, the exact mechanism underlying the development of morphine tolerance is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (amitriptyline, venlafaxine) and serotonin receptor (5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B/1D)) agonist (dihydroergotamine) in morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats. To constitute morphine tolerance, animals received morphine (50 mg/kg; s.c.) once daily for 3 days. After the last dose of morphine was injected on day 4, morphine tolerance was evaluated. The analgesic effects of amitriptyline (20 mg/kg; i.p.), venlafaxine (20 mg/kg; s.c.), dihydroergotamine (100 ?g/kg; i.v.) and morphine (5 mg/kg) were considered at 15- to 30-min intervals (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) by tail-flick and hot-plate analgesia tests. In this study, the data obtained suggested that amitriptyline and venlafaxine significantly increased the analgesic effect of morphine and attenuated the expression of morphine tolerance. However, dihydroergotamine significantly increased the analgesic effect of morphine but did not reduce the expression of morphine tolerance. In conclusion, we determined that co-administration of morphine with amitriptyline and venlafaxine increased the analgesic effects of morphine and attenuated the morphine analgesic tolerance. PMID:22544464

  3. Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets Based on Chitosan/Gelatin Microparticles for Delivery of Propranolol Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, Angela; Cerchiara, Teresa; Bigucci, Federica; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Luppi, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Propranolol administration through buccal route offers some distinct advantages thanks to the easy access to the oral mucosa, fast onset of action, and avoidance of hepatic and intestinal degradation mechanisms. To overcome the effective removal existing in the buccal cavity, mucoadhesive delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact with the buccal mucosa. The aim of this study was to prepare mucoadhesive tablets based on chitosan/gelatin microparticles for buccal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Spray-dried microparticles were prepared with different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios and characterized in terms of yield and morphology. Microparticles were subsequently compressed with the drug to obtain loaded buccal tablets. In vitro water uptake, mucoadhesion, release, and permeation tests were performed to investigate tablet ability to hydrate, to adhere to the mucosa, and to deliver drug through buccal mucosa. Microparticles showed a different morphology based on the different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios. Moreover, buccal tablets based on the prepared microparticles showed different technological and functional characteristics in virtue of their composition. In particular, tablets with an excess of chitosan showed the best mucoadhesive properties, allowed the permeation of the greatest drug amount among all formulations, and could be promising for buccal administration of propranolol hydrochloride. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:4365-4372, 2015. PMID:26505621

  4. Formulation of a modified-release pregabalin tablet using hot-melt coating with glyceryl behenate.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyu Ho; Woo, Hye Seung; Kim, Chae Jin; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Jeon, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Young; Kang, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sangkil; Choi, Young Wook

    2015-11-10

    A modified-release (MR) tablet of the anti-anxiety drug pregabalin (PRE) was prepared by hot-melt coating PRE with glyceryl behenate (GB) as a release retardant and compressing to form a matrix with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a hydrophilic diluent. GB-coated PRE had a size in the range of 177-290 ?m with good to acceptable flowability. Tablet hardness decreased slightly as GB content increased. PRE release from the tablet matrices was successfully modified by altering the ratio of MCC and GB, and it was found that dissolution- or diffusion-controlled release depended on the amount of GB used. Drug release was pH-independent. An accelerated stability test on the most promising MR tablet at 40C and 75% relative humidity for 6 months showed no significant changes in PRE content, and the occurrence of total impurities--including PRE-lactam--was within acceptable limits. After oral administration of the selected MR tablet or a commercial IR capsule (Lyrica) to healthy human volunteers, pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-24, and T1/2 were compared. The confidence interval of AUC0-24 was within the adequate range, but that of Cmax was inadequate. This study demonstrated the potential use of GB for PRE-containing MR formulations. PMID:26315121

  5. Influence of fentanyl and morphine on intestinal circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of fentanyl and morphine on the intestinal circulation was evaluated in an isolated loop preparation in 37 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital intravenously. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mm Hg. A mixture of /sup 86/Rb and 9-micron spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A strong correlation was found between the clearances of rubidium and microspheres (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001), suggesting that the shunting of 9-micron spheres through the intestines reflects the shunting of blood through nonnutritive vessels. Intravenous fentanyl decreased oxygen uptake (O/sub 2/up), and vascular resistance (VR), and increased blood flow (BF), rubidium and microsphere clearances (Cl-Rb, Cl-Sph, respectively), and permeability--surface area product (PS) in a dose-related fashion. Intravenous morphine in a dose of 1 mg X kg-1 increased Cl-Rb (nutritive BF) without changes in total (nutritive and nonnutritive) BF. This increase in nutritive BF is probably related to morphine-induced histamine release. Morphine in a dose of 5 mg X kg-1 was accompanied by vasoconstriction that was completely abolished by alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. The data suggest that morphine-induced intestinal vasoconstriction is mediated via a release of epinephrine, apparently from the adrenal medulla. It is concluded that changes in the intestinal circulation during anesthesia with narcotics might play a certain role in the cardiovascular homeostasis during anesthesia and surgery. An increase in oxygen content in portal venous blood, resulting from a decrease in intestinal oxygen uptake, should facilitate hepatic oxygenation.

  6. Morphine-induced hyperactivity in rats--a rebound effect?

    PubMed

    Magnus-Ellenbroek, B; Havemann-Reinecke, U

    1993-06-01

    The behavioural nature of the delayed hyperactivity induced by systemic administration of morphine was studied in rats. Different components of motility induced by morphine with or without naloxone or haloperidol at different times were analyzed by observation and quantified by an Opto-Varimex-3 Activity Meter. By this automatic recording system motility was discriminated into horizontal and two different vertical components and the total distance run by each of the rats was quantified by a computer program. Simultaneously the running pattern was recorded by a XY-plotter. By means of these recordings, three subsequent phases of behaviour could be recorded after morphine (15 mg/kg i.p.): 1. a depressed phase (akinesia) lasting 1.5-2 h, followed, 2. by an intermediate phase for 1-1.5 h, still dominated by akinesia but interrupted by sudden bursts of hyperactivity. Finally, 3. a hyperactivity phase lasted for 1.5-2 h, characterized by an equal enhancement of locomotor activity and stereotypy. After 30 mg/kg of morphine the hyperactivity was predominantly characterized by locomotor activity and stereotypy and rearing were less prominent than after the smaller dose. Naloxone (2 mg/kg i.p.) given at the beginning of the hyperactivity phase significantly antagonized rearing but not other motility parameters. However, coadministration of naloxone (2 mg/kg i.p.) simultaneously with morphine (15 mg/kg) clearly antagonized akinesia and completely prevented the development of the delayed hyperactivity. Haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg i.p.) at the beginning of the hyperactivity phase clearly antagonized all of the motility parameters seen during this phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8361550

  7. Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of floating bilayer tablet of lisinopril maleate and metoprolol tartrate.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Hira; Qureshi, Junaid; Danish, Zeeshan; Zaman, Muhammad; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Hanif, Muhammad; Waheed, Imran; Mohammad, Imran Shair

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the technology for the development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery system to overcome various physiological problems. Several approaches are being used for the purpose of increasing the gastric retentive time, including floating drug delivery system. Gastric floating lisinopril maleate and metoprolol tartrate bilayer tablets were formulated by direct compression method using the sodium starch glycolate, crosscarmellose sodium for IR layer. Eudragit L100, pectin, acacia as sustained release polymers in different ratios for SR metoprolol tartrate layer and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid as gas generating agents for the floating extended release layer. The floating bilayer tablets of lisinopril maleate and metoprolol tartrate were designed to overcome the various problems associated with conventional oral dosage form. Floating tablets were evaluated for floating lag time, drug contents and in-vitro dissolution profile and different kinetic release models were applied. It was clear that the different ratios of polymers affected the drug release and floating time. L2 and M4 showed good drug release profile and floating behavior. The linear regression and model fitting showed that all formulation followed Higuchi model of drug release model except M4 that followed zero order kinetic. From the study it is evident that a promising controlled release by floating bilyer tablets of lisinopril maleate and metoprolol tartrate can be developed successfully. PMID:26639495

  8. Increase in plasma concentrations of geranylgeranoic Acid after turmeric tablet intake by healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mitake, Maiko; Ogawa, Hiroko; Uebaba, Kazuo; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2010-05-01

    Geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) is one of the most potent cancer-preventive acyclic retinoids. GGA has been shown to induce cell death in human hepatoma-derived HuH-7 cells. We have recently reported the natural occurrence of GGA and its related compounds in several medicinal herbs such as turmeric, basil, rosehip, cinnamon and others [Shidoji and Ogawa, J. Lipid Res., 45: 1092-1103, 2004]. In the present study, we performed oral administration of turmeric tablets to healthy volunteers in order to investigate bioavailability of natural GGA. By using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, authentic GGA was eluted at a retention time of around 18 min as a negative ion of m/z 303.4. With healthy volunteers, plasma GGA was detected prior to the tablet intake and its concentrations were increased at 2 h after its intake and maintained at higher level until 4 h, suggesting an efficient bioavailability of preformed GGA in the turmeric tablets through oral administration. These results indicated that GGA in the turmeric tablet was absorbed as an intact form from intestinal mucosa. The present study provides a clue to conduct a research for cancer preventive roles of GGA in a number of spices. PMID:20490321

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Ropivacaine Addition to Intrathecal Morphine for Pain Management in Intractable Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Li, Xihan; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Jian; Tao, Gaojian

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Although intrathecal drug infusion has been commonly adopted for terminal cancer pain relief, its adverse effects have made many clinicians reluctant to employ it for intractable cancer pain. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and security of an intrathecal continuous infusion of morphine and ropivacaine versus intrathecal morphine alone for cancer pain. Methods. Thirty-six cancer patients received either a continuous morphine (n = 19) or morphine and ropivacaine (n = 17) infusion using an intrathecal catheter through a subcutaneous port. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores and the Barthel Index were analyzed. Adverse effects and complications on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 15 were also analyzed. Results. All patients experienced pain relief. Compared to those who received morphine alone, patients receiving morphine and ropivacaine had significantly lower postoperative morphine requirements and higher Barthel Index scores on the 15th postsurgical day (P < 0.05). Patients receiving morphine and ropivacaine had lower NRS scores than patients receiving morphine alone on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 15 (P < 0.05). Negative postsurgical effects were similar in both groups. Conclusions. Morphine and ropivacaine administration through intrathecal access ports is efficacious and safe and significantly improves quality of life. PMID:26556955

  10. Myoelectric activity of the small intestine during morphine dependence and withdrawal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, D.A.; Sninsky, C.A.; Lynch, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    The authors investigated (1) the effect of morphine dependence on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) of the small intestine, (2) whether bacterial overgrowth developed in morphine-dependent rats, and (3) the effect of naloxone and methylbromide naltrexone, a peripheral opioid antagonist, on the MMC in morphine-naive and morphine-dependent rats. They also evaluated intestinal motility during naloxone-induced withdrawal in animals pretreated with clonidine. Intestinal myoelectric activity was monitored by four indwelling electrodes in unanesthetized, fasted rats. D-(/sup 14/C)xylose breath tests were performed before and after morphine-pellet implantation to evaluate the presence of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Naloxone had no effect on myoelectric activity of the small intestine in morphine-naive rats. Cycling activity fronts were present in morphine-dependent animals, but there was a significant prolongation of activity front periodicity and slowing of the propagation velocity. No significant increase in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion was noted in the morphine-dependent rats. They conclude from their studies that (1) myoelectric activity of the small intestine develops incomplete tolerance to morphine; (2) bacterial overgrowth is not a feature of morphine dependence in the rat; (3) alterations of intestinal myoelectric activity are a component of the opiate withdrawal syndrome, and they appear at least partially mediated by a peripheral mechanism that can be suppressed by an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist.

  11. Memory Impairment and Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice after Administration of Systemic Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F Scott; Fujii, Mei; Goto, Akiko; Kanda, Yusuke; Koizumi, Akira; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Mibayashi, Satoko; Muranishi, Yumi; Otaki, Soichiro; Sumikawa, Minako; Tanaka, Koh-ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Uhl, George R; Takemura, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of morphine were examined on tests of spatial memory, object exploration, locomotion, and anxiety in male ICR mice. Administration of morphine (15 or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) induced a significant decrease in Y-maze alternations compared to saline vehicle-treated mice. The reduced Y-maze alternations induced by morphine were completely blocked by naloxone (15 mg/kg) or β-funaltrexamine (5 mg/kg) but not by norbinaltorphimine (5 mg/kg) or naltrindole (5 mg/kg), suggesting that the morphine-induced spatial memory impairment was mediated predominantly by μ-opioid receptors (MOPs). Significant spatial memory retrieval impairments were observed in the Morris water maze (MWM) in mice treated with morphine (15 mg/kg) or scopolamine (1 mg/kg), but not with naloxone or morphine plus naloxone. Reduced exploratory time was observed in mice after administration of morphine (15 mg/kg), in a novel-object exploration test, without any changes in locomotor activity. No anxiolytic-like behavior was observed in morphine-treated mice in the elevated plus maze. A significant reduction in buried marbles was observed in morphine-treated mice measured in the marble-burying test, which was blocked by naloxone. These observations suggest that morphine induces impairments in spatial short-term memory and retrieval, and reduces exploratory behavior, but that these effects are not because of overall changes in locomotion or anxiety. PMID:25987850

  12. Pregabalin role in inhibition of morphine analgesic tolerance and physical dependency in rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Shakeri, Saeed

    2014-11-01

    Pregabalin is recently proposed as analgesic or adjuvant in pain management. While previous preclinical investigations have evaluated pregabalin-opioid interactions, the effect of pregabalin on opioid tolerance and dependency has not yet been studied. Here we evaluated the effects of different doses of pregabalin (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, s.c.) on morphine-induced tolerance and dependency in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were rendered tolerant to analgesic effect of morphine by injection of morphine (10mg/kg, s.c.) twice daily for 7 days. To develop morphine dependence, rats were given escalating doses of morphine. To determine the effect of pregabalin on the development of morphine tolerance and dependence, different doses of pregabalin were administrated before morphine. The tail-flick and naloxone precipitation withdrawal tests were used to evaluate the degree of tolerance and dependence, respectively. Chronic morphine-injected rats showed significant decrements in the percentage maximum possible effect (%MPE) of morphine on the days 5 and 7 (32.5%±3.5, 21.5%±4, respectively) compared to the first day (100%) which showed morphine tolerance. Pregabalin 200mg/kg completely prevented the development of morphine tolerance. In addition, concomitant treatment of morphine with pregabalin attenuated almost all of the naloxone-induced withdrawal signs which include weight loss, jumping, penis licking, teeth chattering, wet dog shakes, rearing, standing, sniffing, face grooming and paw tremor. These data show that pregabaline has a potential anti-tolerant/anti-dependence property against chronic usage of morphine. Therefore, pregabalin appears to be a promising candidate for the treatment of opioid addiction after confirming by future clinical studies. PMID:25220244

  13. Proteome Analysis of Rat Hippocampus Following Morphine-induced Amnesia and State-dependent Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jafarinejad-Farsangi, Saeideh; Farazmand, Ali; Rezayof, Ameneh; Darbandi, Niloufar

    2015-01-01

    Morphines effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under post-training morphine influence. In the hippocampus, a total of 18 proteins were identified whose MASCOT (Modular Approach toSoftwareConstruction Operation and Test) scores were inside 95% confidence level. Of these, five hippocampal proteins altered in morphine-induced amnesia and ten proteins were found to change in the hippocampus of animals that had received post-training and pre-test morphine. These proteins show known functions in cytoskeletal architecture, cell metabolism, neurotransmitter secretion and neuroprotection. The findings indicate that the effect of morphine on memory formation in passive avoidance learning has a morphological correlate on the hippocampal proteome level. In addition, our proteomicscreensuggests that morphine induces memory impairment and state-dependent learning through modulating neuronal plasticity. PMID:25901168

  14. PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY NEUROPLASTICITY FOLLOWING CHRONIC MORPHINE VARIES WITH AGE: ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Dusica; Berde, Charles B.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine has been associated with networks within ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and separately, nitric oxide signaling. Furthermore, it is known that the mechanisms that underlie tolerance differ with age. In this study, we used a rat model of antinociceptive tolerance to morphine at two ages, postnatal day (PD) 7 and adult, to determine if changes in the vlPAG related to nitric oxide signaling produced by chronic morphine exposure were age-dependent. Three pharmacological groups were analyzed: control, acute morphine, and chronic morphine group. Either morphine (10 mg/kg) or equal volume of normal saline was given subcutaneously twice daily for 6 days. Animals were analyzed for morphine dose-response using Hot Plate test, and for the expression of several genes associated with nitric oxide metabolism was evaluated using rtPCR. In addition, the effect of morphine exposure on immunohistochemistry for Fos, and nNOS as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) reaction at the vlPAG were measured. In both age groups acute morphine activated Fos in the vlPAG, and this effect was attenuated by chronic morphine, specifically in the vlPAG at the level of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg). In adults, but not PD7 rats, chronic morphine administration was associated with activation of nitric oxide function. In contrast, changes in the gene expression of PD7 rats suggested superoxide and peroxide metabolisms may be engaged. These data indicate that there is supraspinal neuroplasticity following morphine administration as early as PD7. Furthermore, oxidative stress pathways associated with chronic morphine exposure appear age-specific. PMID:22999971

  15. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible. PMID:25863436

  16. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... water (0.002 percent roxarsone). (b) Indications for use. For increased rate of weight gain, improved...) Amount. Dissolve 8 tablets in each gallon of drinking water (0.008 percent roxarsone). (b) Indications... water for no more than 6 days, or 1 tablet (400 milligrams) per 2 fluid ounces of warm water per...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... water (0.002 percent roxarsone). (b) Indications for use. For increased rate of weight gain, improved...) Amount. Dissolve 8 tablets in each gallon of drinking water (0.008 percent roxarsone). (b) Indications... water for no more than 6 days, or 1 tablet (400 milligrams) per 2 fluid ounces of warm water per...

  18. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  19. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  20. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  1. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  2. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  3. Enhancing Student Performance Using Tablet Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Amelito G.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive

  4. Enhancing Student Performance Using Tablet Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Amelito G.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive…

  5. Putting Tablet PCs to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirian, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Like many educators, the author and her colleagues (five faculty members and two IT techs) in the department of Media Communications and Technology at East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania were interested to find out the status of tablet PCs in education. Microsoft listed 10 manufacturers of tablet PCs following two forms: the slate and the

  6. Tablet PCs: A Physical Educator's New Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computers in education have come a long way from the abacus of 5,000 years ago to the desktop and laptop computers of today. Computers have transformed the educational environment, and with each new iteration of smaller and more powerful machines come additional advantages for teaching practices. The Tablet PC is one. Tablet PCs are fully…

  7. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... period. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) Growing chickens—(a.... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... period. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) Growing chickens—(a.... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  9. Tablet PCs: A Physical Educator's New Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computers in education have come a long way from the abacus of 5,000 years ago to the desktop and laptop computers of today. Computers have transformed the educational environment, and with each new iteration of smaller and more powerful machines come additional advantages for teaching practices. The Tablet PC is one. Tablet PCs are fully

  10. Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingping; Ou, Jianjun; Xue, Haibo; Liu, Li; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. PMID:24600225

  11. Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingping; Ou, Jianjun; Xue, Haibo; Liu, Li; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (Peoples Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. PMID:24600225

  12. Smartphones and tablets: Reshaping radiation oncologists lives

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Iturriaga, Alfonso; Bilbao, Pedro; Casquero, Francisco; Cacicedo, Jon; Crook, Juanita

    2012-01-01

    Background Smartphones and tablets are new handheld devices always connected to an information source and capable of providing instant updates, they allow doctors to access the most updated information and provide decision support at the point of care. Aim The practice of radiation oncology has always been a discipline that relies on advanced technology. Smartphones provide substantial processing power, incorporating innovative user interfaces and applications. Materials and methods The most popular smartphone and tablet app stores were searched for radiation oncology and oncology related apps. A web search was also performed searching for smartphones, tablets, oncology, radiology and radiation oncology. Results Smartphones and tablets allow rapid access to information in the form of podcasts, apps, protocols, reference texts, recent research and more. Conclusion With the rapidly changing advances in radiation oncology, the trend toward accessing resources via smartphones and tablets will only increase, future will show if this technology will improve clinical care. PMID:24669308

  13. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  14. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  15. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  16. Oral Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  17. Oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  18. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  19. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of guar gum based triple-layer matrix tablet of diclofenac sodium

    PubMed Central

    Chavda, H.V.; Patel, M.S.; Patel, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to design an oral controlled drug delivery system for sparingly soluble diclofenac sodium (DCL) using guar gum as triple-layer matrix tablets. Matrix tablet granules containing 30% (D1), 40% (D2) or 50% (D3) of guar gum were prepared by the conventional wet granulation technique. Matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium were prepared by compressing three layers one by one. Centre layer of sandwich like structure was incorporated with matrix granules containing DCL which was covered on either side by guar gum granule layers containing either 70, 80 or 87% of guar gum as release retardant layers. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, drug content, and drug release studies. To ascertain the kinetics of drug release, the dissolution profiles were fitted to various mathematical models. The in vitro drug release from proposed system was best explained by the Hopfenberg model indicating that the release of drug from tablets displayed heterogeneous erosion. D3G3, containing 87% of guar gum in guar gum layers and 50% of guar gum in DCL matrix granule layer was found to provide the release rate for prolonged period of time. The results clearly indicate that guar gum could be a potential hydrophilic carrier in the development of oral controlled drug delivery systems. PMID:23181081

  20. Memantine and dizocilpine interactions with antinociceptive or discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in rats after acute or chronic treatment with morphine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yukun; Evola, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Memantine is a N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channel blocker that binds to dizocilpine sites and appears well tolerated during chronic use. Published studies suggest NMDAR antagonists prevent development of tolerance to effects of morphine by blocking NMDAR hyperactivation. Objectives We sought to compare effects of memantine to those of the more frequently studied dizocilpine and to evaluate memantine as a potential adjunct to modify tolerance to mu-opioid receptor agonists. Methods SpragueDawley rats were trained to discriminate morphine (3.2 mg/kg) and saline under fixed ratio 15 schedules of food delivery. Potency and maximal stimulus or rate-altering effects of cumulative doses of morphine were examined 30 min after pretreatment with dizocilpine (0.0320.1 mg/kg) or memantine (510 mg/kg) and after chronic treatment with combinations of dizocilpine or memantine and morphine, 10 mg/kg twice daily, for 6 to 14 days. Effects of dizocilpine or memantine on morphine antinociception were examined in a 55 C water tail-withdrawal assay with drug treatments parallel to those in discrimination studies. Results Acutely, memantine attenuated while dizocilpine potentiated the stimulus and antinociceptive effects of morphine. Neither chronic dizocilpine nor memantine blocked tolerance to the stimulus effects of morphine. In contrast, combined-treatment with dizocilpine (0.1 mg/kg) blocked tolerance to antinociceptive effects of lower (0.1?3.2 mg/kg) but not higher doses of morphine, whereas memantine did not block tolerance. Conclusions Memantine and dizocilpine interacted differently with morphine, possibly due to different NMDAR binding profiles. The lack of memantine-induced changes in morphine tolerance suggests memantine may not be a useful adjunct in chronic pain management. PMID:22864944

  1. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  2. Continuous intraventricular clonidine infusion in controlled morphine withdrawal--case report.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, M; Hussein, S; Verner, L

    2002-08-01

    A patient with atypical bilateral facial pain reported the loss of analgesic effect of intracerebroventricular morphine delivered continuously via an implanted pump, accompanied by intolerable adverse side effects associated with the administered high dose of morphine. Clonidine was substituted for morphine over a period of 3 weeks to achieve a drug holiday. The patient did not have significant withdrawal symptoms or major discomfort from pain, leading to a reduced quality of life during this period. Six months after the treatment, the patient continues to require a significantly lower daily dose of morphine. Morphine withdrawal with clonidine substitution produced a significant improvement in the analgesic efficacy of morphine and in the quality of life in the absence of undesirable side effects. PMID:12127036

  3. Influences of morphine on the spontaneous and evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in lateral amygdala of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J-J; Liu, X-D; Yu, L-C

    2016-03-14

    Acute morphine exposure induces antinociceptive activity, but the underlying mechanisms in the central nervous system are unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we explore the role of morphine in the modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in lateral amygdala neurons of rats. The results demonstrate that perfusion of 10 microM of morphine to the lateral amygdala inhibits the discharge frequency significantly. We further find that there are no significant influences of morphine on the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Interestingly, morphine shows no marked influence on the evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in the lateral amygdala neurons. These results indicate that acute morphine treatment plays an important role in the modulation on the excitatory synaptic transmission in lateral amygdala neurons of rats. PMID:26596324

  4. Mitochondrial events responsible for morphine's cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    He, Haiyan; Huh, Jin; Wang, Huihua; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi; Xu, Zhelong

    2016-01-01

    Morphine may induce cardioprotection by targeting mitochondria, but little is known about the exact mitochondrial events that mediate morphine's protection. We aimed to address the role of the mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase in morphine's protection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30min ischemia and 2h of reperfusion. Morphine was given before the onset of ischemia. Infarct size and troponin I release were measured to evaluate cardiac injury. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial ROS generation. HL-1 cells were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion and LDH release and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were measured. Morphine reduced infarct size as well as cardiac troponin I release which were aborted by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-I1. Morphine also attenuated LDH release and prevented a loss of ??m at reperfusion in a Src tyrosine kinase dependent manner in HL-1 cells. However, morphine failed to reduce LDH release in HL-1 cells transfected with Src siRNA. Morphine increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation at reperfusion and this was abrogated by PP2. Morphine attenuated mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial superoxide generation at reperfusion through Src tyrosine kinase. The inhibitory effect of morphine on the mitochondrial complex I activity was reversed by PP2. These data suggest that morphine induces cardioprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I at reperfusion by Src tyrosine kinase may account for the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress by morphine. PMID:26631580

  5. Morphine formation from ethylmorphine: implications for drugs-of-abuse testing in urine.

    PubMed

    Popa, C; Beck, O; Brodin, K

    1998-01-01

    In drugs-of-abuse testing, opiates constitute a delicate and controversial task because morphine may occur in urine for several reasons. Ethylmorphine (EtM), which is used as an antitussive drug in many countries, is metabolically converted to morphine. The present study was performed in order to document intra- and interindividual differences in morphine formation after single-dose intake of EtM at two different doses (25 and 50 mg). The urinary excretion of opiates was measured during 48 h with EMIT and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 10 healthy volunteers. The mean values of totally recovered EtM and morphine in hydrolyzed urine during 48 h were 42 and 47% of the given dose at high and low dose level, respectively. The ratio between total recovered morphine and EtM ranged from 19 to 131% with a mean value of 48%. The rate of positive outcome in the EMIT opiate-screening assay was 100% during the first 24 h for both doses, and it was still high (> or = 67%) in the 24-48 h time interval. It was found that the decline in urinary EtM is more rapid than for morphine, which leads to an increasing morphine/EtM ratio in urine over time. THe mean value of the morphine/EtM ratio was found to be greater than 1 during the 12-24 h interval and finally increased to greater than 10. There was an intra-individual concordance in morphine/EtM ratio between doses, but there was marked interindividual variation. Morphine/EtM ratios that were greater than 1 were only seen when the concentration of morphine was below 300 micrograms/mmol creatinine. Our results demonstrate that morphine is formed from EtM at a high and variable rate and may be present in urine in concentrations greater than those of EtM even shortly after drug intake. PMID:9547411

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence expression is directly activated by morphine and is capable of causing lethal gut derived sepsis in mice during chronic morphine administration

    PubMed Central

    Babrowski, Trissa; Holbrook, Christopher; Moss, Jonathan; Gottlieb, Lawrence; Valuckaite, Vesta; Zaborin, Alexander; Poroyko, Valeriy; Liu, Donald C.; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed to examine the effect of morphine administration on the intestinal mucus barrier and determine its direct effect on the virulence and lethality of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most frequent pathogens to colonize the gut of critically ill patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Surgical injury is associated with significant exposure of host tissues to morphine from both endogenous release as well as its use as a potent analgesic agent. Morphine use in surgical patients exposed to extreme physiologic stress is well established to result in increased infection risk. Although morphine is a known immunosuppressant, whether it directly induces virulence expression and lethality in microbes that colonize the human gut remains unknown. METHODS Mice were implanted with a slow release morphine or placebo pellet with and without intestinal inoculation of P. aeruginosa created by direct cecal injection. Mucus production and epithelial integrity was assessed in cecal tissue via Alcian Blue staining and histological analysis. In vivo and in vitro P. aeruginosa virulence expression was examined using reporter strains tagged to the epithelial barrier disrupting protein PA-I lectin. P. aeruginosa chemotaxis toward morphine was also assayed in vitro. Finally the direct effect of morphine to induce PA-I lectin expression was determined in the absence and presence of methylnaltrexone, a mu opioid receptor antagonist. RESULTS Mice intestinally inoculated with P. aeruginosa and implanted with a morphine pellet demonstrated significant suppression of intestinal mucus, disrupted intestinal epithelium and enhanced mortality whereas exposure of mice to either systemic morphine or intestinal P. aeruginosa alone enhanced intestinal mucus without mortality suggesting a shift in P. aeruginosa during morphine exposure to a mucus suppressing, barrier disrupting, and lethal phenotype. Direct exposure of P. aeruginosa to morphine in vitro confirmed that morphine can transform P. aeruginosa to a more virulent phenotype that is attenuated in part, by methylnaltrexone. CONCLUSIONS Morphine administration shifts intestinal P. aeruginosa to express a virulent phenotype and may play a role in its ability to causes lethal gut-derived sepsis in a susceptible host. PMID:21989372

  7. Analgesic Effects of Paracetamol and Morphine After Elective Laparotomy Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Alimian, Mahzad; Pournajafian, Alireza; Kholdebarin, Alireza; Ghodraty, Mohammadreza; Rokhtabnak, Faranak; Yazdkhasti, Payman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opioids have been traditionally used for postoperative pain control, but they have some unpleasant side effects such as respiratory depression or nausea. Some other analgesic drugs like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are also being used for pain management due to their fewer side effects. Objectives: The aim of our study was to compare the analgesic effects of paracetamol, an intravenous non-opioid analgesic and morphine infusion after elective laparotomy surgeries. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed on 157 ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) I-II patients, who were scheduled for elective laparotomy. These patients were managed by general anesthesia with TIVA technique in both groups and 150 patients were analyzed. Paracetamol (4 g/24 hours) in group 1 and morphine (20 mg/24 hours) in group 2 were administered by infusion pump after surgery. Postoperative pain evaluation was performed by visual analog scale (VAS) during several hours postoperatively. Meperidine was administered for patients complaining of pain with VAS > 3 and repeated if essential. Total doses of infused analgesics, were recorded following the surgery and compared. Analysis was performed on the basis of VAS findings and meperidine consumption. Results: There were no differences in demographic data between two groups. Significant difference in pain score was found between the two groups, in the first eight hours following operation (P value = 0.00), but not after 12 hours (P = 0.14) .The total dose of rescue drug (meperidine) and number of doses injected showed a meaningful difference between the two groups (P = 0.00). Also nausea, vomiting and itching showed a significant difference between the two groups and patients in morphine group, experienced higher levels of them. Conclusions: Paracetamol is not enough for postoperative pain relief in the first eight hour postoperatively, but it can reduce postoperative opioid need and is efficient enough for pain management as morphine after the first eight hours following surgery. PMID:24829880

  8. Prefrontal cortex gates acute morphine action on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changliang; Fang, Xing; Wu, Qianqian; Jin, Guozhang; Zhen, Xuechu

    2015-08-01

    Morphine excites dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), an effect mediated by both local and systemic mechanisms. While the importance of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) - VTA circuit in opiate addiction is well established, little is known about how the PFC regulates the activity of VTA DA neurons upon morphine stimulation. One major challenge is that VTA DA neurons are highly heterogeneous in terms of projection and regulation, making their responses to PFC manipulations variable. Our previous work has identified a subgroup of VTA DA neurons exhibiting significant slow oscillation in their firing sequence, and demonstrated that most of these neurons are functionally connected with the PFC. In the present study, we focus our efforts only on VTA DA neurons expressing strong slow oscillation, and report that blocking the neuronal activity in the PFC remarkably attenuates the morphine-induced excitation of these neurons. Using in vivo microdialysis, we find that inactivation of the PFC also reduces the morphine-induced elevation of DA levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, 24 h after only single morphine exposure, PFC-inactivation failed to prevent subsequent morphine challenge from exciting VTA DA neurons, which is paralleled by altered response of PFC pyramidal neurons to morphine stimulation. Our results indicate that the PFC gates acute morphine action on a subset of VTA DA neurons, which is highly plastic and can be functionally remodeled by morphine exposure. PMID:25882828

  9. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Morphine Induced Sensitization in Mice Memory

    PubMed Central

    Anoush, Mahdieh; Jani, Ali; Sahebgharani, Moosa; Jafari, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the effects of estradiol valerate and raloxifenea selective estrogen receptor modulator; (SERM) on morphine induced sensitization were examined in mice memory, according to the step-down passive avoidance task. Method: The mice received morphine or estradiol and raloxifene for three days alone or in combination with morphine. After a drug free period of 5 days, the subjects received saline or morphine as pre- training treatments followed by a pre-test saline administration. The memory retrieval was evaluated using step-down passive avoidance test both on the training and test day. Results: The results illustrated that the three- day administration of morphine induced sensitization through the enhancement of memory retrieval (morphine induced sensitization in mice memory). Both the three- day administration of estradiol valerate alone and with morphine (5 mg/kg) restored memory. On the other hand, the three- day administration of raloxifene had no effect on memory retrieval alone, but declined morphine induced sensitization in mice memory. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that there is an interaction between estrogen receptor modulators and morphine induced sensitization in mice memory. PMID:26877753

  10. Prenatal morphine exposure decreases susceptibility of adult male rat offspring to bicuculline seizures.

    PubMed

    Schindler, C J; Slamberov, R; Vathy, I

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to morphine (5-10 mg/kg twice daily on days 11-18 of gestation) on bicuculline seizure susceptibility and to examine the interaction of prenatal morphine exposure and hormonal background in adult male rats. The data demonstrate that prenatal morphine exposure does not affect clonic but decreases susceptibility to tonic-clonic bicuculline seizures in intact male rats. Thus, the present data support our previous work demonstrating alterations in seizure susceptibility of adult morphine-exposed animals. PMID:11743964

  11. Blockade of apomorphine-induced aggression by morphine or neuroleptics: differential alteration by antimuscarinics and naloxone.

    PubMed

    Gianutsos, G; Lal, H

    1976-06-01

    Both morphine and the neuroleptics, haloperidol and oxyperomide, dose-dependently reduce the aggression in rats produced by 20 mg/kg of apomorphine, a dopamine receptor stimulant. The narcotics antagonist, naloxone, prevents this effect of morphine but not the effect of neuroleptics. Dexetimide, a centrally acting antimuscarnic drug, antagonizes the reduction in aggression produced by the neuroleptics, but does not affect morphine's action. The cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, enhances this action of oxyperomide. These results suggest that a cholinergic component contributes to the anti-agression action of neuroleptics and demonstrates a difference in the mechanism of action between neuroleptics and morphine. PMID:988593

  12. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  13. Morphine and hydromorphone-induced hyperalgesia in a hospice patient.

    PubMed

    Juba, Katherine M; Wahler, Robert G; Daron, Susan M

    2013-07-01

    Opioids including morphine and hydromorphone are widely used for control of moderate to severe pain and dyspnea in hospice and palliative care patients. Accumulation of the active morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and hydromorphone-3-glucuronide (H3G) metabolites is one proposed mechanism for the development of neuroexcitatory effects including allodynia and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). We report the case of a 43-year-old female hospice patient with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who initially developed allodynia following morphine administration and again following administration of hydromorphone. The allodynia resolved both times following the discontinuation of the opioid and rotation to a different opioid regimen. Potential opioid-induced neuroexcitatory treatment options include opioid rotation to an agent with inactive metabolites, use of adjuvant pain medications for opioid-sparing effects, management of undesired symptoms (e.g., myoclonus), or increasing opioid clearance with intravenous (IV) fluids. Although the incidence is not well defined in the literature, hospice and palliative care clinicians should suspect OIH in patients with allodynia and/or hyperalgesia, especially when repeated dose escalations do not improve analgesia or pain escalates following opioid dose titration. PMID:22925158

  14. The efficacy of a generic doxycycline tablet in the treatment of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan; Crafford, Dionne; Erasmus, Heidi L; Botha, Ockert J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a generic doxycycline tablet (DoxyVet) against Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by the bacterium E. canis and transmitted by the brown kennel tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Six disease-free and tick-free dogs were infested with E. canis infected ticks. Once diagnosed (with polymerase chain reaction [PCR] analysis and platelet counts) as positive for infection, doxycycline tablets were administered orally once a day for 20 consecutive days, at a target dose level of 10 mg/kg. The actual dose administered was calculated as ranging between 10 mg/kg and 11.7 mg/kg. The PCR analysis, 28 days after the first administration of the tablets, failed to detect E. canis in any of the dogs. On Day 56 of the study, four of the dogs were diagnosed with E. canis for the second time and a fifth dog was diagnosed on Day 70. The platelet counts of the sixth dog remained within normal levels and it was discharged from the study on Day 84. Doxycycline tablets were then administered to the remaining five infected dogs for 28 consecutive days. Four of these dogs had no positive PCR results during the following 3 months. The fifth dog was diagnosed with E. canis for the third time 58 days after the last tablets of the second treatment had been administered, after which it was rescue treated (doxycycline for a further 28 days). The results indicate that doxycycline administered in tablet form (DoxyVet) at 10 mg/kg - 11.7 mg/kg body mass once daily for 28 consecutive days clears most dogs of infection. The importance of a concomitant tick-control programme is therefore stressed. PMID:26018824

  15. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Mahdian, Mina; Sheth, Sonam; Chandhoke, Taranpreet K; Gopalakrishna, Aadarsh; Potluri, Anitha; Yadav, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). Materials and Methods A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Results Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Conclusion Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. PMID:26389060

  16. Stability of paracetamol in packaged tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Shaikh, R H

    1993-07-01

    A study of the influence of various temperature and humidity conditions on the stability of a number of commercial paracetamol tablet formulations in original packaging has been conducted over a period of six months. Paracetamol degradation in tablets follows apparent first-order kinetics and the shelf-lives (t(90)) range from 9.8 to 23.0 months. PVC/PVDC/Al foil and polycoated paper packaging offer better protection to the tablets compared to that of viscose film. PMID:16414737

  17. Botulinum toxin A increases analgesic effects of morphine, counters development of morphine tolerance and modulates glia activation and ? opioid receptor expression in neuropathic mice.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Valentina; Marinelli, Sara; Luvisetto, Siro; Pavone, Flaminia

    2013-08-01

    The use of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) against pain, with emphasis for its possible use in alleviating chronic pain, still represents an outstanding challenge for experimental research. In this study, we examined the effects of BoNT/A on morphine-induced tolerance during chronic morphine treatment in neuropathic CD1 mice subjected to sciatic nerve lesion according to the Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. We measured the effects of BoNT/A on CCI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia and on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, marker of astrocytes), complement receptor 3/cluster of differentiation 11b (CD11b, marker of microglia), and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) at the spinal cord level. We also analyzed the colocalized expression of GFAP, CD11b and NeuN with phosphorylated p-38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and with ?-opioid receptor (MOR). A single intraplantar injection of BoNT/A (15 pg/paw) into the injured hindpaw, the day before the beginning of chronic morphine treatment (9 days of twice daily injections of 40 mg/kg morphine), was able to counteract allodynia and enhancement of astrocytes expression/activation induced by CCI. In addition, BoNT/A increased the analgesic effect of morphine and countered morphine-induced tolerance during chronic morphine treatment. These effects were accompanied, in neurons, by re-expression of MORs that had been reduced by repeated morphine administration. The combinatory effects of BoNT/A and morphine could have relevant therapeutic implications for sufferers of chronic pain who could benefit of pain relief reducing tolerance due to repeated treatment with opiates. PMID:23402794

  18. Chronic intracerebroventricular morphine and lactation in rats: dependence and tolerance in relation to oxytocin neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, V C; Robinson, I C; Russell, J A

    1988-01-01

    1. Acutely, opioids inhibit oxytocin secretion. To study the responses of oxytocin neurones during chronic opioid exposure, forty-five lactating rats were infused continuously from a subcutaneous osmotically driven mini-pump via a lateral cerebral ventricle with morphine sulphate solution from day 2 post-partum for 5-7 days; the infusion rate was increased 2- or 2.5-fold each 40 h from 10 micrograms/h initially up to 50 micrograms/h; controls were infused with vehicle (1 microliter/h, twenty-eight rats) or were untreated (eight rats). 2. Maternal behaviour was disrupted in 27% of the morphine-treated rats; in rats that remained maternal morphine did not affect body weight or water intake but increased rectal temperature by 0.82 +/- 0.14 degrees C (mean +/- S.E.M.) across the first 4 days. 3. Weight gain of the litters of maternal morphine-treated rats was reduced by 32% during 7 days, predominantly in the first day of treatment when milk transfer was also reduced. Observation of pup behaviour during suckling showed decreased frequency of milk ejections on only the second day of morphine treatment. Plasma concentration of prolactin after 6 days was similar in maternal morphine-treated and control rats, but reduced by 90% in non-maternal morphine-treated rats, indicating normal control of prolactin secretion by suckling in morphine-treated rats. 4. Oxytocin and vasopressin contents, measured by radioimmunoassay, in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and in the neurohypophysis were similar between fourteen maternal morphine-treated, twelve vehicle-treated and eight untreated lactating rats; thus exposure to morphine did not involve increased production and storage of oxytocin. 5. Distribution of [3H]morphine infused intracerebroventricularly into six virgin female rats for 6 days was measured by scintillation counting of tissue extracts. Morphine concentration in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis was 2.7 and 12.8 micrograms/g, respectively, and in blood plasma 0.75 micrograms/g. Tolerance was not due to failure of morphine infusion. In addition, naloxone (5 mg/kg s.c.) provoked typical withdrawal reactions ('wet dog' shakes, defaecation, burrowing) in lactating rats infused with morphine for 5 days. 6. Pups were suckled onto seven maternal morphine-infused and five vehicle-infused rats anaesthetized with urethane for recording of intramammary and arterial blood pressures after treatment for 5 days. The incidence and pattern of milk ejections, and mammary gland sensitivity to oxytocin were similar in the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3411499

  19. Intrathecal rapamycin attenuates morphine-induced analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia in rats with neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ji-Tian; Sun, Linlin; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Repeated and long-term administration of opioids is often accompanied by the initiation of opioid-induced analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients. Our previous studies showed that repeated intrathecal morphine injection activated the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in spinal dorsal horn neurons and that blocking this activation prevented the initiation of morphine-induced tolerance and hyperalgesia in healthy rats. However, whether spinal mTORC1 is required for morphine-induced tolerance and hyperalgesia under neuropathic pain conditions remains elusive. We here observed the effect of intrathecal infusion of rapamycin, a specific mTORC1 inhibitor, on morphine-induced tolerance and hyperalgesia in a neuropathic pain model in rats induced by the fifth lumbar spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Continuous intrathecal infusion of morphine for one week starting on day 8 post-SNL led to morphine tolerance demonstrated by morphine-induced reduction in maximal possible analgesic effect (MPAE) to tail heat stimuli and ipsilateral paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to mechanical stimuli in SNL rats. Such reduction was attenuated by co-infusion of rapamycin. Co-infusion of rapamycin also blocked morphine tolerance demonstrated by attenuation of morphine-induced reduction in MPAE in sham rats and morphine-induced hyperalgesia demonstrated by the reverse of morphine-induced reduction in PWT on both sides of sham rats and on the contralateral side of SNL rats. The results suggest that mTORC1 inhibitors could serve as promising medications for use as adjuvants with opioids in clinical neuropathic pain management. PMID:26339682

  20. Role of D?/D? dopamin receptors antagonist perphenazine in morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ercan; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Gursoy, Sinan

    2013-05-01

    While opioid receptors have been implicated in the development of tolerance, the subsequent mechanisms involved in these phenomena have not been completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of D1/D2 dopamine receptors antagonist perphenazine on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats. Male Wistar albino rats weighing 190-205 g were used in these experiments. To constitute of morphine tolerance, animals received morphine (50 mg/kg) once daily for 3 days. After last dose of morphine was injected on day 4, morphine tolerance was evaluated by the analgesia tests. The analgesic effects of perphenazine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg ), D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (1 mg/kg), D2-dopamine receptor antagonist eticlopride (1 mg/kg), and morphine were considered at 30-min intervals (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) by tail-flick and hot-plate analgesia tests. Obtained data suggested that D1/D2 dopamine receptors antagonist perphenazine was capable of suppressing opioid tolerance, possibly by the mechanism of inhibiting D2-dopamine receptor. Because the data indicated that D2-dopamine receptor antagonist eticloride, but not D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390, significantly decreased morphine tolerance in analgesia tests. In addition, administration of perphenazine with morphine increased morphine analgesia. Results from the present study suggested that dopamine receptors play a significant role in the morphine analgesic tolerance. In particular, D2-dopamine receptor has an important role rather than D1-dopamine receptor in development tolerance to morphine. PMID:23725509

  1. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Darb, Josep; Kaskens, Lisette; Snchez-de la Rosa, Rainel

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) in Spain. Methods A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 20122015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal). Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model. Results Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at 2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in the total costs of BTcP over the next 4 years. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to drug cost per day for the fentanyl buccal tablet. A 50% decrease in the daily cost of the fentanyl buccal tablet resulted in the largest overall decrease in budget impact of 5.4 million. Conclusion The increase in use of the fentanyl buccal tablet leads to overall savings in the budget impact for the Spanish National Health System. Although the economic impact of treatment for BTcP was shown to increase over 4 years due to population growth, the average annual cost per patient was reduced by 29 with increased use of the fentanyl buccal tablet. PMID:24368889

  2. Development and optimization of carvedilol orodispersible tablets: enhancement of pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Aljimaee, Yazeed HM; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama AA; El-Say, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Background Carvedilol (CVD) is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, heart failure, and systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Due to its lower aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of CVD does not exceed 30%. To overcome these drawbacks, the objective of this work was to improve the solubility and onset of action of CVD through complexation with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and formulation of the prepared complex as orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Methods Compatibility among CVD and all tablet excipients using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, complexation of CVD with different polymers, and determination of the solubility of CVD in the prepared complexes were first determined. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effect of tablet formulation variables on the characteristics of the prepared tablets and to optimize preparation conditions. According to BBD design, 15 formulations of CVD-ODTs were prepared by direct compression and then evaluated for their quality attributes. The relative pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized CVD-ODTs were compared with those of the marketed CVD tablet. A single dose, equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg CVD, was administered orally to New Zealand white rabbits using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Results The solubility of CVD was improved from 7.32 to 22.92 mg/mL after complexation with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (CVD to cyclodextrin). The formulated CVD-ODTs showed satisfactory results concerning tablet hardness (5.35 kg/cm2), disintegration time (18 seconds), and maximum amount of CVD released (99.72%). The pharmacokinetic data for the optimized CVD-ODT showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in maximum plasma concentration from 363.667 to 496.4 ng/mL, and a shortening of the time taken to reach maximum plasma concentration to 2 hours in comparison with the marketed tablet. Conclusion The optimized CVD-ODTs showed improved oral absorption of CVD and a subsequent acceleration of clinical effect, which is favored for hypertensive and cardiac patients. PMID:25834396

  3. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

  4. Design and development of polyethylene oxide based matrix tablets for verapamil hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Vidyadhara, S; Sasidhar, R L C; Nagaraju, R

    2013-03-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler), swellable filler (starch 1500), microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers) on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve(0-t) and area under first moment curve(0-t) were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h. PMID:24019567

  5. Electronic acquisition of OSCE performance using tablets

    PubMed Central

    Hochlehnert, Achim; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Mltner, Andreas; T?mb?l, Sevgi; Brass, Konstantin; Jnger, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) often involve a considerable amount of resources in terms of materials and organization since the scores are often recorded on paper. Computer-assisted administration is an alternative with which the need for material resources can be reduced. In particular, the use of tablets seems sensible because these are easy to transport and flexible to use. Aim: User acceptance concerning the use of tablets during OSCEs has not yet been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate tablet-based OSCEs from the perspective of the user (examiner) and the student examinee. Method: For two OSCEs in Internal Medicine at the University of Heidelberg, user acceptance was analyzed regarding tablet-based administration (satisfaction with functionality) and the subjective amount of effort as perceived by the examiners. Standardized questionnaires and semi-standardized interviews were conducted (complete survey of all participating examiners). In addition, for one OSCE, the subjective evaluation of this mode of assessment was gathered from a random sample of participating students in semi-standardized interviews. Results: Overall, the examiners were very satisfied with using tablets during the assessment. The subjective amount of effort to use the tablet was found on average to be hardly difficult. The examiners identified the advantages of this mode of administration as being in particular the ease of use and low rate of error. During the interviews of the examinees, acceptance for the use of tablets during the assessment was also detected. Discussion: Overall, it was found that the use of tablets during OSCEs was well accepted by both examiners and examinees. We expect that this mode of assessment also offers advantages regarding assessment documentation, use of resources, and rate of error in comparison with paper-based assessments; all of these aspects should be followed up on in further studies. PMID:26483854

  6. A new brittleness index for compacted tablets.

    PubMed

    Sonnergaard, Jrn M

    2013-12-01

    A dimensionless index that quantifies the brittle or ductile character of tablets is presented. The work of failure (WOF) of crushed or broken flat tablets is calculated by numerical integration of the force-displacement measurement in a flexure tester. The ratio between WOF and the crushing force (F) corrected for the diameter of the tablet (D) is proposed to express the brittle/ductile index (BDI). [Formula: see text] This dimensionless index quantitatively denotes the brittle/ductile character of the compacted material as the normalized deformation in percentage of a cylindrical tablet at the breaking point. For ideal brittle materials, the BDI value will be 0 and for complete plastic deformation, that is, a total compression of the tablet without fracture, BDI will be 100. The validity and discriminative power is demonstrated on mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. The robust measure of brittleness with an acceptable accuracy is obtained with only a minor influence of the tablet diameter and the speed of platen. PMID:24258281

  7. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martnez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gmez, Germn Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Morphine and Its Metabolites in Infants and Young Children After Congenital Heart Surgery.

    PubMed

    Elkomy, Mohammed H; Drover, David R; Glotzbach, Kristi L; Galinkin, Jeffery L; Frymoyer, Adam; Su, Felice; Hammer, Gregory B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize morphine glucuronidation in infants and children following cardiac surgery for possible treatment individualization in this population. Twenty children aged 3 days to 6 years, admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit after congenital heart surgery, received an intravenous (IV) loading dose of morphine (0.15 mg/kg) followed by subsequent intermittent IV bolus doses based on a validated pain scale. Plasma samples were collected over 6 h after the loading dose and randomly after follow-up doses to measure morphine and its major metabolite concentrations. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with the non-linear mixed effects software NONMEM. Parent disposition was adequately described by a linear two-compartment model. Effect of growth (size and maturation) on morphine parameters was accounted for by allometric body weight-based models. An intermediate compartment with Emax model best characterized glucuronide concentrations. Glomerular filtration rate was identified as a significant predictor of glucuronide formation time delay and maximum concentrations. Clearance of morphine in children with congenital heart disease is comparable to that reported in children without cardiac abnormalities of similar age. Children 1-6 months of age need higher morphine doses per kilogram to achieve an area under concentration-time curve comparable to that in older children. Pediatric patients with renal failure receiving morphine therapy are at increased risk of developing opioid toxicity due to accumulation of morphine metabolites. PMID:26349564

  9. A Conjugate Vaccine Attenuates Morphine- and Heroin-Induced Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian-Qian; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Xue, Yan-Xue; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Chen, Na; Deng, Jia-Hui; Zhai, Hai-Feng; Kosten, Thomas R.; Shi, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently approved medications for opioid addiction have shown clinical efficacy, but undesired side effects, dependence induced by the medications themselves, and low treatment compliance necessitate the need for novel therapies. Methods: A novel morphine-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine was synthesized with 6-glutarylmorphine as the hapten and a lengthened linker of 6 carbon atoms. The titer and specificity of the triggered antibody were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of the vaccine on the morphine-induced elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of the vaccine on morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and heroin-primed reinstatement of heroin self-administration were also assessed. Results: After subcutaneous administration in rats, the vaccine triggered a high antibody titer, with comparable specificity for morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, and heroin, but no interaction with dissimilar therapeutic opioid compounds, including buprenorphine, naloxone, and nalorphine, was observed. The vaccine significantly prevented the elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens induced by a single morphine challenge. Moreover, the vaccine prevented the expression of morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and heroin-primed reinstatement of heroin seeking, suggesting its potential for preventing relapse. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that active immunization with the present vaccine induces a robust morphine/heroin-specific antibody response in rats and attenuates the behavioral effects of morphine and heroin. PMID:25522425

  10. Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Narp in the Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Han, Sungho; Pearce, Anne M.; Cheng, KaiLun; Lee, JongAh J.; Johnson, Alexander W.; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Shaham, Yavin; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2013-01-01

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate an impaired extinction of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Because the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in extinction learning, we tested whether Narp cells in this region play a role in the extinction of morphine CPP. We found that intracranial injections of adenoassociated virus

  11. Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Narp in the Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Han, Sungho; Pearce, Anne M.; Cheng, KaiLun; Lee, JongAh J.; Johnson, Alexander W.; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Shaham, Yavin; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2013-01-01

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate an impaired extinction of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Because the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in extinction learning, we tested whether Narp cells in this region play a role in the extinction of morphine CPP. We found that intracranial injections of adenoassociated virus…

  12. Postoperative urinary retention in a dog following morphine with bupivacaine epidural analgesia.

    PubMed Central

    Herperger, L J

    1998-01-01

    Urinary retention, overflow incontinence, and subsequent detrusor atony were observed following surgery in which a morphine with bupivacaine epidural injection was used for perioperative analgesia. The premise that the urinary retention may have been due to the effects of the morphine component of the epidural is discussed, along with other possible causes. PMID:9789679

  13. Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Harshini; Tallarida, Ronald J; Reichenbach, Zachary W; Tuma, Ronald F; Ward, Sara J; Walker, Ellen A

    2015-04-01

    Cannabinoid and opioid agonists can display overlapping behavioral effects and the combination of these agonists is known to produce enhanced antinociception in several rodent models of acute and chronic pain. The present study investigated the antinociceptive effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD) and the -opioid agonist morphine, both alone and in combination, using three behavioral models in mice, to test the hypothesis that combinations of morphine and CBD would produce synergistic effects. The effects of morphine, CBD, and morphine/CBD combinations were assessed in the following assays: (a) acetic acid-stimulated stretching; (b) acetic acid-decreased operant responding for palatable food; and (c) hot plate thermal nociception. Morphine alone produced antinociceptive effects in all three models of acute nociception, whereas CBD alone produced antinociception only in the acetic acid-stimulated stretching assay. The nature of the interactions between morphine and CBD combinations were assessed quantitatively based on the principle of dose equivalence. Combinations of CBD and morphine produced synergistic effects in reversing acetic acid-stimulated stretching behavior, but subadditive effects in the hot plate thermal nociceptive assay and the acetic acid-decreased operant responding for palatable food assay. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms of action underlie the interactions between CBD and morphine in the three different behavioral assays and that the choice of appropriate combination therapies for the treatment of acute pain conditions may depend on the underlying pain type and stimulus modality. PMID:25485642

  14. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  15. Study on the interaction of morphine chloride with deoxyribonucleic acid by fluorescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. F.; Dong, C.

    2009-01-01

    The mode and mechanism of the interaction of morphine chloride, an important alkaloid compound to calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct DNA) was investigated from absorption and fluorescence titration techniques. Hypochromic effect was founded in the absorption spectra of morphine when concentration of DNA increased. The decreased fluorescence study revealed non-cooperative binding of the morphine to DNA with an affinity of 3.94 × 10 3 M -1, and the stoichiometry of binding was characterized to be about one morphine molecule per nucleotide. Stern-Volmer plots at different temperatures proved that the quenching mechanism was static. Ferrocyanide quenching study showed that the magnitude of KSV of the bound morphine was lower than that of the free one. In addition, it was found that ionic strength could affect the binding of morphine and DNA. Fluorescence polarization and denatured DNA studies also applied strong evidences that morphine molecule was partially intercalated between every alternate base pairs of ct DNA. As observed from above experiments, intercalation was well supported as the binding mode of morphine and ct DNA.

  16. Differential response to morphine of the oligomeric state of ?-opioid in the presence of ?-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Johnston, Jennifer M; Devi, Lakshmi; Filizola, Marta; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2011-04-12

    Prolonged morphine treatment induces extensive desensitization of the ?-opioid receptor (?OR) which is the G-protein-coupled receptor that primarily mediates the cellular response to morphine. To date, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is unknown. Here, we have used live cell fluorescence imaging to investigate whether prolonged morphine treatment affects the physical environment of ?OR, or its coupling with G-proteins, in two neuronal cell lines. We find that chronic morphine treatment does not change the amount of enhanced yellow fluorescence protein (eYFP)-tagged ?OR on the plasma membrane, and only slightly decreases its association with G-protein subunits. Additionally, morphine treatment does not have a detectable effect on the diffusion coefficient of eYFP-?OR. However, in the presence of another family member, the ?-opioid receptor (?OR), prolonged morphine exposure results in a significant increase in the diffusion rate of ?OR. Number and brightness measurements suggest that ?OR exists primarily as a dimer that will oligomerize with ?OR into tetramers, and morphine promotes the dissociation of these tetramers. To provide a plausible structural context to these data, we used homology modeling techniques to generate putative configurations of ?OR-?OR tetramers. Overall, our studies provide a possible rationale for morphine sensitivity. PMID:21361347

  17. Use of morphine sulphate by South African paramedics for prehospital pain management

    PubMed Central

    Vincent-Lambert, Craig; de Kock, Joalda Marthin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature highlights the fact that acute pain in the prehospital setting remains poorly managed. Morphine remains the most commonly used analgesic agent in the South African prehospital emergency care setting. Although guidelines and protocols relating to the dosage and administration of morphine exist, little data are available describing its use by South African paramedics. OBJECTIVES: To document and describe the way in which morphine is administered by a sample of South African paramedics for the management of acute pain in the prehospital setting. METHODS: An Internet-based survey was conducted. Sixty South African paramedics responded by completing the online questionnaire documenting and describing their use of morphine for management of acute pain. RESULTS: Results revealed that participants appeared to be overly cautious of potential adverse effects associated with administration of morphine. Although the majority of participants calculated the dose of morphine to be administered correctly according to the patients weight, the majority do not appear to be administering this as a bolus; rather, they administer the calculated loading dose in a titrated manner over time. This method may result in a delay and or failure to adequately achieve therapeutic serum levels. CONCLUSION: Failure to administer an appropriate bolus or loading dose when administering morphine intravenously may result in ineffective and delayed pain management. The authors recommend more clearly defined protocols be developed to guide the use of morphine sulphate by paramedics in the local emergency medical services environment. PMID:25996767

  18. Analgesic effect of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine.

    PubMed

    Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Velalopoulou, Anastasia P; Vadalouca, Athina N; Kalfakakou, Vicky P; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to various types of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) affects pain specificity (nociception) and pain inhibition (analgesia). Previous study of ours has shown that exposure to the resonant spectra derived from biologically active substances' NMR may induce to live targets the same effects as the substances themselves. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential analgesic effect of the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine. Twenty five Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group; intraperitoneal administration of morphine 10 mg/kg body wt; exposure of rats to resonant EMFs of morphine; exposure of rats to randomly selected non resonant EMFs; and intraperitoneal administration of naloxone and simultaneous exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs of morphine. Tail Flick and Hot Plate tests were performed for estimation of the latency time. Results showed that rats exposed to NMR spectrum of morphine induced a significant increase in latency time at time points (p<0.05), while exposure to the non resonant random EMFs exerted no effects. Additionally, naloxone administration inhibited the analgesic effects of the NMR spectrum of morphine. Our results indicate that exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine may exert on animals similar analgesic effects to morphine itself. PMID:22690703

  19. Radiolabeling of morphine with (131)i and its biodistribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Hseyin; Unak, Perihan; Yurt-Lambrecht, Fatma; Biber-Mftler, Fazilet Z; Seyito?lu, Beyza; Yurt, Ayfer; Yolcular, Seniha; Medine, Ilker; Bulduk, Ibrahim

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the possible radiopharmaceutical potential of morphin labeled with (131)I. Morphine was extracted from dry capsules of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), purified by high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. The purified compound was labeled with (131)I. Male Albino Wistar rats (18) were used for receptor blockage and unblockage biodistribution studies. Tissue distribution studies showed that radiolabeled morphine had higher uptake in lung, liver, small intestines, large intestines, and stomach than the other tissues. The highest uptake of radiolabeled compounds in rats' brain was found to be in the midbrain and hypothalamus. After receptor blockage with morphine, uptake of (131)I-morphine decreased in the lungs, liver, kidney, testis, prostate, spinal cord, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, and temporal cortex with respect to receptor unblockage studies of rats. This study concludes that the labeling yield of (131)I-morphine was high, high amount of (131)I-morphine was found in the hypothalamus, and (131)I-morphine has enough stability for diagnostic scanning. PMID:20707720

  20. The development of tolerance to intrathecal morphine in rat models of visceral and cutaneous pain.

    PubMed

    Ness, T J; Follett, K A

    1998-05-22

    The development of tolerance to intrathecal morphine was studied in rats chronically implanted with intrathecal catheters connected to osmotic minipumps. Measures of cutaneous nociception were the hot plate (HP) and tail flick (TF) tests. Measures of visceral nociception were visceromotor (VM) responses to ramped colorectal distension (CRD) and cardiovascular (CV) responses to phasic colorectal distension. Tolerance to a continuous infusion of 6 or 20 nmol/h of morphine sulfate developed over 6 days. A significant reduction in the dose-dependent effects of intrathecal morphine in the TF and HP tests and VM and CV responses to CRD occurred in rats receiving continuous infusions of morphine. The development of tolerance to intrathecal morphine was similar in both cutaneous and visceral models. PMID:9665657

  1. Brain cholinergic involvement during the rapid development of tolerance to morphine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahba, Z. Z.; Oriaku, E. T.; Soliman, S. F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated administration of morphine on the activities of the cholinergic enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in specific brain regions were studied in rats treated with 10 mg/kg morphine for one or two days. Repeated administration of morphine was associated with a decline in the degree of analgesia produced and with a significant increase of AChE activity of the medulla oblongata. A single injection of morphine resulted in a significant decline in ChAT activity in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata regions. After two consecutive injections, no decline in ChAT was observed in these regions, while in the cerebral cortex the second administration elicited a significant decline. The results suggest that the development of tolerance to morphine may be mediated through changes in ChAT activity and lend support to the involvement of the central cholinergic system in narcotic tolerance.

  2. Nano and Microparticulate Chitosan Based System for Formulation of Carvedilol Rapid Melt Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Ravindra; Pande, Vishal; Sonawane, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study rapid melt tablets (RMTs) of carvedilol were prepared by using ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. Carvedilol is beta-adrenergic antagonist and its oral bioavailability is about 25-35% because of first pass metabolism. Methods: The spray-dried microparticles were formulated into RMTs using a wet granulation process. The Formulation and optimization of carvedilol loaded RMTs using nano and microparticulate chitosan based system (NMCS) was done by using 32 factorial designs. Results: Drug entrapment efficiency of about 64.9 % (w/w) and loading capacity of 14.44% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which were ranged from 1 ?m to 4 ?m in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated RMTs could be completely dissolved within 40 seconds. Dissolution studies suggested that Carvedilol is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing Carvedilol that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. Conclusion: Results shown that the development of new RMTs designed with crosslinked microparticle might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional RMTs and the side effects related to Carvedilol intrinsic characteristics. The development of Carvedilol NMCS using ludiflash as RMTs could be used as a promising approach for improving the solubility and oral bioavailability of water insoluble drug. PMID:26236654

  3. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa J

    2014-12-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  4. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  5. Effects of ultra-low doses of morphine, naloxone and ethanol on morphine state-dependent memory of passive avoidance in mice.

    PubMed

    Tayebi Meybodi, K; Vakili Zarch, A; Zarrindast, M R; Djahanguiri, B

    2005-05-01

    This experiment examined and compared the effects of pre-test administration of morphine, naloxone and ethanol, at doses in the range of milligram/kg to those of nanogram/kg, on morphine state-dependent learning in a step-down passive avoidance task in mice. Morphine (5 mg/kg) administered before training impaired retention tested 24 hours later, but when the same dose of morphine was also administered before the test, the retention was significantly restored. Pre-training administration of 10 or 20 ng/kg (i.p.) of morphine had no effect, but when co-administered with the same drug at 5 mg/kg (s.c.), it prevented significantly the memory recall improvement after the administration of morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) alone. In a parallel experiment, naloxone (5 mg/kg) prevented the memory recall improvement by morphine. However, the effects of naloxone at doses in the range of ng/kg were opposite to those of milligram doses of the same drug. Pre-test administration of ethanol (1 mg/kg) improved memory recall and mimicked the effects of pre-test morphine administration. At doses in the nanogram range, the effects of ethanol were opposite those of mg/kg of the drug. A review of the literature indicates that, for several drugs and chemicals, the effects of nanogram doses are the opposite of the effects of milligrams, because different doses have different sites as well as mechanisms of actions. In conclusion, from the above results one may suggest that, in determination of the dose-response of at least some drugs, the study of the effects of doses much lower than two orders of magnitude of the minimum effective dose are warranted. PMID:15864068

  6. A validated hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap LC-MS method for the analysis of morphine and morphine glucuronides applied to opiate deaths.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kerry; Elliott, Simon

    2009-05-30

    A hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionisation ion source coupled to a HPLC system has been used to develop a method which can accurately measure morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in plasma, whole blood and post-mortem blood following solid-phase extraction. The method can also qualitatively detect various other opioids and related compounds including: codeine, dihydrocodeine (and metabolites), noscapine, papaverine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). The method has been favourably compared to an existing laboratory method using a now discontinued radio-immunoassay technique. The advantage of measuring the glucuronides directly rather than following deconjugation by beta-glucuronidase has also been shown. Detection and quantification of compounds was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) incorporating the use of deuterated morphine and M3G as internal standards. Precision and accuracy was determined to be less than 10% at both high and low levels for all analytes and the calibration curve was deemed linear over an acceptable range. Recovery in blood was greater than 90% and ion suppression/enhancement was shown to be less than 15%. This method was applied to over 130 post-mortem cases involving the use of heroin, prescribed morphine and codeine. The range of concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G was large (particularly in heroin and prescribed morphine cases), reflecting the many different factors involved with therapeutic use or fatal opiate poisonings, including tolerance associated with regular use, variable dose regimens and co-administration of other drugs. Detection of other constituents of the opium poppy such as noscapine and papaverine and metabolites of diacetylmorphine in the blood (6-AM) was useful in determining the source of the morphine (i.e. illicit heroin) and the rapidity of death after administration. PMID:19297106

  7. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow. In many cases, improvement is evident within several months. What other organizations have information about oral cancer? This list is ...

  8. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively. PMID:8712392

  9. Ethanol reversal of cellular tolerance to morphine in rat locus coeruleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Javier; Withey, Sarah; Rivero, Guadalupe; Cunningham, Margaret; Cooke, Alex; Saxena, Kunal; McPherson, Jamie; Oldfield, Sue; Dewey, William L; Bailey, Chris P; Kelly, Eamonn; Henderson, Graeme

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of ethanol is a considerable risk factor for death in heroin overdose. We sought to determine whether a mildly intoxicating concentration of ethanol could alter morphine tolerance at the cellular level. In rat locus coeruleus (LC) neurons, tolerance to morphine was reversed by acute exposure of the brain slice to ethanol (20 mM). Tolerance to the opioid peptide [d-Ala(2),N-MePhe(4),Gly-ol]-enkephalin was not reversed by ethanol. Previous studies in LC neurons have revealed a role for protein kinase C (PKC)α in μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) desensitization by morphine and in the induction and maintenance of morphine tolerance, but we have been unable to demonstrate that 20 mM ethanol produces significant inhibition of PKCα. The ability of ethanol to reverse cellular tolerance to morphine in LC neurons was absent in the presence of the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, indicating that dephosphorylation is involved. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing the MOPr, ethanol reduced the level of MOPr phosphorylation induced by morphine. Ethanol reversal of tolerance did not appear to result from a direct effect on MOPr since acute exposure to ethanol (20 mM) did not modify the affinity of binding of morphine to the MOPr or the efficacy of morphine for G-protein activation as measured by guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate binding. Similarly, ethanol did not affect MOPr trafficking. We conclude that acute exposure to ethanol enhances the effects of morphine by reversing the processes underlying morphine cellular tolerance. PMID:23716621

  10. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference and associated behavioural plasticity in HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Homji, Natasha F; Vigorito, Michael; Chang, Sulie L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of morphine addiction in HIV-1 infected persons is higher than the healthy population. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) which mediates the actions of morphine is shown to be up-regulated in the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat. In this study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) test to investigate if HIV-1Tg rats are more sensitive to the addictive properties of morphine compared to F344 control animals. Morphine-CPP was successfully established in the HIV-1Tg and F344 rats at the dose of 3.5 mg/kg. Interestingly, the animals that had morphine paired with one side of the two-chamber CPP apparatus (the white chamber) failed to show any decline in preference for the morphine-paired chamber after 17 to 20 days of extinction testing. An analysis of the change in preference that occurs within a session as a result of the habituation of exploratory behaviour suggested that morphine enhanced a natural preference for the white chamber. We suggest that the morphine CPP procedure may sometimes result in a behavioural plasticity that does not conform to the predictive learning model of classical conditioning and may reflect a form of associative learning known as evaluative conditioning. The animals that had morphine paired with the other chamber (the black chamber) showed extinction. Moreover greater resistance to extinction was observed in the HIV-1Tg rats. Following extinction the HIV-1Tg and F344 groups were each divided into two groups. One group was tested for reinstatement following a 1 mg/kg and 3.5 mg/kg morphine prime on 2 consecutive days, respectively. The second group was tested for reinstatement after exposure to foot shock. Reinstatement with drug-prime or with the foot shock stressor was not observed. PMID:22567172

  11. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference and associated behavioural plasticity in HIV-1 transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Homji, Natasha F; Vigorito, Michael; Chang, Sulie L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of morphine addiction in HIV-1 infected persons is higher than the healthy population. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) which mediates the actions of morphine is shown to be up-regulated in the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat. In this study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) test to investigate if HIV-1Tg rats are more sensitive to the addictive properties of morphine compared to F344 control animals. Morphine-CPP was successfully established in the HIV-1Tg and F344 rats at the dose of 3.5 mg/kg. Interestingly, the animals that had morphine paired with one side of the two-chamber CPP apparatus (the white chamber) failed to show any decline in preference for the morphine-paired chamber after 17 to 20 days of extinction testing. An analysis of the change in preference that occurs within a session as a result of the habituation of exploratory behaviour suggested that morphine enhanced a natural preference for the white chamber. We suggest that the morphine CPP procedure may sometimes result in a behavioural plasticity that does not conform to the predictive learning model of classical conditioning and may reflect a form of associative learning known as evaluative conditioning. The animals that had morphine paired with the other chamber (the black chamber) showed extinction. Moreover greater resistance to extinction was observed in the HIV-1Tg rats. Following extinction the HIV-1Tg and F344 groups were each divided into two groups. One group was tested for reinstatement following a 1 mg/kg and 3.5 mg/kg morphine prime on 2 consecutive days, respectively. The second group was tested for reinstatement after exposure to foot shock. Reinstatement with drug-prime or with the foot shock stressor was not observed. PMID:22567172

  12. Ethanol Reversal of Tolerance to the Respiratory Depressant Effects of Morphine.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rob; Lyndon, Abi; Withey, Sarah; Roberts, Joanne; Kershaw, Yvonne; MacLachlan, John; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Kelly, Eamonn; Bailey, Chris; Hickman, Matthew; Henderson, Graeme

    2016-02-01

    Opioids are the most common drugs associated with unintentional drug overdose. Death results from respiratory depression. Prolonged use of opioids results in the development of tolerance but the degree of tolerance is thought to vary between different effects of the drugs. Many opioid addicts regularly consume alcohol (ethanol), and post-mortem analyses of opioid overdose deaths have revealed an inverse correlation between blood morphine and ethanol levels. In the present study, we determined whether ethanol reduced tolerance to the respiratory depressant effects of opioids. Mice were treated with opioids (morphine, methadone, or buprenorphine) for up to 6 days. Respiration was measured in freely moving animals breathing 5% CO2 in air in plethysmograph chambers. Antinociception (analgesia) was measured as the latency to remove the tail from a thermal stimulus. Opioid tolerance was assessed by measuring the response to a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg i.p.). Tolerance developed to the respiratory depressant effect of morphine but at a slower rate than tolerance to its antinociceptive effect. A low dose of ethanol (0.3 mg/kg) alone did not depress respiration but in prolonged morphine-treated animals respiratory depression was observed when ethanol was co-administered with the morphine challenge. Ethanol did not alter the brain levels of morphine. In contrast, in methadone- or buprenorphine-treated animals no respiratory depression was observed when ethanol was co-administered along with the morphine challenge. As heroin is converted to morphine in man, selective reversal of morphine tolerance by ethanol may be a contributory factor in heroin overdose deaths. PMID:26171718

  13. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver microsomal morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by ( sup 3 H)flunitrazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassin, J.; Tephly, T.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepines have been shown to competitively inhibit morphine glucuronidation in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Flunitrazepam exerted a potent competitive inhibition of rat hepatic morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activity (Ki = 130 microM). It has no effect on the activity of p-nitrophenol, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid, or 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGTs. Because flunitrazepam is an effective photoaffinity label for benzodiazepine receptors, studied were performed in solubilized rat hepatic microsomes and with partially purified preparations of morphine UDPGT to determine the enhancement of flunitrazepam inhibition and binding to morphine UDPGT promoted by exposure to UV light. Under UV light, flunitrazepam inhibition was markedly enhanced. UV light exposure also led to a marked increase in binding of (3H)flunitrazepam to microsomal protein, which was protected substantially by preincubation with morphine. Testosterone, androsterone, and UDP-glucuronic acid did not protect against UV-enhanced flunitrazepam binding, and morphine did not reverse flunitrazepam binding once binding had occurred. As morphine UDPGT was purified, a good correlation was found between the increases in specific activity of morphine UDPGT and flunitrazepam binding to protein. Chromatofocusing chromatography showed that flunitrazepam bound only to fractions containing active morphine UDPGT, and no binding to 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGT was observed. Fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel of solubilized hepatic microsomes that had been treated with (3H) flunitrazepam under UV light revealed a band with a monomeric molecular weight between 54,000 and 58,000. This monomeric molecular weight compares favorably with the reported monomeric molecular weight of homogeneous morphine UDPGT (56,000).

  14. Bloodbrain barrier transport of morphine in patients with severe brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ederoth, Per; Tunblad, Karin; Bouw, Ren; Johan, C; Lundberg, F; Ungerstedt, Urban; Nordstrm, Carl-Henrik; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2004-01-01

    Aims In experimental studies, morphine pharmacokinetics is different in the brain compared with other tissues due to the properties of the bloodbrain barrier, including action of efflux pumps. It was hypothesized in this clinical study that active efflux of morphine occurs also in human brain, and that brain injury would alter cerebral morphine pharmacokinetics. Methods Patients with traumatic brain injury, equipped with one to three microdialysis catheters in the brain and one in abdominal subcutaneous fat for metabolic monitoring, were studied. The cerebral catheter locations were classified as better and worse brain tissue, referring to the degree of injury. Morphine (10 mg) was infused intravenously over a 10-min period in seven patients in the intensive care setting. Tissue and plasma morphine concentrations were obtained during the subsequent 3-h period with microdialysis and regular blood sampling. Results The area under the concentrationtime curve (AUC) ratio of unbound morphine in brain tissue to plasma was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.40, 0.87) in better brain tissue (P < 0.05 vs. the subcutaneous fat/plasma ratio), 0.78 (0.49, 1.07) in worse brain tissue and 1.00 (0.86, 1.13) in subcutaneous fat. The terminal half-life and Tmax were longer in the brain vs. plasma and fat, respectively. The relative recovery for morphine was higher in better than in worse brain tissue. The Tmax value tended to be shorter in worse brain tissue. Conclusions The unbound AUC ratio below unity in the better human brain tissue demonstrates an active efflux of morphine across the bloodbrain barrier. The worse brain tissue shows a decrease in relative recovery for morphine and in some cases also an increase in permeability for morphine over the bloodbrain barrier. PMID:15025740

  15. Ethanol Reversal of Tolerance to the Respiratory Depressant Effects of Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Rob; Lyndon, Abi; Withey, Sarah; Roberts, Joanne; Kershaw, Yvonne; MacLachlan, John; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Kelly, Eamonn; Bailey, Chris; Hickman, Matthew; Henderson, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are the most common drugs associated with unintentional drug overdose. Death results from respiratory depression. Prolonged use of opioids results in the development of tolerance but the degree of tolerance is thought to vary between different effects of the drugs. Many opioid addicts regularly consume alcohol (ethanol), and post-mortem analyses of opioid overdose deaths have revealed an inverse correlation between blood morphine and ethanol levels. In the present study, we determined whether ethanol reduced tolerance to the respiratory depressant effects of opioids. Mice were treated with opioids (morphine, methadone, or buprenorphine) for up to 6 days. Respiration was measured in freely moving animals breathing 5% CO2 in air in plethysmograph chambers. Antinociception (analgesia) was measured as the latency to remove the tail from a thermal stimulus. Opioid tolerance was assessed by measuring the response to a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg i.p.). Tolerance developed to the respiratory depressant effect of morphine but at a slower rate than tolerance to its antinociceptive effect. A low dose of ethanol (0.3 mg/kg) alone did not depress respiration but in prolonged morphine-treated animals respiratory depression was observed when ethanol was co-administered with the morphine challenge. Ethanol did not alter the brain levels of morphine. In contrast, in methadone- or buprenorphine-treated animals no respiratory depression was observed when ethanol was co-administered along with the morphine challenge. As heroin is converted to morphine in man, selective reversal of morphine tolerance by ethanol may be a contributory factor in heroin overdose deaths. PMID:26171718

  16. The interaction of adenosine and morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Akbarian, Reyhane; Niknahad, Hossein; Shafaroodi, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine agonists or low doses of morphine exert anti-convulsant effects in different models of seizures. On the other hand, a tight interaction has been reported between morphine and adenosine in various paradigms. This study investigated the effect of the interaction of adenosine and morphine on seizure susceptibility in the intravenous mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. The researchers used acute systemic administration of morphine, N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (a selective A1 receptor agonist), naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist) and 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) (a selective A1 receptor antagonist). Acute administration of morphine (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) or CHA (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg) raised the threshold of seizures induced by PTZ. Non-effective dose of 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of sub-effective doses of morphine (0.125 mg/kg) and CHA (0.125 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure latency showing the additive effect of morphine and CHA. The enhanced latency induced by combination of low doses of morphine and CHA completely reversed by 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) or naltrexone (1 mg/kg). Moreover, 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of morphine (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) and naltrexone (1 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of low doses of 8-CPT (1 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.5 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effect of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). In conclusion, adenosine and morphine exhibit an additive effect on the enhancement of the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice, probably through A1 or ? receptors. PMID:23624288

  17. Morphine dependence in single enteric neurons from the mouse colon requires deletion of ??arrestin2

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tricia H.; Ngwainmbi, Joy; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Dewey, William L.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic administration of morphine results in the development of tolerance to the analgesic effects and to inhibition of upper gastrointestinal motility but not to colonic motility, resulting in persistent constipation. In this study we examined the effect of chronic morphine in myenteric neurons from the adult mouse colon. Similar to the ileum, distinct neuronal populations exhibiting afterhyperpolarization (AHP)?positive and AHP?negative neurons were identified in the colon. Acute morphine (3 ?M) decreased the number of action potentials, and increased the threshold for action potential generation indicative of reduced excitability in AHP?positive neurons. In neurons from the ileum of mice that were rendered antinociceptive tolerant by morphine?pellet implantation for 5 days, the opioid antagonist naloxone precipitated withdrawal as evidenced by increased neuronal excitability. Overnight incubation of ileum neurons with morphine also resulted in enhanced excitability to naloxone. Colonic neurons exposed to long?term morphine, remained unresponsive to naloxone suggesting that precipitated withdrawal does not occur in colonic neurons. However, morphine?treated colonic neurons from ??arrestin2 knockout mice demonstrated increased excitability upon treatment with naloxone as assessed by change in rheobase, number of action potentials and input resistance. These data suggest that similar to the ileum, acute exposure to morphine in colonic neurons results in reduced excitability due to inhibition of sodium currents. However, unlike the ileum, dependence to chronic exposure of morphine develops in colonic neurons from the ??arrestin2 knockout mice. These studies corroborate the in?vivo findings of the differential role of neuronal ??arrestin2 in the development of morphine tolerance/dependence in the ileum and colon. PMID:25194025

  18. Study of the compressibility of chewing gum and its applicability as an oral drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Jójárt, I; Kása, P; Kelemen, A; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2016-05-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets were prepared and evaluated as an oral drug delivery system. The morphology and surface free energy of the components were characterized, and the tablets were prepared by direct compression with an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. The compressibility, the porosity and the texture of the tablets were investigated and the dissolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (caffeine) from them was tested with a specially-developed method. Cafosa gum base is a co-processed product which is compressible. Because of the sticking of the tablets to the punches and the high friction that arises during ejection from the die, the use of lubricants and suitable (e.g. Teflon-coated) punches is necessary on a production scale. For this purpose, magnesium stearate with high specific surface area was applied. The release of caffeine in response to the mechanical effect applied proved to be rapid and quantitative and the profile closely obeyed the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, which is valid in the case of matrix systems. Medicated chewing gum tablets can be used as matrix tablets for oral pharmaceutical administration. PMID:25673279

  19. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    PubMed

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101?>?DCP/Avicel PH101?>?Starch?>?DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input. PMID:24171692

  20. Gastroretentive pulsatile release tablets of lercanidipine HCl: development, statistical optimization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gagganapalli Santhoshi; Nayak, Usha Yogendra; Deshpande, Praful Balavant; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at the development of gastroretentive floating pulsatile release tablets (FPRTs) of lercanidipine HCl to enhance the bioavailability and treat early morning surge in blood pressure. Immediate release core tablets containing lercanidipine HCl were prepared and optimized core tablets were compression-coated using buoyant layer containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) WSR coagulant, sodium bicarbonate, and directly compressible lactose. FPRTs were evaluated for various in vitro physicochemical parameters, drug-excipient compatibility, buoyancy, swelling, and release studies. The optimized FPRTs were tested in vivo in New Zealand white rabbits for buoyancy and pharmacokinetics. DoE optimization of data revealed FPRTs containing PEO (20%?w/w) with coat weight 480?mg were promising systems exhibiting good floating behavior and lag time in drug release. Abdominal X-ray imaging of rabbits after oral administration of the tablets, confirmed the floating behavior and lag time. A quadratic model was suggested for release at 7th and 12th?h and a linear model was suggested for release lag time. The FPRT formulation improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to immediate release tablet formulation in terms of extent of absorption in rabbits. As the formulation showed delay in drug release both in vitro and in vivo, nighttime administration could be beneficial to reduce the cardiovascular complications due to early morning surge in blood pressure. PMID:25525619