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Sample records for oral mucosa mouse

  1. Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

  2. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  3. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  4. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  5. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  6. [Vesiculobullous lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Spijkervet, F K; Vissink, A; Raghoebar, G M; van der Waal, I

    2001-06-01

    In general practice, the dentist can be confronted with a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa. In many cases the lesion can be classified as recurrent herpes labialis, but many other causes can induce a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa and perioral skin as well. This article gives an overview of the various vesiculous and bullous lesions of the oral mucous membranes. Special attention is given to the possible causes and their treatment. PMID:11441714

  7. Diseases of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

  8. Desmoplastic Melanocytic Nevus of Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Damm, Douglas D; Fowler, Craig B; Schmidt, David P

    2016-09-01

    The desmoplastic melanocytic nevus is an uncommon variant that easily may be confused with a fibrohistiocytic neoplasm or a desmoplastic melanoma. It is believed that the following report describes the first known example of a desmoplastic melanocytic nevus arising in the oral mucosa. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical features that allow separation from other microscopically similar pathoses are stressed. PMID:26747459

  9. Age and the architecture of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Sawair, Faleh; Landini, Gabriel; Saku, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Age changes affect the oral mucosa (the protective lining of the oral cavity), but few of these have been studied objectively. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyse a number of morphometric parameters of the ageing oral mucosa. The fractal dimension of the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI) was estimated in 42 samples of normal buccal mucosa to correlate any changes in their irregularity to the age of the individuals. Morphometric parameters extracted from theoretical cell areas computed programatically were also analysed. Results showed no significant change in ECTI complexity associated with age; however, there was indication that epithelial cells tended to become larger and flatter with age. Interestingly, while some parameters did not show significant differences case wise, cluster analysis showed that the data clustered the cases into three main age groups: one representing the first two decades of life, another group represents adult life (21-50 years) and the last group representing the ageing population (50-90 years). PMID:21559867

  10. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with α-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  11. Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report.

    PubMed

    Artico, Gabriela; Bruno, Ingrid S; Seo, Juliana; Hirota, Silvio K; Acay, Renata; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Lichenoid drug reactions are more common in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process. PMID:22068798

  12. Epithelioid leiomyoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Koutlas, I G; Manivel, J C

    1996-12-01

    Oral leiomyomas are rare because of the paucity of smooth muscle in the mouth. The solid and vascular types are the most frequent variants. The purpose of this article is to present the pathologic features and differential diagnosis of an example of epithelioid leiomyoma. A 50-year-old woman presented with a small raised nonpainful polypoid lesion of unknown duration on the right buccal mucosa. The tumor was well demarcated and consisted of large epithelioid cells with distinct cytoplasmic borders, round to oval nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. A few mitoses (4 in 20 high power fields) were present. Scattered spindle cells were also seen. The cytoplasm was eosinophilic to amphophilic and showed frequent clearing and retraction. Small capillaries were identified and surrounded by neoplastic cells that gave the lesion an angiomyomatous appearance. Masson trichrome stain highlighted focally smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed staining for vimentin, desmin, and muscle-specific actim. PMID:8974140

  13. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  14. [Premalignant lesions and conditions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Bruaset, I

    1989-04-01

    An overview is presented of the premalignant lesions and conditions of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the detection of these lesions, thereby reducing the chance of premalignant transformation. PMID:2622509

  15. Leptin Promotes Wound Healing in the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Results Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Conclusion Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound

  16. Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-year-old female having the rare disease of oral focal mucinosis, involving the posterior palatal mucosa, and discusses its clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23230367

  17. Optical detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa: autofluorescence characteristics of healthy mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Veld, Diana C. G.; Witjes, Max; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Hericus J. C. M.

    2001-10-01

    Previous clinical results demonstrate the potential of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy for early detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. For reliable diagnosis, it is necessary to study autofluorescence spectra of healthy mucosa first. We measured excitation-emission maps in healthy subjects and subjects with a history of cancer in the head -neck region. Our results show that different anatomical locations produce distinct autofluorescence spectra. Influences of, among others, smoking and drinking habits require further investigation.

  18. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. Results HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. Key words:HSV-1, nested PCR, PCR. PMID:26449432

  19. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

  20. Raman microspectroscopic study of oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Mamgain, Hitesh; Deshmukh, Atul; Kukreja, Lekha; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer among Indian males, with 5-year- survival-rates of less than 50%. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopic methods in non-invasive and objective diagnosis of oral cancers and confounding factors has already been demonstrated. The present Raman microspectroscopic study was undertaken for in-depth and site-specific analysis of normal and tumor tissues. 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained sections from 20 tissues were accrued. Raman data of 160 x 60 μm and 140 x 140 μm in normal and tumor sections, respectively, were acquired using WITec alpha 300R equipped with 532 nm laser, 50X objective and 600 gr/mm grating. Spectral data were corrected for CCDresponse, background. First-derivitized and vector-normalized data were then subjected to K-mean cluster analysis to generate Raman maps and correlated with their respective histopathology. In normal sections, stratification among epithelial layers i.e. basal, intermediate, superficial was observed. Tumor, stromal and inflammatory regions were identified in case of tumor section. Extracted spectra of the pathologically annotated regions were subjected to Principal component analysis. Findings suggest that all three layers of normal epithelium can be differentiated against tumor cells. In epithelium, basal and superficial layers can be separated while intermediate layer show misclassifications. In tumors, discrimination of inflammatory regions from tumor cells and tumor-stroma regions were observed. Finding of the study indicate Raman mapping can lead to molecular level insights of normal and pathological states.

  1. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice. PMID:24159754

  2. The bacterial microbiota in the oral mucosa of rural Amerindians.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Monica; Costello, Elizabeth K; Hidalgo, Glida; Magris, Magda; Knight, Rob; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2010-11-01

    The oral microbiota plays an important role in buccal health and in diseases such as periodontitis and meningitis. The study of the human oral bacteria has so far focused on subjects from Western societies, while little is known about subjects from isolated communities. This work determined the composition of the oral mucosa microbiota from six Amazon Amerindians, and tested a sample preservation alternative to freezing. Paired oral swabs were taken from six adults of Guahibo ethnicity living in the community of Platanillal, Amazonas State, Venezuela. Replicate swabs were preserved in liquid nitrogen and in Aware Messenger fluid (Calypte). Buccal DNA was extracted, and the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. A total of 17 214 oral bacterial sequences were obtained from the six subjects; these were binned into 1034 OTUs from 10 phyla, 30 families and 51 genera. The oral mucosa was highly dominated by four phyla: Firmicutes (mostly the genera Streptococcus and Veillonella), Proteobacteria (mostly Neisseria), Bacterioidetes (Prevotella) and Actinobacteria (Micrococcineae). Although the microbiota were similar at the phylum level, the Amerindians shared only 62 % of the families and 23 % of the genera with non-Amerindians from previous studies, and had a lower richness of genera (51 vs 177 reported in non-Amerindians). The Amerindians carried unidentified members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and their microbiota included soil bacteria Gp1 (Acidobacteriaceae) and Xylanibacter (Prevotellaceae), and the rare genus Phocoenobacter (Pasteurellaceae). Preserving buccal swabs in the Aware Messenger oral fluid collection device substantially altered the bacterial composition in comparison to freezing, and therefore this method cannot be used to preserve samples for the study of microbial communities. PMID:20847007

  3. Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Capella, Diogo L.; Manfro, Gabriel; Nodari, Rudy José; Presta, Andréia Antoniuk

    2012-01-01

    Summary Eosinophilic Ulcer (EU) is a rare self-limiting chronic benign lesion of the oral mucosa with pathogenesis still unclear, however it may resemble malignancies, traumatic ulcerations and some infections such as deep fungal infections, tuberculosis and primary syphilis. This is a case report of a patient with EU in the lateral border of the tongue with no history of associated trauma and refractory to treatment with drugs. The ulcer rapidly healed after an incisional biopsy and the definite diagnosis was achieved only combining histologic findings and the clinical follow-up. PMID:22783449

  4. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha; Mittal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, 15 in each of the following: normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used for the study. Immunohistochemical reaction for survivin protein was performed for the 4 µm thick histological sections taken on positively charged slides. Results. 20% normal mucosa cases, 53.33% cases of leukoplakia, and 80% of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found out to be survivin positive. One way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference of survivin expression between the three different groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion. A high incidence of survivin protein expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma samples indicate that survivin protein expression may be an early event in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26457223

  5. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  6. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  7. Reduction in oral mucosa micronuclei frequency following alpha-tocopherol treatment of oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Benner, S E; Wargovich, M J; Lippman, S M; Fisher, R; Velasco, M; Winn, R J; Hong, W K

    1994-01-01

    Micronuclei frequency, a marker of genotoxicity, was studied within a trial of alpha-tocopherol for chemoprevention of oral leukoplakia. Oral swabs were obtained from two sites, the leukoplakia lesion and normal-appearing mucosa, at baseline and following 24 weeks of therapy with 400 international units of alpha-tocopherol twice daily. These specimens were analyzed for micronuclei frequency. The major risk factors for oral carcinogenesis in the group studied were cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. alpha-tocopherol therapy produced a significant reduction in micronuclei frequencies in specimens from both the visible lesions (P < 0.01) and the normal-appearing mucosa (P < 0.01). The micronuclei frequencies, both at baseline and following therapy, were greater in specimens taken from the lesion than in those from the normal-appearing mucosa. Although these results indicate that alpha-tocopherol has a beneficial effect in oral carcinogenesis, there was no significant clinical or histological response associated with the change in micronuclei frequency. Micronuclei frequency has not yet been validated as a biomarker for cancer incidence, and consequently, its utility as an intermediate end point for chemoprevention trials is not known. Determining clinical significance of micronuclei frequency patterns in oral carcinogenesis and chemoprevention will require further study. PMID:8118389

  8. Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

  9. Expression of E-cadherin in normal oral mucosa, in oral precancerous lesions and in oral carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, Ugrappa; Jain, Ajay; Nagalaxmi, Velpula; Kumar, Ugrappa Vijay; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral mucosa (NOM) as control group. All the samples were assessed for the expression of E-cad by immunohistochemical study. Results: Upon assessing the expression of E-cad in OL, OSMF, OLP and OSCC, as majority of the samples with OSCC (90%), OL (80%), OLP (70%) and OSMF (60%) showed mild to moderate expression of E-cad staining, which was suggestive of reduction in dysplastic cells on comparison to NOM cells. This difference in expression and variation of E-cad upon comparison with normal mucosa was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is significant (P < 0.001) variation of expression of E-cad with the histopathological dysplasia of the oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and the tumor differentiation of the oral cancers. However, there was no correlation of the degree of loss of expression of E-cad with the degree of dysplasia or the tumor differentiation of oral cancers. We conclude with our study that, there is a variation in the expression of E-cad but its value as a prognostic marker is questionable. PMID:26430364

  10. The expression profile of filaggrin-2 in the normal and pathologic human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Makino, Teruhiko; Mizawa, Megumi; Inoue, Sayaka; Noguchi, Makoto; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial cells of the oral cavity show a remarkable degree of regional variation with respect to their morphology and keratinization status. In the oral cavity, the tongue and palate contain keratinizing stratified epithelia, while the buccal mucosa contains non-keratinizing stratified epithelia. We herein examined the expression of filaggrin-2, a member of the S100 fused-type protein family, in the oral mucosa. Filaggrin-2 was weakly expressed in the normal epithelium of the palate, but not in the buccal mucosa or tongue, although filaggrin protein was observed in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa and the palate. We next examined the expression of filaggrin-2 in the oral mucosa of subjects with hyperkeratotic diseases. The expression of filaggrin-2 was markedly increased in the epithelium of the oral mucosa in patients with lichen planus, leukokeratosis and leukoplakia. Filaggrin-2 positivity was observed in granules, some of which were co-localized with those of filaggrin. These results indicate that filaggrin-2 was expressed in the oral mucosa under certain pathological conditions, demonstrating that an aberrant protein expression, together with filaggrin, indicates the altered differentiation program including hyperkeratosis that occurs in these diseases. PMID:26858109

  11. Late effects of radiotherapy on oral mucosa in humans.

    PubMed

    Handschel, J; Sunderkötter, C; Kruse-Lösler, B; Prott, F J; Meyer, U; Piffko, J; Joos, U

    2001-04-01

    In order to gain further understanding of the late effects of radiotherapy on oral mucosa, we analysed the histomorphological alterations, the cell populations in the subepithelial tissue, and the endothelial expression pattern of different adhesion molecules. Biopsies were taken from patients before irradiation, directly after 60 Gy, and 6-12 months after radiotherapy. Besides the histomorphological evaluation of the vessels, the endothelial expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin was determined as well as the distribution of LFA-1-, Mac-1-, VLA-4-, RM3/1-, 27E10- and 25F9-bearing cells in the subepithelial tissue. The expression of ICAM-1 was downregulated after radiotherapy, whereas the percentage of LFA-1- and VLA-4-bearing cells increased. VCAM-1 remained at low levels. The subepithelial infiltration was still dominated by RM3/1-positive macrophages. The number of vessels decreased, while the lumen of the remaining vessels increased. In conclusion, the late effects of radiotherapy are characterized by a decreased number of blood vessels and by significantly different expression patterns of the adhesion molecules studied, and of integrins and macrophage subpopulations, compared to the conditions before irradiation and directly after irradiation with 60 Gy. PMID:11347662

  12. Multiple recurrent vesicles in oral mucosa suggestive of superficial mucocele: An unusual presentation of allergic stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477

  13. Dendritic Cell Subsets in Oral Mucosa of Allergic and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Reinartz, Susanne M.; van Tongeren, Joost; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J. J.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry was used to identify, enumerate, and describe the tissue distribution of Langerhans type (CD1a and CD207), myeloid (CD1c and CD141), and plasmacytoid (CD303 and CD304) dendritic cell subsets in oral mucosa of allergic and non-allergic individuals. Allergic individuals have more CD141+ myeloid cells in epithelium and more CD1a+ Langerhans cells in the lamina propria compared to healthy controls, but similar numbers for the other DC subtypes. Our data are the first to describe the presence of CD303+ plasmacytoid DCs in human oral mucosa and a dense intraepithelial network of CD141+ DCs. The number of Langerhans type DCs (CD1a and CD207) and myeloid DCs (CD1c), was higher in the oral mucosa than in the nasal mucosa of the same individual independent of the atopic status. PMID:27166951

  14. Effects of Glyprolines on DNA Synthesis and Free Radical Oxidation in Mouse Gastric Mucosa Under Physiological Conditions and During Therapy with Oral Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, M Yu; Tolstenok, I V; Lebed'ko, O A; Andreeva, L A; Myasoedov, N F; Timoshin, S S

    2015-08-01

    Studies by (3)H-thymidin autoradiography showed that injections of Pro-Gly-Pro and Arg-Gly-Pro peptides caused no changes in the DNA synthesis processes in the gastric mucosa. Both peptides induced a reduction of free radical oxidation activity, which was shown by chemiluminescence. Indomethacin induced lesions in the gastric mucosa, triggered oxidative stress, and reduced proliferative activity. Injection of Pro-Gly-Pro peptide before indomethacin corrected disorders in oxidative status and normalized DNA synthesis. Preinjection of Arg-Gly-Pro led to enlargement (by 4.6 times) of the focus of lesions in animals treated by indomethacin and augmented oxidative stress. PMID:26388565

  15. [Pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with tuberculosis of oral mucosa, mandible and cervical lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, K; Ueda, S; Horie, T

    1995-04-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with tuberculous of oral mucosa, mandible and cervical lymph nodes in 53-year-old man is reported. He was firstly treated for right side dental caries. He also received routinely an empiric antibiotic therapy, but discharge of pus continued. Then, pain of oral cavities spread to the right shoulder. The diagnosis of oral mucosa, osteomyelitis of mandible and lymph node tuberculosis was made by the histological examination of biopsy specimens and positive smear test for M. tuberculosis in granulation. The chest X-ray film showed multiple nodular shadows in bilateral lungs. The combination of INH, RFP and SM was applied initially and then SM was replaced by CS due to its side effect. Negative smear test for M. tuberculosis of oral mucosa was achieved five months after the initiation of treatment. PMID:7760539

  16. The effect of cryotherapy on oral mucosa: a study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Anncarin; Ohrn, Kerstin; Broström, Hans; Birgegård, Gunnar

    2012-12-01

    Oral cryotherapy causes local vasoconstriction, which reduces blood flow and reduces the cytotoxic damage to the oral mucosa, has been shown to reduce oral mucositis after intense cytostatic treatment. The main object of this study was to investigate the effect of oral cryotherapy on the temperature in the oral mucosa, the level of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in saliva and the effect on blood pressure in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of cooling the oral cavity with crushed ice. Twelve healthy volunteers [mean age 32.4 (SD 13.2) (20-56) years] were treated with oral cryotherapy in the form of crushed ice. Temperature measurements were performed in the oral mucosa using infrared thermograph following a flowchart protocol. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with a sphygmomanometer. Saliva was analysed for inflammatory cytokine IL-6, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All participants fulfilled the cooling session. The temperature in the oral cavity decreased significantly (mean 12.9 °C, p < .002). The systolic BP was marginally but significantly higher after cooling (~5 mmHg, p = .019). We could not detect any differences in cytokine IL-6 levels before and after oral cooling. We conclude that cryotherapy during 1 h lowers the mucosal temperature as much as ~12.9 °C, which explains the significant protective effect against mucosal damage by cytostatic drugs. The cooling caused no increase in IL-6 levels. Systemic blood pressure was marginally increased. PMID:22476810

  17. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Wellington Luiz; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungusParacoccidioides brasiliensisandParacoccidioides lutzii In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction ofP. brasiliensiswith these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensisantibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM. PMID:26768374

  18. Tissue reactions to suture materials in the oral mucosa of beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Shin, Seung-Il; Herr, Yeek; Park, Joon-Bong; Kwon, Young-Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the inflammatory responses of three widely used suture materials in the keratinized gingiva and buccal mucosa of beagle dogs. Methods Silk, polyglycolic acid, and nylon sutures were placed within the mandibular keratinized gingiva and maxillary buccal mucosa of four male beagle dogs. Biopsies were taken 3, 7, and 14 days after suturing. Specimens were prepared with hematoxylin-eosin stain for evaluation under a light microscope. Results The suture materials placed in the oral mucosa elicited more inflammatory reactions than did those placed in the keratinized gingiva. The multifilament suture materials caused more inflammatory tissue reactions than did the monofilament suture materials in the oral mucosa. Conclusions If oral hygiene is well maintained and suture materials are placed in the keratinized gingiva, silk, nylon, and polyglycolic acid are considered to be proper suture materials for oral surgery. However, it is advisable to use monofilament suture materials if the suture site is within the oral mucosa. PMID:21954423

  19. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fukahori, Mioko; Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Monden, Yu; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells. Study Design Animal experiment using eight beagles (including three controls). Methods A 3 mm by 3 mm specimen of canine oral mucosa was surgically excised and divided into epithelial and subepithelial tissues. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated and cultured separately. The proliferated epithelial cells were co-cultured on oriented collagen gels containing the proliferated fibroblasts for an additional two weeks. The organotypic cultured tissues were transplanted to the mucosa-deficient vocal folds. Two months after transplantation, vocal fold vibrations and morphological characteristics were observed. Results A tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa, consisting of stratified epithelium and lamina propria, was successfully fabricated to closely resemble the normal layered vocal fold mucosa. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed regular but slightly small mucosal waves at the transplanted site. Immunohistochemically, stratified epithelium expressed cytokeratin, and the distributed cells in the lamina propria expressed vimentin. Elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a decreased number of elastic fibers in the lamina propria of the transplanted site. Conclusion The fabricated mucosa with autologous oral mucosal cells successfully restored the vocal fold mucosa. This reconstruction technique could offer substantial clinical advantages for treating intractable diseases such as scarring of the vocal folds. PMID:26730600

  20. Evaluation of Cytological Alterations of Oral Mucosa in Smokers and Waterpipe Users

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Safoura; Feizi, Farideh; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Khafri, Soraya; Ahmadi, Behrang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oral mucosal epithelia of smokers and waterpipe users are more susceptible to malignant alterations. The aim of this study was morphometric evaluation of the effects of using waterpipe on normal oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, cytologic smear samples from the following three different areas: buccal mucosa, lateral surface of the tongue, and floor of the mouth (right) were taken from 40 smokers, 40 waterpipe users, and 40 normal individuals. They were then stained using Papanicolaou staining technique. Quantitative cytologic alterations such as nuclear and cytoplasmic size, nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, Feret ratio (FR), percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, two or multilobed nuclei, inflammation, and candida were evaluated. Quantitative evaluation was performed using MoticPlus 2 software, and 50 cells in each slide were studied. Practitioners were matched with age and sex in three groups. Results: An increase in nuclear size, the N/C ratio, and F.R, while a decrease in cytoplasm size were observed in lateral surface of the tongue, buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth of smokers, waterpipe users and normal individuals, respectively (p≤0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed in percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, and two or multilobed nuclei in oral mucosa of smokers, waterpipe users (p=0.8), and normal individuals (p=0.9) in buccal mucosa, tongue, and mouth floor areas. However, the percentage of inflammation and candida in smokers (p<0.001) and waterpipe users (p=0.002) were higher than normal individuals. Conclusion: Smoking and using waterpipe are effective in creating some quantitative cytometric alterations in oral mucosa; however, smoking shows greater effect in the cytometric alterations than using waterpipe. Role of cytology in screening and detection of oral mucosa malignancies in smokers and waterpipe users needs further studies. PMID:24381854

  1. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells. PMID:21198427

  2. Evaluation of different pig oral mucosa sites as permeability barrier models for drug permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, Michelle; Serpe, Luciano; Martinelli, Claudia Cristina Maia; da Silva, Camila Batista; Santos, Cleiton Pita Dos; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Volpato, Maria Cristina; de Paula, Eneida; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of preparation and storage conditions on the histology and permeability of different parts of porcine oral mucosa used for in vitro studies of transbuccal formulations. Fresh and frozen (-20°C and -80°C, with or without cryoprotectant) epithelia of porcine palatal, gingival, dorsum of the tongue, and buccal mucosa were submitted for histological analyses to determine the effects of storage conditions on barrier integrity. Permeation of lidocaine hydrochloride (used as a hydrophilic model drug) across fresh and previously frozen oral epithelium was measured in order to evaluate the barrier function. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the oral epithelium was successfully separated from the connective tissue, except for gingival mucosa. After storage under different conditions, all tissues presented desquamation of superficial layers and spherical spaces induced by the freezing process. The permeability of lidocaine hydrochloride varied among the fresh oral mucosa and generally increased after freezing. In conclusion, fresh epithelium from the buccal and dorsum of the tongue mucosa should be used for in vitro studies investigating hydrophilic drug transport when these are the desired clinical application sites. However, when the palate is the target site, both fresh and frozen (for up to 4weeks, without addition of cryoprotectant) samples could be used. The addition of glycerol as a cryoprotectant should be avoided due to increased lidocaine hydrochloride permeability. PMID:26435216

  3. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A.; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision. PMID:26451366

  4. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  5. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  6. Oral myiasis involving palatal mucosa of a young female.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Suresh; Tyagi, Shallu; Kumar, Prince; Puri, Naveen

    2014-01-01

    In literal terms myiasis is the invasion of the tissues and organs of human beings by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in developed and developing countries. When the tissues of oral cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, the condition is called as oral myiasis. With the paper we are presenting a case of 19-year-old female suffering from oral myiasis of upper lip and palate. The treatment consisted of manual removal of the larvae, surgical debridement of the wound and oral therapy with doxycycline used as a locally acting drug for faster and better recovery. PMID:24678227

  7. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Joseph, Paule V.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r2 > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS. PMID:26963804

  8. A phase contrast cytomorphometric study of squames of normal oral mucosa and oral leukoplakia: Original study

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Afreen; Bavle, Radhika M; Thambiah, Lalita J; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M

    2014-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia represents the most common potentially malignant oral disorder, representing 85% of such lesions. The worldwide prevalence of leukoplakia is 1.5- 4.3%. Leukoplakia is often associated with carcinogenic exposures, such as from use of tobacco, alcohol or betel nut. The level of risk for malignant transformation of leukoplakia is associated with lesion histology. The overall malignant transformation rates for dysplastic lesions range from 11% to 36%, depending on the length of follow-up. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and minimally invasive method. Phase contrast microscope, an essential tool in the field of biology and medical research provides improved discrimination of cellular details. Aims: To study and compare the cytomorphological and cytomorphometric features of squames obtained from the mucosa of normal individuals, tobacco habituates with and without clinically evident leukoplakia. To assess the role of phase contrast microscopy as an alternative and easy method of cytological evaluation of wet and unstained smears. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases from each group were taken. Fixed, unstained smears were viewed under phase contrast microscope and were evaluated morphologically and morphometrically for nuclear and cellular diameters. Results: The study showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear diameter and decrease in the mean cellular diameter. Conclusion: Cytomorphometric changes could be the earliest indicators of cellular alterations. This indicates that there could be a cause-effect relationship between tobacco and quantitative alterations. PMID:25364176

  9. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  10. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission. PMID:23473290

  11. Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. T.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jin, H. L.; Chang, F. Y.; Hu, K. Y.; Wu, C. P.; Chiang, C. P.; Yang, C. C.

    2013-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for noninvasive, real-time oral cancer diagnosis. However, in previous reports, OCT has still been found to be difficult to use in the diagnosis of oral precancerous stages, including mild dysplasia and moderate dysplasia. In clinical applications, early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer can greatly improve the survival rate. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new approach to differentiate the oral precancerous stages based on the evaluation of the optical scattering properties of the epithelial layer, which is where the dysplastic cells start to develop in the precancerous stages. Instead of using exponential decay fitting to evaluate the scattering properties of mucosal tissues based on the Beer-Lambert law, linear fitting of the OCT depth intensity is used to evaluate the scattering properties of normal and dysplastic cells. From the statistical results of the linear fitting, the slope, a, can be an effective indicator to discriminate healthy mucosa and moderate dysplasia when an a value equal to zero is the threshold value, and the intercept, b, can be used to differentiate healthy and dysplastic mucosae, as well as mild and moderate dysplasia, when b values of 0.15 and 0.18 are used as the threshold values, respectively. Furthermore, this approach is also applied to the determination of the safe margin between normal and abnormal mucosae, making it possible to provide real-time, in vivo inspection during oral maxillofacial surgery.

  12. Positional differences in the wound transcriptome of skin and oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When compared to skin, oral mucosal wounds heal rapidly and with reduced scar formation. Recent studies suggest that intrinsic differences in inflammation, growth factor production, levels of stem cells, and cellular proliferation capacity may underlie the exceptional healing that occurs in oral mucosa. The current study was designed to compare the transcriptomes of oral mucosal and skin wounds in order to identify critical differences in the healing response at these two sites using an unbiased approach. Results Using microarray analysis, we explored the differences in gene expression in skin and oral mucosal wound healing in a murine model of paired equivalent sized wounds. Samples were examined from days 0 to 10 and spanned all stages of the wound healing process. Using unwounded matched tissue as a control, filtering identified 1,479 probe sets in skin wounds yet only 502 probe sets in mucosal wounds that were significantly differentially expressed over time. Clusters of genes that showed similar patterns of expression were also identified in each wound type. Analysis of functionally related gene expression demonstrated dramatically different reactions to injury between skin and mucosal wounds. To explore whether site-specific differences might be derived from intrinsic differences in cellular responses at each site, we compared the response of isolated epithelial cells from skin and oral mucosa to a defined in vitro stimulus. When cytokine levels were measured, epithelial cells from skin produced significantly higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than cells from oral mucosa. Conclusions The results provide the first detailed molecular profile of the site-specific differences in the genetic response to injury in mucosa and skin, and suggest the divergent reactions to injury may derive from intrinsic differences in the cellular responses at each site. PMID:20704739

  13. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa--a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Boy, S C

    2012-11-01

    Leukoplakia and erythroplakia are the two most common potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity. The prognosis and overall survival of a patient with oral cancer is dependent on the early detection of any lesion that might identify a patient with higher risk than normal or with early infiltration before metastatic disease. The role of the general dentist cannot be overstressed and the aim of this brief summary is to give the general practitioner an overview on the current concepts relating to these disorders. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia were traditionally known as two "precancerous lesions of the oral mucosa". The term "precancer" defines all lesions classified as such to have a "precancerous nature" implying that all of them will eventually become malignant. Through the years it became known that even clinically normal mucosa may show features of dysplasia and in some instances molecular aberrations of early malignant transformation may be found in the mucosa of a patient without any clinical lesions or dysplasia. The consensus view then was to introduce the term: "potentially malignant disorders" (PMD) reflecting the more generalised mucosal involvement in these patients. It remans a challenge to predict the behaviour of any of these lesions but early detection thereof remains the best chance any oral cancer patient will have for survival. PMID:23957095

  14. Two-photon autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Shilagard, Tuya; Qiu, Suimin; Vargas, Gracie

    2011-03-01

    The survival rate for individuals diagnosed with oral cancer is correlated with the stage of detection. Thus the development of novel techniques for the earliest possible detection of malignancies is of critical importance. Single photon (1P) autofluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful diagnostic tool in this regard, but 2P (two photon) spectroscopy remains essentially unexplored. In this investigation, a spectroscopic system was incorporated into a custom-built 2P laser scanning microscope. Oral cancer was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian Golden hamsters by tri-weekly topical application of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA).Three separated sites where investigated in each hamster at four excitation wavelengths from 780 nm to 890 nm. A Total of 8 hamsters were investigated (4 normal and 4 DMBA treated). All investigated sites were imaged via 2p imaging, marked for biopsy, processed for histology and H&E staining, and graded by a pathologist. The in vivo emission spectrum for normal, mild/high grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma is presented. It is shown that the hamsters with various stages of dysplasia are characterized by spectral differences as a function of depth and excitation wavelength, compared to normal hamsters.

  15. Expression of Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 in Tissue and Cultured Cells from Human Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Jesper J.; Höög, Jan-Olov; Nilsson, Jan A.; Xi, Zheng; Elfwing, Åsa; Grafström, Roland C.

    2000-01-01

    Because formaldehyde exposure has been shown to induce pathological changes in human oral mucosa, eg, micronuclei, the potential enzymatic defense by alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3)/glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase was characterized in oral tissue specimens and cell lines using RNA hybridization and immunological methods as well as enzyme activity measurements. ADH3 mRNA was expressed in basal and parabasal cell layers of oral epithelium, whereas the protein was detected throughout the cell layers. ADH3 mRNA and protein were further detected in homogenates of oral tissue and various oral cell cultures, including, normal, SV40T antigen-immortalized, and tumor keratinocyte lines. Inhibition of the growth of normal keratinocytes by maintenance at confluency significantly decreased the amount of ADH3 mRNA, a transcript with a determined half-life of 7 hours. In contrast, decay of ADH3 protein was not observed throughout a 4-day period in normal keratinocytes. In samples from both tissue and cells, the ADH3 protein content correlated to oxidizing activity for the ADH3-specific substrate S-hydroxymethylglutathione. The composite analyses associates ADH3 mRNA primarily to proliferative keratinocytes where it exhibits a comparatively short half-life. In contrast, the ADH3 protein is extremely stable, and consequently is retained during the keratinocyte life span in oral mucosa. Finally, substantial capacity for formaldehyde detoxification is shown from quantitative assessments of alcohol- and aldehyde-oxidizing activities including Km determinations, indicating that ADH3 is the major enzyme involved in formaldehyde oxidation in oral mucosa. PMID:11073833

  16. Surgical approach to snus-induced injury of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kharazmi, Mohammad; Carlsson, Anders-Petter; Hallberg, Pär; Modig, Maria; Björnstad, Lillemor; Hirsch, Jan-Michael

    2014-03-01

    Snus (Swedish moist snuff) causes lesions in the oral mucosa at the location where pinches are regularly placed. In addition, some patients develop irreversible local gingival recession and sometimes ulcers with perforations to the roots. Such injuries lead to denuded roots that are at risk for caries and periodontal disease, with subsequent esthetic consequences. Therapy for irreversible local gingival recession is currently lacking. In the present report, we describe two cases of successful surgical treatment for irreversible lesions caused by snus. PMID:24739713

  17. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Bentley, Julie L.; Malik, Bilal H.; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

  18. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Joey M; Bentley, Julie L; Malik, Bilal H; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A; Maitland, Kristen C

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

  19. Management of physiological hyperpigmentation of oral mucosa by cryosurgical treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Maryam; Farmanbar, Niloofar; Abolfazli, Salman; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Melanin hyperpigmentation is the result of melanin granules. "Black gums" may cause esthetic problems. Different treatment modalities have been used with the aim of removing pigmentations for esthetic reasons, all of which have some advantages and disadvantages. Recurrent lesions are the most important concept in all of these treatments. Cryotherapy is a method of tissue destruction by rapid freezing. It is an atraumatic, cost-effective and simple method for treating oral pigmentation. This report presents the effects of cryotherapy on physiologic pigmentations of oral mucosa in a 9-year-old boy. In this case no recurrent lesions were observed after 12 months. PMID:23277862

  20. A novel mechanism for NETosis provides antimicrobial defense at the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Tirthankar; Sjögren, Jonathan; Kahn, Fredrik; Abu-Humaidan, Anas H A; Fisker, Niels; Assing, Kristian; Mörgelin, Matthias; Bengtsson, Anders A; Borregaard, Niels; Sørensen, Ole E

    2015-10-29

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense at the oral mucosa and neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects lead to disordered oral homeostasis. We found that neutrophils from the oral mucosa harvested from morning saliva had released neutrophil extracellular traps (undergone NETosis) in vivo. The NETosis was mediated through intracellular signals elicited by binding of sialyl Lewis(X) present on salival mucins to l-selectin on neutrophils. This led to rapid loss of nuclear membrane and intracellular release of granule proteins with subsequent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release independent of elastase and reduced NAD phosphate-oxidase activation. The saliva-induced NETs were more DNase-resistant and had higher capacity to bind and kill bacteria than NETs induced by bacteria or by phorbol-myristate acetate. Furthermore, saliva/sialyl Lewis(X) mediated signaling enhanced intracellular killing of bacteria by neutrophils. Saliva from patients with aphthous ulcers and Behçet disease prone to oral ulcers failed to induce NETosis, but for different reasons it demonstrated that disordered homeostasis in the oral cavity may result in deficient saliva-mediated NETosis. PMID:26243777

  1. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria

    PubMed Central

    Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

    1999-01-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.
  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).
  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.


Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787

  2. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  3. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria.

    PubMed

    Arvio, P; Arvio, M; Kero, M; Pirinen, S; Lukinmaa, P L

    1999-05-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens. Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001). Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression. PMID:10353787

  4. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on irradiated oral mucosa: microvessel density.

    PubMed

    Svalestad, J; Hellem, S; Thorsen, E; Johannessen, A C

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on microvascular tissue and cell proliferation in the oral mucosa. Twenty patients, aged 51-78 years, were allocated randomly to a treatment or a control group. All had a history of radiotherapy (50-70 Gy) to the orofacial region 2-6 years previously. Tissue samples were taken from the irradiated buccal oral mucosa before HBOT and at 6 months after treatment. In the control group, tissue samples were taken on two occasions, 6 months apart. The samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry staining: double staining with CD31 and D2-40 for microvessels, or Ki-67 for the analysis of cell proliferation. Blood vessel density and area were significantly increased after HBOT (P=0.002-0.041). D2-40-positive lymphatic vessels were significantly increased in number and area in the sub-epithelial area (P=0.002 and P=0.019, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the control group. There were no significant differences in Ki-67-expressing epithelial cells between the two groups. It is concluded that the density and area of blood and lymphatic vessels in the irradiated mucosa are increased by HBOT 6 months after therapy. Epithelial cell proliferation is not affected by HBOT. PMID:25604154

  5. In-vivo optical coherent tomography of teeth and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ourutina, M. N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

    1999-02-01

    Our investigations have been devoted to OCT capabilities in imaging normal and diseased tooth structures and different types of oral mucosa. OCT tomograms distinctly exhibit the structural elements of oral mucosa. Depending on localization and keratinization, different types of mucosa are also seen in OCT images. OCT images of those parts where epithelium evidences high keratinization substantially differ from images of those parts where epithelium evidences low or no keratinization in its normal state. OCT imaging allows one to clearly differentiate between caries and noncaries lesions, which is very important in practical dentistry. OCT has made it possible to quite accurately diagnose a fissure caries in the early stage that has been unreliable with an X- ray examination. The OCT technique is capable of dynamic monitoring the restorative process. It also allows in vivo examination of fillings as well as the state of surrounding tissues. It is possible to detect filling defects caused by an incorrect filling procedure either during the process of restoration of some time later. The results of our investigations suggest that OCT is a potentially useful modality for clinical and research dentistry.

  6. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  7. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  8. [Use of "functional tooth paste," made with nanotechnology, in the treatment of oral mucosa diseases].

    PubMed

    Szabó, György; Németh, Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    The authors report their experience connected with the introduction of "functional toothpaste" in Hungary. This cream (gel), prepared with nanotechnology, contains vitamins C and E, propolis and various herb extracts. It is manufactured in South Korea and is commercially available in the USA, among others. It protects the gingiva, and its use is recommended in cases of diseases of the oral mucosa. The experience in Hungary indicates that it is well applicable after surgery in the oral cavity (it promotes wound healing), in cases involving processes in the oral cavity that heal with difficulty, and during the healing of burn wounds (e.g. after laser surgery). In view of the favourable experience, its distribution in Hungary can be recommended. PMID:20672750

  9. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kędra, Bożena; Chomczyk, Monika; Złotkowski, Marcin; Stokowska, Wanda; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Bicz, Mieczysław; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Czajka, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech; Zimnoch, Lech; Kędra, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:23042267

  10. Ex vivo and in vivo modulatory effects of umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells on human oral mucosa stroma substitutes.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Rodríguez, C A; González-Andrades, E; Jaimes-Parra, B D; Fernández-Valadés, R; Campos, A; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Alaminos, M; Garzón, I

    2015-11-01

    Novel oral mucosa substitutes have been developed in the laboratory using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells -HWJSC- as an alternative cell source. In the present work, we have generated human oral mucosa substitutes with oral mucosa keratinocytes and HWJSC to determine the influence of these cell sources on stromal differentiation. First, acellular and cellular stroma substitutes and bilayered oral mucosa substitutes with an epithelial layer consisting of oral mucosa keratinocytes -OM samples- or HWJSC -hOM- were generated. Then, tissues were analyzed by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to quantify all major extracellular matrix components after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of ex vivo development, and OM and hOM were also analyzed after in vivo grafting. The results showed that bioengineered oral mucosa stromas displayed an adequate fibrillar mesh. Synthesis of abundant collagen fibers was detected in OM and hOM after 3 weeks, and in vivo grafting resulted in an increased collagen synthesis. No elastic or reticular fibers were found. Glycoprotein synthesis was found at the epithelial-stromal layer when samples were grafted in vivo. Finally, proteoglycans, decorin, versican and aggrecan were strongly dependent on the in vivo environment and the presence of a well-structured epithelium on top. The use of HWJSC was associated to an increased synthesis of versican. These results confirm the usefulness of fibrin-agarose biomaterials for the generation of an efficient human oral mucosa stroma substitute and the importance of the in vivo environment and the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction for the adequate differentiation of the bioengineered stroma. PMID:25967581

  11. [The role of the dentist in the diagnosis, screening and followup of lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Thoné, M; Reychler, H; Mahy, P

    2000-01-01

    The early detection and follow up of oral mucosa lesions are a must for every dentist. The importance of these activities is tremendous for oral cancerous and precancerous lesions, so every dentist is officially responsible for this important role in the public health. The modalities of such early detection and follow up are described. PMID:11210659

  12. Local anaesthesia through the action of cocaine, the oral mucosa and the Vienna group.

    PubMed

    López-Valverde, A; de Vicente, J; Martínez-Domínguez, L; de Diego, R Gómez

    2014-07-11

    Local anaesthesia through the action of cocaine was introduced in Europe by the Vienna group, which includeed Freud, Koller and Königstein. Before using the alkaloid in animal or human experimentation all these scientists tested it on their oral mucosa - so-called self-experimentation. Some of them with different pathologies (that is, in the case of Freud), eventually became addicted to the alkaloid. Here we attempt to describe the people forming the so-called 'Vienna group', their social milieu, their experiences and internal disputes within the setting of a revolutionary discovery of the times. PMID:25012333

  13. Identification of Helicobacter spp. in oral secretions vs. gastric mucosa of stray cats.

    PubMed

    Shojaee Tabrizi, A; Jamshidi, Sh; Oghalaei, A; Zahraei Salehi, T; Bayati Eshkaftaki, A; Mohammadi, M

    2010-01-01

    The definite mode of transmission of Helicobacter infection is largely unknown. This study was carried out primarily, to determine the existence of Helicobacter spp. in the oral secretions of stray cats as one of the possible routes of transmission and secondly, to evaluate the accordance between oral and gastric colonization of Helicobacter spp. in these cats. Forty-three adult stray cats were thus studied for the presence of Helicobacter species by quantitative rapid urease test (RUT), cytology and PCR. Helicobacter spp. were found in the oral secretions and gastric biopsies of 93% and 67.5% of the stray cats, respectively. There was not, however, any agreement observed between Helicobacter colonization at these two locations, at neither genus nor species level. These findings suggest that the oral cavity is routinely exposed to transient forms of bacteria and may temporarily harbor Helicobacter spp. Thus, oral cavity as a source of Helicobacter spp. may act as a reservoir for transmission and may not necessarily reflect the colonization status of the gastric mucosa. PMID:19726141

  14. [Clinico-pathological study on giant cell fibroma of oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Levy, B

    1995-11-01

    The biopsy specimens of the Department of Oral Pathology, Dental School, UMBC, between 1985-1988 were reviewed in 1990 and. 124 cases of giant cell fibroma (GCF) of oral mucosa were found. GCF may develop at any age, but the highest incidence is middle adult life. GCF is slightly common in female than in male (1: 0.85). GCF occurs frequently in gingiva, tongue and cheek and is mistaken commonly for irritation fibroma, neurofibroma, papilloma and pyogenic granuloma, because there are no specific clinic features of it. The fusiform cells, star cells and multinucleated giant cells in the lesion are common histologic features of GCF. Local removal is usually successful. PMID:8762534

  15. Cytokeratin changes in cell culture systems of epithelial cells isolated from oral mucosa: a short review.

    PubMed

    Gasparoni, Alberto; Squier, Christopher Alan; Fonzi, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    In the past three decades, many studies have analyzed ultrastructural and molecular markers of differentiation in squamous stratified epithelial tissues. In these tissues, epithelial cells migrating from the basal layer to the upper layers undergo drastic changes, which involve membrane-associated proteins, DNA synthesis, phenotypic aspects, lipid composition, and cytoskeletal components. Cytoskeletal components include a large and heterogeneous group, including intermediate filaments, components of the cornified envelope, and of the stratum corneum. When grown in mono- and multilayer cell cultures, epithelial cells isolated from the oral mucosa may reproduce many of the biochemical and morphological aspects of epithelial tissue in vivo. In the present paper, we examine phenotypic changes, development of suprabasal layer, and Involucrin expression occurring in differentiating oral epithelial cells, based on literature review and original data. PMID:16277157

  16. Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Babji, Deepa V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2015-03-01

    Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization. PMID:25621249

  17. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE).

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

    2013-07-21

    Occurrence of metachronous and synchronous secondary tumors in oral cavities has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased 5-year disease-free survival rates. The origin of secondary tumors in the oral cavity has been primarily attributed to cancer field effects (CFE) or malignancy-associated changes (MAC) in uninvolved areas. Classification of normal, cancerous and pre-cancerous oral lesions by in vivo Raman spectroscopy (RS) has already been demonstrated. In the present study, MAC/CFE in oral buccal mucosa were explored. In vivo Raman spectra from 84 subjects (722 spectra) under five categories - cancer and contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), healthy controls (no tobacco habit, no cancer), habitués healthy controls (tobacco habit, no cancer) and non-habitués contralateral normal (no tobacco habit with cancer) were acquired. Mean and difference spectra suggest that loss of lipids and additional features representing proteins and DNA are characteristics of all pathological conditions, with respect to healthy controls. Spectral data were analyzed by PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results suggest that Raman characteristics of mucosa of healthy controls are exclusive, while those of habitués healthy controls are similar to those of contralateral normal mucosa. It was observed that the cluster of non-habitués contralateral normal mucosa is different from habitués healthy controls, suggesting that malignancy associated changes can be identified and also indicating that transformation of uninvolved oral mucosa due to tobacco habit or malignancy is different. The findings of the study demonstrate the potential of RS in identifying early transformation changes in oral mucosa and the efficacy of this approach in oral cancer applications. PMID:23392131

  18. Normalization of keratinocyte-type integrins during the establishment of the oral mucosa phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tomakidi, P; Breitkreutz, D; Kohl, A; Komposch, G

    1999-01-01

    In stratified epithelia, integrins play a fundamental role in mediating basal cell attachment to a variety of extracellular matrix molecules. To assess whether keratinocyte-specific integrins are expressed in a similar way as in the normal situation also under in vivo related conditions, we processed oral mucosa equivalents consisting of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from non-cornified gingiva. In this model histomorphology, the expression of differentiation-specific keratins and keratinocyte-type integrins exhibited similarity to the tissue of origin. The stages of tissue normalization were assessed on frozen sections by indirect immunofluorescence. The initial activated stage (1 week) was characterized by (i) incomplete epithelial organization and a weak presence of the suprabasal mucosa type keratin K4, (ii) diffuse expression of the integrin chains beta 1 and alpha 6 and (iii) abundance of the wound healing-associated integrin alpha v throughout the whole epithelium. After 2 weeks, the increase in epithelial organization was characterized by (i) the presence of a basal and suprabasal cell compartment, (ii) extension of K4 in the suprabasal compartment, (iii) extended expression of the keratinocyte integrins beta 1 and alpha 6 and (iv) concentration of alpha v integrin underneath basal cells. Further normalization of tissue architecture was indicated by (i) a slight increase in K4 extension, (ii) appearance of keratinocyte integrins beta 1 and alpha 6 in basal and parabasal cells and (iii) interruption of the band-like alpha v integrin immunolocalization at the subepithelial site. The findings in the in vitro model system indicate that these oral mucosa equivalents exhibit similarities to the in vivo situation of non-cornified gingiva, thus rendering them a suitable model for the assessment of stages during epithelial reconstruction or in vivo relevant studies on material effects. PMID:10081576

  19. Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid permeation through oral mucosa in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Alleman, Anthony; Lehman, Paul; Blevins, Steve; Stone, Angie; Fink, Louis; Dinehart, Scott; Stern, Scott J.

    1994-07-01

    Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid are photosensitizers that show promise in the photodynamic treatment of cancer, port-wine stains, atherosclerosis and viral lesions. Photofrin is a mixture of porphyrins which, upon the absorption of light, become temporarily cytotoxic. One side-effect associated with the use of Photofrin is long-term cutaneous photosensitivity. It is possible that topical application of this photosensitizing dye will ameliorate such a side-effect. Another way to avoid the cutaneous photosensitivity in photodynamic therapy is to use 5- aminolevulinic acid, which is a porphyrin precursor that causes an increase in the synthesis and concentration of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. 5-aminolevulinic acid is usually applied topically, and so minimizes cutaneous photosensitivity while maximizing the local protoporphyrin concentration. There are a host of disorders in oral mucosa that are potentially treatable by photodynamic therapy. However, since stratum corneum presents an impermeable barrier to many pharmaceuticals, it is not clear that topical application of the photosensitizer will result in a clinically relevant tissue concentration. We have therefore studied the permeation behavior of Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid by applying them to the surface of ex vivo oral mucosa tissue positioned by a Franz diffusion cell. In order to increase the permeability of the photosensitizer across the stratum corneum, we studied the effects of four different drug carriers: phosphate buffered saline, dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and Azone with isopropyl alcohol.

  20. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

  1. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa for mucosal reconstruction in a pediatric patient with hemifacial microsomia and ankyloglossia.

    PubMed

    Llames, Sara; Recuero, Ignacio; Romance, Ana; García, Eva; Peña, Ignacio; Del Valle, Alvaro Fernández; Meana, Alvaro; Larcher, Fernando; Del Río, Marcela

    2014-03-01

    Many types of soft tissue grafts have been used for the reconstruction of oral mucosal defects. The best results are achieved with mucosal grafts; however, when large areas must be grafted, sufficient donor tissue is not available. Tissue engineering represents an alternative method to obtain sufficient autologous tissue for reconstructing oral wounds. Herein we present a pediatric patient with hemifacial microsomia and congenital ankyloglossia requiring multiple surgical interventions, and in which an autologous full-thickness tissue-engineered oral mucosa was used for successful oral reconstruction. Our study demonstrates that even under challenging conditions, robust tissue-engineered products, such as the fibrin-based oral mucosa described here, can achieve successful tissue regeneration. PMID:23879858

  2. Assessment of oral mucosa in normal, precancer and cancer using chemiluminescent illumination, toluidine blue supravital staining and oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rajmohan, M; Rao, Umadevi Krishnamohan; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rajasekaran, Saraswathy Thillai; Kannan, Ranganathan

    2012-01-01

    Context: Carcinoma in an early stage of development is hard to detect clinically because the lesion may not be palpable and color of the lesional tissue is not necessarily different from the color of the surrounding mucosa. In order to improve the efficacy of the diagnosis, techniques are being developed to complement clinical examination and to facilitate the identification of initial carcinomas. Aims: To find out the efficacy of chemiluminescent illumination (ViziLite™) for the diagnosis in precancer and cancer patients and compare this result to toluidine blue staining and oral exfoliative cytology. Materials and Methods: This study was done in 3 groups. Each group consists of 10 cases. Group I consists of normal appearing mucosa. Group II and III consist of clinically diagnosed pre-cancer and clinically suggestive of cancer respectively. Chemiluminescent illumination, toluidine blue supravital staining, oral exfoliative cytology and biopsy were performed in all cases. Statistical analysis used: SPSS version 10.05 was used to calculate positive and negative predictive values. Results: In Group I, all 10 patients showed negative result to ViziLite™. 8 patients showed positivity and 2 patients showed negativity to ViziLite™ test in Group II. 9 patients were positive and one patient was negative for ViziLite™. Conclusions: Chemiluminescent illumination test was sensitive for precancerous and cancerous lesions, which presented as keratotic lesions and red-white lesions. It showed negative result to erosive lesions. Toluidine blue staining test was reliable in precancerous and cancerous lesions, which present as erosive and red-white lesions. It showed negative result to keratotic lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology has diagnostic value in cancer patients than in precancer patients. These Results indicate that chemiluminescent illumination test is relatively reliable and accurate than toluidine blue staining test and useful chair side diagnostic test. PMID

  3. Role of the lymphoreticular system in prion neuroinvasion from the oral and nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bessen, Richard A; Martinka, Scott; Kelly, Jessica; Gonzalez, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Prion neuroinvasion from peripheral tissues involves agent replication in the lymphoreticular system (LRS) prior to entry into the nervous system. This study investigated the role of the LRS in prion neuroinvasion from the oral and nasal mucosa in wild-type and immunodeficient mice and in hamsters infected with the HY and DY strains of the transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agent. Following inoculation at neural sites, all hosts were susceptible to prion disease and had evidence of prion infection in the brain, but infection of the LRS was found only in scrapie-infected wild-type mice and HY TME-infected hamsters. In the LRS replication-deficient models, prion neuroinvasion was not observed following intraperitoneal or oral inoculation. However, immunodeficient mice, which have impaired follicular dendritic cells, were susceptible to scrapie following intratongue and intranasal inoculation despite the absence of PrP(Sc) in the tongue or the nasal cavity. For DY TME, hamsters were susceptible following intratongue but not intranasal inoculation and PrP(Sc) was limited to nerve fibers of the tongue. These findings indicate that neuroinvasion from the tongue and nasal cavity can be independent of LRS infection but neuroinvasion was partially dependent on the strain of the prion agent and/or the host species. The paucity of PrP(Sc) deposition in the oral and nasal mucosa from LRS replication-deficient hosts following neuroinvasion from these tissues suggests an infection of nerve fibers that is below the threshold of PrP(Sc) detection and/or the transport of the prion agent along cranial nerves without agent replication. PMID:19369351

  4. Hypermethylation of the p16 gene in normal oral mucosa of smokers.

    PubMed

    von Zeidler, S Ventorin; Miracca, E C; Nagai, M A; Birman, E G

    2004-11-01

    The oral cavity is the sixth most common anatomical localization of head and neck carcinoma in men. Detection of oral carcinomas in the early asymptomatic stages improves cure rates and the quality of life. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking are the most important known risk factors for the development of head and neck tumors, suggesting that the exposure to these risk factors may increase the predisposition for genetic and epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation. The presence of methylated CpG islands in the promoter region of human genes can suppress their expression due to the presence of 5-methylcytosine that interferes with the binding of transcription factors or other DNA-binding proteins repressing transcription activity. Hypermethylation leading to the inactivation of some tumor suppressor genes, such as p16, has been pointed out as an initial event in head and neck cancer. Our aim was to evaluate an early diagnostic method of oral pre-cancerous lesions through the analysis of methylation of the p16 gene. DNA samples from normal oral mucosa and posterior tongue border from 258 smokers, without oral cancer, were investigated for the occurrence of p16 promoter hypermethylation. The methylation status of the p16 gene was analyzed using MS-PCR (methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and PCR amplification), MSP (Methylation-specific PCR) or direct DNA sequence of bisulfite modified DNA. Hyper-methylation was detected in 9.7% (25/258) of the cases analyzed. These findings provide further evidence that epigenetic alteration, leading to the inactivation of the p16 tumor suppressor gene is an early event that might confer cell growth advantages contributing to the tumorigenic process. Thus, the detection of abnormal p16 methylation pattern may be a valuable tool for early oral cancer detection. PMID:15492849

  5. PCR based detection of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in normal oral mucosa of tobacco users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Pattanshetty, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Nayak, R; Bhat, K; Somannavar, P; Babji, D

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of a causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Several studies have shown that HPV is associated with increased risk of oral cancer independent of exposure to tobacco and alcohol. The association is valid for HPVs 16 and 18, which generally are considered high risk types, because they have been detected in oral dysplastic lesions and cancers. We determined the baseline prevalence of HPVs 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa of individuals with and without tobacco habit. PCR was used for DNA collected by oral smears to detect HPV 16/18 DNA in normal oral mucosa of 60 healthy individuals who were assigned to two groups of 30 subjects each. One group had a tobacco habit, the other did not. The tobacco user group comprised individuals who were tobacco chewers only. Sixty-five percent of individuals were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, but HPV 16/18 positivity was less in individuals with tobacco habit than in those without tobacco habit. No significant association was found between the presence of HPVs and gender, age or duration of chewing habit, or between groups with and without a tobacco habit. We propose that HPVs16 and 18 commonly are present in normal oral mucosa and emphasize the importance of distinguishing clinical, subclinical and latent HPV infections when investigating HPVs and OSCC. PMID:24588599

  6. The role of autofluorescence diagnostics in the diseases of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosciarz-Grzesiok, A.; Waskowska, J.; Kawczyk-Krupka, A.; Ledwon, A.; Misiak, A.; Latos, W.; Koszowski, R.; Sieron-Stoltny, K.; Sieron, A.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction. Life induced fluorescence (LIFE) diagnostics can be used as an imaging system of precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa. Neoplastic lesions are visible in pseudo colours, healthy tissue in green colour and abnormal tissue in red colour. All the observed colours present different intensity. Colour intensity is relevant to the grade of dysplasia, carcinoma progress and is called Numerological Value of Color Index (NCV). The aim of our study was to find correlation between autofluorescence diagnostics combined with NCV assessment and histopathological findings of taken specimen biopsies. Patients and methods. 10 patients participated in our study. Lesions affected a variety of intraoral sites. The most common location was: buccal, gingival and mandibular mucosa. Patients were examined using Life Induced Fluorescence diagnosis (400 - 750 nm wavelength) with Numerological Value of Color index (NCV) using Onco LIFE system. Afterwards the specimen biopsies from the lesions were taken and histopathological examination was performed. Results. Different NCV and dependence of NCV on the histopathological findings were observed. Conclusion. Diagnostic procedures with the application of white-light imaging with LIFE imaging is not only a significantly faster method and a better diagnostic tool of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, but there exist also correlations between measured NCV and histopathological diagnosis. The farther investigations are necessary in order to prove these preliminary findings.

  7. Human Oral Mucosa Tissue-Engineered Constructs Monitored by Raman Fiber-Optic Probe

    PubMed Central

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Kim, Roderick Y.; Matthews, Robert V.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    In maxillofacial and oral surgery, there is a need for the development of tissue-engineered constructs. They are used for reconstructions due to trauma, dental implants, congenital defects, or oral cancer. A noninvasive monitoring of the fabrication of tissue-engineered constructs at the production and implantation stages done in real time is extremely important for predicting the success of tissue-engineered grafts. We demonstrated a Raman spectroscopic probe system, its design and application, for real-time ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalent (EVPOME) constructs noninvasive monitoring. We performed in vivo studies to find Raman spectroscopic indicators for postimplanted EVPOME failure and determined that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs preexposed to thermal stress during manufacturing procedures displayed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, giving a Raman metric to distinguish between healthy and compromised postimplanted constructs. This study is the step toward our ultimate goal to develop a stand-alone system, to be used in a clinical setting, where the data collection and analysis are conducted on the basis of these spectroscopic indicators with minimal user intervention. PMID:24826804

  8. Raman fiberoptic probe for monitoring human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Okagbare, Paul; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    In oral and maxillofacial surgery, there is a need for tissue engineered constructs for dental implants, reconstructions due to trauma, oral cancer or congenital defects. A non-invasive quality monitoring of the fabrication of tissue engineered constructs during their production and implantation is a required component of any successful tissue engineering technique. We demonstrate the design and application of a Raman spectroscopic probe for rapid and noninvasive monitoring of Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs). We conducted in vivo studies to identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs (already developed in vitro), and found that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. This is the first step towards the ultimate goal to design a stand-alone system, which will be usable in a clinical setting, as the data processing and analysis will be performed with minimal user intervention, based on already established and tested Raman spectroscopic indicators for EVPOMEs.

  9. [Differential diagnosis of bluish and pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Tsiklakis, K; Patsakas, A

    1989-01-01

    The clinical features of the most common bluish and pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa are discussed in this paper. Considerable attention is given to the findings from the medical and dental history of the patient, in the methodology of the clinical examination (inspection, palpation, digital pressure, aspiration) in the clinical characteristics of the lesions (location, size duration, consistency, prognosis) in the laboratory findings (radiographs and other supplementary examinations) and in the differential diagnosis. The bluish and pigmented lesions which are discussed include: melanoma, Albright's syndrome, Addison's diseases, Peutz-Jeghers's syndrome, arsening poisoning, hemangioma, hematoma, petechia and ecchymosis, Sturge-Weber syndrome, amalgam tatoo, heavy metal lines, mucocele and eruption cyst. PMID:2519153

  10. Estimation of trace metal elements in oral mucosa specimens by using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dissolved elements from metal dental restorations are a major concern in lesions of the oral mucosa, and the evaluation of accumulated metal elements, especially their distribution and chemical state, is essential for determining the precise effects of trace metals. In this study, X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were applied for distribution analysis of the trace metal elements contained in the oral mucosa, and the chemical states of the elements were estimated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Appropriate combination of these analysis techniques, particularly SR-XRF and PIXE, to visualize the distributions of the elements in the oral mucosa allowed for the observation and evaluation of accumulated metal ions and debris. Importantly, the analyses in this study could be carried out using conventional histopathological specimens without damaging the specimens. Therefore, this method would be applicable for the detection of accumulated trace metal elements in biopsy specimens from the oral mucosa. PMID:25522792

  11. Characterization of cornified oral mucosa for iontophoretically enhanced delivery of chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Baig, Arif; White, Donald J; Li, S Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Topical administration of chlorhexidine for periodontal disease can provide advantages over systemic delivery, but is limited by the permeability of the cornified oral mucosal tissue. In the present study, passive and iontophoretic transport of tetraethylammonium, salicylate, mannitol, dexamethasone, fluoride, and chlorhexidine across bovine palate was investigated to (a) determine the intrinsic barrier properties of bovine palate for its eventual use as a model of human cornified oral mucosa, (b) examine the feasibility of iontophoretically enhanced transport of chlorhexidine into and across bovine palate, and (c) identify the transport mechanisms involved in iontophoretic transport across the palate. The histology study suggests that bovine and human palates have similar cornified epithelium structures; bovine palate could be a model tissue of human hard palate for drug delivery studies. Transport study of tetraethylammonium, salicylate, and mannitol suggests that bovine palate was net negatively charged and the cornified epithelial layer was the rate-determining barrier. The direct-field effect (electrophoresis) was shown to be the dominant flux-enhancing mechanism in iontophoretic transport of ionic compounds. Electroosmosis also contributed to the iontophoretic transport of both neutral and ionic permeants. Anodal iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of chlorhexidine into and across the palate, reduced the transport lag time, and provided tissue concentration above the drug minimum inhibitory concentration, and therefore could be a promising method to assist in the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:26598208

  12. Expression of p53 in leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa: correlation with expression of Ki67

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, S; Chandran, G Jagadeesh; Pillai, K Raveendran; Mathew, Babu; Sujathan, K; Nalinakumary, K R; Nair, M Krishnan

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To study p53 expression in relation to proliferative status in normal and nondysplastic, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. Method—The standard avidin-biotin complex (ABC) immunohistochemical staining method was used to study the expression of p53 and Ki67 on frozen sections of oral leukoplakias and carcinomas. Results—Of the leukoplakia and carcinoma samples, 70% expressed p53 in over 5% of cells. In normal mucosa less than 5% of cells expressed p53. The proliferation index, as assessed by expression of Ki67, was highest in the malignant lesions (43%) and lowest in normal mucosa (11%). Statistical analysis revealed that expression of both p53 and Ki67 was correlated significantly with the histopathological stage of the tumour. However, expression of p53 was not correlated with that of Ki67. In leukoplakia lesions with proliferative features p53 immunostaining was less intense than in non-proliferative lesions; this difference was statistically significant. Conclusions—These results emphasise the potential of Ki67 and p53 as biomarkers of carcinogenesis in oral cancer and may also serve as intermediate points for cancer prevention programmes, such as the oral chemopreventive trials. Factors other than p53 may have a more important role in the deregulation of proliferation in pre-malignant oral lesions. Images PMID:16696067

  13. Oral magnesium reduces gastric mucosa susceptibility to injury in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ige, A O; Adewoye, E O; Okwundu, N C; Alade, O E; Onuobia, P C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of magnesium on the gastric defence mechanism in alloxan-diabetic male Wistar rats. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, A (n=40) and B (n=20). Each group was subdivided into control, diabetic untreated (DU), diabetic magnesium (250mg/kg) treated (DMg250) and diabetic insulin (3IU/kgs.c) treated (DI). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120mg/kg) and both groups were treated for 14days. By day 14, group A rats were sacrificed, the stomach excised and evaluated for histopathology, mucus content, parietal and mucus cell counts. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus of group B rats for biochemical evaluation (blood glucose, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LP) and nitric oxide (NO)) and later sacrificed for gastric SOD, LP and NO evaluation. Blood glucose level was reduced (p<0.05) in all treatment groups compared to DU. Gastric SOD, parietal and mucus cell counts were increased (p<0.05) in the DMg250 and DI compared to DU. Serum LP and NO were reduced while gastric LP was increased in the DMg250 compared to DU. Gastric NO and mucous content were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in all diabetic groups compared to control. The gastric mucosa of the DU group had haemorrhage, inflammation and parasites embedded. The DMg250 and DI had normal submucus and muscle layers with reduced inflammation. Oral magnesium treatment in diabetes exerts hypoglycaemic effects, reduces serum nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, increases gastric superoxide dismutase, mucous cell count and reduces the susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to ulceration. PMID:27133222

  14. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  15. Expression of MUC1 mucin in potentially malignant disorders, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Harish; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Keshavaiah, Roopavathi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Divya, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucins alteration in glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of malignant diseases. Therefore, mucins are used as valuable markers to distinguish normal and disease conditions. Many studies on MUC1 expression have been conducted on variety of neoplastic lesions other than head and neck region. None of the study has made an attempt to show its significance in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Hence, ours is one of the pioneer studies done to assess and evaluate the same. Aims: This study aims to compare and correlate the expression of MUC1 mucin protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), PMD's and OSCC by immunohistochemical method. Materials and Methods: Institutional study, archived tissue sections of OSCC (n = 20), PMD's (n = 20) and NOM (n = 20) were immunostained for MUC1 mucin and percentage of positive cells evaluated. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney test and Student's t-test. Results: The mean MUC1 mucin positive cells in the study groups were as follows, 40% in OSCC, 28% in PMD's and 0.75% in NOM. Higher mean immunohistochemical score was observed in OSCC group followed by PMD's group and NOM group. The difference in immunohistochemical score among the groups was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The result of the current study suggests that determination of MUC1 mucin expression may be a parameter in the diagnosis of malignant behavior of PMD's to OSCC. MUC1 mucin expression may be a useful diagnostic marker for prediction of the invasive/metastatic potential of OSCC. PMID:27601811

  16. Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

    2002-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

  17. Development of alginate microspheres as nystatin carriers for oral mucosa drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Martín, María J; Calpena, Ana C; Fernández, Francisco; Mallandrich, Mireia; Gálvez, Patricia; Clares, Beatriz

    2015-03-01

    To develop more effective antifungal mucoadhesive systems for the treatment of oral candidiasis, three types of microspheres, alginate (AM1), chitosan coated (CCM) and hydrogel (AM2) containing nystatin (Nys) were successfully elaborated by emulsification/internal gelation method. Physicochemical properties of microspheres resulted in 85-135 μm mean sizes, spherical shaped with narrow distribution. Optimal encapsulation efficiency and negative zeta potentials were observed. AM2 showed a consistent decrease in viscosity with increasing shear rate (Herschel-Bulkley). Optimal mucoadhesive properties and swelling behaviour where evidenced. Nys release from AM1 and CCM followed a concentration gradient pattern, contrary AM2 followed a complex release mechanism. All systems exhibited a marked fungicidal activity against Candida albicans strains. In vivo studies demonstrated that Nys was not found in systemic circulation assuring the safety of the treatment. Nys amounts retained in the mucosa were more than enough to ensure an effective fungicidal action without tissue damage. Based on the obtained results, AM2 could be proposed as the vehicle with the best properties for the buccal vehiculization of Nys. PMID:25498619

  18. Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

  19. Cytological changes in the oral mucosa after use of a mouth rinse with alcohol: A prospective double blind control study

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Marzal, Cristina; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Ezequiel; Bagan, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol. Material and Methods: A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine®] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus. Results: We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients. Key words:Mouth wash, oral mucosa, cytological change, alcohol. PMID:23085712

  20. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46) non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72%) of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23%) versus palate/gum (16%). Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression. PMID:21129222

  1. Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on age-related physiological changes and tobacco-related pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Ghanate, A D; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

    2012-12-01

    Biophysical techniques play an important role in detecting physiological alterations during pathogenesis. Raman spectroscopy has shown immense potential in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Classification of normal, inflammatory, premalignant and malignant conditions has been demonstrated using ex vivo Raman spectroscopy. Feasibility of recording in vivo spectra in clinically implementable time has also been shown. Translation of this technology to clinics requires extensive validation of methodologies, building of robust models and testing the same under stringent conditions as well as on diverse populations. In this context, the ability of Raman spectroscopy in identifying subtle changes in oral mucosa with increasing age, and the influence of these aging related changes on classification with tobacco-related pathological changes was evaluated. A total of 451 spectra from 62 subjects were recorded from buccal mucosa of healthy subjects of 4 different age groups (aged 20-60 years). Also, 478 spectra from 85 subjects belonging to 4 different categories, tobacco exposed mucosa, contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), premalignant patches and tumors on buccal mucosa were recorded using fiber optic probe-coupled commercial Raman spectrometer. Differences in spectra were explored by unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and supervised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), followed by Leave one out cross validation. Results indicate feasibility of classifying early and late age groups. Also, clear classification is observed between healthy and pathological groups, thus inherent heterogeneity in healthy groups seems to have no bearing on classification of normal with abnormal conditions. Findings of the study indicate high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in detecting subtle mucosal changes, further supporting efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral cancer applications. Prospectively, more vigorous validation

  2. Effects of C-xylopyranoside derivative on epithelial regeneration in an in vitro 3D oral mucosa model.

    PubMed

    Uenoyama, Atsushi; Kakizaki, Ikuko; Shiomi, Aki; Saito, Naoaki; Hara, Yuko; Saito, Taro; Ohnuki, Hisashi; Kato, Hiroko; Takagi, Ritsuo; Maeda, Takeyasu; Izumi, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Identifying substandard tissue-engineered oral mucosa grafts with a poor epithelium before clinical use is critical to ensure quality assurance/control in regenerative medicine, leading to success of grafting. This study investigated the effects of one of the C-xylopyranoside derivatives, β-D-xylopyranoside-n-propane-2-one (XPP), on oral epithelial regeneration. Using a three-dimensional oral mucosa model, we analyzed changes of the epithelial structure, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, the expression levels of basement membrane zone markers, and substrates of Akt/mTOR signaling. Compared with the control, 2 mM XPP treatment increased the mean and minimal epithelial thickness, and reduced the variation of epithelial thickness. It also stimulated expressions of decorin and syndecan-1 with change of GAG amount and/or composition, and enhanced the expressions of integrin α6, CD44, and Akt/mTOR signaling substrates. These findings suggest that XPP supplementation contributes to consistent epithelial regeneration. Moreover, upregulation of those markers may play a role in increasing the quality of the oral mucosal epithelium. PMID:26966997

  3. [Epidemiologic studies of oral mucosa changes occurring in children, adolescents, and adults 13-24 years of age in Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Górska, R

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was the analysis of RAS occurrence in the population and a comparison to other oral mucosa lesions as well as an analysis of the influence of various factors on RAS occurrence: age, social status of the subject's, parents' education, CPITN index. In the school year 1994/95 a questionnaire concerning the frequency of RAS was distributed to children and adolescents (13-18y) from two Warsaw schools and a group of soldiers of the Polish Army serving in Warsaw. Additionally, all study participants were checked towards RAS by the use of the clinical methods according to WHO methodological guidelines. The periodontal state was measured with the CPITN index described by Ainamo. The following diseases were identified: RAS, leukoplakia, lichen planus, herpes simplex and tongue lesions. The most common declared diseases of oral mucosa was RAS, which usually occurred to patients of age below 18. Clinically the most often observed diseases were oral leukoplakia in soldiers' group and RAS in both students' groups. RAS occurs more often in students, whose parents have higher education compared with persons whose parents have primary education. Parental history of disease (cases of RAS among family members) predisposes to occurrence of RAS. Stress and exhaustion are the supporting factors of RAS incidence. Furthermore, clinical periodontal status and treatment needs may also cause the increase of RAS incidence. PMID:9411506

  4. Effects of aging in the expression of NOD-like receptors and inflammasome-related genes in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, J L; Kirakodu, S; Novak, M J; Exposto, C R; Stromberg, A J; Shen, S; Orraca, L; Gonzalez-Martinez, J; Gonzalez, O A

    2016-02-01

    The molecular changes underlying the higher risk of chronic inflammatory disorders during aging remain incompletely understood. Molecular variations in the innate immune response related to recognition and interaction with microbes at mucosal surfaces could be involved in aging-related inflammation. We developed an ontology analysis of 20 nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and seven inflammasome-related genes (IRGs) in healthy and inflamed/periodontitis oral mucosal tissues from young, adolescent, adult, and aged non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) using the GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome array. Validation of some of the significant changes was done by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of NLRB/NAIP, NLRP12, and AIM2 increased with aging in healthy mucosa whereas NLRC2/NOD2 expression decreased. Although higher expression levels of some NLRs were generally observed with periodontitis in adult mucosal tissues (e.g. NLRB/NAIP, NLRP5, and NLRX1), various receptors (e.g. NLRC2/NOD2 and NLRP2) and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, exhibited a significant reduction in expression in aged periodontitis tissues. Accordingly, the expression of NLR-activated innate immune genes, such as HBD3 and IFNB1, was impaired in aged but not adult periodontitis tissues. Both adult and aged tissues showed significant increase in interleukin-1β expression. These findings suggest that the expression of a subset of NLRs appears to change with aging in healthy oral mucosa, and that aging-related oral mucosal inflammation could involve an impaired regulation of the inflammatory and antimicrobial response associated with downregulation of specific NLRs and IRGs. PMID:26197995

  5. Small cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (cheek mucosa): a case report with an immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is extremely rare; only one case has been reported in the English Literature. The author herein reports the second case of SCC of the oral cavity. A 59-year-old man presented with oral tumor (5 cm) in the right cheek mucosa. A biopsy was taken. The HE histology was typical SCC consisting of small epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, molded nuclei, scant nucleocytoplasmic ratio, and negative nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells are positive for pancytokeratin (PCK) WSS, PCK MNF-116, cytokeratin (CK) 34BE12, CK5/6, CK14, vimentin, KIT (CD117), CD56, synaptophysin, p53 protein, and Ki67 antigen (Ki-67 labeling = 70%). The tumor cells are negative for PCK AE1/3, PSK CAM5.2, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, NSE, chromogranin, platelet-derived growth factor-α (PDGFRA), CD45, CD45RO, CD3, CD20, CD30, CD79a, and bcl-2. A retrospective genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method in paraffin sections identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. Various imaging modalities including CT and MRI and upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy did not identified no tumors other than the oral tumor. Thus, the oral tumor was thought primary. The oral tumor rapidly enlarged, and distant metastases to cervical lymph nodes, ribs and iliac bones emerged. The patient is now treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy 16 months after the first manifestation. PMID:23573327

  6. Carbamazepine transbuccal delivery: the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral epithelium and buccal porcine mucosae in the transmucosal permeation.

    PubMed

    Campisi, G; Paderni, C; Saccone, R; Siragusa, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Tripodo, C; Giannola, L I; Florena, A M

    2008-01-01

    Transbuccal drug delivery is an attractive way of administration since several well-known advantages are provided, especially with respect to peroral management. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant which is useful in controlling neuropathic pain, and it is currently administered by peroral route, although its absorption and bioavailability is limited due to various factors. The oral cavity could be an interesting site for transbuccal CBZ delivery due to two properties: slow administration of constant low drug doses and less dose-related side effects. However, in transbuccal absorption a major limitation could be the low permeability of the mucosa which results in low drug bioavailability; thus the aptitude of the drug to penetrate the buccal mucosa has to be assessed by using tissue models resembling human normal mucosa. In our experience, CBZ well permeates mucosal membranes. In order to assess the efficacy of CBZ transbuccal delivery and to verify the reliability of these tissues in permeability testing before and after the passage of CBZ, the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral (RHO) epithelium (E) and buccal porcine mucosae were investigated. Significant histological changes due to CBZ passage were observed both in RHO-E and porcine mucosa. The main findings detected in RHO samples were cellular swellings with a signet ring-like appearance, nuclear swelling, prominent nucleoli lined against the nuclear membrane and the presence of keratohyalin granules. The most striking finding regarding porcine buccal mucosa was a cytoplasmic vacuolization, mainly involving the basal layer. PMID:19144275

  7. The inflammatory and normal transcriptome of mouse bladder detrusor and mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Marcia R; Hellmich, Helen L; Turner, Mary; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Dyer, David W; Hurst, Robert E; Centola, Michael; Saban, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Background An organ such as the bladder consists of complex, interacting set of tissues and cells. Inflammation has been implicated in every major disease of the bladder, including cancer, interstitial cystitis, and infection. However, scanty is the information about individual detrusor and urothelium transcriptomes in response to inflammation. Here, we used suppression subtractive hybridizations (SSH) to determine bladder tissue- and disease-specific genes and transcriptional regulatory elements (TRE)s. Unique TREs and genes were assembled into putative networks. Results It was found that the control bladder mucosa presented regulatory elements driving genes such as myosin light chain phosphatase and calponin 1 that influence the smooth muscle phenotype. In the control detrusor network the Pax-3 TRE was significantly over-represented. During development, the Pax-3 transcription factor (TF) maintains progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state whereas, during inflammation, Pax-3 was suppressed and genes involved in neuronal development (synapsin I) were up-regulated. Therefore, during inflammation, an increased maturation of neural progenitor cells in the muscle may underlie detrusor instability. NF-κB was specifically over-represented in the inflamed mucosa regulatory network. When the inflamed detrusor was compared to control, two major pathways were found, one encoding synapsin I, a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, and the other an important apoptotic protein, siva. In response to LPS-induced inflammation, the liver X receptor was over-represented in both mucosa and detrusor regulatory networks confirming a role for this nuclear receptor in LPS-induced gene expression. Conclusion A new approach for understanding bladder muscle-urothelium interaction was developed by assembling SSH, real time PCR, and TRE analysis results into regulatory networks. Interestingly, some of the TREs and their downstream transcripts originally involved in organogenesis and

  8. Loss of Aβ-nerve endings associated with the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis

    PubMed Central

    Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis. PMID:27025263

  9. State of Oral Mucosa as an Additional Symptom in the Course of Primary Amyloidosis and Multiple Myeloma Disease

    PubMed Central

    Czerniuk, Maciej R.; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Charlinski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (myeloma multiplex (MM)) is a malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma derived from B cell. Its essence is a malignant clone of plasma cells synthesizing growth of monoclonal immunoglobulin, which infiltrate the bone marrow, destroy the bone structure, and prevent the proper production of blood cells components. The paper presents a case of 62-year-old patient who developed symptoms in addition to neurological and haematological changes in the oral mucosa in the course of multiple myeloma. The treatment resulted in partial improvement. The authors wish to draw attention not only to nonspecificity and rarity of changes in the mouth which can meet the dentist but also to the complexity of the multidisciplinary therapy patients diagnosed with MM. PMID:25013412

  10. A histochemical comparison of methyl green-pyronin, and hematoxylin and eosin for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sumedha, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Somannavar, P; Nayak, R; Babji, D

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of apoptotic cells in oral pathological states could be useful for determining the rates of tissue turnover, which would help determine prognosis. The use of histochemical stains such as hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and methyl green-pyronin (MGP) can provide a simple and cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells. We compared the efficacy of MGP and H & E for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral leukoplakia (OL), oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Ten cases each of OSCC, OSMF, OL and NOM were retrieved from the archives and two serial sections were stained, one with H & E and the other with MGP. Apoptotic cells were identified at 100 x magnification and the apoptotic index was calculated. Apoptotic cells were distinguished more readily in MGP stained sections than in those stained with H & E. Also, the apoptotic cell count was greater in OSCC compared to OL, OSMF and NOM. We concluded that MGP staining can be used as a routine, cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells. PMID:25539051

  11. Quantification of the global and local complexity of the epithelial-connective tissue interface of normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic oral mucosae using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Landini, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at quantifying the complexity of the epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) in human normal mucosa, premalignant, and malignant lesions using fractal geometry. Two approaches were used to describe the complexity of 377 oral mucosa ECTI profiles. The box counting method was used to estimate their global fractal dimension, while local fractal dimensions were estimated using the mass radius relation at various local scales. The ECTI complexity significantly increased from normal through premalignant to malignant profiles in both global and local (over 283 microm) scales. Normal mucosa samples from different sites of the oral cavity also had different degrees of global complexity. Fractal geometry is a useful morphological marker of tissue complexity changes taking place during epithelial malignancy and premalignancy, and we propose it as a quantitative marker of epithelial complexity. PMID:14521264

  12. [Coexistence of infection of the oral cavity and stomach and duodenal mucosa with Helicobacter pylori in patients with ulcer and chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Kopaánski, Z; Cienciala, A; Banaś, J; Kamiński, B; Witkowska, B; Zastepa, P; Brandys, J; Micherdziński, J

    1995-01-01

    In a group of 260 patients with a peptic ulcer of the stomach or the duodenum and/or chronic gastritis, bacteriological tests were conducted aiming at the detection of Helicobacter pylori in the mucosa of the stomach and the duodenum and in the gingival pockets. The presence of the infection of the mucosa of the stomach and/or of the duodenum was confirmed in 197 patients (75.8%). In this group of patients the bacteria occurred simultaneously in the oral cavity in 77 (39.1%) patients. It was found that the frequency of coexistence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the gingival pockets with an infected gastric or duodenal ulcer was not statistically significant. However, there was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in the oral cavity (83.3%) and the simultaneous occurrence of extensive infection of the gastric mucosa. PMID:7754615

  13. Carbon monoxide absorption through the oral and nasal mucosae of cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfisch, W.H.; Hoop, K.A.

    1980-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood levels of carbon monoxide increase during cigarette smoking. It has genrally been assumed that increases in blood levels of carbon monoxide could be interpreted as evidence that deep lung penetration of cigarette smoke had occurred. This study was designed to examine whether increased blood levels of carbon monoxide could result from absorption in the nasal and oral cavitites. The nasal and oral cavities of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed, independently of the lungs, to cigarette smoke under rigorous smoking conditions. Pre- and post-exposure blood levels of carbon monoxide were measured. As a positive control, similar volumes of cigarette smoke were passed directly into the lungs, thus bypassing the oral and nasal cavities, and blood levels of carbon monoxide were again measured. The results inidcate that absorption of carbon monoxide in the oral and nasal cavities is negligible under the heavy smoking regimen employed here, and hence, would be negligible under normal smoking conditions.

  14. In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2012-10-01

    Cancers of oral cavities are one of the most common malignancies in India and other south-Asian countries. Tobacco habits are the main etiological factors for oral cancer. Identification of premalignant lesions is required for improving survival rates related to oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods are projected as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. We intend to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting premalignant conditions. Spectra were recorded from premalignant patches, contralateral normal (opposite to tumor site), and cancerous sites of subjects with oral cancers and also from age-matched healthy subjects with and without tobacco habits. A total of 861 spectra from 104 subjects were recorded using a fiber-optic probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectral differences in the 1200- to 1800-cm-1 region were subjected to unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised linear discriminant analysis followed by validation with leave-one-out and an independent test data set. Results suggest that premalignant conditions can be objectively discriminated with both normal and cancerous sites as well as from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits. Findings of the study further support efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral-cancer applications.

  15. Collaborative Interferon-γ and Interleukin-17 Signaling Protects the Oral Mucosa from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Barin, Jobert G; Talor, Monica V; Schaub, Julie A; Diny, Nicola L; Hou, Xuezhou; Hoyer, Matthew; Archer, Nathan K; Gebremariam, Elizabeth S; Davis, Meghan F; Miller, Lloyd S; Rose, Noel R; Čiháková, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Infections with Staphylococcus aureus are a continuing and growing problem in community and hospital settings. Preclinical animal modeling of S. aureus relies on experimental infection, which carries some limitations. We describe here a novel, spontaneous model of oral staphylococcal infection in double knockout mice, deficient in the receptors for IL-17 (IL-17RA) and interferon (IFN)-γ (IFNγRI), beginning at 6 to 8 weeks of age. IFNγRI(-/-)IL17RA(-/-) (GRAKO) mice developed progressive oral abscesses. Cytometric methods revealed extensive neutrophilic infiltration of oral tissues in GRAKO mice; further investigation evidenced that IL-17 predominated neutrophil defects in these mice. To investigate the contribution of IFN-γ signaling to this native host defense to S. aureus, we observed perturbations of monocyte recruitment and macrophage differentiation in the oral tissues of GRAKO mice, and CXCL9/chemokine ligand receptor (CXCR)3-driven recruitment of T-cell oral tissues and draining lymph nodes. To address the former finding, we depleted macrophages and monocytes in vivo from IL17RA(-/-) mice using liposomes loaded with clodronate. This treatment elicited oral abscesses, recapitulating the phenotype of GRAKO mice. From these findings, we propose novel collaborative functions of IL-17 and IFN-γ, acting through neutrophils and macrophages, respectively, in native mucocutaneous host defenses to S. aureus. PMID:27470712

  16. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity. PMID:21815141

  17. Effects of subepithelial fibroblasts on epithelial differentiation in human skin and oral mucosa: heterotypically recombined organotypic culture model.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mutsumi; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Harii, Kiyonori

    2003-09-01

    The stratified squamous epithelia differ regionally in their patterns of morphogenesis and differentiation. Although some reports suggested that the adult epithelial phenotype is an intrinsic property of the epithelium, there is increasing evidence that subepithelial connective tissue can modify the phenotypic expression of the epithelium. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the differentiation of cutaneous and oral epithelia is influenced by underlying mesenchymal tissues. Three normal skin samples and three normal buccal mucosa samples were used for the experiments. Skin equivalents were constructed in four ways, depending on the combinations of keratinocytes (cutaneous or mucosal keratinocytes) and fibroblasts (dermal or mucosal fibroblasts), and the effects of subepithelial fibroblasts on the differentiation of oral and cutaneous keratinocytes were studied with histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses with anti-cytokeratin (keratins 10 and 13) antibodies. For each experiment, three paired skin equivalents were constructed by using single parent keratinocyte and fibroblast sources for each group; consequently, nine (3 x 3) organotypic cultures per group were constructed and studied. The oral and cutaneous epithelial cells maintained their intrinsic keratin expression. The keratin expression patterns in oral and cutaneous epithelia of skin equivalents were generally similar to their original patterns but were partly modified exogenously by the topologically different fibroblasts. The mucosal keratinocytes were more differentiated and expressed keratin 10 when cocultured with dermal fibroblasts, and the expression patterns of keratin 13 in cutaneous keratinocytes cocultured with mucosal fibroblasts were different from those in keratinocytes cocultured with cutaneous fibroblasts. The results suggested that the epithelial phenotype and keratin expression could be extrinsically modified by mesenchymal fibroblasts. In epithelial

  18. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Megha; Sircar, Keya; Tandon, Ankita; Chowdhry, Aman; Popli, Deepika Bablani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Histopathological diagnosis of lesions arising from the intake of tobacco is based on subjective evaluation of morphological alterations within the lesional tissue. Oral exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for early detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Morphometric techniques have been advocated as objective and reproducible methods of detecting changes before they are visible by routine microscopy and can facilitate differentiation of normal and abnormal epithelium. This study was conducted to assess the morphometric parameters (cell diameter, nuclear diameter and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio [N:C ratio]) in tobacco smokers and chewers and to evaluate the variations, if any. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cytological smears obtained from oral lesions of patients with habit of tobacco smoking (Group B) and tobacco chewing (Group C). Group A comprised of subjects free from oral lesions and not using tobacco in any form. Patients with both the habits were excluded. The smears were stained using Papanicoloaou staining method. For morphometric analysis, Microimage 3.0 image analysis software was employed. The statistical test employed was an analysis of variance and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the cellular diameter was progressively reduced and nuclear diameter progressively increased from Group A to Group B to Group C. The N:C ratio also showed a progressive increase from Group A to Group C. Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers. PMID:25540659

  19. Orthotopic non-metastatic and metastatic oral cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bais, Manish V; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Trackman, Philip C

    2015-05-01

    Oral cancer is characterized by high morbidity and mortality with a predisposition to metastasize to different tissues, including lung, liver, and bone. Despite progress in the understanding of mutational profiles and deregulated pathways in oral cancer, patient survival has not significantly improved over the past decades. Therefore, there is a need to establish in vivo models that recapitulate human oral cancer metastasis to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel drugs. Here we report orthotopic tongue cancer nude mouse models to study oral cancer growth and metastasis using human metastatic (UMSCC2) and non-metastatic (CAL27) cell lines, respectively. Transduction of these cell lines with lentivirus expressing red fluorescent protein (DsRed) followed by injection into tongues of immunodeficient mice generated orthotopic tongue tumors that could be monitored for growth and metastasis by fluorescence measurement with an in vivo Imaging System (IVIS 200). The growth rates of CAL27-DsRed induced tumors were higher than UMSCC2-DsRed tumors after day 15, while UMSCC2-DsRed tumors revealed metastasis beginning on day 21. Importantly, UMSCC2 tumors metastasized to a number of tissues including the submandibular gland, lung, kidney, liver, and bone. Further, immunohistochemical analyses of tongue tumors induced by CAL27 and UMSCC2 cells revealed elevated expression of components of protumorigenic pathways deregulated in human cancers, including Cyclin D1, PCNA, Ki-67, LSD1, LOXL2, MT-MMP1, DPAGT1, E-cadherin, OCT4A, and H3K4me1/2. These orthotopic mouse models are likely to be useful tools for gaining insights into the activity and mechanisms of novel oral cancer drug candidates. PMID:25682387

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone. PMID:19506920

  1. Automated segmentation of oral mucosa from wide-field OCT images (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldan, Ryan N.; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Cahill, Lucas; Liu, Kelly; MacAulay, Calum; Poh, Catherine F.; Lane, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can discriminate morphological tissue features important for oral cancer detection such as the presence or absence of basement membrane and epithelial thickness. We previously reported an OCT system employing a rotary-pullback catheter capable of in vivo, rapid, wide-field (up to 90 x 2.5mm2) imaging in the oral cavity. Due to the size and complexity of these OCT data sets, rapid automated image processing software that immediately displays important tissue features is required to facilitate prompt bed-side clinical decisions. We present an automated segmentation algorithm capable of detecting the epithelial surface and basement membrane in 3D OCT images of the oral cavity. The algorithm was trained using volumetric OCT data acquired in vivo from a variety of tissue types and histology-confirmed pathologies spanning normal through cancer (8 sites, 21 patients). The algorithm was validated using a second dataset of similar size and tissue diversity. We demonstrate application of the algorithm to an entire OCT volume to map epithelial thickness, and detection of the basement membrane, over the tissue surface. These maps may be clinically useful for delineating pre-surgical tumor margins, or for biopsy site guidance.

  2. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  3. Oral manifestations in Urbach--Wiethe disease (lipoglycoproteinosis; lipoid proteinosis; hyalinosis cutis et mucosae).

    PubMed

    Hofer, P A; Bergenholtz, A

    1975-01-01

    The oral manifestations in 27 patients with Urbach--Wiethe disease (UWD) discovered in Northern Sweden are described. The oral regions most frequently affected are the lips, the back of the tongue, the frenulum of the tongue, the palate and the back wall of the pharynx. The general impression is that older patients usually have more marked manifestations than younger, indicating that the oral lesions may become more severe with increasing age. Histopathologically, the disorder is essentially a microangiopathy in which the walls of small blood vessels are thick and PAS-positive, indicating the presence of glycoproteins. In clinically affected regions there are usually PAS-positive extravascular deposits. In material used of lipid histochemical studies, sudanophil droplets were found in the vessel walls. By staining with osmium tetroxide the osmium is--contrary to previous assumptions--in some way bound to the droplets, but for unknown reasons is not reduced to a coloured product. The binding of osmium was demonstrated by the OTAN (osmium textroxide alpha-naphthylamine) method. The exact significance of this finding awaits further studies. The implications of dental anomalies occurring in UWD are discussed. PMID:1054442

  4. Differential distribution of ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) immunoreactive cells in the mouse and rat gastric oxyntic mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette; Sachs, George; Lambrecht, Nils W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme that acylates ghrelin was recently identified in mice as the fourth member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferases superfamily (MBOAT4) and named ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT). Only one report showed GOAT mRNA expression in ghrelin-expressing cells of the mouse stomach. We investigated the distribution of GOAT protein in peripheral tissues and co-expression with endocrine markers in the gastric mucosa using a custom-made anti-GOAT antibody. Tissues were collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice. Western blot revealed two immunoreactive bands in rat and mouse gastric corpus mucosal proteins, a 50 kDa band corresponding to the GOAT protein and a 100 kDa band likely corresponding to a dimer. Western blot also detected GOAT in the plasma and levels were strongly increased after 24-h fasting in mice and slightly in rats. GOAT-immunoreactive cells were located in the gastric corpus mucosa and the anterior pituitary gland, whereas other peripheral tissues of rats and mice examined were negative. In mice, GOAT-immunoreactive cells were mainly distributed throughout the middle portion of the oxyntic glands, whereas in rats they were localized mainly in the lower portion of the glands. Double labeling showed that 95±1% of GOAT-immunoreactive cells in mice co-labeled with ghrelin, whereas in rats only 56±4% of GOAT-positive cells showed co-expression of ghrelin. The remainder of the GOAT-immunopositive cells in rats co-expressed histidine decarboxylase (44±3%). No co-localization was observed with somatostatin in rats or mice. These data suggest species differences between rats and mice in gastric GOAT expression perhaps resulting in a different role of the MBOAT4 enzyme in the rat stomach. Detection of GOAT in the plasma raises the possibility that ghrelin octanoylation may occur in the circulation and the fasting-induced increase in GOAT may contribute to the increase of acylated ghrelin after fasting. PMID:20059966

  5. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:27074245

  6. Laminin α5 influences the architecture of the mouse small intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Zhen X.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The mammalian intestine displays two distinct patterns of mucosal organization. The small intestine contains mucosal epithelial invaginations called crypts of Lieberkühn that are continuous with evaginations into the lumen called villi. The colon also contains crypts, but its epithelial surface is lined by flat surface cuffs. The epithelial cells of both organs communicate with the underlying mesenchyme through a basement membrane that is composed of a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, including members of the laminin family. The basement membranes of the small intestine and colon contain distinct laminin subtypes; notably, the villus basement membrane is rich in laminin α5. Here we show that diminution of laminin α5 in a mouse model led to a compensatory deposition of colonic laminins that resulted in a transformation from a small intestinal to a colonic mucosal architecture. The alteration in mucosal architecture was associated with reduced levels of nuclear p27Kip1, a cell cycle regulator, and altered intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Our results suggest that laminin α5 plays a crucial role in establishing and maintaining the specific mucosal pattern of the mouse small intestine. PMID:18628307

  7. Gelucire-Based Nanoparticles for Curcumin Targeting to Oral Mucosa: Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity Assessment.

    PubMed

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; Hazzah, Walaa A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to prepare and characterize curcumin (Cur) solid lipid nanoparticles (CurSLN) with a high-loading capacity and chemical stability for the treatment of oral mucosal infection. CurSLN were formulated using different lipids, namely, Gelucire 39/01, Gelucire 50/13, Precirol, Compritol, and poloxamer 407 as a surfactant. Formulae were evaluated for their entrapment efficiency, particle size, and ex vivo mucoadhesion test. Microbiological evaluation was carried out on six microorganisms, five of which are the most commonly affecting oral cavity in terms of determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration. Transmission electron microscopy was conducted for ultrathin section for Candida albicans-treated with formulated Cur. The results showed high entrapment efficiency and stability enhancement for Cur powder. Significant amount of Cur was retained onto the mucosal tissue indicating preferential mucosal uptake. CurSLN showed higher antimicrobial activity as compared with Cur raw material and chemically stabilized Cur where it showed MIC (0.185, 0.09375, 0.75, 3, 1.5, and 0.1875 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Viridansstrept, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans, respectively. The prepared lipid nanoparticles maintained Cur chemical stability and microbiological activity. The lack of local antimicrobial therapeutics with minimum side effects augments the importance of studying natural products for this purpose. PMID:26202796

  8. Malignant melanoma of the oral mucosa in a 17-year-old adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Nisha J; Kurago, Zoya; Polverini, Peter J; Hanks, Carl T; Paulino, Augusto F

    2002-09-01

    Mucosal melanomas of the oral cavity are rarely seen in the United States. The hard palate is the most common intraoral site. This unusual case occurred in the oral cavity of a 17-year-old Asian girl, who presented to her dentist with complaints of pain and swelling in the upper jaw. The lesion was distal and palatal to the maxillary left second molar, which was vital. Interestingly, the clinical presentation was a hyperplastic, tender lesion that bled when probed. Histopathologically, the biopsy demonstrated a sheet of spindle-shaped cells arranged in nests and fascicles. The nuclei were vesicular, oval to spindle-shaped, and some contained nucleoli that were distinguishable but not prominent. No melanin pigment was observed in the lesion. Tumor cells strongly expressed S100 protein, gp100 (HMB-45), and microphthalmia transcription factor, and variably expressed MART1, but not cytokeratins, CD34, or muscle-specific actin. The histopathologic features and immunohistochemical findings are consistent with a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. PMID:12204064

  9. Hierarchical deconstruction of mouse olfactory sensory neurons: from whole mucosa to single-cell RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Ibarra-Soria, Ximena; Khan, Mona; Omura, Masayo; Scialdone, Antonio; Mombaerts, Peter; Marioni, John C.; Logan, Darren W.

    2015-01-01

    The mouse olfactory mucosa is a complex chemosensory tissue composed of multiple cell types, neuronal and non-neuronal. We have here applied RNA-seq hierarchically, in three steps of decreasing cellular heterogeneity: starting with crude tissue samples dissected from the nose, proceeding to flow-cytometrically sorted pools of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), and finally arriving at single mature OSNs. We show that 98.9% of intact olfactory receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mature OSNs. We uncover a hitherto unknown bipartition among mature OSNs. We find that 19 of 21 single mature OSNs each express a single intact OR gene abundantly, consistent with the one neuron-one receptor rule. For the 9 single OSNs where the two alleles of the abundantly expressed OR gene exhibit single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we demonstrate that monoallelic expression of the abundantly expressed OR gene is extremely tight. The remaining two single mature OSNs lack OR gene expression but express Trpc2 and Gucy1b2. We establish these two cells as a neuronal cell type that is fundamentally distinct from canonical, OR-expressing OSNs and that is defined by the differential, higher expression of 55 genes. We propose this tiered experimental approach as a paradigm to unravel gene expression in other cellularly heterogeneous systems. PMID:26670777

  10. Effects of oral intake of cetirizine HCl and desloratadine molecules on the middle ear mucosa: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Songu, Murat; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Kirtay, Seyithan; Arslanoglu, Secil; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, Sevinc; Onal, Kazim

    2014-04-01

    We have planned to demonstrate histopathologic effects of mid- or long-term oral use of desloratadine and cetirizine HCl molecules on middle ear mucosa of rats. Thirty-six rats were randomized equally into six groups. Desloratadine groups received once daily doses of 1 mg/ml desloratadine for 30 (D30 Group) or 60 (D60 Group) days. The Cetirizine study groups were given once daily doses of 1 mg/ml cetirizine for 30 (S30 Group) or 60 (S60 Group) days. Control groups were given 2 cc physiologic saline using orogastric gavage method through a 12 G gavage catheter for 30 (K30 Group) or 60 (K60) days. At the end of 30 days, D30, S30 and K30 Groups were sacrificed. Tissue samples harvested from groups were evaluated between 1 and 4 Grades for histological characteristics of middle ear canal, eardrum, middle ear epithelium and connective tissue, edema, vascular congestion and inflammatory cells. In the control group no pathological finding was encountered in rats sacrificed on 30 and 60 days. No statistical difference was observed when groups were compared on external ear epithelial tissue, external ear sebaceous gland, middle ear inflammation, and middle ear capillary dilatation both on 30 and 60 days. Tympanic membrane collagen was more evident in D30 and D60 groups when compared with C30 and C60 groups. Comparison of histopathological grading results between 30 and 60 days revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, oral intake of cetirizine and desloratadine preparations has effects of tympanic membrane collagen, degrees of edema and vascular congestion being more prominent with desloratadine molecule. PMID:24526000

  11. Novel papillomavirus isolated from the oral mucosa of a polar bear does not cluster with other papillomaviruses of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Hans; Rector, Annabel; Bertelsen, Mads F; Leifsson, Pall S; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-05-25

    Papillomatosis has been documented in several carnivores, and papillomavirus (PV) types have been characterized from lesions in a number of carnivore species: the canine oral PV (COPV), the Felis domesticus PV type 1 (FdPV-1) isolated from a Persian cat, the Procyon lotor PV type 1 (PlPV-1) isolated from a raccoon, the canine PV type 2 (CPV-2) from a dog's foot pad lesion and the canine PV type 3 (CPV-3) associated with a canine epidermodysplasia verruciformis - like disease. A tissue sample was taken from a papillomatous lesion on the oral mucosa of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Extracted DNA was used as a template for multiply primed rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and restriction enzyme analysis of the RCA product indicated the presence of papillomaviral DNA. The genome of this PV was cloned and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The Ursus maritimus PV type 1 (UmPV-1) genome counts 7582 basepairs and is smaller than that of other papillomaviruses from carnivore species. UmPV-1 contains the typical noncoding region NCR1, but unlike the carnivore PVs of the Lambda genus, UmPV-1 does not possess a second noncoding region NCR2. Phylogenetic analysis based on a nucleotide sequence alignment of the L1 ORF of UmPV-1 and 51 other PV types indicates that UmPV-1 does not cluster with any of the other carnivore PVs, but branches off near the root of the common branch of the genus Alphapapillomavirus. PMID:18215475

  12. Colonization by Candida Species of the Oral and Vaginal Mucosa in HIV-Infected and Noninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haihong; Wang, Cuiwei; Hamilton, Pilar; Blackmon, Mandy; Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard; Li, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients continues to be a public health problem. Effective antifungal therapies are few in number and have inherent problems such as selecting for drug-resistant strains of Candida species. To evaluate the state of Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosa, we recruited 80 women, both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Diet diaries were collected by participants to examine the role of diet on fungal growth. Baseline studies were initially done in participants that followed the colonization of both mucosal sites over 0–90 days. The most common Candida species from both groups of patients were C. albicans and C. glabrata. Among the HIV-infected cohort, the percentage of participants who were positive for Candida spp. was higher than in the HIV-uninfected control group. Furthermore, the frequency of colonization (1 episode versus >1 episode) was also increased in the HIV-infected cohort. These data indicate that Candida species remain an important component of the microbial community in both populations. PMID:23098053

  13. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage. PMID:26062010

  14. Comparison of divided and full pupil configurations for line-scanning confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Glazowski, Chris; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-02-01

    Confocal point-scanning microscopy has been showing promise in the detection, diagnosing and mapping of skin lesions in clinical settings. The noninvasive technique allows provides optical sectioning and cellular resolution for in vivo diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma and pre-operative and intra-operative mapping of margins. The imaging has also enabled more accurate "guided" biopsies while minimizing the otherwise large number of "blind" biopsies. Despite these translational advances, however, point-scanning technology remains relatively complex and expensive. Line-scanning technology may offer an alternative approach to accelerate translation to the clinic. Line-scanning, using fewer optical components, inexpensive linear-array detectors and custom electronics, may enable smaller, simpler and lower-cost confocal microscopes. A line is formed using a cylindrical lens and scanned through the back focal plane of the objective with a galvanometric scanner. A linear CCD is used for detection. Two pupil configurations were compared for performance in imaging human tissue. In the full-pupil configuration, illumination and detection is made through the full objective pupil. In the divided pupil approach, half the pupil is illuminated and the other half is used for detection. The divided pupil configuration loses spatial and axial resolution due to a diminished NA, but the sectioning capability and rejection of background is improved. Imaging in skin and oral mucosa illustrate the performance of the two configurations.

  15. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    PubMed

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p < 0.05). The mean OMBT of cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  16. SU-D-16A-02: A Novel Methodology for Accurate, Semi-Automated Delineation of Oral Mucosa for Radiation Therapy Dose-Response Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J; Welsh, L; Gulliford, S; Harrington, K; Nutting, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The significant morbidity caused by radiation-induced acute oral mucositis means that studies aiming to elucidate dose-response relationships in this tissue are a high priority. However, there is currently no standardized method for delineating the mucosal structures within the oral cavity. This report describes the development of a methodology to delineate the oral mucosa accurately on CT scans in a semi-automated manner. Methods: An oral mucosa atlas for automated segmentation was constructed using the RayStation Atlas-Based Segmentation (ABS) module. A radiation oncologist manually delineated the full surface of the oral mucosa on a planning CT scan of a patient receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the head and neck region. A 3mm fixed annulus was added to incorporate the mucosal wall thickness. This structure was saved as an atlas template. ABS followed by model-based segmentation was performed on four further patients sequentially, adding each patient to the atlas. Manual editing of the automatically segmented structure was performed. A dose comparison between these contours and previously used oral cavity volume contours was performed. Results: The new approach was successful in delineating the mucosa, as assessed by an experienced radiation oncologist, when applied to a new series of patients receiving head and neck RT. Reductions in the mean doses obtained when using the new delineation approach, compared with the previously used technique, were demonstrated for all patients (median: 36.0%, range: 25.6% – 39.6%) and were of a magnitude that might be expected to be clinically significant. Differences in the maximum dose that might reasonably be expected to be clinically significant were observed for two patients. Conclusion: The method developed provides a means of obtaining the dose distribution delivered to the oral mucosa more accurately than has previously been achieved. This will enable the acquisition of high quality dosimetric data for use in

  17. High expression levels of the "erythroid/brain" type glucose transporter (GLUT1) in the basal cells of human eye conjunctiva and oral mucosa reconstituted in culture.

    PubMed

    Gherzi, R; Melioli, G; De Luca, M; D'Agostino, A; Guastella, M; Traverso, C E; D'Anna, F; Franzi, A T; Cancedda, R

    1991-07-01

    The expression of the "erythroid/brain" type glucose transporter (GLUT1) seems to be a feature of "barrier" tissues, at least in humans. Recently, we reported that GLUT1 is highly expressed in the basal layers of either "authentic" human epidermis or human epidermis reconstituted in culture and that its expression seems to be related to keratinocyte differentiation. In this paper we demonstrate that GLUT1 is selectively expressed in the basal layers of either eye conjunctiva epithelia or oral mucosa, reconstituted in culture starting from 1-2 mm2 bioptic specimens of normal human tissue. GLUT1 mRNA and protein levels are very high in conjunctiva and oral mucosa, 2-3 times higher than in epidermis reconstituted in culture. Taking into account its localization at the border of tissues not directly vascularized, but metabolically active, GLUT1 could play an important role in controlling the entry of glucose into these firmly guarded tissues. PMID:2055270

  18. Element concentrations in the intestinal mucosa of the mouse as measured by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    von Zglinicki, T; Roomans, G M

    1989-06-01

    Subcellular ion distribution in villus, crypt, Paneth and smooth muscle cells of the mouse small intestine under resting conditions was investigated by X-ray microanalysis of ultrathin cryosections. In addition, the mass distribution was estimated by measuring the optical transmission of the compartments in transmission electron micrographs. Each cell type is characterized by a special composition in terms of the major monovalent ions Na, K, and Cl. In particular, among crypt epithelial cells, those cells containing small secretion granula (termed crypt A cells) also display cytoplasmic ion concentrations significantly different from crypt epithelial cells lacking secretion granula (crypt B cells). Monovalent ion concentrations in the cytoplasm of Paneth cells, muscle cells, and crypt epithelial cells lacking secretion granula are higher than expected from osmotic considerations. Hence, significant binding of ions to cytoplasmic polyelectrolytes is assumed in these cells. There are gradients of dry mass and K concentration from the luminal to the basal side of the cell, both in crypt and in villus cells. The terminal web in these cells is rich in Na and Cl. The elemental composition of the large, dark secretion granula in Paneth cells is similar to that of the small dark granula in crypt cells. However, the two morphologically different types of granula within the Paneth cells have a significantly different elemental composition, which might reflect maturation of secretion granula. PMID:2814397

  19. CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

  20. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2014-02-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 μm fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p < 0.0001; PPIX: rs = 0.959, p < 0.0001). In difference spectra from oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  1. Cd34 and Mast Cell Analysis in Normal Oral Mucosa and Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kathuriya, Pargatsingh T; Palaskar, Sangeeta J; Narang, Bindiya R; Patil, Swati S; Pawar, Rasika B

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) remains a serious health problem worldwide. Prognosis of OSCC is poor and long term survival rate still remains below 50%. Angiogenesis or neovascularisation plays an important role in tumour progression and metastasis. Mast cells have been implicated in promoting tumour angiogenesis, especially of digestive tract, little is known in OSCC. Aim & Objective To study the correlation between blood vessel density (BVD) and mast cell density (MCD) in different grades of OSCC. Materials and Methods Methods: Thirty eight paraffin blocks of different grades of OSCC were retrieved from the department and sections were stained with CD34 followed by counterstaining with toluidine blue. The slides were then analysed using Leica Software (Version 4.5). Results Mean BVD and MCD were found to be increased in OSCC as compared to normal mucosa. Increase in BVD with co-current increase in MCD was also observed in different grades of OSCC Conclusion From our study, it was concluded that, mast cells play a major role in promoting tumour angiogenesis. But, as the grade of the tumour increases, other angiogenic factors may play a more significant role than mast cells in tumour progression. PMID:26417554

  2. Carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) for corneal epithelium reconstruction: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Wood, Andrew; Hoft, Richard; Pan, Derek; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Makalinao, Andrew; French, Samuel W; Niihara, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the therapeutic effects of carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) transplantation for experimentally induced severe rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Buccal biopsies were performed and CAOMECS were cultured and transplanted onto diseased corneas. Six-month follow-up examinations indicated that three out of four corneas with CAOMECS grafts showed a decrease in superficial vascularization, while almost all the sham corneas did not show a similar decrease. H&E staining of corneas showed that CAOMECS transplantation reduced blood vessel invasion of central cornea, reduced lymphocyte infiltration and fibrotic tissue formation. DeltaNp63 stained markedly in the grafted cornea and to a lesser extent in the sham corneas. PCNA and Ki-67 staining were much greater in the sham corneas than in the grafted and normal corneas. K3 and K13 staining demonstrated that CAOMECS transplanted corneas had much more K3- and less K13- positive cells compared to the sham corneas. Muc5AC was decreased in the central region of grafted corneas. Very little alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) staining was detected in grafted corneas, while there was a greater amount of aSMA staining in sham corneas. Staining for anti-angiogenic factor TIMP -3 was also increased, and pro-angiogenic factor MMP-3 was decreased in grafted corneas compared to sham corneas. Our results indicate that CAOMECS grafts resulted in improved epithelialization of the corneal surface and decreased vascularization and fibrosis of the diseased corneas. PMID:25881998

  3. Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katarkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Khan, Masood H; Ray, Jay G; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and quantification of DNA damage in oral premalignancy or malignancy may help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. However, due to the invasive nature of collecting blood, it may be painful for many unwilling patients. This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 participants, including those with oral lichen planus (OLP; n = 52), leukoplakia (LPK; n = 51), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF; n = 51), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; n = 54) and normal volunteers (n = 52). Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P < 0.0001) and micronuclei (MNi) frequency (P = 0.0009). The DNA damage pattern in precancer and cancer patients was OLP < OSF < LPK < OSCC, and with respective oral habits, it was multiple habits > cigarette + khaini > cigarette smokers > areca + khaini > areca. There was no significant difference in the comet length and MNi frequency between males and females who had oral chewing habits. An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P < 0.0001. Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions. PMID:25053835

  4. Anti-Siglec-F antibody inhibits oral egg allergen induced intestinal eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dae Jin; Cho, Jae Youn; Miller, Marina; Strangman, Wendy; Zhang, Mai; Varki, Ajit; Broide, David H

    2009-01-01

    Siglec-F is a sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-superfamily receptor that is highly expressed on eosinophils. We have used a mouse model of oral egg ovalbumin (OVA)-induced eosinophilic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa associated with diarrhea and weight loss to determine whether administering an anti-Siglec-F antibody would reduce levels of intestinal mucosal eosinophilic inflammation. Mice administered the anti-Siglec-F antibody had significantly lower levels of intestinal eosinophilic inflammation, and this was associated with reduced intestinal permeability changes, normalization of intestinal villous crypt height, and restoration of weight gain. The reduced numbers of intestinal eosinophils in anti-Siglec-F antibody treated mice was associated with significantly reduced numbers of bone marrow and peripheral blood eosinophils, but was not associated with significant changes in the numbers of proliferating or apoptotic jejunal eosinophils. In addition, the anti-Siglec-F Ab reduced Th2 cytokines and IgE levels. Overall, these studies demonstrate that administration of an anti-Siglec-F antibody significantly reduces levels of eosinophilic inflammation in the intestinal mucosa and that this was associated with reduced intestinal permeability changes, normalization of intestinal villous crypt height, and restoration of weight gain. PMID:19135419

  5. Single-Dose Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Syme, Alasdair; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The generation of a self-resolved radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) mouse model using the highest possibly tolerable single ionizing radiation (RT) dose was needed in order to study RIOM management solutions. We used 10-week-old male BALB/c mice with average weight of 23 g for model production. Mice were treated with an orthovoltage X-ray irradiator to induce the RIOM ulceration at the intermolar eminence of the animal tongue. General anesthesia was injected intraperitoneally for proper animal immobilization during the procedure. Ten days after irradiation, a single RT dose of 10, 15, 18, 20, and 25 Gy generated a RIOM ulcer at the intermolar eminence (posterior upper tongue surface) with mean ulcer floor (posterior epithelium) heights of 190, 150, 25, 10, and 10 μm, respectively, compared to 200 μm in non-irradiated animals. The mean RIOM ulcer size % of the total epithelialized upper surface of the animal tongue was RT dose dependent. At day 10, the ulcer size % was 2, 5, 27, and 31% for 15, 18, 20, and 25 Gy RT, respectively. The mean relative surface area of the total epithelialized upper surface of the tongue was RT dose dependent, since it was significantly decreased to 97, 95, 88, and 38% with 15, 18, 20, and 25 Gy doses, respectively, at day 10 after RT. Subcutaneous injection of 1 mL of 0.9% saline/6 h for 24 h yielded a 100% survival only with 18 Gy self-resolved RIOM, which had 5.6 ± 0.3 days ulcer duration. In conclusion, we have generated a 100% survival self-resolved single-dose RIOM male mouse model with long enough duration for application in RIOM management research. Oral mucositis ulceration was radiation dose dependent. Sufficient hydration of animals after radiation exposure significantly improved their survival. PMID:27446800

  6. Validation of a method to quantify titanium, vanadium and zirconium in oral mucosa cells by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Angeles; Calleja, Ana; Gil, Fernando; Iglesias, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances is a source of major concern. Various studies have evaluated the discharge of metals from these appliances in biological fluids, such as saliva or blood, overlooking the cells with prolonged contact with fixed appliances. The aim of this work is to develop and optimize an analytical procedure to determine Ti, V and Zr in oral mucosa cells in patients with and without orthodontic appliances by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analytical procedure is based on an extraction and digestion of the samples and quantification of the elements. A suitable and practical procedure for assessing the trueness and precision of the proposed method has been applied by using validation standards. The method has been suitably validated: the regression equation was calculated from standards prepared in the same matrix without oral mucosa cells and the linear range was 0.5-50.0 ng/mL for Zr and 5.0-50.0 ng/mL for Ti and V. Limits of detection were 0.9, 2.8 and 0.4 ng/mL and limits of quantification 1.8, 3.4 and 0.7 ng/mL for Ti, V and Zr, respectively. The recovery percentages (%) obtained oscillated between 101 and 108 for Ti, 98 and 111 for V, and 92 and 104 for Zr. Intermediate precision (RSD%) data obtained were also adequate. The present method showed to be robust for the three factors considered: heating time, volume of the deionized water, and volume of PlasmaPure 65% HNO₃ used to dilute the samples, which permits its validation and application to oral mucosa cells from orthodontic patients. PMID:24274294

  7. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years

    PubMed Central

    Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

  8. Induction of Sd(a)-sialomucin and sulfated H-sulfomucin in mouse small intestinal mucosa by infection with parasitic helminth.

    PubMed

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Ishiwata, Kenji; Goso, Yukinobu; Yokoyama, Takuya; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2015-06-01

    Mucin is a major component of mucus on gastrointestinal mucosa. Mucin alteration in the host is considered to be the principal event for expulsion of intestinal helminths. However, it is unclear what mucin alterations are induced by various helminth infections. In this study, the alterations of mouse small intestinal mucin after infection with two nematodes, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which parasitize the jejunal epithelium, and a cestode, Vampirolepis nana, which parasitizes the ileal epithelium, were examined biochemically and histologically using two anti-mucin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), HCM31 and PGM34, which recognize Sd(a) antigen, NeuAcα2-3(GalNAcβ1-4)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ-, and sulphated H type 2 antigen, Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc(6SO₃H)β-, respectively. The goblet cell mucins that reacted with HCM31 increased conspicuously on the jejunal mucosa concurrently with expulsion of N. brasiliensis. Increased levels of HCM31-reactive mucins were observed in the jejunal mucosa after H. polygyrus infection, despite the ongoing parasitism. Goblet cell mucins that reacted with PGM34 increased on the ileal mucosa during V. nana parasitism. Small intestinal goblet cells reacting with the two mAbs were not observed in non-infected mice, although sialomucins and sulfomucins were abundantly present. Additionally, the number of ileal goblet cells that reacted with the two mAbs was increased at the time of expulsion of heterophyid trematode. These results indicate that the type of specific acidic mucins expressed after infection varies among species of intestinal helminth, and, furthermore, that the relationship with worm expulsion is also different. PMID:25819298

  9. Increased levels of the acetaldehyde-derived DNA adduct N 2-ethyldeoxyguanosine in oral mucosa DNA from Rhesus monkeys exposed to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Juanes, Rita Cervera; Khariwala, Samir; Baker, Erich J; Daunais, James B; Grant, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is a human carcinogen. A causal link has been established between alcohol drinking and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, colon, liver and breast. Despite this established association, the underlying mechanisms of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. Various mechanisms may come into play depending on the type of cancer; however, convincing evidence supports the concept that ethanol's major metabolite acetaldehyde may play a major role. Acetaldehyde can react with DNA forming adducts which can serve as biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and potentially of cancer risk. The major DNA adduct formed from this reaction is N (2)-ethylidenedeoxyguanosine, which can be quantified as its reduced form N (2)-ethyl-dG by LC-ESI-MS/MS. To investigate the potential use of N (2)-ethyl-dG as a biomarker of alcohol-induced DNA damage, we quantified this adduct in DNA from the oral, oesophageal and mammary gland tissues from rhesus monkeys exposed to alcohol drinking over their lifetimes and compared it to controls. N (2)-Ethyl-dG levels were significantly higher in the oral mucosa DNA of the exposed animals. Levels of the DNA adduct measured in the oesophageal mucosa of exposed animals were not significantly different from controls. A correlation between the levels measured in the oral and oesophageal DNA, however, was observed, suggesting a common source of formation of the DNA adducts. N (2) -Ethyl-dG was measured in mammary gland DNA from a small cohort of female animals, but no difference was observed between exposed animals and controls. These results support the hypothesis that acetaldehyde induces DNA damage in the oral mucosa of alcohol-exposed animals and that it may play role in the alcohol-induced carcinogenic process. The decrease of N (2)-ethyl-dG levels in exposed tissues further removed from the mouth also suggests a role of alcohol metabolism in the oral cavity, which may be considered separately from ethanol liver metabolism in the

  10. Evaluation of Various Nuclear Cytological Changes in Normal Buccal Mucosa and Peritumoural Area in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Sadia; Kashif, Muhammad; Nagi, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the role of serial cytological assay in calculating the nuclear response of contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peritumoural area of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity in patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. This prospective, nonrandomized study was comprised of 76 histologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma on cyclical chemoradiation treatment. Chemoradiosensitivity was evaluated using serial scrape smears taken before and after immediate exposure to CCRT, at 17th day of CCRT (mid of treatment), and at the end of treatment. The nuclear changes, such as multinucleation, micronucleation, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear budding, prominent nucleoli, and binucleation occurring in both irradiated cancer cells and contralateral normal buccal mucosa, had a statistically significant dose related increase with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion. We recommend regular use of serial cytological assay during CCRT as it may prove to be a valuable tool for assessment of chemoradiosensitivity and persistence of tumour/dysplastic cells after radiotherapy. PMID:27148467

  11. In-Vivo Nonlinear Optical Microscopy (NLOM) of Epithelial-Connective Tissue Interface (ECTI) Reveals Quantitative Measures of Neoplasia in Hamster Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Ortiz, Daniel; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) plays an integral role in epithelial neoplasia, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This interface undergoes significant alterations due to hyperproliferating epithelium that supports the transformation of normal epithelium to precancers and cancer. We present a method based on nonlinear optical microscopy to directly assess the ECTI and quantify dysplastic alterations using a hamster model for oral carcinogenesis. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic normal mucosa were imaged in-vivo by both multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) to obtain cross-sectional reconstructions of the oral epithelium and lamina propria. Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histopathological grading and measurement of ECTI parameters. An ECTI shape parameter was calculated based on deviation from the linear geometry (ΔLinearity) seen in normal mucosa was measured using MPAM-SHGM and histology. The ECTI was readily visible in MPAM-SHGM and quantitative shape analysis showed ECTI deformation in dysplasia but not in normal mucosa. ΔLinearity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dysplasia (0.41±0.24) than normal (0.11±0.04) as measured in MPAM-SHGM and results were confirmed in histology which showed similar trends in ΔLinearity. Increase in ΔLinearity was also statistically significant for different grades of dysplasia. In-vivo ΔLinearity measurement alone from microscopy discriminated dysplasia from normal tissue with 87.9% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, while calculations from histology provided 96.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Among other quantifiable architectural changes, a progressive statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness was seen with increasing grade of dysplasia. MPAM-SHGM provides new noninvasive ways for direct characterization of ECTI which may be used in preclinical studies to investigate the role of this interface in

  12. Candida albicans and Streptococcus salivarius modulate IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha expression and secretion by engineered human oral mucosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mostefaoui, Yakout; Bart, Christian; Frenette, Michel; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the involvement of oral epithelial cells via two cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) and one chemokine (IL-8) in local defences against live yeast (Candida albicans) and bacteria (Streptococcus salivarius) using an engineered human oral mucosa model. We report that the yeast changed from the blastospore to the hyphal form and induced significant tissue disorganization at later contact periods (24 and 48 h) compared to the bacteria. However, this effect did not reduce the viability or total number of epithelial cells. Gene activation analyses revealed that IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels rose in tissues in contact with live C. albicans or S. salivarius. Gene activation was followed by an upregulation of protein secretion. IL-6 levels were higher after contact with C. albicans than with S. salivarius. IL-8 levels after contact with S. salivarius were higher than with C. albicans. Our study suggests that S. salivarius is more efficient at inducing proinflammatory mediator release than C. albicans. These results provide additional evidence for the contribution of oral epithelial cells to the inflammatory response against fungi and bacteria. PMID:15469436

  13. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. PMID:8575807

  14. Nickel-Related Intestinal Mucositis in IBS-Like Patients: Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and Oral Mucosa Patch Test in Use.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Raffaele; Puzzono, Marta; Rosato, Edoardo; Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Greco, Francesca; Picarelli, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) is often the trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like gastrointestinal disorders: its ingestion may cause allergic contact mucositis, identifiable by means of oral mucosa patch test (omPT). OmPT effectiveness has been proven, but it is still an operator-dependent method. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) was tested to support omPT in Ni allergic contact mucositis diagnosis. Group A: 22 patients with intestinal/systemic symptoms related to the ingestion of Ni-containing foods. Group B: 12 asymptomatic volunteers. Ni-related symptoms and their severity were tested by a questionnaire. All patients underwent Ni omPT with clinical evaluation at baseline (T0), after 30 min (T1), after 2 h (T2), and after 24-48 h (T3). LDPI was performed to evaluate the mean mucosal perfusion at T0, T1, and T2. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and Bonferroni multiple-comparison test. All 22 Ni-sensitive patients (group A) presented oral mucosa hyperemia and/or edema at T2. Eight out of the same 22 patients presented a local delayed vesicular reaction at T3 (group A1), unlike the remaining 14 out of 22 patients (group A2). All 12 patients belonging to control group B did not show any alteration. The mean mucosal perfusion calculated with LDPI showed an increase in both subgroups A1 and A2. In group B, no significant perfusion variations were observed. LDPI may support omPT for diagnostic purposes in Ni allergic contact mucositis. This also applies to symptomatic Ni-sensitive patients without aphthous stomatitis after 24-48 h from omPT and that could risk to miss the diagnosis. PMID:26899317

  15. TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE
    AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION

    Michael F. Hughes, Ph.D., Brenda C. Edwards, Carol T. Mitchell and Elaina M. Kenyon, Ph.D. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Nation...

  16. [Results of treatment of oral cavity mucosa cancer according to the data of the regional oncological clinic].

    PubMed

    Get'man, E E

    1998-01-01

    The results of treatment of 139 patients with mucosal cancer of oral cavity are summarized. The most effective method of treatment is combined one, including the operative intervention conduction. In 18 patients intraoperative cryoimpact on tumor was conducted, permitting to reduce the recidives frequency and to increase their life span. PMID:9866321

  17. Decision-making on detection and triage of oral mucosa lesions in community dental practices: Screening decisions and referral

    PubMed Central

    Laronde, Denise M.; Williams, P. Michele; Hislop, T. Greg; Poh, Catherine; Ng, Samson; Zhang, Lewei; Rosin, Miriam P.

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is a substantial, often unrecognized issue globally, with close to 300,000 new cases reported annually. It is a management conundrum: a cancer site that is easily examined; yet more than 40% of oral cancers are diagnosed at a late stage when prognosis is poor and treatment can be devastating. Opportunistic screening within the dental office could lead to earlier diagnosis and intervention with improved survival. Objectives To describe how clinicians make decisions about referral based on the risk classification of the lesion. Methods 18 dentists from 15 dental offices participated in a 1-day workshop on oral cancer screening. Participants then screened patients (medical history, conventional oral exam, fluorescent visualization exam) in-office for 11 months, triaging patients by apparent clinical risk: low-risk (common benign conditions, geographic tongue, candidiasis, trauma), intermediate-risk (lichenoid lesions) and high-risk (white or red lesions or ulcers without apparent cause). Clinicians made the decision on which lesions to reassess in 3 weeks based on risk assessment and clinical judgment. Lesions of concern were seen by a community facilitator or referred to an oral medicine specialist. Results 2542 patients were screened and 389 lesions were identified (15% of patients). 350 were determined to be low-risk (90%), 19 IR (5%) and 20 HR (5%). One hundred and sixty-six (43%) patients were recalled for 3-week reassessment: 90% of HR lesions, 63% of IR lesions (63%) and 39% of low-risk lesions. Compliance to recall was high (92% of cases). Reassessment eliminated the referral of 99/166 (60%) of lesions that had resolved. 6 lesions were biopsied with 3 low-grade dysplasias identified. Conclusions Three key decision points were tested: risk assessment, need for reassessment and need for referral. A 3-week reassessment appointment was invaluable to prevent the unnecessary referral due to confounders. There is a need for a well-defined triage pathway

  18. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  19. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity. PMID:26010270

  20. Noninvasive assessment of the risk of tobacco abuse in oral mucosa using fluorescence spectroscopy: a clinical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazeer, Shaiju S.; Asish, Rajashekharan; Venugopal, Chandrashekharan; Anita, Balan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco abuse and alcoholism cause cancer, emphysema, and heart disease, which contribute to high death rates, globally. Society pays a significant cost for these habits whose first demonstration in many cases is in the oral cavity. Oral cavity disorders are highly curable if a screening procedure is available to diagnose them in the earliest stages. The aim of the study is to identify the severity of tobacco abuse, in oral cavity, as reflected by the emission from endogenous fluorophores and the chromophore hemoglobin. A group who had no tobacco habits and another with a history of tobacco abuse were included in this study. To compare the results with a pathological condition, a group of leukoplakia patients were also included. Emission from porphyrin and the spectral filtering modulation effect of hemoglobin were collected from different sites. Multivariate analysis strengthened the spectral features with a sensitivity of 60% to 100% and a specificity of 76% to 100% for the discrimination. Total hemoglobin and porphyrin levels of habitués and leukoplakia groups were comparable, indicating the alarming situation about the risk of tobacco abuse. Results prove that fluorescence spectroscopy along with multivariate analysis is an effective noninvasive tool for the early diagnosis of pathological changes due to tobacco abuse.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  2. BMP4 and FGF strongly induce differentiation of mouse ES cells into oral ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suga, Hidetaka; Yamada, Tomiko; Sakakibara, Mayu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Ozone, Chikafumi; Ogawa, Koichiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Banno, Ryoichi; Tsunekawa, Shin; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    During embryonic development, oral ectoderm differentiates into the adenohypophysis, dental epithelia, salivary glands, and nasal pit. Few reports exist concerning the induction of oral ectoderm from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Generally, any lot differences in fetal bovine serum (FBS) and serum replacer may affect the induction of ES cell-differentiation. Using a previously established culture strategy for differentiation, the proportion of cell aggregates containing Pitx1+ oral ectoderm varied widely between 9-36% when several different lots of FBS or serum replacer were used. We therefore tried to enhance the differentiation method. We found that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) treatments improved oral ectoderm induction. Such treatment also improved the differentiation of oral ectoderm into the adenohypophysis. Furthermore, increased BMP4 treatment induced dental epithelium and mesenchyme. Such differentiation suggests that the Pitx1+ layer displays similar properties to oral ectoderm, as found in vivo. Differentiation of ES cells into oral ectoderm using different lots of FBS and serum replacer increased 78-90% after treatment with BMP4 and FGF. In summary, we have established a robust strategy for the induction of oral ectoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells. PMID:26209816

  3. Laser irradiation of bone. I. An in vitro study concerning the effects of the CO2 laser on oral mucosa and subjacent bone.

    PubMed

    Krause, L S; Cobb, C M; Rapley, J W; Killoy, W J; Spencer, P

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate the histologic effects of CO2 laser irradiation on biopsies of porcine oral mucosa and underlying bone under conditions that simulate the applications of the laser during gingival surgery; and second, to evaluate the histologic effects on cortical bone following irradiation with increasing energy densities. Specimens consisting of mucosa and underlying bone were subjected to multiple passes of the laser beam in the same line of incision at energy densities ranging from 240 to 1,032 J/cm2. A second group of specimens consisting only of cortical bone was irradiated by a single pass of the laser at energy densities ranging from 40 to 2,062 J/cm2. In both groups the mean depth of ablation, width of surface damage, and widths of the zones of thermal necrosis and thermal damage were determined. Results showed a direct correlation between increasing energy density and/or number of energy beam passes and increasing depths of ablation and widths of surface damage. Further, more than three passes at 1,032 J/cm2 penetrated the mucosal layer to involve underlying bone. The mean depth of ablation for bone specimens following a single pass of the energy beam ranged from 0.02 mm at 160 J/cm2 to a maximum of 0.75 mm at 2,062 J/cm2. Using those energy densities most common to oral soft tissue surgery, the mean depth of ablation in bone specimens ranged from 0.17 mm at 240 J/cm2 to 0.28 mm at 640 J/cm2 to 0.35 mm at 1,032 J/cm2. All specimens regardless of tissue composition, energy density, or number of energy beam passes exhibited a distinct layer of residual carbonized tissue, a zone of thermal necrosis characterized by tissue coagulation, and a zone of tissue exhibiting thermal damage. PMID:9379332

  4. Naegleria fowleri glycoconjugates with residues of α-D-mannose are involved in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Godinez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; De Oca, Arturo Contis-Montes; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the possible role of glycoconjugates containing α-D-mannose and α-D-glucose residues in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal epithelium. Trophozoites incubated with 20 μg of one of three different lectins which preferentially recognized these residues were inoculated intranasally in Balb/c mice. Mouse survival was 40% with Pisum sativum and Canavalia ensiformis and 20% with Galanthus nivalis amebic pretreatment, compared with 0% survival for control animals administered trophozoites without pretreatment. Possibly some of the glycoproteins found in Naegleria fowleri represent an adherence factor. Differences in the saccharide sequences of the Naegleria species, even on the same glycoconjugate structure, could explain the different results corresponding to the distinct pretreatments (C. ensiformis, G. nivalis, and P. sativum). We found a higher expression of glycoconjugates recognized by P. sativum in Naegleria lovaniensis than N. fowleri, probably due to the higher number of oligosaccharides containing an α-1,6-linked fucose moiety expressed on the former species. PMID:23922203

  5. Influence of regular black tea consumption on tobacco associated DNA damage and HPV prevalence in human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pal, Debolina; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Dum, Anirudha; Bhowmik, Anup; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2007-01-01

    Black tea is more widely consumed than green tea worldwide, particularly in India. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on black tea with respect to its health promoting and anti-cancer actions. In order to establish the concept that black tea is a potential candidate for cancer prevention, it is important to provide epidemiological evidence derived from investigations of human populations. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between nature of black tea consumption and DNA damage in normal subjects with or without tobacco habit and oral cancer patients, taking the latter as positive controls. Much experimental evidence points to associations between tobacco habit and HPV 16 and HPV 18 (Human Papilloma virus) infection. But no studies have taken into account the possible confounding effect of black tea consumption on DNA damage along with HPV infection. A pilot study was therefore undertaken. Comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage among normal subjects including tobacco users (n = 86), non-tobacco users (n = 45) and Oral cancer patients (n = 37). Percentage of damaged cells was scored in the buccal squamous cells of all subjects mentioned above. HPV analysis was performed on 79 samples (including 37 oral cancer patients). The evaluation of various confounding factors like age, tenure of tobacco habit and tea habit showed significant associations with DNA damage. The observations strongly indicate that regular intake of black tea at least above four cups can reduce tobacco associated DNA damage among normal tobacco users. HPV prevalence was not seen to be associated with age, tenure of tobacco habit or the tea drinking habit. PMID:17696743

  6. A novel protocol allowing oral delivery of a protein complement inhibitor that subsequently targets to inflamed colon mucosa and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Elvington, M; Blichmann, P; Qiao, F; Scheiber, M; Wadsworth, C; Luzinov, I; Lucero, J; Vertegel, A; Tomlinson, S

    2014-01-01

    While there is evidence of a pathogenic role for complement in inflammatory bowel disease, there is also evidence for a protective role that relates to host defence and protection from endotoxaemia. There is thus concern regarding the use of systemic complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy. Local delivery of a complement inhibitor to the colon by oral administration would ameliorate such concerns, but while formulations exist for oral delivery of low molecular weight drugs to the colon, they have not been used successfully for oral delivery of proteins. We describe a novel pellet formulation consisting of cross-linked dextran coated with an acrylic co-polymer that protects the complement inhibitor CR2-Crry from destruction in the gastrointestinal tract. CR2-Crry containing pellets administered by gavage, were characterized using a therapeutic protocol in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral treatment of established colitis over a 5-day period significantly reduced mucosal inflammation and injury, with similar therapeutic benefit whether or not the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, was co-administered. Reduction in injury was associated with the targeting of CR2-Crry to the mucosal surface and reduced local complement activation. Treatment had no effect on systemic complement activity. This novel method for oral delivery of a targeted protein complement inhibitor will reduce systemic effects, thereby decreasing the risk of opportunistic infection, as well as lowering the required dose and treatment cost and improving patient compliance. Furthermore, the novel delivery system described here may provide similar benefits for administration of other protein-based drugs, such as anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies. PMID:24730624

  7. Impact of Eating Probiotic Yogurt on Colonization by Candida Species of the Oral and Vaginal Mucosa in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haihong; Wang, Cuiwei; Hamilton, Pilar R.; Blackmon, Mandy L.; Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard A.; Li, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    Background Candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients continues to be a public health problem. Antifungal therapies are not always effective and may result in complications, such as the development of drug-resistant strains of Candida species. Objectives This study evaluated the impact of probiotic consumption on Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosa. Patients/Methods A pilot study was conducted in 24 women (17 HIV-infected, 7 HIV-uninfected) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The women underwent a 60-day initiation period with no probiotic consumption, followed by two 15-day consumption periods, with a different probiotic yogurt (DanActive™ or YoPlus™ yogurt) during each interval. There was a 30-day washout period between the two yogurt consumption periods. Oral and vaginal culture swabs were collected on days 0, 60, 74, and 120. Candida was detected by inoculating each swab in both Sabouraud's dextrose agar with or without chloramphenicol and CHROMagar. Results Less fungal colonization among women was observed when the women consumed probiotic yogurts (54 % of the women had vaginal fungal colonization during the non-probiotic yogurt consumption period, 29 % during the DanActive™ period, and 38 % during YoPlus™ yogurt consumption period), and HIV-infected women had significantly lower vaginal fungal colonization after they consumed DanActive™ yogurt compared to the nonintervention periods (54 vs 29 %, p = 0.03). Conclusions These data are promising, but as expected in a small pilot study, there were some significant changes but also some areas where colonization was not changed. This type of conflicting data is supportive of the need for a larger trial to further elucidate the role of probiotic yogurts in fungal growth in HIV-infected women. PMID:23925786

  8. Characterisation and cytotoxic screening of metal oxide nanoparticles putative of interest to oral healthcare formulations in non-keratinised human oral mucosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Best, M; Phillips, G; Fowler, C; Rowland, J; Elsom, J

    2015-12-25

    Nanoparticles are increasingly being utilised in the innovation of consumer product formulations to improve their characteristics; however, established links between their properties, dose and cytotoxicity are not well defined. The purpose of this study was to screen four different nanomaterials of interest to oral care product development in the absence of stabilisers, alongside their respective bulk equivalents, within a non-keratinised oral epithelial cell model (H376). Particle morphology and size were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The H376 model showed that zinc oxide (ZnO) was the most cytotoxic material at concentrations exceeding 0.031% w/v, as assessed using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assays. ZnO cytotoxicity does not appear to be dependent upon size of the particle; a result supported by SEM of cell-particle interactions. Differences in cytotoxicity were observed between the bulk and nanomaterial forms of hydroxyapatite and silica (SiO2); titanium dioxide (TiO2) was well tolerated in both forms at the doses tested. Overall, nano-size effects have some impact on the cytotoxicity of a material; however, these may not be as significant as chemical composition or surface properties. Our data highlights the complexities involved at the nano-scale, in both the characterisation of materials and in relation to cytotoxic properties exerted on oral epithelial cells. PMID:26432707

  9. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

  10. Cyclin D1 expression in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and in oral mucosa in relation to proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikov, V M; Coon, J S; Mundle, S; Kelanic, S; LaFollette, S; Taylor S, I V; Hutchinson, J; Panje, W; Caldarelli, D D; Preisler, H D

    1997-01-01

    Deregulation of expression of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (cD1) may be responsible for rapid proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). We have studied the expression of cD1 in 46 SCCHNs using immunohistochemistry. Before biopsy, the patients received an in vivo infusion of iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) for cell proliferation assessment. Additionally, the level of apoptosis was estimated using in situ end labeling (ISEL). Among 33 tumors, the proportion of cD1(+) cells varied from 0.5 to 51.3% (19.9 +/- 2.2%). Thirteen tumors did not express cD1. The fraction of S-phase (IdUrd-positive) cells was 26.3 +/- 1.8% in cD1(+) versus 20.0 +/- 2.4% in cD1(-) tumors (P = 0.06). The percentages of cD1(+) cells and of S-phase cells were not correlated (P = 0.37). Apoptosis was detected by ISEL in 15 of 33 tumors studied. ISEL-positive tumors contained a significantly higher proportion of cD1(+) cells (14.9 +/- 2.6%) than cD1(-) ones (7.9 +/- 2.8%; P = 0.03). There was a positive correlation between the percentage of cD1(+) cells and the degree of ISEL (r = 0.54; P < 0.001). In noninvolved oral mucosa, cD1(+) cells were located primarily in the suprabasal layers (29.3 +/- 3.8% versus 1.2 +/- 0. 2% in the basal layer). Only 23 of 44 mucosal specimens contained cD1(+) cells. All cD1(-) samples were proliferatively active and contained IdUrd-labeled cells. The percentage of cD1(+) cells in the oral epithelium from nontumor controls (uvula samples) was significantly higher than in the SCCHN group in both basal (2.4 +/- 0.4%; P = 0.008) and suprabasal (42.7 +/- 3.3%; P = 0.005) layers. Additionally, whereas in uvuli, cD1(+) cells were distributed evenly along the epithelial lining, in SCCHN samples the regions showing cD1 expression alternated with areas in which cD1 expression was undetectable. These data indicate that cD1 expression in SCCHN varies among tumors and is not correlated with cell proliferation. In noninvolved oral mucosa, cD1 expression

  11. Peroxiredoxin 1 has an anti-apoptotic role via apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and p38 activation in mouse models with oral precancerous lesions

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIANFEI; JING, XINYING; NIU, WENWEN; ZHANG, MIN; GE, LIHUA; MIAO, CONGCONG; TANG, XIAOFEI

    2016-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) is important in the protection of cells from oxidative damage and the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Prx1 is overexpressed in oral precancerous lesions of oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral cancer; however, the association between Prx1 expression and OLK pathogenesis remains unknown. The present study investigated the role of Prx1 and its molecular mechanisms in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis during the pathogenesis of OLK. Wild-type and Prx1 knockout mice were treated with 50 µg/ml 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) or 4NQO + H2O2 for 16 weeks to establish mouse models with tongue precancerous lesions. Apoptotic cells were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. The expression of Prx1, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), phosphor-ASK1, p38 and phosphor-p38 was analyzed using immunohistochemical staining, and their mRNA expression levels were evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The present results demonstrated that 4NQO or 4NQO + H2O2 induced the development of tongue precancerous lesions in Prx1 knockout and wild-type mice. Prx1 was overexpressed in tongue precancerous lesions compared with normal tongue mucosa. There was a significant decrease in the degree of moderate or severe epithelial dysplasia, and mild epithelial dysplasia was clearly elevated, in Prx1 knockout mice treated with 4NQO + H2O2 compared with wild-type mice treated with 4NQO + H2O2. Prx1 suppressed apoptosis and upregulated phosphor-ASK1 and phosphor-p38 expression in tongue precancerous lesions. The present results suggest that Prx1 suppresses oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via the ASK1/p38 signalling pathway in mouse tongue precancerous lesions. In conclusion, Prx1 and H2O2 have a coordination role in promoting the progression of tongue precancerous mucosa lesions. The present findings provide novel insight into Prx1 function and the mechanisms of Prx1 in OLK

  12. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Müller-Richter, Urs D A; Weyandt, Gerhard H; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C

    2016-05-01

    Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results. PMID:27579226

  13. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Gerhard H.; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results.

  14. Lobular capillary hemangioma of the oral mucosa: clinicopathological study of 43 cases with a special reference to immunohistochemical characterization of the vascular elements.

    PubMed

    Toida, Makoto; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Watanabe, Fumio; Kato, Keizo; Makita, Hiroki; Fujitsuka, Hideki; Kato, Yukihiro; Miyamoto, Ken; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu

    2003-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological features were investigated in 43 cases of oral lobular capillary hemangiomas (LCH) with a special reference to characteristics of the vascular elements. The lesions affected females more than males by a ratio of 1:1.5. Average age of the patients was 52.7 years. The lesions involved the gingiva (n = 15), the tongue (n = 13), the labial mucosa (n = 10) and other sites. The lesions appeared usually as a pedunculated mass with ulceration; size of the lesions was up to 15 mm. Histologically, a lobular area and an ulcerative area were distinguished. The density of vessels was about 1045/mm2 and 160/mm2 in the lobular and ulcerative areas, respectively. The average diameter of the vascular lumen was 9.1 5.6 mm (range: 2.8-42.0 mm) and 18.8 20.9 mm (range: 5.6-139.7 mm) in the lobular and ulcerative areas, respectively. In the lobular area, most of the vessels had an inner layer of endothelial cells showing positive reaction for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and CD34, as well as an outer layer of mesenchymal cells showing positive reaction for alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA). However, in the ulcerative area, there was a variety of types of vessels consisting of various proportions of both endothelial and ASMA-positive perivascular mesenchymal cells. These results indicate that most of the vascular elements in the lobular area resemble more pericapillary microvascular segments than they do capillaries. Thus, the authors propose the term 'lobular pericapillary hemangioma' to represent this type of lesion. PMID:12558863

  15. Dopaminergic-Like Neurons Derived from Oral Mucosa Stem Cells by Developmental Cues Improve Symptoms in the Hemi-Parkinsonian Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Javier; Arie, Ina; Buch, Sigal; Zur, Tali Ben; Barhum, Yael; Pour, Sammy; Araidy, Shareef; Pitaru, Sandu; Offen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Achieving safe and readily accessible sources for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still a challenging unresolved issue. Recently, a primitive neural crest stem cell population (hOMSC) was isolated from the adult human oral mucosa and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In this study we assessed hOMSC ability to differentiate into dopamine-secreting cells with a neuronal-dopaminergic phenotype in vitro in response to dopaminergic developmental cues and tested their therapeutic potential in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. We found that hOMSC express constitutively a repertoire of neuronal and dopaminergic markers and pivotal transcription factors. Soluble developmental factors induced a reproducible neuronal-like morphology in the majority of hOMSC, downregulated stem cells markers, upregulated the expression of the neuronal and dopaminergic markers that resulted in dopamine release capabilities. Transplantation of these dopaminergic-induced hOMSC into the striatum of hemi-Parkinsonian rats improved their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotational behavior, motor asymmetry and motor coordination tests. Human TH expressing cells and increased levels of dopamine in the transplanted hemispheres were observed 10 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors involved in the development of DA neurons, induced a DA phenotype in hOMSC in vitro that significantly improved the motor function of hemiparkinsonian rats. Based on their neural-related origin, their niche accessibility by minimal-invasive procedures and their propensity for DA differentiation, hOMSC emerge as an attractive tool for autologous cell replacement therapy in PD. PMID:24945922

  16. Adjuvant antifungal therapy using tissue tolerable plasma on oral mucosa and removable dentures in oral candidiasis patients: a randomised double-blinded split-mouth pilot study.

    PubMed

    Preissner, Saskia; Kastner, Isabell; Schütte, Eyke; Hartwig, Stefan; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Robert; Hertel, Moritz

    2016-07-01

    Extended use of antimycotics in oral candidiasis therapy gives rise to problems related to fungal drug resistance. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) in denture stomatitis patients. It was hypothesised that (I): erythema and (IIa): complaint remission would be accelerated and (IIb): colony forming unit (CFU) reduction would be improved. The halves of the upper jaws of eight patients were randomly assigned to control (nystatin, chlorhexidine and placebo treatment) and test sides (nystatin, chlorhexidine and TTP administered six times each 7 days). The patients and the investigators, who were different from the therapists, were both blinded. Compared to the control sides, the erythema surface was reduced significantly more extensively on the test sides between 2 and 6 weeks of antifungal therapy (P ≤ 0.05). Visual analogue scale values and the frequency of moderate or heavy growth of Candida post-treatment did not differ significantly between both sides (P > 0.05). The primary hypothesis was confirmed, which may be interpreted as an accelerated remission. As drug therapy is usually limited to the time in which signs of infection are present, TTP might help reducing antifungal use. Even though the secondary hypotheses were not confirmed, persistence of Candida might be only colonisation. PMID:26932256

  17. Oral Typhoid Vaccination With Live-Attenuated Salmonella Typhi Strain Ty21a Generates Ty21a-Responsive and Heterologous Influenza Virus–Responsive CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells at the Human Intestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Shaun H.; Thompson, Ameeka L.; Wright, Adam K. A.; Ferreira, Daniela M.; Jambo, Kondwani C.; Wright, Angela D.; Faragher, Brian; Gilmour, Jill W.; Gordon, Stephen B.; Gordon, Melita A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oral vaccination with live-attenuated Salmonella Typhi strain Ty21a is modestly efficacious, but the mechanisms of protection are currently unknown. While humoral and cellular immune responses are well described in peripheral blood, the cellular response at the intestinal mucosa has never been directly assessed. Methods. We vaccinated healthy adults with Ty21a and assessed humoral and cellular immunity in vaccinated volunteers and controls after 18 days. Immunoglobulin levels were assessed in peripheral blood by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular responses were assessed in peripheral blood and at the duodenal and colonic mucosa by flow cytometry. Results. We demonstrate the generation of Ty21a-responsive and heterologous influenza virus–responsive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at the duodenal mucosa. All duodenal responses were consistently correlated, and no responses were observed at the colonic mucosa. Peripheral anti-lipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A responses were significantly correlated with duodenal responses. The assessment of integrin β7 expression intensity among peripheral and duodenal T-cell subsets revealed varied capacities for mucosal homing and residence. Conclusions. The breadth of duodenal cellular responses was not reflected peripherally. The direct evaluation of mucosal immune defense may yield functional correlates of protection and could provide insight into mechanisms that may be manipulated to enhance vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:26810369

  18. Orthotopic non-metastatic and metastatic oral cancer mouse models ⋆

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Manish V.; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Trackman, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral cancer is characterized by high morbidity and mortality with a predisposition to metastasize to different tissues, including lung, liver, and bone. Despite progress in the understanding of mutational profiles and deregulated pathways in oral cancer, patient survival has not significantly improved over the past decades. Therefore, there is a need to establish in vivo models that recapitulate human oral cancer metastasis to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel drugs. Here we report orthotopic tongue cancer nude mouse models to study oral cancer growth and metastasis using human metastatic (UMSCC2) and non-metastatic (CAL27) cell lines, respectively. Transduction of these cell lines with lentivirus expressing red fluorescent protein (DsRed) followed by injection into tongues of immunodeficient mice generated orthotopic tongue tumors that could be monitored for growth and metastasis by fluorescence measurement with an in vivo Imaging System (IVIS 200). The growth rates of CAL27-DsRed induced tumors were higher than UMSCC2-DsRed tumors after day 15, while UMSCC2-DsRed tumors revealed metastasis beginning on day 21. Importantly, UMSCC2 tumors metastasized to a number of tissues including the submandibular gland, lung, kidney, liver, and bone. Further, immunohistochemical analyses of tongue tumors induced by CAL27 and UMSCC2 cells revealed elevated expression of components of protumorigenic pathways deregulated in human cancers, including Cyclin D1, PCNA, Ki-67, LSD1, LOXL2, MT-MMP1, DPAGT1, E-cadherin, OCT4A, and H3K4me1/2. These orthotopic mouse models are likely to be useful tools for gaining insights into the activity and mechanisms of novel oral cancer drug candidates. PMID:25682387

  19. Methylation-Associated Gene Silencing of RARB in Areca Carcinogens Induced Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Yung-An; Fan, Shin-Ru; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Nai-Wen; Cheng, Ju-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Regarding oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development, chewing areca is known to be a strong risk factor in many Asian cultures. Therefore, we established an OSCC induced mouse model by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), or arecoline, or both treatments, respectively. These are the main two components of the areca nut that could increase the occurrence of OSCC. We examined the effects with the noncommercial MCGI (mouse CpG islands) microarray for genome-wide screening the DNA methylation aberrant in induced OSCC mice. The microarray results showed 34 hypermethylated genes in 4-NQO plus arecoline induced OSCC mice tongue tissues. The examinations also used methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and bisulfite sequencing to realize the methylation pattern in collected mouse tongue tissues and human OSCC cell lines of different grades, respectively. These results showed that retinoic acid receptor β (RARB) was indicated in hypermethylation at the promoter region and the loss of expression during cancer development. According to the results of real-time PCR, it was shown that de novo DNA methyltransferases were involved in gene epigenetic alternations of OSCC. Collectively, our results showed that RARB hypermethylation was involved in the areca-associated oral carcinogenesis. PMID:25197641

  20. Genomic analysis to define molecular basis of aggressiveness in a mouse model of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chalivendra, Varun; Kanchi, Krishna Latha; Onken, Michael D.; Winkler, Ashley E.; Mardis, Elaine; Uppaluri, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis underlying aggressive behavior in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), our laboratory developed a carcinogen-induced mouse oral cancer (MOC) cell line model that encompasses the growth and metastasis spectrum of its human counterpart. We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) and gene expression microarray profiles to explore the genomic and transcriptional backgrounds of the differential MOC line phenotypes, as well as, the cross-species relevance of the model. Here we describe the comparative analysis of NGS (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample?LinkName=bioproject_biosample_all&from_uid=247825) and expression microarray (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE50041) data from the MOC lines and corresponding human data, as described in our recent publication [1]. PMID:25729643

  1. An adjuvant free mouse model of oral allergenic sensitization to rice seeds protein

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rice is commonly known as a staple crop consumed worldwide, though with several rice proteins being reported for allergic properties in clinical studies. Thus, there is a growing need for the development of an animal model to better understand the allergenicity of rice proteins and the immunological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of food allergy. Methods Groups of BALB/c mice were sensitized daily with freshly homogenized rice flour (30 mg or 80 mg) without adjuvant by intragastric gavage. In addition, the mice were challenged with extracted rice flour proteins at several time points intragastrically. Hypersensitivity symptoms in mice were evaluated according to a scoring system. Vascular leakage, ELISA of rice protein-specific IgE, histopathology of small intestine, and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis were conducted on challenged mice. Results An adjuvant free mouse model of rice allergy was established with sensitized mice showing increased scratching behaviors and increased vascular permeability. Rice protein-specific IgE was detected after eighteen days of sensitization and from the fifth challenge onwards. Inflammatory damage to the epithelium in the small intestine of mice was observed beyond one month of sensitization. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis results confirmed the positive rice allergy in the mouse model. Conclusions We introduced a BALB/c mouse model of rice allergy with simple oral sensitization without the use of adjuvant. This model would serve as a useful tool for further analysis on the immunopathogenic mechanisms of the various rice allergens, for the evaluation of the hypersensitivity of rice or other cereal grains, and to serve as a platform for the development of immunotherapies against rice allergens. PMID:21605393

  2. Interaction of mouse intestinal P-glycoprotein with oral antidiabetic drugs and its inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Harman; Grewal, Ravneet K

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a progressive insulin secretory defect accompanied by resistance to insulin, and thereby making glycemic control a major concern in the treatment of these patients. Oral drug administration, though a popular option for its non-invasiveness, suffer from poor bioavailability. It could be related to the efflux transport of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In the present study, we explored the binding interactions of antidiabetic drugs i.e., sulfonylurea drugs (glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide) and rapid acting insulin secretagogues viz., nateglinide, repaglinide and rosiglitazone; and Pgp inhibitors i.e., Generation I (verapamil and tamoxifen), III (tetradrine and tariquidar), and natural inhibitors (fumagillin and piperine) in mouse Pgp model. Our results revealed that fumagillin piperine and verapamil possess maximum interaction energies with Pgp compared to antidiabetic drugs. These observations elucidate the role of fumagillin and piperine as potential natural compounds which could intervene in the efflux action of Pgp in extruding the antidiabetic drugs and may have implications for increasing efficacy of oral antidiabetic therapy. PMID:26548081

  3. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  4. Development and application of an oral challenge mouse model for studying Clostridium perfringens type D infection.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E; Sayeed, Sameera; Fisher, Derek J; Poon, Rachael; Adams, Vicki; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A; Saputo, Julian; Uzal, Francisco A

    2007-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D isolates cause enterotoxemia in sheep, goats, and probably cattle. While the major disease signs and lesions of type D animal disease are usually attributed to epsilon toxin, a class B select agent, these bacteria typically produce several lethal toxins. Understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of improved vaccines are hindered by the lack of a small-animal model mimicking natural disease caused by type D isolates. Addressing this need, we developed an oral challenge mouse model of C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia. When BALB/c mice with a sealed anus were inoculated by intragastric gavage with type D isolates, 7 of 10 type D isolates were lethal, as defined by spontaneous death or severe clinical signs necessitating euthanasia. The lethalities of the seven type D isolates varied between 14 and 100%. Clinical signs in the lethally challenged mice included seizures, convulsions, hyperexcitability, and/or depression. Mild intestinal gas distention and brain edema were observed at necropsy in a few mice, while histology showed multifocal acute tubular necrosis of the kidney and edema in the lungs of most challenged mice that developed a clinical response. When the lethality of type D isolates in this model was compared with in vitro toxin production, only a limited correlation was observed. However, mice could be protected against lethality by intravenous passive immunization with an epsilon toxin antibody prior to oral challenge. This study provides an economical new model for studying the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type D infections. PMID:17562765

  5. Effects of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on mouse oesophageal mucosa changes induced by dietary zinc deficiency and deoxycholic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zapaterini, Joyce R; de Moura, Nelci A; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-08-01

    The noxious effects of dietary zinc deficiency (ZD) and deoxycholic bile acid (DCA) supplementation in the oesophagus were investigated. The additional influence of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on the changes in the oesophageal mucosa induced by dietary ZD plus DCA was also assessed. Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into four groups: Group 1 was fed control diet and groups 2-4 were fed ZD plus DCA diet. After 5 weeks, groups 3 and 4 were exposed to 10% ethanol intake or cigarette smoke for 15 weeks, respectively. All animals were euthanized at the end of week 20, and the oesophagus, lung, liver and colon were collected and analysed by conventional morphology. Cell proliferation was assessed in the oesophageal mucosa by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein by Western blotting. Dietary ZD plus DCA treatment induced mild hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia, increased cell proliferation index and COX-2 protein expression in the oesophagus, and intranuclear inclusion, karyocytomegaly and microvesicular fatty change in the liver. Cigarette smoke increased COX-2 protein expression in oesophageal mucosa and irregular enlargement of alveolus and alveolar ductal air spaces, while ethanol enhanced liver damage induced by ZD plus DCA diet. These findings indicate that dietary ZD plus DCA treatment during 20 weeks induces a pattern of chemical oesophageal injury but not Barrett's-like lesions. PMID:22380924

  6. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chun-Bin; Cheng, Mei-Lien; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chiang Chiau, Jen-Shiu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orally administrated daily saline, probiotic suspension of Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus (Lcr35) or Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum (LaBi). Diarrhea score, pro-inflammatory cytokines serum levels, intestinal villus height and crypt depth and total RNA from tissue were assessed. Samples of blood, liver and spleen tissues were assessed for translocation. Results Marked diarrhea developed in the 5-FU groups but was attenuated after oral Lcr35 and LaBi administrations. Diarrhea scores decreased significantly from 2.64 to 1.45 and 0.80, respectively (P<0.001). Those mice in 5-FU groups had significantly higher proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α: 234.80 vs. 29.10, P<0.001, IL-6: 25.13 vs. 7.43, P<0.001, IFN-γ: 22.07 vs. 17.06, P = 0.137). A repairing of damage in jejunal villi was observed following probiotics administration. We also found TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expressions were up-regulated in intestinal mucositis tissues following 5-FU treatment (TNF-α: 4.35 vs. 1.18, IL-1β: 2.29 vs. 1.07, IL-6: 1.49 vs. 1.02) and that probiotics treatment suppressed this up-regulation (P<0.05). No bacterial translocation was found in this study. Conclusions In conclusion, our results show that oral administration of probiotics Lcr35 and LaBi can ameliorate chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. This suggests probiotics may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the prevention or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in

  7. Combination of Estrogen and Immunosuppressive Agents to Establish a Mouse Model of Candidiasis with Concurrent Oral and Vaginal Mucosal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wang, Chong; Mei, Huan; Shen, Yongnian; Lv, Guixia; Zeng, Rong; Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-02-01

    Mouse model is an appropriate tool for pathogenic determination and study of host defenses during the fungal infection. Here, we established a mouse model of candidiasis with concurrent oral and vaginal mucosal infection. Two C. albicans strains sourced from clinical candidemia (SC5314) and mucosal infection (ATCC62342) were tested in ICR mice. The different combinational panels covering estrogen and immunosuppressive agents, cortisone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were used for concurrent oral and vaginal candidiasis establishment. Prednisolone in combination with estrogen proved an optimal mode for concurrent mucosal infection establishment. The model maintained for 1 week with fungal burden reached at least 10(5) cfu/g of tissue. This mouse model was evaluated by in vivo pharmacodynamics of fluconazole and host mucosal immunity of IL-17 and IL-23. Mice infected by SC5314 were cured by fluconazole. An increase in IL-23 in both oral and vaginal homogenates was observed after infection, while IL-17 only had a prominent elevation in oral tissue. This model could properly mimic complicated clinical conditions and provides a valuable means for antifungal assay in vivo and may also provide a useful method for the evaluation of host-fungal interactions. PMID:26404163

  8. Disruption of the ECM33 gene in Candida albicans prevents biofilm formation, engineered human oral mucosa tissue damage and gingival cell necrosis/apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida. PMID:22665950

  9. In vivo determination of aluminum, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, titanium and vanadium in oral mucosa cells from orthodontic patients with mini-implants by Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Angeles; Puerto, Maria; Calleja, Ana; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Miniscrews are used as orthodontic anchorage devices in the dentistry clinical practice but the in vivo metallic release from these structures has been not previously investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Ti and V in oral mucosa cells of control subjects, patients under orthodontic treatment and with both, orthodontic treatment and miniscrew, in order to know the contribution of these mini-implants to the total metallic content. ICP-MS measurements revealed the following ascending order: Cr

  10. A novel method for oral delivery of drug compounds to the neonatal SMNΔ7 mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Butchbach, Matthew E. R.; Edwards, Jonathan D.; Schussler, Kristie R.; Burghes, Arthur H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating motor neuron disease that is one of the leading genetic causes of infant mortality. Currently, there is no cure for SMA. Mouse models that genetically and phenotypically resemble SMA have been generated and have the potential to be used for the discovery of novel therapeutics. Oral administration is a commonly used mode of drug delivery in humans as well as in rodents. Unfortunately, there is no method of drug delivery that can accurately and reliably deliver drug compounds orally to neonatal mice. In this report, we describe a novel method to orally administer compounds to neonatal SMA mice. Oral delivery to neonatal mice, usually starting at postnatal day 4 (PND04), is both rapid and safe to the pup. Oral delivery of two different commonly used vehicle formulations, distilled water and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, does not affect the survival of SMA mice. After oral delivery for 3 days, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine could be detected in the kidneys, brains and spinal cords of treated non-SMA as well as SMA neonatal pups. In conclusion, we have developed a method by which drugs can be safely and reliably administered orally to neural targets of neonatal mice. This approach offers a simple and rapid means by which potential therapeutics for SMA can be identified. PMID:17161463

  11. Generation and Characterization of a Cyp2f2-Null Mouse and Studies on the Role of CYP2F2 in Naphthalene-Induced Toxicity in the Lung and Nasal Olfactory MucosaS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Wei, Yuan; Van Winkle, Laura; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Hu, Jinping; Xie, Fang; Kluetzman, Kerri

    2011-01-01

    The CYP2F enzymes, abundantly expressed in the respiratory tract, are active toward many xenobiotic compounds, including naphthalene (NA). However, the precise roles of these enzymes in tissue-selective chemical toxicity have been difficult to resolve. A Cyp2f2-null mouse was generated in this study by disrupting the Cyp2f2 fourth exon. Homozygous Cyp2f2-null mice, which had no CYP2F2 expression and showed no changes in the expression of other P450 genes examined, were viable and fertile and had no in utero lethality or developmental deficits. The loss of CYP2F2 expression led to substantial decreases in the in vitro catalytic efficiency of microsomal NA epoxygenases in lung (up to ∼160-fold), liver (∼3-fold), and nasal olfactory mucosa (OM; up to ∼16-fold), and significant decreases in rates of systemic NA (300 mg/kg i.p.) clearance. The Cyp2f2-null mice were largely resistant to NA-induced cytotoxicity, when examined at 24 h after NA dosing (at 300 mg/kg i.p.), and to NA-induced depletion of total nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH), examined at 2 h after dosing, in the lungs. In contrast, the loss of CYP2F2 expression did not alleviate NA-induced NPSH depletion or tissue toxicity in the OM. Mouse CYP2F2 clearly plays an essential role in the bioactivation and toxicity of NA in the lung but not in the OM. The Cyp2f2-null mouse should be valuable for studies on the role of CYP2F2 in the metabolism and toxicity of numerous other xenobiotic compounds and for future production of a CYP2F1-humanized mouse. PMID:21730012

  12. Oral Supplementation with Cocoa Extract Reduces UVB-Induced Wrinkles in Hairless Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Song, Dasom; Kim, Junil; Choi, Jina; Kim, Jong Rhan; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Lee, Sein; Hong, Ji Sun; Song, Dayoung; Kim, Seong-Jin; Son, Myoung-Jin; Choi, Sang-Woon; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Tae-Aug; Lee, Ki Won

    2016-05-01

    Cacao beans contain various bioactive phytochemicals that could modify the pathogeneses of certain diseases. Here, we report that oral administration of cacao powder (CP) attenuates UVB-induced skin wrinkling by the regulation of genes involved in dermal matrix production and maintenance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 788 genes are down- or upregulated in the CP supplemented group, compared with the UVB-irradiated mouse skin controls. Among the differentially expressed genes, cathepsin G and serpin B6c play important roles in UVB-induced skin wrinkle formation. Gene regulatory network analysis also identified several candidate regulators responsible for the protective effects of CP supplementation against UVB-induced skin damage. CP also elicited antiwrinkle effects via inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinases-1 expression in both the human skin equivalent model and human dermal fibroblasts. Inhibition of UVB-induced activator protein-1 via CP supplementation is likely to affect the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1. CP supplementation also downregulates the expression of cathepsin G in human dermal fibroblasts. 5-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone, a major in vivo metabolite of CP, showed effects similar to CP supplementation. These results suggest that cacao extract may offer a protective effect against photoaging by inhibiting the breakdown of dermal matrix, which leads to an overall reduction in wrinkle formation. PMID:26854493

  13. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 protects hairless mouse against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Mee; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Soo Dong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Ji Woong; Jang, Sung Sik; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Chung, Dae Kyun; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2014-11-28

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation alters multiple molecular pathways in the skin, thereby inducing skin damage, including photoaging. In recent years, probiotics have gained interest due to their beneficial effects on skin health, such as inhibiting atopic dermatitis and improving skin immunity or inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of probiotics on UVBinduced photoaging. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 against UVB-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice. The results showed that L. plantarum HY7714 treatment effectively rescued UVB-reduced procollagen expression through the inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Data from a western blot showed that L. plantarum HY7714 inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase, thereby suppressing the UVB-induced phosphorylation and expression of c-Jun. Oral administration of L. plantarum HY7714 clearly inhibited the number, depth, and area of wrinkles in hairless mouse skin. Histological data showed that L. plantarum HY7714 significantly inhibited UVB-induced epidermal thickness in mice. Western blot and zymography data also revealed that L. plantarum HY7714 effectively inhibited MMP-13 expression as well as MMP-2 and -9 activities in dermal tissue. Collectively, these results provide further insight regarding the skin biological actions of L. plantarum HY7714, a potential skin anti-photoaging agent. PMID:25112318

  14. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. PMID:26048442

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive action of an orally available nociceptin receptor agonist SCH 221510 in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Marta; Mokrowiecka, Anna; Cygankiewicz, Adam I; Zakrzewski, Piotr K; Sałaga, Maciej; Storr, Martin; Kordek, Radzisław; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Krajewska, Wanda M; Fichna, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    The nociceptin receptors (NOPs) are expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on muscle cell membranes and neurons, as well as the immune cells that infiltrate the mucosa. The involvement of NOPs in the pathophysiology of GI inflammation has been suggested, but due to the lack of selective NOP agonists, it never fully elucidated. Our aim was to characterize the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effect of the NOP agonist, SCH 221510 [3-endo-8-[bis(2-methylphenyl)methyl]-3-phenyl-8-azabicyclo [3.2.1]octan-3-ol], as a potential therapeutic strategy in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The anti-inflammatory action of SCH 221510 was determined after intraperitoneal, oral, and intracolonic administration of SCH 221510 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg once or twice daily) in mice treated with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Antinociceptive action of SCH 221510 was evaluated in the mouse model of mustard oil (MO)-induced abdominal pain. Relative NOP mRNA expression was assessed in patients with IBD using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We found that the expression of NOP mRNA was significantly decreased in patients with IBD. The administration (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg i.p. twice daily and 3 mg/kg p.o. twice daily) of SCH 221510 attenuated TNBS colitis in mice. This effect was blocked by a selective NOP antagonist [J-113397 [(±)-1-[(3R*,4R*)-1-(cyclooctylmethyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one

  16. Oral insulin (human, murine, or porcine) does not prevent diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh N; Gibson, Claire; Rydén, Anna K E; Perdue, Nikole; Boursalian, Tamar E; Pagni, Philippe P; Coppieters, Ken; Skonberg, Christian; Porsgaard, Trine; von Herrath, Matthias; Vela, Jose Luis

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown oral insulin prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) in mouse models, however human trials were inconclusive. We tested the ability of different insulins to prevent T1D in non-obese diabetic mice. Mice received oral insulin or PBS twice weekly and disease was monitored. Contrary to previous studies, no insulin tested showed significant ability to prevent T1D, nor did testing of linked suppression in a delayed type hypersensitivity model have reproducible effect. To investigate delivery of antigen within the GI tract, blue dye was fed to mice. Dye traveled 5-8 cm from stomach to small intestine within 10s, suggesting orally administered antigen may not get digested in the stomach in mice. Insulin incubated with jejunum extracts was instantly digested. Thus, in humans large doses of insulin may be required to achieve tolerance as antigen may be more vulnerable to digestion in the stomach even before reaching the small intestine. PMID:26821303

  17. Claudin immunolocalization in neonatal mouse epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Arabzadeh, Azadeh; Yerlikaya, Seda; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-11-01

    Emerging evidence supports the notion that claudins (Cldns) are dynamically regulated under normal conditions to respond to the selective permeability requirements of various tissues, and that their expression is developmentally controlled. We describe the localization of those Cldns that we have previously demonstrated to be functionally important in epidermal differentiation and the formation of the epidermal permeability barrier, e.g., Cldn1, Cldn6, Cldn11, and Cldn18, and the presence of Cldn3 and Cldn5 in various neonatal mouse epithelia including the epidermis, nail, oral mucosa, tongue, and stomach. Cldn1 is localized in the differentiated and/or undifferentiated compartments of the epidermis and nail and in the dorsal surface of the tongue and glandular compartment of the stomach but is absent from the oral mucosa and the keratinized compartment of the stomach. Cldn3 is present in the basal cells of the nail matrix and both compartments of the murine stomach but not in the epidermis, oral mucosa, or tongue. Cldn5 is found in the glandular compartment of the stomach but not in the epidermis, nail unit, oral mucosa, forestomach, and tongue. Cldn6, Cldn11, and Cldn18 occur in the differentiating suprabasal compartment of the epidermis, nail, and oral mucosa and in the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the tongue and the keratinized squamous epithelium of the stomach. The simple columnar epithelium of the glandular stomach stains for Cldn18 and reveals a non-membranous pattern for Cldn6 and Cldn11 expression. Our results demonstrate differential Cldn protein profiles in various epithelial tissues and their differentiation stages. Although the molecular mechanisms regulating Cldn expression are unknown, elucidation of their differential localization patterns in tissues with diverse permeability requirements should provide a better understanding of the role of tight junctions in tissue function. PMID:17828607

  18. Detection of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences in oral mucosa of HIV-infected patients by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, P. J.; Schulten, E. A.; Mullink, H.; ten Kate, R. W.; Jiwa, M.; van der Waal, I.; Meijer, C. J.; Walboomers, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was analyzed in 21 oral biopsy specimens of HIV-infected patients using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Biopsies were categorized as hairy leukoplakia (HL) (n = 12), candidiasis (n = 3), oral warts (n = 2), and clinically normal epithelium (n = 4). For HPV detection a modified general primer-mediated PCR method (GP-PCR), which detects a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes at sub-picogram levels, was used. Human papillomavirus DNA was only found in two oral warts and was identified as HPV type 32. Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected in 16 biopsy specimens, including the 12 HLs, 2 cases of candidiasis, and 2 samples of normal epithelium. Epstein-Barr virus positivity in HL could be confirmed by Southern blot analysis and DNA in situ hybridization using biotinylated DNA probes (bio-DISH). Epstein-Barr virus bio-DISH was also positive in one sample of normal epithelium from a patient with HL. The results indicate that HL is strongly associated with EBV and not with any of the common HPV types that react with general HPV primers in the PCR. However the detection of EBV in normal oral epithelium by PCR and bio-DISH suggests that the presence of this virus is not exclusively related to HL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2169191

  19. Periluminal Distribution of HIV-Binding Target Cells and Gp340 in the Oral, Cervical and Sigmoid/Rectal Mucosae: A Mapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Patyka, Mariia; Malamud, Daniel; Weissman, Drew; Abrams, William R.; Kurago, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the transmission of HIV is most likely to occur via rectal or vaginal routes, and rarely through oral exposure. However, the mechanisms of virus entry at mucosal surfaces remain incompletely understood. Prophylactic strategies against HIV infection may be attainable once gaps in current knowledge are filled. To address these gaps, we evaluated essentially normal epithelial surfaces and mapped the periluminal distribution of CD4+ HIV target cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and an HIV-binding molecule gp340 that can be expressed by epithelial cells in secreted and cell-associated forms. Immunohistochemistry for CD4, CD16, CD3, CD1a and gp340 in human oral, rectal/sigmoid and cervical mucosal samples from HIV-negative subjects demonstrated that periluminal HIV target cells were more prevalent at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces lined by simple columnar epithelium, than at oral and ectocervical surfaces covered by multilayered stratified squamous epithelium (p<0.001). gp340 expression patterns at these sites were also distinct and strong in oral minor salivary gland acini and ducts, including ductal saliva, in individual rectum/sigmoid and endocervix periluminar columnar cells, and in ectocervix squamous cells. Only weak expression was noted in the oral non-ductal squamous epithelium. We conclude that periluminal HIV target cells, together with periluminal epithelial cell-associated gp340 appear to be most accessible for HIV transmission at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces. Our data help define vulnerable structural features of mucosal sites exposed to HIV. PMID:26172445

  20. CFTR with a partially deleted R domain corrects the cystic fibrosis chloride transport defect in human airway epithelia in vitro and in mouse nasal mucosa in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Zabner, Joseph; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip H.; Stecenko, Arlene A.; Randak, Christoph; Welsh, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    In developing gene therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) airways disease, a transgene encoding a partially deleted CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel could be of value for vectors such as adeno-associated virus that have a limited packaging capacity. Earlier studies in heterologous cells indicated that the CFTR R (regulatory) domain is predominantly random coil and that parts of the R domain can be deleted without abolishing channel function. Therefore, we designed a series of CFTR variants with shortened R domains (between residues 708 and 835) and expressed them in well-differentiated cultures of CF airway epithelia. All of the variants showed normal targeting to the apical membrane, and for the constructs we tested, biosynthesis was like wild type. Moreover, all constructs generated transepithelial Cl− current in CF epithelia. Comparison of the Cl− transport suggested that the length of the R domain, the presence of phosphorylation sites, and other factors contribute to channel activity. A variant deleting residues 708–759 complemented CF airway epithelia to the same extent as wild-type CFTR and showed no current in the absence of cAMP stimulation. In addition, expression in nasal mucosa of CF mice corrected the Cl− transport defect. These data provide insight into the structure and function of the R domain and identify regions that can be deleted with retention of function. Thus they suggest a strategy for shortening the transgene used in CF gene therapy. PMID:11854474

  1. CFTR with a partially deleted R domain corrects the cystic fibrosis chloride transport defect in human airway epithelia in vitro and in mouse nasal mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Zabner, Joseph; Vermeer, Daniel W; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip H; Stecenko, Arlene A; Randak, Christoph; Welsh, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    In developing gene therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) airways disease, a transgene encoding a partially deleted CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel could be of value for vectors such as adeno-associated virus that have a limited packaging capacity. Earlier studies in heterologous cells indicated that the CFTR R (regulatory) domain is predominantly random coil and that parts of the R domain can be deleted without abolishing channel function. Therefore, we designed a series of CFTR variants with shortened R domains (between residues 708 and 835) and expressed them in well-differentiated cultures of CF airway epithelia. All of the variants showed normal targeting to the apical membrane, and for the constructs we tested, biosynthesis was like wild type. Moreover, all constructs generated transepithelial Cl- current in CF epithelia. Comparison of the Cl- transport suggested that the length of the R domain, the presence of phosphorylation sites, and other factors contribute to channel activity. A variant deleting residues 708-759 complemented CF airway epithelia to the same extent as wild-type CFTR and showed no current in the absence of cAMP stimulation. In addition, expression in nasal mucosa of CF mice corrected the Cl- transport defect. These data provide insight into the structure and function of the R domain and identify regions that can be deleted with retention of function. Thus they suggest a strategy for shortening the transgene used in CF gene therapy. PMID:11854474

  2. Oral Administration of Ginseng Ameliorates Cyclosporine-Induced Pancreatic Injury in an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sun Woo; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Jin, Long; Piao, Shang Guo; Heo, Seong Beom; Zheng, Yu Fen; Bae, Soo Kyung; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to investigate whether ginseng has a protective effect in an experimental mouse model of cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury. Methods Mice were treated with cyclosporine (30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) and Korean red ginseng extract (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg/day, oral gavage) for 4 weeks while on a 0.01% salt diet. The effect of ginseng on cyclosporine-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction was investigated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and measurements of serum insulin level, β cell area, macrophage infiltration, and apoptosis. Using an in vitro model, we further examined the effect of ginseng on a cyclosporine-treated insulin-secreting cell line. Oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in serum, tissue sections, and culture media. Results Four weeks of cyclosporine treatment increased blood glucose levels and decreased insulin levels, but cotreatment with ginseng ameliorated the cyclosporine-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Pancreatic β cell area was also greater with ginseng cotreatment compared with cyclosporine monotherapy. The production of proinflammatory molecules, such as induced nitric oxide synthase and cytokines, and the level of apoptotic cell death also decreased in pancreatic β cell with ginseng treatment. Consistent with the in vivo results, the in vitro study showed that the addition of ginseng protected against cyclosporine-induced cytotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. These in vivo and in vitro changes were accompanied by decreases in the levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in pancreatic β cell in tissue section, serum, and culture media during cotreatment of ginseng with cyclosporine. Conclusions The results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ginseng has a protective effect against cyclosporine-induced pancreatic β cell injury via reducing oxidative stress. PMID:24009697

  3. Oral immunization with a Salmonella enterica serovar typhi vaccine induces specific circulating mucosa-homing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in humans.

    PubMed

    Lundin, B Samuel; Johansson, Camilla; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2002-10-01

    The kinetics and homing characteristics of T-cell responses in humans after mucosal immunizations have not been well characterized. Therefore, we have investigated the magnitude and duration of such responses as well as the homing receptor expression of antigen-specific peripheral blood T cells by using an oral model vaccine, i.e., the live, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine (Ty21a). Eight volunteers were each given three doses of the vaccine 2 days apart, and blood samples, from which CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were selected by the use of magnetic beads, were collected before vaccination and at regular intervals thereafter. To purify the potentially antigen-specific gut-homing T cells, CD45RA(-) integrin beta(7)(+) cells were further sorted by flow cytometry. The sorted cells were then stimulated in vitro with the serovar Typhi vaccine strain, and the proliferation of cells and the cytokine production were measured. Following vaccination, there was a large increase in both the proliferation of and the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production by blood T cells stimulated with the vaccine strain. The responses were seen among both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, although the CD8(+) cells produced the largest amounts of IFN-gamma. Peak responses were seen 7 to 14 days after the onset of vaccination. Furthermore, most of the IFN-gamma produced by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells emanated from cells with the potential to home to mucosal tissues, as the integrin beta(7)-expressing memory T cells produced around 10-fold more IFN-gamma than the remaining populations. In conclusion, we demonstrate that oral vaccination with a live oral bacterial vaccine induces antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cells, almost all of which express the gut-homing integrin beta(7). PMID:12228290

  4. Biological effects caused by low-power laser light in the treatment of the dentition, periodontium, and mucosa of oral cavity, and lip diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Erina, Stanislava V.; Kashuba, Victor A.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Buerger, F.; Herdt, Alexander; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.; Tchernov, V. I.

    1997-12-01

    Nowadays low-power therapy is one of the leading trends in a combined treatment of the oral cavity and lips diseases. The present paper sums up the results of the investigation into the biological effects caused by low-power laser light (LPLL) during its interaction with hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity and lips. A research on the effect of LPLL upon the remineralization processes in the hard dental tissues in the stage in the stage of an initial caries was carried out in 150 patients. The biological effects caused by an interaction of LPLL with the parodontium tissues in the process of treatment of medium degree disease of the parodontium were studied in 140 patients; the effects of the above mentioned character which generated in lips tissues during treatment of a post-radiation chilitis were analyzed in 32 patients. Immunological, biochemical histochemical, morphological, stomatoscopic, bacteriological and other methods were employed while studying the bioeffects caused by LPLL in the parodontium, lips tissues and hard tissues of the tooth.

  5. Oral Administration of Gintonin Attenuates Cholinergic Impairments by Scopolamine, Amyloid-β Protein, and Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Shin, Eun-Joo; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Joon Yong; Han, Jung-Soo; Chung, ChiHye; Jang, Choon-Gon; Rhim, Hyewon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-09-01

    Gintonin is a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. Oral administration of gintonin ameliorates learning and memory dysfunctions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models. The brain cholinergic system plays a key role in cognitive functions. The brains of AD patients show a reduction in acetylcholine concentration caused by cholinergic system impairments. However, little is known about the role of LPA in the cholinergic system. In this study, we used gintonin to investigate the effect of LPA receptor activation on the cholinergic system in vitro and in vivo using wild-type and AD animal models. Gintonin induced [Ca(2+)]i transient in cultured mouse hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Gintonin-mediated [Ca(2+)]i transients were linked to stimulation of acetylcholine release through LPA receptor activation. Oral administration of gintonin-enriched fraction (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, 3 weeks) significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Oral administration of gintonin (25 or 50 mg/kg, 2 weeks) also significantly attenuated amyloid-β protein (Aβ)-induced cholinergic dysfunctions, such as decreased acetylcholine concentration, decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and immunoreactivity, and increased acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. In a transgenic AD mouse model, long-term oral administration of gintonin (25 or 50 mg/kg, 3 months) also attenuated AD-related cholinergic impairments. In this study, we showed that activation of G protein-coupled LPA receptors by gintonin is coupled to the regulation of cholinergic functions. Furthermore, this study showed that gintonin could be a novel agent for the restoration of cholinergic system damages due to Aβ and could be utilized for AD prevention or therapy. PMID:26255830

  6. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  7. Exploratory study of oral mucosal colonization of human gastric Helicobacter pylori in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xueqin; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaohuan; Li, Hongming; Cui, Zhixin; Hu, Sijuan; Huang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this study, human gastric Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was closely attached to the pre-treated mouse buccal mucosa by using artificial oral film to induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. Sixty BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, in which Hp biofilm colonization was detected in three mice in Hp film group (Hp mesh biofilm accumulation under an optical microscope; Hp accumulated colonization under an electron microscope). There were no Hp biofilms detected in Hp smear group or the control group with black film. In this study, human gastric Hp was first used to artificially induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. The mouse model of oral infection with Hp was initially established, providing animal experimental evidences for oral conditions of growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice, and providing a workable animal modeling method for further research of joint infection of Hp on the mouth and stomach, as well as the relationship between oral Hp and gastric Hp. PMID:24753744

  8. DIGESTIBILITY AND ORAL TOLERANCE IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish allergens from non-allergens when exposed to foods orally, both in terms of oral tolerance and allergic antibody ...

  9. RELATIVE POTENCY OF ORAL ANTIGENS IN PROVOKING FOOD ALLERGY IN THE MOUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. While the oral route is the most relevant method of exposure, oral tolerance is an impediment. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish...

  10. The short- and long-term effects of orally administered high-dose reduced graphene oxide nanosheets on mouse behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding; Zhang, Zheyu; Liu, Yayun; Chu, Maoquan; Yang, Chengyu; Li, Wenhao; Shao, Yuxiang; Yue, Yan; Xu, Rujiao

    2015-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO), a carbon-based nanomaterial, has enormous potential in biomedical research, including in vivo cancer therapeutics. Concerns over the toxicity remain outstanding and must be investigated before clinical application. The effect of rGO exposure on animal behaviors, such as learning and memory abilities, has not been clarified. Herein, we explored the short- and long-term effects of orally administered rGO on mouse behaviors, including general locomotor activity level, balance and neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and anxiety behaviors, and learning and memory abilities using open-field, rotarod, and Morris water maze tests. Compared with mice administered buffer-dispersed mouse chow or buffer alone, mice receiving a high dose of small or large rGO nanosheets showed little change in exploratory, anxiety-like, or learning and memory behaviors, although general locomotor activity, balance, and neuromuscular coordination were initially affected, which the mechanisms (e.g. the influence of rGO exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase in mouse serum) were discussed. The results presented in this work look to provide a deep understanding of the in vivo toxicity of rGO to animals, especially its effect on learning and memory and other behaviors. PMID:26276695

  11. Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Thompson, Chad M.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2012-07-15

    Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (μg Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ≥ 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ∼ 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ► Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ► Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ► Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ► Species

  12. Mouse Single Oral Dose Toxicity Study of DHU001, a Polyherbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Seong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain acute information of the oral dose toxicity of DHU001, a polyherbal formula in male and female mice. In order to calculated 50% lethal dose (LD50) and approximate lethal dose (LD) , test material was once orally administered to male and female ICR mice at dose levels of 2000, 1000, 500, 250 and 0 (vehicle control) ml/kg (body weight) . The mortality and changes on body weight, clinical signs, gross observation, organ weight and histopathology of principle organs were monitored 14 days after treatment with DHU001. We could not find any mortalities, DHU001 treatment-related clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological findings. The results obtained in this study suggest that LD50 and approximate LD in mice after single oral dose of DHU001 were considered over 2000 mg/kg in both female and male mice. PMID:24278506

  13. Developmental changes in primary cilia in the mouse tooth germ and oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hisamoto, Meri; Goto, Marie; Muto, Mami; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium, a sensory apparatus, functions as both a chemical and mechanical sensor to receive environmental stimuli. The present study focused on the primary cilia in the epithelialmesenchymal interaction during tooth development. We examined the localization and direction of projection of primary cilia in the tooth germ and oral cavity of mice by immunohistochemical observation. Adenylyl cyclase 3 (ACIII)-immunolabeled cilia were visible in the inner/outer enamel epithelium of molars at the fetal stage and then conspicuously developed in the odontoblast layer postnatally. The primary cilia in ameloblasts and odontoblasts-shown by the double staining of acetylated tubulin and γ-tubulin-were regularly arranged from postnatal Day12, projecting apart from each other. The periodontal ligament possessed ACIII-positive cilia, which gathered on both sides of the dentin/cement and alveolar bone in postnatal days. In the oral cavity, numerous long primary cilia immunoreactive for ACIII were condensed at subepithelial stromal cells in the oral processes in fetuses, while postnatally a small number of short cilia were dispersed throughout the stroma of the oral cavity. These findings suggest that the primary cilia showing stage- and regionspecific morphology are involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during tooth development via mechano- and/or chemoreception for growth factors. PMID:27356608

  14. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Jhillu S.; Lavanya, Madugula P.; Das, Pragna P.; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K.; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal

    2010-04-01

    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  15. YAP Regulates the Expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in Mouse and Human Oral and Skin Epithelial Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Shuangyun; Lin, Qingjie

    2015-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a Hippo signaling transcriptional coactivator that plays pivotal roles in stem cell proliferation, organ size control, and tumor development. The downstream targets of YAP have been shown to be highly context dependent. In this study, we used the embryonic mouse tooth germ as a tool to search for the downstream targets of YAP in ectoderm-derived tissues. Yap deficiency in the dental epithelium resulted in a small tooth germ with reduced epithelial cell proliferation. We compared the gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) Yap conditional knockout and YAP transgenic mouse tooth germs using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and further confirmed the differentially expressed genes using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in oral and dental epithelial tissues as well as in the epidermis of skin during embryonic and adult stages. Sphere formation assay suggested that Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 are functionally involved in YAP-regulated epithelial progenitor cell proliferation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay implies that YAP may regulate Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 expression through TEAD transcription factors. These results provide mechanistic insights into abnormal YAP activities in mice and humans. PMID:25691658

  16. Oral Triphenylmethane Food Dye Analog, Brilliant Blue G, Prevents Neuronal Loss in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jacob A; Erisir, Alev; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a promising strategy for developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) therapeutics. We recently reported that a triphenylmethane food dye analog, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), is a dose-dependent modulator of in vitro amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell-based assays. Following up on this recent work, we sought to further evaluate this novel modulator in a therapeutically-relevant AD transgenic mouse model. BBG was orally administered to APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for three months in order to assess its biocompatibility, its permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and its efficacy at rescuing AD pathology. The results showed that BBG was well-tolerated, caused no significant weight change/unusual behavior, and was able to significantly cross the AD blood-brain barrier in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis of the brain sections revealed that BBG was able to significantly prevent neuronal loss and reduce intracellular APP/Aβ in hippocampal neurons. This is the first report of 1) the effect of Brilliant Blue G on neuronal loss in a transgenic animal model of AD, 2) oral administration of BBG to affect a protein conformation/aggregation disease, and 3) electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis of AD pathology in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. PMID:26852943

  17. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of neoplastic progression in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for medical applications and holds great potential for noninvasive early detection of cancer. It has been reported that early cancer detection can improve the survival and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients. In this paper, we explored the possibility of differentiating between premalignant lesions and healthy tongue tissue using hyperspectral imaging in a chemical induced oral cancer animal model. We proposed a novel classification algorithm for cancer detection using hyperspectral images. The method detected the dysplastic tissue with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89. The hyperspectral imaging and classification technique may provide a new tool for oral cancer detection.

  19. Morphoclinical aspects of the human paraprostethic gingival mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scrieciu, Monica; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mercuţ, Veronica; Andrei, Victoria; Pancă, Oana Adina

    2005-01-01

    The multiple and various changes that the human gingival mucosa undergoes when coming into contact with a denture, require a histopathological study correlated with that of clinical manifestations. The highlighting of the histological lesions of the prosthetic field's mucosa is extremely important in the study concerning the tolerance of the oral cavity tissues towards the materials of dentures, because it has been observed that different materials can cause the same type of clinical changes. The clinical research has been carried out having as a basis a group of patients, carriers of fixed dentures made of different materials, the study method consisting in their clinical evaluation. The investigation of microscopic preparations, obtained through drawing mucosa from those patients under study, has been made by using both usual colorations for an overall examination of the tissue architecture, as well as special colorations for pointing out certain structures. The results of the investigation have made clear the fact that the clinical changes of the prosthetic field's mucosa can be adaptable to the denture or can react pathologically to the various possibilities of denture aggression. The histopathological picture of the paraprosthetic mucosa lesions is polymorphous due to the morphofunctional complexity as well as to the reacting capacity of the oral mucosa when interfering with a fixed denture. PMID:16688373

  20. Dual Inhibition of VEGFR and EGFR is an Effective Chemopreventive Strategy in the Mouse 4-NQO Model of Oral Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guolin; Hasina, Rifat; Wroblewski, Kristen; Mankame, Tanmayi P.; Doçi, Colleen L.; Lingen, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, several factors, including field cancerization, have limited improvements in long-term survival for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Therefore, comprehensive treatment plans must include improved chemopreventive strategies. Using the 4-Nitroquinoline 1-Oxide (4-NQO) mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that ZD6474 (Vandetanib, ZACTIMA) is an effective chemopreventive agent. CBA mice were fed 4-NQO (100 ug/ml) in their drinking water for 8 weeks and then randomized to no treatment or oral ZD6474 (25 mg/Kg/day) for 24 weeks. The percentage of animals with OSCC was significantly different between the two groups (71% in control and 12% in ZD6474 group; p≤0.001). The percentage of mice with dysplasia or OSCC was significantly different (96% in the control and 28% in the ZD6474 group; p≤0.001). Proliferation and MVD scores were significantly decreased in the ZD6474 group (p<=0.001 for both). While proliferation and MVD increased with histologic progression in control and treatment cohorts, EGFR and VEGFR-2 phosphorylation was decreased in the treatment group for each histologic diagnosis, including mice harboring tumors. OSCC from ZD6474-treated mice exhibited features of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), as demonstrated by loss E-cadherin and gain of vimentin protein expression. These data suggest that ZD6474 holds promise as an OSCC chemopreventive agent. They further suggest that acquired resistance to ZD6474 may be mediated by the expression of an EMT phenotype. Finally, the data suggests that this model is a useful pre-clinical platform to investigate the mechanisms of acquired resistance in the chemopreventive setting. PMID:20978113

  1. Multi-photon Imaging of Tumor Cell Invasion in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gatesman Ammer, Amanda; Hayes, Karen E.; Martin, Karen H.; Zhang, Lingqing; Spirou, George A.; Weed, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Loco-regional invasion of head and neck cancer is linked to metastatic risk and presents a difficult challenge in designing and implementing patient management strategies. Orthotopic mouse models of oral cancer have been developed to facilitate the study of factors that impact invasion and serve as model system for evaluating anti-tumor therapeutics. In these systems, visualization of disseminated tumor cells within oral cavity tissues has typically been conducted by either conventional histology or with in vivo bioluminescent methods. A primary drawback of these techniques is the inherent inability to accurately visualize and quantify early tumor cell invasion arising from the primary site in three dimensions. Here we describe a protocol that combines an established model for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCOT) with two-photon imaging to allow multi-vectorial visualization of lingual tumor spread. The OSC-19 head and neck tumor cell line was stably engineered to express the F-actin binding peptide LifeAct fused to the mCherry fluorescent protein (LifeAct-mCherry). Fox1nu/nu mice injected with these cells reliably form tumors that allow the tongue to be visualized by ex-vivo application of two-photon microscopy. This technique allows for the orthotopic visualization of the tumor mass and locally invading cells in excised tongues without disruption of the regional tumor microenvironment. In addition, this system allows for the quantification of tumor cell invasion by calculating distances that invaded cells move from the primary tumor site. Overall this procedure provides an enhanced model system for analyzing factors that contribute to SCOT invasion and therapeutic treatments tailored to prevent local invasion and distant metastatic spread. This method also has the potential to be ultimately combined with other imaging modalities in an in vivo setting. PMID:21808230

  2. Oral Immunization with Cholera Toxin Provides Protection against Campylobacter jejuni in an Adult Mouse Intestinal Colonization Model

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M. John; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Islam, Anjum; Haridas, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunity to Campylobacter jejuni, a major diarrheal pathogen, is largely Penner serotype specific. For broad protection, a vaccine should be based on a common antigen(s) present in all strains. In our previous study (M. J. Albert, S. Haridas, D. Steer, G. S. Dhaunsi, A. I. Smith, and B. Adler, Infect. Immun. 75:3070–3073, 2007), we demonstrated that antibody to cholera toxin (CT) cross-reacted with the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) of all Campylobacter jejuni strains tested. In the current study, we investigated whether immunization with CT protects against intestinal colonization by C. jejuni in an adult mouse model and whether the nontoxic subunit of CT (CT-B) is the portion mediating cross-reaction. Mice were orally immunized with CT and later challenged with C. jejuni strains (48, 75, and 111) of different serotypes. Control animals were immunized with phosphate-buffered saline. Fecal shedding of challenge organisms was studied daily for 9 days. Serum and fecal antibody responses were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. The cross-reactivity of rabbit CT-B antibody to MOMP was studied by immunoblotting. The reactivity of 21 overlapping 30-mer oligopeptides (based on MOMP’s sequence) against rabbit CT antibody was tested by ELISA. Test animals produced antibodies to CT and MMP in serum and feces and showed resistance to colonization, the vaccine efficacies being 49% (for strain 48), 37% (for strain 75), and 34% (for strain 111) (P, ≤0.05 to ≤0.001). One peptide corresponding to a variable region of MOMP showed significant reactivity. CT-B antibody cross-reacted with MOMP. Since CT-B is a component of oral cholera vaccines, it might be possible to control C. jejuni diarrhea with these vaccines. PMID:23653448

  3. Effects of garlic preparations on the gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, T; Kashimoto, N; Kasuga, S

    2001-03-01

    The effects of garlic preparations, including dehydrated raw garlic powder (RGP), dehydrated boiled garlic powder (BGP) and aged garlic extract (AGE), on the gastric mucosa were determined using a newly established endoscopic air-powder delivery system, which can deliver solid materials directly into the stomach. Among the three preparations, RGP caused severe damage, including erosion. BGP also caused reddening of the mucosa, whereas AGE did not cause any undesirable effects. The safety of enteric-coated garlic products was also determined. Direct administration of pulverized enteric-coated products on the gastric mucosa caused reddening of the mucosa. When an enteric-coated tablet was administered orally, it caused loss of epithelial cells at the top of crypts in the ileum. These results suggest that caution be used with regard to safety and effectiveness when choosing a garlic preparation because some preparations may have undesirable effects, including gastrointestinal problems. PMID:11238827

  4. Vital-dye-enhanced multimodal imaging of neoplastic progression in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebust, Anne; Rosbach, Kelsey; Wu, Jessica Keren; Nguyen, Jennifer; Gillenwater, Ann; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    In this longitudinal study, a mouse model of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis was used to assess the ability of optical imaging with exogenous and endogenous contrast to detect neoplastic lesions in a heterogeneous mucosal surface. Widefield autofluorescence and fluorescence images of intact 2-NBDG-stained and proflavine-stained tissues were acquired at multiple time points in the carcinogenesis process. Confocal fluorescence images of transverse fresh tissue slices from the same specimens were acquired to investigate how changes in tissue microarchitecture affect widefield fluorescence images of intact tissue. Widefield images were analyzed to develop and evaluate an algorithm to delineate areas of dysplasia and cancer. A classification algorithm for the presence of neoplasia based on the mean fluorescence intensity of 2-NBDG staining and the standard deviation of the fluorescence intensity of proflavine staining was found to separate moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and cancer from non-neoplastic regions of interest with 91% sensitivity and specificity. Results suggest this combination of noninvasive optical imaging modalities can be used in vivo to discriminate non-neoplastic from neoplastic tissue in this model with the potential to translate this technology to the clinic.

  5. Oral administration of acarbose ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hua; Chao, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Der-Yuan; Yang, Deng-Ho; Chung, Ting-Wen; Li, Yi-Rong; Lin, Chi Chen

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease of undefined etiology that involves dysregulated interplay between immune cells and keratinocytes. Acarbose was found to decrease inflammatory parameters in diabetic patients in addition to its anti-diabetic effects. Here, we report that imiquimod (IMQ)-induced epidermal hyperplasia and psoriasis like-inflammation were significantly inhibited by acarbose treatment. Real-time PCR showed that mRNA levels of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β IL-17A, and IL-22 in skin were also decreased significantly by acarbose. In addition, we found that acarbose reduced infiltration of CD3(+) T cells and GR-1(+) neutrophils in lesional skin and also reduced the percentage of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17) and IL-17- and IL-22-producing γδ T cells in the spleen. In contrast, acarbose increased the frequency of IL-10-producing CD4(+) regulator Tr1 T cells in the spleen and small intestine. These results indicate that oral administration of acarbose can attenuate the severity of imiquimod-induced psoriasis with local and systemic anti-inflammatory and immune modulation effects, thus suggesting that acarbose is an effective therapeutic strategy for psoriasis regulation. PMID:26874324

  6. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  7. A surprising cross-species conservation in the genomic landscape of mouse and human oral cancer identifies a transcriptional signature predicting metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Michael D.; Winkler, Ashley E.; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Chalivendra, Varun; Law, Jonathan H.; Rickert, Charles G.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Judd, Nancy P.; Dunn, Gavin P.; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Lewis, James S.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Uppaluri, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improved understanding of the molecular basis underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) aggressive growth has significant clinical implications. Herein, cross-species genomic comparison of carcinogen-induced murine and human OSCCs with indolent or metastatic growth yielded results with surprising translational relevance. Experimental Design Murine OSCC cell lines were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) to define their mutational landscape, to define novel candidate cancer genes and to assess for parallels with known drivers in human OSCC. Expression arrays identified a mouse metastasis signature and we assessed its representation in 4 independent human datasets comprising 324 patients using weighted voting and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to stratify outcomes. A qRT-PCR assay based on the mouse signature coupled to a machine-learning algorithm was developed and used to stratify an independent set of 31 patients with respect to metastatic lymphadenopathy. Results NGS revealed conservation of human driver pathway mutations in mouse OSCC including in Trp53, MAPK, PI3K, NOTCH, JAK/STAT and FAT1–4. Moreover, comparative analysis between The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and mouse samples defined AKAP9, MED12L and MYH6 as novel putative cancer genes. Expression analysis identified a transcriptional signature predicting aggressiveness and clinical outcomes, which were validated in 4 independent human OSCC datasets. Finally, we harnessed the translational potential of this signature by creating a clinically feasible assay that stratified OSCC patients with a 93.5% accuracy. Conclusions These data demonstrate surprising cross-species genomic conservation that has translational relevance for human oral squamous cell cancer. PMID:24668645

  8. Oral Administration of Gintonin Attenuates Cholinergic Impairments by Scopolamine, Amyloid-β Protein, and Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Shin, Eun-Joo; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Joon Yong; Han, Jung-Soo; Chung, ChiHye; Jang, Choon-Gon; Rhim, Hyewon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Gintonin is a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. Oral administration of gintonin ameliorates learning and memory dysfunctions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models. The brain cholinergic system plays a key role in cognitive functions. The brains of AD patients show a reduction in acetylcholine concentration caused by cholinergic system impairments. However, little is known about the role of LPA in the cholinergic system. In this study, we used gintonin to investigate the effect of LPA receptor activation on the cholinergic system in vitro and in vivo using wild-type and AD animal models. Gintonin induced [Ca2+]i transient in cultured mouse hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Gintonin-mediated [Ca2+]i transients were linked to stimulation of acetylcholine release through LPA receptor activation. Oral administration of gintonin-enriched fraction (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, 3 weeks) significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Oral administration of gintonin (25 or 50 mg/kg, 2 weeks) also significantly attenuated amyloid-β protein (Aβ)-induced cholinergic dysfunctions, such as decreased acetylcholine concentration, decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and immunoreactivity, and increased acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. In a transgenic AD mouse model, long-term oral administration of gintonin (25 or 50 mg/kg, 3 months) also attenuated AD-related cholinergic impairments. In this study, we showed that activation of G protein-coupled LPA receptors by gintonin is coupled to the regulation of cholinergic functions. Furthermore, this study showed that gintonin could be a novel agent for the restoration of cholinergic system damages due to Aβ and could be utilized for AD prevention or therapy. PMID:26255830

  9. Drug-induced lesions of the oesophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Lesions of the oesophageal mucosa are observed in various situations: most often with gastrooesophageal reflux disease, but also with infections, cancer, contact with a toxic substance, etc. When they are symptomatic, these lesions provoke burning sensations, dysphagia, regurgitation and sometimes dorsal pain. The changes to the oesophageal mucosa may take various forms: inflammation, erosion, ulceration or necrosis. Serious or even fatal complications can develop but are rare; they include oesophageal perforation, stricture and haemorrhage. Some oral drugs damage the oesophageal mucosa through direct contact. The symptoms often develop several hours after ingestion. The pain is of sudden onset. The resulting lesions are solitary or multiple ulcers that vary in depth and usually occur in the upper portion of the oesophagus. Various factors prolong contact between a drug and the oesophageal mucosa, in particular: swallowing the drug with insufficient liquid or just before lying down; capsule forms; and oesophageal abnormalities. The drugs most frequently implicated are tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, bisphosphonates and various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Many drugs, used in various situations, provoke gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, sometimes causing mucosal lesions in the lower oesophagus: calcium-channel blockers, nitrates, exenatide and liraglutide, drugs with antimuscarinic effects, theophylline, etc. Some drugs affect all mucous membranes in the body, including the oesophageal mucosa, irrespective of their route of administration: cancer drugs, isotretinoin, and nicorandil. PMID:26417631

  10. Cleft palate cells can regenerate a palatal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lamme, E N; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Krapels, I P C; Bian, Z; Marres, H; Spauwen, P H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cleft palate repair leaves full-thickness mucosal defects on the palate. Healing might be improved by implantation of a mucosal substitute. However, the genetic and phenotypic deviations of cleft palate cells may hamper tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to construct mucosal substitutes from cleft palate cells, and to compare these with substitutes from normal palatal cells, and with native palatal mucosa. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa of eight children with cleft palate and eight age-matched control individuals were taken. Three biopsies of both groups were processed for (immuno)histochemistry; 5 were used to culture mucosal substitutes. Histology showed that the substitutes from cleft-palate and non-cleft-palate cells were comparable, but the number of cell layers was less than in native palatal mucosa. All epithelial layers in native palatal mucosa and mucosal substitutes expressed the cytokeratins 5, 10, and 16, and the proliferation marker Ki67. Heparan sulphate and decorin were present in the basal membrane and the underlying connective tissue, respectively. We conclude that mucosal cells from children with cleft palate can regenerate an oral mucosa in vitro. PMID:18650554

  11. Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

  12. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  13. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  14. Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa.

    PubMed

    Galletta, Vivian C; Artico, Gabriela; Dal Vechio, Aluana M C; Lemos Jr, Celso A; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:22147048

  15. The drug efficacy and adverse reactions in a mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with oxaliplatin at different time points during a day

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Zhao, Ningbo; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Dan; Li, Yadong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vivo exhibit circadian rhythm, and the efficacy and adverse reactions of platinum-based anticancer drugs administered at different times of the day vary significantly on colon cancer. However, since the circadian rhythms of growth and proliferation of various cancer cells often differ, the question of whether the administration of platinum anticancer drugs at different times of the day exerts significantly different efficacy and adverse effects on oral cancers remains to be elucidated. This study has compared the efficacy and adverse effects of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) administration at different times during a day on oral squamous cell carcinoma in mice and has analyzed cellular circadian rhythms. Methods The mouse model for oral squamous cell carcinoma was established in 75 nude mice, housed in a 12 hour light/12 hour dark cycle environment. The mice were randomly divided into five groups; four experimental groups were intravenously injected with L-OHP at four time points within a 24-hour period (4, 10, 16, and 22 hours after lights on [HALO]). The control group was intravenously injected with the same volume of saline. Treatment efficacy and adverse reactions were compared on the seventh day after the injection, at 22 HALO. The existence of circadian rhythms was determined by cosine analysis. Results Only injections of L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO significantly prolonged animal survival time. The adverse reactions in mice injected with L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO were significantly less than those observed in mice administered L-OHP at 4 and 10 HALO. The cosine fitting curve showed that the survival time and adverse reactions exhibited circadian rhythm. Conclusion The time factor should be considered when treating patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with L-OHP in order to achieve better efficacy, reduce the adverse reactions, and improve the patients’ survival time and quality

  16. Preventive and therapeutic effects of Smad7 on radiation-induced oral mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gangwen; Bian, Li; Li, Fulun; Cotrim, Ana; Wang, Donna; Lu, Jian Bo; Deng, Yu; Bird, Gregory; Sowers, Anastasia; Mitchell, James B.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Zhao, Rui; Raben, David; Dijke, Peter ten; Refaeli, Yosef; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    We report that K5.Smad7 mice, which express Smad7 transgene by a keratin-5 promoter, were resistant to radiation-induced oral mucositis, a painful oral ulceration. In addition to NF-κB activation known to contribute to oral mucositis, we found activated TGF-β signaling in oral mucositis. Smad7 dampened both pathways to attenuate inflammation, growth inhibition and apoptosis. Additionally, Smad7 promoted oral epithelial migration to close the wound. Further analyses revealed that TGF-β signaling Smads and their co-repressor CtBP1 transcriptionally repressed Rac1, and Smad7 abrogated this repression. Knocking down Rac1 in mouse keratinocytes abrogated Smad7-induced migration. Topically applying Smad7 protein with a cell permeable Tat-tag (Tat-Smad7) to oral mucosa showed preventive and therapeutic effects on radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Thus, we have identified novel molecular mechanisms involved in oral mucositis pathogenesis and our data suggest an alternative therapeutic strategy to block multiple pathological processes of oral mucositis. PMID:23475202

  17. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  18. Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2010-01-01

    Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

  19. Oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the staging of oral cancers. Imaging information is essential for determining tumour resectibility, post resection surgical reconstruction and radiation therapy planning. The aim of this paper is to highlight the natural history of oral cancer spread and how malignant infiltration can be accurately mapped. It focuses on buccal mucosa, hard palate, tongue and floor of mouth carcinoma. PMID:16361136

  20. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  1. Scap is required for sterol synthesis and crypt growth in intestinal mucosa[S

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Linden, Albert G.; January, Brandon A.; Liang, Guosheng; Engelking, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    SREBP cleavage-activating protein (Scap) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for cleavage and activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which activate the transcription of genes in sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Liver-specific loss of Scap is well tolerated; hepatic synthesis of sterols and fatty acids is reduced, but mice are otherwise healthy. To determine whether Scap loss is tolerated in the intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-Scap−) in which tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT2, a fusion protein of Cre recombinase with a mutated ligand binding domain of the human estrogen receptor, ablates Scap in intestinal mucosa. After 4 days of tamoxifen, Vil-Scap− mice succumb with a severe enteropathy and near-complete collapse of intestinal mucosa. Organoids grown ex vivo from intestinal crypts of Vil-Scap− mice are readily killed when Scap is deleted by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Death is prevented when culture medium is supplemented with cholesterol and oleate. These data show that, unlike the liver, the intestine requires Scap to sustain tissue integrity by maintaining the high levels of lipid synthesis necessary for proliferation of intestinal crypts. PMID:25896350

  2. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26011730

  3. Oral TNFα Modulation Alters Neutrophil Infiltration, Improves Cognition and Diminishes Tau and Amyloid Pathology in the 3xTgAD Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Gabbita, S. Prasad; Johnson, Ming F.; Kobritz, Naomi; Eslami, Pirooz; Poteshkina, Aleksandra; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Turman, John; Zemlan, Frank; Harris-White, Marni E.

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines such as TNFα can polarize microglia/macrophages into different neuroinflammatory types. Skewing of the phenotype towards a cytotoxic state is thought to impair phagocytosis and has been described in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Neuroinflammation can be perpetuated by a cycle of increasing cytokine production and maintenance of a polarized activation state that contributes to AD progression. In this study, 3xTgAD mice, age 6 months, were treated orally with 3 doses of the TNFα modulating compound isoindolin-1,3 dithione (IDT) for 10 months. We demonstrate that IDT is a TNFα modulating compound both in vitro and in vivo. Following long-term IDT administration, mice were assessed for learning & memory and tissue and serum were collected for analysis. Results demonstrate that IDT is safe for long-term treatment and significantly improves learning and memory in the 3xTgAD mouse model. IDT significantly reduced paired helical filament tau and fibrillar amyloid accumulation. Flow cytometry of brain cell populations revealed that IDT increased the infiltrating neutrophil population while reducing TNFα expression in this population. IDT is a safe and effective TNFα and innate immune system modulator. Thus small molecule, orally bioavailable modulators are promising therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26436670

  4. Oral benzo[a]pyrene-induced cancer: two distinct types in different target organs depend on the mouse Cyp1 genotype

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanquan; Dragin, Nadine; Miller, Marian L.; Stringer, Keith F.; Johansson, Elisabet; Chen, Jing; Uno, Shigeyuki; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Rubio, Carlos A.; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) found in combustion processes. Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) can both detoxify PAHs and activate them to cancer-causing reactive intermediates. Following high dosage of oral BaP (125 mg/kg/day), ablation of the mouse Cyp1a1 gene causes immunosuppression and death within ~28 days, whereas Cyp1(+/+) wild-type mice remain healthy for >12 months on this regimen. In the present study, male Cyp1(+/+) wild-type, Cyp1a1(−/−) and Cyp1b1(−/−) single-knockout, and Cyp1a1/1b1(−/−) double-knockout mice received a lower dose (12.5 mg/kg/day) of oral BaP. Tissues from 16 different organs––including proximal small intestine (PSI), liver, preputial gland duct (PGD)––were evaluated; microarray cDNA expression and >30 mRNA levels were measured. Cyp1a1(−/−) mice revealed markedly increased CYP1B1 mRNA levels in the PSI, and between 8 and 12 weeks developed unique PSI adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Cyp1a1/1b1(−/−) mice showed no PSI tumors but instead developed squamous cell carcinoma of the PGD. Cyp1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(−/−) mice remained healthy with no remarkable abnormalities in any tissue examined. PSI adenocarcinomas exhibited striking up-regulation of the Xist gene, suggesting epigenetic silencing of specific genes on the Y-chromosome; the Rab30 oncogene was up-regulated; the Nr0b2 tumor suppressor gene was down-regulated; paradoxical over-expression of numerous immunoglobulin kappa and heavy chain variable genes was found––although the adenocarcinoma showed no immunohistochemical evidence of being lymphatic in origin. This oral BaP mouse paradigm represents an example of “gene-environment interactions” in which the same exposure of carcinogen results in altered target organ and tumor type, as a function of just one or two globally absent genes. PMID:20127859

  5. Distinct Transmissibility Features of TSE Sources Derived from Ruminant Prion Diseases by the Oral Route in a Transgenic Mouse Model (TgOvPrP4) Overexpressing the Ovine Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arsac, Jean-Noël; Baron, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a misfolded form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP). Some of them, such as classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (BSE), transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), kuru and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans, are acquired by the oral route exposure to infected tissues. We investigated the possible transmission by the oral route of a panel of strains derived from ruminant prion diseases in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4) overexpressing the ovine prion protein (A136R154Q171) under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Sources derived from Nor98, CH1641 or 87V scrapie sources, as well as sources derived from L-type BSE or cattle-passaged TME, failed to transmit by the oral route, whereas those derived from classical BSE and classical scrapie were successfully transmitted. Apart from a possible effect of passage history of the TSE agent in the inocula, this implied the occurrence of subtle molecular changes in the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) following oral transmission that can raises concerns about our ability to correctly identify sheep that might be orally infected by the BSE agent in the field. Our results provide proof of principle that transgenic mouse models can be used to examine the transmissibility of TSE agents by the oral route, providing novel insights regarding the pathogenesis of prion diseases. PMID:24797075

  6. Accelerated tau aggregation, apoptosis and neurological dysfunction caused by chronic oral administration of aluminum in a mouse model of tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Etsuko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yokota, Osamu; Nakashima-Yasuda, Hanae; Nagao, Shigeto; Ikeda, Chikako; Naohara, Jun; Terada, Seishi; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2013-11-01

    To clarify whether long-term oral ingestion of aluminum (Al) can increase tau aggregation in mammals, we examined the effects of oral Al administration on tau accumulation, apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS) and motor function using tau transgenic (Tg) mice that show very slowly progressive tau accumulation. Al-treated tau Tg mice had almost twice as many tau-positive inclusions in the spinal cord as tau Tg mice without Al treatment at 12 months of age, a difference that reached statistical significance, and the development of pretangle-like tau aggregates in the brain was also significantly advanced from 9 months. Al exposure did not induce any tau pathology in wild-type (WT) mice. Apoptosis was observed in the hippocampus in Al-treated tau Tg mice, but was virtually absent in the other experimental groups. Motor function as assessed by the tail suspension test was most severely impaired in Al-treated tau Tg mice. Given our results, chronic oral ingestion of Al may more strongly promote tau aggregation, apoptosis and neurological dysfunction if individuals already had a pathological process causing tau aggregation. These findings may also implicate chronic Al neurotoxicity in humans, who frequently have had mild tau pathology from a young age. PMID:23574527

  7. Concentrations of acidic antiinflammatory drugs in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Frey, H H; El-Sayed, M A

    1977-12-01

    In rats, the concentrations of the acidic antiinflammatory drugs salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, phenylbutazone, flufenamic acid and indomethacin in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa were determined 30 and 60 min after oral or subcutaneous administration. In another series of experiments, solutions of the drugs were introduced into the ligated stomach and the concentrations in the mucosa and in the contents of the stomach were determined after 60 min. The ratio between the concentrations in the musoca and those in serum or gastric contents were much lower than expected according to the distribution by passive non-ionic diffusion. This apparent discrepancy may be explained as a result of a drug-induced damage to the mucosal cell allowing free diffusion of ionized drug across the cell membrane. PMID:603322

  8. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions. PMID:25892249

  9. Mucosal tissue pharmacokinetics of the integrase inhibitor raltegravir in a humanized mouse model: Implications for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Veselinovic, Milena; Yang, Kuo-Hsiung; Sykes, Craig; Remling-Mulder, Leila; Kashuba, Angela D M; Akkina, Ramesh

    2016-02-01

    Orally administered anti-retroviral drugs show considerable promise for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). For the success of these strategies, pharmacokinetic (PK) data defining the optimal concentration of the drug needed for protection in relevant mucosal exposure sites is essential. Here we employed a humanized mouse model to derive comprehensive PK data on the HIV integrase inhibitor raltegravir (RAL), a leading PrEP drug candidate. Under steady state conditions following oral dosing, plasma and multiple mucosal tissues were sampled simultaneously. RAL exhibited higher drug exposure in mucosal tissues relative to that in plasma with one log higher exposure in vaginal and rectal tissue and two logs higher exposure in intestinal mucosa reflecting the trends seen in the human studies. These data demonstrate the suitability of RAL for HIV PrEP and validate the utility of humanized mouse models for deriving important preclinical PK-PD data. PMID:26771889

  10. Immunohistochemical aspects of apoptosis in gingival mucosa with papilloma and condyloma acuminata.

    PubMed

    Scrieciu, Monica; Mercuţ, Veronica; Mercuţ, Răzvan; Amărăscu, Marina Olimpia; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Predescu, Anca Mihaela; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2015-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a component of the oral ecosystem, which can be aggressed by corrosion products released from the dental alloys used in prosthetic dentistry therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo effect of nickel and copper compounds on the oral mucosa cells, including their ability to induce cell death, by analyzing the cytochrome c (cyt. c) immunohistochemical expression. Gingival mucosa fragments obtained from the subjects with dentures manufactured by nickel or copper casting alloys were processed through the histological technique of paraffin inclusion. The sections obtained were stained by usually histological methods in order to highlight the histopathological lesions and also analyzed using the immunohistochemical technique in order to study the cyt. c expression. The papillomatosis lesions were observed in the gingival mucosa fragments obtained from the subjects with nickel-based alloy dentures and the condyloma acuminata lesions were observed in those obtained from the subjects with copper-based alloy dentures. The cyt. c immunohistochemical expression was different in the epithelial layer of two types of mucosal fragments but it was the same in their lamina propria connective tissue. We can conclude that the two types of metal alloys have different effects on the adjacent gingival mucosa. PMID:26193209