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1

Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?  

PubMed Central

Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

van der Waal, Isaäc

2014-01-01

2

Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions  

PubMed Central

Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions. PMID:24078812

Bhatia, Nirav; Lalla, Yastira; Vu, An N.; Farah, Camile S.

2013-01-01

3

Stromal myofibroblasts in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that myofibroblasts in the adjacent stroma are involved in the development and progression of malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of myofibroblasts in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) by determining myofibroblast density in potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions. A total of 69 potentially malignant oral lesions (leukoplakias with mild, moderate or severe dysplasia), 90 OSCCs (well-, moderately and poorly differentiated), eight oral verrucous carcinomas and 29 fibrous hyperplasias were examined for the presence of myofibroblasts using immunohistochemical detection of isoform ? of smooth muscle actin. Myofibroblasts were not identified in the adjacent stroma of fibrous hyperplasias and potentially malignant oral lesions, whereas 59.8% of the oral carcinomas exhibited myofibroblasts in various densities. The density was significantly higher in moderately and poorly differentiated OSCCs when compared with well-differentiated tumors (P=0.04 and P=0.007, respectively). In verrucous carcinomas, the specific variant of well-differentiated OSCC, stromal myofibroblasts were not detected. The results of the present study demonstrated that immunodetection of myofibroblasts does not aid with the determination of the malignant transformation potential of oral dysplasias, although moderately and poorly differentiated tumors exhibited a significantly higher density of myofibroblasts. The results reinforce the hypothesis that myofibroblasts may contribute to oral tumorigenesis, indicating that verification and monitoring of such may serve as a putative marker of OSCC behavior.

RODRIGUES, PRISCILA CAMPIONI; DA COSTA MIGUEL, MÁRCIA CRISTINA; DE AQUINO, SIBELE NASCIMENTO; FONSECA, FELIPE PAIVA; SILVA, ALAN ROGER DOS SANTOS; LEME, ADRIANA FRANCO PAES; COLETTA, RICARDO D.

2015-01-01

4

Oral potentially malignant disorders in a large dental population.  

PubMed

Objectives Oral cancer (OC) may be preceded by clinically evident oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Oral carcinogenesis is a multistep process that begins as epithelial hyperplasia and progresses to oral epithelial dysplasia and finally to fully malignant phenotypes. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of OPMDs in a large population of dental patients. Methods Patients were seen in the Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine clinics at Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine between July 2013 and February 2014 and received a comprehensive oral examination to identify any possible mucosal lesions. Patients with a suspected OPMD (submucous fibrosis, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and erythroplakia) that did not resolve in 2-3 weeks received a biopsy for definitive diagnosis. Logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between OPMDs and associated risk factors. Results A total of 3,142 patients received a comprehensive oral examination [median age: 43 (range: 18-97); 54.3% females]. Among these, 4.5% had an oral mucosal lesion with 0.9% being an OPMD (one submucous fibrosis, three epithelial dysplasias, fourteen with hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia and nine with oral lichen planus). Males and current smokers were associated with higher odds of having OPMD (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.8; OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8-4.1). Increasing age was associated with having OPMDs (p<0.01). Conclusion Optimal oral visual screening for OC remains a simple and essential tool to identify any suspicious lesions and potentially increase survival. Although OPMDs were rare, our results confirm the importance of a thorough chairside screening by dentists and dental students to detect any mucosal changes. PMID:25591015

Villa, Alessandro; Gohel, Anita

2014-12-01

5

Frequent gene deletions in potentially malignant oral lesions.  

PubMed Central

Some oral cancers are preceded by premalignant lesions which include leucoplakia and erythroplakia. At present there are no reliable markers to identify lesions that may progress to malignancy. We have analysed 30 potentially malignant oral lesions for deletions at chromosomal regions that harbour tumour-suppressor genes for oral cancer. A total of 16 of 30 cases (53%) showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or allele imbalance at TP53, DCC, 3p21.3-22.1 or 3p12.1-13. These genetic alterations were detected in dysplastic lesions but not in histologically normal mucosa and may be early events in the carcinogenic process. A total of 64% of dysplastic lesions that recurred during the study showed LOH or allele imbalance in the initial biopsy and the number of genetic abnormalities increased in the tumours that developed. This type of molecular profiling may help to identify patients with lesions that may recur or acquire additional genetic events and progress to malignancy. Images Figure 2 PMID:8611386

Emilion, G.; Langdon, J. D.; Speight, P.; Partridge, M.

1996-01-01

6

Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: An Overview of More than 20 Entities  

PubMed Central

Cancer of the oral cavity accounts for approximately 3% of all malignancies diagnosed annually in 270,000 patients world-wide. Oral cancer is the 12th most common cancer in women and the 6th in men. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs). Lack of awareness about the signs and symptoms of oralPMDs in the general population and even healthcare providers is believed to be responsible for the diagnostic delay of these entities. The aim of this article is to update and improve the knowledge of healthcare providers about oral PMDs. PMID:25024833

Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam; Mehdipour, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

7

“High Risk” HPV Types Are Frequently Detected in Potentially Malignant and Malignant Oral Lesions, But Not in Normal Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the involvement of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in initiation and progression of oral neoplasia have generated conflicting results. The observed discrepancy is attributable mainly to the varying sensitivity of the applied methodologies and to epidemiologic factors of the examined patient groups. To evaluate the role of HPV in oral carcinogenesis, we analyzed 53 potentially neoplastic and neoplastic oral

Martha Bouda; Vassilis G. Gorgoulis; Nikos G. Kastrinakis; Athina Giannoudis; Efthymia Tsoli; Despina Danassi-Afentaki; Periklis Foukas; Aspasia Kyroudi; George Laskaris; C. Simon Herrington; Christos Kittas; Gorgoulis Vassilis

2000-01-01

8

Correlation between histological grading and ploidy status in potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa: A flow cytometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Histopathological grading of oral dysplastic lesions is the method of choice for evaluating malignant and potentially malignant disorders. Owing to inter- and intra-observer variability, determination of the DNA ploidy status of lesions may serve as an adjunct in the prediction of malignant transformation. Aim: To correlate histopathological grading and ploidy status in potentially malignant and malignant disorders of the oral mucosa. Settings and Design: A pilot study was done with 30 patients (10 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders predominantly leukoplakia, 10 patients with oral malignant lesions and 10 patients with normal mucosa). Materials and Methods: Incisional biopsy was done after isolating the biopsy site with 1% Toluidine blue staining. Two sections of the tissue were removed and sent for histopathological and Flow-cytometric analysis respectively. Histopathological diagnosis was obtained and compared with Flow-cytometric results which were graded as diploid and aneuploid. Further, the S – phase fraction, DNA index were also calculated to evaluate the severity of malignant transformation or malignancy. Statistical Analysis: The results were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square Test. Results: There exists a significant correlation between histopathology and ploidy status in both potentially malignant and malignant group. (P = 0.002). Conclusion: The data from this study has shown that DNA Ploidy analysis can be used as a valuable tool in assessing the carcinomatous progression of potentially malignant and malignant lesions. PMID:24250073

Vijayavel, T; Aswath, N

2013-01-01

9

Oral potentially malignant disorders: A proposal for terminology and definition with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Several attempts to produce internationally accepted terminologies and definitions of ‘oral precancer’ have appeared in the literature. World Health Organizations (WHO) in 1972 subdivided ‘precancer’ into ‘lesions’ and ‘conditions’ with their definitions. Recent working group of WHO is not in favor of such subdivision and recommended the use of the term ‘oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD)’. This is mainly attributed to the recent advancement in molecular and genetic aspects of ‘oral precancer’. But efforts to define OPMDs are few in the literature. ‘Oral precancer’ is ultimately colligated to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). With this semantics in mind, different OPMD and related terminologies in the literature used till date with their lexicographic analysis have been reviewed in the present paper. Attempt has also been made to propose desirable terminology and definition which suits to the current concept of OPMD. The proposed terminology and definition is based on the authors’ opinions with a hope for further suggestions from readers. PMID:25364185

Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Tupkari, Jagdish V

2014-01-01

10

p53 expression in oral precancer as a marker for malignant potential.  

PubMed

The potential of p53 protein expression as a marker for determining which oral precancerous lesions may transform to malignancy with time was assessed. We compared the p53 expression in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 22 baseline biopsies of precancerous lesions that transformed to cancer in 4-25 years against that in 68 similar lesions that did not transform over the same time period. Twenty-nine percent of precancers that transformed were p53-positive at baseline, compared to 31% of the biopsies that did not transform to malignancy. When examined by immunohistochemical methods p53 expression failed to detect potential malignant status of oral precancer. Non-specificity of the assay may account for this result but overexpression of p53 due to DNA damage by tobacco/betel-quid in non-progressive lesions needs further study. Nine precancerous lesions became p53-immunoreactive from precancer to cancer. This may suggest p53 overexpression peaks close to the time of transition from precancer to cancer rather than early in the natural history of oral precancer. PMID:9682980

Murti, P R; Warnakulasuriya, K A; Johnson, N W; Bhonsle, R B; Gupta, P C; Daftary, D K; Mehta, F S

1998-05-01

11

"High risk" HPV types are frequently detected in potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions, but not in normal oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Studies on the involvement of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in initiation and progression of oral neoplasia have generated conflicting results. The observed discrepancy is attributable mainly to the varying sensitivity of the applied methodologies and to epidemiologic factors of the examined patient groups. To evaluate the role of HPV in oral carcinogenesis, we analyzed 53 potentially neoplastic and neoplastic oral lesions consisting of 29 cases of hyperplasia, 5 cases of dysplasia, and 19 cases of squamous cell carcinomas, as well as 16 oral specimens derived from healthy individuals. A highly sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used, along with type-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, dot blotting, and nonisotopic in situ hybridization. Nested PCR revealed the presence of HPV DNA in 48 of the 53 (91%) pathologic samples analyzed, whereas none (0%) of the normal specimens was found to be infected. Positivity for HPV was independent of histology and the smoking habits of the analyzed group of patients. At least one "high risk" type, such as HPV 16, 18, and 33, was detected by type-specific PCR in 47 (98%) infected specimens, whereas only 1 (2%) squamous cell carcinoma was solely infected by a "low risk" type (HPV 6). HPV 16 was the prevailing viral type, being present in 71% of infected cases. Single HPV 16 and HPV 18 infections were confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. HPV 58 was detected by dot blotting in three hyperplastic lesions. HPV positivity and genotyping were further confirmed, and the physical status of this virus was evaluated by nonisotopic in situ hybridization. Diffuse and punctate signals, indicative of the episomal and integrative pattern of HPV infection, were observed for low- and high-risk types, respectively. Our findings are suggestive of an early involvement of high-risk HPV types in oral carcinogenesis. PMID:10874669

Bouda, M; Gorgoulis, V G; Kastrinakis, N G; Giannoudis, A; Tsoli, E; Danassi-Afentaki, D; Foukas, P; Kyroudi, A; Laskaris, G; Herrington, C S; Kittas, C

2000-06-01

12

Interdependence of Antioxidants and Micronutrients in Oral Cancer and Potentially Malignant Oral Disorders: A Serum and Saliva Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: In our previous studies we have evaluated the role of antioxidants and trace elements in potentially malignant disorders and cancers of the oral cavity, taking into consideration the importance of antioxidants as biomarkers in cancer detection. We felt that other than evaluation, the correlation and interdependence that existed among antioxidants and trace elements require further evaluation in order to develop a better understanding. Materials and Methods: Serum and salivary zinc, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase levels were evaluated in 65 healthy controls, 115 subjects with potentially malignant oral disorders, and 50 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma, using the atom absorption photometry, [5, 5-Dithiobis (2 nitrobenzoic acid)], and nitroblue tetrazolium methods, respectively. Results: Serum zinc and serum glutathione showed significant positive correlation (r=0.76, P=0.01). Similarly, salivary glutathione and salivary zinc levels had a positive correlation (r=0.68, P=0.01). Serum superoxide dismutase showed a strong positive correlation with serum zinc (r=0.64, P=0.01). Similarly, there was a moderate positive correlation between salivary superoxide dismutase and salivary zinc (r=0.67, P=0.01). Conclusion: Our findings showed that trace elements and antioxidants exhibited interdependence in serum, as well as in saliva, in both physiologic and pathologic states such as oral cancer.

Shetty, Shishir Ram; Babu, Subhas G; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Kishor, Sham Kannepady; Rao, Kumuda Arvind; Castelino, Renita

2014-01-01

13

Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature.  

PubMed

At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer and Pre-cancer in the UK issues related to potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the Working Group are presented in a series of papers. In this report we review the literature on the epidemiology and natural history of potentially malignant disorders (PMD), detailing those characteristics of the patients and lesions thought to be associated with future development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Older patients, particularly females are more at risk than younger patients; the duration of PMD may be important. Those who have never used tobacco seem at greater risk than smokers. OSCC is more likely with PMD on the lateral and ventral tongue, floor of mouth and retromolar/soft palate complex than with those elsewhere. The vast majority of PMD in which OSCC develop are non-homogenous although 5% of homogenous PMD will develop carcinoma. Large lesions covering several intraoral subsites also appear more at risk. PMID:18154571

Napier, Séamus S; Speight, Paul M

2008-01-01

14

Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the malignant potential of oral lichen planus (OLP), a common mucocutaneous disease of unknown aetiology. The malignant potential of OLP is still controversial, with studies reporting malignant transformation rates of between 0 and 5.6%. We also aimed to identify factors that might be associated with malignant transformation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 832 patients with

R. Rajentheran; N. R. McLean; C. G. Kelly; M. F. Reed; A. Nolan

1999-01-01

15

Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: analysis of 30 cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide and although early diagnosis of potentially malignant and malignant diseases is associated with better treatment results, a large number of cancers are initially misdiagnosed, with unfortunate consequences for long-term survival. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a noninvasive modality of diagnostic approach using induced fluorescence emission in tumors that can improve diagnostic accuracy. The objective of this study was to determine the ability to discriminate between normal oral mucosa and potentially malignant disorders by fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence investigation under 408 and 532 nm excitation wavelengths was performed on 60 subjects, 30 with potentially malignant disorders and 30 volunteers with normal mucosa. Data was analyzed to correlate fluorescence patterns with clinical and histopathological diagnostics. Fluorescence spectroscopy used as a point measurement technique resulted in a great variety of spectral information. In a qualitative analysis of the fluorescence spectral characteristics of each type of injury evaluated, it was possible to discriminate between normal and abnormal oral mucosa. The results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for an improved discrimination of oral disorders.

Francisco, A. L. N.; Correr, W. R.; Azevedo, L. H.; Galletta, V. K.; Pinto, C. A. L.; Kowalski, L. P.; Kurachi, C.

2014-01-01

16

Potential of optical coherence tomography for early diagnosis of oral malignancies  

PubMed Central

With nearly 1,500,000 new patients diagnosed every year in the USA, cancer poses a considerable challenge to healthcare today. Oral cancer is responsible for a sizeable portion of deaths due to cancer, primarily because it is diagnosed at a late stage when the prognosis is poor. Current methods for diagnosing oral cancer need to be augmented by better early detection, monitoring and screening modalities. A new approach is needed that provides real-time, accurate, noninvasive diagnosis. The results of early clinical trials using in vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy are encouraging. PMID:20214513

DeCoro, Michael; Wilder-Smith, Petra

2014-01-01

17

P-cadherin potentiates ligand-dependent EGFR and IGF-1R signaling in dysplastic and malignant oral keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer together constitute the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with over 400,000 new cases diagnosed each year. Early detection is paramount, as the 5-year survival rate for these cancers decreases markedly once tumors have become regionally invasive. In many tissues, including oral epithelia, neoplastic progression is accompanied by alterations in expression of the epithelial cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and P-cadherin. Oral epithelia is one of only a few tissues in which P-cadherin levels have been noted to increase in dysplasia and well-differentiated carcinomas and decrease in advanced malignancies. In the present study, P-cadherin was overexpressed in both dysplastic and malignant oral keratinocytes to characterize the mechanisms by which aberrantly expressed P-cadherin may modulate tumor progression. We found that P-cadherin was able to potentiate ligand-dependent signaling of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in malignant keratinocytes and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in dysplastic cells. P-cadherin prolonged activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in both cell lines and also increased the magnitude of AKT phosphorylation in dysplastic cells. P-cadherin overexpression alone was sufficient to increase steady-state levels of the mesenchymal transcription factor Snail, increase cell motility and also induce morphological changes in dysplastic keratinocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the aberrantly elevated levels of P-cadherin which occur in early oral tumor development may play a critical role in the augmentation of neoplastic signaling networks and in the further acquisition of aggressive phenotypes. PMID:25322858

Lysne, Desseree; Johns, James; Walker, Andrew; Ecker, Rachel; Fowler, Christopher; Lawson, Kathryn R

2014-12-01

18

Leuloplakia - review of a potentially malignant disorder.  

PubMed

Leukoplakias are oral white lesions that have not been diagnosed as any other specific disease. They are grouped under premalignant lesions, now redesignated as potentially malignant disorders. Their significance lies in the fact that they have propensity for malignant transformation at a higher rate when compared to other oral lesions. This article reviews aetiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, malignant potential and treatment of oral leukoplakia. PMID:25302287

Abidullah, Mohammed; Kiran, G; Gaddikeri, Kavitha; Raghoji, Swetha; Ravishankar T, Shilpa

2014-08-01

19

Leuloplakia - Review of A Potentially Malignant Disorder  

PubMed Central

Leukoplakias are oral white lesions that have not been diagnosed as any other specific disease. They are grouped under premalignant lesions, now redesignated as potentially malignant disorders. Their significance lies in the fact that they have propensity for malignant transformation at a higher rate when compared to other oral lesions. This article reviews aetiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, malignant potential and treatment of oral leukoplakia. PMID:25302287

Abidullah, Mohammed; Gaddikeri, Kavitha; Raghoji, Swetha; Ravishankar T, Shilpa

2014-01-01

20

Correlated analysis of semi-quantitative immunohistochemical features of E-cadherin, VEGF and CD105 in assessing malignant potentiality of oral submucous fibrosis.  

PubMed

Oral submucous fibrosis, a potentially premalignant condition for oral squamous cell carcinoma, manifests both non-dysplastic and dysplastic grades. Early and specific identification of its malignant potentiality suffers from diagnostic limitations that may be addressed by correlated molecular pathology attributes having histopathological backdrop. Present study correlates expressional alteration in prime epithelial marker E-cadherin, with neo-angiogenic molecules viz. VEGF and CD105 for elucidation of malignant potentiality in different stages of oral submucous fibrosis. Sixty-eight incision biopsies from normal oral mucosa (n=10), non-dysplastic (n=18) and different dysplastic grades (n=40) of oral submucous fibrosis were semi-quantitatively analyzed for immunohistochemical expressions of E-cadherin (membranous and cytoplasmic), VEGF and CD105 which were further statistically correlated. The loss of membranous E-cadherin with increase in cytoplasmic accumulation in differentiative layers of epithelium through the progression of dysplasia was noted along with up-regulation in VEGF expressions. The number of CD105(+) blood vessels and their major axis also showed significant increase from non-dysplasia toward higher grades of dysplasia. The positive correlation between deregulated expression of epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule and increase in neo-angiogenic attributes of oral submucous fibrosis with increase in dysplastic grades indicated elucidatory potential of molecular expression features in assessment of malignant potentiality in oral submucous fibrosis. PMID:25015036

Anura, Anji; Das, Raunak Kumar; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

2014-12-01

21

Oral malignant melanoma: A case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with the tendency to metastasize and locally invade tissues more readily than other malignant tumor of the oral cavity. It occurs approximately four times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw usually on the palate or alveolar gingiva. The chameleonic presentation of malignant melanoma, its asymptomatic condition, rarity of the lesion, poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriously considered by the involved health care provider. Herein we report a rare and interesting case of oral malignant melanoma of the maxillary anterior gingiva, which was clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with a brief review of literature, has been discussed. PMID:25191086

Manigandan, T.; Sagar, G. Vikram; Amudhan, A.; Hemalatha, V. T.; Babu, N. Aravinda

2014-01-01

22

Malignant Conversion of Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Surgically Treated Case  

PubMed Central

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is an insidious chronic disease affecting any part of the oral cavity and sometimes the pharynx with epithelial atrophy leading to stiffness of the oral mucosa, causing trismus and inability to eat. However a more serious complication of this disease is the risk of the development of oral carcinoma. We reported the histopathologically proven case of OSMF with initial interincisal mouth opening 2mm which was treated surgically with nasolabial flap technique but failed to follow up and could not do active mouth opening exercises. Malignant conversion of OSMF was seen in this case. This is required to assess the progress and evaluate any malignant transformation at the earliest. So, the importance of active co-operation and frequent follow up cannot be overemphasized. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of regular follow up and frequent biopsies to facilitate oral examination and to check any malignant conversion after the surgery. PMID:25478469

Arora, Rajendra; Adwani, Dwarkadas; Naphade, Milind; Qureshi, Abdul Qahar

2014-01-01

23

Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

We imaged a single case of oral malignant melanoma using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging at room temperature (20 °C) and below freezing (-20 °C). A malignant nodule beneath the oral tissue surface was visualized using 2-D and B-scan THz imaging techniques. The THz images were well correlated with the histological findings. The nodule was found to have lower water content than that of normal cells, and this water effect may have influenced the THz refractive index and absorption coefficient at 20 °C. The THz spectroscopic image of the frozen tissue at -20 °C showed better contrast because of the lack of liquid water; this implies that there are significant structural differences between malignant oral melanoma cells and normal mucosal cells. The better contrast in the frozen tissue images was due to the greater penetration of THz radiation into the sample. This temperature-dependent THz imaging approach demonstrated the feasibility of accurate imaging of the oral tumor tissue. PMID:25055305

Sim, Yookyeong Carolyn; Ahn, Kang-Min; Park, Jae Yeon; Park, Chan-Sik; Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-07-01

24

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases.  

PubMed

Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female. PMID:24963252

Munde, Anita; Juvekar, Monica Vivek; Karle, Ravindra R; Wankhede, Pranali

2014-04-01

25

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female. PMID:24963252

Munde, Anita; Juvekar, Monica Vivek; Karle, Ravindra R.; Wankhede, Pranali

2014-01-01

26

Identification of Candida albicans by using different culture medias and its association in potentially malignant and malignant lesions  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: The present study evaluates the association of Candida albicans with normal control group, potentially malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity by using two different liquid culture media. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected and biopsy was taken only from those clinically suspected potentially malignant and malignant lesions for histopathological diagnosis. Saliva samples were inoculated for fungal growth in Sabouraud's dextrose agar and culture-positive samples had undergone for Germ tube test. Germ tube-positive samples were further taken for quantification of chlamydospore production in liquid media at 8 and 16 hours. Results: In normal control groups no fungus growth was found; however, potentially malignant and malignant cases showed fungus growth, positive germ tube test and chlamydospore formation. The result also showed rapid and quantitatively more chlamydospore formation in corn meal broth + 5% milk in comparison to serum milk culture media. Conclusion: The oral mucosa is compromised in potentially malignant lesions, it can be argued that this species may be involved in carcinogenesis by elaborating the nitrosamine compounds which either act directly on oral mucosa or interact with other chemical carcinogens to activate specific proto-oncogenes and thereby initiate oral neoplasia. PMID:22090762

Saigal, Sonal; Bhargava, Ankur; Mehra, S. K.; Dakwala, Falguni

2011-01-01

27

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: assessment of malignant potential.  

PubMed

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors which arise from the adrenal glands or sympathetic neuronal tissue. Malignant transformation of these tumors occurs in a significant proportion and may therefore lower overall survival rates. In patients with PPGLs it is impossible to identify malignant disease without the presence of metastatic disease, something which can occur as long as 20 years after initial surgery. Early identification of malignant disease would necessitate a more aggressive treatment approach, something which may result in better disease outcome. We have therefore reviewed possible predictors of malignancy and current developments in order to help clinicians to swiftly assess malignant potential in patients with PPGLs. Currently, there is no absolute marker which can objectively reflect malignant potential. Tumor size is the most reliable predictor and should therefore be used as the baseline characteristic. The combination of various clinical markers (extra-adrenal disease and post-operative hypertension), biochemical markers (high dopamine, high norepinephrine and epinephrine to total catecholamine ratio) and/or histological markers (SNAIL, microRNAs and/or microarray results) can raise or lower the suspicion of malignancy. Furthermore, we discuss how clinical markers may affect biochemical results linked to malignancy, how biochemical results may distinguish hereditary syndromes, the role of imaging in determining malignant potential and tumor detection, and recent results of proposed histological markers. PMID:22038451

Korevaar, Tim I M; Grossman, Ashley B

2011-12-01

28

Human papillomavirus detection in dysplastic and malignant oral verrucous lesions.  

PubMed

The role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in dysplastic and malignant oral verrucous lesions is controversial since there is a wide range in the incidence of virus detection. This study used a multi-tiered method of HPV detection using DNA in-situ hybridisation (ISH) for low- and high-risk subtypes, consensus PCR, and HPV genotype analysis in archival tissue from 20 cases of dysplastic and malignant oral verrucous lesions. The biological significance of HPV DNA detection was assessed by p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC). While 1/7 carcinomas and 5/13 dysplasias contained HPV DNA by consensus PCR and genotype analysis, all specimens were negative for low- and high-risk HPV ISH and negative for p16 IHC. Results show that although high-risk HPV DNA is detectable in a subset of these lesions, the lack of p16 overexpression suggests that the oncogenic process is not driven by HPV oncoproteins. PMID:22174425

Stokes, Angela; Guerra, Eliete; Bible, Jon; Halligan, Eugene; Orchard, Guy; Odell, Edward; Thavaraj, Selvam

2012-03-01

29

Detection of galectins during malignant transformation of oral cells  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is a common neoplasm world-wide. The incidence and mortality have increased over the past decades. It is characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate despite sophisticated surgical and radiotherapeutic modalities. Galectins are detected in a wide variety of tissues. The expression of galectins is modulated during the differentiation of individual cells and during the development of organisms and tissues, being altered in different physiological or pathological conditions including, carcinogenesis. In this review, we will discuss the role of galectins during the malignant transformation of oral cells, in order to understand their mechanisms of the action in a several cellular activities and test systems. Certainly, such information will contribute for understanding oral cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24130575

Hossaka, Thais A; Focchi, Gustavo R; Oshima, Celina T F; Ribeiro, Daniel A

2013-01-01

30

Malignant Epithelioid Schwannoma of the Oral Cavity in a Cat  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity was diagnosed in an 8-year-old domestic short-hair cat. The mass was located in the gingiva of the upper left premolar to molar region and showed multinodular growth patterns. The mass comprised epithelioid cells arranged in densely packed sheets. Tumor cells had large, round to oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, most of the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, but all lacked melanoma-associated antigen and muscle and neuroendocrine markers. Stains for type IV collagen showed linear immunoreactivity around single cells and groups of cells. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells were separated by a well-defined basement membrane, and interdigitating cell processes were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of feline malignant epithelioid schwannoma. PMID:24632862

BOONSRIROJ, Hassadin; KIMITSUKI, Kazunori; AKAGI, Tetsuya; PARK, Chun-Ho

2014-01-01

31

Malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity in a cat.  

PubMed

A malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity was diagnosed in an 8-year-old domestic short-hair cat. The mass was located in the gingiva of the upper left premolar to molar region and showed multinodular growth patterns. The mass comprised epithelioid cells arranged in densely packed sheets. Tumor cells had large, round to oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, most of the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, but all lacked melanoma-associated antigen and muscle and neuroendocrine markers. Stains for type IV collagen showed linear immunoreactivity around single cells and groups of cells. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells were separated by a well-defined basement membrane, and interdigitating cell processes were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of feline malignant epithelioid schwannoma. PMID:24632862

Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Akagi, Tetsuya; Park, Chun-Ho

2014-06-01

32

Clinical systemic lupeol administration for canine oral malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

Canine oral malignant melanoma (COMM) is the most aggressive malignant tumor in dogs. Lupeol is a triterpene extracted from various fruits and vegetables that reportedly inhibits melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the efficacy of subcutaneous lupeol for spontaneous COMM was evaluated. A total of 11 dogs (3, 5 and 3 dogs diagnosed with clinical stage I, II and III melanoma, respectively) were evaluated. Subcutaneous lupeol (10 mg/kg) was administered postoperatively at various time points to treat these 11 COMM cases. Of the 11 subjects, 7 exhibited no local recurrence 180 days postoperatively and no severe adverse effects were observed in any of the cases. Furthermore, no distant metastasis was observed during the experimental period. Therefore, systemic lupeol may prevent local tumor progression and distant metastasis and may be a novel adjuvant treatment for the treatment of COMM. PMID:25469276

Yokoe, Inoru; Azuma, Kazuo; Hata, Keishi; Mukaiyama, Toshiyuki; Goto, Takahiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Itoh, Norihiko; Murahata, Yusuke; Osaki, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

2015-01-01

33

The interplay between hemostasis and malignancy: the oral cancer paradigm.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence has revealed the role of various components of the coagulatory system in different stages of carcinogenesis including precancerous and initial stages, tumor growth, angiogenesis, stroma generation, and metastasis of malignant cells. This comprehensive review discusses major points of evidence, in addition to recent findings on specific factors associated with the paradigm of oral squamous cell carcinoma. During carcinogenesis, angiogenesis is favored by local conditions of hypoxia, cell-to-cell interactions, and by expression of paracrine growth factors and inflammatory cytokines. In the oral region specifically, genetic association studies have revealed that constitutively high gene expression of certain inflammatory cytokines plays a major role in carcinogenesis. Tissue factor (TF) has a physiological role in hemostasis, but it also constitutes a notable procoagulant in many types of cancer, since it appears to be constitutively expressed by tumor cells. Furthermore, its pathway regulates mechanisms which involve plasmin and matrix metallo-proteinases, both of which seem to be critical in oral carcinogenesis. Thrombin has a central role in hemostasis but it may also promote angiogenesis through pathways independently of fibrin generation. Thrombomodulin may act through attenuation of the tumor-promoting properties of thrombin, but it also may function as a cell-to-cell adhesion molecule, independently of its anticoagulant action. The activation of fibrinogen by thrombin and its cleavage to fibrin monomers result in the rapid formation of fibrin matrix. Furthermore, it is well documented that fibrinogen and cross-linked fibrin reside inside the tumor stroma, facilitating its remodeling, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. In conclusion, the hemostatic system contributes to the development of the malignant phenotype acting on many different levels. PMID:22593463

Yapijakis, Christos; Bramos, Athanasios; Nixon, Alexander Michael; Ragos, Vassilis; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios

2012-05-01

34

Endovascular Therapy for Management of Oral Hemorrhage in Malignant Head and Neck Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in oral hemorrhage from malignant head and neck tumors. Methods. Ten patients (mean age 56 years) with oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors underwent a total of 13 emergency embolization procedures using gelatin sponge particles, steel and\\/or platinum coils, or a combination of these embolic materials. Angiographic

Hideaki Kakizawa; Naoyuki Toyota; Akira Naito; Katsuhide Ito

2005-01-01

35

Endovascular Therapy for Management of Oral Hemorrhage in Malignant Head and Neck Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in oral hemorrhage from malignant head and neck tumors. Methods: Ten patients (mean age 56 years) with oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors underwent a total of 13 emergency embolization procedures using gelatin sponge particles, steel and\\/or platinum coils, or a combination of these embolic materials. Angiographic

Hideaki Kakizawa; Naoyuki Toyota; Akira Naito; Katsuhide Ito

2005-01-01

36

Simultaneous malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is rare. The incidence of oral melanoma constitutes between 0.2% and 8.0% of all melanomas, although higher percentages are reported in Japanese and other nonwhite races.1–3 In contrast, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in the oral region. Multiple cancers may develop independently over the course of time in one

Hirokazu Nakahara; Ryuji Kitamura; Kanemitsu Shirasuna

1995-01-01

37

MicroRNA expression profiling and functional annotation analysis of their targets associated with the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

In spite the tremendous achievements that have been acquired in the field of molecular biology, the underlying mechanism associated with malignant transformed oral leukoplakia (OLK) is still unclear and poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in OLK and its aggressive transformed tissues from the white lesion of human oral mucosa. The original miRNA expression dataset was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and differentially expressed miRNAs were identified using two-sample t test method. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis of these differentially expressed miRNAs indicated that 38-miRNA candidates could significantly discriminate OLK from malignant transformed oral mucosa samples. Besides, potential transcription factors were predicted using CyTargetLinker plugin and the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network associated with the malignant pathogenesis was visualized in Cytoscape environment. Totally, 3-miRNA signatures (miR-129-5p, miR-339-5p and miR-31*) were found to be hubs that mediated the initiation and progression of OLK from the non-malignant to the aggressive one via targeting various transcription factors. Functional enrichment analysis based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) suggested that the dysregulation of immune response was responsible for oral carcinogenesis. In conclusion, we constructed a miRNA-mRNA regulatory network associated with the malignant transformation of OLK, and screened out some miRNAs and transcription factors that may have prominent roles during OLK malignant progression. PMID:25576219

Maimaiti, Aikebaier; Abudoukeremu, Kaisaier; Tie, Lu; Pan, Yan; Li, Xuejun

2015-03-10

38

Risk factors for leukoplakia and malignant transformation to oral carcinoma: a leukoplakia cohort in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of betel nut chewing, smoking and alcohol on the occurrence of leukoplakia and its malignant transformation to oral carcinoma were quantified in a leukoplakia cohort (n = 435) from one medical centre between 1988 and 1998 in Taiwan. Sixty oral carcinomas were ascertained in this cohort. A case–control study within the leukoplakia cohort was used to study, risk

M N Shiu; T H H Chen; S H Chang; L J Hahn

2000-01-01

39

Alcohol metabolism by oral streptococci and interaction with human papillomavirus leads to malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Poor oral hygiene, ethanol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with oral and esophageal cancers. However, the mechanism is not fully known. This study examines alcohol metabolism in Streptococcus and its interaction with HPV-16 in the malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes. The acetaldehyde-producing strain Streptococcus gordonii V2016 was analyzed for adh genes and activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Streptococcus attachment to immortalized HPV-16 infected human oral keratinocytes, HOK (HPV/HOK-16B), human oral buccal keratinocytes, and foreskin keratinocytes was studied. Acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde, DNA damage, and abnormal proliferation among keratinocytes were also quantified. We found that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB, and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and ethanol, respectively. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable aldehyde dehydrogenase. AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde production from permissible Streptococcus species significantly increased the bacterial attachment to keratinocytes, which was associated with an enhanced expression of furin to facilitate HPV infection and several malignant phenotypes including acetaldehyde adduct formation, abnormal proliferation, and enhanced migration through integrin-coated basement membrane by HPV-infected oral keratinocytes. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with no functional aldehyde dehydrogenase contributes to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by oral streptococci. Oral Streptococcus species and HPV may cooperate to transform oral keratinocytes after ethanol exposure. These results suggest a significant clinical interaction, but further validation is warranted. PMID:25427911

Tao, Lin; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Jin, Ling; Schwartz, Joel

2015-01-01

40

Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

2014-09-01

41

Paraganglioma of the pancreas: a potentially functional and malignant tumor  

PubMed Central

Paragangliomas are neoplasms that arise from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. Pancreatic paragangliomas are rare, and few are malignant. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of functional pancreatic paragangliomas have been reported in the literature to date. We present two cases of pancreatic paragangliomas with pathological confirmation. In the case 1, clinical testing and pathological analysis revealed functional and malignant characteristics of the tumor, which carried a poor prognosis. In case 2, functional paraganglioma was suspected. The clinical presentations and outcomes of these two patients are summarized, and the relevant literature is reviewed. Because of the small number of cases reported previously, few characteristics of these tumors are known. The best methods of predicting the malignant and functional potential of these tumors remain unknown. We propose careful preoperative treatment and close postoperative follow-up of paraganglioma patients because of the functional and malignant potential of these tumors. PMID:25030833

2014-01-01

42

Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions  

PubMed Central

Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

2006-01-01

43

Long-term survival in metastatic malignant struma ovarii treated with oral chemotherapy: A case report.  

PubMed

Malignant struma ovarii is a rare type of ovarian tumor. Metastasis from malignant struma ovarii is rare and has only been documented in 5-6% of cases. The natural history and optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii remains controversial due to its rarity. The current report presents the case of a 45-year-old female who presented with a tumor of the rib bone. Following resection, the postoperative diagnosis was a metastasizing thyroid carcinoma. No abnormality was detected in the thyroid gland, however, computed tomography revealed a tumor in the left ovary. The patient underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy and a wedge resection of the right ovary. The postoperative diagnosis was determined as a mature cystic teratoma with malignant struma ovarii (thyroid type, follicular carcinoma) of the left ovary and mature cystic teratoma of the right ovary. Four years subsequent to the initial diagnosis, multiple lung metastases were detected. The following chemotherapies were administered sequentially and intermittently: Tegafur-uracil, paclitaxel/carboplatin and oral etoposide. During this period, the metastatic lesions extended into the bone and progressed slowly. The patient continues to survive with the disease and 24 years have passed since the initial diagnosis, 20 years following the diagnosis of multiple lung metastates. The present report describes a rare case of malignant struma ovarii in which surgical resection and pathological examination of a metastatic rib tumor resulted in the identification of the primary ovarian lesion. The clinical behavior of malignant struma ovarii does not necessarily indicate a histological malignancy, therefore, prediction of future metastasis is difficult and the optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii is controversial. The present case indicates that the long-term use of oral anticancer agents may facilitate the maintenance of tumor dormancy. PMID:25364407

Ukita, Masayo; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Kotani, Yasushi; Tobiume, Takako; Koike, Eiji; Tsuji, Isao; Suzuki, Ayako; Mandai, Masaki

2014-12-01

44

Long-term survival in metastatic malignant struma ovarii treated with oral chemotherapy: A case report  

PubMed Central

Malignant struma ovarii is a rare type of ovarian tumor. Metastasis from malignant struma ovarii is rare and has only been documented in 5–6% of cases. The natural history and optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii remains controversial due to its rarity. The current report presents the case of a 45-year-old female who presented with a tumor of the rib bone. Following resection, the postoperative diagnosis was a metastasizing thyroid carcinoma. No abnormality was detected in the thyroid gland, however, computed tomography revealed a tumor in the left ovary. The patient underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy and a wedge resection of the right ovary. The postoperative diagnosis was determined as a mature cystic teratoma with malignant struma ovarii (thyroid type, follicular carcinoma) of the left ovary and mature cystic teratoma of the right ovary. Four years subsequent to the initial diagnosis, multiple lung metastases were detected. The following chemotherapies were administered sequentially and intermittently: Tegafur-uracil, paclitaxel/carboplatin and oral etoposide. During this period, the metastatic lesions extended into the bone and progressed slowly. The patient continues to survive with the disease and 24 years have passed since the initial diagnosis, 20 years following the diagnosis of multiple lung metastates. The present report describes a rare case of malignant struma ovarii in which surgical resection and pathological examination of a metastatic rib tumor resulted in the identification of the primary ovarian lesion. The clinical behavior of malignant struma ovarii does not necessarily indicate a histological malignancy, therefore, prediction of future metastasis is difficult and the optimal treatment strategy for malignant struma ovarii is controversial. The present case indicates that the long-term use of oral anticancer agents may facilitate the maintenance of tumor dormancy. PMID:25364407

UKITA, MASAYO; NAKAI, HIDEKATSU; KOTANI, YASUSHI; TOBIUME, TAKAKO; KOIKE, EIJI; TSUJI, ISAO; SUZUKI, AYAKO; MANDAI, MASAKI

2014-01-01

45

Quantitative estimation of Serum Fibrinogen Degradation Product levels in Oral Premalignant and Malignant lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: A specific association between cancer and the hemostatic system has been recognized for decades. Fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) is one of the factors, which opposes coagulation causing fibrinolysis. The mechanism of fibrinolysis can be used by the malignant cells to facilitate invasion into surrounding tissues and metastases to distant organs by breaking the fibrin barrier. The coagulation cascade also plays an important role in both the formation of tumour stroma and the promotion of hematogenous metastasis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum FDP levels in individuals without any oral lesions and those with oral premalignant and malignant lesions, and determine whether the estimation of the same can be used as an aid in early diagnosis. Materials & Methods: 25 cases each of Leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis and Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and normal control cases were selected. The OSCC cases were staged according to the TNM classification. Diagnosis of all cases was confirmed by histopathological examination. The aspirated serum was then subjected to the Thrombo-Wellco test which was used for the biochemical analysis of FDP. Results: Increased serum FDP levels were seen corresponding to the stage of the OSCC, but no appreciable difference was noted between the histological grades or in cases of premalignant lesions. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that FDP levels correlate with the cancer stage and progression. Thus, the estimation of serum FDP levels can be used as a reliable prognostic indicator and as a biologic marker of tumour spread How to cite this article: Gharat L, Rathod GP. Quantitative estimation of Serum Fibrinogen Degradation Product levels in Oral Premalignant and Malignant lesions. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):65-72. PMID:24324307

Gharat, Leena; Rathod, Govind P; Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa

2013-01-01

46

Differential Inhibition of Protein Translation Machinery by Curcumin in Normal, Immortalized and Malignant Oral Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Curcumin has shown some promise in prevention of oral carcinogenesis by mechanism(s) that are still not completely resolved. Messenger-RNA translation is mediated in eukaryotes by the eIF4F complex comprised of eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF4A. Over expression of some of these components or inactivation of initiation repressor proteins (4E-BP1) has been implicated in cancer development including oral carcinogenesis by affecting cell survival, angiogenesis, and tumor growth and invasion. In this study, we examined the possibility that curcumin affects the translational machinery differently in normal, immortalized normal, leukoplakia and malignant cells. Curcumin treatment in vitro inhibited the growth of immortalized oral mucosa epithelial cells (NOM9-CT) and the leukoplakia cells (MSK-Leuk1s) as well as in the UMSCC22B and SCC4 cells derived from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Curcumin only exerted minor effects on the growth of normal oral epithelial cells (NOM9). In the immortalized, leukoplakia and cancer cells, curcumin inhibited cap-dependent translation by suppressing the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, eIF4G, eIF4B and Mnk1, and also reduced the total levels of eIF4E and Mnk1. Our findings demonstrate that immortalized normal, leukoplakia and malignant oral cells are more sensitive to curcumin and show greater modulation of protein translation machinery than the normal oral cells indicating that targeting this process may be an important approach to chemoprevention in general and for curcumin in particular. PMID:20145189

Chakravarti, Nitin; Kadara, Humam; Yoon, Do-Jun; Shay, Jerry W; Myers, Jeffrey N; Lotan, Dafna; Sonenberg, Nahum; Lotan, Reuben

2009-01-01

47

Utility of toluidine blue test in accessing and detecting intra-oral malignancies.  

PubMed

In vivo staining reveals cytological details that might otherwise not be apparent. The aim of the study was to test the utility of toluidine blue test in detecting various types of malignant and premalignant lesions in early stage. Fifty patients with lesion in oral cavity having suspicion of malignancy clinically were selected. After subjecting the patients to clinical examination, the suspicious lesions were stained with 1 % toluidine blue. The biopsy site was selected on the basis of clinical appearance and dye retention and in the sites where no retention of the stain occurred, clinical judgment directed the biopsy site. The sensitivity of toluidine blue in detecting premalignant or malignant lesions was found to be 97.8 % and the over all specificity was found to be 100 %. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy was reported to be 100, 80 and 90 % respectively. Toluidine Blue staining is highly a reliable source for the detection of insitu and invasive carcinomas. Staining with this stains is an adjunct to clinical judgment, assist in the choice of biopsy site, follow up of premalignant lesions and marginal demarcation of the malignant lesions enabling an intervention method to be adopted earlier for the disease, which carries a high rate of morbidity and mortality. PMID:25621253

Singh, Deepti; Shukla, R K

2015-03-01

48

Endovascular Therapy for Management of Oral Hemorrhage in Malignant Head and Neck Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in oral hemorrhage from malignant head and neck tumors. Methods. Ten patients (mean age 56 years) with oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors underwent a total of 13 emergency embolization procedures using gelatin sponge particles, steel and/or platinum coils, or a combination of these embolic materials. Angiographic abnormalities, technical success rate, clinical success rate, recurrence rate, complications, hemostatic period, hospital days, survival days, and patient outcome were all analyzed. Results. Angiographic abnormalities were identified during 85% of procedures (11/13). The technical success rate was 100% (13/13 procedures). The primary and secondary clinical success rates were 77% (10/13 procedures) and 67% (2/3 procedures), respectively. The overall clinical success rate was 92%, and the recurrence rate was 22% (2/9 procedures) in patients whom we were able to observe during the 1-month period after embolization. No major complications occurred. Several patients in whom gelatin sponge particles had been used complained of transient local pain after the procedure. The median hemostatic period was 71 days (range 0-518 days). Median hospital and survival days were 59 days (range 3-209 days) and 141 days (range 4-518 days), respectively. Three patients survived and 7 patients died during the observation period. Only 1 of these 7 patients died from hemorrhage. Conclusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that endovascular therapy is an effective, safe, and repeatable treatment for oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors.

Kakizawa, Hideaki, E-mail: kakizawa@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Toyota, Naoyuki; Naito, Akira; Ito, Katsuhide [Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, Department of Radiology, Division of Medical Intelligence and Informatics Programs for Applied Biomedicine (Japan)

2005-12-15

49

Poor oral health, a potential new geriatric syndrome.  

PubMed

This article presents a brief introduction to the medical aspects of ageing and age-related diseases, and to some geriatric syndromes, followed by a discussion on their impact on general and oral healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people. Recent investigations suggest that inflammation constitutes a biological foundation of ageing and the onset of age-related diseases. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy, together with alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, make older people at risk of adverse medication reactions. A side effect of several medications is causing xerostomia and hyposalivation, and both the type and number of medications used are relevant. New options of general healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people are the use of mobility aids and assistive technology devices, domiciliary health care, respite care and telecare. Their oral health status may be jeopardised by frailty, disability, care dependency and limited access to professional oral health care. Recommendations for improvement are the following: better integrating oral health care into general health care, developing and implementing an oral healthcare guideline, providing customised oral hygiene care aids, domiciliary oral healthcare provision, visiting dental hygienists and/or nurses, oral hygiene telecare, easily and safely accessible dental offices, transforming dentistry into medical oral health care and upgrading dentists to oral physicians. In case oral healthcare providers do not take the responsibility of persuading society of the importance of adequate oral health, weakened oral health of community-dwelling older people will become a potential new geriatric syndrome. PMID:24446975

van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; De Visschere, Luc; Schols, Jos

2014-02-01

50

Oral malignant melanoma: A report of two cases with BRAF molecular analysis  

PubMed Central

Primary oral malignant melanoma is a rare condition, accounting for 1.3–1.4% of all melanomas, usually presenting with an aggressive clinical behavior. The present study reports the clinicopathological findings of two cases of oral malignant melanoma and discusses the epidemiology, diagnosis and current therapeutic approaches for this uncommon condition. In the first case the patient presented with a pigmented lesion located on the lower mucosal lip. The patient showed no nodal metastases and therefore, underwent a wedge resection. After seven months, the patient presented with neck lymph nodes and multiple visceral metastases. Molecular analysis of BRAF, using a pyrosequencing approach, revealed the presence of BRAF V600E mutation. The patient developed multiple visceral metastases, but refused treatment and was lost to follow-up. In the second case, no BRAF V600E mutation was found, but the patient exhibited a pigmented patch in the lower gingival mucosa, which was excised by surgical treatment. The patient was followed up by an oncologist, but did not undergo an additional therapy and is currently alive with no evidence of visceral metastases at one year following the diagnosis. PMID:25120707

SOMA, PIER FRANCESCO; PETTINATO, ANGELA; AGNONE, ANNA MARIA; DONIA, CLAUDIO; IMPROTA, GIUSEPPINA; FRAGGETTA, FILIPPO

2014-01-01

51

The impact of oral herpes simplex virus infection and candidiasis on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis among patients with hematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of oral candidiasis and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections in\\u000a chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM). The medical records of 424 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies\\u000a who had received chemotherapy at a medical center in Taiwan from January 2006 to November 2007 were retrospectively reviewed.\\u000a The results of swab cultures of

Y.-K. Chen; H.-A. Hou; J.-M. Chow; Y.-C. Chen; P.-R. Hsueh; H.-F. Tien

2011-01-01

52

Malignant transformation and natural history of oral leukoplakia in 57,518 industrial workers of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

In Gujarat, India, 6718 industrial workers, over 35 years of age, with oral leukoplakia (confirmed clinically and microscopically), were studied. After 2 years, 4762 (71%) of the individuals were re-examined. The buccal mucosa was the most common site of occurrence; 98.3% of these individuals had oral habits, with smoking alone or smoking in combination with "pan" or "supari" chewing accounting for 74.9% of the habit forms. Six individuals (0.13%) with oral leukoplakia developed oral carcinomas within 2 years. This incidence of malignant transformation was equivalent to 63/100,000 per year, which far exceeds that of new oral cancers expected even in high-risk populations. While 57.3% the leukoplakic lesions remained unchanged during a 2-year interval, 31.6% disappeared and 11% had an altered appearance. This study confirmed the precancerous nature of oral leukoplakia. PMID:1033027

Silverman, S; Bhargava, K; Smith, L W; Malaowalla, A M

1976-10-01

53

BRAF mutation as a potential marker to identify the proximal colon serrated polyps with malignant potential  

PubMed Central

A large number of serrated polyps with malignant potential in the proximal colon were underestimated using currently available criteria mostly based on architectural and cytological features, contributing to proximal interval colorectal cancers. Recently, increasing evidences indicate that BRAF(V600E) mutation is a specific molecular feature and driver of the serrated pathway, and proximal serrated polyps with BRAF(V600E) mutation have a high risk of progression to malignancy. We proposed that immunohistochemical detection of BRAF(V600E) using a BRAF(V600E) mutation-specific antibody is a feasible technique for reproducibly identifying proximal serrated polyps with malignant potential in clinical practice, which may need more aggressive treatment and vigilant clinical monitoring. PMID:25550768

Fu, Xiangsheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan

2014-01-01

54

Malignant hypertension and antiphospholipid antibodies as presenting features of SLE in a young woman using oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old woman developed malignant hypertension while on oral contraceptives (OCs). She was found to have incomplete systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with DNA antibodies and high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA). She later developed SLE and has had three miscarriages and a cerebellar infarction. PMID:1747706

Julkunen, H; Kaaja, R; Jouhikainen, T; Teppo, A M; Friman, C

1991-12-01

55

Apoptosis in normal epithelium, premalignant and malignant lesions of the oropharynx and oral cavity: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the involvement of apoptosis in the development of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in vivo, biopsies were taken from patients with macroscopically normal (n = 6), leukoplakic (n= 12) or malignant (n = 8) mucosa. Leukoplakic lesions were divided histologically into dysplasia (n=5) or carcinoma in situ (CIS: n=7). Material was prepared for light and electron

M. A. Birchall; C. M. Winterford; D. J. Allan; B. V. Harmon

1995-01-01

56

Role of human papillomavirus and its detection in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions: updated review  

PubMed Central

Head and neck malignancies are characterized by a multiphasic and multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the most common risk factors for head and neck malignancy. Other factors, including DNA viruses, especially human papilloma virus (HPV), may also play a role in the initiation or development of these lesions. The pathways of HPV transmission in the head and neck mucosal lesions include oral-genital contact, more than one sexual partner and perinatal transmission of HPV to the neonatal child. The increase in prevalence of HPV infection in these lesions may be due to wider acceptance of oral sex among teenagers and adults as this is perceived to be a form of safe sex. The prevalence of HPV in benign lesions as well as malignancies has been assessed by many techniques. Among these, the polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive method. Review of literature reveals that HPV may be a risk factor for malignancies, but not in all cases. For confirmation of the role of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, large population studies are necessary in an assortment of clinical settings. Prophylactic vaccination against high-risk HPV types eventually may prevent a significant number of cervical carcinomas. Of the two vaccines currently available, Gardasil® (Merck & Co., Inc.) protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, while the other vaccine, Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) protects against HPV types 16 and 18 only. However, the HPV vaccine has, to the best of our knowledge, not been tried in head and neck carcinoma. The role of HPV in etiopathogenesis, prevalence in benign and malignant lesions of this area and vaccination strategies are briefly reviewed here. PMID:19555477

Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Mamta; Sundaram, Shanthy; Mehrotra, Ravi

2009-01-01

57

Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

2008-11-01

58

Salivary protein markers: a noninvasive protein profile-based method for the early diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy.  

PubMed

An ultra-sensitive hyphenated technique, high-performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence detection protein profiling of saliva, is evaluated for early detection and diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy. Calibration sets of protein profiles of unstimulated whole saliva are collected from clinically/pathologically normal, premalignant, and malignant subjects and used as standards. Three parameters-scores of factors, sum of squared residuals, and Mahalanobis distance-derived from principal component analysis of protein profiles of the standard calibration sets, and blind samples are used for "match/no-match" diagnosis of the blind samples. Analyses of the results show that the method is capable of differentiating normal, premalignant, and malignant conditions with the sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 78%, respectively. The technique provides a fast, highly objective (free from personal judgment and statistically defined), and noninvasive diagnostic method for screening and early detection of oral cancer. PMID:23958948

Patil, Ajeetkumar; Choudhari, Khoobram S; Unnikrishnan, Vayakkara Kolaprath; Shenoy, Nandita; Ongole, Ravikiran; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Kartha, Vasudevan Bhaskaran; Chidangil, Santhosh

2013-10-01

59

Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

Markopoulos, Anastasios K

2012-01-01

60

SLURP-1 and -2 in normal, immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

The secreted mammalian Ly-6/urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-related proteins (SLURP)-1 and -2 are produced by keratinocytes comprising the mucocutaneous epithelium. They regulate in autocrine and paracrine ways cell growth and differentiation through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on the plasma membrane. Keratinocyte nAChRs are targeted by tobacco-derived carcinogenic nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3–pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) that can induce tumorigenic transformation of Het-1A keratinocytes. In this study we asked if SLURPs could abolish tumorigenic effects of nitrosamines. Preincubation with either recombinant SLURP-1 or -2 in both cases considerably reduced the number of colonies in soft agar, and the number of tumor nodules >0.5 cm in diameter in Nu/Nu mice produced by Het-1A cells treated with nitrosamines. The levels of SLURP-1 and -2 mRNA transcripts in nitrosamine-transformed Het-1A cells as well as in the tumor cell lines SCC-25 and FaDu were significantly (p<0.05) less compared to normal gingival keratinocytes, which are probably the major source of the secreted SLURPs found in a sample of human saliva. The expression of SLURPs was decreased due to gene silencing of different nAChR ? subunits with small hairpin RNA, suggesting that a positive feedback regulation is altered in malignant cells. Thus, SLURP-1 and -2 are efficient autocrine and paracrine ligands of keratinocyte nAChRs capable of preventing tobacco nitrosamine-induced malignant transformation of oral cells. These “proof-of-concept” preliminary results have salient clinical implications. PMID:17280689

Arredondo, Juan; Chernyavsky, Alexander I.; Grando, Sergei A.

2007-01-01

61

SLURP-1 and -2 in normal, immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes.  

PubMed

The secreted mammalian Ly-6/urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-related proteins (SLURP)-1 and -2 are produced by keratinocytes comprising the mucocutaneous epithelium. They regulate in autocrine and paracrine ways cell growth and differentiation through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on the plasma membrane. Keratinocyte nAChRs are targeted by tobacco-derived carcinogenic nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) that can induce tumorigenic transformation of Het-1A keratinocytes. In this study we asked if SLURPs could abolish tumorigenic effects of nitrosamines. Preincubation with either recombinant SLURP-1 or -2 in both cases considerably reduced the number of colonies in soft agar, and the number of tumor nodules >0.5 cm in diameter in Nu/Nu mice produced by Het-1A cells treated with nitrosamines. The levels of SLURP-1 and -2 mRNA transcripts in nitrosamine-transformed Het-1A cells as well as in the tumor cell lines SCC-25 and FaDu were significantly (p<0.05) less compared to normal gingival keratinocytes, which are probably the major source of the secreted SLURPs found in a sample of human saliva. The expression of SLURPs was decreased due to gene silencing of different nAChR alpha subunits with small hairpin RNA, suggesting that a positive feedback regulation is altered in malignant cells. Thus, SLURP-1 and -2 are efficient autocrine and paracrine ligands of keratinocyte nAChRs capable of preventing tobacco nitrosamine-induced malignant transformation of oral cells. These "proof-of-concept" preliminary results have salient clinical implications. PMID:17280689

Arredondo, Juan; Chernyavsky, Alexander I; Grando, Sergei A

2007-05-30

62

A case-control study of the possible association between oral contraceptives and malignant melanoma.  

PubMed Central

In a case-control study, we investigated 169 women aged 15-49 years with malignant melanoma notified to the Oxford and South Western cancer registries during the years 1971-1976, together with 507 matched controls. Data about medical, reproductive, drug and smoking histories were obtained both by reviewing general practitioner (GP) records and from the women themselves by postal questionnaires. There was no significant evidence of any overall increase in the risk of melanoma in oral contraceptive (OC) users (data from GP records-ever use vs never use, relative risk (RR) 1.34, 95% confidence limits 0.92-1.96; corresponding data from postal questionnaires-RR 1.13, limits 0.73-1.75). However, although not significant, the risk estimated from data in the postal questionnaires was higher in women who had used OCs for 5 years or more (use greater than or equal to 5 years vs never use, RR 1.57, limits 0.83-3.03). Previously demonstrated risk factors for melanoma, such as fair skin, blond or red hair and Celtic origin were found to be commoner in the cases than in the controls. Data from the Oxford/Family Planning Association contraceptive study were also examined. Unexpectedly there was a strong suggestion of a negative association between OC use and melanoma risk, but the analysis was based on only 12 women with the disease. PMID:7259960

Adam, S. A.; Sheaves, J. K.; Wright, N. H.; Mosser, G.; Harris, R. W.; Vessey, M. P.

1981-01-01

63

Trends in frequency and duration of tobacco habit in relation to potentially malignant lesion: A 3 years retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral cancer is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring of all malignancies; it is one of the most frequently occurring cancers in the body. The high incidence of oral cancer in India has been attributed to widespread tobacco usage among the population either in chewable or smoked form. Aim: In the current study, we retrospectively analyzed 191 cases (2007-2009) of potentially malignant oral lesions, which had been biopsied in our hospital, in order to assess their relationship with tobacco usage. Materials and Methods: Based on the histopathology, these lesions were classified as high-risk lesions (HRL), low-risk lesions, and questionable risk lesions. The data obtained were then analyzed to find out the correlation between the occurrence of risk level with various demographic parameters such as age and gender as well as with type, frequency, and duration of tobacco habit. Results: Out of 191 cases, 122 patients reported with tobacco habit (chewers, smokers, and both) and frequency (<5 and >5 packets/day) were seen in 109 cases and duration (<5 and >5 years) seen in 99 cases. These parameters were correlated with histopathological diagnosis and results showed that both the groups came under the high-risk category. Further analysis of decategorized group (age and gender) was also done. Conclusion: Analysis showed that overall histopathologically diagnosed HRLs were seen more in males and smokers compared to female and chewers, respectively. PMID:24250079

Garg, Kavita Nitish; Raj, Vineet; Chandra, Shaleen

2013-01-01

64

In vitro antimicrobial and anticancer potential of hinokitiol against oral pathogens and oral cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Hinokitiol is a natural component isolated from Chamacyparis taiwanensis. It has anti-microbial activity, and has been used in oral care products. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) of hinokitiol against MRSA, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans were determined by the agar and broth dilution method (MIC: 40-110?M; MMC: 50-130?M); the paradoxical inhibition phenomenon (PIP) was observed in A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. mutans. The PIP can be described as microbial growth occurring in the presence of both high and low concentrations of a compound, between which microbial growth is inhibited. The PIP was confirmed using a kinetic microplate and inhibition zone methods. The PIP was also observed in MRSA. The low autolysin activity somehow correlated to the PIP positive. The cell diameter was increased in all the pathogens, and the transition was inhibited in C. albicans following hinokitiol treatment. Hinokitiol is also a potential anticancer drug. The 200?M of hinokitiol has significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against oral pathogens and oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, respectively, and lower cytotoxic effects for normal human oral keratinocytes, indicating that hinokitiol displays a high potential for safe and effective applications in oral health care. PMID:23312825

Shih, Yin-Hua; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Hsia, Shih-Min; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Chi, Tzu-Yun; Shieh, Tzong-Ming

2013-06-12

65

Oral complications during treatment of malignant diseases in childhood: effects of tooth brushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

During anticancer treatment, oral lesions considerably aggravate the child’s clinical condition and increase the risk of infection. This prospective study evaluated the incidence, nature and chronology of oral complications arising during the first 6 weeks of chemotherapy. 131 children were included in this study, and their oral and dental health evaluated on enrolment. Each child was observed once a week,

M Bonnaure-Mallet; L Bunetel; S Tricot-Doleux; J Guérin; C Bergeron; E LeGall

1998-01-01

66

Immunohistochemical evaluation of oral epithelial dysplasia using cyclin-D1, p27 and p63 expression as predictors of malignant transformation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the degree of expression of cyclin-D1, p27 and p63 in mild, moderate and severe dysplasia using immunohistochemical evaluation in order to illustrate their prognostic value and attempt to propose a molecular grading system for oral epithelial dysplasia. Materials and Methods: The analysis included thirty cases of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai after a critical review of the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained sections. They were subjected to immunohistochemical evaluation using the markers cyclin-D1, p27 and p63. The assessment of the expression based on staining intensity and distribution of immunohistochemical staining of the various markers was analyzed followed by statistical analysis. Results: A highly significant increase in the expression of cyclin-D1 (P < 0.000) and p63 (P < 0.001) and a moderately significant decrease in the expression of p27 (P < 0.012) with the increasing severity of dysplasia was observed in our study. Conclusions: The result of our research affirms the fact that the increase in the expression of markers of cell cycle regulators such as cyclin D1, decrease in the expression of cell cycle inhibitors like p27 and increased expression of p63 in parallel with the increasing severity of dysplasia, emphasizes the use of immunohistochemical markers cyclin D1, p27 and p63 as prognostic markers for better understanding the behaviour of these potentially malignant disorders aiming towards proposing a molecular grading system for oral epithelial dysplasia to enable timely management prior to their possible malignant transformation. PMID:24082731

Ramasubramanian, Abilasha; Ramani, Pratibha; Sherlin, Herald J.; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Thiruvengadam, Chandrasekar

2013-01-01

67

A potential individual cell malignancy indicator: focal length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) utilizes the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity to distinguish cells from cancerous cell lines and baseline normal blood cells. The classification between canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and monocytes in canine normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had been demonstrated with 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Now with a new optical model that treats the cell settled at the bottom of the cavity as a thin lens, the focal length of cells was extracted and used as an individual cell malignancy indicator.

Wang, Weina; Lear, Kevin L.

2011-03-01

68

Prognostic value of histobiological factors (malignancy grading and AgNOR content) assessed at the invasive tumour front of oral squamous cell carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

Tumour cells at the invasive front of carcinomas have been found to differ substantially from the rest of tumour cells in a variety of human cancers. The present multivariate survival analysis of 94 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) revealed that both the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions-associated protein (AgNOR) content of invading tumour cells and a multiparametric histopathological tumour front grade were significantly and independently associated with tumour-related death, irrespective of conventional Broders' grade and clinical stage of the tumours. High tumour front scores and AgNOR content at the invasive OSCC front thus seem to reflect increased malignant potential. Proliferative activity, assessed by standardized AgNOR analysis, most probably represents one of the biological features underlying the usefulness of evaluating the invasive tumour front. Images Figure 2 PMID:9166951

Piffkò, J.; Bànkfalvi, A.; Ofner, D.; Bryne, M.; Rasch, D.; Joos, U.; Böcker, W.; Schmid, K. W.

1997-01-01

69

Oral ciclopirox olamine displays biological activity in a phase I study in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

The antimycotic ciclopirox olamine is an intracellular iron chelator that has anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. We developed an oral formulation of ciclopirox olamine and conducted the first-in-human phase I study of this drug in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies (Trial registration ID: NCT00990587). Patients were treated with 5-80 mg/m² oral ciclopirox olamine once daily for five days in 21-day treatment cycles. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic companion studies were performed in a subset of patients. Following definition of the half-life of ciclopirox olamine, an additional cohort was enrolled and treated with 80 mg/m² ciclopirox olamine four times daily. Adverse events and clinical response were monitored throughout the trial. Twenty-three patients received study treatment. Ciclopirox was rapidly absorbed and cleared with a short half-life. Plasma concentrations of an inactive ciclopirox glucuronide metabolite were greater than those of ciclopirox. Repression of survivin expression was observed in peripheral blood cells isolated from patients treated once daily with ciclopirox olamine at doses greater than 10 mg/m², demonstrating biological activity of the drug. Dose-limiting gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in patients receiving 80 mg/m² four times daily, and no dose limiting toxicity was observed at 40 mg/m² once daily. Hematologic improvement was observed in two patients. Once-daily dosing of oral ciclopirox olamine was well tolerated in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies, and further optimization of dosing regimens is warranted in this patient population. PMID:24273151

Minden, Mark D; Hogge, Donna E; Weir, Scott J; Kasper, Jim; Webster, Debra A; Patton, Lavonne; Jitkova, Yulia; Hurren, Rose; Gronda, Marcela; Goard, Carolyn A; Rajewski, Lian G; Haslam, John L; Heppert, Kathleen E; Schorno, Kevin; Chang, Hong; Brandwein, Joseph M; Gupta, Vikas; Schuh, Andre C; Trudel, Suzanne; Yee, Karen W L; Reed, Gregory A; Schimmer, Aaron D

2014-04-01

70

Chemoprevention of premalignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity: Recent trends  

PubMed Central

The word chemoprevention includes prevention of initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis to cancer. This article is an attempt to review the dietary chemopreventive agents and their mode of action in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions and oral cancer using a systematic approach. Selected chemoprevention trials are discussed with a focus on strategies of trial design and clinical outcome. Future in the field of chemoprevention will be more promising than the recently available therapeutic alternatives. PMID:24883036

Bodhade, Ashish S.; Dive, Alka M.

2013-01-01

71

Protein and mRNA expression of simple epithelial keratins in normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral epithelia.  

PubMed Central

Simple epithelial keratins K7, K8, and K18 are present in no more than trace amounts in normal stratified squamous epithelial but have been reported in squamous cell carcinomas. With the aim of determining the level at which keratin synthesis is regulated in vivo, we have compared the expression of mRNA by in situ hybridization and protein by immunohistochemistry for K7, K8, and K18 in a series of normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral epithelia. In normal epithelia mRNAs for K7, K8, and K18 were present in basal and lower spinous cells but adjacent sections were generally negative for the respective proteins. In severe dysplasia there was irregular suprabasal extension of K8 and K18 mRNAs in all cases and their proteins were expressed in more than half of the cases. The carcinomas expressed K8 and K18 mRNAs homogeneously and were strongly reactive for these keratin proteins but K7 expression appeared reduced in malignancy. These results are consistent with the post-transcriptional regulation of K7, K8, and K18 expression in normal epithelia and the presence of their proteins in dysplastic and malignant epithelia suggests the release of these epithelial cells from a post-transcriptional block on K8 and K18 translation. Alternatively, rapid degradation of K8 and K18 protein might be occurring in normal epithelia but be suppressed in dysplasia and malignancy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7527618

Su, L.; Morgan, P. R.; Lane, E. B.

1994-01-01

72

Molecular imaging of oral premalignant and malignant lesions using fluorescently labeled lectins.  

PubMed

Aberrant glycosylation during carcinogenesis results in altered glycan expression on oral cancer cells. The objective of this study was to detect this atypical glycosylation via imaging of fluorophore-conjugated lectins. Paired normal and tumor tissue from seven patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were investigated for sialic acid expression via the legume protein wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350 and Alexa Fluor 647) conjugated WGA was topically applied to the tissue samples and imaged using a custom wide-field fluorescence imaging system. All seven patients had histologically confirmed disease with 6/7 exhibiting squamous cell carcinoma and 1/7 exhibiting dysplasia. Fluorescent data collected from all patients demonstrated that fluorophore conjugated WGA could distinguish between pathologically normal and diseased tissue with the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) among all patients being 5.88 (P = .00046). This SNR was statistically significantly higher than the SNR from differences in tissue autofluorescence (P = .0049). A lectin inhibitory experiment confirmed that lectin binding is molecularly specific to overexpressed tumor glycans and that fluorescence is not due to tissue optical properties or tissue diffusion differences. These results illustrate that changes in tumor glycan content of oral neoplasms can be detected with optical imaging using topically applied fluorescently labeled WGA. Lectin targeting of oral lesions using optical imaging may provide a new avenue for the early detection of oral cancers. PMID:24913673

Baeten, John; Suresh, Amritha; Johnson, Alexander; Patel, Ketan; Kuriakose, Moni; Flynn, Anita; Kademani, Deepak

2014-04-01

73

Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence  

E-print Network

autofluorescence spectroscopy Diana C. G. de Veld University Hospital Groningen Department of Oral of Radiation Oncology Photodynamic Therapy & Optical Spectroscopy Program PO Box 2040 3000 CA Rotterdam & Optical Spectroscopy Program PO Box 2040 3000 CA Rotterdam The Netherlands E-mail: h

Duin, Robert P.W.

74

A review of the recent literature regarding malignant transformation of oral lichen planus  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a literature review of the period 1950-1976, Krutchkoff et al questioned the possible premalignant nature of oral lichen planus. Their criticism was largely based on insufficiencies of data in support of the initial diagnoses of the condition. In this article, a review of the literature from the period 1977-1999 has been described; the criteria used were

Margot Van Dis; E. H. van der Meij; K. P. Schepman; L. E. Smeele; J. E. van der Wal; P. D. Bezemer; I. van der Waal

1999-01-01

75

Primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumor of low malignant potential in a Persian woman.  

PubMed

Primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumor (PRMT) of low malignant potential (border line) is an uncommon neoplasm with fewer than 50 reported cases. Uncertain diagnostic imaging results make diagnosis of its origin difficult, preoperatively. Later treatment planning and prognosis would be affected by exact diagnosis of the tumor origin. This study presents a case of Persian woman with diagnostic, histological and immunohistochemical specifications. PMID:25325210

Haeri, Hayedeh; Vosooghi, Babak; Asadi Amoli, Fahimeh

2014-01-01

76

Serous tumors of low malignant potential of the ovary-molecular pathology: part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A progressive development from serous tumors of low malignant potential (SLMP) to bluntly invasive serous carcinoma has been suggested in parallel to the concept of adenoma-carcinoma sequence in colorectal carcinomas. However, recent genetic data enforces a reassessment of the concept that SLMP tumors represent precursor lesions to invasive serous carcinoma. Despite the benign nature of the majority of these tumors,

S. Hauptmann; M. Dietel

2001-01-01

77

Dental caries, gingival health, and oral hygiene of long term survivors of paediatric malignant diseases.  

PubMed Central

Fifty two children who had had cancer and been treated with chemotherapy, and who were long term event free, were examined for caries prevalence, gingival health, and oral hygiene and compared with a control group. A higher dental caries prevalence for the 14-17 year age group was noted. The restorative index was significantly lower in the age group 10-13. There were no significant differences in gingival index, plaque index, or toothbrushing frequency. It is concluded that these patients should be considered as at high risk for caries after cancer treatment. Professional dental follow up should be integrated in the medical follow up. PMID:7702374

Dens, F; Boute, P; Otten, J; Vinckier, F; Declerck, D

1995-01-01

78

Exploring therapeutic potentials of baicalin and its aglycone baicalein for hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Despite tremendous advances in the targeted therapy for various types of hematological malignancies with successful improvements in the survival rates, emerging resistance issues are startlingly high and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In addition, chemoprevention is currently becoming an elusive goal. Plant-derived natural products have garnered considerable attention in recent years due to the potential dual functions as chemotherapeutics and dietary chemoprevention. One of the particularly ubiquitous families is the polyphenolic flavonoids. Among them, baicalin and its aglycone baicalein have been widely investigated in hematological malignancies because both of them exhibit remarkable pharmacological properties. This review focuses on the recent achievements in drug discovery research associated with baicalin and baicalein for hematological malignancy therapies. The promising anticancer activities of these two flavonoids targeting diverse signaling pathways and their potential biological mechanisms in different types of hematological malignancies, as well as the combination strategy with baicalin or baicalein as chemotherapeutic adjuvants for recent therapies in these intractable diseases are discussed. Meanwhile, the biotransformation of baicalin and baicalein and the relevant approaches to improve their bioavailability are also summarized. PMID:25128647

Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wu, Jianlei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Buyuan; Hu, Jianda; Zhou, Jia

2014-11-01

79

Epstein–Barr virus facilitates the malignant potential of immortalized epithelial cells: from latent genome to viral production and maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with several malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To investigate the EBV activity in tumor development, we tried to establish a malignant model of EBV-infected cells in nude mice. On the basis of the Maxi-EBV system, a human embryonic kidney epithelial cell line (293) with a low malignant potential was used for a stable EBV genome

Jian-Hong Lu; Yun-Lian Tang; Hai-Bo Yu; Jian-Hua Zhou; Chun-Yan Fu; Xi Zeng; Zheng-Yuan Yu; Hong-Ling Yin; Ming-Hua Wu; Jun-Yi Zhang; Xiao-Ling Li; Gui-Yuan Li

2010-01-01

80

Clinical guidelines in early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma arising in oral lichen planus: a 5-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, studies on the malignant potential of oral lichen planus (OLP) provided clinical evidence that patients affected by OLP have an increased risk to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); nevertheless, controversies still exist as to whether OLP has inherent predisposition to become malignant, or not. We believe extremely careful management of OLP patient is mandatory, and the

M. D. Mignogna; L. Lo Muzio; L. Lo Russo; S. Fedele; E. Ruoppo; E. Bucci

2001-01-01

81

Characteristics, management of the neck, and oncological outcomes of malignant minor salivary gland tumours in the oral and sinonasal regions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of malignant tumours of the minor salivary glands in the oral and sinonasal regions, to make sure that the neck was managed correctly, and to identify oncological outcomes, retrospectively, at a single hospital. A total of 60 patients were reviewed. Forty-nine patients had intraoral lesions and 11 had sinonasal lesions. Of the 60 patients, 28 had stage I to II malignant tumours, and 32 had stage III to IV tumours. Treatment was almost exclusively surgical. One of the 16 patients whose nodes were clinically clear had an elective neck dissection. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given if indicated. The mean follow-up period was 52 months (range 13-190). Sinonasal lesions were all advanced T-stage at diagnosis, had more invaded resection margins, and a higher local recurrence rate than intraoral lesions. There was no regional recurrence in those patients whose nodes were clinically invaded and who had therapeutic neck dissection, or in the patient whose nodes were clinically clear and who had an elective neck dissection. Occult metastases developed exclusively in adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), the rate of which was 4/16. Regional recurrence developed in 4 patients who had never had elective treatment to the neck 2 of whom mixed pattern ACC and 2 who had low grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The overall survival was 90% at 2 years, 77% at 5 years, and 74% at 10 years. Sinonasal minor salivary gland tumours require careful follow-up because resection margins are more likely to be invaded by tumour, and they have a higher local recurrence rate than intraoral lesions. Elective neck dissection is needed, particularly for MEC and also to prevent regional recurrence in ACC. PMID:22939317

Lee, So-Yoon; Shin, Hyang Ae; Rho, Kyung Jin; Chung, Hyo Jin; Kim, Se-Heon; Choi, Eun Chang

2013-10-01

82

[HMGB1-a as potential target for therapy of hematological malignancies].  

PubMed

HMGB1 is a widely existing DNA-binding nuclear protein, participating in gene transcription, damage repair, recombination and stabilizing nucleosome construction. Under injury, infection and chemotherapy, HMGB1 can be released by nature immunocyte and necrosis cells as a DAMP, exerting pleiotropic biological effects by binding to RAGE, TLR and CXCL12, which lead to activation of CDC42, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), c-IAP and NF-?B, thereby promoting angiogenesis, unlimited replicative potential, tissue invasion and metastasis. And it also involves in immune response by regulating immunocyte function as a immunocyte warning signal. Scholars have detected that HMGB1 is over expressed and released following chemotherapy and radiation therapy in cells of hematological malignancies, promoting malignant cell replication, decreasing therapeutic effect. Recently, endogenous HMGB1 has been implied to be an intrinsic modulator of autophagy and referenced to resistant to apoptosis in malignant hematosis cells. In contrast, through suppression of HMGB1 expression, tumor cell apoptosis and chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity were increased, which will be a new strategy for the treatment of hematological malignancies. In this article, the basic characteristics of HMGB1, including structure and biological features, and HMGB1 and tumors such as lymphoma, myeloproliferative neoplasms and acute myeloid leukemia are reviewed. PMID:24763043

Hu, Ya-Hui; Yang, Lu; Zhang, Chen-Guang

2014-04-01

83

Soft tissue giant cell tumour of low malignant potential: a rare tumour at a rare site.  

PubMed

"Soft tissue giant cell tumour of low malignant potential" is considered as the soft tissue counterpart of osteoclastoma of the bone. It is a primary soft tissue tumour which is classified under the category of fibrohistiocytic tumours of intermediate malignancy.Seventy percent of the tumours involve the extremities and only about seven percent of them arise in head and neck region. They are composed of nodules of histiocytes in a vascular stroma, with multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), CD68 and Tarterate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP). We are presenting a case of a 75-year-old man who had a nodule on the ala of the nose. Histopathology showed a histiocytic lesion. Benign fibrous histiocytoma, plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumour, solitary reticulohistiocytoma and histioid leprosy were ruled out by using special stains and immunostains. Expression of smooth muscle actin and CD68 confirmed the diagnosis of a soft tissue giant cell tumour with a low malignant potential. PMID:24551690

Bhat, Amoolya; V, Geethamani; C, Vijaya

2013-12-01

84

Oral Leukoplakia – an Update  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

2014-01-01

85

Reduction of potential respiratory pathogens by oral hygienic treatment in patients undergoing endotracheal anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.?This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of mechanical and chemical prophylactic oral cleansing treatments for\\u000a reducing potential respiratory pathogens existing in the oral cavity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods.?Thirty-two patients scheduled to undergo oral and maxillofacial surgery that required endotracheal anesthesia were randomly\\u000a allocated to one of the two groups, the oral cleansing group (n = 16) or the noncleansing group (n

Minori Okuda; Yuzuru Kaneko; Tatsuya Ichinohe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Katsuji Okuda

2003-01-01

86

Uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP): pathology, follow-up and recurrence  

PubMed Central

The term smooth uterine muscle of uncertain malignant potential (STUMPs) indicates a group of uterine smooth muscle tumors (SMTs) that cannot be diagnosed unequivocally as benign or malignant. Diagnosis, surgical management, and follow-up of this neoplasm remain controversial, especially in pre-menopausal women with fertility desire, due to the non aggressive behaviour and prolonged survival rate when compared to leiomyosarcomas. However, recurrence is estimated between 8.7% and 11% and may include delayed-recurrences. We reported five cases of uterine masses treated by surgical procedure diagnosed as STUMP on final pathology. Four patients underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with or without salpingo-oophorectomy. One patient underwent excision of uterine mass and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy after the diagnosis of STUMP. All patients in our study remained recurrence-free to date (with a follow up period ranging from 6 to 81 months). Based on our experience and in consideration of the lack of consensus regarding the malignant potential, diagnostic criteria, gold-standard treatment and follow-up, we believe that close multidisciplinary management is mandatory in the event of STUMP. We suggest that gynaecologist, dedicated pathologist (with high level of expertize in gynaecological pathology) and oncologist should work as a team in the counselling and management of this neoplasm from detection till completion of follow up. Furthermore, we recommend immunohistochemistry to investigate the overexpression of p16 and p53 in order to identify the cohort of patients at increased risk of recurrence who may benefit from more aggressive surgical-oncological strategies.

Dall’Asta, Andrea; Gizzo, Salvatore; Musarò, Andrea; Quaranta³, Michela; Noventa, Marco; Migliavacca, Costanza; Sozzi, Giulio; Monica, Michela; Mautone, Daniele; Berretta, Roberto

2014-01-01

87

Precancerous Stem Cells Have the Potential for both Benign and Malignant Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in hematopoietic and solid tumors. However, their precursors—namely, precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) —have not been characterized. Here we experimentally define the pCSCs that have the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on environmental cues. While clonal pCSCs can develop into various types of tissue cells in immunocompetent mice without developing into cancer, they often develop, however, into leukemic or solid cancers composed of various types of cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. The progress of the pCSCs to cancers is associated with the up-regulation of c-kit and Sca-1, as well as with lineage markers. Mechanistically, the pCSCs are regulated by the PIWI/AGO family gene called piwil2. Our results provide clear evidence that a single clone of pCSCs has the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on the environmental cues. We anticipate pCSCs to be a novel target for the early detection, prevention, and therapy of cancers. PMID:17356702

Chen, Li; Shen, Rulong; Ye, Yin; Pu, Xin-An; Liu, Xingluo; Duan, Wenrui; Wen, Jing; Zimmerer, Jason; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Lasky, Larry C.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Perrotti, Danilo; Ozato, Keiko; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Nakano, Toru; Yates, Allen J.; Carson III, William E.; Lin, Haifan; Barsky, Sanford H.; Gao, Jian-Xin

2007-01-01

88

PDZ Domains and Viral Infection: Versatile Potentials of HPV-PDZ Interactions in relation to Malignancy  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and a unique characteristic of these is a PDZ (P¯SD-95/D¯lg/Z¯O-1-)binding motif in their E6 proteins. Through this motif HPV E6 interacts with a variety of PDZ domain-containing proteins and targets them mainly for degradation. These E6-PDZ interactions exhibit extraordinarily different functions in relation to HPV-induced malignancy, depending upon various cellular contexts; for example, Dlg and Scrib show different distribution patterns from what is seen in normal epithelium, both in localization and in amount, and their loss may be a late-stage marker in malignant progression. Recent studies show that interactions with specific forms of the proteins may have oncogenic potential. In addition, it is interesting that PDZ proteins make a contribution to the stabilization of E6 and viral episomal maintenance during the course of HPV life cycle. Various posttranslational modifications also greatly affect their functions. Phosphorylation of hDlg and hScrib by certain kinases regulates several important signaling cascades, and E6-PDZ interactions themselves are regulated through PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Thus these interactions naturally have great potential for both predictive and therapeutic applications, and, with development of screening tools for identifying novel targets of their interactions, comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis is currently underway. PMID:24093094

Kawana, Kei; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

2013-01-01

89

Cisplatin in combination with Phenethyl Isothiocyanate (PEITC), a potential new therapeutic strategy for malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a very aggressive form of cancer with a poor diagnosis and prognosis. The first line treatment for MPM is a combination of cisplatin and Pemetrexed, which displayed limited efficacy and severe side effects. The naturally occurring compound phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) previously showed interesting anti-tumor properties on several cancer cell lines. We thus aim at evaluating PEITC used alone or in combination with cisplatin in order to improve MPM treatment. Nine MPM cell lines and primary mesothelial cells (PMC), co-cultured or not with M2 macrophages present in MPM microenvironment, were used to assess PEITC and cisplatin anti-tumor properties. Compounds were used alone or in combination. Both PEITC and cisplatin were cytotoxic on MPM cells in a dose dependent manner. We herein showed that PEITC-induced cytotoxicity was due to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, we showed that cisplatin-PEITC combination allowed the potentialization of both compounds' cytotoxic effects and prevented the emergence of resistant MPM cells. Interestingly, PMC were not sensitive to the combination. Finally, we showed that M2 macrophages did not alter the anti-tumor properties of the combination. Cisplatin-PEITC combination thus represents a promising strategy to induce a selective toxicity towards malignant cells. PMID:25361002

Denis, Iza; Cellerin, Laurent; Gregoire, Marc; Blanquart, Christophe

2014-01-01

90

Oral health technicians in Brazilian primary health care: potentials and constraints.  

PubMed

Different perspectives on the role of mid-level workers in health care might represent a constraint to health policies. This study aimed to investigate how different agents view the participation of oral health technicians in direct activities of oral healthcare with the goal of understanding the related symbolic dispositions. Theoretical assumptions related to inter-professional collaboration and conflicts in the field of healthcare were used for this analysis. A researcher conducted 24 in-depth interviews with general dental practitioners, oral health technicians and local managers. The concepts of Pierre Bourdieu supported the data interpretation. The results indicated inter-professional relations marked by collaboration and conflict that reflect an action space related to different perspectives of primary care delivery. They also unveiled the symbolic devices related to the participation of oral health technicians that represent a constraint to the implementation of oral health policy, thus reducing the potential of primary health care in Brazil. PMID:25166951

Aguiar, Dulce Maria Lucena de; Tomita, Nilce Emy; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Martins, Cleide Lavieri; Frazão, Paulo

2014-07-01

91

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-01-01

92

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-12-16

93

Soft tissue giant cell tumor of low malignant potential of mediastinum: a rare case report.  

PubMed

Giant cell tumor (GCT) is primarily a bone neoplasm. Rare origin of the tumor from soft tissues has been reported. Involvement of mediastinum by GCT is even rarer. We herein describe an interesting case of huge mediastinal tumor in a young man. Radiologically, no primary osseous lesion was present throughout the body. Morphologically, tumor resembles osseous GCT with increased mitotic activity. Hence, the case was diagnosed as soft tissue GCT of low malignant potential at the rare site of mediastinum. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the fourth reported case. Pathologists and clinicians need to be aware of the rare diagnosis of GCT in mediastinum and should carefully evaluate the clinical and radiological findings. PMID:24965215

Jain, Deepali; Arava, Sudheer; Mishra, Biplab; Sharma, Sanjay; Sharma, Raju; Parshad, Rajinder

2015-02-01

94

Soft tissue giant cell tumor of low malignant potential with 3 localizations: report of a case.  

PubMed

Soft tissue giant cell tumor (GCT-ST) of low malignant potential, also called primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue, is usually located in the lower extremities and trunk, whereas it is extremely rare in the head and neck region. It is a rare neoplasm involving both superficial and deep soft tissues that mainly affects young to middle-aged adults, presenting as an asymptomatic, well-circumscribed multinodular mass covered by normal skin or with a fleshy red-brown surface when superficially located. The purpose of this article is to report a case of osteoclast-like giant cell tumors of the lip and to review the literature about GCT-STs involving the head and neck region. PMID:24882380

Righi, Stefano; Boffano, Paolo; Patetta, Roberta; Malvè, Laura; Pateras, Dimitrios; De Matteis, Pierluigi; Chiodo, Domenico; Boson, Maurizio

2014-11-01

95

Potential immune modularly role of glycine in oral gingival inflammation.  

PubMed

Gingival epithelial cells (GECs) represent a physical barrier against bacteria and are involved in the processes of innate immunity. Recently, an anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effect of the amino acid glycine has been demonstrated. However, there is only little information about the immune-modulatory effects of glycine in oral tissues. This study aimed to investigate the existence and role of the glycine receptor in gingival tissue analyzing tissues/cells from extracted human molars via immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, GECs were challenged by inflammatory conditions with IL-1 ? alone or in combination with glycine and analyzed for cytokine expression of IL6/IL8 via real-time PCR. On protein level, the effect of nuclear translocalization of NF ? B protein p65 was analyzed using immunofluorescence analysis. A distinct proof of the GlyR in oral gingival tissue and keratinocytes could be demonstrated. Isolated challenge of the keratinocytes with IL-1 ? as well as with glycine resulted in an upregulation of IL6 and IL8 mRNA expression and activation of NF ? B pathway. The presence of glycine in combination with the inflammatory stimulus led to a significant decrease in inflammatory parameters. These results indicate a possible anti-inflammatory role of glycine in gingival inflammation and encourage further research on the utility of glycine in the prevention or therapy of inflammatory periodontitis. PMID:24348681

Schaumann, Teresa; Kraus, Dominik; Winter, Jochen; Wolf, Michael; Deschner, James; Jäger, Andreas

2013-01-01

96

Genes and oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today. PMID:24959008

Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

2014-01-01

97

In vitro and IntraOral Investigations into the Cariogenic Potential of Human Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidogenic and cariogenic potential of plain and supplemented human and bovine milk was determined by pH tests and with intra-oral experiments. Human milk produced a lower pH than bovine milk and bovine milk with a 2% lactose supplement. Human milk caused greater softening of enamel than bovine milk in the intra-oral tests. This could be modified by supplementing with

M. E. Thomson; C. W. Thomson; N. P. Chandler

1996-01-01

98

Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 modulates the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma cells involving apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

About 10% of gastric carcinomas including lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In EBV-associated gastric carcinomas, the tumor cells express Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) but not EBNA-2, -3A, -3B, or -3C, leader protein, or latent membrane proteins (LMPs) because of gene methylation. Only a few exceptional cases have LMP1 expression in tumor cells as demonstrated by immunohistochemical studies. To elucidate the biological effects of LMP1 and the significance of its restricted expression in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas, the LMP1 gene was transferred into EBV-negative gastric carcinoma cell lines (SCM1 and TMC1) and into EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells (HONE-1) as a control. The biological effects of LMP1 in gastric carcinoma cells were monitored in vitro and in vivo. These results showed that the consequence of LMP1 expression is a growth enhancement in NPC cells, but it is a growth suppression in gastric carcinoma cells. The LMP1-expressing gastric carcinoma cells had a reduced growth rate, colony-forming efficiency, mean colony size, and tumorigenicity and a lower malignant cytological grade. The reduced growth rate, colony-forming efficiency, and mean colony size were partially reversible in vitro with treatment with LMP1 antisense oligonucleotide. In addition, enhanced apoptosis was found in the LMP1-expressing gastric carcinoma cells. This suggests that LMP1 may negatively modulate the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma cells via an enhancement of apoptosis. We concluded that the restriction of LMP1 expression in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas may lead to a growth advantage for tumor cells by avoiding LMP1 apoptotic effects and immunologically mediated elimination. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9422524

Sheu, L. F.; Chen, A.; Wei, Y. H.; Ho, K. C.; Cheng, J. Y.; Meng, C. L.; Lee, W. H.

1998-01-01

99

Potential role of melatonin in prevention and treatment of oral carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Melatonin, a hormone secreted mainly by pineal gland has been found to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the oral cavity where it reaches through saliva. These properties have been found to be beneficial in certain oral pathologies including periodontal diseases, herpes viral infections and Candida, local inflammatory processes, xerostomia, oral ulcers and oral cancer. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanism of action and potential role of melatonin as a preventive and curative agent for oral cancer. an extensive review of databases like pubmed, medline, science direct and Cochrane reviews was conducted to find articles related to beneficial actions of melatonin in human body with focus on cancers. Numerous studies both in-vitro and in-vivo had shown promising results regarding role of melatonin as anti-carcinogenic agent. Melatonin may play a role in protecting the oral cavity from tissue damage caused by oxidative stress. The experimental evidence suggests that melatonin may have utility in the treatment of several common cancers of the body. However, more specific studies are necessary to extend the therapeutic possibilities to oral carcinoma. PMID:25565731

Mehta, Abhishek; Kaur, Gurkiran

2014-01-01

100

Potential role of melatonin in prevention and treatment of oral carcinoma.  

PubMed

Melatonin, a hormone secreted mainly by pineal gland has been found to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the oral cavity where it reaches through saliva. These properties have been found to be beneficial in certain oral pathologies including periodontal diseases, herpes viral infections and Candida, local inflammatory processes, xerostomia, oral ulcers and oral cancer. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanism of action and potential role of melatonin as a preventive and curative agent for oral cancer. an extensive review of databases like pubmed, medline, science direct and Cochrane reviews was conducted to find articles related to beneficial actions of melatonin in human body with focus on cancers. Numerous studies both in-vitro and in-vivo had shown promising results regarding role of melatonin as anti-carcinogenic agent. Melatonin may play a role in protecting the oral cavity from tissue damage caused by oxidative stress. The experimental evidence suggests that melatonin may have utility in the treatment of several common cancers of the body. However, more specific studies are necessary to extend the therapeutic possibilities to oral carcinoma. PMID:25565731

Mehta, Abhishek; Kaur, Gurkiran

2014-04-01

101

Malignant lymphoproliferative diseases in occupations with potential exposure to phenoxyacetic acids or dioxins: a register-based study.  

PubMed

The Swedish Cancer Environment Register (CER) is a linkage of census data (e.g., on occupations) with the Swedish Cancer Register. It has been used in different studies to generate hypotheses on occupational risk factors for malignant tumors. In this study the risk for malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma in occupations with potential exposure to phenoxyacetic acids or other related substances were investigated. An increased standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.3 for multiple myeloma was verified in farmers (no. of cases = 335). This finding applied to both sexes, and the SIR increased over successive time periods. Regarding malignant lymphoma an increased SIR of 1.2 was found in farmers (no. = 227) for the latest time period studied (i.e. 1979-1984). When non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was studied separately, an increased risk (SIR = 1.2) was found only in carpenters (no. = 149), whereas for Hodgkin's disease, sawmill workers (no. = 10) had an increased SIR of 2.1. Physicians also had an elevated risk for malignant lymphoma. A major shortcoming in register studies such as CER is that no individual exposure data on different agents are available. Lack of an association between an occupation and a specific malignant disease, therefore, may not be taken as evidence that persons within that occupation are not at increased risk for that disease. PMID:1519615

Eriksson, M; Hardell, L; Malker, H; Weiner, J

1992-01-01

102

Serum lactate as a potential biomarker of malignancy in primary adult brain tumours.  

PubMed

Lactate, a by-product of glycolysis, is an indicator of poor tissue perfusion and is a useful biomarker with prognostic value in risk-stratifying patients in several diseases. Furthermore, elevated lactate production is observed in tumour glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect, and is essential in promoting tumour cell invasion, metastasis, and immune system evasion, promoting resistance to cell death. However, there are no studies of elevated serum lactate in brain tumour patients as a potential biomarker, to our knowledge. The aim of this study is to determine possible correlations between the malignancy of tumours and pre- and intraoperative serum lactate elevation in patients undergoing craniotomy for tumour resection. We provide initial evidence that a rise in serum lactate can be used as a non-invasive biomarker that correlates with brain tumour grade. The results from this study and future prospective studies may allow for determination of tumour progression and response to therapy using serum lactate as a biomarker. PMID:25172017

Mariappan, Ramamani; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi; Vertanian, Alenoush; Agnihotri, Sameer; Cynthia, Shalini; Reyhani, Sareh; Tung, Takyee; Khan, Osaama H; Zadeh, Gelareh

2015-01-01

103

Anticancer property of bromelain with therapeutic potential in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes that is capable of hydrolyzing glycosidic linkages in glycoprotein. Glycoprotein's are ubiquitously distributed throughout the body and serve a variety of physiologic functions. Faulty glycosylation of proteins may lead to cancer. Antitumor properties of bromelain have been demonstrated in both, in vitro and in vivo studies, along with scanty anecdotal human studies. Various mechanistic pathways have been proposed to explain the anticancer properties of bromelain. However, proteolysis by bromelain has been suggested as a main pathway by some researchers. MUC1 is a glycoprotein that provides tumor cells with invasive, metastatic, and chemo-resistant properties. To date, there is no study that examines the effect of bromelain on MUC1. However, the viability of MUC1 expressing pancreatic and breast cancer cells are adversely affected by bromelain. Further, the efficacy of cisplatin and 5-FU are enhanced by adjuvant treatment with bromelain, indicating that the barrier function of MUC1 may be affected. Other studies have also indicated that there is a greater accumulation of 5-FU in the cell compartment on treatment with 5-FU and bromelain. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) expresses MUC1 and initial studies have shown that the viability of MPM cells is adversely affected by exposure to bromelain. Further, bromelain in combination with either 5-FU or cisplatin, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic drug is enhanced. Hence, current evidence indicates that bromelain may have the potential of being developed into an effective anticancer agent for MPM. PMID:23570457

Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David Lawson

2013-05-01

104

Potential use of oral fluid samples for serological diagnosis of African swine fever.  

PubMed

African swine fever (ASF) is a complex, highly lethal, notifiable disease of swine. ASF is wide-spread in sub-Saharan Africa and East European countries and there is presently a great risk of spread to neighboring countries. Since there is no vaccine for ASF virus (ASFV), control is based on rapid and early detection of the disease via surveillance. This approach requires collecting blood samples from large number of animals. Laborious and expensive of itself, this process also presents an additional risk because ASFV is present at high concentrations in the blood. The objective of this study was to initiate studies into the potential use of oral fluid as an alternative to serum for ASF diagnosis, for latter studying its possible use in surveillance and control programs. To this end, oral fluid samples collected at different times post infection from eight pigs experimentally inoculated with an attenuated ASFV were assayed using modified protocols of the two validated serological techniques, the enzyme-immune-liked assay (ELISA) and immunoperoxidase technique (IPT). Antibodies against ASFV were detected in oral fluid samples of all animals from early post infection through the end of the experiment by ELISA and IPT. These results confirmed the presence of ASFV antibodies in swine oral fluids samples, the possibility of an oral fluid-based approach in ASF diagnosis and, potentially in ASF surveillance. PMID:23374655

Mur, Lina; Gallardo, Carmina; Soler, Alejandro; Zimmermman, Jeffrey; Pelayo, Virginia; Nieto, Raquel; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Arias, Marisa

2013-07-26

105

Pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin and oral topotecan in eight children with relapsed high-grade malignant brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The combination of topoisomerase I and II chemotherapeutic agents has shown promising preclinical synergistic effects in\\u000a the treatment of high-grade malignant brain tumors such as high-grade gliomas and choroid plexus carcinomas. To confirm the\\u000a effectiveness of this treatment combination and determine its possible toxicity, we conducted a retrospective review of the\\u000a charts of children who received the therapy. Methods:

Sabine Wagner; Ove Peters; Christin Fels; Gisela Janssen; Anne-Kathrin Liebeskind; Axel Sauerbrey; Meinolf Suttorp; Peter Hau; Johannes E. A. Wolff

2008-01-01

106

Preclinical evaluation of bortezomib/dipyridamole novel combination as a potential therapeutic modality for hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

Novel combinations aiming at maximizing the efficacy of bortezomib are highly valued in the clinic. Therefore the current study investigated the outcomes of combining bortezomib with dipyridamole, a well-known antiplatelet. The co-treatment exerted a synergistic lethality in a panel of human leukemia/lymphoma cell lines of different origin. Mechanistically, dipyridamole did not modulate the proteasome inhibitory activity of bortezomib. However, dipyridamole triggered an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and co-treatment with bortezomib resulted in higher levels of ER stress than either monotherapies. Relieving ER stress with the protein translation inhibitor, cycloheximide suppressed cell death. Moreover, the enhanced ER stress by the co-treatment was associated with an aggravation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Replenishing GSH pools significantly scavenged ROS and rescued the cells. Importantly, the cytotoxicity of the co-treatment was executed mainly via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway with an efficient suppression of the key anti-apoptotic regulators, Mcl-1, Bcl-xl, Bcl-2 and XIAP, driving the independence of the co-treatment-induced apoptosis of a single apoptotic trigger. Furthermore, the intrinsic potential of bortezomib to inhibit important pro-survival pathways was enhanced by dipyridamole in a GSH/ROS-dependent manner. Interestingly, dipyridamole abrogated JAK2 phosphorylation indirectly and selectively in cancer cells, and the co-treatment-induced cytotoxicity was preserved in a model of stromal-mediated chemoresistance. In nude mice, the antitumor activity of the co-treatment surpassed that of bortezomib monotherapy despite that synergy was lacking. In summary, findings of the present study provided a preclinical rationale which warrants further clinical evaluation of bortezomib/dipyridamole novel combination in hematologic malignancies. PMID:25245324

Goda, Ahmed E; Erikson, Raymond L; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Kim, Bo-Yeon

2015-01-01

107

Serum anti-AEG-1 auto-antibody is a potential novel biomarker for malignant tumors.  

PubMed

Malignant tumors are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The search for new biomarkers for the early diagnosis of the onset of cancer to reduce high mortality is crucial. The potential of minimal invasive testing using serum from patients renders auto-antibodies promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this study, a 181 amino acid peptide of extracellular astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) was expressed and purified, and the peptide was used in an ELISA assay to detect anti-AEG-1 auto-antibodies (AEG-1-Abs) in 483 serum samples from different cancer patients and 230 serum samples from normal blood donors. The results showed that AEG-1-Abs at titers ?1:50 were detected in 238 of 483 (49%) cancer patients, and the positive antibody responses in different cancer patients were as follows: 44 of 98 (45%) in breast cancer patients, 48 of 96 (50%) in hepatic carcinoma patients, 43 of 88 (49%) in rectal cancer patients, 51 of 113 (45%) in lung cancer patients, and 52 of 88 (59%) in gastric cancer patients. These results were compared with 0 of 230 (0%) in normal individuals. Moreover, AEG-1-Abs at titers ?1:50 were also detected in 24 of 94 (26%) cancer patients in TNM stages I and II, and the positive rates of AEG-1-Abs decreased with age. These results suggest that the AEG-1-Ab response acts as a diagnostic biomarker for cancer patients with AEG-1-positive expression, and may also prove to be a possible inducer, with substantial immunity against AEG-1 by immunization boosting with AEG-1 vaccines. PMID:22844377

Chen, Xi; Dong, Ke; Long, Min; Lin, Fang; Wang, Xi; Wei, Junxia; Ren, Jihong; Zhang, Huizhong

2012-08-01

108

Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor in human oral mucosa and its malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The immunohistochemical localizations of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and EGF receptor (EGFr) in oral tissues, including normal mucosa, leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were examined by the use of monoclonal antibodies to hEGF and EGFr. In normal mucosa and leukoplakia, immunostaining of hEGF was limited to an underlying layer of connective tissue near the epithelium. The intensity of

Kanemitsu Shirasuna; Yasutaka Hayashido; Masaru Sugiyama; Hideo Yoshioka; Tokuzou Matsuya

1991-01-01

109

Evaluating the potential of cubosomal nanoparticles for oral delivery of amphotericin B in treating fungal infection  

PubMed Central

The oral administration of amphotericin B (AmB) has a major drawback of poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of glyceryl monoolein (GMO) cubosomes as lipid nanocarriers to improve the oral efficacy of AmB. Antifungal efficacy was determined in vivo in rats after oral administration, to investigate its therapeutic use. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) was used in vitro to evaluate transport across a model of the intestinal barrier. In vivo antifungal results showed that AmB, loaded in GMO cubosomes, could significantly enhance oral efficacy, compared against Fungizone®, and that during a 2 day course of dosage 10 mg/kg the drug reached effective therapeutic concentrations in renal tissue for treating fungal infections. In the Caco-2 transport studies, GMO cubosomes resulted in a significantly larger amount of AmB being transported into Caco-2 cells, via both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, but not macropinocytosis. These results suggest that GMO cubosomes, as lipid nanovectors, could facilitate the oral delivery of AmB. PMID:24421641

Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Muhua; Chen, Jian; Fang, Weijun; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

110

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase as a potential therapeutic target for malignant gliomas.  

PubMed

Metabolic aberrations in the form of altered flux through key metabolic pathways are the major hallmarks of several life-threatening malignancies including malignant gliomas. These adaptations play an important role in the enhancement of the survival and proliferation of gliomas at the expense of the surrounding normal/healthy tissues. Recent studies in the field of neurooncology have directly targeted the altered metabolic pathways of malignant tumor cells for the development of anti-cancer drugs. Aerobic glycolysis due to elevated production of lactate from pyruvate regardless of oxygen availability is a common metabolic alteration in most malignancies. Aerobic glycolysis offers survival advantages in addition to generating substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides required for the rapid proliferation of cells. This review outlines the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in gliomas as an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. An in-depth investigation on the key metabolic enzyme PDK may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:24904893

Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Suk, Kyoungho

2013-10-01

111

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Malignant Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Metabolic aberrations in the form of altered flux through key metabolic pathways are the major hallmarks of several life-threatening malignancies including malignant gliomas. These adaptations play an important role in the enhancement of the survival and proliferation of gliomas at the expense of the surrounding normal/healthy tissues. Recent studies in the field of neurooncology have directly targeted the altered metabolic pathways of malignant tumor cells for the development of anti-cancer drugs. Aerobic glycolysis due to elevated production of lactate from pyruvate regardless of oxygen availability is a common metabolic alteration in most malignancies. Aerobic glycolysis offers survival advantages in addition to generating substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides required for the rapid proliferation of cells. This review outlines the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in gliomas as an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. An in-depth investigation on the key metabolic enzyme PDK may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:24904893

Jha, Mithilesh Kumar

2013-01-01

112

Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

2014-01-01

113

Malignant transformation potentials of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells both spontaneously and via 3-methycholanthrene induction.  

PubMed

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative and can be induced to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three germ layers. Thus, HUMSCs are considered to be a promising source for cell-targeted therapies and tissue engineering. However there are reports on spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrows. The capacity for HUMSCs to undergo malignant transform spontaneously or via induction by chemical carcinogens is presently unknown. Therefore, we isolated HUMSCs from 10 donors and assessed their transformation potential either spontaneously or by treating them with 3-methycholanthrene (3-MCA), a DNA-damaging carcinogen. The malignant transformation of HUMSCs in vitro was evaluated by morphological changes, proliferation rates, ability to enter cell senescence, the telomerase activity, chromosomal abnormality, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our studies showed that HUMSCs from all 10 donors ultimately entered senescence and did not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation. However, HUMSCs from two of the 10 donors treated with 3-MCA displayed an increased proliferation rate, failed to enter senescence, and exhibited an altered cell morphology. When these cells (tHUMSCs) were injected into immunodeficient mice, they gave rise to sarcoma-like or poorly differentiated tumors. Moreover, in contrast to HUMSCs, tHUMSCs showed a positive expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and did not exhibit a shortening of the relative telomere length during the long-term culture in vitro. Our studies demonstrate that HUMSCs are not susceptible to spontaneous malignant transformation. However, the malignant transformation could be induced by chemical carcinogen 3-MCA. PMID:24339974

Tang, Qiuling; Chen, Qiurong; Lai, Xiulan; Liu, Sizheng; Chen, Yezeng; Zheng, Zexin; Xie, Qingdong; Maldonado, Martin; Cai, Zhiwei; Qin, Shan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian

2013-01-01

114

Malignant Transformation Potentials of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Both Spontaneously and via 3-Methycholanthrene Induction  

PubMed Central

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative and can be induced to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three germ layers. Thus, HUMSCs are considered to be a promising source for cell-targeted therapies and tissue engineering. However there are reports on spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrows. The capacity for HUMSCs to undergo malignant transform spontaneously or via induction by chemical carcinogens is presently unknown. Therefore, we isolated HUMSCs from 10 donors and assessed their transformation potential either spontaneously or by treating them with 3-methycholanthrene (3-MCA), a DNA-damaging carcinogen. The malignant transformation of HUMSCs in vitro was evaluated by morphological changes, proliferation rates, ability to enter cell senescence, the telomerase activity, chromosomal abnormality, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. Our studies showed that HUMSCs from all 10 donors ultimately entered senescence and did not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation. However, HUMSCs from two of the 10 donors treated with 3-MCA displayed an increased proliferation rate, failed to enter senescence, and exhibited an altered cell morphology. When these cells (tHUMSCs) were injected into immunodeficient mice, they gave rise to sarcoma-like or poorly differentiated tumors. Moreover, in contrast to HUMSCs, tHUMSCs showed a positive expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and did not exhibit a shortening of the relative telomere length during the long-term culture in vitro. Our studies demonstrate that HUMSCs are not susceptible to spontaneous malignant transformation. However, the malignant transformation could be induced by chemical carcinogen 3-MCA. PMID:24339974

Lai, Xiulan; Liu, Sizheng; Chen, Yezeng; Zheng, Zexin; Xie, Qingdong; Maldonado, Martin; Cai, Zhiwei; Qin, Shan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian

2013-01-01

115

From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells.  

PubMed

Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs). They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin-pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined. PMID:25506228

Xiao, Li; Nasu, Masanori

2014-01-01

116

Oral N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP): A potential marker for enterohepatic absorption studies  

SciTech Connect

While gastrointestinal transit studies using non-absorbable labels are now widely used, gastrointestinal studies with absorbable tracers potentially could describe both transit and absorption. To investigate this possibility, 27 fasting rats were given 100 ..mu..Ci I-123 IMP by gastric gavage and sacrificed at intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 12 hours later. Organ counts were obtained after dissection with a well counter and pre-dissection images were obtained with a gamma camera using a 512 x 512 imaging format. The percent of total body activity in various organs as a function of time was calculated. The results indicate a rapid clearance of activity from the stomach with subsequent uptake and clearance from the liver. Control studies (n=5) with orally administered 111-In-DTPA showed no significant liver accumulation. The results indicate oral IMP is thus potentially useful for quantification of gastric transit and enterohepatic absorption studies.

Pan, Z.Y.; Hawkins, R.A.; Bennett, L.R.; Yee, C.A.

1984-01-01

117

The Internet and the oral healthcare professionals: potential and challenges of a new era.  

PubMed

The Internet is increasingly used as a means of continuous education for healthcare practitioners. At the same time, a rapidly growing number of patients rely on the Internet for the search and acquisition of healthcare-related information and services. This fact has introduced new challenges for the oral healthcare personnel, which must not only often face the misperceptions of ill-informed patients but also be able to redirect them to quality sources of healthcare-related information. Consequently, there is a great need for the whole oral healthcare team to further understand the potential and dangers of Internet-based information. The present paper aimed to briefly discuss the major implications of Internet use from two distinct points of view: (a) potential and risks of Internet use for lifelong learning and quality assessment of the oral healthcare team and (b) potential and dangers from the Internet as a means of patients' education. (1) generic Internet search; (2) search within healthcare-related databases; and (3) principles quality assessment of information and resources. PMID:17615024

Mattheos, N

2007-08-01

118

Perspective and potential of oral lipid-based delivery to optimize pharmacological therapies against cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Despite the large number of cardiovascular drugs available for pharmacological therapies, factors limiting the efficient oral use are identified, including low water solubility, pre-systemic metabolism, food intake effects and short half-life. Numerous in vivo proof-of-concepts studies are presented to highlight the viability of lipid-based delivery to optimize the oral delivery of cardiovascular drugs. In particular, the key performance enhancement roles of oral lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDSs) are identified, which include i) improving the oral bioavailability, ii) sustaining/controlling drug release, iii) improving drug stability, iv) reducing food intake effect, v) targeting to injured sites, and vi) potential for combination therapy. Mechanisms involved in achieving these features, range of applicability, and limits of available systems are detailed. Future research and development efforts to address these issues are discussed, which is of significant value in directing future research work in fostering translation of lipid-based formulations into clinical applications to reduce the prevalence of CVDs. PMID:24852093

Rao, Shasha; Tan, Angel; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

2014-11-10

119

Surface display of Clonorchis sinensis enolase on Bacillus subtilis spores potentializes an oral vaccine candidate.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infections remain the common public health problem in freshwater fish consumption areas. New effective prevention strategies are still the urgent challenges to control this kind of foodborne infectious disease. The biochemical importance and biological relevance render C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) as a potential vaccine candidate. In the present study, we constructed Escherichia coli/Bacillus subtilis shuttle genetic engineering system and investigated the potential of Csenolase as an oral vaccine candidate for C. sinensis prevention in different immunization routes. Our results showed that, compared with control groups, both recombinant Csenolase protein and nucleic acid could induce a mixed IgG1/IgG2a immune response when administrated subcutaneously (P<0.001), intraperitoneally (P<0.01) and intramuscularly (P<0.001) with worm reduction rate of 56.29%, 15.38% and 37.42%, respectively. More importantly, Csenolase could be successfully expressed as a fusion protein (55kDa) on B. subtilis spore indicated by immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays. Killed spores triggered reactive Th1/Th2 immune response and exhibited protective efficacy against C. sinensis infection. Csenolase derived oral vaccine conferred worm reduction rate and egg reduction rate at 60.07% (P<0.001) and 80.67% (P<0.001), respectively. The shuttle genetic engineering system facilitated the development of oral vaccine with B. subtilis stably overexpressing target protein. Comparably vaccinal trails with Csenolase in different immunization routes potentialize Csenolase an oral vaccine candidate in C. sinensis prevention. PMID:24486347

Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Tian, Yanli; Mao, Qiang; Lv, Xiaoli; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing; Huang, Yan

2014-03-10

120

The Malignant Potential of Small Cystic Ovarian Tumors in Women over 50 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The aim of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy in cystic ovarian tumors <10 cm in diameter in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age.Methods.All cystic ovarian tumors detected by transvaginal sonography screening in asymptomatic postmenopausal women or women ?50 years of age were evaluated with respect to size and morphology. Histology was recorded on

C. L. Bailey; F. R. Ueland; G. L. Land; P. D. DePriest; H. H. Gallion; R. J. Kryscio; J. R. van Nagell

1998-01-01

121

Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer.  

PubMed

In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the viral DNA from the herpesvirus termed MCFV-WTD, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), was detected. The epidemiology information revealed that the red brocket deer had been associated with a herd of pygmy goats (Capra hircus) at the zoo. MCFV-WTD DNA was also detected in one of these 12 goats that were malignant catarrhal fever viral antibody positive. The amplified herpesviral sequences from the affected deer and the MCFV-WTD-positive goat were identical, and matched the sequence in GenBank. Three of 123 DNA samples from various breeds of goats from different geographic locations in the United States were positive for MCFV-WTD DNA. The study shows that MCFV-WTD is capable of causing malignant catarrhal fever in other species of deer besides white-tailed deer and suggests that goats are a potential reservoir for the virus. PMID:23805572

Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Abbitt, Bruce; deMaar, Thomas W; Lenz, Stephen D; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Taus, Naomi S

2013-06-01

122

Tumor-targeting bacterial therapy: A potential treatment for oral cancer (Review).  

PubMed

Certain obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria, which exhibit an inherent ability to colonize solid tumors in vivo, may be used in tumor targeting. As genetically manipulated bacteria may actively and specifically penetrate into the tumor tissue, bacterial therapy is becoming a promising approach in the treatment of tumors. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports have been published thus far regarding the bacterial treatment of oral cancer, one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. In this review, the progress in the understanding of bacterial strategies used in tumor-targeted therapy is discussed and particular bacterial strains that may have great therapeutic potential in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tumor-targeted therapy are predicted as determined by previous studies. PMID:25364397

Liu, Sai; Xu, Xiaoping; Zeng, Xin; Li, Longjiang; Chen, Qianming; Li, Jing

2014-12-01

123

Correlation of c-erbB-2 and S-100 expression with the malignancy grading and anatomical site in oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

An immunohistochemical analysis of 32 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (eight in the inferior lip, eight in the lateral angle of the tongue, eight in the palate and eight in the mouth floor) was performed to evaluate the expression pattern of c-erbB-2 protein and S-100-positive cells in the lesions. The immunohistochemical expression was correlated with the tumour anatomical site and histological grading of malignancy. A higher frequency of c-erbB-2-positive cases was found in the tongue, even though no correlation could be detected between the protein expression and the tumour histological grading. With respect to the S-100-positive cells, it was observed that a quantitative decrease was present in the cases classified as high-grade tumours when compared to the low ones (P = 0.0007). Thus, c-erbB-2 immunohistochemical expression is correlated with anatomical localization, and the expression of the S-100 Langerhans' cell markers is decreased significantly in high-grade carcinomas. PMID:14748745

Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo L C; Miguel, Márcia C C; Costa, Antonio L L; Souza, Lélia B

2003-01-01

124

Clinical Evaluation of Specific Oral Manifestations in Pediatric Patients with Ascertained versus Potential Coeliac Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Patients involved on coeliac disease (CD) have atypical symptoms and often remain undiagnosed. Specific oral manifestations are effective risk indicators of CD and for this reason an early diagnosis with a consequent better prognosis can be performed by the dentist. There are not researches analysing the frequency of these oral manifestations in potential coeliac patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the oral hard and soft tissue lesions in potential and ascertained coeliac children in comparison with healthy controls. 50 ascertained children, 21 potential coeliac patients, and 54 controls were recruited and the oral examination was performed. The overall oral lesions were more frequently present in CD patients than in controls. The prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions was 62% in ascertained coeliac, 76.2% in potential coeliac patients, and 12.96% in controls (P < 0.05). Clinical dental delayed eruption was observed in 38% of the ascertained coeliac and 42.5% of the potential coeliac versus 11.11% of the controls (P < 0.05). The prevalence of specific enamel defects (SED) was 48% in ascertained coeliac and 19% in potential coeliac versus 0% in controls (P < 0.05; OR = 3.923). The SED seem to be genetically related to the histological damage and villous atrophy. PMID:25197270

Matacena, Giada; Costa, Stefano; Magazzù, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

125

CD146 is a potential marker for the diagnosis of malignancy in cervical and endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146) is an endothelial cell adhesion molecule which is overexpressed in various types of malignant cancer, including ovarian cancer. However, whether CD146 is overexpressed in another two types of gynecological cancer, cervical cancer and endometrial cancer, remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that CD146 expression levels were higher in cells from cervical cancer and endometrial cancer compared with their corresponding normal tissues, using anti-CD146 mouse antibody AA4 (mAb AA4) and that mAb AA4 exhibited a high performance for specificity, sensitivity and positive predictive value in the detection of these two types of cancer. CD146 expression was positively and significantly correlated with the pathological subtype of cervical cancer and with the histological grade and depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer. In addition, we confirmed that CD146 is present in the majority of blood vessels in cervical and endometrial cancer, suggesting that CD146 may be actively implicated in the metastasis of cervical and endometrial cancer via the vascular system. Thus, this study provides insights for further development of CD146 mAb in the detection of gynecological malignant cancer types and implies that a combined treatment strategy of anti-CD146 immunotherapy with other traditional chemo- or radiotherapy treatments may be a promising approach against cervical and endometrial cancer. PMID:23599761

ZHANG, HAOFENG; ZHANG, JUN; WANG, ZHAOQING; LU, DI; FENG, JING; YANG, DONGLING; CHEN, XIUQIN; YAN, XIYUN

2013-01-01

126

Pulmonary Metastases of a Uterine Smooth Muscle Tumour with Undefined Malignancy Potential  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle neoplasms with atypical proliferative behaviour, but without clear histopathological malignancy represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, as distinction from a sarcoma can be difficult and no guaranteed treatment recommendations are available due to the rarity of these changes. In the event of uncertain primary histology, even metastases cannot be assessed as malignancy criteria, but may contribute to the clarification of the histology. Similarities with other smooth muscle proliferations, such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis, are striking. The diagnostic difficulties and treatment options are explained based on the example of a 59-year-old patient, in whom a retroperitoneal mass and pulmonary lesion of such a tumour occurred 4 years after a hysterectomy. Even though the genesis and histological diagnostics have not been conclusively clarified, slow growth and a low recurrence rate for post-menopausal patients allow for a wait-and-see approach, whereby the option for anti-hormonal treatment exists in the event of positive evidence of hormone receptors. PMID:24882880

Esch, M.; Teschner, M.; Braesen, J.-H.

2014-01-01

127

Long-term stability, biocompatibility and oral delivery potential of risperidone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) formulation to improve the oral delivery of risperidone (RISP), a poorly water-soluble drug, was designed and tested. Initially, lipid-RISP solubility was screened to select the best lipid for SLN preparation. Compritol(®)-based formulations were chosen and their long-term stability was assessed over two years of storage (at 25 °C and 4 °C) by means of particle size, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) measurements. SLN shape was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at the beginning and end of the study. The oxidative potential (OP) of the SLN was measured and their biocompatibility with Caco-2 cells was evaluated using the (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-dyphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro drug release and transport studies were performed to predict the in vivo release profile and to evaluate the drug delivery potential of the SLN formulations, respectively. The RISP-loaded SLN systems were stable and had high EE and similar shape to the placebo formulations before and after storage. Classical Fickian diffusion was identified as the release mechanism for RISP from the SLN formulation. Biocompatibility and dose-dependent RISP transport across Caco-2 cells were observed for the prepared SLN formulations. The viability of SLN as formulations for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs such as RISP was illustrated. PMID:22867992

Silva, A C; Kumar, A; Wild, W; Ferreira, D; Santos, D; Forbes, B

2012-10-15

128

Increased IKK? Expression in the Basal Layer of the Epidermis of Transgenic Mice Enhances the Malignant Potential of Skin Tumors  

PubMed Central

Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in humans. In this study we demonstrate that elevated IKK? expression in murine epidermis increases the malignancy potential of skin tumors. We describe the generation of transgenic mice overexpressing IKK? in the basal, proliferative layer of the epidermis and in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. The epidermis of K5-IKK? transgenic animals shows several alterations such as hyperproliferation, mislocalized expression of integrin-?6 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor maspin. Treatment of the back skin of mice with the mitogenic agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate causes in transgenic mice the appearance of different preneoplastic changes such as epidermal atypia with loss of cell polarity and altered epidermal tissue architecture, while in wild type littermates this treatment only leads to the development of benign epidermal hyperplasia. Moreover, in skin carcinogenesis assays, transgenic mice carrying active Ha-ras (K5-IKK?-Tg.AC mice) develop invasive tumors, instead of the benign papillomas arising in wild type-Tg-AC mice also bearing an active Ha-ras. Therefore we provide evidence for a tumor promoter role of IKK? in skin cancer, similarly to what occurs in other neoplasias, including hepatocarcinomas and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. The altered expression of cyclin D1, maspin and integrin-?6 in skin of transgenic mice provides, at least in part, the molecular bases for the increased malignant potential found in the K5-IKK? skin tumors. PMID:21755017

Fernández-Aceñero, M. Jesús; Navarro, Manuel; Page, Angustias; Jorcano, José L.; Bravo, Ana; Ramírez, Ángel; Casanova, M. Llanos

2011-01-01

129

Human Papillomavirus in the Lesions of the Oral Mucosa According to Topography  

PubMed Central

Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated. PMID:23922786

Mravak-Stipeti?, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranj?i?, Josip; Kneževi?, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena

2013-01-01

130

Screening of a heptamer-type sgRNA library for potential therapeutic agents against hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

tRNase-Z(L)-utilizing efficacious (TRUE) gene silencing is an RNA-mediated gene expression control technology that has therapeutic potential. This technology is based on the property of tRNase Z(L) that it can cleave any target RNA at any desired site under the direction of an appropriate artificial small guide RNA (sgRNA). To search for novel potential therapeutic sgRNAs for hematological malignancies, we screened a library composed of 156 sgRNAs, and found that 20 sgRNAs can efficiently induce apoptosis in leukemia and/or myeloma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 4 of the 20 sgRNAs can reduce growth rates of HL60 cells in mouse xenograft models. PMID:24768135

Takahashi, Masayuki; Elbarbary, Reyad A; Watanabe, Norihiro; Goto, Atsushi; Kamiya, Daichi; Watabe, Yoshihiro; Uchiyama, Takayoshi; Narita, Miwako; Takahashi, Masuhiro; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Ishihara, Noriko; Miyazawa, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Kawano, Mitsuoki; Tamura, Masato; Nashimoto, Masayuki

2014-07-01

131

Boronated dipeptide borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine as a potential boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors.  

PubMed

Takagaki, M., Ono, K., Masunaga, S-I., Kinashi, Y., Oda, Y., Miyatake, S-I., Hashimoto, N., Powell, W., Sood, A. and Spielvogel, B. F. Boronated Dipeptide Borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine as a Potential Boron Carrier in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors. Radiat. Res. 156, 118-122 (2001).A boronated dipeptide, borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine (BGPA), was synthesized as a possible boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors. In vitro, at equal concentrations of (10)B in the extracellular medium, BGPA had the same effect in BNCT as p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Boron analysis was carried out using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry and track-etch autoradiography. The tumor:blood and tumor:normal brain (10)B concentration ratios were 8.9 +/- 2.1 and 3.0 +/- 1.2, respectively, in rats bearing intracranial C6 gliosarcomas using alpha-particle track autoradiography. The IC(50), i.e. the dose capable of inhibiting the growth of C6 gliosarcoma cells by 50% after 3 days of incubation, was 5.9 x 10(-3) M BGPA, which is similar to that of 6.4 x 10(-3) M for BPA. The amide bond of BGPA is free from enzymatic attack, since it is protected from hydrolysis by the presence of a boron atom at the alpha-carbon position of glycine. These results suggest promise for the use of this agent for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Further preclinical studies of BGPA are warranted, since BGPA has advantages over both BPA and BSH. PMID:11418080

Takagaki, M; Powell, W; Sood, A; Spielvogel, B F; Hosmane, N S; Kirihata, M; Ono, K; Masunaga, S I; Kinashi, Y; Miyatake, S I; Hashimoto, N

2001-07-01

132

Depleted Uranium. Is it potentially involved in the recent upsurge of malignancies in populations exposed to war dust?  

PubMed

Due to its extreme density, depleted Uranium (DU) has recently entered the warfare industry and became a major pollutant to the biosphere. Although DU is less radioactive than natural Uranium, it still retains all its chemical toxicity. Limited data exists regarding the long-term hazards of DU on humans, however, it is suspected to be a major toxic and mutagenic agent. Literature review reveals the scarcity of the World Health Organization's knowledge regarding related DU-malignancies. Battlefield reports documented a steady rise of malignancies and newborn malformations after war, that is, leukemia in the Balkans, and congenital anomalies and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in Iraq. Kaposi sarcoma in Iraq has a quite aggressive behavior compared with the classic KS before, suggesting a potential relation with DU, and possibly a different DU related KS-type. Children are more susceptible to radiation than adults. This enlarges the responsibility of the medical communities for an evidence-based attitude towards DU, and to ban its use until proven otherwise. We, as medical bodies have a human approach - stand with man not to be mistreated, and with green norms, which veto all suspected pollutants of the planet. Until further notice, DU should be thoroughly checked for safety, before it kills. PMID:22588807

Shelleh, Hamdi H

2012-05-01

133

Preclinical evidence of potential craniofacial adverse effect of zoledronic acid in pediatric patients with bone malignancies.  

PubMed

High doses of zoledronic acid (ZOL), one of the most potent inhibitors of bone resorption, are currently evaluated in phase III clinical trials in Europe for the treatment of malignant pediatric primary bone tumors. The impact of such an intensive treatment on the craniofacial skeleton growth is a critical question in the context of patients with actively growing skeleton; in particular, in light of our previous studies evidencing that endochondral bone formation was transiently disturbed by high doses of ZOL. Two protocols adapted from pediatric treatments were developed for newborn mice (a total of 5 or 10 injections of ZOL 50?g/kg every two days). Their impact on skull bones and teeth growth was analyzed by X-rays, microCT and histology up to 3months after the last injection. ZOL administrations induced a transient delay of skull bone growth and an irreversible delay in incisor, first molar eruption and root elongation. Other teeth were affected, but most were erupted by 3months. Root histogenesis was severely impacted for all molars and massive odontogenic tumor-like structures were observed in all mandibular incisors. High doses of ZOL irreversibly disturbed teeth eruption and elongation, and delayed skull bone formation. These preclinical observations are essential for the follow-up of onco-pediatric patients treated with ZOL. PMID:25193159

Lézot, Frédéric; Chesneau, Julie; Battaglia, Séverine; Brion, Régis; Castaneda, Beatriz; Farges, Jean-Christophe; Heymann, Dominique; Rédini, Françoise

2014-11-01

134

Anti-Heparanase Aptamers as Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents for Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase enzyme present in activated leucocytes, mast cells, placental tissue, neutrophils and macrophages, and is involved in tumour metastasis and tissue invasion. It presents a potential target for cancer therapies and various molecules have been developed in an attempt to inhibit the enzymatic action of heparanase. In an attempt to develop a novel therapeutic with an associated diagnostic assay, we have previously described high affinity aptamers selected against heparanase. In this work, we demonstrated that these anti-heparanase aptamers are capable of inhibiting tissue invasion of tumour cells associated with oral cancer and verified that such inhibition is due to inhibition of the enzyme and not due to other potentially cytotoxic effects of the aptamers. Furthermore, we have identified a short 30 bases aptamer as a potential candidate for further studies, as this showed a higher ability to inhibit tissue invasion than its longer counterpart, as well as a reduced potential for complex formation with other non-specific serum proteins. Finally, the aptamer was found to be stable and therefore suitable for use in human models, as it showed no degradation in the presence of human serum, making it a potential candidate for both diagnostic and therapeutic use. PMID:25295847

Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia M.; McKenzie, Edward A.; Bitu, Carolina C.; Salo, Sirpa; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Nyberg, Pia; Risteli, Juha; deAlmeida, Carlos E. B.; Brenchley, Paul E. C.; Salo, Tuula; Missailidis, Sotiris

2014-01-01

135

Macrophage and interleukin-1 induced nitric oxide production and cytostasis in hamster tumor cells varying in malignant potential.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide has been shown to contribute to cytotoxicity in mouse and rat tumor cells. In these studies we examined the role of nitric oxide in cytostasis in hamster tumor cells varying in their malignant potential. Spontaneously transformed hamster embryonic fibroblasts (STHE cells) with low metastatic activity produced significantly greater amounts of nitric oxide in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated hamster alveolar macrophages (HAM) than did tumor cell lines with high experimental metastatic activity (HET-SR, HET-SR1, STHE-83/20 cells). HET-SR cells, which exhibit low spontaneous metastastic activity, also produced relatively high levels of nitric oxide in response to IL-1, whereas the response of the spontaneously metastatic lines, HET-SR1 and STHE-83/20 cells, was low. IL-1 and HAM also induced cytostasis in nitric oxide-producing STHE and HET-SR cells. However, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), had no effect on this activity. These findings, together with the observation that anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody prevented HAM-mediated cytostasis in all of the tumor cell lines demonstrate that nitric oxide is not involved in hamster macrophage-induced tumor cell growth suppression. In contrast to HAM, rat alveolar macrophages, which produced nitric oxide in response to LPS, exerted similar levels of cytostasis toward all of the hamster tumor cell variants, an action that was blocked by L-NMMA in HET-SR, HET-SR1, and STHE-83/20 cells. Thus production of nitric oxide by hamster tumor cells is inversely correlated with their malignant potential. However, nitric oxide does not appear to be involved in IL-1- or HAM-mediated cytostasis toward hamster tumor cells. PMID:9103232

Lavnikova, N; Burdelya, L; Lakhotia, A; Patel, N; Prokhorova, S; Laskin, D L

1997-04-01

136

Down-regulation of malignant potential by alpha linolenic acid in human and mouse colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ?-3 fatty acis or n-3 fatty acid) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Numerous test tube and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent or inhibit the growth of cancers, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are important in cancer physiology. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of an essential omega-3 fatty acid and organic compound found in seeds (chia and flaxseed), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils. ALA has also been shown to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells. However, direct evidence that ALA suppresses to the development of colon cancer has not been studied. Also, no previous studies have evaluated whether ALA may regulate malignant potential (adhesion, invasion and colony formation) in colon cancer cells. In order to address the questions above, we conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether ALA may down-regulate malignant potential in human (HT29 and HCT116) and mouse (MCA38) colon cancer cell lines. We observed that treatment with 1-5 mM of ALA inhibits cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion in both human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that ALA did not decrease total colony numbers when compared to control. By contrast, we found that size of colony was significantly changed by ALA treatment when compared to control in all colon cancer cell lines. We suggest that our data enhance our current knowledge of ALA's mechanism and provide crucial information to further the development of new therapies for the management or chemoprevention of colon cancer. PMID:25336096

Chamberland, John P; Moon, Hyun-Seuk

2014-10-22

137

Chemokines and Cytokines as Salivary Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Chemokines have been shown to be important in both inflammation and carcinogenesis and are able to be measured in saliva with relatively robust methods including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Thus it has been hypothesized that patients with oral cancer and oral potentially malignant lesions will have elevated levels of specific chemokines in oral fluids and that this may be used as a marker of both the early detection of malignant disease and progression to malignancy. The concept that salivary biomarkers can be easily measured and indicate disease states has profound consequences for clinical practice and may open up new strategies for the diagnosis, prognosis, and potential therapy of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This review focuses on our understanding of cytokines and chemokines and the potential role that they may have in clinical practice. PMID:24376459

Prasad, Gareema; McCullough, Michael

2013-01-01

138

Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.  

PubMed

Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. PMID:25016285

Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

2014-10-15

139

Teriflunomide, an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase for the potential oral treatment of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Teriflunomide, being developed as a potential oral treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) by sanofi-aventis, is the active metabolite of the rheumatoid arthritis drug leflunomide. Both teriflunomide and leflunomide are inhibitors of the mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, which is critically involved in pyrimidine synthesis. The production of activated T-cells largely depends on de novo pyrimidine synthesis, and thus pyrimidine depletion is thought to result in the inhibition of immune cell proliferation. Therapeutic efficacy of teriflunomide has been demonstrated in vivo in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of MS using Dark Agouti rats. In a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, treatment with teriflunomide reduced the number of active lesions in the brain and preliminary evidence indicated a slowing in the development of disability. Recently reported data from the phase III TEMSO clinical trial support these initial findings. Compared with current therapies, teriflunomide has the advantage of oral administration. Thus, if good efficacy is demonstrated, teriflunomide may have a role to play in the future treatment of MS. PMID:21157651

Palmer, Alan M

2010-11-01

140

The potentials of proton beam radiation therapy in malignant lymphoma, thymoma and sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of Swedish oncologists and hospital physicists have estimated the number of patients in Sweden suitable for proton beam therapy. The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and

Thomas Björk-Eriksson; Göran Bjelkengren; Bengt Glimelius

2005-01-01

141

Recurrence of a functional adrenocortical oncocytoma of borderline malignant potential showing high FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT.  

PubMed

Adrenocortical oncocytoma is a very rare tumor, which is not malignant and nonfunctioning in most cases. We report a case of a 53-year-old male with a 9.8 cm sized hyperfunctioning, well-encapsulated adrenal mass, which exhibited by high FDG uptake on a PET/CT scan. The patient had complained of symptoms of Cushing's syndrome for 4 months. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and the mass was pathologically confirmed as adrenocortical oncocytoma of uncertain malignant potential. Four years after surgery, the tumor recurred with distant metastases, which was proven by subsequent biopsy. 18F-FDG PET/CT also showed hypermetabolism in the recurred tumor and multiple metastatic lesions. Adrenocortical oncocytoma of borderline malignant potential with high FDG uptake may require long-term follow-up with clinical, hormonal, and imaging evaluations. PMID:23990396

Son, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang-Woo; Song, Bong-Il; Jang, Yun-Jin; Park, Ji-Young; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

2014-01-01

142

Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against halitosis. It is also used for its deworming property. Along with these beneficial effects of areca nut one of its most harmful effects on the human body in general and oral cavity in particular is the development of potentially malignant disorder called Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The present paper discusses in detail the effects of the components of areca nut on pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Key words:Areca nut, oral submucous fibrosis, potentially malignant disorder, supari.

Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

2014-01-01

143

Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity Against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The associ- ation between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of

Enzo A. Palombo

2009-01-01

144

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus  

PubMed Central

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25400987

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

145

Potential Therapeutic Targets for Oral Cancer: ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF, CD70  

PubMed Central

In India, oral cancer has consistently ranked among top three causes of cancer-related deaths, and it has emerged as a top cause for the cancer-related deaths among men. Lack of effective therapeutic options is one of the main challenges in clinical management of oral cancer patients. We interrogated large pool of samples from oral cancer gene expression studies to identify potential therapeutic targets that are involved in multiple cancer hallmark events. Therapeutic strategies directed towards such targets can be expected to effectively control cancer cells. Datasets from different gene expression studies were integrated by removing batch-effects and was used for downstream analyses, including differential expression analysis. Dependency network analysis was done to identify genes that undergo marked topological changes in oral cancer samples when compared with control samples. Causal reasoning analysis was carried out to identify significant hypotheses, which can explain gene expression profiles observed in oral cancer samples. Text-mining based approach was used to detect cancer hallmarks associated with genes significantly expressed in oral cancer. In all, 2365 genes were detected to be differentially expressed genes, which includes some of the highly differentially expressed genes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1/3/10/13), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (IL8, CXCL-10/-11), PTHLH, SERPINE1, NELL2, S100A7A, MAL, CRNN, TGM3, CLCA4, keratins (KRT-3/4/13/76/78), SERPINB11 and serine peptidase inhibitors (SPINK-5/7). XIST, TCEAL2, NRAS and FGFR2 are some of the important genes detected by dependency and causal network analysis. Literature mining analysis annotated 1014 genes, out of which 841 genes were statistically significantly annotated. The integration of output of various analyses, resulted in the list of potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer, which included targets such as ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF and CD70. PMID:25029526

Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S.

2014-01-01

146

Potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer: ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF, CD70.  

PubMed

In India, oral cancer has consistently ranked among top three causes of cancer-related deaths, and it has emerged as a top cause for the cancer-related deaths among men. Lack of effective therapeutic options is one of the main challenges in clinical management of oral cancer patients. We interrogated large pool of samples from oral cancer gene expression studies to identify potential therapeutic targets that are involved in multiple cancer hallmark events. Therapeutic strategies directed towards such targets can be expected to effectively control cancer cells. Datasets from different gene expression studies were integrated by removing batch-effects and was used for downstream analyses, including differential expression analysis. Dependency network analysis was done to identify genes that undergo marked topological changes in oral cancer samples when compared with control samples. Causal reasoning analysis was carried out to identify significant hypotheses, which can explain gene expression profiles observed in oral cancer samples. Text-mining based approach was used to detect cancer hallmarks associated with genes significantly expressed in oral cancer. In all, 2365 genes were detected to be differentially expressed genes, which includes some of the highly differentially expressed genes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1/3/10/13), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (IL8, CXCL-10/-11), PTHLH, SERPINE1, NELL2, S100A7A, MAL, CRNN, TGM3, CLCA4, keratins (KRT-3/4/13/76/78), SERPINB11 and serine peptidase inhibitors (SPINK-5/7). XIST, TCEAL2, NRAS and FGFR2 are some of the important genes detected by dependency and causal network analysis. Literature mining analysis annotated 1014 genes, out of which 841 genes were statistically significantly annotated. The integration of output of various analyses, resulted in the list of potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer, which included targets such as ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF and CD70. PMID:25029526

Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S

2014-01-01

147

Antibacterial potential of Manuka honey against three oral bacteria in vitro.  

PubMed

Honey is an ancient natural remedy for the treatment of infected wounds. It has regained attention in the medical profession, as it has recently been reported to have a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect against bacteria. Data concerning Manuka honey of New Zealand origin, which is claimed to provide additional non-peroxide antimicrobial activity (so-called standard NPA) against oral pathogens, is still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to screen for the antibacterial efficacy of different Manuka honey products against S. mutans (OMZ 918), P. gingivalis (OMZ 925) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (OMZ 299). Chlorhexidine and saline served as positive and negative controls, respectively, whereas a Swiss multifloral honey served as control honey without intrinsic non-peroxide activity. Chlorhexidine showed the highest inhibiting potential against all specimens tested. Manuka honey below an NPA value of 15 showed the least bacterial growth-inhibiting potential, even less ? although not significantly so ? than multifloral Swiss honey. Manuka honey above an NPA value of 15 showed a significantly higher antibacterial effect compared to the other honeys tested. All Manuka honey preparations were more effective in inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, rather than S. mutans. In conclusion, the study showed an NPA dose-dependent antibacterial efficacy of Manuka honey. Further investigations of this natural product are now open for scrutiny. PMID:25253413

Schmidlin, PatrickSchmidlin R; English, Helen; Duncan, Warwick; Belibasakis, Georgios N; Thurnheer, Thomas

2014-01-01

148

Potential impact of new oral anticoagulants on the management of atrial fibrillation-related stroke in primary care  

PubMed Central

Aim Anticoagulant prophylaxis with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin) is effective in reducing the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). New oral anticoagulants have emerged as potential alternatives to traditional oral agents. The purpose of this review was to summarise the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban, dabigatran and apixaban in stroke prevention in patients with AF in phase III trials, evaluate their cost-effectiveness and consider the implications for primary care. Methodology A literature search was performed between 2007 and 2012, selecting all phase III trials (ROCKET AF, RE-LY and ARISTOTLE) of new oral anticoagulants and relevant cost–benefit studies. Results Evidence shows that all three agents are at least as effective as warfarin in the prevention of stroke and systemic emboli, with similar safety profiles. Cost–benefit studies of rivaroxaban and dabigatran further confirm their potential use as alternatives to warfarin in clinical practice. These observations may allow stratification of the general practice AF population, to help prioritise which patients may benefit from receiving a new oral anticoagulant. Conclusion The clinical and economic benefits of the new oral anticoagulants, along with appropriate risk stratification, may enable a higher number of patients with AF to receive effective and convenient prophylaxis for stroke prevention. PMID:23621153

Harris, K; Mant, J

2013-01-01

149

CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF ROTENONE: SUBCHRONIC ORAL AND PERITONEAL ADMINISTRATION TO RATS AND CHRONIC DIETARY ADMINISTRATION TO SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Three long-term studies were performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the pesticide rotenone in hamsters and rats. Rotenone was administered orally to Wistar rats and by intraperitoneal injection to Sprague-Dawley rats, which were maintained and observed for 14 and 18 ...

150

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their clinical potential in the treatment of B-cell malignancies: focus on ibrutinib  

PubMed Central

Aberrant signaling of the B-cell receptor pathway has been linked to the development and maintenance of B-cell malignancies. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein early in this pathway, has emerged as a new therapeutic target in a variety of such malignancies. Ibrutinib, the most clinically advanced small molecule inhibitor of BTK, has demonstrated impressive tolerability and activity in a range of B-cell lymphomas which led to its recent approval for relapsed mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of ibrutinib and discusses its therapeutic potential. PMID:25360238

Aalipour, Amin

2014-01-01

151

Pulmonary epithelial-myoepithelial tumor of unproven malignant potential: report of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Epithelial-myoepithelial tumors of the lung are rare neoplasms whose biological behavior and clinical course still remain to be defined. A case of epithelial-myoepithelial tumor of the lung arising from bronchial mucosa-submucosa and occurring as a polypoid lesion of the upper left bronchus in a 47-year-old man is reported. The tumor did not infiltrate the cartilaginous wall of the bronchus and showed a biphasic histological appearance with a double layering of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm were also observed. Mitotic figures were very rare and necrosis absent. Immunohistochemical study for epithelial and muscular markers confirmed the presence of a double-cell component in the tumor, namely epithelial and myoepithelial. The patient is alive and well, with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease 6 months after surgery. On the basis of the present case and the six previously reported cases, we suggest using the noncommittal term pulmonary epithelial-myoepithelial tumor of unproven malignant potential (PEMTUMP) for this type of neoplasm. In addition, we first introduce p63 as a novel marker for highlighting the myoepithelial cells of the respiratory tract and speculate on the role of these cells in the development of this unusual tumor. PMID:11353064

Pelosi, G; Fraggetta, F; Maffini, F; Solli, P; Cavallon, A; Viale, G

2001-05-01

152

A Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetic Study of Oral and Intravenous Hydroxyurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread usage of hydroxyurea in the treat- ment of both malignant and nonmalignant diseases and a recent expansion in the recognition of its potential therapeu- tic applications, there have been few detailed studies of hydroxyurea's pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior and oral bio- availability. Parenteral administration schedules have been evaluated because of concerns about the possibility for significant interindividual variability

Gladys I. Rodriguez; John G. Kuhn; Geoffrey R. Weiss; Susan G. Hilsenbeck; John R. Eckardt; Allison Thurman; David A. Rinaldi; Stephanie Hodges; Daniel D. Von Hoff; Eric K. Rowinsky

2010-01-01

153

ANGPTL4 regulates the metastatic potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Lymph node metastasis is a major factor for poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the molecular mechanisms of lymph node metastasis are unclear. We determined that angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) mRNA and protein expression were increased in OSCC cells established from the primary site in metastatic cases. In addition, ANGPTL4 expression in biopsy specimens was correlated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Therefore, our initial findings suggest that OSCC cells expressing ANGPTL4 may possess metastatic ability. Furthermore, cell culture supernatants from OSCC cells that metastasized to the lymph node contain ANGPTL4 and promote invasive ability. These findings suggest that secreted ANGPTL4 may affect the invasive ability of OSCC. Moreover, the rates of positive ANGPTL4 expression at the primary site were significantly higher in the lymph node metastasis group. These results demonstrate that ANGPTL4 contributes to OSCC metastasis by stimulating cell invasion. Therefore, ANGPTL4 is a potential therapeutic target for preventing cancer metastasis. PMID:25060575

Tanaka, Junichi; Irié, Tarou; Yamamoto, Gou; Yasuhara, Rika; Isobe, Tomohide; Hokazono, Chie; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Kohno, Yohko; Mishima, Kenji

2015-02-01

154

Experimental oral inoculations in birds to evaluate potential definitive hosts of Neospora caninum.  

PubMed

Experimental oral inoculations to evaluate potential definitive hosts of Neospora caninum were conducted by feeding infected rodent tissues to 9 carnivorous birds of 4 species. Birds included 2 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 2 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), 2 barn owls (Tyto alba), and 3 American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchus). The rodents (mice or rats) had been inoculated with 100,000 culture-derived tachyzoites of N. caninum 1-6 mo before feeding to the birds. Fecal samples were collected from each bird daily for 1 mo after feeding rodents and examined for oocysts by fecal flotation. In addition, processed aliquots from all avian fecal samples were fed to BALB/c mice. Five weeks after feeding, mice were bled and sera were tested for antibodies against N. caninum. One to two months later, mice were killed and brain tissue was examined microscopically for protozoal cysts. While occasional oocysts were found in avian fecal samples, these were likely not N. caninum because they were not infective to BALB/c mice. It was concluded that the bird species tested are not likely to be definitive hosts of N. caninum. PMID:7472875

Baker, D G; Morishita, T Y; Brooks, D L; Shen, S K; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P

1995-10-01

155

Proliferation and apoptosis markers in oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Premalignant/potentially malignant-oral lesions and conditions such as oral submucous fibrosis are known to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation is often associated with changes at the genetic level that in turn is reflected by the altered expression of proteins related to cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. Aim: To evaluate the expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: To assess the immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in 50 cases of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and ten each of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Results: The labeling indices (LI) of OSF and OSCC were comparable for p53 and Ki67.The p53 LI ranged from 7.9 to 71.9 in OSF and 65.2 to 85.9 in OSCC, and for Ki67 it ranged from 4.39 to 43.23, 18.35 to 42.33, respectively. Conclusion: The p53, Ki67, and bax profiles of OSF and OSCC were altered compared to the normal and these markers could be used as surrogate markers of malignant transformation in OSF. PMID:22529572

Ranganathan, K; Kavitha, R

2011-01-01

156

Mesenchymal stem cells from the oral cavity and their potential value in tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is one of the most common conditions affecting humans, and current treatment strategies, which focus on the removal and long-term control of dental plaque, are generally successful in eliminating active disease and promoting tissue repair. However, regeneration of the supporting structures of the tooth remains an elusive goal and a challenge. The formation of new bone and cementum with supportive periodontal ligament is the ultimate objective, but current regeneration therapies are incapable of achieving this in a predictable way. The regeneration of periodontal tissue requires a combination of fundamental events, such as appropriate level and sequencing of regulatory signals, the presence of progenitor cells, an extracellular matrix or carrier and an adequate blood supply. Based on tissue-engineering concepts, the regeneration process may be modulated by manipulating the signaling pathways of regulatory molecules, the extracellular matrix or scaffold, or the cellular components. The identification of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow started a new era in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells became a therapeutic option with several advantages, including high-quality regeneration of damaged tissues without the formation of fibrous tissue, minimal donor-site morbidity compared with autografts and a low risk of autoimmune rejection and disease transmission. The aim of this review was to describe the main sources of mesenchymal stem cells from tissues in the oral cavity and the potential of these cells in regenerative therapy. Special attention is paid to gingival tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells because they represent the most accessible source of stem cells in the human mouth. PMID:25494604

Sanz, Antonio R; Carrión, Flavio S; Chaparro, Alejandra P

2015-02-01

157

Potential beneficial effects of oral administration of isoflavones in patients with chronic mountain sickness  

PubMed Central

Soy isoflavones (Ifs), which are natural phytoestrogens, have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that genistein, the most active component of Ifs, inhibits pulmonary vascular structural remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by chronic hypoxia in male Wistar rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ifs on right ventricular and pulmonary hemodynamics in individuals with chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Twenty-eight male patients living on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (5,200 m) who were suffering from CMS were treated orally with Ifs (20 mg, twice daily) for 45 days. Physiological and plasma biochemical indices, hematology and echocardiography were investigated. It was observed that 45 days of treatment with Ifs significantly increased blood oxygen saturation and markedly decreased the CMS score and heart rate (all P<0.05) of the subjects. Following treatment with Ifs, hematocrit (P<0.05), hemoglobin concentration (P<0.01) and plasma levels of malondialdehyde (P<0.05) were significantly decreased, while plasma levels of nitric oxide (P<0.01) and the plasma activity of nitric oxide synthase (P<0.01) and superoxide dismutase (P<0.01) were markedly increased compared with the respective values obtained prior to treatment with Ifs. The echocardiography results showed that Ifs significantly decreased the main pulmonary artery diameter (P<0.05), right ventricular end-diastolic anteroposterior diameter (P<0.01), right ventricular end-diastolic trans diameter (P<0.01), right ventricular anterior wall (P<0.01) and right ventricular outflow tract (P<0.01). These results indicate the potential beneficial effects of Ifs in the reduction of excessive erythrocytosis, the alleviation of oxidative damage and the amelioration of right ventricular index and pulmonary hemodynamics in CMS. PMID:24348805

CUI, JIANHUA; GAO, LIANG; YANG, HAIJUN; WANG, FULING; JIANG, CHUNHUA; GAO, YUQI

2014-01-01

158

Depth sensitive oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying depth-dependent alterations associated with epithelial cancerous lesions can be challenging in the oral cavity where variable epithelial thicknesses and troublesome keratin growths are prominent. Spectroscopic methods with enhanced depth resolution would immensely aid in isolating optical properties associated with malignant transformation. Combining multiple beveled fibers, oblique collection geometry, and polarization gating, oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy (OPRS) achieves depth sensitive detection. We report promising results from a clinical trial of patients with oral lesions suspected of dysplasia or carcinoma demonstrating the potential of OPRS for the analysis of morphological and architectural changes in the context of multilayer, epithelial oral tissue.

Jimenez, Maria K.; Lam, Sylvia; Poh, Catherine; Sokolov, Konstantin

2014-05-01

159

Long-term low-dose ?-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.  

PubMed

Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy ?-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1-2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1-2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of ?-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway. PMID:24746471

Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin

2014-05-01

160

Second malignancies after prostate brachytherapy: Incidence of bladder and colorectal cancers in patients with 15 years of potential follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the incidence of second bladder and colorectal cancers after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: This review included 125 patients treated with I-125 brachytherapy alone, and 223 patients who received supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Median follow-up was 10.5 years. Patients were followed for the development of lower genitourinary and colorectal cancers. Second malignancies arising five years after radiation therapy were defined as being potentially associated with treatment; observed rates were then compared with age-matched expected rates according to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Results: Five years out of treatment, there were 15 patients with a second solid tumor, including bladder cancer (n = 11), colorectal cancer (n = 3), and prostatic urethra cancer (n = 1). The incidence of second malignancy was no different in patients treated with brachytherapy alone (1.6%) vs. those receiving external beam radiotherapy (5.8%, p = 0.0623). There were more observed bladder cancers compared with those expected (relative risk, 2.34, 95% confidence interval 0.96-3.72; absolute excess risk 35 cancers per 10,000 patients). Relative risk did not significantly change over increasing follow-up intervals up to 20 years after treatment. Conclusions: There may be an increased but small risk of developing a second malignancy after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. This outcome could be related to radiation carcinogenesis, but more vigilant screening and thorough workup as a result of radiation side effects and predisposing conditions (e.g., genetic and environmental factors) in many of the patients found to have second malignancies likely contributed to the higher number of observed malignancies than expected.

Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Sylvester, John E. [Seattle Prostate Institute at Swedish Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States) and Swedish Cancer Center at Stevens Hospital, Edmonds, WA (United States)]. E-mail: johnsylvester@seattleprostateinst.com; Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Blasko, John C. [Seattle Prostate Institute at Swedish Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Grimm, Peter D. [Seattle Prostate Institute at Swedish Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States)

2006-11-01

161

Potential risk of salivary-mediated viral hepatitis type B transmission from oral exposure to fomites.  

PubMed

Twelve grade school and junior high school students had oral exposures to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive saliva via contact with contaminated musical instruments. The 12 exposed students and 18 students who served as age and sex matched controls were tested for the presence of HBsAg and antibody to the hepatitis surface antigen (anti-HBs) at 2 weeks, 8 weeks and 6 months after exposure. All students were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBs on all dates tested and reported no illness during that time suggestive of viral hepatitis. There was no evidence of viral hepatitis, type B transmission from the exposure. The students probably experienced the maximum possible oral exposure from direct or fomites contact, since there was no cleaning of the musical instruments between use by the students and teacher. Based on these results, the risk of transmission of viral hepatitis, type B from oral contact with fomites is unlikely. PMID:512356

Osterholm, M T; Max, B J; Hanson, M; Polesky, H F

1979-12-01

162

Chromosome 3 Anomalies Investigated by Genome Wide SNP Analysis of Benign, Low Malignant Potential and Low Grade Ovarian Serous Tumours  

PubMed Central

Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive from LMP tumours. PMID:22163003

Birch, Ashley H.; Arcand, Suzanna L.; Oros, Kathleen K.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Watters, A. Kevin; Provencher, Diane; Greenwood, Celia M.; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Tonin, Patricia N.

2011-01-01

163

Modulation of growth and angiogenic potential of oral squamous carcinoma cells in vitro using salvianolic acid B  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies showed that Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters and such anti-cancer effects might be related to the inhibition of angiogenesis. This study was aimed to further investigate the anti-proliferative effect of Sal B on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the possible mechanisms of action with respect to angiogenesis inhibition. Methods Two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC4, and premalignant leukoplakia cells were treated with different concentrations of Sal B. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. cDNA microarray was utilized to evaluate the expression of 96 genes known to be involved in modulating the biological processes of angiogenesis. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted to confirm the cDNA microarray data. Results Sal B induced growth inhibition in OSCC cell lines but had limited effects on premalignant cells. A total of 17 genes showed a greater than 3-fold change when comparing Sal B treated OSCC cells to the control. Among these genes, HIF-1?, TNF? and MMP9 are specifically inhibited, expression of THBS2 was up-regulated. Conclusions Sal B has inhibitory effect on OSCC cell growth. The antitumor effect can be attributed to anti-angiogenic potential induced by a decreased expression of some key regulator genes of angiogenesis. Sal B may be a promising modality for treating oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:21726465

2011-01-01

164

AVX-470: A Novel Oral Anti-TNF Antibody with Therapeutic Potential in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the GI tract that is currently treated with injected monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We developed and characterized AVX-470, a novel polyclonal antibody specific for human TNF. We evaluated the oral activity of AVX-470m, a surrogate antibody specific murine TNF, in several well-accepted mouse models of IBD. Methods AVX-470 and AVX-470m were isolated from the colostrum of dairy cows that had been immunized with TNF. The potency, specificity and affinity of both AVX-470 and AVX-470m were evaluated in vitro and compared with infliximab. AVX-470m was orally administered to mice either before or after induction of colitis and activity was measured by endoscopy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and quantitative measurement of mRNA levels. Colitis was induced using either 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Results AVX-470 and AVX-470m were shown to be functionally comparable in vitro. Moreover, the specificity, neutralizing potency and affinity of AVX-470 were comparable to infliximab. Orally administered AVX-470m effectively reduced disease severity in several mouse models of IBD. Activity was comparable to that of oral prednisolone or parenteral etanercept. The antibody penetrated the colonic mucosa and inhibited TNF-driven mucosal inflammation with minimal systemic exposure. Conclusions AVX-470 is a novel polyclonal anti-TNF antibody with an in vitro activity profile comparable to that of infliximab. Oral administration of a surrogate antibody specific for mouse TNF is effective in treating mouse models of IBD, delivering the anti-TNF to the site of inflammation with minimal systemic exposure. PMID:23949620

Bhol, Kailash C.; Tracey, Daniel E.; Lemos, Brenda R.; Lyng, Gregory D.; Erlich, Emma C.; Keane, David M.; Quesenberry, Michael S.; Holdorf, Amy D.; Schlehuber, Lisa D.; Clark, Shawn A.; Fox, Barbara S.

2013-01-01

165

Efficacy of benzydamine hydrochloride, chlorhexidine, and povidone iodine in the treatment of oral mucositis among patients undergoing radiotherapy in head and neck malignancies: A drug trail  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Oral mucositis is a common and debilitating complication of radiotherapy, which is associated with significant morbidity. It is therefore extremely important that mucositis be prevented, or at least treated to reduce its severity and sequelae. The objective of the study was to manage oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and to reduce pain by using Benzydamine hydrochloride (0.15%), Chlorhexidine (0.2%), and Povidone iodine (5%). Results: Benzydamine hydrochloride was observed to be effective and delayed the development of severe form of mucositis and appears more efficient in the management of radiation-induced mucositis. Conclusion: Benzydamine hydrochloride (0.15%) is safe, well tolerated, helps not just in delaying the progression of mucositis but also reduces the intensity of pain. PMID:22114446

Roopashri, G.; Jayanthi, K.; Guruprasad, R.

2011-01-01

166

Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.  

PubMed Central

Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners. PMID:7240404

Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

1981-01-01

167

p53 expression in oral lichenoid lesions and oral lichen planus.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was to compare the expression of p53 protein in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR). The study population consisted of 65 patients-31 diagnosed with OLP and 34 with OLR. The results showed more p53 positive cases in the OLP group than in the OLR group. However, the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.114). The most common immunolocalization was observed at the basal cell layer. Due to the chance of potential future malignancy, follow-up for all cases is recommended. PMID:25574723

Arreaza, A; Rivera, H; Correnti, M

2015-01-01

168

Outcome of excision of oral erythroplakia.  

PubMed

Oral erythroplakia is a precancerous lesion with high malignant potential, and resection is the recommended treatment. We designed a retrospective study to analyse the outcome of treatment in patients who had operations for oral erythroplakia. A total of 84 patients (74 men and 10 women, mean (SD) age 54 (12) years, range 29-83) were enrolled. Histopathologically the diagnoses were invasive carcinoma (n=3), dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (n=61), and squamous hyperplasia (n=20), and all patients were treated by carbon dioxide laser excision. There was no postoperative malignant transformation, but invasive carcinoma found after initial excision (n=3) was treated by further radical excision. The mean (SD) follow-up period was 46 (29) months (range 1-124), The postoperative recurrent rate was 14/84 (16.7%). The area of oral erythroplakia was the only factor associated with postoperative recurrence on univariate analysis, and was also the only independent factor that predicted postoperative recurrence in multivariate logistic regression analysis. An area exceeding 80mm(2) had the best predictive value (sensitivity=0.71, specificity=0.67) with a 5.1 times increased risk (odds ratio=5.1, CI 95% 1.45 to 18.05, p=0.01) of recurrence. Laser excision is effective for oral erythroplakia that is still confined to dysplasia of any degree, with low morbidity. The area of oral erythroplakia is a predictive factor for postoperative recurrence. PMID:25467247

Yang, S-W; Lee, Y-S; Chang, L-C; Hsieh, T-Y; Chen, T-A

2015-02-01

169

Oral Lichenoid Lesions - A Review and Update  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs) are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP) that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included “oral lichen planus”, “oral lichenoid lesions”, “oral drug reactions”, “lichenoid dysplasia”, and “adverse effects of dental materials”. Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP. PMID:25657414

Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Setlur, Krishnanand; Yerlagudda, Komali

2015-01-01

170

Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

2014-01-01

171

Gynecologic malignancies in adolescents.  

PubMed

Gynecologic malignancies are rare in the pediatric and adolescent populations. Given the potential consequence of infertility and the negative impact on body image that can result from the treatment of these cancers, clinicians must be aware of the most current recommendations for medical and surgical therapy of gynecologic malignancies in these patients. This article focuses on the most common gynecologic cancers in pediatric and adolescent girls, with a special emphasis on treatment that maintain fertility and positive body image. PMID:15625993

Stepanian, Marshall; Cohn, David E

2004-10-01

172

Lack of correlation between deoxyribonucleotide pool sizes, spontaneous mutation rates and malignant potential in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between altered spontaneous mutation rates and malignant characteristics of cells, two hydroxyurea-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, with alterations in ribonucleotide reductase, were examined for their rates of spontaneous mutation to 6-thioguanine and ouabain resistance, tumor growth rates and their ability to form experimental lung metastases. The most resistant cell line, HR-R2T, showed no changes in

Aaron Y. Tagger; Jacqueline E. Damen; Arnold H. Greenberg; Jim A. Wright

1989-01-01

173

Epigenetics in the hematologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

A wealth of genomic and epigenomic data has identified abnormal regulation of epigenetic processes as a prominent theme in hematologic malignancies. Recurrent somatic alterations in myeloid malignancies of key proteins involved in DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and chromatin remodeling have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the initiation and maintenance of various malignancies. The rational use of targeted epigenetic therapies requires a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms of malignant transformation driven by aberrant epigenetic regulators. In this review we provide an overview of the major protagonists in epigenetic regulation, their aberrant role in myeloid malignancies, prognostic significance and potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:25472952

Fong, Chun Yew; Morison, Jessica; Dawson, Mark A.

2014-01-01

174

Potential efficacy of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in a phase I trial in follicular and mantle cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA, Zolinza) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with clinical activity in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). A phase I trial of oral vorinostat was conducted in Japanese patients with malignant lymphoma. Vorinostat 100 or 200 mg was administered twice daily for 14 consecutive days followed by a 1-week rest interval. Of 10 patients enrolled, four had follicular lymphoma (FL), two mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), two diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and two CTCL (median age, 60 years; median number of prior regimens, 3). Vorinostat was well tolerated up to 200 mg with only one of six patients developing a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT; Grade 3 anorexia/hypokalemia). Common Grade 3 events were reversible neutropenia (30%), thrombocytopenia, and hypermagnesemia (20% each). The median number of treatment cycles was five (range, 1-36); two patients were continuing treatment. The overall response rate was 40%, with two complete responses/unconfirmed (CRu) and one partial response among FL patients and one CRu among MCL patients. One FL patient maintained CRu for 18.0 months. The median time to achieve CRu among the three patients was 8 months. These data suggest that further investigations of vorinostat in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, focusing on FL and MCL, are warranted. PMID:19817748

Watanabe, Takashi; Kato, Harumi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Morita-Hoshi, Yuriko; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Morishima, Yasuo; Ricker, Justin L; Otsuki, Tetsuya; Miyagi-Maesima, Akiko; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Tobinai, Kensei

2010-01-01

175

Non-hematopoietic PAR-2 is essential for matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression and potentiation of ras-mediated squamous cell carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

The membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, is consistently dysregulated in a range of human carcinomas, and high matriptase activity correlates with poor prognosis. Furthermore, matriptase is unique among tumor-associated proteases in that epithelial stem cell expression of the protease suffices to induce malignant transformation. Here, we use genetic epistasis analysis to identify proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-2-dependent inflammatory signaling as an essential component of matriptase-mediated oncogenesis. In cell-based assays, matriptase was a potent activator of PAR-2, and PAR-2 activation by matriptase caused robust induction of nuclear factor (NF)?B through G?i. Importantly, genetic elimination of PAR-2 from mice completely prevented matriptase-induced pre-malignant progression, including inflammatory cytokine production, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis. Selective ablation of PAR-2 from bone marrow-derived cells did not prevent matriptase-driven pre-malignant progression, indicating that matriptase activates keratinocyte stem cell PAR-2 to elicit its pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic effects. When combined with previous studies, our data suggest that dual induction of PAR-2-NF?B inflammatory signaling and PI3K-Akt-mTor survival/proliferative signaling underlies the transforming potential of matriptase and may contribute to pro-tumorigenic signaling in human epithelial carcinogenesis. PMID:24469043

Sales, K U; Friis, S; Konkel, J E; Godiksen, S; Hatakeyama, M; Hansen, K K; Rogatto, S R; Szabo, R; Vogel, L K; Chen, W; Gutkind, J S; Bugge, T H

2015-01-15

176

Transcription Profiling Reveals Potential Mechanisms of Dysbiosis in the Oral Microbiome of Rhesus Macaques with Chronic Untreated SIV Infection  

PubMed Central

A majority of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy and ultimately develop debilitating oral infections that often correlate with disease progression. Due to the impracticalities of conducting host-microbe systems-based studies in HIV infected patients, we have evaluated the potential of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected rhesus macaques to serve as a non-human primate model for oral manifestations of HIV disease. We present the first description of the rhesus macaque oral microbiota and show that a mixture of human commensal bacteria and “macaque versions” of human commensals colonize the tongue dorsum and dental plaque. Our findings indicate that SIV infection results in chronic activation of antiviral and inflammatory responses in the tongue mucosa that may collectively lead to repression of epithelial development and impact the microbiome. In addition, we show that dysbiosis of the lingual microbiome in SIV infection is characterized by outgrowth of Gemella morbillorum that may result from impaired macrophage function. Finally, we provide evidence that the increased capacity of opportunistic pathogens (e.g. E. coli) to colonize the microbiome is associated with reduced production of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24312248

Ocon, Susan; Murphy, Christina; Dang, Angeline T.; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Li, Chin-Shang; Tarara, Ross; Borujerdpur, Niku; Dandekar, Satya; Paster, Bruce J.; George, Michael D.

2013-01-01

177

Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

Palombo, Enzo A.

2011-01-01

178

Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases.  

PubMed

Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

Palombo, Enzo A

2011-01-01

179

Brain-penetrant, orally bioavailable microtubule-stabilizing small molecules are potential candidate therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies.  

PubMed

Microtubule (MT) stabilizing drugs hold promise as potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. However, thus far epothilone D has been the only brain-penetrant MT-stabilizer to be evaluated in tau transgenic mice and in AD patients. Furthermore, this natural product exhibits potential deficiencies as a drug candidate, including an intravenous route of administration and the inhibition of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter. Thus, the identification of alternative CNS-active MT-stabilizing agents that lack these potential limitations is of interest. Toward this objective, we have evaluated representative compounds from known classes of non-naturally occurring MT-stabilizing small molecules. This led to the identification of selected triazolopyrimidines and phenylpyrimidines that are orally bioavailable and brain-penetrant without disruption of Pgp function. Pharmacodynamic studies confirmed that representative compounds from these series enhance MT-stabilization in the brains of wild-type mice. Thus, these classes of MT-stabilizers hold promise for the development of orally active, CNS-directed MT-stabilizing therapies. PMID:24992153

Lou, Kevin; Yao, Yuemang; Hoye, Adam T; James, Michael J; Cornec, Anne-Sophie; Hyde, Edward; Gay, Bryant; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Smith, Amos B; Brunden, Kurt R; Ballatore, Carlo

2014-07-24

180

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

181

Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. Objective This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation. PMID:21523221

Mohd Bakri, Marina; Mohd Hussaini, Haizal; Rachel Holmes, Ann; David Cannon, Richard; Mary Rich, Alison

2010-01-01

182

Is the NBN gene mutation I171V a potential risk factor for malignant solid tumors in children?  

PubMed

NBN gene is considered as one of the low-to-moderate cancer susceptibility gene. At least 4 germline NBN mutations have been found in several malignancies in adults. In our studies, we observed the high incidence of germline mutation I171V of NBN gene in breast, colorectal, larynx cancer, and in multiple primary tumors. In this study, we would like to answer the question whether I171V germline mutation of NBN gene may constitute risk factor for solid tumors in children. The frequency of this mutation has been analyzed in patients with neuroblastoma (n=66), Wilms tumor (n=54), medulloblastoma (n=57), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n=82) hospitalized in Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Department in the years between 1987 and 2010. About 2947 anonymous blood samples collected on Guthrie cards drawn from the newborn screening program of the Wielkopolska region have been used as controls. All the patients and controls came from the same geographical region. I171V mutation of the NBN gene has been observed in 5 controls. Among children with solid tumors only in 1 child with medulloblastoma I171V variant has been found. In conclusion, I171V germline mutation in contrary to adults cannot be considered as a risk factor for children malignancies. However, owing to low number of patients with solid tumors the possibility of a Type II error may exist. PMID:21436738

Nowak, Jerzy; Mosor, Maria; Nowicka, Karina; Rembowska, Jolanta; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

2011-08-01

183

Appraisal of the sensitising potential of orally and dermally administered mercaptobenzothiazole by a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay.  

PubMed

Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) is used while manufacturing natural rubber products. Our study deals with assessing its allergenic potential following dermal and oral routes of exposure, using a biphasic local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female Balb/c mice were treated with MBT (dermally 3, 10, 30% concentrations in DMSO; orally 1, 10, 100 mg/kg doses in corn oil) on the back (dermal study) or through oral administration (oral study) on days 1-3 followed by auricular application of 3, 10 and 30% concentrations, respectively, on days 15-17. End points determined on day 19 included ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count, and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+, CD45+). After dermal application of 3% or 10% solution, a significant increase in cell count and lymph node weight along with significant decrease in CD8+ cells was observed. After initial oral administration of 1 mg/kg, we noticed a significant amplification in cell count. Following oral administration of 10 mg/kg, we observed a similar increase in cell count and lymph node weight. The results of our study show that the modified biphasic LLNA protocol can be used to study the sensitising potential of a compound also following the oral route of exposure. PMID:19381614

Ahuja, Varun; Wanner, Reinhard; Platzek, Thomas; Stahlmann, Ralf

2009-10-01

184

Oral Leukoplakia – Is Biopsy at the Initial Appointment a Must?  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral leukoplakia is a potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. Leukoplakias with chances of undergoing malignant transformation owing to the presence of dysplastic changes may not be clinically distinguishable from leukoplakias without dysplasia. The study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of biopsy in assessing the clinico-pathologic correlations of oral leukoplakia at the patient’s initial visit. Materials and Methods: Hospital records with clinical diagnosis of oral leukoplakia were retrospectively analysed. All these patients had undergone biopsy in their initial visit. Histopathological slides were reviewed and reported by a single pathologist. Diagnosis agreement was considered to be present if the clinical diagnosis matched the histopathological diagnosis. Misdiagnosis was considered if the clinical diagnosis did not match the histopathological diagnosis and underdiagnosis when malignancy was detected on histopathological examination. Results: A total of 115 patients were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia. According to clinical appearance of the leukoplakia patch was categorized in to three types viz homogeneous leukoplakia (n= 24 i.e. 20.87%), speckled leukoplakia (n=76 i.e. 66.08%) and verrucous leukoplakia (n=15 i.e. 13.04%). Histopathological examination confirmed clinical diagnosis in 88 cases (a diagnosis agreement of 76.52%). Histopathological examination of 19 cases revealed a different diagnosis, thus categorized as misdiagnosis (16.52%) and 8 cases had unexpected malignancy which accounted for underdiagnosis in 6.96% cases. There was dysplasia in 45 (51.13%) of the histopathologically confirmed cases of leukoplakia. Conclusion: The clinical appearance of suspicious white lesions does not provide a true nature of its disease status and malignant changes may be missed. PMID:25302256

Mutalik, Vimi S.; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Phaik, Khoo Suan

2014-01-01

185

The deregulated promoter methylation of the Polo-like kinases as a potential biomarker in hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Deregulation of Polo-like kinase (PLK) transcription via promoter methylation results in perturbations at the protein level, which has been associated with oncogenesis. Our objective was to further characterize the methylation profile for PLK1-4 in bone marrow aspirates displaying blood neoplasms as well as in cells grownin vitro. Clinically, we have determined that more than 70% of lymphoma and MDS/leukemia bone marrow extracts display a hypermethylated PLK4 promoter region in comparison to the normal. Decreased PLK4 protein expression due to promoter hypermethylation was negatively correlated with JAK2 overexpression, a common occurrence in hematological malignancies. In vitro examination of the PLKs under biologically relevant condition of 5% O2 revealed that the highly conserved PLKs respond to lower oxygen tension at both the DNA and protein level. These findings suggest that PLK promoter methylation status correlates with disease and tumorigenesis in blood neoplasms and could serve as a biomarker. PMID:25347426

Ward, Alejandra; Sivakumar, Gayathri; Kanjeekal, Sindu; Hamm, Caroline; Labute, Brayden; Shum, David; Hudson, John W

2014-10-27

186

Oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

2013-01-01

187

Evaluation of the mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of standardized extract of Ocimum sanctum (OciBest™).  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) is found throughout India and in many parts of world. O. sanctum is used for the treatment of various health indications. In this lieu, it is of prime importance to investigate the safety aspects of the plant. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible genotoxic potential and acute oral toxicity of the extract of O. sanctum (OciBest™). The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, namely bacterial reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity. The results showed that OciBest™ (7.9-2500.0 µg/mL) did not increase the number of histidine revertant colonies in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98 and TAMix) with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9). OciBest™ (10.0-100.0 µg/mL) did not show structural chromosomal aberrations or increase in MN induction, with and without S9, at the tested dose range in both 4-h and 18-h exposure cell cultures. Thus, OciBest™ is not genotoxic in bacterial reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration and MN tests. In an acute oral toxicity test, rats were treated with 5 g/kg of OciBest™ and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days and the results did not show any treatment-related toxic effects to Wistar rats. PMID:23424203

Chandrasekaran, C V; Srikanth, H S; Anand, M S; Allan, J Joshua; Viji, M M Hipolith; Amit, A

2013-09-01

188

Oral Complications in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients: The Role of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is widely used as a potentially curative treatment for patients with various hematological malignancies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and congenital immune deficiencies. The prevalence of oral complications in both autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients remains high, despite advances in transplant medicine and in supportive care. Frequently encountered oral complications include mucositis, infections, oral dryness, taste changes, and graft versus host disease in allogeneic HSCT. Oral complications are associated with substantial morbidity and in some cases with increased mortality and may significantly affect quality of life, even many years after HSCT. Inflammatory processes are key in the pathobiology of most oral complications in HSCT recipients. This review article will discuss frequently encountered oral complications associated with HSCT focusing on the inflammatory pathways and inflammatory mediators involved in their pathogenesis. PMID:24817792

Haverman, T. M.; Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Rademacher, W. M. H.; Vokurka, S.; Epstein, J. B.; Huisman, C.; Hazenberg, M. D.; de Soet, J. J.; de Lange, J.; Rozema, F. R.

2014-01-01

189

Formulating SLMs as oral pulsatile system for potential delivery of melatonin to pediatric population.  

PubMed

The formulation development of melatonin (MLT) for infants and children with neurodevelopmental difficulties was fully investigated. This population have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders and present special challenges for drug administration and swallowing. To solve these issues, solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) were designed to obtain an oral flexible dosage form constituted by GRAS excipients and a free flow pulsatile delivery system for MLT, able to maintain its release through 8h. Three groups of SLMs were produced by spray congealing and characterized as regards particle size, morphology, flowability, solid state, drug content and release behavior. The SLMs manipulation with milk and yogurt and the MLT stability in these foods were also investigated. Microparticles with different excipient composition were selected to obtain a pulsatile release pattern over 8h. The final delivery platform displayed a prompt release from group I SLMs together with a lag phase of groups II and III SLMs, followed by a repeated MLT release from group II and a prolonged MLT release related to the last group. Finally, MLT was compatible and stable in milk and yogurt suggesting that microparticles sprinkled into food is acceptable for MLT administration to children unable to swallow capsules or tablets. PMID:24768728

Albertini, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Marcello; Melegari, Cecilia; Passerini, Nadia

2014-07-20

190

Construction and physiochemical characterisation of a multi-composite, potential oral vaccine delivery system (VDS).  

PubMed

An increasing human population requires a secure food supply and a cost effective, oral vaccine delivery system for livestock would help facilitate this end. Recombinant antigen adsorbed onto silica beads and coated with myristic acid, was released (?15% (w/v)) over 24 h at pH 8.8. At pH 2, the myristic acid acted as an enteric coating, protecting the antigen from a variety of proteases. The antigen adsorbed onto silica particles, coated in myristic acid had a conserved secondary structure (measured by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy) following its pH-triggered release. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to measure the thickness of the adsorbed antigen, finding that its adsorbed conformation was slightly greater than its solution radius of gyration, i.e. 120-160 Å. The addition of myristic acid led to a further increase in particle size, with scattering data consistent with an acid thickness slightly greater than a monolayer of fully extended alkyl chains and a degree of hydration of around 50%. Whilst adsorbed onto the silica and coated in myristic acid, the protein was stable over 14 days at 42 °C, indicating a reduced need for cold chain storage. These data indicate that further investigation is warranted into the development of this technology. PMID:24680960

Pettit, Marie W; Dyer, Paul D R; Mitchell, John C; Griffiths, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce; Cattoz, Beatrice; Heenan, Richard K; King, Stephen M; Schweins, Ralf; Pullen, Frank; Wicks, Stephen R; Richardson, Simon C W

2014-07-01

191

Preclinical demonstration of synergistic Active Nutrients/Drug (AND) combination as a potential treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a poor prognosis disease lacking adequate therapy. We have previously shown that ascorbic acid administration is toxic to MPM cells. Here we evaluated a new combined therapy consisting of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine mixture (called AND, for Active Nutrients/Drug). In vitro effects of AND therapy on various MPM cell lines revealed a synergistic cytotoxic mechanism. In vivo experiments on a xenograft mouse model for MPM, obtained by REN cells injection in immunocompromised mice, showed that AND strongly reduced the size of primary tumor as well as the number and size of metastases, and prevented abdominal hemorrhage. Kaplan Meier curves and the log-rank test indicated a marked increase in the survival of AND-treated animals. Histochemical analysis of dissected tumors showed that AND induced a shift from cell proliferation to apoptosis in cancer cells. Lysates of tumors from AND-treated mice, analyzed with an antibody array, revealed decreased TIMP-1 and -2 expressions and no effects on angiogenesis regulating factors. Multiplex analysis for signaling protein phosphorylation exhibited inactivation of cell proliferation pathways. The complex of data showed that the AND treatment is synergistic in vitro on MPM cells, and blocks in vivo tumor progression and metastasization in REN-based xenografts. Hence, the AND combination is proposed as a new treatment for MPM. PMID:23526965

Volta, Viviana; Ranzato, Elia; Martinotti, Simona; Gallo, Simone; Russo, Maria Veronica; Mutti, Luciano; Biffo, Stefano; Burlando, Bruno

2013-01-01

192

Simplified classification of capillary pattern in barrett esophagus using magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging: implications for malignant potential and interobserver agreement.  

PubMed

The classification of Barrett esophagus (BE) using magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) is not widely used in clinical settings because of its complexity. To establish a new simplified available classification using ME-NBI.We conducted a cross-sectional study in a single-referral center. One hundred eight consecutive patients with BE using ME-NBI and crystal violet (CV) chromoendoscopy, and histological findings were enrolled. BE areas observed by ME-NBI were classified as type I or II on the basis of capillary pattern (CP), and as closed or open type on the basis of a mucosal pit pattern using CV chromoendoscopy; then, biopsy samples were obtained. We evaluated the relation between CP and pit pattern, expression of the factors with malignant potential, percentage of microvascular density, and interobserver agreement.One hundred thirty lesions from 91 patients were analyzed. Type II CP had more open type pit pattern areas and significantly greater microvascular density than type I. The presence of dysplasia, specialized intestinal metaplasia, expressions of COX-2, CDX2, and CD34, and PCNA index were significantly higher in type II, whereas the multivariate analysis showed that type II was the best predictor for the presence of dysplasia (OR 11.14), CD34 expression (OR 3.60), and PCNA (OR 3.29). Interobserver agreement for this classification was substantial (??=?0.66).A simplified CP classification based on observation with ME-NBI is presented. Our results indicate that the classification may be useful for surveillance of BE with high malignant potential. PMID:25621687

Uno, Goichi; Ishimura, Norihisa; Tada, Yasumasa; Tamagawa, Yuji; Yuki, Takafumi; Matsushita, Takashi; Ishihara, Shunji; Amano, Yuji; Maruyama, Riruke; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

2015-01-01

193

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

194

Oral carcinogenesis and oral cancer chemoprevention: a review.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

195

Evaluating the acute effects of oral, non-combustible potential reduced exposure products marketed to smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNon-combustible potential reduced exposure products (PREPs; eg, Star Scientific's Ariva; a variety of other smokeless tobacco products) are marketed to reduce the harm associated with smoking. This marketing occurs despite an absence of objective data concerning the toxicant exposure and effects of these PREPs. Methods used to examine combustible PREPs were adapted to assess the acute effects of non-combustible PREPs

C. O. Cobb; M. F. Weaver; T. Eissenberg

2009-01-01

196

Patients’ perspectives regarding long-term warfarin therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulant therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine patients’ perspectives regarding long-term vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, and to determine if factors such as residential location affect these opinions. Design, setting and participants: Patients on VKA therapy for at least 12 weeks completed a questionnaire specifically designed for the study. They were recruited while attending point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) testing at six South Australian general practice clinics during the period July–September 2013. Main outcome measures: Opinions of current VKA therapy, level of awareness of NOACs, and ratings of potential benefits and deterrents of transition to NOACs were sought. Results: Data from 290 participants were available for analysis (response rate 95.4%). The majority of the sample (79.5%, 229/288) were either satisfied or very satisfied with current VKA therapy. The mean score for the potential benefits of transition to NOACs was 7.6 (±4.2) out of a possible 20, which was significantly lower than the mean score 10.9 (±4.5) for the perceived deterrents to transition (p < 0.001). Rural patients (82.0%, 82/100) were significantly more likely (p = 0.001) to have not heard of NOACs than metropolitan patients (50.3%, 95/189) and also perceived significant less benefits in a transition to NOACs (p = 0.001). Conclusion: When considering potential transition from VKAs to NOACs it is important for prescribers to consider that some patients, in particular those from a rural location, may not perceive a significant benefit in transitioning or may have particular concerns in this area. PMID:25436104

Gebler-Hughes, Elizabeth S.; Kemp, Linda

2014-01-01

197

Gene Expression Microarray Analysis Reveals YKL-40 to Be a Potential Serum Marker for Malignant Character in Human Glioma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a potential serum marker for glioblastoma multi- forme (GBM) using microarray analysis from samples of GBM. We compared the gene expression profile of 19 gliomas to pooled normal brain by competitive hybridization of RNA from each tumor sample to a pooled sample of RNA isolated from normal brain tissue using the Incyte 10,000 gene expression array. The

Meena K. Tanwar; Mark R. Gilbert; Eric C. Holland

2002-01-01

198

Selective inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta: modulators of B-cell function with potential for treating autoimmune inflammatory diseases and B-cell malignancies  

PubMed Central

The delta isoform of the p110 catalytic subunit (p110?) of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells and plays an essential role in B-cell development and function. Studies employing mice lacking a functional p110? protein, as well as the use of highly-selective chemical inhibitors of p110?, have revealed that signaling via p110?-containing PI3K complexes (PI3K?) is critical for B-cell survival, migration, and activation, functioning downstream of key receptors on B cells including the B-cell antigen receptor, chemokine receptors, pro-survival receptors such as BAFF-R and the IL-4 receptor, and co-stimulatory receptors such as CD40 and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Similarly, this PI3K isoform plays a key role in the survival, proliferation, and dissemination of B-cell lymphomas. Herein we summarize studies showing that these processes can be inhibited in vitro and in vivo by small molecule inhibitors of p110? enzymatic activity, and that these p110? inhibitors have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). PI3K? also plays a critical role in the activation, proliferation, and tissue homing of self-reactive B cells that contribute to autoimmune diseases, in particular innate-like B-cell populations such as marginal zone (MZ) B cells and B-1 cells that have been strongly linked to autoimmunity. We discuss the potential utility of p110? inhibitors, either alone or in combination with B-cell depletion, for treating autoimmune diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. Because PI3K? plays a major role in both B-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation and B-cell malignancies, PI3K? inhibitors may represent a promising therapeutic approach for treating these diseases. PMID:22936933

Puri, Kamal D.; Gold, Michael R.

2012-01-01

199

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tissues: A Comprehensive Review for Oral Healthcare Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, over 35,000 cases of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma are diagnosed in the United States. Oral health care providers can be instrumental in reducing the incidence of oral and pharyngeal premalignant and malignant lesions by identifying patients with high-risk behavior, educating their patients about the consequences of their high-risk behavior, and by early detection of premalignant and malignant conditions. To

Samer A. Bsoul; Michaell A. Huber; Geza T. Terezhalmy

200

Green tea: a promising natural product in oral health.  

PubMed

Green tea is a leading beverage in the Far East for thousands of years; it is regarded for a long time as a health product. Green tea is important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Polyphenols including epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves. Green tea has the potential to protect against various malignant, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. There is a growing body of evidence pointing a beneficial role of green tea and its polyphenols in oral health. Green tea protects against bacterial induced dental caries. Tea polyphenols possess antiviral properties, believed to help in protection from influenza virus. Additionally, green tea polyphenols can abolish halitosis through modification of odorant sulphur components. Oral cavity oxidative stress and inflammation, consequent to cigarette smoking and cigarettes' deleterious compounds nicotine and acrolein, may be reduced in the presence of green tea polyphenols. Generally, green tea defends healthy cells from malignant transformation and locally has the ability to induce apoptosis in oral cancer cells. All together, there is an increasing interest in the health benefits of green tea in the field of oral health. Nonetheless, there is still a need for more clinical and biological studies to support guidelines for green tea intake as part of prevention and treatment of specific oral pathologies. PMID:22226360

Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror; Levy, Yishai

2012-05-01

201

Evaluation of amitrole (aminotriazole) for potential carcinogenicity in orally dosed rats, mice, and golden hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Amitrole was evaluated for carcinogenic potential in lifespan studies on Wistar rats, NMRI mice, and golden hamsters. At the start of the studies the animals were 6 weeks old. Amitrole was administered, mixed with pulverized chow, at dietary concentrations of 0, 1, 10, and 100 micrograms/g (ppm). Each treated group and control group consisted of 75 male and 75 female rats and mice and of 76 male and 76 female golden hamsters. Additional animals were used to evaluate the functional state of the thyroid. Somewhat lower body weights, slightly reduced survival times, and transient effects on thyroid function were observed in golden hamsters at 100 ppm. In mice, a slight increase in pituitary gland hyperemias was seen at 100 ppm; also an effect on thyroid function usually occurred at the same concentration. In rats, a very large number of cystic dilatations of follicles in the thyroid at 100 ppm and a dose-unrelated increase in hemorrhages and hyperemias in the pituitary gland were indicative of an effect of amitrole on these organs. The strongest effect of amitrole on thyroid function, as compared to golden hamsters and mice, was seen in rats at 100 ppm. At this concentration a highly increased number of thyroid and pituitary gland tumors was observed in rats. In golden hamsters and mice, no tumor induction was seen.

Steinhoff, D.; Weber, H.; Mohr, U.; Boehme, K.

1983-06-30

202

Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candi- diasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral adminis- tration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on

Natsuko Takakura; Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Hiroko Ishibashi; Susumu Teraguchi; Yoshitaka Tamura; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

2003-01-01

203

Reconstruction of a full-thickness collagen-based human oral mucosal equivalent.  

PubMed

Tissue engineered human oral mucosa has the potential to be applied to the closure of surgical wounds after tissue deficits due to facial trauma, malignant lesion surgery or preposthetic procedure. It can also be used to elucidate the biology and pathology of oral mucosa and as a model alternative to animals for safety testing of oral care products. Using the technology previously developed in our laboratory for the production of a skin equivalent, we were able to reconstruct a nonkeratinized full-thickness human oral mucosal equivalent closely mimicking human native oral mucosa. The successive coculture of human lamina propria fibroblasts and human oral epithelial cells isolated from the nonkeratinized region of oral cavity in a porous collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-chitosan scaffold gave rise to a lamina propria equivalent (LPE) and then to an oral mucosa equivalent (OME). The results of the histology, immunohistology and transmission electron microscopy of this OME demonstrated the presence of a nonkeratinized pluristratified and differentiated epithelium as in native nonkeratinized human oral mucosa expressing both K13 and K3/76. This epithelium was firmly anchored to the LPE by a continuous and ultrastructurally well-organized basement membrane. In the LPE, fibroblasts synthesized new extracellular matrix where the average collagen fibre diameter was 28.4 nm, close to that of native oral mucosa. The proliferative capacity of the basal cells was demonstrated by the expression of Ki67. PMID:19698987

Kinikoglu, Beste; Auxenfans, Céline; Pierrillas, Pascal; Justin, Virginie; Breton, Pierre; Burillon, Carole; Hasirci, Vasif; Damour, Odile

2009-11-01

204

Immunohistochemical expression of p16 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus.  

PubMed

Epithelial carcinogenesis is a multistep process. Specific genetic events lead to malignant transformation of oral epithelium. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may be preceded by potentially malignant lesions such as oral lichen planus (OLP). The p16 protein functions as a negative regulator of the cell cycle progression. Altered pattern of p16 serves as a biomarker for oral mucosal dysplasia and malignant growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate p16 expression in OSCC and OLP to determine whether it can be a useful marker for early detection of carcinogenesis. We examined p16 expression in 45 OSCCs (15 grade I, 15 grade II, and 15 grade III), 15 OLPs without dysplasia, and 8 normal mucosal specimens with immunohistochemistry. p16 was interpreted as positive if more than 70% of tumor cells showed brown nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. All of the OSCC and control group samples showed negative immunoreactivity, whereas 26.7% of OLP samples were positive for p16. Our findings suggest that p16 expression could not be used as a helpful marker for detection of development toward malignancy in OLP samples. PMID:24850170

Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Sharifi, Nourieh; Amirchaghmaghi, Maryam; Ghazi, Narges; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Ghazi, Ala

2014-08-01

205

Hepatic malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare hepatic tumor of vascular origin. It is most commonly found in young to middle aged women, and the tumors vary in reported malignant potential. Compounds such as oral contraceptive pills, poly vinyl chloride, and Thorotrast have been identified as risk factors for subsequent disease development. Radiologic ("lollipop" sign, capsular flattening) and pathologic (Factor-VIII antigen staining positive) evaluation aids in the diagnosis. As with most mesenchymal tumors, surgical resection is the most effective means of controlling local disease and preventing distant metastasis, though adjuvant therapies have been offered for those that are unresectable or not transplant candidates. We present our case of a hepatic malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and a review of the English-language literature. PMID:18274433

Woodall, Charles E; Scoggins, Charles R; Lewis, Angela M; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

2008-01-01

206

Display of Eimeria tenella EtMic2 protein on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential oral vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.  

PubMed

S. cerevisiae is generally regarded as safe and benign organism and its surface display system may be used as a unique eukaryotic expression system that is suitable for expressing eukaryotic antigen. In addition to the convenience of vaccine delivery, the yeast cell wall has been shown to enhance the innate immunity when immunized with the yeast live oral vaccine. In the present study, we expressed the chicken coccidian E. tenella EtMic2, a microneme protein, on the surface of the S. cerevisiae and evaluated it as a potential oral vaccine for chicken against E. tenella challenge. The protective efficacy against a homologous challenge was evaluated by body weight gains, lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding. The results showed that the live oral vaccine can improve weight gains, reduced cecal pathology and lower oocyst fecal shedding compared with non immunized controls. In addition, the yeast oral vaccine could stimulate humoral as well as cell mediate immune responses. These results suggested that EtMic2 displayed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae could be used as potential live vaccine against chicken coccidiosis. PMID:24530147

Sun, Hui; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Chen, Peipei; Chen, Zhengtao; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin

2014-04-01

207

Evaluation of the potential in vitro antiproliferative effects of millimeter waves at some therapeutic frequencies on RPMI 7932 human skin malignant melanoma cells.  

PubMed

The potential antiproliferative effects of low power millimeter waves (MMWs) at 42.20 and 53.57 GHz on RPMI 7932 human skin melanoma cells were evaluated in vitro in order to ascertain if these two frequencies, comprised in the range of frequency used in millimeter wave therapy, would have a similar effect when applied in vivo to malignant melanoma tumours. Cells were exposed for 1 h exposure/day and to repeated exposure up to a total of four treatments. Plane wave incident power densities <1 mW/cm(2) were used in the MMWs-exposure experiments so that the radiations did not cause significant thermal effects. Numerical simulations of Petri dish reflectivity were made using the equations for the reflection coefficient of a multilayered system. Such analysis showed that the power densities transmitted into the aqueous samples were < or = 0.3 mW/cm(2). Two very important and general biological endpoints were evaluated in order to study the response of melanoma cells to these radiations, i.e. cell proliferation and cell cycle. Herein, we show that neither cell doubling time nor the cell cycle of RPMI 7932 cells was affected by the frequency of the GHz radiation and duration of the exposure, in the conditions above reported. PMID:19536459

Beneduci, Amerigo

2009-01-01

208

Enhanced induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in human U87 malignant glioma cells by aloe emodin.  

PubMed

Aloe emodin, one of the active compounds found in Aloe vera leaves, plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and death. It has been reported to promote the anti-cancer effects in various cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism of inducing apoptosis by this agent is poorly understood in glioma cells. This research is to investigate the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest inducing by aloe emodin on U87 human malignant glioma cells. Aloe emodin showed a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of U87 cells proliferation and decreased the percentage of viable U87 cells via the induction of apoptosis. Characteristic morphological changes, such as the formation of apoptotic bodies, were observed with confocal microscope by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, supporting our viability study and flow cytometry analysis results. Our data also demonstrated that aloe emodin arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and promoted the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in U87 cells that indicated the early event of the mitochondria-induced apoptotic pathway. PMID:23869465

Ismail, Samhani; Haris, Khalilah; Abdul Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izaini; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul Aziz

2013-09-01

209

CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential and excretion of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) into CD30-expressing cells. This study evaluated the CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of brentuximab vedotin and the excretion of MMAE. Two 21-day cycles of brentuximab vedotin (1.2 or 1.8?mg/kg intravenously) were administered to 56 patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies. Each patient also received either a sensitive CYP3A substrate (midazolam), an effective inducer (rifampin), or a strong inhibitor (ketoconazole). Brentuximab vedotin did not affect midazolam exposures. ADC exposures were unaffected by concomitant rifampin or ketoconazole; however, MMAE exposures were lower with rifampin and higher with ketoconazole. The short-term safety profile of brentuximab vedotin in this study was generally consistent with historic clinical observations. The most common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, pyrexia, and neutropenia. Over a 1-week period, ?23.5% of intact MMAE was recovered after administration of brentuximab vedotin; all other species were below the limit of quantitation. The primary excretion route is via feces (median 72% of the recovered MMAE). These results suggest that brentuximab vedotin (1.8 mg/kg) and MMAE are neither inhibitors nor inducers of CYP3A; however, MMAE is a substrate of CYP3A. PMID:23754575

Han, Tae H; Gopal, Ajay K; Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Goy, Andre; Chen, Robert; Matous, Jeffrey V; Cooper, Maureen; Grove, Laurie E; Alley, Stephen C; Lynch, Carmel M; O'Connor, Owen A

2013-08-01

210

CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential and excretion of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) into CD30-expressing cells. This study evaluated the CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of brentuximab vedotin and the excretion of MMAE. Two 21-day cycles of brentuximab vedotin (1.2 or 1.8 mg/kg intravenously) were administered to 56 patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies. Each patient also received either a sensitive CYP3A substrate (midazolam), an effective inducer (rifampin), or a strong inhibitor (ketoconazole). Brentuximab vedotin did not affect midazolam exposures. ADC exposures were unaffected by concomitant rifampin or ketoconazole; however, MMAE exposures were lower with rifampin and higher with ketoconazole. The short-term safety profile of brentuximab vedotin in this study was generally consistent with historic clinical observations. The most common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, pyrexia, and neutropenia. Over a 1-week period, ~23.5% of intact MMAE was recovered after administration of brentuximab vedotin; all other species were below the limit of quantitation. The primary excretion route is via feces (median 72% of the recovered MMAE). These results suggest that brentuximab vedotin (1.8 mg/kg) and MMAE are neither inhibitors nor inducers of CYP3A; however, MMAE is a substrate of CYP3A. PMID:23754575

Han, Tae H.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Goy, Andre; Chen, Robert; Matous, Jeffrey V.; Cooper, Maureen; Grove, Laurie E.; Alley, Stephen C.; Lynch, Carmel M.; O’Connor, Owen A.

2013-01-01

211

An RNAi-based screen reveals PLK1, CDK1 and NDC80 as potential therapeutic targets in malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour originating in the thoracic mesothelium. Prognosis remains poor with 9- to 12-month median survival, and new targets for treatments are desperately needed. Methods: Utilising an RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen of 40 genes overexpressed in tumours, including genes involved in the control of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, we investigated potential therapeutic targets for MPM. Following in vitro characterisation of the effects of target silencing on MPM cells, candidates were assessed in tumour samples from 154 patients. Results: Gene knockdown in MPM cell lines identified growth inhibition following knockdown of NDC80, CDK1 and PLK1. Target knockdown induced cell-cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Using small-molecule inhibitors specific for these three proteins also led to growth inhibition of MPM cell lines, and Roscovitine (inhibitor of CDK1) sensitised cells to cisplatin. Protein expression was also measured in tumour samples, with markedly variable levels of CDK1 and PLK1 noted. PLK1 expression in over 10% of cells correlated significantly with a poor prognosis. Conclusion: These results suggest that RNAi-based screening has utility in identifying new targets for MPM, and that inhibition of NDC80, CDK1 and PLK1 may hold promise for treatment of this disease. PMID:24327015

Linton, A; Cheng, Y Y; Griggs, K; Kirschner, M B; Gattani, S; Srikaran, S; Chuan-Hao Kao, S; McCaughan, B C; Klebe, S; van Zandwijk, N; Reid, G

2014-01-01

212

A phase contrast cytomorphometric study of squames of normal oral mucosa and oral leukoplakia: Original study  

PubMed Central

Oral leukoplakia represents the most common potentially malignant oral disorder, representing 85% of such lesions. The worldwide prevalence of leukoplakia is 1.5- 4.3%. Leukoplakia is often associated with carcinogenic exposures, such as from use of tobacco, alcohol or betel nut. The level of risk for malignant transformation of leukoplakia is associated with lesion histology. The overall malignant transformation rates for dysplastic lesions range from 11% to 36%, depending on the length of follow-up. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and minimally invasive method. Phase contrast microscope, an essential tool in the field of biology and medical research provides improved discrimination of cellular details. Aims: To study and compare the cytomorphological and cytomorphometric features of squames obtained from the mucosa of normal individuals, tobacco habituates with and without clinically evident leukoplakia. To assess the role of phase contrast microscopy as an alternative and easy method of cytological evaluation of wet and unstained smears. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases from each group were taken. Fixed, unstained smears were viewed under phase contrast microscope and were evaluated morphologically and morphometrically for nuclear and cellular diameters. Results: The study showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear diameter and decrease in the mean cellular diameter. Conclusion: Cytomorphometric changes could be the earliest indicators of cellular alterations. This indicates that there could be a cause-effect relationship between tobacco and quantitative alterations. PMID:25364176

Nadaf, Afreen; Bavle, Radhika M; Thambiah, Lalita J; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M

2014-01-01

213

Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases  

PubMed Central

Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

2014-01-01

214

Salivary changes and dental caries as potential oral markers of autoimmune salivary gland dysfunction in primary Sjögren's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: the classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) include a number of oral components. In this study we evaluated if salivary flow and composition as well as dental caries are oral markers of disease severity in pSS. METHODS: in 20 patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus criteria for pSS and 20 age-matched healthy controls whole and parotid saliva flow rates

Anne Marie Lynge Pedersen; Allan Bardow; Birgitte Nauntofte

2005-01-01

215

Oral health Oral health  

E-print Network

Prams asks about the care of teeth during pregnancy: whether the mother had a dental problem, went to a dentist or dental clinic or discussed oral hygiene with a dentist or other healthcare worker. Public health importance A pregnant woman’s oral health affects the woman, her fetus and infant. In pregnant women, periodontal disease, which affects the gums and adjacent bone, is associated with pre-term and/or low birth-weight delivery. 1, 2, 3 After delivery, infants or young children may develop cavities from maternal oral bacteria. 4 All health care providers can promote oral health through oral examinations; advising patients about oral hygiene, diet and smoking cessation; and by making referrals to oral health practitioners. 5 Access to oral health services during pregnancy may be constrained by the American Dental Association recommendations to avoid elective dental care during the first trimester and last half of the third trimester. 6 In four PRAMS states, among mothers who reported having a dental problem, about one-half did not go for care. 7 NM PRAMS findings In 2002, 25 % of mothers recalled discussion of oral hygiene during prenatal care (Table 56 / Figure 28), 13% had a dental problem and 33 % had dental care (Table 57 / Figure 29). Among women with a dental problem, 56% had dental care (Table 58 / Figure 30). In 2001-2002, women who were more likely to have dental care included those with insurance, without public assistance or with more than high school education. Use of oral health

unknown authors

216

Preservation of high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities in roots of Japanese Striped corn: a potential oral therapeutic to treat phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity, the enzyme responsible for the disposal of excess amounts of the essential amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) has potential to serve as an enzyme substitution therapy for this human genetic disease. Using 7-day-old Japanese Striped corn seedlings (Japonica Striped maize, Zea mays L. cv. japonica) that contain high activities of PAL, we investigated a number of methods to preserve the roots as an intact food and for long-term storage. The cryoprotectant effects of maple syrup and other edible sugars (mono- and oligosaccharides) were evaluated. Following thawing, the preserved roots were then examined to determine whether the rigid plant cell walls could protect the PAL enzyme from proteolysis during simulated (in vitro) digestion comprised of gastric and intestinal phases. While several treatments led to retention of PAL activity during freezing, upon thawing and in vitro digestion, root tissues that had been previously frozen in the presence of maple syrup exhibited the highest residual PAL activities (?50% of the initial enzyme activity), in marked contrast to all of the treatments using other edible sugars. The structural integrity of the root cells, and the stability of the functional PAL tetramer were also preserved with the maple syrup protocol. These results have significance for the formulation of oral enzyme/protein therapeutics. When plant tissues are adequately preserved, the rigid cell walls constitute a protective barrier even under harsh (e.g. gastrointestinal-like) conditions. PMID:24657198

López-Villalobos, Arturo; Lücker, Joost; López-Quiróz, Ana Angela; Yeung, Edward C; Palma, Kristoffer; Kermode, Allison R

2014-06-01

217

Enhanced oral bioavailability of a sterol-loaded microemulsion formulation of Flammulina velutipes, a potential antitumor drug  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the growth inhibition activity of Flammulina velutipes sterol (FVS) against certain human cancer cell lines (gastric SGC and colon LoVo) and to evaluate the optimum microemulsion prescription, as well as the pharmacokinetics of encapsulated FVS. Methods Molecules present in the FVS isolate were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The cell viability of FVS was assessed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) bioassay. Based on the solubility study, phase diagram and stability tests, the optimum prescription of F. velutipes sterol microemulsions (FVSMs) were determined, followed by FVSMs characterization, and its in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats. Results The chemical composition of FVS was mainly ergosterol (54.8%) and 22,23-dihydroergosterol (27.9%). After 72 hours of treatment, both the FVS (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 11.99 ?g · mL?1) and the standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 0.88 ?g · mL?1) exhibited strong in vitro antiproliferative activity against SGC cells, with IC50 > 30.0 ?g · mL?1; but the FVS performed poorly against LoVo cells (IC50 > 40.0 ?g · mL?1). The optimal FVSMs prescription consisted of 3.0% medium chain triglycerides, 5.0% ethanol, 21.0% Cremophor EL and 71.0% water (w/w) with associated solubility of FVS being 0.680 mg · mL?1 as compared to free FVS (0.67 ?g · mL?1). The relative oral bioavailability (area-under-the-curve values of ergosterol and 22,23-dihydroergosterol showed a 2.56-fold and 4.50-fold increase, respectively) of FVSMs (mean diameter ~ 22.9 nm) as against free FVS were greatly enhanced. Conclusion These results indicate that the FVS could be a potential candidate for the development of an anticancer drug and it is readily bioavailable via microemulsion formulations. PMID:23049254

Yi, Chengxue; Zhong, Hui; Tong, Shanshan; Cao, Xia; Firempong, Caleb K; Liu, Hongfei; Fu, Min; Yang, Yan; Feng, Yingshu; Zhang, Huiyun; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

2012-01-01

218

A comparative study of the potential of solid triglyceride nanostructures coated with chitosan or poly(ethylene glycol) as carriers for oral calcitonin delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported the formation and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-coated and chitosan (CS)-coated lipid nanoparticles. In the present work our goal was to study the interaction of these surface-modified lipid nanoparticles with Caco-2 cells and to evaluate the potential of these nanostructures as oral delivery systems for salmon calcitonin (sCT).The interaction of rhodamine®-loaded nanoparticles with the Caco-2 cell

M. Garcia-Fuentes; C. Prego; D. Torres; M. J. Alonso

2005-01-01

219

Adjuvant potential of low dose all-trans retinoic acid during oral typhoid vaccination in Zambian men.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to identify ways of enhancing the mucosal immune response to oral vaccines. Rotavirus vaccine protection is much lower in Africa and Asia than in industrialized countries, and no oral vaccine has efficacy approaching the best systemic vaccines. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) up-regulates expression of ?4?7 integrin and CCR9 on lymphocytes in laboratory animals, increasing their gut tropism. The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility of using ATRA as an oral adjuvant for oral typhoid vaccination. In order to establish that standard doses of oral ATRA can achieve serum concentrations greater than 10?nmol/l, we measured ATRA, 9-cis and 13-cis retinoic acid in serum of 14 male volunteers before and 3?h after 10?mg ATRA. We then evaluated the effect of 10?mg ATRA given 1?h before, and for 7 days following, oral typhoid vaccine in eight men, and in 24 men given various control interventions. We measured immunoglobulin (Ig)A directed against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)and protein preparations of vaccine antigens in whole gut lavage fluid (WGLF) and both IgA and IgG in serum, 1 day prior to vaccination and on day 14. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] C(max) was 26·2 (11·7-39·5) nmol/l, with no evidence of cumulation over 8 days. No adverse events were observed. Specific IgA responses to LPS (P?=?0·02) and protein (P?=?0·04) were enhanced in WGLF, but no effect was seen on IgA or IgG in serum. ATRA was well absorbed, well tolerated and may be a promising candidate oral adjuvant. PMID:24237035

Lisulo, M M; Kapulu, M C; Banda, R; Sinkala, E; Kayamba, V; Sianongo, S; Kelly, P

2014-03-01

220

Oral cancer screening approach based on labeling exfoliated oral cells with molecularly-targeted optical contrast agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection is a potential key to improving the survival rates of oral cancer patients and reducing the morbidity associated with treatment. We seek to improve upon methods of detecting of early malignancies with oral brush biopsies by using immunofluorescence-based assessment of the expression of multiple well-described markers commonly overexpressed in oral cancers, such as Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Cytokeratin 8 (CK8). Furthermore, since abnormal cells are often scarce in brush biopsy samples, we seek to use magnetic microparticles targeted to these markers as a means of enriching the concentration of abnormal cells. Finally, we plan to conduct a small pilot study using these methods with brush biopsies from patients of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Head and Neck Clinic.

Leautaud, Veronica; Horres, Charles R.; Bhattar, Vijayashree S.; Williams, Michelle D.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

2011-03-01

221

Oral Amelanotic Melanoma of the Maxilla  

PubMed Central

Amelanotic melanoma is a variant of malignant melanoma comprising 2% to 8% of all malignant melanomas. The amelanotic presentation of melanoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and has been reported only occasionally in the literature. Moreover, the lack of melanin makes these tumors difficult to diagnose than that of pigmented lesions and the prognosis tends to be poorer. Herein, we report an amelanotic melanoma involving the oral mucosa of the maxilla in a 27 year-old male.

Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Pazouki, Mahdi; Zamanzadeh, Maryam

2014-01-01

222

The glucose-lowering potential of exendin-4 orally delivered via a pH-sensitive nanoparticle vehicle and effects on subsequent insulin secretion in vivo.  

PubMed

Exendin-4 is a potent insulinotropic agent in diabetes patients; however, its therapeutic utility is limited due to the frequent injections required. In this study, an orally available exendin-4 formulation, using an enteric-coated capsule containing pH-responsive NPs, was developed. Following oral administration of (123)I-labeled-exendin-4 loaded NPs in rats, the biodistribution of the administered drug was investigated using a dual isotope dynamic SPECT/CT scanner. The results showed that the radioactivity of (123)I-exendin-4 propagated from the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine and then was absorbed into the systemic circulation; with time progressing, (123)I-exendin-4 was metabolized and excreted into the urinary bladder. In the in vivo dissolution study, it was found that the enteric-coated capsule remained intact while in the stomach; the capsule was completely dissolved in the proximal segment of the small intestine and the loaded contents were then released. Oral administration of the capsule containing exendin-4 loaded NPs showed a maximum plasma concentration at 5 h after treatment; the bioavailability, relative to its subcutaneous counterpart, was found to be 14.0 ± 1.8%. The absorbed exendin-4 could then stimulate the insulin secretion and provide a prolonged glucose-lowering effect. The aforementioned results suggest that the orally available exendin-4 formulation developed warrants further exploration as a potential therapy for diabetic patients. PMID:21256586

Nguyen, Ho-Ngoc; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Sonaje, Kiran; Ho, Yi-Cheng; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju; Sung, Hsing-Wen

2011-04-01

223

Exploring the potential of self-assembled mixed micelles in enhancing the stability and oral bioavailability of an acid-labile drug.  

PubMed

Oral delivery of many drugs is plagued with limited solubility and/or poor stability. This paper aimed to explore the performance of polymeric mixed micelles on solubilization, stabilization and bioavailability enhancement with stiripentol as model drug. Stiripentol-loaded mixed micelles were prepared by solvent-diffusion method: rapid dispersion of an ethanol solution containing stiripentol, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-caprolactone) and sodium oleate into water. Stiripentol micelles were characterized by the particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, TEM, DSC and FTIR. The pharmacokinetic profile of stiripentol was determined in rats after oral administration of stiripentol micelles. The obtained stiripentol micelles were 44.2 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency over 90%. It was shown that micelles substantially improved the solubility and gastric stability of stiripentol. The oral absorption of stiripentol was also enhanced to a great extent with a relative bioavailability of 157% and 444% to the commercial formulation (Diacomit®) and in-house suspensions. Mixed micelles assembled by di-block copolymer/sodium oleate exhibited a good potential in the improvement of drug stability and bioavailability. It should be a promising carrier for oral delivery of therapeuticals with solubility and stability issues. PMID:24956461

Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Tianpeng; Zhou, Xiaotong; Wu, Baojian

2014-10-01

224

Cigarette smoking induces overexpression of c-Met receptor in microvessels of oral lichen planus  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cigarette smoking is related to many pathological conditions; however, chemical substances affect the oral cavity first, so it is important to consider its influence on oral mucosa and oral potentially pre-malignant lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking on microvessel density in oral lichen planus. Special emphasis was placed on examining the relationship between the expression of c-Met receptor in blood vessels and smoking habits. Material and methods This study included 34 patients with oral lichen planus diagnosed clinically and verified by histopathological examination and 12 healthy individuals as controls. Biopsy of oral mucosa was performed and specimens were examined for immunohistochemical CD34 and c-Met receptor expression. The microvessel density was established by evaluation of the five most vascular areas within a section. Results Compared to normal oral mucosa, in lichen planus patients, significantly higher blood vessel density and c-Met expression were noted. Irregular distribution of microvessels was typical for oral lichen planus. Also, microvessel density was higher in cigarette smoking patients’ tissues than in non-smoker specimens. Furthermore, the association of c-Met expression with smoking habit was statistically significant. Conclusions Cigarette smoking habit has a direct impact on the oral lichen planus course; therefore, close follow-up of these patients is mandatory. PMID:22291809

K?osek, Sebastian K.; Sporny, Stanis?aw; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga; Kurnatowska, Anna J.

2011-01-01

225

Recurrent papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential. Subtle architectural disorder detected by quantitative analysis in DAXX-immunostained tissue sections.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to identify subtle changes in the so-called architectural predominant order in nonrecurrent and recurrent papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP). Quantitative analysis was performed with a software package written in LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) in DAXX-immunostained tissue sections. Twelve cases of PUNLMP with papillary fronds sectioned lengthwise through the core were investigated and subdivided as follows: 7 nonrecurrent and 5 recurrent PUNLMP cases. Six cases of normal urothelium (NU) were included. When an epithelial thickness threshold is set at 108 ?m (ie, 400 pixels), there is a complete separation between NU and PUNLMP; however, nonrecurrent and recurrent cases fall in the same range of thickness. In setting a nuclear elongation factor threshold at 2.1, there are differences between the 2 PUNLMP groups, recurrent PUNLMP and NU cases, showing a somewhat similar proportion of elongated nuclei. The nuclear orientation separates nonrecurrent from recurrent PUNLMP groups; however, NU cases do not appear as a separate group from the 2 PUNLMP groups. In combining epithelial thickness, nuclear elongation, and orientation in a multivariate analysis, the 2 PUNLMP groups appear separate between them and from NU. NU is less thickened than the 2 PUNLMP groups and shows a combination of elongated and less elongated nuclei. Elongated nuclei are more numerous in nonrecurrent PUNLMP, whereas the nuclei in recurrent PUNLMP are less elongated and less polarized than in the other group. Such finding can be used routinely to identify those PUNLMP patients who will have recurrence. PMID:24565208

Castellini, Paolo; Montironi, Maria A; Zizzi, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Paone, Nicola; Montironi, Rodolfo

2014-04-01

226

The potential role of oral pH in the persistence of Trichomonas gallinae in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii).  

PubMed

Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae, affects a variety of species worldwide including avivorious raptors. Existing information suggests that the disease is most prevalent in young birds, and differential susceptibility to trichomoniasis among individuals in different age groups was documented in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) nesting in Tucson, Arizona. In that population, 85% of nestling Cooper's Hawks had T. gallinae in their oral cavity, compared to only 1% of breeding-age hawks. Trichomonads generally are sensitive to environmental pH and we explored the possibility that differences in oral pH may contribute to the differential prevalence of infection between age groups. We measured the pH of the fluid in the oral cavity in 375 Cooper's Hawks from three age groups (nestlings, fledglings, and breeding age) in Tucson, Arizona, in 2010 and 2011 and clinically tested for T. gallinae in a subsample of hawks. Oral pH of nestlings (? 6.8) was 7.3 times less acidic than in fledgling or breeding Cooper's Hawks (? 6.1). The incidence of T. gallinae was higher in nestlings (16%) than in either fledglings or breeding hawks (0%). Our findings indicate that oral pH becomes more acidic in Cooper's Hawks soon after they leave the nest. Trichomonas gallinae thrives when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but is less viable in more acidic conditions. Higher levels of acidity in the oral cavity of fledglings and breeding Cooper's Hawks may reduce their susceptibility to trichomoniasis, and play a role in the differential prevalence of infection among age groups. PMID:24171574

Urban, Elizabeth H; Mannan, R William

2014-01-01

227

Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.  

PubMed

The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer. PMID:25313728

Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

2014-01-01

228

Extracellular Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaR) Expression and Its Potential Role in Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP) Secretion in the H-500 Rat Leydig Cell Model of Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) occurs when secretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) by cancer cells causes hypercalcemia in the absence of skeletal metastases. High extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) increases secretion of PTH-like bioactivity by rat H-500 leydig cells, a transplantable model of HHM, an action potentially mediated by the Ca2+o-sensing receptor (CaR). In this study we investigated whether H-500 cells

Jennifer L. Sanders; Naibedya Chattopadhyay; Olga Kifor; Toru Yamaguchi; Edward M. Brown

2000-01-01

229

In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancers of oral cavities are one of the most common malignancies in India and other south-Asian countries. Tobacco habits are the main etiological factors for oral cancer. Identification of premalignant lesions is required for improving survival rates related to oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods are projected as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. We intend to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting premalignant conditions. Spectra were recorded from premalignant patches, contralateral normal (opposite to tumor site), and cancerous sites of subjects with oral cancers and also from age-matched healthy subjects with and without tobacco habits. A total of 861 spectra from 104 subjects were recorded using a fiber-optic probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectral differences in the 1200- to 1800-cm-1 region were subjected to unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised linear discriminant analysis followed by validation with leave-one-out and an independent test data set. Results suggest that premalignant conditions can be objectively discriminated with both normal and cancerous sites as well as from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits. Findings of the study further support efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral-cancer applications.

Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

2012-10-01

230

Iron chelation studies using desferrioxamine and the potential oral chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, in normal and iron loaded rats.  

PubMed Central

A novel iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, and desferrioxamine were compared for their ability to remove iron and for their site of action in iron release in rats. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of the chelators in rats with widespread tissue labelling by 59Fe derived from transferrin showed comparable 59Fe mobilisation by each chelator in normal and iron loaded rats. Specific labelling of a chelatable "cold" iron pool in hepatocytes by 59Fe derived from ferritin showed this pool to be equally accessible to parenteral doses of both chelators and also to oral 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, which is an effective oral iron chelating agent that removes iron from parenchymal cells. This and other alpha-ketohydroxypyridines need further development as potential therapeutic agents in human iron overload. PMID:3584483

Kontoghiorghes, G J; Sheppard, L; Hoffbrand, A V; Charalambous, J; Tikerpae, J; Pippard, M J

1987-01-01

231

Neuraminidase-producing oral mitis group streptococci potentially contribute to influenza viral infection and reduction in antiviral efficacy of zanamivir.  

PubMed

Influenza is a serious respiratory disease among immunocompromised individuals, such as the elderly, and its prevention is an urgent social issue. Influenza viruses rely on neuraminidase (NA) activity to release progeny viruses from infected cells and spreading the infection. NA is, therefore, an important target of anti-influenza drugs. A causal relationship between bacteria and influenza virus infection has not yet been established, however, a positive correlation between them has been reported. Thus, in this study, we examined the biological effects of oral mitis group streptococci, which are predominant constituents of human oral florae, on the release of influenza viruses. Among them, Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557 and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 6249 were found to exhibit NA activity and their culture supernatants promoted the release of influenza virus and cell-to-cell spread of the infection. In addition, culture supernatants of these NA-producing oral bacteria increased viral M1 protein expression levels and cellular ERK activation. These effects were not observed with culture supernatants of Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 which lacks the ability to produce NA. Although the NA inhibitor zanamivir suppressed the release of progeny viruses from the infected cells, the viral release was restored upon the addition of culture supernatants of NA-producing S. oralis ATCC 10557 or S. mitis ATCC 6249. These findings suggest that an increase in the number of NA-producing oral bacteria could elevate the risk of and exacerbate the influenza infection, hampering the efficacy of viral NA inhibitor drugs. PMID:25001578

Kamio, Noriaki; Imai, Kenichi; Shimizu, Kazufumi; Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Saito, Yuko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

2015-01-01

232

Expression of the EPHB4 receptor tyrosine kinase in head and neck and renal malignancies—implications for solid tumors and potential for therapeutic inhibition  

PubMed Central

Solid malignancies are often characterized by overexpression of various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) against which many targeted therapies are currently in use and in active development. EPHB4 has recently emerged as a frequently overexpressed RTK in many types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate expression patterns of EPHB4 in two solid malignancies, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), by immunohistochemical analysis. We demonstrate the first association between EPHB4 expression and progression of HNSCC from normal tissue to dysplasia and to cancer. Interestingly, most RCC subtypes exhibited expression patterns that were opposite from that found in HNSCC, possibly owing to their unique biology and high degree of organ and tumor vasculature. Taken together, these results suggest a possible role for EPHB4 as a therapeutic target in these malignancies. PMID:25391996

Ferguson, Benjamin D.; Tretiakova, Maria S.; Lingen, Mark W.; Gill, Parkash S.; Salgia, Ravi

2014-01-01

233

Expression of the EPHB4 receptor tyrosine kinase in head and neck and renal malignancies--implications for solid tumors and potential for therapeutic inhibition.  

PubMed

Solid malignancies are often characterized by overexpression of various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) against which many targeted therapies are currently in use and in active development. EPHB4 has recently emerged as a frequently overexpressed RTK in many types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate expression patterns of EPHB4 in two solid malignancies: squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), by immunohistochemical analysis. We demonstrate the first association between EPHB4 expression and progression of HNSCC from normal tissue to dysplasia and to cancer. Interestingly, most RCC subtypes exhibited expression patterns that were opposite from that found in HNSCC, possibly owing to their unique biology and high degree of organ and tumor vasculature. Taken together, these results suggest a possible role for EPHB4 as a therapeutic target in these malignancies. PMID:25391996

Ferguson, Benjamin D; Tretiakova, Maria S; Lingen, Mark W; Gill, Parkash S; Salgia, Ravi

2014-12-01

234

Primary Malignant Melanoma of Maxilla: Report of a Case with Discussion  

PubMed Central

Primary oral malignant melanoma, very rare neoplasm of melanocytic origin, usually presents as a bluish black to tan-brown colored lesion Which is accounting for 0.2 to 8% of all melanomas, 1.6% of all head and neck malignancies, and 0.5% of all oral neoplasia. In general, the prognosis of oral melanoma is poor and worse than that of cutaneous melanoma. Here a case of oral malignant melanoma is presented, which was undetected during the first visit to a dental clinic. When a simple oral surgical treatment was carried out in that region, it resulted in the appearance of a massive pigmented lesion which was histopathologically diagnosed as malignant melanoma. This paper is presented to reemphasize the fact that any pigmented lesion in the oral cavity should be viewed with suspicion and proper investigation (biopsy) should be carried out to rule out any untoward experiences later. PMID:25642350

Rani, G. Shirisha; Kumar, T. Vinay; Begum, Md Rezwana; Priya Srinivasan, Anu

2014-01-01

235

Significance of Peritoneal Washing Cytopathology in Ovarian Carcinomas and Tumors of Low Malignant Potential: A Quality Control Study with Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The author evaluated a consecutive group of peritoneal washings (PWs) performed in the evaluation of adnexal masses to determine whether the conventional histopathologic prognostic parameters significantly affect the tumor detection rate using this procedure. Study Design: Cytopathologic reports from all PWs performed over a 13-year (1996–2008) period in the evaluation of malignant and borderline ovarian tumors were reviewed and

Sevgiye Kaçar Özkara

2011-01-01

236

Bronchial adenoma: a malignant misnomer.  

PubMed

Bronchial adenomas are a histologically and clinically diverse group of respiratory tract neoplasms arising from mucous glands and ducts of the tracheobronchial tree. They represent 1% of pulmonary malignancies. The traditional concept of a single, histologically benign form is challenged and the malignant potential of these tumors is stressed. Three main cell types with their characteristic histopathologic and clinical features are discussed: carcinoid, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. A case of bronchial carcinoid with hepatic metastases is reported, emphasizing the malignant potential of this controversial group of tumors. The appropriate diagnostic evaluation is outlined and aggressive surgical management is stressed. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy which are reserved mainly for palliation do not add to overall five year survival rates. PMID:513920

Rowe, L D; Jafek, B W

1979-12-01

237

Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

The present paper offers a detailed review of the oral manifestations of various gastrointestional diseases or conditions, with suggestions on how they may be relevant to the practice of gastroenterology. The review includes Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, Gardner syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, malabsorption conditions related to hematopoiesis, gastrointestinal malignancy metastatic to the jaws, jaundice and gastric reflux diseases. PMID:17431513

Daley, Tom D; Armstrong, Jerrold E

2007-01-01

238

Immunohistochemical analysis of syndecan-1 in leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Syndecan-1 is abundant in normal tissues and reduced in squamous cell carcinomas. Leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) are oral pre-cancerous disorders that have potential for malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of syndecan-1 in leukoplakia and OSF and to identify its role as a reliable marker for predicting malignant changes. Materials and Methods: Expression of syndecan-1 was examined immunohistochemically in 42 cases of oral leukoplakia with or without epithelial dysplasia, 28 cases of OSF and 10 cases of normal oral epithelia as control. Mann-Whiteny ‘U’ test was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was fixed at P < 0.05. Results: Intense syndecan-1 expression was observed in nine cases with normal epithelium. Immunopositivity was lost gradually as the extent of epithelial dysplasia increased. The significant reduction in syndecan-1 expression was observed in leukoplakia as epithelial dysplasia progressed from moderate or severe. Similarly, significant reduction was observed in staining intensities in OSF with dysplasia. Conclusion: The results reveal that down-regulation of syndecan-1 expression is associated with dysplastic changes in leukoplakia and OSF. Thus syndecan-1 can be considered as marker for predicting malignant changes. PMID:24019799

Kamat, Sushant S.; Kumar, G. S.; Koshy, Ajit V.

2013-01-01

239

HIV/AIDS associated malignancies of the head and neck.  

PubMed

Patients with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk for the development of malignancy. Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cervical carcinoma in women are regarded as AIDS-defining malignancies. The spectrum of malignancy is, however, changing, particularly where patients receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). South Africa has the highest number of HIV-infected individuals globally. The possibility of the oral health care worker encountering HIV/AIDS-related pathology therefore seems inevitable. The aim of this article is to heighten the awareness of head and neck malignancies occurring in HIV/AIDS whilst highlighting some of the clinical features in order to facilitate early recognition and diagnosis. It is of clinical significance that in many instances, identification of these malignancies precedes HIV/AIDS diagnosis. Optimal patient management requires close co-operation between the oral health care practitioner and the extended health care team. PMID:23957103

Bunn, B K; van Heerden, W F P

2012-11-01

240

Akt activation is a common event in pediatric malignant gliomas and a potential adverse prognostic marker: a report from the children’s oncology group  

PubMed Central

Aberrant activation of Akt is a common finding in adult malignant gliomas, resulting in most cases from mutations or deletions involving PTEN, which allows constitutive Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, we have previously reported that pediatric malignant gliomas, which are morphologically similar to lesions arising in adults, have a substantially lower incidence of genomic alterations of PTEN. The objective of this study was to determine whether Akt activation was also an uncommon finding in childhood malignant gliomas and whether this feature was associated with survival. To address this issue, we examined the frequency of Akt activation, determined by overexpression of the activated phosphorylated form of Akt (Se473) on immunohistochemical analysis, in a series of 53 childhood malignant gliomas obtained from newly diagnosed patients treated on the Children’s Oncology Group ACNS0126 and 0423 studies. The relationship between Akt activation and p53 over-expression, MIB1 labeling, and tumor histology was evaluated. The association between Akt activation and survival was also assessed. Overexpression of activated Akt was observed in 42 of 53 tumors, far in excess of the frequency of PTEN mutations we have previously observed. There was no association between Akt activation and either histology, p53 overexpression, or MIB1 proliferation indices. Although tumors that lacked Akt overexpression had a trend toward more favorable event-free survival and overall survival (p = 0.06), this association reflected that non-overexpressing tumors were significantly more likely to have undergone extensive tumor removal, which was independently associated with outcome. Activation of Akt is a common finding in pediatric malignant gliomas, although it remains uncertain whether this is an independent adverse prognostic factor. In view of the frequency of Akt activation, the evaluation of molecularly targeted therapies that inhibit this pathway warrants consideration for these tumors. PMID:20607350

Hamilton, Ronald L.; Murdoch, Geoffrey H.; Burger, Peter C.; Brat, Daniel J.; Rosenblum, Marc K.; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Holmes, Emiko J.; Zhou, Tianni; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Jakacki, Regina I.

2010-01-01

241

Akt activation is a common event in pediatric malignant gliomas and a potential adverse prognostic marker: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.  

PubMed

Aberrant activation of Akt is a common finding in adult malignant gliomas, resulting in most cases from mutations or deletions involving PTEN, which allows constitutive Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, we have previously reported that pediatric malignant gliomas, which are morphologically similar to lesions arising in adults, have a substantially lower incidence of genomic alterations of PTEN. The objective of this study was to determine whether Akt activation was also an uncommon finding in childhood malignant gliomas and whether this feature was associated with survival. To address this issue, we examined the frequency of Akt activation, determined by overexpression of the activated phosphorylated form of Akt (Se(473)) on immunohistochemical analysis, in a series of 53 childhood malignant gliomas obtained from newly diagnosed patients treated on the Children's Oncology Group ACNS0126 and 0423 studies. The relationship between Akt activation and p53 overexpression, MIB1 labeling, and tumor histology was evaluated. The association between Akt activation and survival was also assessed. Overexpression of activated Akt was observed in 42 of 53 tumors, far in excess of the frequency of PTEN mutations we have previously observed. There was no association between Akt activation and either histology, p53 overexpression, or MIB1 proliferation indices. Although tumors that lacked Akt overexpression had a trend toward more favorable event-free survival and overall survival (p = 0.06), this association reflected that non-overexpressing tumors were significantly more likely to have undergone extensive tumor removal, which was independently associated with outcome. Activation of Akt is a common finding in pediatric malignant gliomas, although it remains uncertain whether this is an independent adverse prognostic factor. In view of the frequency of Akt activation, the evaluation of molecularly targeted therapies that inhibit this pathway warrants consideration for these tumors. PMID:20607350

Pollack, Ian F; Hamilton, Ronald L; Burger, Peter C; Brat, Daniel J; Rosenblum, Marc K; Murdoch, Geoffrey H; Nikiforova, Marina N; Holmes, Emiko J; Zhou, Tianni; Cohen, Kenneth J; Jakacki, Regina I

2010-09-01

242

Expression of p53 in leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa: correlation with expression of Ki67  

PubMed Central

Aim—To study p53 expression in relation to proliferative status in normal and nondysplastic, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. Method—The standard avidin-biotin complex (ABC) immunohistochemical staining method was used to study the expression of p53 and Ki67 on frozen sections of oral leukoplakias and carcinomas. Results—Of the leukoplakia and carcinoma samples, 70% expressed p53 in over 5% of cells. In normal mucosa less than 5% of cells expressed p53. The proliferation index, as assessed by expression of Ki67, was highest in the malignant lesions (43%) and lowest in normal mucosa (11%). Statistical analysis revealed that expression of both p53 and Ki67 was correlated significantly with the histopathological stage of the tumour. However, expression of p53 was not correlated with that of Ki67. In leukoplakia lesions with proliferative features p53 immunostaining was less intense than in non-proliferative lesions; this difference was statistically significant. Conclusions—These results emphasise the potential of Ki67 and p53 as biomarkers of carcinogenesis in oral cancer and may also serve as intermediate points for cancer prevention programmes, such as the oral chemopreventive trials. Factors other than p53 may have a more important role in the deregulation of proliferation in pre-malignant oral lesions. Images PMID:16696067

Kannan, S; Chandran, G Jagadeesh; Pillai, K Raveendran; Mathew, Babu; Sujathan, K; Nalinakumary, K R; Nair, M Krishnan

1996-01-01

243

Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, assessing cancer risk, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from research using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as interventions with molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21772845

Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigamori, Rikako

2011-01-01

244

Evaluation of Bowel Wall Thickening by Computed Tomography to Differentiate Benign from Malignant Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Computed tomography(CT) is an excellent non-invasive modality to evaluate bowel wall thickening.The aim of our study was to evaluate CT appearance of bowel wall thickening due to various benign and malignant conditions taking into consideration pattern of attenuation, bowel wall thickness, extent of lesion, symmetry of lesion and other associated CT findings. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was carried out on 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic evaluation of abdomen for suspicion of bowel pathology based on ultrasonography, barium studies and/or clinical grounds. The studies were conducted on Siemens ART and GE High speed CT scanners. The examination was performed as is done routinely for an abdominal scan with imaging done from diaphragm to pubic symphysis in supine position with the right lateral decubitus scans in selected cases for better characterization of gastric antral and duodenal lesions. Oral, rectal and intravenous (IV) contrast agents were administered. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology or histopathology of any biopsy or surgical specimen. However, in cases where surgery was not done, diagnosis was confirmed by clinical response to medical treatment. Results: Based on the various CT characteristics of abnormal bowel wall thickening, sensitivity and specificity of classifying a lesion as benign or malignant were calculated. Majority of the malignant bowel lesions were showing the following characteristics i.e. heterogeneous pattern of enhancement, marked bowel wall thickening, asymmetry of the lesion and focal/segmental bowel involvement. Overall, CT showed a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 93% in differentiating between benign and malignant etiology of abnormal bowel wall thickening. Conclusion: Due to its high sensitivity and specificity, CT is an ideal imaging modality for differentiating between benign and malignant etiology of abnormal bowel wall thickening. Radiologists should be aware of the usefulness of specific CT criteria of bowel wall thickening to better differentiate benign lesions from malignant or potentially malignant lesions that warrant further diagnostic evaluation.

Prajapati, Neeraj; Madhok, Rajneesh; Gupta, Ashish K.; Taneja, Vichi; Aggarwal, Abhinav

2014-01-01

245

Anatomy-Based Algorithms for Detecting Oral Cancer Using Reflectance and Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVES: We used reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to noninvasively and quantitatively distinguish benign from dysplastic/malignant oral lesions. We designed diagnostic algorithms to account for differences in ...

McGee, Sasha

246

The Cultivable Human Oral Gluten-Degrading Microbiome and its Potential Implications in Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease is characterized by intestinal inflammation caused by gluten, proteins which are widely contained in the Western diet. Mammalian digestive enzymes are only partly capable of cleaving gluten, and fragments remain that induce toxic responses in celiac patients. We found that the oral microbiome is a novel and rich source of gluten degrading enzymes. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of the cultivable resident oral microbes that are capable of cleaving gluten, with special emphasis on its immunogenic domains. Bacteria were obtained by a selective culturing approach and enzyme activities were characterised by: 1) Hydrolysis of paranitroanilide-derivatised gliadin-derived tripeptide substrates; 2) Gliadin degradation in-gel (gliadin zymography); 3) Gliadin degradation in solution; 4) Proteolysis of the highly immunogenic ?-gliadin-derived 33-mer. For select strains pH activity profiles were determined. The culturing strategy yielded 87 aerobic and 63 anaerobic strains. Species with activity in at least two of the four assays were typed as: Rothia mucilaginosa HOT-681, Rothia aeria HOT-188, Actinomyces odontolyticus HOT-701, Streptococcus mitis HOT-677, Streptococcus sp. HOT-071, Neisseria mucosa HOT-682 and Capnocytophaga sputigena HOT-775, with Rothia species being active in all four assays. Cleavage specificities and substrate preferences differed among the strains identified. The approximate molecular weights of the enzymes were ~75 kD (Rothia spp.), ~60 kD (A. odontolyticus) and ~150 kD (Streptococcus spp.). In conclusion, this study identified new gluten-degrading microorganisms in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. A cocktail of the most active oral bacteria, or their isolated enzymes, may offer promising new treatment modalities for celiac disease. PMID:23714165

Fernandez-Feo, Martin; Wei, Guoxian; Blumenkranz, Gabriel; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Schuppan, Detlef; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.

2013-01-01

247

Transcription analysis in the MeLiM swine model identifies RACK1 as a potential marker of malignancy for human melanocytic proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease. Few experimental animal models of metastatic melanoma exist. MeLiM minipigs exhibit spontaneous melanoma. Cutaneous and metastatic lesions are histologically similar to human's. However, most of them eventually spontaneously regress. Our purpose was to investigate whether the MeLiM model could reveal markers of malignancy in human melanocytic proliferations. RESULTS: We compared the serial analysis

Giorgia Egidy; Sophia Julé; Philippe Bossé; Florence Bernex; Claudine Geffrotin; Silvia Vincent-Naulleau; Vratislav Horak; Xavier Sastre-Garau; Jean-Jacques Panthier

2008-01-01

248

Malignant teratoma (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A malignant teratoma is a type of cancer consisting of cysts that contain one or more of the three primary embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Because malignant teratomas have usually spread by the time of diagnosis, ...

249

Molecular and behavioral pharmacology of two novel orally-active 5HT2 modulators: potential utility as antipsychotic medications  

PubMed Central

Background Desired serotonin 5HT2 receptor pharmacology for treatment of psychoses is 5HT2A antagonism and/or 5HT2C agonism. No selective 5HT2A antagonist has been approved for psychosis and the only approved 5HT2C agonist (for obesity) also activates 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptors, which can lead to clinical complications. Studies herein tested the hypothesis that a dual-function 5HT2A antagonist/5HT2C agonist that does not activate 5HT2B receptors would be suitable for development as an antipsychotic drug, without liability for weight gain. Methods The novel compounds (+)- and (?)-trans-4-(4?-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-2-aminotetralin (p-Cl-PAT) were synthesized, characterized in vitro for affinity and functional activity at human 5HT2 receptors, and administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (gavage) routes to mice in behavioral paradigms that assessed antipsychotic efficacy and effects on feeding behavior. Results (+)- and (?)-p-Cl-PAT activated 5HT2C receptors, with (+)-p-Cl-PAT being 12-times more potent, consistent with its higher affinity across 5HT2 receptors. Neither p-Cl-PAT enantiomer activated 5HT2A or 5HT2B receptors at concentrations up to 300-times greater than their respective affinity (Ki), and (+)-p-Cl-PAT was shown to be a 5HT2A competitive antagonist. When administered i.p. or orally, (+)- and (?)-p-Cl-PAT attenuated the head-twitch response (HTR) in mice elicited by the 5HT2 agonist (?)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and reduced intake of a highly palatable food in non-food-deprived mice, with (+)-p-Cl-PAT being more potent across behavioral assays. Conclusions The novel in vitro pharmacology of (+)-p-Cl-PAT (5HT2A antagonism/5HT2C agonism without activation of 5HT2B) translated in vivo to an orally-active drug candidate with preclinical efficacy to treat psychoses without liability for weight gain. PMID:23665356

Morgan, Drake; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Kuipers, Allison; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Robertson, Kimberly L.; Rowland, Neil E.; Booth, Raymond G.

2013-01-01

250

Malignant penile horn.  

PubMed

The fifth case of carcinoma within a penile horn is reported in a patient who also had erythroplasia of Queyrat of the glans penis. Penile horns should be considered as pre-malignant lesions, since a third of them undergo malignant change and they may be associated with a pre-malignant condition of the glans penis. PMID:926252

Raghavaiah, N V; Soloway, M S; Murphy, W M

1977-12-01

251

Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck\\u000a malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people\\u000a have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of

Mario A. BrondaniMario; Mario A. Cruz-Cabrera; Cheryle Colombe

2010-01-01

252

In vivo imaging polarimeter for oral precancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mueller matrix describes all the polarizing properties of a sample, and therefore the optical differences between non-cancerous and pre-cancerous tissue should be present within the matrix elements. We present in this paper that a high speedpolarimetry system generates 16 full Mueller matrices to characterize tissues. Feature extraction is done on the Mueller matrix elements resulting in the depolarizance and retardance images by polar decomposition to detect and classify of early oral cancers and pre-cancerous changes in epithelium, such as dysplasia. These images are compared with orthogonal polarization image and analyzed in an attempt to determine the important factors for the identification of cancerous lesions from their benign counterparts. Our results indicate that polarimetry has potential as a method for the in vivo early detection and diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy.

Chung, Jungrae; Jung, Woonggyu; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping

2005-04-01

253

Oral Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal

2010-01-01

254

Oral Insulin  

PubMed Central

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

2010-01-01

255

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and ... Options? Is There a Danger of Interactions? How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? We Can Help (Long) - we-can-help-long. ...

256

Phase I clinical trial to determine maximum tolerated dose of oral albendazole in patients with advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Albendazole is a potential anticancer agent that is currently under development for the treatment of cancer. We carried out\\u000a a dose-finding phase I study of oral albendazole in patients with advanced malignancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Thirty-six patients with refractory solid tumors were enrolled. Albendazole was given orally on a day 1–14 of a 3 weekly cycle,\\u000a starting at 400 mg BD with dose

Mohammad H. Pourgholami; Michael Szwajcer; Melvin Chin; Winston Liauw; Jonathan Seef; Peter Galettis; David L. Morris; Matthew Links

2010-01-01

257

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

2014-11-01

258

Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally. PMID:25082078

Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

2015-01-01

259

Reflectance confocal microscope for imaging oral tissues in vivo, potentially with line scanning as a low-cost approach for clinical use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance confocal microscopy with a line scanning approach potentially offers a smaller, simpler and less expensive approach than traditional methods of point scanning for imaging in living tissues. With one moving mechanical element (galvanometric scanner), a linear array detector and off-the-shelf optics, we designed a compact (102x102x76mm) line scanning confocal reflectance microscope (LSCRM) for imaging human tissues in vivo in a clinical setting. Custom-designed electronics, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic has been developed. With 405 nm illumination and a custom objective lens of numerical aperture 0.5, lateral resolution was measured to be 0.8 um (calculated 0.64 um). The calculated optical sectioning is 3.2 um. Preliminary imaging shows nuclear and cellular detail in human skin and oral epithelium in vivo. Blood flow is also visualized in the deeper connective tissue (lamina propria) in oral mucosa. Since a line is confocal only in one dimension (parallel) but not in the other, the detection is more sensitive to multiply scattered out of focus background noise than in the traditional point scanning configuration. Based on the results of our translational studies thus far, a simpler, smaller and lower-cost approach based on a LSCRM appears to be promising for clinical imaging.

Peterson, Gary; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Eastman, Zachary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2012-02-01

260

Itraconazole Oral Solution for Primary Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancy and Profound Neutropenia: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Placebo, Multicenter Trial Comparing Itraconazole and Amphotericin B  

Microsoft Academic Search

end of the neutropenic period (>0.5 3 10 9 neutrophils\\/liter) or up to a maximum of 3 days following the end of neutropenia, unless a systemic fungal infection was documented or suspected. The maximum treatment duration was 56 days. In the intent-to-treat population, invasive aspergillosis was noted in 5 (1.8%) of the 281 patients assigned to itraconazole oral solution and

J. L. Harousseau; A. W. Dekker; A. Stamatoullas-Bastard; A. Fassas; W. Linkesch; J. Gouveia; R. De Bock; M. Rovira; W. F. Seifert; H. Joosen; M. Peeters; K. De Beule

2000-01-01

261

Anogenital malignancies and pre-malignancies.  

PubMed

Anogenital pre-malignancies and malignancies are frequently encountered. Aetiopathogenetically, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a critical role. However, there is a variable degree of association of HPV infection with the development of anogenital malignancies. In this context, the high level of clinically unapparent HPV infection should be considered. Therefore, the question arises if the association with HPV is always causative. Besides HPV, pre-existent lichen sclerosus is also an important aetiopathologic factor in the development of anogenital malignancies. Common anogenital pre-malignancies comprise Bowen's disease (BD), Bowenoid papulosis (BP) and erythroplasia of Queyrat (EQ). From a clinical point of view, these are clearly different entities, but from a histopathological point of view, BD, BP and EQ are indistinguishable. They all represent forms of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (IN). Intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) is not only restricted to squamous variants, but also includes non-squamous IN, Paget's disease (PD) and melanoma in situ. The risk of developing anogenital (pre)malignancies or other tumours is higher in immunocompromised and immunodeficient patients, in particular those suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Such risk factors will affect treatment and follow-up modalities. Regarding prophylactic measures, a relatively recent but very important development is the availability of HPV vaccination on a large scale. Momentarily, the effects of such vaccination, on a population-based scale, are not yet clear but will become apparent in the near future. Management of anogenital pre-malignancies and malignancies should be tailor-made and may be organized in a multidisciplinary fashion. PMID:21272092

Henquet, C J M

2011-08-01

262

Management of malignant hyperthermia: diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially lethal inherited disorder characterized by disturbance of calcium homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Volatile anesthetics and/or the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine may induce this hypermetabolic muscular syndrome due to uncontrolled sarcoplasmic calcium release via functionally altered calcium release receptors, resulting in hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, muscular rigidity, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hyperthermia in susceptible individuals. Since the clinical presentation of malignant hyperthermia is highly variable, survival of affected patients depends largely on early recognition of the symptoms characteristic of malignant hyperthermia, and immediate action on the part of the attending anesthesiologist. Clinical symptoms of malignant hyperthermia, diagnostic criteria, and current therapeutic guidelines, as well as adequate management of anesthesia in patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia, are discussed in this review. PMID:24868161

Schneiderbanger, Daniel; Johannsen, Stephan; Roewer, Norbert; Schuster, Frank

2014-01-01

263

Potential Risk Factors for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma include Oral Contraceptives: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Recently, a population-based case-control study observed a 60% increased odds ratio (OR) for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among women who had ever used oral contraceptives (OCs) compared with non users (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–2.5). To further characterize the putative association between OC use and SCC risk, we conducted a nested case-control study using a large retrospective cohort of 111,521 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and CIs adjusting for known and hypothesized SCC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic OC use was associated with a statistically significant increased OR for SCC in univariate analysis (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.2–4.8), with borderline statistical significance in multivariable analysis (CI = 2.0, CI = 0.91–4.5). Given the high incidence of SCC in the general population and the prevalent use of OCs among women in the United States, there is a need for more large, carefully designed epidemiologic studies to determine whether the observed association between OC use and SCC can be replicated and to better understand the etiologic basis of an association if one exists. PMID:20616983

Asgari, Maryam M.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Warton, E. Margaret; Friedman, Gary D.

2010-01-01

264

Improved stability and antidiabetic potential of insulin containing folic acid functionalized polymer stabilized multilayered liposomes following oral administration.  

PubMed

The present study reports the folic acid (FA) functionalized insulin loaded stable liposomes with improved bioavailability following oral administration. Liposomes were stabilized by alternating coating of negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and positively charged poly(allyl amine) hydrochloride (PAH) over liposomes. Furthermore, folic acid was appended as targeting ligand by synthesizing folic acid-poly(allyl amine) hydrochloride conjugate. The insulin entrapped within the freeze-dried formulation was found stable both chemically as well as conformationally and developed formulation exhibited excellent stability in simulated biological fluids. Caco-2 cell and ex vivo intestinal uptake studies revealed higher uptake of folic acid functionalized layersomes in comparison with their plain counterparts. In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies further revealed almost double hypoglycemia and approximately 20% relative bioavailability in comparison with subcutaneously administered standard insulin solution. Overall the proposed strategy is expected to contribute significantly in the field of designing ligand-anchored, polyelectrolyte-based stable systems in drug delivery. PMID:24283460

Agrawal, Ashish Kumar; Harde, Harshad; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

2014-01-13

265

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

266

The role of estrogen receptor {beta} (ER{beta}) in malignant diseases-A new potential target for antiproliferative drugs in prevention and treatment of cancer  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of ER{beta} in the middle of the 1990s represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of estrogen signaling. It has turned out that estrogen action is not mediated by one receptor, ER{alpha}, but by two balancing factors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, which are often antagonistic to one another. Excitingly, ER{beta} has been shown to be widespread in the body and to be involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological events. This has led to a strong interest of the pharmaceutical industry to target ER{beta} by drugs against various diseases. In this review, focus is on the role of ER{beta} in malignant diseases where the anti proliferative activity of ER{beta} gives hope of new therapeutic approaches.

Warner, Margaret [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden) [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@mednut.ki.se [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden) [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-05-21

267

Aligning HIV/AIDS Communication With the Oral Tradition of Africans: A Theory-Based Content Analysis of Songs' Potential in Prevention Efforts.  

PubMed

Despite a growing recognition of songs as a useful HIV/AIDS campaign strategy, little research has investigated their potential and/or actual impact. In this study, through a theory-based content analysis, we have assessed the prevention domains covered and the health-relevant constructs promoted by 23 AIDS songs widely used to aid prevention efforts in Ethiopia. To identify the health-relevant constructs and reveal their potential to facilitate or inhibit positive changes, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has been used. The findings revealed that the songs cover most of the prevention domains that constitute the current agenda of behavior change communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, although all the EPPM variables have been found in almost every song, there were significantly more efficacy messages than threat messages. This suggests that although the songs may lead to positive changes in HIV/AIDS-related outcomes among audiences who have already perceived the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, they are less likely to motivate and thereby generate responses from audiences who have less or no threat perceptions. It is argued that given their potential as a culturally appropriate strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa where oral channels of communication play significant roles, songs could be harnessed for better outcomes through a theory-based design. PMID:24945716

Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

2015-05-01

268

Paraneoplastic dermatological manifestation of gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Numerous dermatological disorders have been associated with underlining malignancies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Such cutaneous manifestations might have an important diagnostic value if they are the sole expressions of otherwise asymptomatic carcinomas. The recognition of some typical paraneoplastic dermatologic disorders can lead to the prompt diagnosis of the underlying malignancy, timely administration of therapy, and ultimately, better prognosis. In this review we discuss the most common paraneoplastic dermatological syndromes from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist. We also outline a comprehensive practical approach for the evaluation for occult malignancy in patients presenting with cutaneous findings potentially associated with GI cancers. PMID:19764087

Dourmishev, Lyubomir A; Draganov, Peter V

2009-01-01

269

Oral premalignant lesions: epidemiological and clinical analysis in the northern Polish population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. Aim Epidemiological and clinical analysis of patients with oral leukoplakia (OL) diagnosed and treated in the Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical University of Gdansk. Material and methods The study was retrospective and prospective. Among 55 911 patients diagnosed and treated in the Department in 1999–2009, 204 people with OL were selected. The material includes 104 women and 100 men with an average age of 58.1. Most of the patients were in the age group of 50–70 years, average age was 58.1. Results The most common concomitant disease was diabetes. More than 88% of the patients declared occurrence of OL predisposing development factors (50.49% – cigarette smoking). Three hundred and twenty foci of OL were found among patients. Homogeneous OL dominated (72.05%). Multifocal OL was diagnosed in 58.3% of patients. The most common location of lesions was buccal mucosa (52.2%). Cancers developed on the basis of OL in 7 patients (3.43%). The percentage of malignant transformation was 12.19% for untreated patients and 1.41% for treated patients. The floor of the oral cavity was proven to be the location of the highest risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with diabetes may be more likely to develop OL. The risk of malignant transformation is relatively high. In our material it was equal to 3.43%. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is the most important factor, which can influence the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:25610347

Paw?owska, Anita; Renkielska, Dorota; Michaj?owski, Igor; Sobjanek, Micha?; B?a?ewicz, Izabela

2014-01-01

270

Lewis y antigen is expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and tissues, but disappears in the invasive regions leading to the enhanced malignant properties irrespective of sialyl-Lewis x.  

PubMed

Expression and implication of carbohydrate antigens in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in oral cavity was examined. In the cell lines, type 2H and Lewis y antigens were markedly expressed. In the tissues from SCC patients and benign disorders, type 2H was highly expressed in hyperplasia (96.4 %), displasia (92.9 %) and SCC (100 %). Lewis y was, in turn, expressed mainly in cancer tissues (91.3 %), suggesting that Lewis y is a cancer-associated antigen. Normal oral mucosa showed no expression of these blood group antigens. Surprisingly, Lewis y antigen disappeared in the invasion sites where Ki-67 was definitely stained. Over-expression of Lewis y with manipulation of a fucosyltransferase cDNA resulted in suppression of cell growth and invasion, and knockdown of Lewis y also brought about increased cell growth and invasion. In either situations, no changes in the expression of sialyl-Lewis x could be found. Lowered tumor growth and invasion into surrounding tissues were also shown in Lewis y-positive SCC grafts in nu/nu mice. All these results together with alternative staining between Lewis y and Ki-67 in cancer tissues and FUT1 transfectants suggested that loss of Lewis y is a crucial event for the late stage of SCCs. PMID:23242548

Hotta, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Kazunori; Yamashita, Kyoko; Shibuya, Hidenobu; Tokuda, Noriyo; Hashimoto, Noboru; Furukawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Hattori, Hisashi; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi

2013-08-01

271

Smokeless tobacco, viruses and oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. OSCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, viral infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007 concluded: "there is sufficient evidence in humans to establish smokeless tobacco as carcinogenic, i.e. smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas". ST products contain a large array of carcinogens, although the number found is actually smaller than in cigarette smoke. Worldwide, ST products have many different names depending on the region where it is produced. However, there are two main types of ST, chewing tobacco and snuff. It is estimated that approximately 150 million people in the world use ST. Herein, we review available literature regarding smokeless tobacco and oral Carcinogenesis. We also discuss the role of viral infections in combination with ST in OSCC development. PMID:24984650

Sand, Lars; Wallström, Mats; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

2014-06-01

272

Upregulation of miR-31* Is Negatively Associated with Recurrent/Newly Formed Oral Leukoplakia  

PubMed Central

Background Oral leukoplakia (OLK) is a potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. However, the underlying mechanism of OLK is still unclear. In this study, we explore possible miRNAs involved in OLK. Methodology/Principal Findings Using miRNA microarrays, we profiled miRNA expression in OLK and malignantly transformed OLK (mtOLK) tissue samples. The upregulation of miR-31*, miR-142-5p, miR-33a, miR-1259, miR-146b-5p, miR-886-3p, miR-886-5p, miR-519d, and miR-301a along with the downregulation of miR-572, miR-611, miR-602, miR-675, miR-585, miR-623, miR-637, and miR-1184 in mtOLK were new observations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses confirmed that miR-31* is highly expressed in mtOLK. There was a significant difference between the FISH score (p<0.05) in patients with or without recurrent/newly formed OLK. Functional analyses demonstrated that a miR-31* inhibitor decreased apoptosis in the Leuk-1, which is an immortalized oral epithelial cell line spontaneously derived from an oral leukoplakia lesion. miR-31* regulated apoptosis, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in the HOIEC, which is a HPV E6/E7-immortalized oral epithelial cell line. Furthermore, miR-31* modulated the biological functions of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, Cal-27. Using bioinformatic analyses and dual luciferase reporter assays, we determined that the 3? untranslated region of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) is the target of miR-31*. Expression of FGF3 was downregulated or upregulated in the presence of a miR-31* mimic or inhibitor, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of miR-31* is negatively associated with recurrent/newly formed OLK. MiR-31* may exert similar but distinguishable effects on biological function in oral cells with different malignant potential. FGF3 is the target of miR-31*. miR-31* may play an important role during OLK progression through regulating FGF3. MiRNA* strands may also have prominent roles in oral carcinogenesis. PMID:22719913

Zhang, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Shi, Lin-Jun; Zhou, Zeng-Tong; Jiang, Wei-Wen

2012-01-01

273

The Evaluation of Hydroxyethyl Starch (6% HES 130/0.4) Solution’s Potential Preventive Effects on Coagulation Status in Women with Gynecologic Malignancies Using Rotation Thromboelastography  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vitro hemodilution with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 solution on the coagulation status of women with gynecologic malignancies by using rotation thromboelastogram (ROTEM®). Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with gynecological tumors scheduled for anesthesia were enrolled. Blood samples were diluted by 20% with 6% HES (130/0.4) solution. Results: In the INTEM assay, clotting time (CT) (p<0.01) and clot formation time (CFT) (p<0.001) were significantly increased and maximum maximum clot formation (MCF) (p< 0.001) was significantly decreased in HES hemodilution compared with the undiluted control samples. In the EXTEM assay, there was a similar significant increase in increase in CFT (p<0.01) and a decrease in maximum a decrease in MCF (p<0.01) in HES hemodilution when compared with control samples. Conclusion: HES 130/0.4 solution causes significant hypocoagulable changes in the thromboelastographic profile of gynecologic cancer patients in vitro. PMID:25330518

Akay, Meltem Olga; Bilir, Ayten; Öge, Tufan; Ku?, Gökhan; Mutlu, Fezan ?ahin

2014-01-01

274

Galectin-7 as a potential predictive marker of chemo-and/or radio-therapy resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Treatment of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) requires the integration of multimodal approaches. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of tumor sensitivity to preoperative radiotherapy/chemotherapy for OSCC in order to allow oncologists to determine optimum therapeutic strategies without the associated adverse effects. Here, the protein expression profiles of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 18 OSCC patients, termed learning cases, who received preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy followed by surgery were analyzed by quantitative proteomics and validated by immunohistochemistry in 68 test cases as well as in the 18 learning cases. We identified galectin-7 as a potential predictive marker of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy resistance, and the sensitivity and specificity of the galectin-7 prediction score (G7PS) in predicting this resistance was of 96.0% and 39.5%, respectively, in the 68 test cases. The cumulative 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 75.2% in patients with resistant prediction using G7PS and 100% in patients with sensitive prediction. In vitro overexpression of galectin-7 significantly decreased cell viability in OSCC cell line. Therefore, our findings suggest that galectin-7 is a potential predictive marker of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy resistance in patients with OSCC. Identification of proteins differentially expressed in OSSC samples from patients sensitive or resistant. The samples were processed by LC-MS and analyzed with 2DICAL. PMID:24515895

Matsukawa, Sho; Morita, Kei-ichi; Negishi, Ayako; Harada, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Yusuke; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Tomioka, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Kae; Ono, Masaya; Yamada, Tesshi; Omura, Ken

2014-01-01

275

Development of 2-aminooxazoline 3-azaxanthenes as orally efficacious ?-secretase inhibitors for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The ?-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is one of the most hotly pursued targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We used a structure- and property-based drug design approach to identify 2-aminooxazoline 3-azaxanthenes as potent BACE1 inhibitors which significantly reduced CSF and brain A? levels in a rat pharmacodynamic model. Compared to the initial lead 2, compound 28 exhibited reduced potential for QTc prolongation in a non-human primate cardiovascular safety model. PMID:25613679

Chen, Jian Jeffrey; Liu, Qingyian; Yuan, Chester; Gore, Vijay; Lopez, Patricia; Ma, Vu; Amegadzie, Albert; Qian, Wenyuan; Judd, Ted C; Minatti, Ana E; Brown, James; Cheng, Yuan; Xue, May; Zhong, Wenge; Dineen, Thomas A; Epstein, Oleg; Human, Jason; Kreiman, Charles; Marx, Isaac; Weiss, Matthew M; Hitchcock, Stephen A; Powers, Timothy S; Chen, Kui; Wen, Paul H; Whittington, Douglas A; Cheng, Alan C; Bartberger, Michael D; Hickman, Dean; Werner, Jonathan A; Vargas, Hugo M; Everds, Nancy E; Vonderfecht, Steven L; Dunn, Robert T; Wood, Stephen; Fremeau, Robert T; White, Ryan D; Patel, Vinod F

2015-02-15

276

Oral complications in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

Carl, W.

1983-02-01

277

Hypercalcemia of Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence Hypercalcemia is one of the most common metabolic complications of malignancy, developing in 3?30% of patients with cancer at some time during the course of their disease. Indeed malignancy is the most frequent cause of hypercalcemia in a general hospital patient population, whereas primary hyperparathyroidism is a more common cause of elevated blood calcium in the community at large.

Vivian Grill; T. John Martin

2000-01-01

278

Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen: a potential oral treatment to protect Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome.  

PubMed

The envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is considered a candidate antigen for use in a potential vaccine to this important shrimp pathogen (the cause of white spot syndrome, WSS). Here, we used spores of Bacillus subtilis to display VP28 on the spore surface. Trials were conducted to evaluate their ability to protect shrimps against WSSV infection. The gene cotB-vp28 was integrated into the chromosome of the laboratory strain B. subtilis PY79, and expression of CotB-VP28 was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Expression of CotB-VP28 was equivalent to 1000 molecules per spore. PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores were mixed with pellets for feeding of whiteleg shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei), followed by WSSV challenge. Superoxidase dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase activities and mortality rates of the two shrimp groups were evaluated. Groups fed with PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores at day 7 had increased SOD activities of 29% and increased phenoloxidase activities of 15% and 33%, respectively, compared to those of the control group. Fourteen days postchallenge, 35% of vaccinated shrimps had died compared to 49% of those fed naked spores (PY79) and 66% untreated, unchallenged animals. These data suggest that spores expressing VP28 have potential as a prophylactic treatment of WSS. PMID:25066511

Nguyen, Anh T V; Pham, Cuong K; Pham, Huong T T; Pham, Hang L; Nguyen, Anh H; Dang, Lua T; Huynh, Hong A; Cutting, Simon M; Phan, Tuan-Nghia

2014-09-01

279

The transmembrane adaptor Cbp/PAG1 controls the malignant potential of human non-small cell lung cancers that have c-src upregulation.  

PubMed

The tyrosine kinase c-Src is upregulated in various human cancers, although the precise regulatory mechanism underlying this upregulation is unclear. We previously reported that a transmembrane adaptor Csk-binding protein (Cbp; PAG1) plays an important role in controlling the cell transformation that is induced by the activation of c-Src. To elucidate the in vivo role of Cbp, we examined the function of Cbp in lung cancer cell lines and tissues. In this study, we found that Cbp was markedly downregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. The ectopic expression of Cbp suppressed the anchorage-independent growth of the NSCLC cell lines (A549 and Lu99) that had upregulated c-Src, whereas the Cbp expression had little effect on other NSCLC cell lines (PC9 and Lu65) that express normal levels of c-Src. The expression of Cbp suppressed the kinase activity of c-Src in A549 cells by recruiting c-Src and its negative regulator, C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), to lipid rafts. The treatment with Src inhibitors, such as PP2, dasatinib, and saracatinib, also suppressed the growth of A549 cells. Furthermore, Cbp expression attenuated the ability of A549 cells to form tumors in nude mice, invade in vitro, and metastasize in vivo. In addition, we found a significant inverse correlation between the level of Cbp expression and the extent of lymph node metastasis in human lung cancers. These results indicate that Cbp is required for the Csk-mediated inactivation of c-Src and may control the promotion of malignancy in NSCLC tumors that are characterized by c-Src upregulation. PMID:21156787

Kanou, Takashi; Oneyama, Chitose; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Okimura, Akira; Ohta, Mitsunori; Ikeda, Naoki; Shintani, Yasushi; Okumura, Meinoshin; Okada, Masato

2011-01-01

280

Immunohistochemistry of primary malignant neuroepithelial tumors of the kidney: a potential source of confusion? A study of 30 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Pathology Center.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is a rare primary tumor of the kidney with morphologic features similar to those of other primitive tumors. Previous studies have shown that these tumors frequently stain positively with immunostains against CD99 and FLI-1 and negatively with stains against WT-1, suggesting that these markers may be used for the distinction between Wilms tumor and pPNET. We present 30 cases of primary malignant neuroepithelial tumor with immunohistochemical profiles and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and show that immunophenotypic overlap exists between Wilms tumor and pPNET. A subset of 30 neuroepithelial tumors from the National Wilms Tumor Study originally categorized as putative pPNETs of the kidney was stained with FLI-1, WT-1, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Bicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed on 19 of the cases. Other data on these tumors were available from a previous study (Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:133). Of 7 primary tumors that had the EWS/FLI-1 fusion transcript by RT-PCR, 6 exhibited strong immunopositivity for FLI-1. Nine that were negative by RT-PCR stained positively with the FLI-1 stain. Five fusion-negative cases stained with both FLI-1 and WT-1. Three fusion-negative cases were negative for FLI-1 but positive for WT-1. Five fusion-negative cases were negative for both FLI-1 and WT-1. Of the 30 cases, 29 were positive for CD99. Seven cases that were negative for the EWS-FLI-1 fusion by RT-PCR were positive by fluorescence in situ hybridization. All cases were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Reliance upon immunohistochemistry as the sole means of ancillary diagnosis in renal pPNET can lead to confusing results. We recommend molecular fusion studies for clarification of primitive renal tumors with unexpected immunophenotypic results. PMID:17134738

Ellison, Dale A; Parham, David M; Bridge, Julia; Beckwith, J Bruce

2007-02-01

281

[Cancers of the oral and genital mucosa].  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinomas account for over 90 % of cancers of the oral cavity in France. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Delay in diagnosis is unfortunately frequent. The management of the cancer is based on surgery, possibly associated to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The survival rate at 5 years does not exceed 30-40%. We hope to see a decrease in the number of oral cancer thanks to the development of preventive medicine (alcohol and tobacco cessation and early detection of potentially malignant lesions). Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease which traditionally affect elderly woman but continues to rise in incidence especially in younger women. There are at least 2 forms of genital squamous cell carcinoma. The most common form is found on older women arising in a background of lichen sclerosus and the second is associated with "high risk" human papillomavirus infection affecting younger women. A biopsy is usually required for diagnosis. Attempts to reduce genital cancer must focus on treating precursor lesions, namely lichen sclerosus and HPV-related intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and PIN). Most genital cancer occur on undiagnosed or untreated lichens sclerosus, vulvar inspection when women attend for their cervical smears or seeking about significance of any chronic genital symptom by a clinical examination. PMID:24167879

Dehen, Laure; Schwob, Emilie; Pascal, Francis

2013-09-01

282

Clinically malignant atypical glomus tumour  

PubMed Central

Glomus tumours (GTs) resemble the normal glomus body and have a predilection for skin and subcutaneous tissue. Although the majority of glomus tumours are small, benign neoplasms that occur in the dermis or subcutis of the extremities and cases of atypical or malignant variants have been reported. We report a case of a man who presented with a 1-year history of subcutaneous nodule in the right scapular area which was mildly tender. The nodule measured 2?cm. Microscopic examination showed features of glomus tumour with increased mitotic activity. These features, by current definition, would suggest glomus tumour of uncertain malignant potential. Three months later, he presented with recurrence. During his metastasis work-up, we noticed bilateral pulmonary metastasis. Metastasising GTs are rare. The patient underwent wide local excision and received chemotherapy. PMID:23291816

Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Zahir, Shokouh Taghipour; Bovanlu, Taghi Roshan

2013-01-01

283

OD17-16/2 Page 1 MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE JAWS  

E-print Network

OD17-16/2 Page 1 CHAPTER 16 MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE JAWS Squamous cell carcinoma Metastatic SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor of epithelial origin. In the oral common primary sites are breast, lung, kidney, prostate, colon, stomach and testis. Metastases

284

Prospective study of dental intervention for hematopoietic malignancy.  

PubMed

Various chemotherapeutic agents used in patients with hematopoietic malignancy cause serious side effects, including myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression makes patients more susceptible to infection, resulting in an increased risk of infectious complications, including the development of severe septicemia that may be life-threatening. It is necessary for dental staff to be familiar with an appropriate protocol in such cases and to share information about the chemotherapy with a hematologist. To verify the effectiveness of our dental intervention protocol, we conducted a prospective study on the incidence of complications for each myelosuppressive grade of chemotherapy in patients with hematopoietic malignancy. We compared the incidence of complications between treatment P (patients who finished all the dental treatments according to the protocol) and treatment Q (patients who did not) per grade (A, B, C, D) and incidence of systemic or oral findings. We also compared the incidence of oral complication related to the residual teeth between first chemo (patients who were undergoing chemotherapy for the first time) and prior chemo (not the first time). There were significant differences in inflammatory complications between treatment P and treatment Q. We found that both systemic and oral inflammatory complications increased with higher-grade myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Additionally, there was a significant difference between the incidence of oral complications related to the residual teeth between first chemo and prior chemo. Complete implementation of the dental intervention protocol was associated with fewer oral and systemic infectious and inflammatory complications in patients with hematopoietic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. The incidence of oral and systemic complications also increased with grade of chemotherapy. These results support the validity of our dental intervention protocol. We should pay close attention to the oral state of de novo hematopoietic malignancy patients. PMID:25503612

Tsuji, K; Shibuya, Y; Akashi, M; Furudoi, S; Yakushijin, K; Kawamoto, S; Okamura, A; Matsuoka, H; Komori, T

2015-02-01

285

Toxicity potentiation by H2O2 with components of dental restorative materials on human oral cells.  

PubMed

Toxicity potentiation of two monomers [bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA) and urethanedimethacrylate (UDMA)] as well as two comonomers [triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)], each in combination with H(2)O(2), was investigated on the viability on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and human pulpal fibroblasts (HPF). The applied concentration of H(2)O(2) was 0.06 or 0.1 mmol/l, respectively, corresponding to the EC(0) of H(2)O(2) in HGF or HPF. The cell viability was assessed by the XTT test. From this test the half maximum effect concentrations (EC(50)) were calculated from fitted sigmoidale curves. EC(50) values were (HGF; mmol/l; mean +/- s.e.m.; n = 5): HEMA 11.9 +/- 0.9, TEGDMA 3.7 +/- 0.3, H(2)O(2) 0.36 +/- 0.04, UDMA 0.27 +/- 0.08, and BisGMA 0.11 +/- 0.03. No significant (P < 0.05) differences in the EC(50) values were observed when HGF was exposed to substances, as compared to HPF. No significant decrease of the EC(50) values was found when HGF or HPF, respectively, was exposed to HEMA or BisGMA in addition with H(2)O(2) up to the concentration of 0.1 mmol/l, as compared to those EC(50) values of each compound without H(2)O(2) addition. A significant decrease of the TEGDMA EC(50) value from 3.7 to 2.1 or 0.4 mmol/l, respectively, was found when cells were exposed to TEGDMA in combination with H(2)O(2) (0.06 or 0.1 mmol/l), as compared to that TEGDMA EC(50) value without H(2)O(2) addition. A significant decrease of the UDMA EC(50) value from 0.27 to 0.11 or 0.08 mmol/l, respectively, was found when HGF or HPF was exposed to UDMA in combination with H(2)O(2) (0.06 or 0.1 mmol/l), as compared to that UDMA EC(50) value without H(2)O(2) addition. The addition of H(2)O(2) (0.06 or 0.1 mmol/l) resulted in a toxicity potentiation of TEGDMA and UDMA, but not of HEMA and BisGMA, on HGF or HPF. PMID:17611738

Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Seiss, Mario; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Schweikl, Helmut; Kehe, Kai; Hickel, Reinhard

2008-01-01

286

Melatonin and oral cavity.  

PubMed

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

287

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

288

[Chemotherapy for malignant gliomas: an update].  

PubMed

Gliomas account for approximately 30% of all brain tumors and are thus the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite treatment with aggressive surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, high-grade (WHO grades III and IV) malignant gliomas, especially glioblastoma (GBM), the most common glioma in adults, kill patients within a median time span of a year after diagnosis. In Japan, alkylating agents such as 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyridiminyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU) and methyl-6-[3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosoureido]-6-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MCNU) have been used to treat malignant gliomas for a long time; however, this treatment provides few clinical benefits. Temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating agent, has been demonstrated to possess antitumor activity against malignant gliomas with minimal additional toxicity; furthermore, a previous study found that treatment with TMZ significantly prolonged median survival time. In 2006, TMZ was certified as the treatment agent for malignant gliomas by the National Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. It is now used as first-line therapy. However, its clinical outcomes depend on the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status, and MGMT modification is one of the key factors to deriving greater clinical benefits in the future. Combination therapy with TMZ and other antitumor drugs, especially anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody (Avascin), has been aggressively investigated for treating gliomas. Some of these drugs have been studied in experimental animal models and advanced to clinical trials. These studies suggest that combination therapy with TMZ and other antitumor drugs might further improve the clinical outcome of malignant gliomas as compared to TMZ plus radiotherapy. Based on these data, the next step will be to carry out phase II to III clinical studies to improve treatment of malignant brain tumors further. PMID:24105052

Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Natsume, Atsushi; Fujii, Masazumi

2013-10-01

289

Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review  

PubMed Central

Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in oral health and disease. PMID:24959038

Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V

2014-01-01

290

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Are Potential Predictive Biomarkers in Early Stage Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCC)  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often associated with metastatic disease and a poor 5 year survival rate. Patients diagnosed with small tumours generally have a more favourable outcome, but some of these small tumours are aggressive and lead to early death. To avoid harmful overtreatment of patients with favourable prognosis, there is a need for predictive biomarkers that can be used for treatment stratification. In this study we assessed the possibility to use components of the plasminogen activator (PA) system as prognostic markers for OSCC outcome and compared this to the commonly used biomarker Ki-67. A tissue-micro-array (TMA) based immunohistochemical analysis of primary tumour tissue obtained from a North Norwegian cohort of 115 patients diagnosed with OSCC was conducted. The expression of the biomarkers was compared with clinicopathological variables and disease specific death. The statistical analyses revealed that low expression of uPAR (p?=?0.031) and PAI-1 (p?=?0.021) in the tumour cells was significantly associated with low disease specific death in patients with small tumours and no lymph node metastasis (T1N0). The commonly used biomarker, Ki-67, was not associated with disease specific death in any of the groups of patients analysed. The conclusion is that uPAR and PAI-1 are potential predictive biomarkers in early stage tumours and that this warrants further studies on a larger cohort of patients. PMID:24999729

Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Svineng, Gunbjørg

2014-01-01

291

Potential clinical application of masseter and temporal muscle massage treatment using an oral rehabilitation robot in temporomandibular disorder patients with myofascial pain.  

PubMed

Objectives: To investigate the safety, suitable treatment regimen, and efficacy of masseter and temporal muscle massage treatment using an oral rehabilitation robot. Methods: Forty-one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with myofascial pain (8 men, 33 women, median age: 46 years) were enrolled. The safety, suitable massage regimen, and efficacy of this treatment were investigated. Changes in masseter muscle thickness were evaluated on sonograms. Results: No adverse events occurred with any of the treatment sessions. Suitable massage was at pressure of 10 N for 16 minutes. Five sessions were performed every 2 weeks. Total duration of treatment was 9·5 weeks in median. Massage treatment was effective in 70·3% of patients. Masseter muscle thickness decreased with treatment in the therapy-effective group. Conclusion: This study confirmed the safety of massage treatment, and established a suitable regimen. Massage was effective in 70·3% of patients and appeared to have a potential as one of the effective treatments for myofascial pain. PMID:25384890

Ariji, Yoshiko; Nakayama, Miwa; Nishiyama, Wataru; Ogi, Nobumi; Sakuma, Shigemitsu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Kurita, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

2014-11-11

292

Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) is a benign tumor originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle. Malignant transformation in case of PTT is very rare and unusual finding. It is usually confused with squamous cell carcinoma both sharing many common features. So the identification of malignant PTT is very essential. Only 39 well-documented cases of malignant proliferating trichilemmal cyst have been published to date in the English language literature. We hereby present a case of a 75-year-old female patient with a rapidly growing swelling on the scalp. PMID:22470211

Goyal, Snigdha; Jain, Bhawna Bhutoria; Jana, Sritanu; Bhattacharya, Subodh K

2012-01-01

293

[Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].  

PubMed

Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity. PMID:17615989

Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L

2007-01-01

294

Oral pathology.  

PubMed

Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706

Niemiec, Brook A

2008-05-01

295

Gynecologic malignancy in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Gynecologic malignancy during pregnancy is a stressful problem. For the diagnosis and treatment of malignancy during pregnancy, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Patients should be advised about the benefits and risk of treatment. When selecting a treatment for malignancy during pregnancy, the physiologic changes that occur with the pregnancy should be considered. Various diagnostic procedures that do not harm the fetus can be used. Laparoscopic surgery or laparotomy may be safely performed. The staging approach and treatment should be standard. Systemic chemotherapy during the first trimester should be delayed if possible. Radiation therapy should preferably start postpartum. Although delivery should be delayed preferably until after 35 weeks of gestation, termination of pregnancy may be considered when immediate treatment is required. Subsequent pregnancies do not increase the risk of malignancy recurrence. PMID:24328018

Ji, Yong Il

2013-01-01

296

Localized malignant mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Localized malignant mesotheliomas are uncommon sharply circumscribed tumors of the serosal membranes with the microscopic appearance of diffuse malignant mesothelioma but without any evidence of diffuse spread. Little is known about their behavior. We report 23 new cases. The mean age at presentation was 63 years, and the sex ratio was approximately 2:1 (male/female). Twenty-one tumors were pleural and 2 were peritoneal. Sixteen tumors reproduced microscopic patterns of diffuse epithelial mesotheliomas, 6 had mixed epithelial and sarcomatous patterns, and 1 was purely sarcomatous. After surgical excision of the tumor, 10 of 21 patients with follow-up data were alive without evidence of disease from 18 months to 11 years after diagnosis. Patients who died had developed local recurrences and metastases, but none had diffuse pleural spread. Localized malignant mesotheliomas should be separated from diffuse malignant mesotheliomas because of their localized presentation, quite different biologic behavior, and far better prognosis. PMID:15958850

Allen, Timothy Craig; Cagle, Philip T; Churg, Andrew M; Colby, Thomas V; Gibbs, Allen R; Hammar, Samuel P; Corson, Joseph M; Grimes, Margaret M; Ordonez, Nelson G; Roggli, Victor; Travis, William D; Wick, Mark R

2005-07-01

297

Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The TMSC functions to harmonize an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process that will identify and promote the "Best Science" in clinical research of lung and other thoracic malignancies by addressing the design and prioritization of phase III trials and large phase II studies in chest malignancies. In addition to focusing on lung cancer, the TMSC addresses oncology trials in other thoracic sites, such as mesothelioma. Esophageal cancer trials are reviewed by the Gastrointestinal Cancer Steering Committee.

298

[Malignancy-associated myositis].  

PubMed

Inflammatory myopathies, also referred to as myositis, are a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory muscle diseases characterized by various clinical features and histological changes; in addition, patient with these disease exhibit positivity for autoantibodies as well as progressive inflammatory muscle damage and experienced weakness. Although it has been well known for a century that myositis, particularly dermatomyositis, can be associated with malignancy, it was not until recently that the result of robust epidemiological studies confirmed this association. Malignancy-associated myositis differs from primary myositis in many aspects. Prognosis and life expectancy for patients are determined on the basis of the underlying malignancy. Therefore, patient-specific examinations to detect an underlying cancer are important for the management of these patients. Recently, a novel myositis-specific autoantibody (anti-p155 or p155/p140 antibody) was identified in malignancy-associated myositis. The discovery of this autoantibody is important not only for an early diagnosis of adult-onset myositis patients with a higher risk of malignancy but also for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic myositis. In addition, it has also been recently found that both regenerating cells in myositis muscles and several cancers known to be associated with myositis express high levels of myositis-specific autoantigens. Therefore, a model of paraneoplasia focusing on the expression of common autoantigens expression and immuno-targeting between cancer and muscle tissues in myositis has been proposed. In this review, we aim to describe epidemiological evidence for an association between myositis and malignancy, and to describe the clinical features of malignancy-associated myositis. We also aim to focus on a recently proposed model to understand the development of malignancy-associated myositis. PMID:20420184

Shimizu, Jun

2010-04-01

299

[Malignant nail tumors].  

PubMed

Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

300

Oral Manifestations Compatible with Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Patients with Fanconi Anemia.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease that is characterized by several congenital abnormalities and progressive bone marrow failure and is associated with an increased susceptibility to malignant disorders. Currently, the only potential cure for hematological disorders is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, 1 of the most common complications after HSCT is the development of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), which is also a risk factor for the development of cancer, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of oral manifestations compatible with cGVHD in patients diagnosed with FA according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria. A total of 96 patients (51 females, 45 males; median age, 16 years) with FA, who were in medical follow-up after HSCT at the outpatient clinic of the bone marrow transplantation unit (Hospital de Clínicas from the Universidade Federal do Paraná) underwent an oral evaluation between January 2013 and December 2013. Post-HSCT periods varied from 1 to 261 months and were divided into 3 periods: immediate post-HSCT period; intermediate post-HSC period, and late post-HSCT period. Among the evaluated patients, 40 of 96 (42%) presented with oral manifestations of cGVHD, with 29 of 40 (73%) of these patients in the late post-HSCT period. NIH scale scores varied from 0 to 10, and lichenoid and hyperkeratotic lesions were the abnormalities most frequently observed (100%). Overall, a high prevalence of oral manifestations was observed for cGVHD patients with FA. These data highlight the importance of monitoring oral manifestations compatible with cGVHD to identify and treat individuals with a higher risk of developing oral cancer. PMID:25316110

Grein Cavalcanti, Laura; Fuentes Araújo, Renata L; Bonfim, Carmem; Torres-Pereira, Cassius C

2015-02-01

301

Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

2011-01-01

302

Targeted therapy in gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Increased understanding of cancer pathogenesis has identified several pathways that serve as potential targets for novel targeted agents in development. The selection of targeted cancer therapy based on biomarkers has instigated a new era of personalized medicine and changed the way we practice oncology. Many targeted agents are approved for treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies most targeting tumor angiogenesis, and many more are in different phases of development. Here we briefly summarize nine different targeted agents that are approved currently in the U.S. and several other agents currently being studied in various gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:24737952

Chhatrala, Ravi; Thanavala, Yasmin; Iyer, Renuka

2014-01-01

303

Immune therapies for malignant mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare disease which can develop in pleura, pericardium or peritoneum and in which the therapies available have limited efficacy and are associated with various side effects. Therefore, there is a need for more targeted and more effective therapies which are able to halt the disease progression. Among them immune therapies actively or passively directed against various structures of the MM cells seem to be particularly promising given their inhibitory potential demonstrated in both experimental and early clinical studies. Mesothelin in particular seem to be not only a biomarker of disease activity but also a therapeutic target. This review discusses the immune therapies currently investigated for MM. PMID:24833011

Antoniu, Sabina Antonela; Dimofte, Gabriel; Ungureanu, Didona

2014-08-01

304

Immunology of oral candidiasis.  

PubMed

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M; Udayakumar, P; Shanmugam, K T; Kesavan, G

2014-07-01

305

Impact of Hormone-Associated Resistance to Activated Protein C on the Thrombotic Potential of Oral Contraceptives: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The increased thrombotic risk of oral contraceptives (OC) has been attributed to various alterations of the hemostatic system, including acquired resistance to activated protein C (APC). To evaluate to what extent OC-associated APC resistance induces a prothrombotic state we monitored plasma levels of thrombin and molecular markers specific for thrombin formation in women starting OC use. Elevated plasma levels of thrombin have been reported to characterize situations of high thrombotic risk such as trauma-induced hypercoagulability, but have not yet been studied during OC use. Patients and Methods Blood samples were collected prospectively from healthy women (n?=?21) before and during three menstruation cycles after start of OC. APC resistance was evaluated using a thrombin generation-based assay. Plasma levels of thrombin and APC were directly measured using highly sensitive oligonucleotide-based enzyme capture assay (OECA) technology. Thrombin generation markers and other hemostasis parameters were measured additionally. Results All women developed APC resistance as indicated by an increased APC sensitivity ratio compared with baseline after start of OC (p?=?0.0003). Simultaneously, plasma levels of thrombin, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and of thrombin-antithrombin complexes did not change, ruling out increased thrombin formation. APC plasma levels were also not influenced by OC use, giving further evidence that increased thrombin formation did not occur. Conclusions In the majority of OC users no enhanced thrombin formation occurs despite the development of APC resistance. It cannot be ruled out, however, that thrombin formation might occur to a greater extent in the presence of additional risk factors. If this were the case, endogenous thrombin levels might be a potential biomarker candidate to identify women at high thrombotic risk during OC treatment. Large-scale studies are required to assess the value of plasma levels of thrombin as predictors of OC-associated thrombotic risk. PMID:25121606

Müller, Jens; Sukhitashvili, Shorena; Welz, Julia; Kuhn, Walther C.; Oldenburg, Johannes; Rudlowski, Christian; Pötzsch, Bernd

2014-01-01

306

PITX1 is a reliable biomarker for predicting prognosis in patients with oral epithelial dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Paired-like homeodomain 1 (PITX1) genes are essential in human development. In the present study, PITX1 protein expression was evaluated in human normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), with the aim of examining the expression patterns of these critical genes during the multi-stage transformation of oral epithelial dysplasia to OSCC. PITX1 and Ki-67 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 26 individuals with normal oral mucosa, 106 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia and 97 OSCC patients. The labeling indices (LIs) of PITX1 and Ki-67 were calculated and their correlation with the incidence of malignancy was evaluated. The PITX1 LI of the dysplasia specimens was significantly lower than that of the normal oral mucosa samples, but significantly higher than that of the OSCC samples. The oral epithelial dysplasia patients that exhibited low PITX1 expression showed a significantly higher incidence of malignant transformation than those exhibiting high PITX1 expression, regardless of the histological grades of their oral epithelial dysplasias. On the other hand, no correlation was observed between the Ki-67 LI and the incidence of malignancy. These results suggested that PITX1 suppression is associated with malignant transformation in the oral epithelium and that PITX1 expression may serve as a novel biomarker for predicting prognosis in oral epithelial dysplasia. PMID:24527083

NAKABAYASHI, MOTOKI; OSAKI, MITSUHIKO; KODANI, ISAMU; OKADA, FUTOSHI; RYOKE, KAZUO; OSHIMURA, MITSUO; ITO, HISAO; KUGOH, HIROYUKI

2014-01-01

307

New Potential Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of B-Cell Malignancies Using Chlorambucil/Hydroxychloroquine-Loaded Anti-CD20 Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders. PMID:24098639

Mezzaroba, Nelly; Zorzet, Sonia; Secco, Erika; Biffi, Stefania; Tripodo, Claudio; Calvaruso, Marco; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Capolla, Sara; Granzotto, Marilena; Spretz, Ruben; Larsen, Gustavo; Noriega, Sandra; Lucafò, Marianna; Mansilla, Eduardo; Garrovo, Chiara; Marín, Gustavo H.; Baj, Gabriele; Gattei, Valter; Pozzato, Gabriele; Núñez, Luis; Macor, Paolo

2013-01-01

308

Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy  

PubMed Central

The most common sub-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the so-called follicular variant (FVPTC), which is a particularly problematic lesion and can be challenging from a diagnostic viewpoint even in resected lesions. Although fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful in the diagnosis of PTC, its accuracy and utility would be greatly facilitated by the development of specific markers for PTC and its common variants. We used the recently developed Applied Biosystems 1700 microarray system to interrogate a series of 11 benign thyroid lesions and conditions and 14 samples of PTC (six with classic morphology and eight with follicular variant morphology). TaqMan® reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the expression portfolios of 50 selected transcripts. Our data corroborates potential biomarkers previously identified in the literature, such as LGALS3, S100A11, LYN, BAX, and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44). However, we have also identified numerous transcripts never previously implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis, and many of which are not represented on other microarray platforms. Diminished expression of metallothioneins featured strongly among these and suggests a possible role for this family as tumour suppressors in PTC. Fifteen transcripts were significantly associated with FVPTC morphology. Surprisingly, these genes were associated with an extremely narrow repertoire of functions, including the major histocompatibility complex and cathepsin families. PMID:17252232

Finn, S. P.; Smyth, P.; Cahill, S.; Streck, C.; O’Regan, E. M.; Flavin, R.; Sherlock, J.; Howells, D.; Henfrey, R.; Cullen, M.; Toner, M.; Timon, C.; O’Leary, J. J.

2007-01-01

309

Malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors are very rare. They may arise from the epithelial components of the odontogenic apparatus. The rests of Malassez, the reduced enamel epithelium surrounding the crown of an impacted tooth, the rests of Serres in the gingiva, and the linings of odontogenic cysts represent the precursor cells for malignant transformation. Because metastatic carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the jaws, the diagnosis of a primary intraosseous carcinoma must always be made to the exclusion of metastatic disease. Odontogenic carcinomas include malignant (metastasizing) ameloblastoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, and malignant epithelial ghost cell tumor. There are specific histopathologic features that support the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma of odontogenic epithelium which are presented in this article. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is important for distinguishing clear cell odontogenic carcinoma from metastatic renal cell tumors, yet IHC stains are not particularly helpful for other lesions in this group-all of which exhibit low molecular weight cytokeratin positivity. Aggressive growth and nodal and distant metastases occur with all of these entities. PMID:10587275

Eversole, L R

1999-11-01

310

Nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression in histologically normal margins of oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2) was found in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) but not in normal mucosa. Molecular changes associated to early carcinogenesis have been found in mucosa near carcinomas, which is considered a model to study field cancerization. The aim of the present study is to analyze NOS2 expression at the histologically normal margins of OSCC. Study Design: Eleven biopsy specimens of OSCC containing histologically normal margins (HNM) were analyzed. Ten biopsies of normal oral mucosa were used as controls. The activity of NOS2 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption were also analyzed. The Chi-squared test was applied. Results: Six out of the eleven HNM from carcinoma samples showed positive NOS2 activity whereas all the control group samples yielded negative (p=0.005). No statistically significant association between enzyme expression and tobacco and/or alcohol consumption and salivary nitrate and nitrite was found. Conclusions: NOS2 expression would be an additional evidence of alterations that may occur in a state of field cancerization before the appearance of potentially malignant morphological changes. Key words:Field cancerization, oral squamous cell carcinoma, Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2), malignity markers. PMID:24316703

Itoiz, María E.; Guiñazú, Natalia; Piccini, Daniel; Gea, Susana; López-de Blanc, Silvia

2014-01-01

311

The use of CA-IX as a diagnostic method for oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

Abstract The presence and degree of dysplasia are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for oral leukoplakia, but evaluation of dysplasia is difficult and subjective. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is expressed primarily in tumor cells and is considered a specific hypoxia marker. We investigated the role of CA-IX in oral leukoplakia. We investigated 30 specimens of oral leukoplakia and 35 dysplasia specimens adjacent to the tumor margin. We analyzed clinical variables including age, sex, degree of dysplasia, and smoking, clinical appearance of leukoplakia, number of lesions, location, size, clinical monitoring, malignant transformation and recurrence. For the immunohistochemical study, we used a noncommercial monoclonal antibody against human CA-IX MAb M75. We found greater CA-IX positivity in nonsmokers, erythroplakia and mottled leukoplakia, those located on the tongue, patients with multiple lesions, 2-4 cm leukoplakias and in recurrent cases, although differences were not statistically significant. All lesions in all samples without dysplasia were negative for CA-IX; however, for all other categories of dysplasia, the percentages of positivity and negativity varied. Regarding the diagnostic index values, we found a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 13%. Leukoplakias appear mainly in females and potentially are malignant; more than 90% have some degree of dysplasia, and therefore require close clinical and histopathological monitoring. The CA-IX immunohistochemical marker may be useful for screening samples without dysplasia owing to its high specificity. PMID:25297562

Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suárez-Peñaranda, Jm; Torres-López, M; Supuran, Ct; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Barros-Angueira, F; Gallas-Torreira, M; García-García, A

2015-02-01

312

The role of BCL11B in hematological malignancy  

PubMed Central

The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B) gene is a member of the BCL family which plays a crucial role in the development, proliferation, differentiation and subsequent survival of T cells. BCL11B gene alterations are related to malignant T cell transformation that occurs in hematological malignancies. Remarkably, the BCL11B gene is responsible for the regulation of the apoptotic process and cell proliferation. This review summarizes current data and knowledge concerning the alteration of BCL11B in hematological malignancies and its role as a potential target for therapies directed against T cell malignancies. PMID:23211040

2012-01-01

313

Orai1 and transient receptor potential channels as novel molecular targets to impair tumor neovascularization in renal cell carcinoma and other malignancies.  

PubMed

The term "angiogenic switch" describes one of the earlier events of tumorigenesis, that occurs when the balance between pro-and anti-angiogenic factors shifts towards a pro-angiogenic outcome. This leads to the transition from a microscopic indolent lesion to a macroscopic and vascularised primary tumor, that may eventually metastasize and spread to distant sites. The molecular mechanisms underlying such a critical step in the carcinogenetic process have been extensively investigated. Both local endothelial cells (ECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), recruited from bone marrow, have been implicated in the angiogenic switch, which is ultimately triggered by a plethora of growth factors released by cancer cells, pivotal among which is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); indeed, VEGF both activates ECs nearby the growing tumor, and leads to EPC mobilization into the circulation. In kidney, in particular, the frequent mutation of the Von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor gene leads to an overproduction of pro-angiogenic factors which makes this neoplasm quite sensitive to antiangiogenic drugs. However, it is now evident that the use of VEGF(Rs) inhibitors in everyday clinical practice is not as effective as observed in murine models. The investigation of alternative signaling pathways involved in the angiogenic switch is, therefore, imperative in order to induce tumor regression whereby preventing harmful drawback consequences. Ca(2+) entry across the plasma membrane has long been known to stimulate mature ECs to undergo angiogenesis. Recent work from several groups worldwide has then outlined that members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) super-family of cationic channels and Orai1 provide the pathway for such proangiogenic Ca(2+) signal. In addition, Canonical TRP 1 (TRPC1) and Orai1 channels control proliferation and tubulogenesis in both normal EPCs and EPCs isolated from peripheral blood of tumor patients. As a consequence, TRP channels and Orai1 might serve as novel molecular targets to develop alternative and more effective strategies of angiogenesis inhibition. PMID:23869775

Moccia, Francesco; Dragoni, Silvia; Poletto, Valentina; Rosti, Vittorio; Tanzi, Franco; Ganini, Carlo; Porta, Camillo

2014-02-01

314

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. The great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated a median survival of 40 to 90 mo and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This remarkable improvement in survival has prompted new search into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade. PMID:21160794

Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Cao, Christopher Q; Yan, Tristan D

2009-01-01

315

Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms, thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses. Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions, therefore, is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy. In order to efficiently detect these lesions, systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed. However, most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example, serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma, and fecal occult blood test, for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes. Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool, the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can’t be avoided. The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs. Moreover, only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies, and indeed needs surveillance. To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention, it’s important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (risk-stratification), and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts. We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies, and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them. PMID:22969223

Tiwari, Ashish K; Laird-Fick, Heather S; Wali, Ramesh K; Roy, Hemant K

2012-01-01

316

Integrating the Diagnosis of Childhood Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of pediatric malignancies. Mechanisms of pediatric acute leukemia induction include hyperdiploidy, aberrant expression of proto-oncogenes, and activation of trans- cription factors or kinases by aberrant fusion genes. Molecular analysis of these alterations has facilitated the recognition of distinct groups with different sensitivity to therapy, and identified potential targets for antileukemic

DOLORES LÓPEZ-TERRADA

317

Angiogenesis in pre-malignant conditions  

PubMed Central

Evidence from human studies suggests that angiogenesis commences during the pre-malignant stages of cancer. Inhibiting angiogenesis may, therefore, be of potential value in preventing progression to invasive cancer. Understanding the mechanisms inducing angiogenesis in these lesions and identification of those important in human tumourigenesis are necessary to develop translational strategies that will help realise the goal of angioprevention. PMID:18941463

Menakuru, S R; Brown, N J; Staton, C A; Reed, M W R

2008-01-01

318

The possible premalignant character of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe possible malignant transformation of oral lichen planus (OLP) is the subject of an ongoing and controversial discussion in the literature. The main criticism of studies on this subject relates to the lack of sufficient data to support the initial diagnosis of OLP in cases that finally developed into squamous cell carcinoma. We describe the possible premalignant character of OLP

Erik H van der Meij; Kees-Pieter Schepman; Isaäc van der Waal

2003-01-01

319

Malignant myoepithelioma of palate  

PubMed Central

Malignant myoepithelioma is a rare salivary gland neoplasm, which accounts for less than 2% of all the salivary gland carcinomas. Majority of cases have been reported in parotid, and only 8 cases of involvement of the hard palate have been reported in the literature so far. Hereby, a case of painless, ulcerated palatal mass of 2 years of duration reported. A diagnosis of malignant plasmacytoid myoepithelioma was made with the aid of immunohistochemical analysis, and wide surgical excision was considered keeping in mind the biological behavior of the tumor. PMID:23293504

Richa; Ray, Jay Gopal; Mohanty, Sweta Pattanayak; Vibha

2012-01-01

320

A phase II study of carboplatin and chronic high-dose tamoxifen in patients with recurrent malignant glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryPurpose  To determine the response rate, time to disease progression, survival, and toxicity of intravenous carboplatin and chronic oral high-dose tamoxifen in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.Patients and methods  Patients with histological confirmation of recurrent malignant gliomas were eligible for this multicenter phase II trial. Treatment consisted of 400 mg\\/m2 carboplatin intravenously every 4 weeks and oral high dose chronic tamoxifen (80 mg bid in

P. A. Tang; G. Roldan; P. M. A Brasher; D. Fulton; W. Roa; A. Murtha; J. G. Cairncross; P. A. Forsyth

2006-01-01

321

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks or months to complete. This includes examination, evaluation to determine the most appropriate oral appliance, fitting, maximizing adaptation of the appliance, and the function. Ongoing care, including short- and long-term follow-up is an essential step in the ...

322

Ampicillin Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney or liver disease, allergies, asthma, blood disease, colitis, stomach problems, or hay fever.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ...

323

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size of the ... or push food back toward the throat during swallowing. A growth on the roof of the mouth ( ...

324

Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

Tatli, Ufuk; Erdo?an, Özgür; U?uz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdem?r, Ya?ar

2013-01-01

325

Oral cancer diagnostics based on infrared spectral markers and wax physisorption kinetics.  

PubMed

Infrared microspectroscopy is an emerging approach for disease analysis owing to its capability for in situ chemical characterization of pathological processes. Synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) provides ultra-high spatial resolution for profiling biochemical events associated with disease progression. Spectral alterations were observed in cultured oral cells derived from healthy, precancerous, primary, and metastatic cancers. An innovative wax-physisorption-based kinetic FTIR imaging method for the detection of oral precancer and cancer was demonstrated successfully. The approach is based on determining the residual amount of paraffin wax (C(25)H(52)) or beeswax (C(46)H(92)O(2)) on a sample surface after xylene washing. This amount is used as a signpost of the degree of physisorption that altered during malignant transformation. The results of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of oral cell lines indicated that the methylene (CH(2)) and methyl group (CH(3)) stretching vibrations in the range of 3,000-2,800 cm(-1) have the highest accuracy rate (89.6 %) to discriminate the healthy keratinocytes (NHOK) from cancer cells. The results of wax-physisorption-based FTIR imaging showed a stronger physisorption with beeswax in oral precancerous and cancer cells as compared with that of NHOK, which showed a strong capability with paraffin wax. The infrared kinetic study of oral cavity tissue showed a consistency in the wax physisorption of the cell lines. On the basis of our findings, these results show the potential use of wax-physisorption-based kinetic FTIR imaging for the early screening of oral cancer lesions and the chemical changes during oral carcinogenesis. PMID:23318761

Chiu, Li-Fang; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Lee, Yao-Chang; Shieh, Dar-Bin

2013-02-01

326

Treatment for Malignant Ascites  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, researchers will randomly assign patients with malignant ascites to receive either octreotide or a placebo once a month for up to two years. The investigators will see whether octreotide can delay, or even eliminate, the need for paracentesis and assess side effects and quality of life of patients undergoing this treatment.

327

Malignant tumors of childhood  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

Brooks, B.J.

1986-01-01

328

Strong Relationship between Oral Dose and Tenofovir Hair Levels in a Randomized Trial: Hair as a Potential Adherence Measure for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)  

PubMed Central

Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials using tenofovir-based regimens have demonstrated that high levels of adherence are required to evaluate efficacy; the incorporation of objective biomarkers of adherence in trial design has been essential to interpretation, given the inaccuracy of self-report. Antiretroviral measurements in scalp hair have been useful as a marker of long-term exposure in the HIV treatment setting, and hair samples are relatively easy and inexpensive to collect, transport, and store for analysis. To evaluate the relationship between dose and tenofovir concentrations in hair, we examined the dose proportionality of tenofovir in hair in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults. Methods A phase I, crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed in 24 HIV-negative adults receiving directly-observed oral tenofovir tablets administered 2, 4, and 7 doses/week for 6 weeks, with a ?3-week break between periods. Small samples of hair were collected after each six-week period and analyzed for tenofovir concentrations. Geometric-mean-ratios compared levels between each pair of dosing conditions. Intensive plasma pharmacokinetic studies were performed during the daily-dosing period to calculate areas-under-the-time-concentration curves (AUCs). Results Over 90% of doses were observed per protocol. Median tenofovir concentrations in hair increased monotonically with dose. A log-linear relationship was seen between dose and hair levels, with an estimated 76% (95% CI 60–93%) increase in hair level per 2-fold dose increase. Tenofovir plasma AUCs modestly predicted drug concentrations in hair. Conclusions This study found a strong linear relationship between frequency of dosing and tenofovir levels in scalp hair. The analysis of quantitative drug levels in hair has the potential to improve adherence measurement in the PrEP field and may be helpful in determining exposure thresholds for protection and explaining failures in PrEP trials. Hair measures for adherence monitoring may also facilitate adherence measurement in real-world settings and merit further investigation in upcoming PrEP implementation studies and programs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov +NCT00903084. PMID:24421901

Liu, Albert Y.; Yang, Qiyun; Huang, Yong; Bacchetti, Peter; Anderson, Peter L.; Jin, Chengshi; Goggin, Kathy; Stojanovski, Kristefer; Grant, Robert; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Gandhi, Monica

2014-01-01

329

Adverse drug events in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and the new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. Some examples include osteonecrosis, seen with not only bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and the distinctive ulcers caused by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. As newer therapeutic agents are approved, it is likely that more adverse drug events will be encountered. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely, xerostomia, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, white lesions, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Oral health care providers should be familiar with such events, as they will encounter them in their practice. PMID:25442252

Yuan, Anna; Woo, Sook-Bin

2015-01-01

330

Investigating the biological properties of carbohydrate derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) as a potential novel therapy for the management of oral biofilm infections  

PubMed Central

Background A number of oral diseases, including periodontitis, derive from microbial biofilms and are associated with increased antimicrobial resistance. Despite the widespread use of mouthwashes being used as adjunctive measures to control these biofilms, their prolonged use is not recommended due to various side effects. Therefore, alternative broad-spectrum antimicrobials that minimise these effects are highly sought after. Carbohydrate derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) is an organic acid which has previously demonstrated to be microbiocidal against Candida albicans biofilms, therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial activity of CHD-FA against orally derived biofilms and to investigate adjunctive biological effects. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated for CHD-FA and chlorhexidine (CHX) against a range of oral bacteria using standardised microdilution testing for planktonic and sessile. Scanning electron microscopy was also employed to visualise changes in oral biofilms after antimicrobial treatment. Cytotoxicity of these compounds was assessed against oral epithelial cells, and the effect of CHD-FA on host inflammatory markers was assessed by measuring mRNA and protein expression. Results CHD-FA was highly active against all of the oral bacteria tested, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, with a sessile minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5%. This concentration was shown to kill multi-species biofilms by approximately 90%, levels comparable to that of chlorhexidine (CHX). In a mammalian cell culture model, pretreatment of epithelial cells with buffered CHD-FA was shown to significantly down-regulate key inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), after stimulation with a multi-species biofilm. Conclusions Overall, CHD-FA was shown to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, with a supplementary function of being able to down-regulate inflammation. These properties offer an attractive spectrum of function from a naturally derived compound, which could be used as an alternative topical treatment strategy for oral biofilm diseases. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are required to determine the precise mechanism by which CHD-FA modulates the host immune response. PMID:24063298

2013-01-01

331

Mathematical modeling of hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Mathematical models addressing important aspects of hematological malignancies have recently facilitated an improved understanding of the involved complex biological processes and the prediction of potential targets for therapeutic approaches. These models investigate a wide spectrum of topics ranging from metabolic processes, gene regulatory networks and signal transduction up to the behavior of cell populations. However, despite this range of biological processes, the modeling strategies share many common features. Biological knowledge is translated into abstract descriptions representing complex networks and the parameters of these mathematical models are derived from literature data or estimated from experimental measurements. The established mathematical models are used to interrogate key properties of the investigated system by model simulations. These predictions are validated based on previously published or novel experiments. Additionally, new drug targets are predicted or novel insights into biological processes are provided. Here, we summarize the strategies employed to establish four mathematical models that address different processes in leukemia and lymphoma cells. Furthermore, we show how these systems biology approaches could contribute to elucidate the pathobiology of hematological malignancies. PMID:22201981

Schilling, Marcel; Klingmuller, Ursula

2012-01-01

332

Oral health disparities in older adults: oral bacteria, inflammation, and aspiration pneumonia.  

PubMed

Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients. PMID:25201541

Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth

2014-10-01

333

Treatment Option Overview (Malignant Mesothelioma)  

MedlinePLUS

... cells. The disease is metastatic malignant mesothelioma, not brain cancer. The following stages are used for malignant mesothelioma: ... distant parts of the body such as the brain, spine, thyroid , or prostate . Recurrent Malignant ... mesothelioma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has ...

334

Overexpression of Mcl-1L Splice Variant Is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Chemoresistance in Oral Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Altered expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, has been linked to the progression and outcome of a variety of malignancies. We have previously reported the overexpression of Mcl-1 protein in human oral cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of the expression of three known Mcl-1 isoforms in oral tumors and the effect of targeting Mcl-1L isoform on chemosensitivity of oral cancer cells. Methods The expression of Mcl-1 isoforms- Mcl-1L, Mcl-1S & Mcl-1ES was analyzed in 130 paired oral tumors and 9 oral cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR & protein by western blotting. The Mcl-1 mRNA levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and outcome of oral cancer patients. The effect of Mcl-1L shRNA or Obatoclax (a small molecule Mcl-1 inhibitor), in combination with Cisplatin on chemosensitivity of oral cancer cells was also assessed. Results Anti-apoptotic Mcl-1L was predominantly expressed, over low or undetectable pro-apoptotic Mcl-1S and Mcl-1ES isoforms. The Mcl-1L transcripts were significantly overexpressed in all cancer cell lines and in 64% oral tumors versus adjacent normals (P<0.02). In oral cancer patients, high Mcl-1L expression was significantly associated with node positivity (P?=?0.021), advanced tumor size (P?=?0.013) and poor overall survival (P?=?0.002). Multivariate analysis indicated Mcl-1L to be an independent prognostic factor for oral cancers (P?=?0.037). Mcl-1L shRNA knockdown or its inhibition by Obatoclax in combination with Cisplatin synergistically reduced viability and growth of oral cancer cells than either treatment alone. Conclusion Our studies suggest that overexpression of Mcl-1L is associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance in oral cancers. Mcl-1L is an independent prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in oral cancers. PMID:25409302

Palve, Vinayak; Mallick, Sanchita; Ghaisas, Gauri; Kannan, Sadhana; Teni, Tanuja

2014-01-01

335

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

336

Summary of worldwide pediatric malignancies reported after exposure to etanercept  

PubMed Central

Background Concerns have been raised about a potential link between the use of TNF inhibitors and development of malignancy in the pediatric population. We examined the worldwide experience of etanercept use in pediatric patients and the occurrence of malignancies as reported from clinical trials, registry studies, post-marketing surveillance, and published scientific literature. Methods All reports of "malignancy" in pediatric patients (including subjects who received etanercept before age 18 and developed a malignancy before age 22) were collected from the etanercept clinical trials database and global safety database using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA; v12.0) standardized MedDRA query "Malignancies" from 1998 to August 2009. Cases were collected irrespective of treatment indication. All cases were included regardless of exposure to other TNF blockers or other biologics and whether the other exposure was before or after etanercept. Results A total of 18 potential malignancies were identified: 4 leukemias, 7 lymphomas, and 7 solid tumors. Three of the 18 malignancies remain unconfirmed. No malignancies were reported from clinical trials or the open-label extension studies in any indication in children. Conclusion The data suggest that there does not appear to be an increased risk of malignancy overall with the use of etanercept. Among etanercept-exposed patients aged 4 to 17 years, the estimated worldwide and US reporting rates for lymphoma were approximately 0.01 per 100 patient-years (1 in 10,000 pt-yrs). While the reported rate of lymphoma is higher in pediatric patients treated with etanercept than in normal children, the expected rate of lymphoma in biologic naïve JIA patients is currently unknown. The risk of TNF inhibitors in the development of malignancies in children and adolescents is difficult to assess because of the rarity of malignant events, the absence of knowledge of underlying frequency of leukemia and lymphoma in JIA, and the confounding use of concomitant immunosuppressive medications. PMID:20546618

2010-01-01

337

Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922

Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

2014-12-01

338

Diagnostic value of biochemical biomarkers in malignant and non-malignant pericardial effusion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the biochemical composition of pericardial effusions of different etiology and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of biochemical parameters and tumor markers to discriminate malignant from benign effusion. Pericardial and serum levels of biochemical parameters and tumor markers were compared in 105 patients who underwent pericardiocentesis and pericardioscopy with targeted epicardial biopsy. Etiologic diagnosis was based on pericardial fluid and epicardial biopsy analysis by cytology, histology, immunohistochemistry, microbiology and polymerase chain reaction. The total of 105 patients comprised 29 patients with malignant and 76 patients with non-malignant pericardial effusions (40 autoreactive, 28 viral, 5 postcardiotomy syndromes and 3 associated with systemic diseases). Malignant pericardial effusions had significantly higher pericardial fluid levels of the tumor markers CEA, CA 19-9, CA 72-4, SCC and NSE (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively) as well as higher pericardial fluid hemoglobin (p < 0.001), pericardial fluid white blood cells (p = 0.003), pericardial fluid LDH (p < 0.001) and ratio of pericardial to serum LDH levels compared to benign effusions. None of the biochemical or cell-count parameters tested proved to be accurate enough for distinguishing malignant from benign effusions. However, measurement of pericardial CA 72-4 levels offered a high diagnostic accuracy for malignancy, particularly in bloody pericardial effusions. None of the biochemical parameters tested was useful for the discrimination of malignant from benign effusions. However, measurement of pericardial CA 72-4 levels in bloody pericardial effusions yielded a high diagnostic accuracy and thus offers the potential as a diagnostic tool to distinguish between malignant and benign effusions. PMID:22638889

Karatolios, Konstantinos; Pankuweit, Sabine; Maisch, Bernhard

2013-05-01

339

Oral Health in Children with Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Leukemia is one of the most common malignancies affecting children in India. These children usually suffer from various oral complications, which may be due to the leukemia or due to the chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiotherapy. The complications may include some of the opportunistic infections like candidiasis, herpes simplex; hemorrhage, mucositis, taste alterations and increased incidence of dental caries etc. These complications can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the various oral complications in these children and the methods of prevention and management. PMID:22837605

Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Kalra, Gauri

2012-01-01

340

Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children’s Oncology Group report  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children’s Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children’s Oncology Group. Methods An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network “Categories of Consensus” system. Results The Children’s Oncology Group oral-dental pan el selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Addition ally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent ma lignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Conclusions Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life. PMID:24781353

Migliorati, Cesar A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ruble, Kathy; Guilcher, Gregory M. T.; Shah, Ami J.; Castellino, Sharon M.

2014-01-01

341

The malignant social network  

PubMed Central

Tumors contain a vastly complicated cellular network that relies on local communication to execute malignant programs. The molecular cues that are involved in cell-cell adhesion orchestrate large-scale tumor behaviors such as proliferation and invasion. We have recently begun to appreciate that many tumors contain a high degree of cellular heterogeneity and are organized in a cellular hierarchy, with a cancer stem cell (CSC) population identified at the apex in multiple cancer types. CSCs reside in unique microenvironments or niches that are responsible for directing their behavior through cellular interactions between CSCs and stromal cells, generating a malignant social network. Identifying cell-cell adhesion mechanisms in this network has implications for the basic understanding of tumorigenesis and the development of more effective therapies. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of cell-cell adhesion mechanisms used by CSCs and how these local interactions have global consequences for tumor biology. PMID:22796941

Hale, James S.; Li, Meizhang; Lathia, Justin D.

2012-01-01

342

Hyaluronan in human malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)] [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)] [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

2011-02-15

343

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Malignancy  

PubMed Central

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthesis. Both intracellular and extracellular Nampt (iNampt and eNampt) levels are increased in several human malignancies and some studies demonstrate increased iNampt in more aggressive/invasive tumors and in tumor metastases. Several different molecular targets have been identified that promote carcinogenesis following iNampt overexpression, including SirT1, CtBP, and PARP-1. Additionally, eNampt is elevated in several human cancers and is often associated with a higher tumor stage and worse prognoses. Here we review the roles of Nampt in malignancy, some of the known mechanisms by which it promotes carcinogenesis, and discuss the possibility of employing Nampt inhibitors in cancer treatment. PMID:24386506

Shackelford, Rodney E.; Mayhall, Kim; Maxwell, Nicole M.; Kandil, Emad

2013-01-01

344

Vaccine therapies in malignant glioma.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma is a grade IV astrocytoma that is widely accepted in clinical neurosurgery as being an extremely lethal diagnosis. Long-term survival rates remain dismal, and even when tumors undergo gross resection with confirmation of total removal on neuroimaging, they invariably recur with even greater virulence. Standard therapeutic modalities as well as more contemporary treatments have largely resulted in disappointing improvements. However, the therapeutic potential of vaccine immunotherapy for malignant glioma should not be underestimated. In contrast to many of the available treatments, vaccine immunotherapy is unique because it offers the means of delivering treatment that is highly specific to both the patient and the tumor. Peptide, heat-shock proteins, and dendritic cell vaccines collectively encapsulate the majority of research efforts involving vaccine-based treatment modalities. In this review, important recent findings for these vaccine types are discussed in the context of ongoing clinical trials. Broad challenges to immunotherapy are also considered. PMID:25431096

Oh, Taemin; Sayegh, Eli T; Fakurnejad, Shayan; Oyon, Daniel; Lamano, Jonathan Balquiedra; DiDomenico, Joseph David; Bloch, Orin; Parsa, Andrew T

2015-01-01

345

Immunotherapy for malignant gliomas.  

PubMed

Cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the innate ability of the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells. Immunotherapy for malignant gliomas is an emerging field that promises the possibility of highly specific and less toxic treatment compared to conventional chemotherapy. In addition, immunotherapy has the added benefit of sustained efficacy once immunologic memory is induced. Although there are numerous therapeutic agents that boost general immune function and facilitate improved antitumor immunity, to date, immunotherapy for gliomas has focused primarily on active vaccination against tumor-specific antigens. The results of numerous early phase clinical trials demonstrate promising results for vaccine therapy, but no therapy has yet proven to improve survival in a randomized, controlled trial. The major barrier to immunotherapy in malignant gliomas is tumor-induced immunosuppression. The mechanisms of immunosuppression are only now being elucidated, but clearly involve a combination of factors including regulatory T cells, tumor-associated PD-L1 expression, and CTLA-4 signaling. Immunomodulatory agents have been developed to combat these immunosuppressive factors and have demonstrated efficacy in other cancers. The future of glioma immunotherapy likely lies in a combination of active vaccination and immune checkpoint inhibition. PMID:25468230

Bloch, Orin

2015-01-01

346

Estimation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A in oral pre-cancer: A study in oral submucous fibrosis and oral lichen planus  

PubMed Central

Aim: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral lichen planus (OLP) are two frequently reported, potentially malignant disorders with multifactorial etiologies and ambiguous pathogenesis. An immunological pathogenesis has been hypothesized as a causative factor for both. The present study aims to evaluate the role of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in both these conditions, by their quantitative estimation. Materials and Methods: Saliva and serum samples were collected from 30 patients, clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed with OSMF, 30 with OLP and 30 age and sex matched controls. The levels of IgG and IgA were estimated by nephelometry. Results: The mean values of serum IgG were marginally higher in both OSMF and OLP groups compared to the controls but this difference was not significant and the mean values of serum immunoglobulin A were marginally decreased in both the study groups compared to the controls but this difference was also not significant. Inconclusively low levels of salivary IgG and IgA were obtained in the three groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests an insignificant association of these immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of both these diseases. PMID:24678204

Divya, V. C.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

2014-01-01

347

Targeting IgE to facilitate oral immunotherapy for food allergy: a potential new role for anti-IgE therapy?  

PubMed

Food allergy is a major public health problem without satisfactory treatment options. Of several new treatments being studied, oral immunotherapy (OIT) appears to be the most promising. Unfortunately, OIT is associated with an unacceptably high frequency of allergic reactions. However, recent studies suggest that OIT might be made safer and faster when performed in conjunction with anti-IgE monoclonal antibody as an adjunctive treatment. PMID:25119422

Umetsu, Dale T

2014-09-01

348

Fenofibrate exhibits a high potential to suppress the formation of squamous cell carcinoma in an oral-specific 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide\\/arecoline mouse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excessive use of areca nut and\\/or tobacco may induce the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, which affect the lipid contents of the cell membrane and are possibly involved in tumorigenic processes in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of fenofibrate (0.1% or 0.3%, w\\/w), a ligand of the

Nai Wen Chang; Ming-Hsui Tsai; Chingju Lin; Hui Ting Hsu; Pei-Yi Chu; Chung-Min Yeh; Chang-Fang Chiu; Kun-Tu Yeh

2011-01-01

349

Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies  

PubMed Central

Necessity is the mother of all inventions. This is also true in case of cancer therapy. With increasing incidence of head and neck malignancies, remarkable developments have been made towards cancer development and treatment which continues to be a major challenge. Approximately fifty percent of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy which contributes towards forty percent of curative treatment for cancer. New developments in radiation oncology have helped to improve outlook for patients and find more effective treatment. With the advent of new technologies, radiotherapy seems to be promising in patients with head and neck malignancies these advancements include Altered fractionation, Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, Image Guided Radiotherapy, Stereotactic radiation, Charged-particle radiotherapy, and Intraoperative radiotherapy. How to cite this article: Roopashri G, Baig M. Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):119-23 . PMID:24453456

Roopashri, G; Baig, Muqeet

2013-01-01

350

Evaluation of ploidy status using DNA-image cytometry of exfoliated mucosal cells in oral lichen planus  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) with a malignancy rate of 0.2-2%. Aneuploidy is considered to be one of the important markers for malignant transformation and DNA-image cytometry (DIC) has been successfully employed in oral mucosal PMDs and also in tumors of the cervix, lung and biliary tract. Aims: In this study, we intend to assess the ploidy status of exfoliated cells in OLP using DIC. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated cells from 48 patients with different subtypes of OLP (reticular, plaque type, erosive and atrophic) and 10 controls were stained using Feulgen reaction and assessed for integrated optical density using image analysis software and the ploidy status was assessed. Results: All the patients in the control group and most of the patients (93.5%) who had reticular or plaque type of OLP (29 out of 31) exhibited diploid nuclei in the smears, whereas 11 patients who had erosive or atrophic types of OLP showed aneuploid nuclei. Conclusions: The patients with erosive or atrophic types of OLP are at more risk and assessment of ploidy status by exfoliative cytology can be used as an adjuvant for diagnosis. PMID:25538380

Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Nirmal, R. Madhavan; Sunil, Paramel Mohan; Devy, A Santha; Reddy, B. Venkat Ramana

2014-01-01

351

Treatment of oral leukoplakia with a low-dose of beta-carotene and vitamin C supplements: A randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Management of oral leukoplakia-a potentially malignant disorder-is currently not evidence-based. Of the few randomized trials that have been reported, most have negative data. Therefore, a multi-centre, randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the use of low-dose beta-carotene combined with vitamin C supplements for the treatment and to prevent malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. 46 Japanese participants with oral leukoplakia were allocated randomly either to an experimental arm (10 mg day(-1) of beta-carotene and 500 mg day(-1) of vitamin C) or placebo arm (50 mg day(-1) of vitamin C). Current or ex-smokers within 3 months of cessation were excluded. The supplements were continued over a period of 1 year. The primary endpoint was clinical remission at 1-year and the likelihood of malignant transformation during a 5-year follow-up period as a secondary endpoint. The overall clinical response rate in the experimental arm was 17.4% (4/23) and 4.3% (1/23) in the placebo arm (p = 0.346). During the median 60-month follow-up period, two subjects in the experimental arm and three in the control arm developed oral cancer. Under the intention-to-treat principle, relative risk by supplementing with beta-carotene and vitamin C was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.28-1.89) (p = 0.580) by the Cox proportional hazards model. No unfavorable side-effects were noted. Beta-carotene (10 mg day(-1) ) and vitamin C were neither effective for clinical remission, nor for protection against the development of cancer. Data from this RCT does not support the hypothesis that chemoprevention with this treatment is effective for oral leukoplakia. PMID:25156040

Nagao, Toru; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Nakamura, Tomoyasu; Kato, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Fukano, Hideo; Suzuki, Koji; Shimozato, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Shuji

2015-04-01

352

The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS. PMID:25389533

Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo

2014-01-01

353

Comparative study of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence image enhancement methods to improve an optical imaging system for oral cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronics techniques to induce protoporphyrin IX fluorescence with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid on the oral mucosa have been developed to noninvasively detect oral cancer. Fluorescence imaging enables wide-area screening for oral premalignancy, but the lack of an adequate fluorescence enhancement method restricts the clinical imaging application of these techniques. This study aimed to develop a reliable fluorescence enhancement method to improve PpIX fluorescence imaging systems for oral cancer detection. Three contrast features, red-green-blue reflectance difference, R/B ratio, and R/G ratio, were developed first based on the optical properties of the fluorescence images. A comparative study was then carried out with one negative control and four biopsy confirmed clinical cases to validate the optimal image processing method for the detection of the distribution of malignancy. The results showed the superiority of the R/G ratio in terms of yielding a better contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, and this method was less prone to errors in detection. Quantitative comparison with the clinical diagnoses in the four neoplastic cases showed that the regions of premalignancy obtained using the proposed method accorded with the expert's determination, suggesting the potential clinical application of this method for the detection of oral cancer.

Jiang, Ching-Fen; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Ping

2011-07-01

354

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

355

Proposed new grading of oral submucous fibrosis based on cheek flexibility  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder of oral cavity, pharynx and upper digestive tract, characterized by progressive inability to open the mouth. Based on clinical and/or histopathological features, various classifications and grading systems have been put forth till date. The aim of the present study was to study the variance in cheek flexibility in OSMF patients, the observance of which led to the introduction of a new grading for the condition. Material and Methods: The study included 412 patients with OSMF attending to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology during the period from December 2008 to June 2013. A detailed history and examination of the patients was performed with special emphasis on measuring cheek flexibility. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The most common etiological factor was tobacco (73.3%). All the patients reported with burning sensation of the mouth and blanching of the mucosa. Malignancy was reported in only 4.6% patients. 60.4% patients showed cheek flexibility of 30mm and above, while 29.6% patients showed cheek flexibility between 20-30mm and 10% patients showed less than 30mm of cheek flexibility. Conclusion: The observations of the present study have led to the proposal of a new grading of OSMF based on cheek flexibility which could assist in the categorization of the condition by the clinicians. Key words:Cheek flexibility, oral submucous fibrosis, grading, areca nut. PMID:25136426

Maheshwari, Sneha

2014-01-01

356

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Crisp Choosing Safe Toys Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Oral Thrush KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Oral Thrush Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a very ...

357

Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest malignancy in the oral cavity. The oral cavity has several subsites. Knowledge of the patterns of disease spread at each subsite with the impact on treatment and prognosis provides a deeper understanding of the role of imaging. Information from imaging helps accurate staging, assess resectability, and plan multimodality treatment. Mandibular erosion, posterior soft tissue extent, and perineural spread influence treatment and prognosis in gingival, buccal, and retromolar trigone (RMT) cancers. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with multiplanar reformations and bone and soft tissue algorithms provides the highest specificity for bone erosion. Hard palate SCC is optimally imaged with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect perineural spread. In oral tongue and floor of the mouth (FOM) SCC, extrinsic muscle invasion, extension across the midline, extent of posterior and inferior spread, and proximity to the hyoid are issues that impact therapeutic options. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the optimal imaging method for staging the primary due to its superior soft tissue resolution. In oral tongue SCCs with tumour thickness ?4 mm, elective neck dissection can be avoided. For nodal staging (N-staging), all imaging methods are comparable, but fall short of surgical staging. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has a promising role in N-staging. Positron emission tomography (PET)/integrated PET/CT has no role in evaluating the clinically negative neck. PET/CT has a role in pretreatment evaluation of advanced oral cavity SCC for depicting distant metastases and for mapping nodal extent in the clinically positive neck. Diffusion-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and CT perfusion have a potential role as baseline pretreatment studies for response assessment to chemoradiation in advanced oral cavity SCC. PMID:24908285

Arya, S; Rane, P; Deshmukh, A

2014-09-01

358

Potential use of chitosan nanoparticles for oral delivery of DNA vaccine in black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii Bleeker to protect from Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

To develop an effective and easy-to-administer vaccine against vibriosis of fish, the chitosan nanoparticles-loaded DNA vaccine against Vibrio parahaemolyticus was studied. A DNA vaccine was constructed using the outer membrane protein K (ompK) gene of V. parahaemolyticus strain (OS4) and pEGFP-N2 , a eukaryotic expression vector, and the construct was named pEGFP-N2 -OMPK (pDNA). The pDNA was encapsulated in chitosan particles (chitosan/pDNA). The effective diameter, mean diameter and polydispersity of the particles were 284.4 nm, 218.9 nm and 0.160, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are dispersed as individual nanoparticles with spherical shape of around 200 nm and are homogeneously distributed. Encapsulation efficiency and loading percentage of nanoparticles were 91.5% and 2.08%, respectively. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that RNA-containing information of the ompK gene existed in mid-intestine, liver, kidney and muscle 3 weeks after oral administration in black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii Bleeker. Expression of the reporter gene, green fluorescent protein (GFP), was observed in the above-mentioned tissues by fluorescence microscopy. Expression of the ompK gene within 3 weeks evoked an immune response. Black seabream was protected from V. parahaemolyticus (OS4), with 72.3% relative percentage survival (RPS) 3 weeks post-vaccination with chitosan/pDNA. The direct agglutination test indicated that oral administration with chitosan/pDNA induced an antibody immune response in fish against V. parahaemolyticus (OS4). Data obtained, here and in other related studies, suggest that chitosan nanoparticles are promising carriers for an oral pDNA vaccine. PMID:24093149

Li, L; Lin, S-L; Deng, L; Liu, Z-G

2013-12-01

359

The discovery and optimization of a novel class of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors with potential utility for the treatment of cancer.  

PubMed

A class of 2-acyliminobenzimidazoles has been developed as potent and selective inhibitors of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Structure based design facilitated the rapid development of structure-activity relationships (SAR) and the optimization of kinase selectivity. Introduction of an optimally placed polar substituent was key to solving issues of metabolic stability and led to the development of potent, selective, orally bioavailable ALK inhibitors. Compound 49 achieved substantial tumor regression in an NPM-ALK driven murine tumor xenograft model when dosed qd. Compounds 36 and 49 show favorable potency and PK characteristics in preclinical species indicative of suitability for further development. PMID:22734674

Lewis, Richard T; Bode, Christiane M; Choquette, Deborah M; Potashman, Michele; Romero, Karina; Stellwagen, John C; Teffera, Yohannes; Moore, Earl; Whittington, Douglas A; Chen, Hao; Epstein, Linda F; Emkey, Renee; Andrews, Paul S; Yu, Violeta L; Saffran, Douglas C; Xu, Man; Drew, Allison; Merkel, Patricia; Szilvassy, Steven; Brake, Rachael L

2012-07-26

360

The therapeutic potential of a series of orally bioavailable anti-angiogenic microtubule disruptors as therapy for hormone-independent prostate and breast cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapies for hormone-independent prostate and breast cancer are limited, with the effectiveness of the taxanes compromised by toxicity, lack of oral bioavailability and drug resistance. This study aims to identify and characterise new microtubule disruptors, which may have improved efficacy relative to the taxanes in hormone-independent cancer. 2-Methoxy-3-O-sulphamoyl-17?-cyanomethyl-oestra-1,3,5(10)-triene (STX641), 2-methoxy-3-hydroxy-17?-cyanomethyl-oestra-1,3,5(10)-triene (STX640) and 2-methoxyoestradiol-3,17-O,O-bis-sulphamate (STX140) were all potent inhibitors of cell

S P Newman; P A Foster; Y T Ho; J M Day; B Raobaikady; P G Kasprzyk; M P Leese; B V L Potter; M J Reed; A Purohit

2007-01-01

361

Cutaneous Horn Malignant Melanoma  

PubMed Central

A 73-year-old Japanese woman presented with cutaneous horn on the right cheek. The resected tumor was 9 mm in diameter, with 14 mm protrusion, and showed exophytic growth with marked papillomatosis. Histopathology showed proliferation of atypical melanocytes with melanin pigments in the epidermis and dermis under the cutaneous horn. These cells were confined to the base of the cutaneous horn, and did not spread to the surrounding epidermis. The final diagnosis was cutaneous horn malignant melanoma. This pathological entity is considered a specific form of verrucous melanoma, and might be added to the list of cutaneous horn-forming lesions. PMID:25386322

Daa, Tsutomu; Kashima, Kenji; Arakane, Motoki; Shimada, Hiromitsu; Goto, Mizuki; Kai, Yoshitaka; Hatano, Yutaka; Okamoto, Osamu; Yokoyama, Shigeo

2013-01-01

362

Congenital uveal malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

We report the clinical and pathological findings of a rare case of congenital uveal melanoma. A 7-week-old girl presented with history of a black area at the inner corner of her left eye since birth. Examination revealed an enlarged globe with an area of visible uveal pigment nasal to the cornea, an iris mass, and shallow anterior chamber in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intraocular mass. Enucleation was performed when the girl was 2 months of age. Pathologic examination confirmed a malignant melanoma epithelioid cell type with extraocular extension. She was treated with chemotherapy and subtotal exenteration. PMID:24698625

Pukrushpan, Parnchat; Tulvatana, Wasee; Pittayapongpat, Rosana

2014-04-01

363

Imaging of gastrointestinal malignancies.  

PubMed

Many advancements in the imaging of gastrointestinal malignancies have been seen in the past year. Endorectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging with an endorectal surface coil allow for more accurate staging of the depth of bowel wall invasion by rectal carcinoma. Monoclonal antibody imaging may detect metastases not found by other modalities while computed tomography arterial portography and intraoperative ultrasound improve our ability to identify liver metastases. Endoscopic ultrasound is also useful in the preoperative assessment of esophageal cancer and pancreatic endocrine tumors. PMID:1511029

Trenkner, S W; Thompson, W M

1992-08-01

364

Expression of Ki-67 in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objective: To demonstrate the presence, location and pattern of cell proliferation in different histological grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium (NOE) using an antibody directed against the Ki-67 antigen and its intensity of staining evaluated respectively. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 archival paraffin embedded blocks obtained from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were studied. The case details were retrieved which consisted of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC (n = 20), low risk OED (n = 30), high risk OED (n = 30) and normal appearing mucosa (n = 20) were taken as standard for comparison. Ki-67 immunostaining was detected. Ki-67 positive cells were counted in the five random high power fields in each case. Results: Ki-67 labeling Index (LI) was restricted to the basal and parabasal layers of the normal oral epithelium irrespective of age, sex and site whereas it was seen in the basal, suprabasal and spinous layers in OED. Ki-67 LI is increased in high risk cases than the low risk cases of OED. Ki-67 positive cells in OSCC were located in the periphery of the tumor nests than the center, where frequent mitoses were observed. Conclusion: The architectural alteration evaluated by Ki-67 antibody in proliferating cell distribution in the layers of epithelial dysplasias may provide useful information to evaluate the grading of OED. Ki-67 LI increased in high risk cases than low risk cases of OED. This study showed that over expression of Ki-67 antigen between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC was in accordance with histologic grade of malignancy but not in accordance with moderately differentiated OSCC. PMID:25328294

Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M; Gadivan, Mohsin

2014-01-01

365

Management of paranasal sinus malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement Malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses represent a wide spectrum of histologies, tissues\\u000a of origin, and anatomic primary sites. The inherent difficulty in generalizing treatment approaches is obvious, given the\\u000a numerous variables associated with the broadly-based term, paranasal sinus malignancy (PNSCa). Nevertheless, the majority\\u000a of epithelial and salivary malignancies of this region (ie, squamous cell carcinoma,

Terry A. Day; Ricardo A. Beas; Rodney J. Schlosser; Bradford A. Woodworth; Julio Barredo; Anand K. Sharma; M. Boyd Gillespie

2005-01-01

366

Metastasis-Associated Protein 1 Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Correlation with Metastasis and Angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Objective: Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) has been associated with poor prognosis in several carcinomas. Recent investigation has found that in different tumors, MTA1 protein significantly correlates with tumor angiogenesis, suggesting that MTA1 may be a possible angiogenesis-promoting molecule in malignant tumors. Thus, the current study was performed to determine the role of MTA1 protein in the biological behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma and its relation with tumor angiogenesis. Material and Method: In this study, 44 oral squamous cell carcinomas and 15 normal epitheliums were reviewed by IHC staining for MTA1 and CD105. Results: Frequency of MTA1 expression in SCCs was recorded as 97.7%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (33.3%). Mean percentage of MTA1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas was 76.88 ± 25.33% which was significantly higher than that of the control group (22.81 ±10.83). Our data showed a correlation between MTA1 expression with lymph node metastasis, tumor size and, stage. Evaluation of the correlation between MTA1 protein expression and micro vessel density showed that high micro vessel density was detected more frequently in tumors with MTA1 protein overexpression than in those without overexpression. Conclusion: In the present study, high expression of the MTA1 protein was seen in oral squamous cell carcinoma, and was closely associated with tumor progression and increased tumor angiogenesis. The findings may indicate that MTA1 protein has clinical potentials as a useful indicator of progressive phenotype, a promising prognostic predictor to identify patients with poor prognosis and may be a potential novel therapeutic target of anti-angiogenesis for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25301048

Andishehtadbir, Azadeh; Najvani, Ali Dehghani; Pardis, Soheil; Ashkavandi, Zohreh Jafari; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Kamali, Fereshteh

2014-10-10

367

Discovery of orally bioavailable 1,3,4-trisubstituted 2-oxopiperazine-based melanocortin-4 receptor agonists as potential antiobesity agents.  

PubMed

A study that was designed to identify plausible replacements for highly basic guanidine moiety contained in potent MC4R agonists, as exemplified by 1, led to the discovery of initial nonguanidine lead 5. Propyl analog 23 was subsequently found to be equipotent to 5, whereas analogs bearing smaller and branched alkyl groups at the 3 position of the oxopiperazine template demonstrated reduced binding affinity and agonist potency for MC4R. Acylation of the NH2 group of the 4F-D-Phe residue of 3-propyl analog 23 significantly increased the binding affinity and the functional activity for MC4R. Analogs with neutral and weakly basic capping groups of the D-Phe residue exhibited excellent MC4R selectivity against MC1R whereas those with an amino acid had moderate MC4R/MC1R selectivity. We have also demonstrated that compound 35 showed promising oral bioavailability and a moderate oral half life and induced significant weight loss in a 28-day rat obesity model. PMID:18771254

Tian, Xinrong; Switzer, Adrian G; Derose, Steve A; Mishra, Rajesh K; Solinsky, Mark G; Mumin, Rashid N; Ebetino, Frank H; Jayasinghe, Lalith R; Webster, Mark E; Colson, Anny-Odile; Crossdoersen, Doreen; Pinney, Beth B; Farmer, Julie A; Dowty, Martin E; Obringer, Cindy M; Cruze, Charles A; Burklow, Melissa L; Suchanek, Paula M; Dong, Lily; Dirr, Mary Kay; Sheldon, Russell J; Wos, John A

2008-10-01

368

Retooling Manganese(III) Porphyrin-Based Peroxynitrite Decomposition Catalysts for Selectivity and Oral Activity: A Potential New Strategy for Treating Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

Redox-active metalloporphyrins represent the most well characterized class of catalysts capable of attenuating oxidative stress in vivo through the direct interception and decomposition of superoxide and peroxynitrite. While many interesting pharmacological probes have emerged from these studies, few catalysts have been developed with pharmaceutical properties in mind. Herein we describe our efforts to identify new Mn(III)-porphyrin systems with enhanced membrane solubilizing properties. To this end seven new Mn(III)-tetracyclohexenylporphyin (TCHP) analogues 7, 10, 12, 15, 16a–c have been prepared in which the beta-fused cyclohexenyl rings provide a means to shield the charged metal center from the membrane during passive transport. Compounds 7, 15, and 16a–c have been shown to be orally active and potent analgesics in a model of carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia. In addition oral administration of compound 7 (10–100 mg/kg, n = 5) has been shown to dose dependently reverse mechano-allodynia in the CCI model of chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:22082008

Rausaria, Smita; Ghaffari, Mahsa M.E.; Kamadulski, Andrew; Rodgers, Kenny; Bryant, Leesa; Chen, Zhoumou; Doyle, Tim; Shaw, Michael J.; Salvemini, Daniela; Neumann, William L.

2011-01-01

369

Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis. PMID:23379968

Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

2013-10-01

370

Dual-energy CT imaging of thoracic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Abstract Computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role in the detection, characterization, and staging of lung cancer and other thoracic malignancies. Since the introduction of clinically viable dual-energy CT techniques, substantial evidence has accumulated on the use of this modality for imaging chest malignancies. This article describes the principles of dual-energy CT along with suitable image acquisition, reconstruction, and postprocessing strategies for oncologic applications in the chest. The potential of dual-energy CT techniques for the detection, characterization, staging, and surveillance of chest malignancy, as well as the limitations of this modality are discussed. PMID:23470989

Zhang, Long Jiang; Yang, Gui Fen; Wu, Sheng Yong; Lu, Guang Ming; Schoepf, U. Joseph

2013-01-01

371

MicroRNAs in an oral cancer context - from basic biology to clinical utility.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Its dismal five-year survival rate of ~50% has barely changed for decades. A better understanding of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis - with particular emphasis on disease initiation and progression - is needed to improve clinical outcomes, since this will facilitate the development of drugs and management strategies based on the specific genetic changes underpinning disease behaviors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short non-coding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression, have been demonstrated to play essential roles in human cancers. miRNA deregulation has been observed in many tumor types and is implicated in oncogenic cell processes, including proliferation, survival, apoptosis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. In addition, miRNA alterations have been associated with specific clinical phenotypes such as disease progression or recurrence, development of metastases, and post-operative survival. Recent studies have explored the utility of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic tools and as potential therapeutic targets. Herein, we discuss miRNA biology and provide a summary of the key findings on the role of miRNAs in oral malignancies. PMID:22166582

Gorenchtein, M; Poh, C F; Saini, R; Garnis, C

2012-05-01

372

Micronuclei Frequencies and Nuclear Abnormalities in Oral Exfoliated Cells of Nuclear Power Plant Workers  

PubMed Central

Aim: Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear abnormalities (NA) from exfoliated oral mucosal cells in Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers. Materials and Methods: Micronucleus frequencies in oral exfoliated cells were done from individuals not known to be exposed to either environmental or occupational carcinogens (Group I). Similarly samples were obtained from full-time Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers with absence of Leukemia and any malignancy (Group II) and workers diagnosed as leukemic patients and undergoing treatment (Group III). Results: There was statistically significant difference between Group I, Group II & Group III. MN and NA frequencies in Leukemic Patients were significantly higher than those in exposed workers &control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with malignancies. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work in NPS about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:25654022

Babannavar, Roopa; Lohra, Abhishek; Kodgi, Ashwin; Bapure, Sunil; Rao, Yogesh; J., Arun; Malghan, Manjunath

2014-01-01

373

Nutraceuticals as new treatment approaches for oral cancer: II. Green tea extracts and resveratrol.  

PubMed

Nutraceuticals with anti-neoplastic potential are suitable candidates for extending the range of therapeutic options for several types of cancers. One of these malignancies is oral cancer of the squamous cell carcinoma type, for which current treatment approaches have not succeeded in improving long-term clinical outcome. We recently reviewed the beneficial effects of curcumin for the treatment of oral cancer. In the current review, we focused on the beneficial effects of other two nutraceuticals, green tea extracts [especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] and resveratrol, in the treatment of oral cancer. In vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials were reviewed, focusing on the beneficial effect of each of these plant-derived dietary agents, either alone or in combination with various pharmacological agents. We also presented the anti-cancer effects against cancer cells and against components of the tumor microenvironment. It emerged that the poor bioavailability of these nutraceuticals poses an obstacle to their exerting adequate anti-cancer potential. Ground-breaking studies employing new nanotechnology-based therapeutic approaches were presented. PMID:23541947

Zlotogorski, Ayelet; Dayan, Aliza; Dayan, Dan; Chaushu, Gavriel; Salo, Tuula; Vered, Marilena

2013-06-01

374

Gynaecological Malignancies from Palliative Care Perspective  

PubMed Central

Of the approximately 80,000 new cases of all cancers detected every year in India, 10–15% are gynecological malignancies. As per population-based registries under the National Cancer Registry Program, the leading sites of cancer among women are the cervix uteri, breast, and oral cavity. About 50–60% of all cancers among women in India are mainly of the following four organs: cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri, and ovaries. Over 70% of these women report for diagnostic and treatment services at an advanced stage of disease, resulting in poor survival and high mortality rates. Among all gynecological cancers, ovarian cancer is the deadliest one and, in 2/3rd of the cases, is detected in an advanced stage. But, in India and in other developing countries, due to inadequate screening facilities for the preventable cancer cervix, this kills more women than any other cancer in females. Gynecology Oncologist as a sub-specialist has an immensely important role in curtailing the menace of gynecological malignancies by providing comprehensive preventive, curative, palliative and follow-up services, with the aim of assuring a good quality of life to women as a cornerstone of cancer management. PMID:21811372

Mishra, Kamlesh

2011-01-01

375

Recurrent genomic alterations in sequential progressive leukoplakia and oral cancer: drivers of oral tumorigenesis?  

PubMed Central

A significant proportion (up to 62%) of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) may arise from oral potential malignant lesions (OPMLs), such as leukoplakia. Patient outcomes may thus be improved through detection of lesions at a risk for malignant transformation, by identifying and categorizing genetic changes in sequential, progressive OPMLs. We conducted array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 25 sequential, progressive OPMLs and same-site OSCCs from five patients. Recurrent DNA copy number gains were identified on 1p in 20/25 cases (80%) with minimal, high-level amplification regions on 1p35 and 1p36. Other regions of gains were frequently observed: 11q13.4 (68%), 9q34.13 (64%), 21q22.3 (60%), 6p21 and 6q25 (56%) and 10q24, 19q13.2, 22q12, 5q31.2, 7p13, 10q24 and 14q22 (48%). DNA losses were observed in >20% of samples and mainly detected on 5q31.2 (35%), 16p13.2 (30%), 9q33.1 and 9q33.29 (25%) and 17q11.2, 3p26.2, 18q21.1, 4q34.1 and 8p23.2 (20%). Such copy number alterations (CNAs) were mapped in all grades of dysplasia that progressed, and their corresponding OSCCs, in 70% of patients, indicating that these CNAs may be associated with disease progression. Amplified genes mapping within recurrent CNAs (KHDRBS1, PARP1, RAB1A, HBEGF, PAIP2, BTBD7) were selected for validation, by quantitative real-time PCR, in an independent set of 32 progressive leukoplakia, 32 OSSCs and 21 non-progressive leukoplakia samples. Amplification of BTBD7, KHDRBS1, PARP1 and RAB1A was exclusively detected in progressive leukoplakia and corresponding OSCC. BTBD7, KHDRBS1, PARP1 and RAB1A may be associated with OSCC progression. Protein–protein interaction networks were created to identify possible pathways associated with OSCC progression. PMID:24403051

Cervigne, Nilva K.; Machado, Jerry; Goswami, Rashmi S.; Sadikovic, Bekim; Bradley, Grace; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Galloni, Natalie Naranjo; Gilbert, Ralph; Gullane, Patrick; Irish, Jonathan C.; Jurisica, Igor; Reis, Patricia P.; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne

2014-01-01

376

Therapeutic targeting of malignant glioma.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GMB) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor survival rates and universal recurrence despite aggressive treatments. Recent research suggested that GBM has multiple glioma cell populations, some of which are organized in a stem cell hierarchical order with different stages of differention. Evidence indicated that recurrence is due to a development or persistance of a subpopulation of these tumor cells which are inherently resistant to treatment and these were defined as the glioma stem-like cells (GSC). It is hypothesized that GSC become highly malignant by accumulating mutations in oncogenic pathways. These cells present with specific surface markers which helps identify them. Targeting the surface markers as well as the signaling pathways of GSCs has been an ongoing research effort. This review focuses on summarizing the current treatment modalities used to glioblastoma treatments, evaluating their efficacy in controlling and eradicatig the GSCs, discussing the machanisms involved in GSC tumor proliferation and resistance to treatments in addition to proposing potential avenues to target GSCs in order to provide a potential cure for this cancer. PMID:25175690

Alexandru-Abrams, Daniela; Jadus, Martin R; Hsu, Frank P; Stathopoulos, Apostolos; Bota, Daniela A

2014-01-01

377

Resistin: insulin resistance to malignancy.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is recognized as an endocrine organ that secretes bioactive substances known as adipokines. Excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction lead to dysregulated adipokine production that can contribute to the development of obesity-related co-morbidities. Among the various adipokines, resistin, which was initially considered as a determinant of the emergence of insulin resistance in obesity, has appeared as an important link between obesity and inflammatory processes. Several experimental and clinical studies have suggested an association between increased resistin levels and severe conditions associated with obesity such as cardiovascular disease and malignancies. In this review, we present the growing body of evidence that human resistin is an inflammatory biomarker and potential mediator of obesity-associated diseases. A common pathway seems to involve the combined alteration of immune and inflammatory processes that favor metabolic disturbances, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. The mode of action and the signaling pathways utilized by resistin in its interactions with target cells could involve oxidative and nitrosative stress. Therefore, resistin could function as a key molecule in the complications of obesity development and could potentially be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. PMID:25128719

Codoñer-Franch, Pilar; Alonso-Iglesias, Eulalia

2015-01-01

378

Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

2012-01-01

379

Computational analysis of p63+ nuclei distribution pattern by graph theoretic approach in an oral pre-cancer (sub-mucous fibrosis)  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a pre-cancerous condition with features of chronic, inflammatory and progressive sub-epithelial fibrotic disorder of the buccal mucosa. In this study, malignant potentiality of OSF has been assessed by quantification of immunohistochemical expression of epithelial prime regulator-p63 molecule in correlation to its malignant (oral squamous cell carcinoma [OSCC] and normal counterpart [normal oral mucosa [NOM]). Attributes of spatial extent and distribution of p63+ expression in the epithelium have been investigated. Further, a correlated assessment of histopathological attributes inferred from H&E staining and their mathematical counterparts (molecular pathology of p63) have been proposed. The suggested analytical framework envisaged standardization of the immunohistochemistry evaluation procedure for the molecular marker, using computer-aided image analysis, toward enhancing its prognostic value. Subjects and Methods: In histopathologically confirmed OSF, OSCC and NOM tissue sections, p63+ nuclei were localized and segmented by identifying regional maxima in plateau-like intensity spatial profiles of nuclei. The clustered nuclei were localized and segmented by identifying concave points in the morphometry and by marker-controlled watersheds. Voronoi tessellations were constructed around nuclei centroids and mean values of spatial-relation metrics such as tessellation area, tessellation perimeter, roundness factor and disorder of the area were extracted. Morphology and extent of expression are characterized by area, diameter, perimeter, compactness, eccentricity and density, fraction of p63+ expression and expression distance of p63+ nuclei. Results: Correlative framework between histopathological features characterizing malignant potentiality and their quantitative p63 counterparts was developed. Statistical analyses of mathematical trends were evaluated between different biologically relevant combinations: (i) NOM to oral submucous fibrosis without dysplasia (OSFWT) (ii) NOM to oral submucous fibrosis with dysplasia (OSFWD) (iii) OSFWT-OSFWD (iv) OSFWD-OSCC. Significant histopathogical correlates and their corroborative mathematical features, inferred from p63 staining, were also investigated into. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment and correlative analysis identified mathematical features related to hyperplasia, cellular stratification, differentiation and maturation, shape and size, nuclear crowding and nucleocytoplasmic ratio. It is envisaged that this approach for analyzing the p63 expression and its distribution pattern may help to establish it as a quantitative bio-marker to predict the malignant potentiality and progression. The proposed work would be a value addition to the gold standard by incorporating an observer-independent framework for the associated molecular pathology. PMID:24524001

Bag, Swarnendu; Conjeti, Sailesh; Das, Raunak Kumar; Pal, Mousami; Anura, Anji; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

2013-01-01

380

Rare Malignant Tumors of Clitoris-a Case Report.  

PubMed

Tumors of the clitoris are very rare. Isolated case reports are available in literature. This case report highlights the importance of this disease, due to its high malignant potential and treatment options. We had come across a rare tumor of the clitoris in a young girl, reported to be malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor and patient had a short life span of 6 months. PMID:25177123

Venugopal, P R; Ramachandran, Padma

2014-06-01

381

Clear cell hidradenoma: An unusual tumor of the oral cavity  

PubMed Central

Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is a benign tumor of skin appendage. This lesion is commonly seen on the head, face, extremities and rarely in the oral cavity. The clinical appearance of this lesion is not specific and differential diagnosis from other lesions, both benign and malignant, can only be made after complete removal of the lesion. Histopathology of these lesions is often confused with tumors of salivary glands because of their striking resemblance. In this case of oral CCH, histopathology was an important aid in the diagnosis and hence, CCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23798849

Paranjyothi, MV; Mukunda, Archana

2013-01-01

382

Discovery and SAR of PF-4693627, a potent, selective and orally bioavailable mPGES-1 inhibitor for the potential treatment of inflammation.  

PubMed

Inhibition of mPGES-1, the terminal enzyme in the arachidonic acid/COX pathway to regulate the production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2, is considered an attractive new therapeutic target for safe and effective anti-inflammatory drugs. The discovery of a novel series of orally active, selective benzoxazole piperidinecarboxamides as mPGES-1 inhibitors is described. Structure-activity optimization of lead 5 with cyclohexyl carbinols resulted in compound 12, which showed excellent in vitro potency and selectivity against COX-2, and reasonable pharmacokinetic properties. Further SAR studies of the benzoxazole ring substituents lead to a novel series of highly potent compounds with improved PK profile, including 23, 26, and 29, which were effective in a carrageenan-stimulated guinea pig air pouch model of inflammation. Based on its excellent in vitro and in vivo pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and safety profile and ease of synthesis, compound 26 (PF-4693627) was advanced to clinical studies. PMID:23260349

Arhancet, Graciela B; Walker, Daniel P; Metz, Sue; Fobian, Yvette M; Heasley, Steven E; Carter, Jeffrey S; Springer, John R; Jones, Darin E; Hayes, Michael J; Shaffer, Alexander F; Jerome, Gina M; Baratta, Michael T; Zweifel, Ben; Moore, William M; Masferrer, Jaime L; Vazquez, Michael L

2013-02-15

383

The potential for transmission of BCG from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to cattle (Bos taurus) through a contaminated environment: experimental findings.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×10(9) colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naïve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment. PMID:23565211

Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P; Rigg, Tara D; Saklou, Nadia T; Salman, Mo D

2013-01-01

384

Rheumatic manifestations of malignancy.  

PubMed

The rheumatic associations of cancer therapy are highlighted in this review. Interleukin-2, interferon alfa, and Calmette-Guérin bacillus immunotherapies are related to an inflammatory arthritis, and septic arthritis can complicate breast-cancer therapy. In a large retrospective study, an increased incidence of cancer in systemic sclerosis was confirmed, especially lung and breast cancers. Lymphoproliferative associations of Sjögren's syndrome were explored in a study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients in which clinical and histologic criteria were used to diagnose Sjögren's syndrome. B- and T-cell lymphomas continue to be reported with rheumatologic manifestations such as seronegative polyarthritis and sacroiliitis. Malignant angioendotheliomatosis, which mimics central nervous system vasculitis diseases, has been reported. Paraneoplastic associations of lung, ovarian, and renal-cell carcinomas are discussed. PMID:8031673

Conaghan, P G; Brooks, P M

1994-01-01

385

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic drugs characterized by fever, altered mental status, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction. It has been associated with virtually all neuroleptics, including newer atypical antipsychotics, as well as a variety of other medications that affect central dopaminergic neurotransmission. Although uncommon, NMS remains a critical consideration in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with fever and mental status changes because it requires prompt recognition to prevent significant morbidity and death. Treatment includes immediately stopping the offending agent and implementing supportive measures, as well as pharmacological interventions in more severe cases. Maintaining vigilant awareness of the clinical features of NMS to diagnose and treat the disorder early, however, remains the most important strategy by which physicians can keep mortality rates low and improve patient outcomes. PMID:23983836

Berman, Brian D.

2011-01-01

386

T-cell lymphoma of the oral cavity: a case report.  

PubMed

Lymphomas are defined as heterogeneous malignancies of the lymphatic system characterized by a proliferation of lymphoid cells or their precursors. Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity has been described previously although reports on the occurrence of intraoral extranodal T-cell lymphomas are scarce. Oral lesions may appear as a painless enlargement, erythematous, often with surface ulceration secondary to trauma. This is a report of a rare case in which a specific subtype of T-cell lymphoma appeared in the oral cavity. PMID:20604765

Villa, A; Mariani, U; Villa, F

2010-06-01

387

The malignant primate?  

PubMed

Speciation and carcinogenesis result from genomic instability at the gametic or at the somatic levels. After an infinity of trials they occur, by chromosome rearrangements, in single individuals or in single cells and evolve by similar chromosomal or clonal evolutions. Loss of heterozygosity for the first event is essential in both processes: in evolution, a chromosomal rearrangement, a pericentric inversion or a Robertsonian fusion, must become homozygous to ensure a reproductive barrier for a new species; Knudson's two-event sequence is a similar situation in cancer. Position effect is equally important: we have shown overexpression of the SOD1 gene in the orangutan phylum probably by an intrachromosomal rearrangement; the t(9;22) in CML acts by typical position effect. Parental imprinting underlies the evolution of genome function and the unset of certain cancers. Evolution and malignancy are interweaved by viruses and oncogenes since the dawn of life. Cancer uses its intelligence to expand and to destroy the other tissues, using subtle metabolic pathways and a variety of tricks to metastasize other cells. It always wins but saws the branch on which it sits. Mankind also grows exponentially, killing thousands of other species, poisoning the oceans and soft waters, polluting the atmosphere, all for his egoistic needs. Man also travels and metastasizes other Earths. He modifies his genome or that of other species, and develops new technologies for his reproduction. He can destroy the planet in an eyeblink. To be or not to be the malignant primate, that will be the dilemma for the 21st Century. PMID:1809219

de Grouchy, J

1991-01-01

388

Obstructing endobronchial malignant fibrous histiocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 58-year-old male patient admitted with malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the left mainstem. Rareness and unusual presentation of malignant fibrous histiocytoma and surgical management for lung salvage made its reporting worthwile. In this localization, prognostic characteristics are better than in the other localizations of lung and body.

Olgun Kadir Ariba?; Niyazi Görmü?

2001-01-01

389

Obstructing endobronchial malignant fibrous histiocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 58-year-old male patient admitted with malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the left mainstem. Rareness and unusual presentation of malignant fibrous histiocytoma and surgical management for lung salvage made its reporting worthwile. In this localization, prognostic characteristics are better than in the other localizations of lung and body. q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Olgun Kadir Aribas; Niyazi Gormus

390

Hematologic malignancies of the pancreas.  

PubMed

Hematologic malignancies are relatively uncommon neoplasms of abdominal soft tissue. This article discusses the clinical and imaging features of pancreatic lymphoma, pancreatic extraosseous multiple myeloma, granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and Castleman disease. The combination of imaging findings and the appropriate clinical presentation should allow the radiologist to raise a provisional diagnosis of hematologic malignancy. PMID:25120155

Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Tomasian, Anderanik; Elsayes, Khaled M; Nageswaran, Harris; Shaaban, Akram; Shanbhogue, Alampady; Menias, Christine O

2015-02-01

391

How Safe Is Oral Isotretinoin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since oral isotretinoin (Roaccutane®\\/Accutane®) is the only therapy to address all major acne causes, it remains the most effective antiacne therapy available. Due to this unique efficacy and its potential side effects that are predictable and can be managed easily and effectively, it is widely used also in acne patients suffering from serious systemic diseases. As the primary mechanism of

W. N. Meigel

1997-01-01

392

Primary intrahepatic malignant epithelioid mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Primary malignant hepatic mesotheliomas are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma who was treated in our department. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 66-year old male patient was admitted to our department for the evaluation of anemia. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a large space occupying lesion in the right liver lobe. DISCUSSION The tumor was subsequently resected and a diagnosis of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma was made after pathologic examination. The patient did not receive adjuvant therapy and is currently alive and free of disease, 36 months after the resection. CONCLUSION To our knowledge this is the eighth adult case of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma reported in the literature. These tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Absence of previous asbestos exposure does not exclude malignant mesothelioma from the differential diagnosis. Proper surgical treatment may offer prolonged survival to the patient, without adjuvant therapy. PMID:25460485

Perysinakis, Iraklis; Nixon, Alexander M.; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Kakiopoulos, George; Zorzos, Charalampos; Margaris, Ilias

2014-01-01

393

Understanding Oral Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

394

[Biochemical modulation of chemotherapy of urologic malignancies].  

PubMed

Generally speaking, the outcome of cancer chemotherapy for urologic malignancies is poor. This poor response is attributed to the weak sensitivity to anti-cancer agents, represented by renal cell cancer, and the advanced age of most patients to tolerate the toxicities of the drugs, as is experienced in prostate cancer patients, which leads to insufficient therapy. Biochemical modulation was initially used to refer to the enhancement of the effect of 5-FU by modulating its pharmacological action by the addition of other drugs. The concept was expanded to the enhancement of the effect of the chemotherapeutic agents, potentiating the pharmacological action and/or reducing the toxicity, by means of any drug or biological modality. This preface is for the following 7 articles which were based on the presentations at the Symposium of 42nd Annual Meeting of Central Section of Japanese Urological Association in 1992, entitled as "Biochemical modulation of chemotherapy of urologic malignancies". PMID:8285170

Okada, K

1993-12-01

395

Wnt Signaling in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

One of the most remarkable characteristics of stem cells is their ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal while concomitantly generating differentiated cells. In the hematopoietic system, stem cells balance these mechanisms to maintain steady-state hematopoiesis for the lifetime of the organism, and to effectively regenerate the system following injury. Defects in the proper control of self-renewal and differentiation can be potentially devastating and contribute to the development of malignancies. In this review, we trace the emerging role of Wnt signaling as a critical regulator of distinct aspects of self-renewal and differentiation, its contribution to the maintenance of homeostasis and regeneration, and how the pathway can be hijacked to promote leukemia development. A better understanding of these processes could pave the way to enhancing recovery after injury and to developing better therapeutic approaches for hematologic malignancies. PMID:23378582

Lento, William; Congdon, Kendra; Voermans, Carlijn; Kritzik, Marcie; Reya, Tannishtha

2013-01-01

396

Antifungal, Cytotoxic, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Tea Tree Oil and Its Derivative Components: Potential Role in Management of Oral Candidosis in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans forms oral biofilms that cause disease and are difficult to treat with conventional antifungal agents. Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural compound with reported antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. The aims of the study were to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of TTO and key derivatives against C. albicans biofilms, to assess the toxicological effects of TTO on a clinically relevant oral cell line, and to investigate its impact on inflammation. TTO and its derivatives were examined against 100 clinical strains of C. albicans. Planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method. Sessile MICs were determined using an XTT reduction assay. Inhibition, time-kill, and mode of action studies were performed. OKF6-TERT2 epithelial cells were used for cytotoxicity and cytokine expression assays. Planktonic C. albicans isolates were susceptible to TTO, terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), and ?-terpineol, with an MIC50 of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.25%, respectively. These three compounds also displayed potent activity against the 69 biofilm-forming strains, of which T-4-ol and ?-terpineol displayed rapid kill kinetics. For all three compounds, 1?×?MIC50 effectively inhibited biofilm growth when C. albicans were treated at 0, 1, and 2?h post adhesion. By scanning electron microscopy analysis and PI uptake, TTO and derivative components were shown to be cell membrane active. TTO and T-4-ol were cytotoxic at 1?×?MIC50, whereas at 0.5?×?MIC50 T-4-ol displayed no significant toxicity. Transcript and protein analysis showed a reduction of IL-8 when treated with TTO and T-4-ol. These data provide further in vitro evidence that TTO and its derivative components, specifically T-4-ol, exhibit strong antimicrobial properties against fungal biofilms. T-4-ol has safety advantages over the complete essential oil and may be suitable for prophylaxis and treatment of established oropharyngeal candidosis. A clinical trial of T-4-ol is worthy of consideration. PMID:22719736

Ramage, Gordon; Milligan, Steven; Lappin, David F.; Sherry, Leighann; Sweeney, Petrina; Williams, Craig; Bagg, Jeremy; Culshaw, Shauna

2012-01-01

397

Fusogenic-Oligoarginine Peptide-Mediated Delivery of siRNAs Targeting the CIP2A Oncogene into Oral Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Despite a better understanding of the pathogenesis of oral cancer, its treatment outcome remains poor. Thus, there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to improve the prognosis of this disease. RNA interference (RNAi) appears to be a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of many diseases, including oral cancer. However, an obstacle for RNAi-mediated therapies has been delivery, in particular, the retention of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in endosomes and their subsequent degradation in lysosomes, resulting in inefficient gene silencing. Thus, the current study examined the feasibility of designing and utilizing a peptide, termed 599, consisting of a synthetic influenza virus-derived endosome-disruptive fusogenic peptide sequence and a stretch of cationic cell-penetrating nona(D-arginine) residues, to deliver siRNAs into oral cancer cells and induce silencing of the therapeutic target, CIP2A, an oncoprotein overexpressed in various human malignancies including oral cancer. Increasing the 599 peptide-to-siRNA molar ratio demonstrated a higher binding capacity for siRNA molecules and enhanced siRNA delivery into the cytoplasm of oral cancer cells. In fact, quantitative measurements of siRNA delivery into cells demonstrated that a 50?1 peptide-to-siRNA molar ratio could deliver 18-fold higher amounts of siRNAs compared to cells treated with siRNA alone with no significant long-term cytotoxic effects. Most importantly, the 599 peptide-mediated siRNA delivery promoted significant CIP2A mRNA and protein silencing which resulted in decreased oral cancer cell invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth. Together, these data demonstrate that a chimeric peptide consisting of a fusogenic sequence, in combination with cell-penetrating residues, can be used to effectively deliver siRNAs into oral cancer cells and induce the silencing of its target gene, potentially offering a new therapeutic strategy in combating oral cancer. PMID:24019920

Cantini, Liliana; Attaway, Christopher C.; Butler, Betsy; Andino, Lourdes M.; Sokolosky, Melissa L.; Jakymiw, Andrew

2013-01-01

398

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

399

Effects of the exercise-inducible myokine irisin on malignant and non-malignant breast epithelial cell behavior in vitro.  

PubMed

Exercise has been shown to reduce risk and improve prognosis of several types of cancers. Irisin is a myokine linked to exercise and lean body mass, which is thought to favorably alter metabolism systemically, potentially providing benefit for metabolic disease (including cancer). We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of irisin (with and without post-translational modifications) on malignant and non-malignant breast epithelial cell number, migration and viability. Irisin significantly decreased cell number, migration and viability in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells, without affecting non-malignant MCF-10a cells. Moreover, irisin enhanced the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (Dox) when added to a wide spectrum of irisin concentrations in the malignant cell type (with simultaneous reduction in Dox uptake), which was not observed in non-malignant MCF-10a cells. Additionally, we found that irisin decreases malignant cell viability in part through stimulation of caspase activity leading to apoptotic death. Interestingly, we found that irisin suppresses NF?B activation, an opposite effect of other myokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). Our observations suggest that irisin may offer therapeutic benefits for breast cancer prevention and treatment possibly through an anti-inflammatory response, induction of apoptotic cell death, or through enhanced tumor sensitivity to common antineoplastic agents such as Dox. PMID:25124080

Gannon, Nicholas P; Vaughan, Roger A; Garcia-Smith, Randi; Bisoffi, Marco; Trujillo, Kristina A

2015-02-15

400

[Ecstasy use and oral health].  

PubMed

Ecstacy is a frequently used drug, especially by you