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1

Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?  

PubMed Central

Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

van der Waal, Isaac

2014-01-01

2

Malignant transformation in 5071 southern Taiwanese patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Oral cancers can be preceded by clinically evident oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). The current study evaluated the rate and the time of malignant transformation in the various OPMDs in a cohort of patients from southern Taiwan. Parameters possibly indicative for malignant transformation of OPMDs, such as epidemiological and etiological factors, and clinical and histopathological features were also described. Methods We followed-up 5071 patients with OPMDs—epithelial dysplasia with oral submucous fibrosis, epithelial dysplasia with hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, and verrucous hyperplasia—between 2001 and 2010 for malignant transformation. Results Two hundred nineteen of these 5071 OPMD patients (202 men, 17 women; mean age: 51.25 years; range: 30–81 years) developed oral cancers (179 squamous cell carcinomas; 40 verrucous carcinomas) in the same sites as the initial lesions at least 6 months after their initial biopsies. The overall transformation rate was 4.32% (mean duration of transformation: 33.56 months; range: 6–67 months). Additionally, the mean time of malignant transformation was significantly shorter for lesions with than without epithelial dysplasia. The risk of malignant transformation was 1.89 times higher for epithelially dysplastic than non-dysplastic lesions. The anatomical site of OPMD and the presence of epithelial dysplasia were significantly associated with malignant transformation. The hazard rate ratio was 1.87 times larger for tongue lesions than for buccal lesions. Conclusion Patients with OPMDs require long-term follow up. PMID:25096230

2014-01-01

3

HBO: a possible supplementary therapy for oral potentially malignant disorders.  

PubMed

Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are chronic inflammatory diseases in which cells suffer hypoxia referring to deprivation of adequate oxygen supply. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO), which can increase oxygen tension and delivery to oxygen-deficient tissue, is a supplementary therapy to improve or cure disorders involving hypoxia. Although the applications of HBO in wound healings, acute ischemic stroke, radiation-induced soft tissue injury and cancers are extensively reported, there are only few studies on their effect in OPMDs. Not only does HBO furnish oxygen-it also possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties. At the cellular level, HBO can decrease lymphocyte proliferation and promote apoptosis of fibroblasts. At the molecular level, it can decrease expression of HIF, ICAM-1, TNF-?, TGF-?, and IFN-?, as well as increase vascular VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Thus, we hypothesize that HBO may contribute to treat OPMDs, including oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis both at the cellular level and the molecular level, and that it would be a safe and inexpensive therapeutic strategy. PMID:24908359

Ye, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Rui; Zhou, Gang

2014-08-01

4

Use of electrical impedance spectroscopy to detect malignant and potentially malignant oral lesions.  

PubMed

The electrical properties of tissues depend on their architecture and cellular composition. We have previously shown that changes in electrical impedance can be used to differentiate between different degrees of cervical dysplasia and cancer of the cervix. In this proof-of-concept study, we aimed to determine whether electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could distinguish between normal oral mucosa; benign, potentially malignant lesions (PML); and oral cancer. EIS data were collected from oral cancer (n=10), PML (n=27), and benign (n=10) lesions. EIS from lesions was compared with the EIS reading from the normal mucosa on the contralateral side of the mouth or with reference spectra from mucosal sites of control subjects (n=51). Healthy controls displayed significant differences in the EIS obtained from different oral sites. In addition, there were significant differences in the EIS of cancer and high-risk PML versus low-risk PML and controls. There was no significant difference between benign lesions and normal controls. Study subjects also deemed the EIS procedure considerably less painful and more convenient than the scalpel biopsy procedure. EIS shows promise at distinguishing among malignant, PML, and normal oral mucosa and has the potential to be developed into a clinical diagnostic tool. PMID:25285005

Murdoch, Craig; Brown, Brian H; Hearnden, Vanessa; Speight, Paul M; D'Apice, Katy; Hegarty, Anne M; Tidy, John A; Healey, T Jamie; Highfield, Peter E; Thornhill, Martin H

2014-01-01

5

Use of electrical impedance spectroscopy to detect malignant and potentially malignant oral lesions  

PubMed Central

The electrical properties of tissues depend on their architecture and cellular composition. We have previously shown that changes in electrical impedance can be used to differentiate between different degrees of cervical dysplasia and cancer of the cervix. In this proof-of-concept study, we aimed to determine whether electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could distinguish between normal oral mucosa; benign, potentially malignant lesions (PML); and oral cancer. EIS data were collected from oral cancer (n=10), PML (n=27), and benign (n=10) lesions. EIS from lesions was compared with the EIS reading from the normal mucosa on the contralateral side of the mouth or with reference spectra from mucosal sites of control subjects (n=51). Healthy controls displayed significant differences in the EIS obtained from different oral sites. In addition, there were significant differences in the EIS of cancer and high-risk PML versus low-risk PML and controls. There was no significant difference between benign lesions and normal controls. Study subjects also deemed the EIS procedure considerably less painful and more convenient than the scalpel biopsy procedure. EIS shows promise at distinguishing among malignant, PML, and normal oral mucosa and has the potential to be developed into a clinical diagnostic tool. PMID:25285005

Murdoch, Craig; Brown, Brian H; Hearnden, Vanessa; Speight, Paul M; D'Apice, Katy; Hegarty, Anne M; Tidy, John A; Healey, T Jamie; Highfield, Peter E; Thornhill, Martin H

2014-01-01

6

Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = -0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC. PMID:24415717

Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; Abdulmajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S

2014-04-01

7

Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = ?0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC. PMID:24415717

Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S

2014-01-01

8

Is there any benefit in surgery for potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity?  

PubMed

Oral epithelial dysplasia grading is currently recognised as the most useful prognostic indicator for predicting conversion of potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity to squamous cell carcinoma. It is also used as a basis for deciding management options. However, the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia is subjective and thus unreliable. Surgery is currently recommended for removal of high-risk lesions; however, the evidence for its success is lacking, and in some cases, there have been reports of increased recurrence of malignancy following surgical excision. Molecular and genetic markers have been identified and show promising results in identifying which potential malignant disorders are at risk of malignant transformation. The current evidence available for prognosis of potential malignant disorders and its treatment is based on observational and retrospective data. No randomised control trials have been conducted to date to assess the efficacy of surgery in oral epithelial dysplasia. Until good quality evidence is available from well-designed randomised control trials, experts still recommend the surgical removal of potential malignant disorders which are regarded as high risk. PMID:23750566

Balasundaram, I; Payne, K F B; Al-Hadad, I; Alibhai, M; Thomas, S; Bhandari, R

2014-04-01

9

Oral potentially malignant disorders: A proposal for terminology and definition with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Several attempts to produce internationally accepted terminologies and definitions of ‘oral precancer’ have appeared in the literature. World Health Organizations (WHO) in 1972 subdivided ‘precancer’ into ‘lesions’ and ‘conditions’ with their definitions. Recent working group of WHO is not in favor of such subdivision and recommended the use of the term ‘oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD)’. This is mainly attributed to the recent advancement in molecular and genetic aspects of ‘oral precancer’. But efforts to define OPMDs are few in the literature. ‘Oral precancer’ is ultimately colligated to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). With this semantics in mind, different OPMD and related terminologies in the literature used till date with their lexicographic analysis have been reviewed in the present paper. Attempt has also been made to propose desirable terminology and definition which suits to the current concept of OPMD. The proposed terminology and definition is based on the authors’ opinions with a hope for further suggestions from readers. PMID:25364185

Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Tupkari, Jagdish V

2014-01-01

10

Oral potentially malignant disorders: A proposal for terminology and definition with review of literature.  

PubMed

Several attempts to produce internationally accepted terminologies and definitions of 'oral precancer' have appeared in the literature. World Health Organizations (WHO) in 1972 subdivided 'precancer' into 'lesions' and 'conditions' with their definitions. Recent working group of WHO is not in favor of such subdivision and recommended the use of the term 'oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD)'. This is mainly attributed to the recent advancement in molecular and genetic aspects of 'oral precancer'. But efforts to define OPMDs are few in the literature. 'Oral precancer' is ultimately colligated to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). With this semantics in mind, different OPMD and related terminologies in the literature used till date with their lexicographic analysis have been reviewed in the present paper. Attempt has also been made to propose desirable terminology and definition which suits to the current concept of OPMD. The proposed terminology and definition is based on the authors' opinions with a hope for further suggestions from readers. PMID:25364185

Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Tupkari, Jagdish V

2014-09-01

11

Longitudinal evaluation of patients with oral potentially malignant disorders using optical imaging and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dysplastic and cancerous alterations in oral tissue can be detected noninvasively in vivo using optical techniques including autofluorescence imaging, high-resolution imaging, and spectroscopy. Interim results are presented from a longitudinal study in which optical imaging and spectroscopy were used to evaluate the progression of lesions over time in patients at high risk for development of oral cancer. Over 100 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders have been enrolled in the study to date. Areas of concern in the oral cavity are measured using widefield autofluorescence imaging and depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy during successive clinical visits. Autofluorescence intensity patterns and autofluorescence spectra are tracked over time and correlated with clinical observations. Patients whose lesions progress and who undergo surgery are also measured in the operating room immediately prior to surgery using autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy, with the addition of intraoperative high-resolution imaging to characterize nuclear size, nuclear crowding, and tissue architecture at selected sites. Optical measurements are compared to histopathology results from biopsies and surgical specimens collected from the measured sites. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy measurements are continued during post-surgery followup visits. We examined correlations between clinical impression and optical classification over time with an average followup period of 4 months. The data collected to date suggest that multimodal optical techniques may aid in noninvasive monitoring of the progression of oral premalignant lesions, biopsy site selection, and accurate delineation of lesion extent during surgery.

Schwarz, Richard A.; Pierce, Mark C.; Mondrik, Sharon; Gao, Wen; Quinn, Mary K.; Bhattar, Vijayashree; Williams, Michelle D.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2012-02-01

12

Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is a public health problem with relevant incidence in the world population. The affected patient usually presents advanced stage disease and the consequence of this delay is a reduction in survival rates. Given this, it is essential to detect oral cancer at early stages. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that can improve cancer detection in real time. It is a fast and accurate technique, relatively simple, which evaluates the biochemical composition and structure using the tissue fluorescence spectrum as interrogation data. Several studies have positive data regarding the tools for differentiating between normal mucosa and cancer, but the difference between cancer and potentially malignant disorders is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy in the discrimination of normal oral mucosa, oral cancer, and potentially malignant disorders. The fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated in 115 individuals, of whom 55 patients presented oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 volunteers showing normal oral mucosa, and 30 patients having potentially malignant disorders. The spectra were classified and compared to histopathology to evaluate the efficiency in diagnostic discrimination employing fluorescence. In order to classify the spectra, a decision tree algorithm (C4.5) was applied. Despite of the high variance observed in spectral data, the specificity and sensitivity obtained were 93.8% and 88.5%, respectively at 406 nm excitation. These results point to the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy as an important tool for oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders. PMID:24704941

Francisco, Ana Lucia Noronha; Correr, Wagner Rafael; Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu; Kern, Vivian Galletta; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Kurachi, Cristina

2014-06-01

13

Prevalence of bilateral 'mirror-image' lesions in patients with oral potentially malignant epithelial lesions.  

PubMed

Early detection of oral potentially malignant epithelial lesions (PMELs) is aimed at improving survival rates as carcinogenesis is a multistep process and prevention is possible if these lesions are detected at an early and reversible stage of the disease. A prospective clinical study aimed at determining the prevalence of bilateral 'mirror-image' oral PMELs was carried out. Sample consisted of 32 (53.3%) Indians, 23 (38.3%) Chinese, 4 (6.7%) Malays and one (1.7%) Nepalese. All had histopathological confirmation of their primary existing PMEL as inclusion criteria. A total of 70 primary lesions were detected. The most common PMEL found was oral lichen planus. Of these, 28 (46.7%) patients exhibited bilateral 'mirror-image' lesions (n = 42) either synchronously (n = 32/42) or metachronously (n = 10/42). The remaining 32 (53.3%) patients had normal-looking contralateral mucosa. Present findings suggest that patients presenting with oral PMELs are at greater risk of developing a second lesion, most probably in the contralateral 'mirror-image' site. PMID:21789676

Siar, Chong Huat; Mah, Michelle Clare; Gill, Praveen Preet

2012-03-01

14

Evaluation of an autofluorescence based imaging system (VELscope™) in the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders and benign keratoses.  

PubMed

Early detection of oral cancer is crucial in improving survival rate. Identification and detection of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) allow delivery of interventions to reduce the evolution of these disorders to malignancy. A variety of new and emerging diagnostic aids and adjunctive techniques are currently available to potentially assist in the detection of OPMD. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of autofluorescence against conventional oral examination and surgical biopsy. A total of 126 patients, 70 males and 56 females (mean age 58.5±11.9 years) who presented to the Oral Medicine Clinics at King's and Guy's Hospitals, London with oral white and red patches suspicious of OPMD were enrolled. Following a complete visual and autofluorescence examination, all underwent an incisional biopsy for histopathological assessment. Seventy patients had oral leukoplakia/erythroplakia, 32 had oral lichen planus, 9 chronic hyperplastic candidiasis and rest frictional keratosis (13) or oral submucous fibrosis (2). Of 126 lesions, 105 (83%) showed loss of fluorescence. Following biopsy 44 had oral epithelial dysplasia (29 mild, 8 moderate and 7 severe). The sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of autofluorescence for the detection of a dysplastic lesion was 84.1% and 15.3% respectively. While VELscope was useful in confirming the presence of oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia and other oral mucosal disorders, the device was unable to discriminate high-risk from low-risk lesions. PMID:21396880

Awan, K H; Morgan, P R; Warnakulasuriya, S

2011-04-01

15

Chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy in oral potentially malignant lesions: distinctive features for tongue  

PubMed Central

Background The mucosae of the oral cavity are different at the histological level but appear all equally exposed to common genotoxic agents. As a result of this exposure, changes in the mucosal epithelia may develop giving rise to Oral Potentially Malignant Lesions (OPMLs), which with time may in turn progress to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCCs). Therefore, much effort should be devoted to identify features able to predict the likeliness of progression associated with an OPML. Such features may be helpful in assisting the clinician to establish both appropriate therapies and follow-up schedules. Here, we report a pilot study that compared the occurrence of DNA aneuploidy and chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) in the OPMLs from different oral anatomical subsites. Methods Samples from histologically diagnosed OPMLs were processed for high resolution DNA flow cytometry (hr DNA-FCM) in order to determine the relative DNA content expressed by the DNA index (DI). Additionally, array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH) analysis was performed on DNA obtained from diploid nuclei suspensions directly. When aneuploid nuclei were detected, these were physically separated from diploid nuclei on the base of their DI values by means of a DNA-FCM-Sorter in order to improve the a-CGH analysis. Results Tongue OPMLs were more frequently associated with DNA aneuploidy and CNAs than OPMLs arising from all the other mucosal subsites. Conclusions We suggest that the follow-up and the management of the patients with tongue OPMLs should receive a distinctive special attention. Clearly, this hypothesis should be validated in a prospective clinical study. PMID:21995418

2011-01-01

16

Brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry: a useful and noninvasive method for monitoring malignant transformation of potentially malignant oral disorders.  

PubMed

Oral and pharyngeal cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, the 5-year survival rate has not yet increased. A key factor in rates not having improved is the lack of early detection. This study was undertaken to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry (a noninvasive method) for potentially malignant oral disorders compared with tissue biopsy pathology in China. Exfoliative cells were obtained using a cytobrush cell collector from oral mucosa of 52 subjects, followed by scalpel biopsy from the same region. Nuclear DNA contents (ploidy) were measured after Feulgen restaining, using an automated DNA image cytometer. Exfoliative cytology with DNA-image cytometry and histopathological diagnosis were performed separately at different institutions. Histological investigation was considered the gold standard. We reported that the sensitivity of DNA aneuploidy for the detection of cancer cells in potentially malignant oral disorders was 86.36 %, its specificity was 90.00 %, its positive predictive value was 86.36 %, and its negative predictive value was 90.00 %. Brush biopsy with DNA-image cytometry is a useful method for monitoring potentially malignant oral disorders. PMID:24534896

Ma, Jiang-Min; Zhou, Ting-Jun; Wang, Ran; Shan, Jing; Wu, Yu-Nong; Song, Xiao-Ling; Gu, Ning; Fan, Yuan

2014-12-01

17

Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: Current practice and future directions in the clinic and laboratory.  

PubMed

Despite commendable progress in the prevention, detection, and treatment of a wide variety of solid tumor types, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a significant health burden across the globe. OSCC carcinogenesis involves accumulation of genetic alterations that coincide with the multistep malignant transformation of normal oral epithelium. OSCC is often first diagnosed at late stages of the disease (advanced regional disease and/or metastasis). Delayed diagnosis precludes successful treatment and favorable outcomes. In clinical practice, opportunities exist to identify patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), which precede the development of cancer. This review addresses the current status of laboratory and clinical research on OPMDs, with emphasis on leukoplakia and erythroplakia. OSF is also presented, though there is a paucity of published studies on this disorder. We focus on findings that could translate into earlier diagnosis and more efficacious treatment of those lesions with significant malignant potential. We explore how markers of OPMD malignant transformation might be implemented into current diagnostic practice to help clinicians objectively stratify patients into treatment/follow-up groups according to relative risk. We provide an overview of recently concluded and ongoing OPMD chemoprevention trials. We describe laboratory OPMD models that can be used to not only to reveal the genetic and molecular intricacies of oral cancer but also to develop novel screening methods and therapeutic approaches. Finally, we call for targeted screening programs of at-risk populations in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment of OPMD and early OSCC. PMID:24482244

Dionne, Kalen R; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Binti Zain, Rosnah; Cheong, Sok Ching

2015-02-15

18

P-cadherin potentiates ligand-dependent EGFR and IGF-1R signaling in dysplastic and malignant oral keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer together constitute the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with over 400,000 new cases diagnosed each year. Early detection is paramount, as the 5-year survival rate for these cancers decreases markedly once tumors have become regionally invasive. In many tissues, including oral epithelia, neoplastic progression is accompanied by alterations in expression of the epithelial cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and P-cadherin. Oral epithelia is one of only a few tissues in which P-cadherin levels have been noted to increase in dysplasia and well-differentiated carcinomas and decrease in advanced malignancies. In the present study, P-cadherin was overexpressed in both dysplastic and malignant oral keratinocytes to characterize the mechanisms by which aberrantly expressed P-cadherin may modulate tumor progression. We found that P-cadherin was able to potentiate ligand-dependent signaling of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in malignant keratinocytes and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in dysplastic cells. P-cadherin prolonged activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in both cell lines and also increased the magnitude of AKT phosphorylation in dysplastic cells. P-cadherin overexpression alone was sufficient to increase steady-state levels of the mesenchymal transcription factor Snail, increase cell motility and also induce morphological changes in dysplastic keratinocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the aberrantly elevated levels of P-cadherin which occur in early oral tumor development may play a critical role in the augmentation of neoplastic signaling networks and in the further acquisition of aggressive phenotypes. PMID:25322858

Lysne, Desseree; Johns, James; Walker, Andrew; Ecker, Rachel; Fowler, Christopher; Lawson, Kathryn R

2014-12-01

19

Leuloplakia - review of a potentially malignant disorder.  

PubMed

Leukoplakias are oral white lesions that have not been diagnosed as any other specific disease. They are grouped under premalignant lesions, now redesignated as potentially malignant disorders. Their significance lies in the fact that they have propensity for malignant transformation at a higher rate when compared to other oral lesions. This article reviews aetiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, malignant potential and treatment of oral leukoplakia. PMID:25302287

Abidullah, Mohammed; Kiran, G; Gaddikeri, Kavitha; Raghoji, Swetha; Ravishankar T, Shilpa

2014-08-01

20

Leuloplakia - Review of A Potentially Malignant Disorder  

PubMed Central

Leukoplakias are oral white lesions that have not been diagnosed as any other specific disease. They are grouped under premalignant lesions, now redesignated as potentially malignant disorders. Their significance lies in the fact that they have propensity for malignant transformation at a higher rate when compared to other oral lesions. This article reviews aetiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, malignant potential and treatment of oral leukoplakia.

Abidullah, Mohammed; Gaddikeri, Kavitha; Raghoji, Swetha; Ravishankar T, Shilpa

2014-01-01

21

Prevalence of oral cancer and potentially malignant lesions among shammah users in Yemen.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Yemeni users of shammah, a traditional smokeless tobacco habit known in the Arabian Peninsula. The study group comprised 199 male and one female shammah users who were interviewed via a standardised questionnaire and clinically examined in 48 Yemeni villages and cities. Cases with oral leukoplakia (OL) or mucosal burns (MB) were compared with users without any lesion. MB were detected in 31%, of which 46.8% were located on the tongue or floor of the mouth, and OL in 27%, of which 59.2% were located in the same region. In addition, two cases (1%) of apparent OSCC were identified. Statistically significant increased OR (95% CI) of OL were (a) 6.91 (2.66-17.95) for an average duration of the respective shammah application >5min.; (b) 4.90 (1.99-12.08) for a daily frequency of those applications >10; and (c) 4.22 (1.43-12.43) for a daily duration >6h of chewing qat, also a traditional habit in Yemen. Likewise, decreased OR were (a) 0.39 (0.18-0.85) for rinsing the mouth after the shammah application; (b) 0.36 (0.17-0.78) for successful attempts to stop the use in the past; and (c) 0.26 (0.09-0.72) for existing knowledge about the carcinogenicity of shammah that was present in only 19% overall. In conclusion, evidence was shown for a significant association between the prevalence of OL and the daily duration of shammah application in a dose-dependent manner. An appropriate public health program might help to reduce this potential OSCC burden in shammah users. PMID:16759897

Scheifele, C; Nassar, A; Reichart, P A

2007-01-01

22

Betel-quid chewing with or without tobacco is a major risk factor for oral potentially malignant disorders in Sri Lanka: a case-control study.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors for, oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) in rural Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted by interview and oral examination of 1029 subjects aged over 30 years. A community-based nested case-control study then took those with OPMDs as 'cases', "controls" being those with no oral abnormalities at time of initial screening. The prevalence of OPMD was 11.3% (95% CI: 9.4-13.2), after weighting for place of residence and gender. Risk factors were betel-quid (BQ) chewing daily [OR=10.6 (95% CI: 3.6-31.0)] and alcohol drinking daily or weekly [OR=3.55 (1.6-8.0)]. A significant dose-response relationship existed for BQ chewing. Smoking did not emerge when adjusted for covariates. A synergistic effect of chewing and alcohol consumption existed. The attributable risk (AR) of daily BQ chewing was 90.6%, the population AR 84%. This study demonstrates high prevalence of OPMD, betel-quid chewing with or without tobacco being the major risk factor. PMID:20189448

Amarasinghe, Hemantha K; Usgodaarachchi, Udaya S; Johnson, Newell W; Lalloo, Ratilal; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

2010-04-01

23

Oral malignant melanoma detected after resection of amelanotic pulmonary metastasis?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Solitary pulmonary metastasis from oral malignant melanoma is very rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We demonstrated a 84-year-old patient with a lung nodule that was diagnosed as malignant melanoma by video-assisted thoracoscopic resection. Because primary pulmonary malignant melanoma was extremely rare, the tumor was thought to be a metastasized from an occult primary lesion. A detailed physical examination revealed a black tumor in the oral cavity, and this was suspected to have been the primary. Resection of the hard palate tumor and dissection of the cervical lymph nodes were performed. The patient was simply followed up without further therapy at his request, and he died one year after surgery due to bleeding from a pleural metastasis of malignant melanoma. DISCUSSION Primary melanoma of the oral cavity is rare, accounts for 0.5% of all oral cancers, and 0.8–1.8% of all melanomas. Because of absence of symptoms in the early stage of the disease and the presence of the tumor in relatively obscure areas of the oral cavity, the diagnosis is unfortunately often delayed. In view of the rarity of primary lung melanoma, when lung tumor was diagnosed as malignant melanoma, detailed physical examination of the entire skin and mucosa including the oral cavity was necessary. CONCLUSION Oral malignant melanoma was very rare, but oral cavity should be examined when the pulmonary nodule was diagnosed as malignant melanoma. PMID:24189568

Matsuoka, Katsunari

2013-01-01

24

Ultrastructural changes in malignant transformation of oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Transmission electron microscopy (EM) has been used to identify the ultrastructural details of normal and cancerous human oral mucosa. However, inconsistent reports of structural descriptions have rendered transmission EM valueless in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or as a prognostic indicator. To identify features of dysplasia for diagnostic purposes, normal mucosa, severe dysplasia, oral SCC and normal margin adjacent to oral SCC were used to compare the ultrastructural features of normal and premalignant oral mucosa and oral SCC. The preparatory stages of dehydration, embedding, cutting and positive staining for transmission EM were modified and tested to improve ultrastructural definition. Thin and discontinuous basal laminas were found in mucosa with severe dysplasia and normal margin adjacent to oral SCC. No basal lamina was identified in oral SCC. This study has shown that there are some ultrastructural changes during malignant transformation of oral mucosa. Together with other laboratory investigative techniques, transmission EM may be helpful in detecting malignant changes in oral mucosa. PMID:12054710

Cheng, L H-H; Hudson, J

2002-06-01

25

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female. PMID:24963252

Munde, Anita; Juvekar, Monica Vivek; Karle, Ravindra R.; Wankhede, Pranali

2014-01-01

26

Oral tuberculosis following successful treatment of oral malignancy.  

PubMed

Coexistence of tuberculosis and neoplastic lesion in the oral cavity is a rare phenomenon. Till date, only three such cases have been reported in the English literature. A case of oral tuberculosis manifesting 3 months following the successful treatment of cancer of the oral tongue with chemoradiotherapy is presented. The diagnostic dilemma it posed, and its eventual successful control by anti-tubercular treatment, is discussed. PMID:23361293

Bagga, Preeti; Dewan, Abhinav; Agarwal, Pankaj; Garg, Charu; Datta, Niloy R

2012-01-01

27

Noninvasive imaging of oral premalignancy and malignancy  

E-print Network

- plasia and malignancy. © 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. DOI: 10 precursors remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Our specific aim is to test pouch model 120 hamsters , in vivo optical coherence tomography OCT and op- tical Doppler tomography ODT

Chen, Zhongping

28

Malignant Epithelioid Schwannoma of the Oral Cavity in a Cat  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity was diagnosed in an 8-year-old domestic short-hair cat. The mass was located in the gingiva of the upper left premolar to molar region and showed multinodular growth patterns. The mass comprised epithelioid cells arranged in densely packed sheets. Tumor cells had large, round to oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, most of the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, but all lacked melanoma-associated antigen and muscle and neuroendocrine markers. Stains for type IV collagen showed linear immunoreactivity around single cells and groups of cells. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells were separated by a well-defined basement membrane, and interdigitating cell processes were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of feline malignant epithelioid schwannoma. PMID:24632862

BOONSRIROJ, Hassadin; KIMITSUKI, Kazunori; AKAGI, Tetsuya; PARK, Chun-Ho

2014-01-01

29

In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE).  

PubMed

Occurrence of metachronous and synchronous secondary tumors in oral cavities has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased 5-year disease-free survival rates. The origin of secondary tumors in the oral cavity has been primarily attributed to cancer field effects (CFE) or malignancy-associated changes (MAC) in uninvolved areas. Classification of normal, cancerous and pre-cancerous oral lesions by in vivo Raman spectroscopy (RS) has already been demonstrated. In the present study, MAC/CFE in oral buccal mucosa were explored. In vivo Raman spectra from 84 subjects (722 spectra) under five categories - cancer and contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), healthy controls (no tobacco habit, no cancer), habitués healthy controls (tobacco habit, no cancer) and non-habitués contralateral normal (no tobacco habit with cancer) were acquired. Mean and difference spectra suggest that loss of lipids and additional features representing proteins and DNA are characteristics of all pathological conditions, with respect to healthy controls. Spectral data were analyzed by PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results suggest that Raman characteristics of mucosa of healthy controls are exclusive, while those of habitués healthy controls are similar to those of contralateral normal mucosa. It was observed that the cluster of non-habitués contralateral normal mucosa is different from habitués healthy controls, suggesting that malignancy associated changes can be identified and also indicating that transformation of uninvolved oral mucosa due to tobacco habit or malignancy is different. The findings of the study demonstrate the potential of RS in identifying early transformation changes in oral mucosa and the efficacy of this approach in oral cancer applications. PMID:23392131

Singh, S P; Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

2013-07-21

30

Glomus tumor of uncertain malignant potential on the forehead.  

PubMed

Malignant glomus tumors (GTs) are rare, and diagnosis requires consideration of specific histologic criteria. Glomus tumors that do not fulfill the histologic criteria for malignancy but show at least 1 feature other than nuclear atypia should be classified as GTs of uncertain malignant potential (GTUMPs). We report the case of a 74-year-old man with a slowly progressing, painful, 2.5-cm nodule on the forehead that was successfully treated via wide surgical excision and was later diagnosed as a GTUMP. Three-year follow-up showed no local recurrence or distant metastasis. Malignant GTs and GTUMPs are rare, and the nomenclature and classification of these tumors is controversial. These findings and the difficulty of differential diagnosis in a continuum between benignity and malignancy prompted our report. PMID:25279483

D'Antonio, Antonio; Addesso, Maria; Caleo, Alessia; Altieri, Roberto; Boscaino, Amedeo

2014-09-01

31

Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: assessment of outcome from the clinical records of 35 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral malignant melanoma is extremely rare and carries a poor prognosis. The treatment of choice remains controversial. We retrospectively studied 35 patients with primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity between 1970 and 2001 to define the clinical features of this disease and evaluate treatment methods. The main variables studied were clinical findings, response to therapy, and outcome. Surgery with

N. Tanaka; M. Mimura; K. Ogi; T. Amagasa

2004-01-01

32

Variations in centromeric heterochromatin among patients with pre-malignant and malignant oral diseases.  

PubMed

Polymorphism of heterochromatic regions of chromosomes 1, 9 and 16 was studied in 60 oral cancer patients, in 40 patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and in 60 normal healthy subjects. The size heteromorphism was significantly greater (p less than 0.001) in chromosome I of the patients. Localization variants were also significantly more frequent among the patients (p less than 0.05 for OSMF and less than 0.001 for oral cancer patients). The C-band heteromorphism patterns remained comparable in OSMF and in oral cancer patients, with chromosome I being the most frequently involved. On correlating the tobacco/areca-nut chewing habit with the presence of C-band heteromorphism, we observed that C-band heteromorphism was present in 89% of the habit-free oral cancer patients and 80% of the OSMF patients with relatively shorter exposure to this habit, i.e. less than 5 years. This signifies that genetic factors are important in the causation of oral precancerous and cancerous conditions and that polymorphism of the heterochromatic regions does appear to play a role in these conditions. PMID:2040533

Dave, B J; Trivedi, A H; Adhvaryu, S G

1991-05-30

33

Tobacco use, Body Mass Index, and Potentially Malignant Disorders Among petrol fillers in Pimpri-Pune (India): A descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background: Since petrol is combustible and smoking is banned at the petrol pumps, it may be predicted that use of smokeless tobacco is more prevalent among the petrol fillers. Also, smokeless tobacco is a major risk factor for developing oral potentially malignant disorders. The present study was conducted to determine the tobacco use, body mass index (BMI), and potentially malignant disorders among a cohort of petrol fillers and also to evaluate the interaction of tobacco use and BMI with the presence of potentially malignant disorders. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at 45 petrol stations located at Pimpri-Pune, India. A descriptive study design was used. Materials and Method: Four hundred and ten petrol fillers aged 17-64 years participated in the study. General information and tobacco history was obtained by interview. Height and weight were recorded to obtain BMI. Oral examination was conducted to identify the potentially malignant disorders. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test, Z test, and logistic regression were used. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results and Conclusions: It was found that 242 (59.02%) used tobacco in different forms. 77.68% were tobacco chewers, and 8.26% were smokers. Leukoplakia was prevalent among 68.47%, oral submucous fibrosis among 27.45%, and 5.08% had erythroplakia. Age (?2 = 11.46, P < 0.05), duration (?2 = 17.46, P < 0.05), and frequency of tobacco chewing (?2 = 14.16, P < 0.05) were significantly associated with potentially malignant disorders. Tobacco chewing was more prevalent as compared to smoking. It can be concluded that the petrol fillers are at a high risk for developing oral potentially malignant disorders.

Reddy, Mamatha G. S.; Kakodkar, Pradnya V.; Singh, Akanksha

2014-01-01

34

A scanning electron microscopic study of exfoliated malignant oral epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Investigators disagree regarding the value of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral cancer. The objective of the present study was to examine exfoliated oral epithelial cells from malignant lesions of the oral mucosa by means of Scanning electron microscope (S. E. M.) in order to determine whether SEM surface characteristics might be useful and specific to predict more accurately the nature of these lesions. Twenty cases of squamous cell carcinomas of non keratinized sites of the oral mucosa (Cheek and floor of the mouth) were selected for this study. Exfoliated cells were collected by scraping by means of modified Ayre's spatula and spread over a standard glass microscope slide for light microscope examination, while those for SEM were spread evenly on a plastic square (1 cm2) cut from a polyester sheet of Melinex "O" (Firket 1966). Altered tissue architectures and cell surface architectures were demonstrated in malignant oral lesions. Bizarre cell forms often showing an absence of close cell-cell contact relationships were seen. The observed cell surface patterns were apparently not related to the degree of keratinization when compared to normal surface patterns of corresponding areas of oral mucosa studied in a previous work. These changes appeared to some extent to be related to the clinical diagnosis and to the degree of epithelial atypia observed by the lesions. In conclusion the observations made in this study demonstrate that surface structural differences exist between exfoliated cells from malignant lesions of the oral mucosa and those from corresponding normal non keratinized sites and that the SEM might be of a diagnostic value. PMID:2641367

Moussa, M; Sherif, S H; Fathy, L M

1989-10-01

35

Glomus tumor of uncertain malignant potential arising in the bronchus  

PubMed Central

Glomus tumor is usually a small, benign tumor and typically occurs in the dermis or subcutis or soft tissue of the extremities and rarely in the visceral locations. Its occurrence in the main bronchus is extremely rare. The current case reported a 30-year-old woman with dyspnea on exertion and hemoptysis, she had a glomus tumor which has large size, deep location and exhibits an infiltrative margin as well as increased atypical mitotic figures. These characteristics suggest malignant behavior. However, there is little data regarding glomus tumors arising in the bronchus, the need for caution in diagnosing this case as a malignant glomus tumor must be highlighted. Therefore, the diagnosis of bronchial glomus tumor of uncertain malignant potential was favored. To the best of our knowledge, both the type and the location of this glomus tumor are extremely rare. Accumulation of more cases are needed to clarify their diagnosis and significance since there is little data regarding glomus tumors arising in the bronchus. PMID:23758949

2013-01-01

36

Synchronous malignancies in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Synchronous malignancies in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OCSCC) are occasionally encountered.\\u000a In the current study we tried to evaluate their frequency, detectability by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies, and prognostic factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective analysis of patients with primary OCSCC enrolled for 18F-FDG studies from 2002 to 2008 was performed. The detectability of synchronous second cancers by 18F-FDG

Feng-Yuan Liu; Chun-Ta Liao; Tzu-Chen Yen

2011-01-01

37

Stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential of the prostate.  

PubMed

Stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) of the prostate is a rare tumor with a variable and unpredictable clinical course. Many STUMPs are diagnosed incidentally and never progress, while others may invade locally and rapidly recur after surgical intervention, and yet others may lead to distant metastasis and death. A wide array of histologic patterns is encompassed by STUMP, and distinguishing these tumors from prostatic stromal sarcoma or other causes of stromal expansion often proves difficult. Owing to the rarity of this tumor, there is not yet a consensus on appropriate management. However, owing to the possibility of aggressive behavior, close management and consideration of definitive resection is warranted. PMID:25357117

Murer, Lauren M; Talmon, Geoffrey A

2014-11-01

38

Extract of Coptidis rhizoma induces cytochrome-c dependent apoptosis in immortalized and malignant human oral keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Coptidis rhizoma (C. rhizoma) had been demonstrated as an antioxidant and anticancer agent, however, its antioral cancer mechanism still remains unclear. Using water extracts of C. rhizoma, growth and apoptosis-related experiments for the treatment of multi-stage of oral cancer were carried out on immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOK), primary oral cancer cells (HN4), metastatic oral cancer cells (HN12) and human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) by MTT assay, three-dimensional (3-D) raft cultures, western blotting, cell cycle analysis, nuclear staining and cytochrome c expression related to the apoptosis signaling pathway. C. rhizoma inhibited the proliferation of immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In 3-D organotypic culture, C. rhizoma-treated cells showed less maturation than the control cells, displaying low surface keratinization and decreased epithelial thickness. The major mechanism of growth inhibition by C. rhizoma appears to be the induction of apoptosis, which is supported by the results of the cell cycle analysis, FITC-annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation assay and DAPI staining. The induction of apoptosis by C. rhizoma was more prominent in immortalized keratinocytes than in malignant oral keratinocytes. Cytochrome-c release from mitochondria, accompanied by the activation of caspase-3, was observed in C. rhizoma-treated IHOK and oral cancer cells. These results suggest that C. rhizoma has apoptotic effects in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes via the mitochondrial signaling pathway. PMID:16807885

Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Son, Dae-Hyung; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Lee, Jun; Jun, Chang-Duk; Jeon, Byung-Hun; Lee, Suk-Keun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

2006-09-01

39

Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a follow-up study of a hospital-based population of 166 patients with oral leukoplakia from The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A follow-up study of a hospital-based population of 166 patients with oral leukoplakia revealed a 2.9% annual malignant transformation rate. The median follow-up period was 29 months. Parameters associated with an increased risk of malignant transformation were female gender (P<0.025), absence of smoking habits in women (P<0.05), and a non-homogeneous clinical aspect (P=0.01). For uniform reporting, a recently proposed classification

K. P. Schepman; E. H. van der Meij; L. E. Smeele; I. van der Waal

1998-01-01

40

Oral malignant melanoma: A report of two cases with BRAF molecular analysis  

PubMed Central

Primary oral malignant melanoma is a rare condition, accounting for 1.3–1.4% of all melanomas, usually presenting with an aggressive clinical behavior. The present study reports the clinicopathological findings of two cases of oral malignant melanoma and discusses the epidemiology, diagnosis and current therapeutic approaches for this uncommon condition. In the first case the patient presented with a pigmented lesion located on the lower mucosal lip. The patient showed no nodal metastases and therefore, underwent a wedge resection. After seven months, the patient presented with neck lymph nodes and multiple visceral metastases. Molecular analysis of BRAF, using a pyrosequencing approach, revealed the presence of BRAF V600E mutation. The patient developed multiple visceral metastases, but refused treatment and was lost to follow-up. In the second case, no BRAF V600E mutation was found, but the patient exhibited a pigmented patch in the lower gingival mucosa, which was excised by surgical treatment. The patient was followed up by an oncologist, but did not undergo an additional therapy and is currently alive with no evidence of visceral metastases at one year following the diagnosis. PMID:25120707

SOMA, PIER FRANCESCO; PETTINATO, ANGELA; AGNONE, ANNA MARIA; DONIA, CLAUDIO; IMPROTA, GIUSEPPINA; FRAGGETTA, FILIPPO

2014-01-01

41

Comparison of loss of heterozygosity patterns between ovarian tumors of low malignant potential and malignant ovarian tumors  

SciTech Connect

Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) represent a pathologic subtype of ovarian tumor that possess many features common to malignant tumors including epithelial stratification, increased mitotic activity and atypical cellularity. These tumors, however, do not invade the ovarian stroma and have a much improved patient prognosis. Utilizing dinucleotide repeats, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were performed on a total of 12 ovarian tumors of LMP in 5 regions found to have significant levels of LOH in malignant ovarian tumors. The regions chosen for study were 3p, 6q, 11p, 17p and 17q. LOH could be demonstrated in malignant ovarian tumors in loci from 3p, 11p and both chromosomal arms of 17 when compared to normal tissue from the same patient. Loss in malignant tumors was more common in loci mapped to 3p21 and to 11p15. OH was not noted in any samples for a repeat in the TP53 gene even though flanking markers on 17p were lost in 1 patient with a malignant tumor. Loss was not demonstrated in any of the loci examined from 6q in malignant ovarian tumors. LOH was not demonstrated in any of the 39 loci examined from any of the five chromosomal regions in the ovarian tumors of LMP. Cytogenetic analyses of these LMP tumors were consistent with lack of involvement in these chromosomal regions. These data suggest the mechanism of tumorigenesis is different in tumors of LMP from that in malignant ovarian tumors.

Crawford, E.C.; Miller, D.M.; Finley, W.H. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

42

Pharmacokinetics of different formulations of oral azacitidine (CC-486) and the effect of food and modified gastric pH on pharmacokinetics in subjects with hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

Parenteral azacitidine improves overall survival in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. An oral azacitidine formulation would allow extended dosing schedules, potentially improving safety and/or efficacy. Two Phase 1 studies evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral azacitidine in subjects with hematologic malignancies. Study 1 evaluated different oral formulations (immediate release tablet [IRT], enteric-coated tablet, and capsule; N?=?16). Study 2 assessed the effect of food (Part 1; N?=?17) and gastric pH modulation with omeprazole (Part 2; N?=?14) on oral azacitidine PK. Azacitidine plasma concentration-time profiles for IRT and capsule formulations were similar, with more rapid time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax ) than the enteric-coated tablet. Study 2 evaluated only IRT formulations of oral azacitidine. Under fed condition, Tmax was delayed ?1.5?hours but area under the concentration-time curve (AUC? ) and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax ) were comparable under fed and fasted conditions. Mean azacitidine AUC? and Cmax increased upon omeprazole co-administration (18.3% and 13.2%, respectively, vs. oral azacitidine alone), but not to a clinically meaningful extent. High inter-subject variability in AUC? and Cmax (%CV range 46.4-68.9%) was observed. Oral azacitidine is rapidly absorbed with little or no effect of food on PK parameters, and does not require dose adjustments when taking a proton-pump inhibitor. PMID:24374798

Laille, Eric; Savona, Michael R; Scott, Bart L; Boyd, Thomas E; Dong, Qian; Skikne, Barry

2014-06-01

43

Functional interaction between nitric oxide-induced iron homeostasis and heme oxygenase-1 in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in a variety of regulatory and protective cellular mechanisms as a stress-responsive protein. Whether HO-1 plays a protective role against NO-induced cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells has not yet been established. We used sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a source of exogenous NO in studies of NO-induced cytotoxicity in immortalized (IHOK) and malignant oral keratinocytes (HN12).

Sun-Kyung Lee; Dae-Yeol Park; Hwa-Jeong Lee; Jun Lee; Moon-Ki Choi; Byung-Hun Jeon; Chang-Duk Jun; Suk-Keun Lee; Eun-Cheol Kim

2007-01-01

44

Role of human papillomavirus and its detection in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions: updated review  

PubMed Central

Head and neck malignancies are characterized by a multiphasic and multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the most common risk factors for head and neck malignancy. Other factors, including DNA viruses, especially human papilloma virus (HPV), may also play a role in the initiation or development of these lesions. The pathways of HPV transmission in the head and neck mucosal lesions include oral-genital contact, more than one sexual partner and perinatal transmission of HPV to the neonatal child. The increase in prevalence of HPV infection in these lesions may be due to wider acceptance of oral sex among teenagers and adults as this is perceived to be a form of safe sex. The prevalence of HPV in benign lesions as well as malignancies has been assessed by many techniques. Among these, the polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive method. Review of literature reveals that HPV may be a risk factor for malignancies, but not in all cases. For confirmation of the role of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, large population studies are necessary in an assortment of clinical settings. Prophylactic vaccination against high-risk HPV types eventually may prevent a significant number of cervical carcinomas. Of the two vaccines currently available, Gardasil® (Merck & Co., Inc.) protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, while the other vaccine, Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) protects against HPV types 16 and 18 only. However, the HPV vaccine has, to the best of our knowledge, not been tried in head and neck carcinoma. The role of HPV in etiopathogenesis, prevalence in benign and malignant lesions of this area and vaccination strategies are briefly reviewed here. PMID:19555477

Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Mamta; Sundaram, Shanthy; Mehrotra, Ravi

2009-01-01

45

Recognizing and overcoming potential barriers to oral medications for MS.  

PubMed

Three FDA-approved oral medications are available for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis: fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate. While injection and IV treatments have proven to be beneficial, these newer oral agents also offer positive outcomes for patients. Numerous barriers exist, though, for these oral agents, including the unknown long-term efficacy and safety and potential side effects. Despite possible side effects, oral agents provide convenience, ease of use, and the elimination of injection/IV administration-site pain. To ensure MS patients receive the most appropriate individualized care, clinicians should present all of the available treatment options to both newly diagnosed and established patients. PMID:25373133

Moses, Harold

2014-10-01

46

Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity and the maxillofacial region: Overall survival prognostic factors  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the overall survival and prognostic factors of malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity and the maxillofacial region. Study Design: Clinical records data were obtained in order to determine overall survival at 2 and 5 years, the individual survival percentage of each possible prognostic factor with the actuarial technique, and the survival regarding the possible prognostic factors with the actuarial technique and the Log-rank and Cox’s regression tests. Results: Of 151 subjects, an overall survival was 60% at 2 years, and 45% at 5 years. The multivariate analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences for clinical stage (p=0.002), extranodal involvement (p=0.030), presence of human immunodeficiency virus (p=0.032), and presence of Epstein-Barr virus (p=0.010). Conclusion: The advanced clinical stage and the larger number of involved extranodular sites are related to a lower overall survival, as well as, the presence of previous infections such as the human immunodeficiency and the Epstein-Barr virus. Key words:Lymphoma, oral cavity, survival. PMID:23722134

Morales-Vadillo, Rafael; Sacsaquispe-Contreras, Sonia J.; Barrionuevo-Cornejo, Carlos; Montes-Gil, Jaime; Cava-Vergiu, Carlos E.; Soares, Fernando A.; Chaves-Netto, Henrique D M.; Chaves, Maria G A M.

2013-01-01

47

Voriconazole and its clinical potential in the prophylaxis of systemic fungal infection in patients with hematologic malignancies: a perspective review.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have become high prevalence in patients with hematologic malignancies. Drug-based strategies for IFIs include various approaches such as prophylactic, empiric, preemptive, and directed treatment. Prophylaxis is an attractive strategy in high-risk patients, given the lack of reliable diagnostics and the high mortality rate associated with IFIs. Prophylaxis includes the use of antifungal drugs in all patients at risk. An ideal antifungal compound for prophylaxis should have a potent and broad activity, be available both orally and intravenously, and have a low toxicity profile. Voriconazole fulfills all these criteria. The clinical efficacy of voriconazole against the majority of fungal pathogens makes it potentially very useful for the prevention of IFIs in patients with hematologic malignancies. Voriconazole appears to be very effective for the primary and secondary prevention of IFIs in these patients and recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Randomized controlled trials evaluating voriconazole as primary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia treated for a variety of hematologic malignancies have been performed, confirming its value as a prophylactic agent. Voriconazole is generally safe and well tolerated; however, its use is also associated with a number of concerns. In most patients with hematologic malignancies there is the potential for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions given that voriconazole is metabolized through the P450 cytochrome system. PMID:23730499

Zabalza, Amaya; Gorosquieta, Ana; Equiza, Encarnación Pérez; Olavarria, Eduardo

2013-06-01

48

Voriconazole and its clinical potential in the prophylaxis of systemic fungal infection in patients with hematologic malignancies: a perspective review  

PubMed Central

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have become high prevalence in patients with hematologic malignancies. Drug-based strategies for IFIs include various approaches such as prophylactic, empiric, preemptive, and directed treatment. Prophylaxis is an attractive strategy in high-risk patients, given the lack of reliable diagnostics and the high mortality rate associated with IFIs. Prophylaxis includes the use of antifungal drugs in all patients at risk. An ideal antifungal compound for prophylaxis should have a potent and broad activity, be available both orally and intravenously, and have a low toxicity profile. Voriconazole fulfills all these criteria. The clinical efficacy of voriconazole against the majority of fungal pathogens makes it potentially very useful for the prevention of IFIs in patients with hematologic malignancies. Voriconazole appears to be very effective for the primary and secondary prevention of IFIs in these patients and recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Randomized controlled trials evaluating voriconazole as primary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia treated for a variety of hematologic malignancies have been performed, confirming its value as a prophylactic agent. Voriconazole is generally safe and well tolerated; however, its use is also associated with a number of concerns. In most patients with hematologic malignancies there is the potential for pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions given that voriconazole is metabolized through the P450 cytochrome system. PMID:23730499

Zabalza, Amaya; Gorosquieta, Ana; Equiza, Encarnacion Perez

2013-01-01

49

Retroperitoneal smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential after hysterectomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential represent a histologically heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumors that cannot be diagnosed as either benign or malignant. Smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential are usually clinically benign, but should be considered tumors of low malignant potential because they can occasionally recur or metastasize to distant sites. Case presentation We report the case of a 62-year-old Mongol woman diagnosed with a retroperitoneal smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential and lung metastasis, with a history of prior hysterectomy. The case was initially misdiagnosed as retroperitoneal sarcoma, and our patient received chemotherapy. However, no interval change in the size of the retroperitoneal mass and metastatic lung nodules was seen over a period of at least five years. She underwent partial resection of the retroperitoneal mass for the purposes of debulking and establishing a histopathological diagnosis. The diagnosis of the retroperitoneal mass was then confirmed as a smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential. Conclusion Smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential have an unpredictable clinical course, and relapses generally appear to occur after a long disease-free interval of up to several years. Therefore, patients diagnosed with smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential should receive long-term follow-up. PMID:21619667

2011-01-01

50

Saliva viscosity as a potential risk factor for oral malodor.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. The objective of this study was to assess whether saliva viscosity, measured by a viscometer, was a predictor of oral malodor. Materials and methods. The subjects were 617 patients who visited an oral malodor clinic. The organoleptic test (OT) was used for diagnosis of oral malodor. An oral examination assessed the numbers of teeth present and decayed teeth as well as the presence or absence of dentures. Further, periodontal pocket depths (PD), gingival bleeding, dental plaque and tongue coating were investigated. Unstimulated saliva were collected for 5 min. Saliva viscosity was measured with a viscometer. Logistic regression analysis with oral malodor status by OT as a dependent variable was performed. Possible confounders including age, gender, number of teeth present, number of decayed teeth, number of teeth with PD ? 4 mm, number of teeth with bleeding on probing, presence or absence of dentures, plaque index, area of tongue coating, saliva flow rate, saliva pH and saliva viscosity were used as independent variables. Results. Saliva viscosity (p = 0.047) along with the number of teeth with PD ?4 mm (p = 0.001), plaque index (p = 0.037) and area of tongue coating (p < 0.001) were significant variables for oral malodor. Subjects with a higher number of teeth with PD ? 4 mm (OR = 1.32), plaque index (OR = 2.13), area of tongue coating (OR = 3.17) and saliva viscosity (OR = 1.10) were more likely to have oral malodor compared to those with lower values. Conclusions. The results suggested that high saliva viscosity could be a potential risk factor for oral malodor. PMID:25115949

Ueno, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Takehara, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

2014-11-01

51

Estimation of serum malondialdehyde in potentially malignant disorders and post-antioxidant treated patients: A biochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco causes the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are responsible for the high rate of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the most widely used agent to estimate the extent of lipid peroxidation. Timely diagnosis of the condition followed by supplementation with antioxidants like beta-carotene, pro-vitamin A, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, lipoic acid, zinc, selenium, and spirulina can prevent potentially malignant disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, serum MDA was measured according to the method of Buege, in 15 normal samples and 15 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with potentially malignant disordered and they were prescribed with antioxidants for a period of 4 week-time following which potentially malignant patients serum MDA was analyzed again to determine the extent of peroxidation reactions. Results: The mean serum MDA level in Group C1 was 0.7900 ± 0.2336 ?M/L were as the mean serum MDA level of Group S1 was 2.478 ± 0.50756 ?M/L and the values between them were highly significant. The values between C1 and S2 were found to be statistically significant. The mean serum MDA of S2 was 2.160 ± 0.41252 ?M/L and the values were significant when compared to S1. Conclusion: Serum MDA estimation in oral pre-cancer would serve in determining the extent of lipid peroxidation. Diagnosis of patients and administration of antioxidants has proven to be effective in declining the ROS and thus reducing the extent of damage on the cells. MDA may serve as a diagnostic tool in the estimation of oral pre-cancer and in evaluation of post-treated cases. PMID:23633807

D'souza, Deepa; Subhas, Babu G; Shetty, Shishir Ram; Balan, Preethi

2012-01-01

52

A potential individual cell malignancy indicator: focal length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) utilizes the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity to distinguish cells from cancerous cell lines and baseline normal blood cells. The classification between canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and monocytes in canine normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had been demonstrated with 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Now with a new optical model that treats the cell settled at the bottom of the cavity as a thin lens, the focal length of cells was extracted and used as an individual cell malignancy indicator.

Wang, Weina; Lear, Kevin L.

2011-03-01

53

Human RGM249-Derived Small RNAs Potentially Regulate Tumor Malignancy  

PubMed Central

The human noncoding RNA gene RGM249 has been shown to regulate the degree of cancer cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of 3 microRNA-like molecules digested from RGM249 on the loss of malignant properties in cancer cells in immunodeficient KSN/Slc mice. We utilized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) alone or in combination with a cationized drug delivery system (DDS) consisting of atelocollagen or gelatin hydrogel microspheres. The results demonstrated growth inhibition and apoptosis and the inhibition of both neovascularization and metastasis, indicating that the DDSs effectively infiltrated the majority of tumor cells in vivo. Systemic administration of the 3 siRNAs inhibited the metastatic ability of malignant cells. Cotransfection of these siRNAs exerted a regulatory effect upon the genes involved in differentiation, pluripotency, and proliferation in cancer cells. These results suggest that RGM249-derived oligonucleotides may be involved in the regulation of metastasis, proliferation, and differentiation in vivo, and that the tested siRNAs may therefore represent a new anticancer therapeutic approach. PMID:23988019

Shimizu, Mika; Shinoda, Waka; Tsuno, Satoshi; Sato, Reina; Wang, Xinhui; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Junichi

2013-01-01

54

18F-FDG uptake in primary gastric malignant lymphoma correlates with glucose transporter 1 expression and histologic malignant potential.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used for staging and response evaluation in primary gastric lymphoma (PGL). However, the implications of [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake in PGL at first diagnosis have not been reported. The relationship between (18)F-FDG uptake and the expression of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), hexokinase II (HK II), and Ki67, as well as malignant potential in PGL, was assessed in this study. We analyzed 23 patients with PGL [nine with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); seven with high-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma; and seven with low-grade MALT lymphoma]. The expression levels of GLUT1, GLUT3, HK II, and Ki67 were evaluated according to the percentage of positive area determined by immunohistochemistry. Standardized uptake values correlated significantly with pathological malignant potentials (low-grade/high-grade MALT lymphoma and DLBCL: p = 0.001-0.002), Ki67 (p < 0.001), and GLUT1 expression (p = 0.02). We determined that (18)F-FDG uptake is related to GLUT1 expression and tumor histological grade as well as Ki67 in PGL. PMID:23212465

Watanabe, Yuko; Suefuji, Hiroaki; Hirose, Yasumitsu; Kaida, Hayato; Suzuki, Gen; Uozumi, Jun; Ogo, Etsuyo; Miura, Mayumi; Takasu, Konomi; Miyazaki, Kanoko; Nakahara, Keita; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Okamura, Takashi; Ohshima, Koichi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

2013-01-01

55

Multiple primary malignant neoplasms of the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in a Japanese male patient: a case report.  

PubMed

Owing to recent advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques for cancer, a patient diagnosed with two or more neoplasms is not rare. We report on the case of a 58-year-old male with multiple primary malignant neoplasms, who suffered from three histological types of malignant neoplasm in six organs, namely the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in chronological order. The first neoplasm was a squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis diagnosed in 2006. The second and third neoplasms were urothelial carcinomas of the right renal pelvis and urinary bladder, respectively, diagnosed in 2008. The remaining three neoplasms were diagnosed in 2010, namely a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor, an adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The glottic cancer and esophageal cancer were treated by external radiation therapy. The malignant neoplasms of the oral floor and those which originated in the urinary tract were surgically resected. All neoplasms except the malignant neoplasm of the oral floor were well controlled. The patient died of cervical lymph node metastasis from the squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor in January 2011. As far as we know, the present report is the first one on this combination of primary malignant neoplasms. PMID:25245383

Mukaiyama, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Motofumi; Morikawa, Teppei; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takeshima, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

2014-01-01

56

Potential contribution of SIM2 and ETS2 functional polymorphisms in Down syndrome associated malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background Proper expression and functioning of transcription factors (TFs) are essential for regulation of different traits and thus could be crucial for the development of complex diseases. Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) have a higher incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) while solid tumors, like breast cancer (BC) and oral cancer (OC), show rare incidences. Triplication of the human chromosome 21 in DS is associated with altered genetic dosage of different TFs. V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) and Single Minded 2 (SIM2) are two such TFs that regulate several downstream genes involved in developmental and neurological pathways. Here we studied functional genetic polymorphisms (fSNP) in ETS2 and SIM2 encoding genes in a group of patients and control subjects to better understand association of these variants with DS phenotypes. Methods We employed an in silico approach to identify potential target pathways of ETS2 and SIM2. fSNPs in genes encoding for these two TFs were identified using available databases. Selected sites were genotyped in individuals with DS, their parents, ALL, BC, OC as well as ethnically matched control individuals. We further analyzed these data by population-based statistical methods. Results Allelic/genotypic association analysis showed significant (P?malignant groups, which affects different downstream biological pathways. Thus, altered expression of SIM2 and ETS2 could be one of the reasons for variable occurrence of different malignant conditions in DS. PMID:23343470

2013-01-01

57

Functional interaction between nitric oxide-induced iron homeostasis and heme oxygenase-1 in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in a variety of regulatory and protective cellular mechanisms as a stress-responsive protein. Whether HO-1 plays a protective role against NO-induced cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells has not yet been established. We used sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a source of exogenous NO in studies of NO-induced cytotoxicity in immortalized (IHOK) and malignant oral keratinocytes (HN12). The roles of the caspase pathway, of regulatory proteins of iron metabolism (iron regulatory protein (IRP)1, IRP2, transferrin receptor (TfR), and ferritin), and of HO-1 in protection against NO-induced cytotoxicity were assessed. The SNP-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of IHOK and HN12 cells was reduced by addition of ferric citrate (FC). At low concentrations (< 1 mM), SNP up-regulated cellular iron metabolism by increasing expression of IRP1, IRP2, and TfR, whereas at high concentrations (> 2 mM), SNP down-regulated expression of these proteins. A consistent correlation between decreased levels of IRP1, IRP2, and TfR and increased NO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis was observed. Addition of FC inhibited the NO-induced decrease in IRP1, IRP2, and TfR levels. Moreover, SNP increased the expression of HO-1 and ferritin in IHOK and HN12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. NO-induced cytotoxicity was also inhibited by hemin (an HO-1 agonist) and was enhanced by zinc protoporphyrin IX (an HO-1 inhibitor). Based on these results, we conclude that HO-1 plays a major role in mediating cytoprotection and iron homeostasis against NO toxicity in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes. PMID:17095152

Lee, Sun-Kyung; Park, Dae-Yeol; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Jun; Choi, Moon-Ki; Jeon, Byung-Hun; Jun, Chang-Duk; Lee, Suk-Keun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

2007-05-01

58

Angiogenesis in cutaneous malignant melanoma and potential therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Metastatic melanoma (MM) carries a dismal prognosis, as it is largely resistant to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, biochemotherapy and immunotherapy. There is, therefore, a pressing need to identify new, effective treatments to improve outcomes from MM. Innovative approaches in oncology drug development include anti-angiogenic strategies, in the form of monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule kinase inhibitors. In this review we aim to present current concepts and controversies surrounding the role of angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapies in MM, alluding to other tumor types in which increasing knowledge may supply avenues for future directions in melanoma research and management. An overview of angiogenesis and its importance in melanoma progression is presented, highlighting the key molecules that represent potential therapeutic targets. The results of using anti-angiogenic strategies in preclinical and clinical trials are discussed and future perspectives for anti-angiogenic therapies in MM are considered. PMID:19895243

Basu, Bristi; Biswas, Swethajit; Wrigley, Jessica; Sirohi, Bhawna; Corrie, Pippa

2009-11-01

59

Molecular Imaging of Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions Using Fluorescently Labeled Lectins  

PubMed Central

Aberrant glycosylation during carcinogenesis results in altered glycan expression on oral cancer cells. The objective of this study was to detect this atypical glycosylation via imaging of fluorophore-conjugated lectins. Paired normal and tumor tissue from seven patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were investigated for sialic acid expression via the legume protein wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350 and Alexa Fluor 647) conjugated WGA was topically applied to the tissue samples and imaged using a custom wide-field fluorescence imaging system. All seven patients had histologically confirmed disease with 6/7 exhibiting squamous cell carcinoma and 1/7 exhibiting dysplasia. Fluorescent data collected from all patients demonstrated that fluorophore conjugated WGA could distinguish between pathologically normal and diseased tissue with the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) among all patients being 5.88 (P = .00046). This SNR was statistically significantly higher than the SNR from differences in tissue autofluorescence (P = .0049). A lectin inhibitory experiment confirmed that lectin binding is molecularly specific to overexpressed tumor glycans and that fluorescence is not due to tissue optical properties or tissue diffusion differences. These results illustrate that changes in tumor glycan content of oral neoplasms can be detected with optical imaging using topically applied fluorescently labeled WGA. Lectin targeting of oral lesions using optical imaging may provide a new avenue for the early detection of oral cancers. PMID:24913673

Baeten, John; Suresh, Amritha; Johnson, Alexander; Patel, Ketan; Kuriakose, Moni; Flynn, Anita; Kademani, Deepak

2014-01-01

60

Dental caries, gingival health, and oral hygiene of long term survivors of paediatric malignant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty two children who had had cancer and been treated with chemotherapy, and who were long term event free, were examined for caries prevalence, gingival health, and oral hygiene and compared with a control group. A higher dental caries prevalence for the 14-17 year age group was noted. The restorative index was significantly lower in the age group 10-13. There

F Dens; P Boute; J Otten; F Vinckier; D Declerck

1995-01-01

61

A review of the recent literature regarding malignant transformation of oral lichen planus  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of a literature review of the period 1950-1976, Krutchkoff et al questioned the possible premalignant nature of oral lichen planus. Their criticism was largely based on insufficiencies of data in support of the initial diagnoses of the condition. In this article, a review of the literature from the period 1977-1999 has been described; the criteria used were

Margot Van Dis; E. H. van der Meij; K. P. Schepman; L. E. Smeele; J. E. van der Wal; P. D. Bezemer; I. van der Waal

1999-01-01

62

Clinical study for classification of benign, dysplastic, and malignant oral lesions using autofluorescence  

E-print Network

and Maxillofacial Surgery Division of Oncology Groningen 9700 RB and University Hospital Rotterdam Department and Maxillofacial Surgery Division of Oncology Groningen 9700 RB The Netherlands Robert P. W. Duin Technical.j.c.m.sterenborg@erasmusmc.nl Jan L. N. Roodenburg University Hospital Groningen Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Duin, Robert P.W.

63

Expression Profiling of Serous Low Malignant Potential, Low-Grade, and High-Grade Tumors of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papillary serous low malignant potential (LMP) tumors are characterized by malignant features and metastatic potential yet display a benign clinical course. The role of LMP tumors in the development of invasive epithelial cancer of the ovary is not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to determine the relationships among LMP tumors and invasive ovarian cancers and identify genes

Tomas Bonome; Ji-Young Lee; Dong-Choon Park; Mike Radonovich; Cindy Pise-Masison; John Brady; Ginger J. Gardner; Wing H. Wong; J. Carl Barrett; Karen H. Lu; Anil K. Sood; David M. Gershenson; Samuel C. Mok; Michael J. Birrer

2005-01-01

64

Role of human papillomavirus and its detection in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions: updated review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head and neck malignancies are characterized by a multiphasic and multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the most common risk factors for head and neck malignancy. Other factors, including DNA viruses, especially human papilloma virus (HPV), may also play a role in the initiation or development of these lesions. The pathways of HPV transmission in the head and neck

Ajay Kumar Chaudhary; Mamta Singh; Shanthy Sundaram; Ravi Mehrotra

2009-01-01

65

PAX2 Expression in Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are thought to represent different stages on a tumorigenic continuum and to develop along pathways distinct from high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. We performed gene expression profiling on 3 normal human ovarian surface epithelia samples, and 10 low-grade and 10 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. Analysis of gene expression profiles of these samples has identified 80 genes up-regulated and 232 genes down-regulated in low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. PAX2 was found to be one of the most up-regulated genes in low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. The up-regulation of PAX2 was validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a statistically significant difference in PAX2 mRNA expression (expressed as fold change in comparison to normal human ovarian surface epithelia) among ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (1837.38, N=8), low-grade (183.12, N=17), and high-grade (3.72, N=23) carcinoma samples (p=0.015). Western blot analysis revealed strong PAX2 expression in ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (67%, N=3) and low-grade carcinoma samples (50%, N=10) but no PAX2 protein expression in high-grade carcinomas (0%, N=10). Using immunohistochemistry, tumors of low-malignant potential (59%, N=17) and low-grade carcinoma (63%, N=16) samples expressed significantly stronger nuclear staining than high-grade ovarian carcinoma samples (9.1%, N=263). Furthermore, consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings, PAX2 expression was found to be expressed in the epithelial cells of fallopian tubes but not in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our findings further support the two-tiered hypothesis that tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma are on a continuum and are distinct from high-grade ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, the absence of PAX2 expression in normal ovarian epithelia but expression in fallopian tube fimbria and ciliated epithelial inclusions would suggest the potential development of tumors of low-malignant potential and of low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas from secondary Müllerian structures. PMID:19525924

Tung, Celestine S.; Mok, Samuel C.; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Zu, Zhifei; Song, Huijuan; Liu, Jinsong; Deavers, Michael; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

2009-01-01

66

Exploring therapeutic potentials of baicalin and its aglycone baicalein for hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Despite tremendous advances in the targeted therapy for various types of hematological malignancies with successful improvements in the survival rates, emerging resistance issues are startlingly high and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. In addition, chemoprevention is currently becoming an elusive goal. Plant-derived natural products have garnered considerable attention in recent years due to the potential dual functions as chemotherapeutics and dietary chemoprevention. One of the particularly ubiquitous families is the polyphenolic flavonoids. Among them, baicalin and its aglycone baicalein have been widely investigated in hematological malignancies because both of them exhibit remarkable pharmacological properties. This review focuses on the recent achievements in drug discovery research associated with baicalin and baicalein for hematological malignancy therapies. The promising anticancer activities of these two flavonoids targeting diverse signaling pathways and their potential biological mechanisms in different types of hematological malignancies, as well as the combination strategy with baicalin or baicalein as chemotherapeutic adjuvants for recent therapies in these intractable diseases are discussed. Meanwhile, the biotransformation of baicalin and baicalein and the relevant approaches to improve their bioavailability are also summarized. PMID:25128647

Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wu, Jianlei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Buyuan; Hu, Jianda; Zhou, Jia

2014-11-01

67

ALA-based fluorescent diagnosis of malignant oral lesions in the presence of bacterial porphyrin formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) -based fluorescence diagnosis has been found to be promising for an early detection and demarcation of superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). This method has previously demonstrated high sensitivity, however this clinical trial showed a specificity of approximately 62 %. This specificity was mainly restricted by tumor detection in the oral cavity in the presence of bacteria. After topical ALA application in the mouth of patients with previously diagnosed OSSC, red fluorescent areas were observed which did not correlate to confirm histological findings. Swabs and plaque samples were taken from 44 patients and cultivated microbiologically. Fluorescence was investigated (OMA-system) from 32 different bacteria strains found naturally in the oral cavity. After ALA incubation, 30 of 32 strains were found to synthesize fluorescent porphyrins, mainly Protoporphyrin IX. Also multiple fluorescent spectra were obtained having peak wavelengths of 636 nm and around 618 nm - 620 nm indicating synthesis of different porphyrins, such as the lipophylic Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and hydrophylic porphyrins (water soluble porphyrins, wsp). Of the 32 fluorescent bacterial strains, 18 produced wsp, often in combination with PpIX, and 5 produced solely wsp. These results clarify that ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis without consideration or suppression of bacteria fluorescence may lead to false-positive findings. It is necessary to suppress bacteria fluorescence with suitable antiseptics before starting the procedure. In this study, when specific antiseptic pre-treatment was performed bacterial associated fluorescence was significantly reduced.

Schleier, P.; Berndt, A.; Zinner, K.; Zenk, W.; Dietel, W.; Pfister, W.

2006-02-01

68

Accuracy of CT in predicting malignant potential of cystic pancreatic neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Background. Cystic lesions of the pancreas are being identified more frequently. Deciding which asymptomatic lesions can be safely followed with serial imaging and which require resection due to malignant potential is an increasingly common question. Current clinical practice is to rely on characteristics of the lesions on CT scan, and additional information from endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and cyst fluid analysis or endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERCP) to assess malignant potential. Hypothesis. The malignant potential of pancreatic cystic lesions cannot be accurately predicted by CT scan. Methods. CT scans from 48 patients with cystic lesions of the pancreas were stripped of patient identifiers and retrospectively presented to two expert radiologists. The radiologists recorded specific characteristics of the lesions thought to be important in the differential diagnosis and their opinion of the likely diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by comparing the radiologists’ diagnoses to the final pathologic diagnosis after resection. To determine if clinical history, EUS-FNA or ERCP findings improved diagnostic accuracy, medical records were retrospectively reviewed and scored as either supporting or not supporting malignant potential of the lesion. Results. Specific diagnoses based on CT findings alone were correct in an average of 39% of the cases. Even when diagnoses were dichotomized as benign (43%) or potentially malignant (57%, papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, cancer), determinations based on CT alone were accurate in an average of 61% of cases. Accuracy rates were 60.4 and 62.5% for the two radiologists, although there was only fair agreement between them (Kappa=0.28, 95% CI=(0.01–0.55), p=0.05). When all clinical information available was considered together as a single dichotomous indicator of malignant potential, the indicator was accurate in 90% of the cases (Kappa=0.73, 95% CI=(0.51–0.95, p<0.0001)). Conclusion. Specific preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms by CT alone is substantially inaccurate. Complementary tests such as EUS-FNA with fluid analysis and ERCP should be recommended to improve diagnosis especially if nonoperative treatment is planned. PMID:19088937

Hodges, Sally E.; Yagnik, Vivek; Moron, Fannie E.; Wu, Meng-Fen; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Raijman, Isaac L.; Charles Brunicardi, F.

2008-01-01

69

Oral leukoplakia: a Clinicopathological review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant or potentially malignant lesion of the oral mucosa. It seems preferable to use the term leukoplakia as a clinical term only. When a biopsy is taken, the term leukoplakia should be replaced by the diagnosis obtained histologically. The annual percentage of malignant transformation varies in different parts of the world, probably as a result

I. van der Waal; K. P. Schepman; E. H. van der Meij; L. E. Smeele

1997-01-01

70

Characteristics, management of the neck, and oncological outcomes of malignant minor salivary gland tumours in the oral and sinonasal regions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of malignant tumours of the minor salivary glands in the oral and sinonasal regions, to make sure that the neck was managed correctly, and to identify oncological outcomes, retrospectively, at a single hospital. A total of 60 patients were reviewed. Forty-nine patients had intraoral lesions and 11 had sinonasal lesions. Of the 60 patients, 28 had stage I to II malignant tumours, and 32 had stage III to IV tumours. Treatment was almost exclusively surgical. One of the 16 patients whose nodes were clinically clear had an elective neck dissection. Adjuvant radiotherapy was given if indicated. The mean follow-up period was 52 months (range 13-190). Sinonasal lesions were all advanced T-stage at diagnosis, had more invaded resection margins, and a higher local recurrence rate than intraoral lesions. There was no regional recurrence in those patients whose nodes were clinically invaded and who had therapeutic neck dissection, or in the patient whose nodes were clinically clear and who had an elective neck dissection. Occult metastases developed exclusively in adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), the rate of which was 4/16. Regional recurrence developed in 4 patients who had never had elective treatment to the neck 2 of whom mixed pattern ACC and 2 who had low grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The overall survival was 90% at 2 years, 77% at 5 years, and 74% at 10 years. Sinonasal minor salivary gland tumours require careful follow-up because resection margins are more likely to be invaded by tumour, and they have a higher local recurrence rate than intraoral lesions. Elective neck dissection is needed, particularly for MEC and also to prevent regional recurrence in ACC. PMID:22939317

Lee, So-Yoon; Shin, Hyang Ae; Rho, Kyung Jin; Chung, Hyo Jin; Kim, Se-Heon; Choi, Eun Chang

2013-10-01

71

Increased malignancy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc) is associated with macrophage polarization in regional lymph nodes – an immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background It is largely accepted that specific immunological parameters in solid malignancies are associated with patient’s prognosis. Recently a correlation of macrophage polarization with histomorphological parameters could also be shown in oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc). The observed tumor derived peripheral immune tolerance could be associated with the macrophage polarization in regional tumor draining lymph nodes. So far there are no studies analyzing the macrophage polarization in cervical lymph nodes of oscc patients. In the present study we aimed to correlate macrophage polarization in different anatomical lymph node compartments of patients diagnosed with oscc with histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor (T-, N-, L-, V-, Pn-status, grading). Methods Tumor free (n?=?37) and metastatic (n?=?17) lymph nodes of T1 and T2 oscc patients were processed for immunohistochemistry to detect CD68, CD11c, CD163 and MRC1 positive cells. Samples were digitized using whole slide imaging and the number of cells expressing the aforementioned markers in the region of interest quantitatively analyzed. Results The malignancy of the primary tumor (defined by T-, L-, Pn-status, grading) correlated with the lymph node macrophage polarization. L1 and Pn1 tumor cases displayed a significantly (p?malignant behavior in the primary tumor were associated with a shift of macrophage polarization in lymph nodes from the anti-tumoral M1 type to the tumor-promoting M2 type. As tumor free and metastatic lymph nodes did not differ in terms of their macrophage polarization pattern, there must be other factors influencing the location for lymph node metastasis formation. PMID:25042135

2014-01-01

72

Altered Immunohistochemical Expression of Mast Cell Tryptase and Chymase in the Pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Malignant Transformation of the Overlying Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Mast cells (MCs) expressing serine proteases; tryptase and chymase, are associated with fibrosis in various diseases. However, little is known about their involvement in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Our goal was to evaluate the role of MC tryptase and chymase in the pathogenesis of OSF and its malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical expression of MC tryptase and chymase was evaluated in 20 cases of OSF, 10 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 10 cases of healthy controls. Subepithelial zone of Stage 1 and 2 while deep zone of Stage 3 and 4 OSF demonstrated increased tryptase positive MCs. OSCC revealed a proportionate increase in tryptase and chymase positive MCs irrespective of areas of distribution. An altered balance in the subepithelial and deep distribution of tryptase and chymase positive MCs play an important role in the pathogenesis of OSF and its malignant transformation. PMID:24874976

Yadav, Archana; Desai, Rajiv S.; Bhuta, Bansari A.; Singh, Jatinder S.; Mehta, Reema; Nehete, Akash P.

2014-01-01

73

Opioid switch from low dose of oral oxycodone to transdermal fentanyl matrix patch for patients with stable thoracic malignancy-related pain  

PubMed Central

Background The effectiveness and safety of switch from oral oxycodone to fentanyl patch is little known. Here, we investigated if early phase opioid switch from low dose of oral oxycodone to transdermal fentanyl matrix patch provided any benefits for patients with thoracic malignancy and stable cancer-related pain. Methods This open-label two-centered prospective study enrolled patients with thoracic malignancy suffering persistent malignancy-related pain with numeric rating scale of pain intensity???3 which had been controlled by oral oxycodone???20 mg/day. Eligible patients switched from oral oxycodone to 12.5 ?g/h of transdermal fentanyl matrix patch. The dose was allowed to be titrated upwards every 3 day by 25-50%, except for the first increase from 12.5 ?g/hr to 25 ?g/hr,until achieving adequate pain control. The data on patients’ global assessment scores measured on a five-step scale, an 11-point numeric rating scale of pain intensity, the severity of adverse effects using a four-point categorical rating scale, and the Epworth sleepiness scale questionnaire were collected for 15 days. Results Forty-nine eligible patients were analyzed. Overall patients’ satisfaction score significantly improved from day 1 (2.7?±?0.9) to day 15 (2.3?±?0.9) (p?malignancies.

2014-01-01

74

Comparative histologic study of adenomas of the large intestine in Japan and England, with special reference to malignant potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The malignant potential of large-intestinal adenomas varies with size, histologic type, and grade of epithelial atypia in\\u000a the same way in England and in Japan. Adenomas in England have greater malignant potential than those in Japan because they\\u000a grow larger and more often show a villous growth pattern. Although the adenomacarcinoma sequence operates in the same way\\u000a in the two

T. Muto; K. Ishikawa; I. Kino; K. Nakamura; H. Sugano; H. J. R. Bussey; B. C. Morson

1977-01-01

75

Entrapment into nanoemulsions potentiates the anticancer activity of tocotrienols against the highly malignant (+SA) mouse mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The highly malignant +SA mouse mammary epithelial cells were used as the model cell line over the years to establish the anticancer activity of tocotrienols. Tocotrienols, however, have poor oral bioavailability and were therefore entrapped into parenteral nanoemulsions for parenteral administration. The objective of this work was to test whether the activity of tocotrienols in lipid nanoemulsions against the +SA cells was retained. A secondary objective was to test whether stabilizing the nanoemulsions with poloxamer or sodium oleate would affect their activity. Nanoemulsions were found to be significantly more potent than tocotrienol/albumin conjugate. The IC50 values of the poloxamer and sodium oleate nanoemulsions were 3 and 6 microM, respectively, whereas the IC50 value of the conjugate was 10 microM. The antiproliferative activity of the nanoemulsions was also found to inversely correlate with particle size. No activity was observed with nanoemulsions loaded with alpha-tocopherol or vehicle, which confirmed the cytotoxic activity of tocotrienols and the potential use of nanoemulsions in cancer therapy. PMID:24734680

Alayoubi, Alaadin; Ayoub, Nehad M; Malaviya, Abhita; Sylvester, Paul W; Nazzal, Sami

2014-05-01

76

Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential" - an evolving concept: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis is a rare neoplasm, typically demonstrating frankly malignant morphology and aggressive behavior. Rare cases of well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas have also been reported, which, in contrast, demonstrate indolent behavior. There are, however, cases which do not fit into the well-differentiated or diffuse malignant mesothelioma categories and can be considered mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential", which is an emerging diagnostic category. A 57-year-old man presented with a neoplasm in a hydrocele sac. The neoplasm was non-invasive, but showed focal complex and solid growth and it was difficult to categorize either as well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas or malignant mesothelioma. After the initial limited resection, the patient underwent radical orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy and is alive and without disease progression after 6 years. Documentation of these rare tumors will allow their distinction from true malignant mesotheliomas and will facilitate the development of specific treatment recommendations. PMID:21867523

2011-01-01

77

Reduction of potential respiratory pathogens by oral hygienic treatment in patients undergoing endotracheal anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.?This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of mechanical and chemical prophylactic oral cleansing treatments for\\u000a reducing potential respiratory pathogens existing in the oral cavity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods.?Thirty-two patients scheduled to undergo oral and maxillofacial surgery that required endotracheal anesthesia were randomly\\u000a allocated to one of the two groups, the oral cleansing group (n = 16) or the noncleansing group (n

Minori Okuda; Yuzuru Kaneko; Tatsuya Ichinohe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Katsuji Okuda

2003-01-01

78

PDZ Domains and Viral Infection: Versatile Potentials of HPV-PDZ Interactions in relation to Malignancy  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and a unique characteristic of these is a PDZ (P¯SD-95/D¯lg/Z¯O-1-)binding motif in their E6 proteins. Through this motif HPV E6 interacts with a variety of PDZ domain-containing proteins and targets them mainly for degradation. These E6-PDZ interactions exhibit extraordinarily different functions in relation to HPV-induced malignancy, depending upon various cellular contexts; for example, Dlg and Scrib show different distribution patterns from what is seen in normal epithelium, both in localization and in amount, and their loss may be a late-stage marker in malignant progression. Recent studies show that interactions with specific forms of the proteins may have oncogenic potential. In addition, it is interesting that PDZ proteins make a contribution to the stabilization of E6 and viral episomal maintenance during the course of HPV life cycle. Various posttranslational modifications also greatly affect their functions. Phosphorylation of hDlg and hScrib by certain kinases regulates several important signaling cascades, and E6-PDZ interactions themselves are regulated through PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Thus these interactions naturally have great potential for both predictive and therapeutic applications, and, with development of screening tools for identifying novel targets of their interactions, comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis is currently underway. PMID:24093094

Kawana, Kei; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

2013-01-01

79

Precancerous Stem Cells Have the Potential for both Benign and Malignant Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in hematopoietic and solid tumors. However, their precursors—namely, precancerous stem cells (pCSCs) —have not been characterized. Here we experimentally define the pCSCs that have the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on environmental cues. While clonal pCSCs can develop into various types of tissue cells in immunocompetent mice without developing into cancer, they often develop, however, into leukemic or solid cancers composed of various types of cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. The progress of the pCSCs to cancers is associated with the up-regulation of c-kit and Sca-1, as well as with lineage markers. Mechanistically, the pCSCs are regulated by the PIWI/AGO family gene called piwil2. Our results provide clear evidence that a single clone of pCSCs has the potential for both benign and malignant differentiation, depending on the environmental cues. We anticipate pCSCs to be a novel target for the early detection, prevention, and therapy of cancers. PMID:17356702

Chen, Li; Shen, Rulong; Ye, Yin; Pu, Xin-An; Liu, Xingluo; Duan, Wenrui; Wen, Jing; Zimmerer, Jason; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Lasky, Larry C.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Perrotti, Danilo; Ozato, Keiko; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Nakano, Toru; Yates, Allen J.; Carson III, William E.; Lin, Haifan; Barsky, Sanford H.; Gao, Jian-Xin

2007-01-01

80

PDZ domains and viral infection: versatile potentials of HPV-PDZ interactions in relation to malignancy.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and a unique characteristic of these is a PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/[ZO-1-)binding motif in their E6 proteins. Through this motif HPV E6 interacts with a variety of PDZ domain-containing proteins and targets them mainly for degradation. These E6-PDZ interactions exhibit extraordinarily different functions in relation to HPV-induced malignancy, depending upon various cellular contexts; for example, Dlg and Scrib show different distribution patterns from what is seen in normal epithelium, both in localization and in amount, and their loss may be a late-stage marker in malignant progression. Recent studies show that interactions with specific forms of the proteins may have oncogenic potential. In addition, it is interesting that PDZ proteins make a contribution to the stabilization of E6 and viral episomal maintenance during the course of HPV life cycle. Various posttranslational modifications also greatly affect their functions. Phosphorylation of hDlg and hScrib by certain kinases regulates several important signaling cascades, and E6-PDZ interactions themselves are regulated through PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Thus these interactions naturally have great potential for both predictive and therapeutic applications, and, with development of screening tools for identifying novel targets of their interactions, comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis is currently underway. PMID:24093094

Nagasaka, Kazunori; Kawana, Kei; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

2013-01-01

81

Swietenine: a potential oral hypoglycemic from Swietenia macrophylla seed.  

PubMed

Swietenine, a tetranortriterpenoid, was isolated from the Swietenia macrophylla seeds. The in vivo hypoglycemic activity was evaluated against neonatal-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of swietenine at 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats was found to possess significant dose dependant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:19239921

Dewanjee, Saikat; Maiti, Anup; Das, Anup K; Mandal, Subhash C; Dey, Sankar P

2009-06-01

82

Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) as potential molecular targets for therapy of hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Apoptosis, a programmed cell death, plays a key role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. However, impairment of its regulation may promote formation and progression of malignancy. An important part of the apoptotic machinery are the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, regulating caspase activity, cell division or cell survival pathways through binding to their baculovirus AIP repeat (BIR) domains and/or by their ubiquitin-ligase RING zinc finger (RZF) activity. The following IAPs have been described so far: NAIP (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein; BIRC1), cIAP1 and cIAP2 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 and 2; BIRC2 and BIRC3, respectively), XIAP (X-chromosome binding IAP; BIRC4), survivin (BIRC5), BRUCE (Apollon; BIRC6), livin (BIRC7) and Ts-IAP (testis-specific IAP; BIRC8). Several studies suggested a potential contribution of IAPs to oncogenesis and resistance to anti-tumor treatment. Increased IAP expression was found in variety of human cancers, including hematological malignancies, such as leukemias and B-cell lymphomas. A correlation between the progression of those diseases and high levels of survivin or XIAP has been reported. Overexpression of XIAP in acute myeloid leukemia or survivin in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been indicated as an unfavorable prognostic factors. Elevated cellular levels of cIAP1, cIAP2, XIAP and survivin correlated with a progressive course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Thus, targeting IAPs with small-molecule inhibitors by their antisense approaches or natural IAP antagonist mimetics, may be an attractive strategy of anti-cancer treatment. Such agents can either directly induce apoptosis of tumor cells or sensitize them to other cytotoxic agents, hence overcoming drug-resistance. This review demonstrates the current knowledge on IAP molecular biology, as well as the mechanisms of action and the development of IAP-targeting agents for treatment of hematological malignancies. PMID:21902653

Smolewski, P; Robak, T

2011-11-01

83

DNA methylation state of the galectin-3 gene represents a potential new marker of thyroid malignancy  

PubMed Central

In order to supplement the cytopathological assessment of thyroid tumors, there is a need for new markers to correctly diagnose malignant thyroid lesions and avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful therapies for patients. The immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 is currently considered to be the most accurate stand-alone marker for thyroid cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether the methylation state of the galectin-3 gene is a candidate molecular marker for thyroid malignancy. Thyroid specimens from 50 patients were analyzed, including 5 normal thyroid, 3 goiters, 39 papillary and 3 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cases. High-resolution methylation analyses was performed to investigate the methylation state of a large genomic region (from ?89 to +408) encompassing the galectin-3 transcriptional start site. Within this region, 5 CpG sites (nucleotide positions +134, +137, +142, +147 and +156) were observed to be differentially methylated among the samples and were further analyzed by the quantitative pyrosequencing technique. The hypomethylation of the +134, +137, +142, +147 and +156 CpG sites was observed to be markedly associated with cancer. Although the methylation degree of each single site was highly variable in non-neoplastic tissues, the average methylation state of the 5 CpG sites clearly distinguished cancer from the nonneoplastic thyroid tissues. PMID:23946782

KELLER, SIMONA; ANGRISANO, TIZIANA; FLORIO, ERMANNO; PERO, RAFFAELA; DECAUSSIN-PETRUCCI, MIRIAM; TRONCONE, GIANCARLO; CAPASSO, MARIO; LEMBO, FRANCESCA; FUSCO, ALFREDO; CHIARIOTTI, LORENZO

2013-01-01

84

Oral health technicians in Brazilian primary health care: potentials and constraints.  

PubMed

Different perspectives on the role of mid-level workers in health care might represent a constraint to health policies. This study aimed to investigate how different agents view the participation of oral health technicians in direct activities of oral healthcare with the goal of understanding the related symbolic dispositions. Theoretical assumptions related to inter-professional collaboration and conflicts in the field of healthcare were used for this analysis. A researcher conducted 24 in-depth interviews with general dental practitioners, oral health technicians and local managers. The concepts of Pierre Bourdieu supported the data interpretation. The results indicated inter-professional relations marked by collaboration and conflict that reflect an action space related to different perspectives of primary care delivery. They also unveiled the symbolic devices related to the participation of oral health technicians that represent a constraint to the implementation of oral health policy, thus reducing the potential of primary health care in Brazil. PMID:25166951

Aguiar, Dulce Maria Lucena de; Tomita, Nilce Emy; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Martins, Cleide Lavieri; Frazão, Paulo

2014-07-01

85

Differential regulation of iron chelator-induced IL-8 synthesis via MAP kinase and NF-?B in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a cytokine that plays an important role in tumor progression in a variety of cancer types; however, its regulation is not well understood in oral cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the expression and mechanism of IL-8 in which it is involved by treating immortalized (IHOK) and malignant human oral keratinocytes (HN12) cells with deferoxamine (DFO). Methods IL-8 production was measured by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays was used to determine NF-?B binding activity. Phosphorylation and degradation of the I-?B were analyized by Western blot. Results IHOK cells incubated with DFO showed increased expression of IL-8 mRNA, as well as higher release of the IL-8 protein. The up-regulation of DFO-induced IL-8 expression was higher in IHOK cells than in HN12 cells and was concentration-dependent. DFO acted additively with IL-1? to strongly up-regulate IL-8 in IHOK cells but not in HN12 cells. Accordingly, selective p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors for both kinases abolished DFO-induced IL-8 expression in both IHOK and HN12 cells. Furthermore, DFO induced the degradation and phosphorylation of I?B, and activation of NF-?B. The IL-8 inducing effects of DFO were mediated by a nitric oxide donor (S-nitrosoglutathione), and by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-?B, as well as by wortmannin, which inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. Conclusion This results demonstrate that DFO-induced IL-8 acts via multiple signaling pathways in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes, and that the control of IL-8 may be an important target for immunotheraphy against human oral premalignant lesions. PMID:17850672

Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Jun; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Keun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

2007-01-01

86

A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

2013-01-01

87

Potential role of melatonin in prevention and treatment of oral carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Melatonin, a hormone secreted mainly by pineal gland has been found to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the oral cavity where it reaches through saliva. These properties have been found to be beneficial in certain oral pathologies including periodontal diseases, herpes viral infections and Candida, local inflammatory processes, xerostomia, oral ulcers and oral cancer. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanism of action and potential role of melatonin as a preventive and curative agent for oral cancer. an extensive review of databases like pubmed, medline, science direct and Cochrane reviews was conducted to find articles related to beneficial actions of melatonin in human body with focus on cancers. Numerous studies both in-vitro and in-vivo had shown promising results regarding role of melatonin as anti-carcinogenic agent. Melatonin may play a role in protecting the oral cavity from tissue damage caused by oxidative stress. The experimental evidence suggests that melatonin may have utility in the treatment of several common cancers of the body. However, more specific studies are necessary to extend the therapeutic possibilities to oral carcinoma.

Mehta, Abhishek; Kaur, Gurkiran

2014-01-01

88

Expression Profiles Provide Insights into Early Malignant Potential and Skeletal Abnormalities in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B Syndrome Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the molecular basis for genotype-phenotype correlations in human diseases has direct implications for understanding the disease process and hence for the identification of potential therapeutic targets. To this end, we performed microarray expression analysis on benign (pheochromocytomas) and malignant (medullary thyroid carcinomas, MTCs) tumors from patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A or 2B, related syndromes that result

Sanjay Jain; Mark A. Watson; Mary K. DeBenedetti; Yuji Hiraki; Jeffrey F. Moley; Jeffrey Milbrandt

2004-01-01

89

Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their clinical potential in the treatment of B-cell malignancies: focus on ibrutinib  

PubMed Central

Aberrant signaling of the B-cell receptor pathway has been linked to the development and maintenance of B-cell malignancies. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein early in this pathway, has emerged as a new therapeutic target in a variety of such malignancies. Ibrutinib, the most clinically advanced small molecule inhibitor of BTK, has demonstrated impressive tolerability and activity in a range of B-cell lymphomas which led to its recent approval for relapsed mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of ibrutinib and discusses its therapeutic potential.

Aalipour, Amin

2014-01-01

90

Prognostic value of electroencephalography and evoked potentials in the early course of malignant middle cerebral artery infarction.  

PubMed

Space-occupying brain edema may lead to a malignant course in patients with large middle cerebral artery infarction. Decompressive hemicraniectomy has to be initiated early to prevent further tissue damage. In this retrospective study, we analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) and evoked potentials (EPs), obtained within 24 h after onset of stroke, in 22 patients suffering from a large middle cerebral artery infarction. Our findings indicate a prognostic value of EEG and brainstem auditory EP (BAEP): the absence of delta activity and the presence of theta and fast beta frequencies within EEG-focus predicted a non-malignant course. In contrast, diffuse generalized slowing and slow delta activity in the ischemic hemisphere pointed to a malignant course. Likewise, pathological BAEP were correlated with a malignant course. The coexistence of background slowing and pathological BAEP showed the highest level of significance. In conclusion, our findings implicate an additional early application of electrophysiological methods in stroke patients. EEG and EP deliver useful information to select those patients who develop malignant edema. PMID:22538759

Burghaus, Lothar; Liu, Wei-Chi; Dohmen, Christian; Haupt, Walter F; Fink, Gereon R; Eggers, Carsten

2013-05-01

91

The value of minimal access surgery in the staging of patients with potentially resectable peripancreatic malignancy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if an endosurgical approach that mimics open exploration would improve the accuracy of simple diagnostic laparoscopy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA; Most patients with peripancreatic malignancy are found at exploration to be unable to undergo resection. Laparoscopy has been suggested as a sensitive method for detecting metastatic disease in this group of patients. However, the ability to assess resectability with simple diagnostic laparoscopy remains relatively low (<40%). METHODS: Between December 1992 and August 1994, 115 patients with radiologically resectable peripancreatic tumors underwent extended laparoscopy before undergoing a planned curative resection. This technique required assessment of the peritoneal cavity, liver, lesser sac, porta hepatis, duodenum, transverse mesocolon, and celiac and portal vessels. RESULTS: Sixty male and 55 female patients were included in the current study. The pancreatic head was involved in 74 patients (64%), followed by the body in 21 (18%), tail in 8 (7%), ampulla in 8 (7%), duodenum in 3 (3%), and distal bile duct in 1 (1%). An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was performed for all patients before laparoscopy, ultrasonography for 74 patients (64%), endoscopic retrograde choleangiopancreatography for 59 patients (51%), and mesenteric angiography for 9 patients (8%). Pneumoperitoneum was established successfully in all but 2 cases (98%). A complete examination of 108 patients was performed. Sixty-seven patients were considered to have resectable disease, and 61 resections were performed. Laparoscopy failed to identify hepatic metastases in 5 patients and portal venous encasement in 1 patient. Unresectable disease was identified in 41 patients. Hepatic metastases were observed in 20 patients, mesenteric vascular encasement in 14, extrapancreatic/peritoneal involvement in 16, and celiac or portal lymphatic metastases in 8. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the laparoscopic procedure. The positive predictive index, negative predictive index, and accuracy of laparoscopy were 100%, 91%, and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that extended laparoscopy is accurate and safe and makes exploration unnecessary in many patients with potentially resectable peripancreatic malignancy. In this series, 76% of patients explored were resected, compared with the authors' experience between 1983 and 1993 of 35%. The authors believe that laparoscopy is an important component in the staging of this group of patients and should be performed before exploration. PMID:8597506

Conlon, K C; Dougherty, E; Klimstra, D S; Coit, D G; Turnbull, A D; Brennan, M F

1996-01-01

92

Predictive Factors of Potential Malignant Transformation in Recurrent Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor: Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) demonstrates considerable diversity in histopathology and clinical behavior. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the rare malignant counterpart of CCOT and it frequently arises from malignant transformation of a recurrent CCOT. In this paper, we present a case of CCOT and discuss its distinct histopathologic features in recurrence. Then, we will have a review on clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical aspects of GCOC in the literature. Predictive factors of malignant transformation in a benign CCOT will also be discussed. PMID:23956907

Mokhtari, Sepideh; Mohsenifar, Zhaleh; Ghorbanpour, Maedeh

2013-01-01

93

Potential application of temozolomide in mesenchymal stem cell-based TRAIL gene therapy against malignant glioma.  

PubMed

Because the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively kills tumor cells, it is one of the most promising candidates for cancer treatment. TRAIL-secreting human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-TRAIL) provide targeted and prolonged delivery of TRAIL in glioma therapy. However, acquired resistance to TRAIL of glioma cells is a major problem to be overcome. We showed a potential therapy that used MSC-TRAIL combined with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ). The antitumor effects of the combination with MSC-TRAIL and TMZ on human glioma cells were determined by using an in vitro coculture system and an in vivo experimental xenografted mouse model. Intracellular signaling events that are responsible for the TMZ-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were also evaluated. Treatment of either TRAIL-sensitive or -resistant human glioma cells with TMZ and MSC-TRAIL resulted in a significant enhancement of apoptosis compared with the administration of each agent alone. We demonstrated that TMZ effectively increased the sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated upregulation of the death receptor 5 and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. Subsequently, this combined treatment resulted in a substantial increase in caspase activation. Furthermore, in vivo survival experiments and bioluminescence imaging analyses showed that treatment using MSC-TRAIL combined with TMZ had greater therapeutic efficacy than did single-agent treatments. These results suggest that the combination of clinically relevant TMZ and MSC-TRAIL is a potential therapeutic strategy for improving the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:24436439

Kim, Seong Muk; Woo, Ji Sun; Jeong, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Chung Heon; Jang, Jae-Deog; Jeun, Sin-Soo

2014-02-01

94

Risk, Outcomes, and Costs of Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis Among Patients With Head-and-Neck Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the risk, outcomes, and costs of radiation-induced oral mucositis (OM) among patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to head and neck primary cancers. Methods and Materials: A retrospective cohort consisting of 204 consecutive head-and-neck cancer patients who received RT with or without chemotherapy during 2002 was formed; their records were reviewed for clinical and resource use information. Patients who had received prior therapy, had second primary cancers, or received palliative radiation therapy were excluded. The risk of OM was analyzed by multiple variable logistic regression. The cost of care was computed from the provider's perspective in 2006 U.S. dollars and compared among patients with and without OM. Results: Oral mucositis occurred in 91% of patients; in 66% it was severe (Grade 3-4). Oral mucositis was more common among patients with oral cavity or oropharynx primaries (odds ratio [OR], 44.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2 to >100; p < 0.001), those who received chemotherapy (OR = 7.8; 95% CI, 1.5-41.6; p 0.02), and those who were treated with altered fractionation schedules (OR 6.3; 95% CI, 1.1-35.1; p = 0.03). Patients with OM were significantly more likely to have severe pain (54% vs. 6%; p < 0.001) and a weight loss of {>=}5% (60% vs. 17%; p < 0.001). Oral mucositis was associated with an incremental cost of $1700-$6000, depending on the grade. Conclusions: Head-and-neck RT causes OM in virtually all patients. Oral mucositis is associated with severe pain, significant weight loss, increased resource use, and excess cost. Preventive strategies are needed.

Elting, Linda S. [Section of Health Services Research, Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: lelting@mdanderson.org; Cooksley, Catherine D. [Section of Health Services Research, Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chambers, Mark S. [Department of Dental Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2007-07-15

95

Serum anti-AEG-1 auto-antibody is a potential novel biomarker for malignant tumors.  

PubMed

Malignant tumors are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The search for new biomarkers for the early diagnosis of the onset of cancer to reduce high mortality is crucial. The potential of minimal invasive testing using serum from patients renders auto-antibodies promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this study, a 181 amino acid peptide of extracellular astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) was expressed and purified, and the peptide was used in an ELISA assay to detect anti-AEG-1 auto-antibodies (AEG-1-Abs) in 483 serum samples from different cancer patients and 230 serum samples from normal blood donors. The results showed that AEG-1-Abs at titers ?1:50 were detected in 238 of 483 (49%) cancer patients, and the positive antibody responses in different cancer patients were as follows: 44 of 98 (45%) in breast cancer patients, 48 of 96 (50%) in hepatic carcinoma patients, 43 of 88 (49%) in rectal cancer patients, 51 of 113 (45%) in lung cancer patients, and 52 of 88 (59%) in gastric cancer patients. These results were compared with 0 of 230 (0%) in normal individuals. Moreover, AEG-1-Abs at titers ?1:50 were also detected in 24 of 94 (26%) cancer patients in TNM stages I and II, and the positive rates of AEG-1-Abs decreased with age. These results suggest that the AEG-1-Ab response acts as a diagnostic biomarker for cancer patients with AEG-1-positive expression, and may also prove to be a possible inducer, with substantial immunity against AEG-1 by immunization boosting with AEG-1 vaccines. PMID:22844377

Chen, Xi; Dong, Ke; Long, Min; Lin, Fang; Wang, Xi; Wei, Junxia; Ren, Jihong; Zhang, Huizhong

2012-08-01

96

Activated MET is a molecular prognosticator and potential therapeutic target for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose: MET-signaling has been suggested a potential role in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Here, MET function and blockade were preclinically assessed. Experimental Design: Expression levels of MET, its ligand HGF, and phosphorylated MET (pMET) were examined in a clinically annotated MPNST tissue microarray incorporating univariable and multivariable statistical analyses. Human MPNST cells were studied in vitro and in vivo; WB and ELISA were used to evaluate MET and HGF expression, activation, and downstream signaling. Cell culture assays tested the impact of HGF-induced MET activation and anti-MET-specific siRNA inhibition on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; in vivo gelfoam assays were used to evaluate angiogenesis. Cells stably transduced with anti-MET shRNA constructs were tested for growth and metastasis in SCID mice. The effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor XL184 (Exelixis) targeting MET/VEGFR2 on local and metastatic MPNST growth was examined in vivo. Results: All three markers were expressed in MPNST human samples; pMET expression was an independent prognosticator of poor patient outcome. Human MPNST cell lines expressed MET, HGF, and pMET. MET activation increased MPNST cell motility, invasion, angiogenesis, and induced MMP2 and VEGF expression; MET knockdown had inverse effects in vitro and markedly decreased local and metastatic growth in vivo. XL184 abrogated human MPNST xenograft growth and metastasis in SCID mice. Conclusions: Informative prognosticators and novel therapies are crucially needed to improve MPNST management and outcomes. We demonstrate an important role for MET in MPNST, supporting continued investigation of novel anti-MET therapies in this clinical context. PMID:21540237

Torres, Keila E.; Zhu, Quan-Sheng; Bill, Katelynn; Lopez, Gonzalo; Ghadimi, Markus P.; Xie, Xianbiao; Young, Eric D.; Liu, Juehui; Nguyen, Theresa; Bolshakov, Svetlana; Belousov, Roman; Wang, Suizhau; Lahat, Guy; Liu, Jun; Hernandez, Belinda; Lazar, Alexander J.; Lev, Dina

2011-01-01

97

Carbohydrate antigens as potential biomarkers for the malignancy in patients with idiopathic deep venous thrombosis: A retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

A variety of biomarkers have been identified in recent prospective and retrospective reports as being potentially predictive of venous thromboembolis (VTE), particularly idiopathic deep venous thrombosis (IDVT). This study identified a serum tumor biomarker for early screening of IDVT. A total of 128 IDVT patients (54 females and 74 males; average age: 50.9±17.4 years) were included. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ferritin, ?2-microglobulin, cancer antigen (CA) 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA (f-PSA), and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-HCG) in patients with IDVT were detected. Malignancies were histo- or cytopathologically confirmed. Of the 128 IDVT patients, 16 (12.5%) were found to have malignancies. Serum CEA, CA 125, CA 15-3, and CA 19-9 were found to be helpful for detecting malignancies in IDVT patients. Our study revealed a positive association between these markers and tumors in IDVT patients. On the other hand, SCC and AFP were not sensitive enough to be markers for detecting tumors in patients with IDVT. No significant differences were found in positive rates of ferritin and ?2-microglobulin between tumor and non-tumor groups, and no significant difference exists in serum levels of ferritin and ?2-microglobulin between the two groups. Carbohydrate antigens, CA 15-3 in particular, may be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of malignancies in patients with IDVT. PMID:25318883

Yu, Miao; Wang, Yun-Hong; Abdalla, Ahmed M E; Liu, Wen-Qi; Mei, Fei; Wang, Jian; Ouyang, Chen-Xi; Li, Yi-Qing

2014-10-01

98

Evaluating the potential of cubosomal nanoparticles for oral delivery of amphotericin B in treating fungal infection.  

PubMed

The oral administration of amphotericin B (AmB) has a major drawback of poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of glyceryl monoolein (GMO) cubosomes as lipid nanocarriers to improve the oral efficacy of AmB. Antifungal efficacy was determined in vivo in rats after oral administration, to investigate its therapeutic use. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) was used in vitro to evaluate transport across a model of the intestinal barrier. In vivo antifungal results showed that AmB, loaded in GMO cubosomes, could significantly enhance oral efficacy, compared against Fungizone, and that during a 2 day course of dosage 10 mg/kg the drug reached effective therapeutic concentrations in renal tissue for treating fungal infections. In the Caco-2 transport studies, GMO cubosomes resulted in a significantly larger amount of AmB being transported into Caco-2 cells, via both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, but not macropinocytosis. These results suggest that GMO cubosomes, as lipid nanovectors, could facilitate the oral delivery of AmB. PMID:24421641

Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Muhua; Chen, Jian; Fang, Weijun; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

99

Anisi stellati fructus extract attenuates the in vitro and in vivo metastatic and angiogenic potential of malignant cancer cells by downregulating proteolytic activity and pro-angiogenic factors.  

PubMed

Anisi stellati fructus (ASF), commonly known as star anise, has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation, nervousness, insomnia and pain. In recent studies, it has been demonstrated that ASF possesses anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidant activities, as well as exhibits inhibitory effects on capillary?like tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the effects of ASF extract on the metastatic potential of malignant tumor cells have not been examined. In this study, we found that daily oral administration of ASF (50 mg/kg) remarkably reduced the number of pulmonary metastatic colonies of B16F10 cells in C57BL/6J mice with no observed systemic toxicity. In an in vitro system, ASF inhibited metastatic properties, including anchorage?independent colony formation, migration and invasion. Upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -9, -13, -14 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) decreased in a dose-dependent manner with ASF treatment. Gelatinase, type I collagenase, and uPA activities were also suppressed efficiently by ASF treatment. In response to PMA, NF-?B and AP-1 activation as well as p38 phosphorylation, which are crucial for MMP activation, were significantly decreased by ASF. In particular, ASF considerably inhibited tumor-induced HUVEC migration and tube formation and suppressed in vivo tumor-induced angiogenesis via a reduction of pro-angiogenic factors in tumors. These results collectively indicate that ASF might be useful in the management of metastatic malignant tumors. PMID:25176510

Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Ma, Jin Yeul

2014-11-01

100

Oral N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP): A potential marker for enterohepatic absorption studies  

SciTech Connect

While gastrointestinal transit studies using non-absorbable labels are now widely used, gastrointestinal studies with absorbable tracers potentially could describe both transit and absorption. To investigate this possibility, 27 fasting rats were given 100 ..mu..Ci I-123 IMP by gastric gavage and sacrificed at intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 12 hours later. Organ counts were obtained after dissection with a well counter and pre-dissection images were obtained with a gamma camera using a 512 x 512 imaging format. The percent of total body activity in various organs as a function of time was calculated. The results indicate a rapid clearance of activity from the stomach with subsequent uptake and clearance from the liver. Control studies (n=5) with orally administered 111-In-DTPA showed no significant liver accumulation. The results indicate oral IMP is thus potentially useful for quantification of gastric transit and enterohepatic absorption studies.

Pan, Z.Y.; Hawkins, R.A.; Bennett, L.R.; Yee, C.A.

1984-01-01

101

Elevated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels in the blood serum of dogs with malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis plays an essential role in the development of a neoplastic tumour by conditioning both its growth and the formation of metastases. The induction of blood vessel growth occurs under the influence of proangiogenic factors, among which Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) seems to be the most important. The aim of this research was to study the level of VEGF measured by ELISA in the serum of dogs with neoplasms of the oral cavity. The study material comprised samples of neoplastic tissue from 17 operated dogs and the serum of the examined animals as well as of dogs from the control group. The tissue samples were taken from dogs of different breeds, aged 6-14 years. The tumour type was determined in accordance with the applicable WHO classification. Blood samples taken from sick dogs and from animals of the control group were centrifuged, and immunoenzymatic labelling of VEGF was performed in the obtained serum using ELISA and R&D system reagents (Quantikine Canine VEGF). All stages of VEGF labelling were performed according to the recommendation of the test manufacturer. The median of VEGF in the serum of the dogs with neoplasms of the oral cavity was 40.64 pg/mL. The lowest value of 14.26 pg/mL was observed in the case of fibrosarcoma, and the highest value of 99.19 pg/mL in the case of squamous cell carcinoma. The VEGF median in the control group amounted to 11.14 pg/mL whereas the VEGF value in the groups of animals diagnosed with benign tumours ranged between 2.30 and 19.74 pg/mL. Elevated VEGF in the blood serum, in comparison with the benign tumour group and the control group, was observed in all examined neoplasms of the oral cavity. It was suggested that overexpression of VEGF can have a prognostic value and is useful in the early detection of neoplasms. PMID:24659713

Sobczy?ska-Rak, Aleksandra; Polkowska, Izabela; Silmanowicz, Piotr

2014-09-01

102

Identification of Genes Potentially Involved in the Increased Risk of Malignancy in NF1-Microdeleted Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients with NF1 microdeletion develop more neurofibromas at a younger age, and have an increased risk of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). We postulated that the increased risk of malignancy could be due to inactivation, in addition to NF1, of a second tumor suppressor gene located in the typical 1.4-Mb microdeletion found in most of the microdeleted patients. We investigated the expression of NF1, the other 16 protein-coding genes and the 2 microRNAs located in the 1.4-Mb microdeletion by means of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in a large series of human dermal and plexiform neurofibromas and MPNSTs. Five genes were significantly upregulated: OMG and SUZ12 in plexiform neurofibromas and ATAD5, EVI2A and C17orf79 in MPNSTs. More interestingly, two genes were significantly downregulated (RNF135 and CENTA2) in tumor Schwann cells from MPNST biopsies and in MPNST cell lines. This study points to the involvement of several genes (particularly RNF135 and CENTA2) in the increased risk of malignancy observed in NF1-microdeleted patients. PMID:20844836

Pasmant, Eric; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Levy, Pascale; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Ortonne, Nicolas; Parfait, Beatrice; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Leroy, Karen; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Vidaud, Michel; Vidaud, Dominique; Bieche, Ivan

2011-01-01

103

Ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential with nodal low-grade serous carcinoma.  

PubMed

Serous tumor of low malignant potential (SLMP) and low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) are part of one biological continuum, whereby SLMP can transform into LGSC. It has been suggested that some nodal SLMPs arise from nodal endosalpingiosis and evolve independently in lymph nodes (rather than being related to the ovarian primary). In this article, we present the clinicopathologic features of 5 cases of nodal LGSC presenting in association with ovarian SLMP. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' charts. Pathologic features of the nodal LGSC, including lymph node location, size of and extent of involvement of tumor, architectural pattern, degree of cytologic atypia, mitotic index, and presence of psammoma bodies, were recorded. Ovarian SLMPs were noted for laterality, size, presence of surface excrescences, microinvasion, and micropapillary/cribriform pattern and for presence of autoimplants, invasive, and noninvasive implants. The distribution of any lymph nodes with nodal endosalpingiosis or SLMPs was also recorded. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 68 years (median, 32 y). In 4 cases, the diagnosis of nodal LGSC occurred at a different time from that of the ovarian SLMPs, ranging from 7 months before to 5 months after the ovarian tumor diagnosis. Nodal LGSC was detected in supraclavicular (2 cases), cervical, intramammary, and periaortic lymph nodes (1 case each). The gross lymph node size ranged from 0.9 to 2.5 cm (median, 1.3 cm). The tumors either replaced the entire lymph node or were found diffusely involving subcapsular and medullary sinuses or lymph node cortices. Tumor cells showed typical cytologic features of LGSC and no mitotic activity. In 2 cases, however, focal pleomorphic cells and 1 mitosis per 10 HPF were noted. Psammoma bodies were identified in all cases. When immunohistochemical analysis was performed, all tumors exhibited a profile in keeping with Müllerian origin. All ovarian tumors were well sampled and ranged in size from 0.1 to 13 cm (median, 2.5 cm). No ovarian SLMP tumors showed the micropapillary/cribriform pattern, whereas only focal microinvasion was detected in 3 cases. Four tumors had surface excrescences. All cases had noninvasive implants, and a single case also had invasive implants. Lymph node dissection was performed in 2 cases, revealing extensive endosalpingiosis in pelvic and periaortic lymph nodes and SLMP in pelvic lymph nodes. In 1 additional case, a single lymph node was sampled, revealing a nodal SLMP. Clinical follow-up ranged from 2 to 14 years (median, 9 y). All patients received postoperative chemotherapy. None of the patients experienced recurrence in pelvic or abdominal soft tissue. Two patients are free of disease. However, 2 patients, one with cervical and another with supraclavicular nodal LGSC, had recurrences at these sites and subsequently succumbed to metastatic disease. Both of these patients had pelvic and periaortic nodal SLMP and extensive nodal endosalpingiosis. Another patient, originally with supraclavicular LGSC, developed pelvic and abdominal lymphadenopathy, and is currently alive with disease. For the first time, we present a case series of patients with ovarian SLMP who, despite any evidence of LGSC in the pelvis or any pelvic recurrences, developed extrapelvic/extra-abdominal nodal LGSC. These patients also had endosalpingiosis and SLMP in pelvic and periaortic lymph nodes, suggesting that SLMP/LGSC tumors in lymph nodes may arise independently of the ovarian primary, progress along their own timeline, and undergo metastatic spread. Therefore, in patients with ovarian SLMP and extensive pelvic/periaortic nodal endosalpingiosis and/or SLMP, examination and follow-up of extrapelvic lymph nodes are warranted, even if the ovarian tumor lacks high-risk features of recurrence. PMID:22613998

Djordjevic, Bojana; Malpica, Anais

2012-07-01

104

Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer.  

PubMed

In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the viral DNA from the herpesvirus termed MCFV-WTD, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), was detected. The epidemiology information revealed that the red brocket deer had been associated with a herd of pygmy goats (Capra hircus) at the zoo. MCFV-WTD DNA was also detected in one of these 12 goats that were malignant catarrhal fever viral antibody positive. The amplified herpesviral sequences from the affected deer and the MCFV-WTD-positive goat were identical, and matched the sequence in GenBank. Three of 123 DNA samples from various breeds of goats from different geographic locations in the United States were positive for MCFV-WTD DNA. The study shows that MCFV-WTD is capable of causing malignant catarrhal fever in other species of deer besides white-tailed deer and suggests that goats are a potential reservoir for the virus. PMID:23805572

Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Abbitt, Bruce; deMaar, Thomas W; Lenz, Stephen D; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Taus, Naomi S

2013-06-01

105

Surface display of Clonorchis sinensis enolase on Bacillus subtilis spores potentializes an oral vaccine candidate.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infections remain the common public health problem in freshwater fish consumption areas. New effective prevention strategies are still the urgent challenges to control this kind of foodborne infectious disease. The biochemical importance and biological relevance render C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) as a potential vaccine candidate. In the present study, we constructed Escherichia coli/Bacillus subtilis shuttle genetic engineering system and investigated the potential of Csenolase as an oral vaccine candidate for C. sinensis prevention in different immunization routes. Our results showed that, compared with control groups, both recombinant Csenolase protein and nucleic acid could induce a mixed IgG1/IgG2a immune response when administrated subcutaneously (P<0.001), intraperitoneally (P<0.01) and intramuscularly (P<0.001) with worm reduction rate of 56.29%, 15.38% and 37.42%, respectively. More importantly, Csenolase could be successfully expressed as a fusion protein (55kDa) on B. subtilis spore indicated by immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays. Killed spores triggered reactive Th1/Th2 immune response and exhibited protective efficacy against C. sinensis infection. Csenolase derived oral vaccine conferred worm reduction rate and egg reduction rate at 60.07% (P<0.001) and 80.67% (P<0.001), respectively. The shuttle genetic engineering system facilitated the development of oral vaccine with B. subtilis stably overexpressing target protein. Comparably vaccinal trails with Csenolase in different immunization routes potentialize Csenolase an oral vaccine candidate in C. sinensis prevention. PMID:24486347

Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Tian, Yanli; Mao, Qiang; Lv, Xiaoli; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing; Huang, Yan

2014-03-10

106

Reducing the Risk of Xerostomia and Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: The Potential Benefits of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Advanced Oral Cavity Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation

Merina Ahmed; Vibeke N. Hansen; Kevin J. Harrington; Christopher M. Nutting

2009-01-01

107

Expression of insulin-like growth factor mitogenic signals in adult soft-tissue sarcomas: significant correlation with malignant potential.  

PubMed

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signal transduction system involves receptors, ligands and binding proteins (IGFBPs) that have been shown to have mitogenic and distinct anti-apoptotic effects on malignant cell lines of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin. Expression of the IGF signal system might be a mechanism by which human soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) obtain a proliferative advantage over normal adjacent tissues. IGFBP2, one of at least six different binding proteins identified to date, is secreted by most sarcoma cell lines and appears to be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. Circulating levels of this protein are markedly increased in malignancy. We have assessed 46 adult STS specimens of low, intermediate and high pathological grade of malignancy for the immunohistochemical expression of IGFBP2, IGF1, IGF2, IGF1 receptor-alpha and -beta (IGF1Ralpha/beta). The protein expression was measured by quantitative color video image analysis and semi-quantitative evaluation, and the measurements correlated well (Spearman, P<0.001). Using both methods, significant differences in expression of IGFBP2 among each of the three grades, expression of IGF2 between intermediate and high grade, and expression of IGF1Rbeta between low-intermediate and low-high grade were observed (Dunnett test, P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis for both quantitative and semi-quantitative data confirmed the significance of the relationship and independence of the proteins, except IGF2. We concluded that IGFBP2 and IGF1Rbeta are independent predictors of the malignant potential of adult STS. PMID:14673647

Busund, Lill-Tove R; Ow, Kim T; Russell, Pamela; Crowe, Philip J; Yang, Jia-Lin

2004-02-01

108

Oral cancer in the UAE: a multicenter, retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the prevalence of various malignant oral lesions in the UAE and correlate cases of squamous cell carcinomas with age, gender, site, grade, clinical presentations at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of neck metastasis. Materials and methods A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted at four major hospitals in the UAE. The study was based on histopathology reports of biopsies of oral tissues. Results Of the 992 oral biopsy reports retrieved, 147 cases of malignant tumors were found which accounted for 14.9% of the total biopsies. Fifteen different types of malignant lesions were diagnosed, of which oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was the most prevalent and made up 11.4% of the overall oral biopsies retrieved. The commonest presentation of cancer was ulceration (31.17%), followed by lumps and white lesions. The most common site where the lesions were diagnosed was the tongue (51.9%), followed by the cheeks and lips. OSCC accounted for 77% of all malignancies reported. Neck dissections were conducted in only 20.8% of all OSCC cases diagnosed at Mafraq and Tawam hospitals, of which 43.75% showed evidence of neck metastasis. Conclusion Oral cancer is not an uncommon disease in the UAE. This may mandate more awareness campaigning, including screening procedures for early detection of cancerous lesions and other potentially malignant oral diseases. Elective neck dissections to detect lymph node metastasis should be more routinely performed, in particular for tongue carcinomas because of the early neck involvement potential. PMID:23985381

Anis, Raeefa; Gaballah, Kamis

2013-01-01

109

Chemopreventive Potential of Flavonoids in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Human Studies  

PubMed Central

Evidence available from nutritional epidemiology has indicated an inverse association between regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of developing certain types of cancer. In turn, preclinical studies have attributed the health-promoting effects of plant foods to some groups of phytochemicals, by virtue of their many biological activities. In this survey, we briefly examine the chemopreventive potential of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods in human oral carcinogenesis. Despite the paucity of data from clinical trials and epidemiological studies, in comparison to in vitro/in vivo investigations, a high level of evidence has been reported for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and anthocyanins. These flavonoids, abundant in green tea and black raspberries, respectively, represent promising chemopreventive agents in human oral cancer. PMID:23857227

Iriti, Marcello; Varoni, Elena Maria

2013-01-01

110

Tumor-targeting bacterial therapy: A potential treatment for oral cancer (Review)  

PubMed Central

Certain obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria, which exhibit an inherent ability to colonize solid tumors in vivo, may be used in tumor targeting. As genetically manipulated bacteria may actively and specifically penetrate into the tumor tissue, bacterial therapy is becoming a promising approach in the treatment of tumors. However, to the best of our knowledge, no reports have been published thus far regarding the bacterial treatment of oral cancer, one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. In this review, the progress in the understanding of bacterial strategies used in tumor-targeted therapy is discussed and particular bacterial strains that may have great therapeutic potential in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tumor-targeted therapy are predicted as determined by previous studies. PMID:25364397

LIU, SAI; XU, XIAOPING; ZENG, XIN; LI, LONGJIANG; CHEN, QIANMING; LI, JING

2014-01-01

111

Rare lymphoid malignancies of the breast: a report of two cases illustrating potential diagnostic pitfalls.  

PubMed

Breast involvement by lymphoma is uncommon and poses challenges in diagnosis. Lymphomas may clinically, radiologically, and morphologically mimic both benign and neoplastic conditions. We describe two cases of lymphoid malignancies predominantly involving the breast, both presenting diagnostic dilemmas. The first case, ALK-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma involving a seroma associated with a breast implant, is an emerging clinicopathologic entity. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma has been identified in association with breast implants and seroma formation relatively recently. The second case, hairy cell leukemia involving the breast and ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node, is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of hairy cell leukemia involving the breast at the time of diagnosis. While a localized bone lesion was present at time of diagnosis, bone marrow involvement was relatively mild in comparison to that seen in the breast and lymph node. In the first case, lymphoma occurred in a clinical setting where malignancy was unsuspected, highlighting the importance of careful morphologic evaluation of paucicellular samples, as well as awareness of rare clinicopathologic entities, in avoiding a misdiagnosis of a benign inflammatory infiltrate. In the second case, the lymphoid neoplasm exhibited classic morphologic and immunophenotypic features, but presented at an unusual site of involvement. Knowledge of the patient's concurrent diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia involving the bone marrow and bone helped avoid a misdiagnosis of carcinoma rather than lymphoma. PMID:20309431

Farkash, Evan A; Ferry, Judith A; Harris, Nancy Lee; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Takvorian, Ronald W; Zuckerman, Dan S; Sohani, Aliyah R

2009-01-01

112

Pulmonary Metastases of a Uterine Smooth Muscle Tumour with Undefined Malignancy Potential  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle neoplasms with atypical proliferative behaviour, but without clear histopathological malignancy represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, as distinction from a sarcoma can be difficult and no guaranteed treatment recommendations are available due to the rarity of these changes. In the event of uncertain primary histology, even metastases cannot be assessed as malignancy criteria, but may contribute to the clarification of the histology. Similarities with other smooth muscle proliferations, such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis, are striking. The diagnostic difficulties and treatment options are explained based on the example of a 59-year-old patient, in whom a retroperitoneal mass and pulmonary lesion of such a tumour occurred 4 years after a hysterectomy. Even though the genesis and histological diagnostics have not been conclusively clarified, slow growth and a low recurrence rate for post-menopausal patients allow for a wait-and-see approach, whereby the option for anti-hormonal treatment exists in the event of positive evidence of hormone receptors. PMID:24882880

Esch, M.; Teschner, M.; Braesen, J.-H.

2014-01-01

113

Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules as potential oral carriers  

PubMed Central

Background Tetrandrine is an active constituent that is extracted from the root tuber of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It has shown various pharmacological effects, such as antitumor activity, multidrug resistance reversal, and hepatic fibrosis resistance. In clinical applications, it has been used to treat hypertension, pneumosilicosis, and lung cancer. However, the poor water solubility of tetrandrine has limited its application. In this study, a newly emerging oral drug carrier of phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of tetrandrine. Methods The phospholipid complex was prepared with the solvent-evaporation method to enhance the liposolubility of tetrandrine. The formation of the phospholipid complex was confirmed with a solubility study, infrared spectroscopy, and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules (TPC-LNCs) were prepared using the phase inversion method. Lyophilization was performed with mannitol (10%) as a cryoprotectant. TPC-LNCs were characterized according to their particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and crystallinity by DSC. In addition, the in vitro release of tetrandrine from TPC-LNCs was examined to potentially illustrate the in vivo release behavior. The in vivo bioavailability of TPC-LNCs was studied and compared to tetrandrine tablets in rats. Results The liposolubility of tetrandrine in n-octanol improved from 8.34 ?g/mL to 35.64 ?g/mL in the tetrandrine-phospholipid complex. The prepared TPC-LNCs were spherical-shaped particles with a small size of 40 nm and a high encapsulation efficiency of 93.9%. DSC measurements revealed that the crystalline state was less ordered in lipid nanocapsules. The in vitro release study demonstrated a fast release of approximately 25% in the first 1 hour, which was followed by a sustained release of 70% over 12 hours. The relative bioavailability of TPC-LNCs compared to that of tablets was 208%, indicating a significant improvement in the oral absorption of tetrandrine. Conclusion The TPC-LNCs system developed in this study is a promising carrier that improves the oral bioavailability of tetrandrine in rats. The phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules have great potential for use as an oral drug delivery system for moderately lipophilic drugs that are encapsulated in the lipid nanocapsules. PMID:24204145

Zhao, Yi-qing; Wang, Li-ping; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Kun; Liu, Ying; Feng, Nian-ping

2013-01-01

114

Correlation of c-erbB-2 and S-100 expression with the malignancy grading and anatomical site in oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

An immunohistochemical analysis of 32 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (eight in the inferior lip, eight in the lateral angle of the tongue, eight in the palate and eight in the mouth floor) was performed to evaluate the expression pattern of c-erbB-2 protein and S-100-positive cells in the lesions. The immunohistochemical expression was correlated with the tumour anatomical site and histological grading of malignancy. A higher frequency of c-erbB-2-positive cases was found in the tongue, even though no correlation could be detected between the protein expression and the tumour histological grading. With respect to the S-100-positive cells, it was observed that a quantitative decrease was present in the cases classified as high-grade tumours when compared to the low ones (P = 0.0007). Thus, c-erbB-2 immunohistochemical expression is correlated with anatomical localization, and the expression of the S-100 Langerhans' cell markers is decreased significantly in high-grade carcinomas. PMID:14748745

Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo L C; Miguel, Márcia C C; Costa, Antonio L L; Souza, Lélia B

2003-01-01

115

Lecithin retinol acyltransferase as a potential prognostic marker for malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

Metabolism inside cells differs between cancer and normal cells. Because disturbance of vitamin A metabolism might be important, we investigated expression of the enzymes lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and RPE65 by immunohistochemistry in melanoma metastases and melanocytic nevi. Semiquantitative evaluation of this expression revealed downregulated expression of RPE65 in malignant melanoma compared with benign melanocytic nevi (P < 0.001). In contrast, expression of LRAT was not significantly different (P = 0.339). High LRAT expression in melanoma metastases was inversely correlated with patient survival; Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed earlier melanoma-related death (P = 0.003). Expression of LRAT might, therefore, be a prognostic marker of the clinical course of melanoma. PMID:24433184

Hassel, Jessica C; Amann, Philipp M; Schadendorf, Dirk; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Nagler, Markus; Bazhin, Alexandr V

2013-11-01

116

[Update on current care guidelines: oral cancer].  

PubMed

Most oral malignancies are squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Incidence of OSCC is increasing in both genders, and survival rates remain poor. OSCC is frequently preceded by potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), which include leukoplakia, erythroplakia and lichen planus. OSCC is preventable because the risk factors are known: smoking and alcohol consumption, snuff and human papillomavirus infections. Fresh vegetables, fruit and fish provide protection from OSCC. Regular systematic examination is essential to the early detection of OSCC and OPMD. Treatment of oral cancers comprises either surgery alone, or combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Management of patients with OPMD and treated OSCC include careful life-long follow-up. PMID:22612027

2012-01-01

117

Clinical Evaluation of Specific Oral Manifestations in Pediatric Patients with Ascertained versus Potential Coeliac Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Patients involved on coeliac disease (CD) have atypical symptoms and often remain undiagnosed. Specific oral manifestations are effective risk indicators of CD and for this reason an early diagnosis with a consequent better prognosis can be performed by the dentist. There are not researches analysing the frequency of these oral manifestations in potential coeliac patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the oral hard and soft tissue lesions in potential and ascertained coeliac children in comparison with healthy controls. 50 ascertained children, 21 potential coeliac patients, and 54 controls were recruited and the oral examination was performed. The overall oral lesions were more frequently present in CD patients than in controls. The prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions was 62% in ascertained coeliac, 76.2% in potential coeliac patients, and 12.96% in controls (P < 0.05). Clinical dental delayed eruption was observed in 38% of the ascertained coeliac and 42.5% of the potential coeliac versus 11.11% of the controls (P < 0.05). The prevalence of specific enamel defects (SED) was 48% in ascertained coeliac and 19% in potential coeliac versus 0% in controls (P < 0.05; OR = 3.923). The SED seem to be genetically related to the histological damage and villous atrophy. PMID:25197270

Matacena, Giada; Costa, Stefano; Magazzu, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

118

Functionalized carbon nanomaterials: exploring the interactions with Caco-2 cells for potential oral drug delivery.  

PubMed

Although carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have been increasingly studied for their biomedical applications, there is limited research on these novel materials for oral drug delivery. As such, this study aimed to explore the potential of CNMs in oral drug delivery, and the objectives were to evaluate CNM cytotoxicity and their abilities to modulate paracellular transport and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump. Three types of functionalized CNMs were studied, including polyhydroxy small-gap fullerenes (OH-fullerenes), carboxylic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f SWCNT-COOH) and poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f SWCNT-PEG), using the well-established Caco-2 cell monolayer to represent the intestinal epithelium. All three CNMs had minimum cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells, as demonstrated through lactose dehydrogenase release and 3-(4,5-dimethyliazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Of the three CNMs, f SWCNT-COOH significantly reduced transepithelial electrical resistance and enhanced transport of Lucifer Yellow across the Caco-2 monolayer. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that f SWCNT-COOH treated cells had the highest perturbation in the distribution of ZO-1, a protein marker of tight junction, suggesting that f SWCNT-COOH could enhance paracellular permeability via disruption of tight junctions. This modulating effect of f SWCNT-COOH can be reversed over time. Furthermore, cellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate, rhodamine-123, was significantly increased in cells treated with f SWCNT-COOH, suggestive of P-gp inhibition. Of note, f SWCNT-PEG could increase rhodamine-123 accumulation without modifying the tight junction. Collectively, these results suggest that the functionalized CNMs could be useful as modulators for oral drug delivery, and the differential effects on the intestinal epithelium imparted by different types of CNMs would create unique opportunities for drug-specific oral delivery applications. PMID:22125408

Coyuco, Jurja C; Liu, Yuanjie; Tan, Bee-Jen; Chiu, Gigi N C

2011-01-01

119

Clavulanate-potentiated amoxycillin: in vitro antibacterial activity and oral bioavailability in calves.  

PubMed

The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of amoxycillin and clavulanate-potentiated amoxycillin (amoxycillin:clavulanic acid, 4:1 by weight) were compared for 171 Salmonella, 170 Escherichia coli, and 32 Pasteurella isolates recovered from infected neonatal calves. In the presence of clavulanic acid, the MIC of amoxycillin was reduced to levels less than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml for all the Salmonella group B, all the Pasteurella, and for 12 out of the 44 E. coli isolates which were resistant to amoxycillin (MIC greater than or equal to 100.0 micrograms/ml). For isolates sensitive to amoxycillin (MIC less than or equal to 1.56 microgram/ml) there was no change in MIC values in the presence of clavulanic acid. A small proportion of Salmonella and E. coli isolates were resistant to clavulanate-potentiated amoxycillin. In a cross-over trial involving 10 preruminant (2 weeks old) calves, amoxycillin trihydrate and clavulanate-potentiated amoxycillin were administered orally at 10 mg/kg. An analysis of serum amoxycillin level data showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters t1/2ab, Cmax, t1/2 beta, AUC, Cp degree, and f' (estimated drug absorption ratio) were the same after treatment with amoxydrate and clavulanate-potentiated amoxycillin. Administration of clavulanate-potentiated amoxycillin and probenecid resulted in elevation and prolongation of serum amoxycillin levels. Computations showed that in preruminant calves serum amoxycillin concentrations sufficient to inhibit sensitive pathogens can be maintained by oral clavulanate-potentiated amoxycillin treatment at 10 mg/kg TID. At two times that dose rate serum drug concentrations capable of inhibiting 50% of all types of pathogens examined can be maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3302313

Soback, S; Bor, A; Kurtz, B; Paz, R; Ziv, G

1987-06-01

120

Rare variants of malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

The personal experience with 5 rare types of malignant melanoma is reviewed to point out some of the practical problems in the diagnosis and management of these tumors. The rare forms discussed are conjunctival, nasal, oral, vulvar, and penile melanomas. All pigmented lesions in the oral cavity, but not the penis or vulva, should be prophylactically excised as lesions in the mouth have a higher malignant potential. Local excision of all 5 forms of primary melanomas, no matter how locally advanced they may be, is the sole treatment. Nevertheless, anatomic constraints often preclude surgery with generous margins and consequently local recurrence, particularly for conjunctival, nasal, and oral primary lesions, is usually the major first failure in treatment. Lymph node dissection is only performed if the regional nodes are palpable at the time of first presentation. Elective lymph node dissections are not performed since the patients are often elderly, the lymphatic drainage is usually ambiguous or multiple, and the disease tends to spread hematogenously rather than lymphatically. Surgery still remains the cornerstone of treatment for these rare forms of melanoma but prognosis is very poor since surgery is often a palliative rather than a curative measure. Improved survival may depend on identifying more effective chemotherapeutic and immunologic agents. PMID:1561796

Milton, G W; Shaw, H M

1992-01-01

121

Preclinical evidence of potential craniofacial adverse effect of zoledronic acid in pediatric patients with bone malignancies.  

PubMed

High doses of zoledronic acid (ZOL), one of the most potent inhibitors of bone resorption, are currently evaluated in phase III clinical trials in Europe for the treatment of malignant pediatric primary bone tumors. The impact of such an intensive treatment on the craniofacial skeleton growth is a critical question in the context of patients with actively growing skeleton; in particular, in light of our previous studies evidencing that endochondral bone formation was transiently disturbed by high doses of ZOL. Two protocols adapted from pediatric treatments were developed for newborn mice (a total of 5 or 10 injections of ZOL 50?g/kg every two days). Their impact on skull bones and teeth growth was analyzed by X-rays, microCT and histology up to 3months after the last injection. ZOL administrations induced a transient delay of skull bone growth and an irreversible delay in incisor, first molar eruption and root elongation. Other teeth were affected, but most were erupted by 3months. Root histogenesis was severely impacted for all molars and massive odontogenic tumor-like structures were observed in all mandibular incisors. High doses of ZOL irreversibly disturbed teeth eruption and elongation, and delayed skull bone formation. These preclinical observations are essential for the follow-up of onco-pediatric patients treated with ZOL. PMID:25193159

Lézot, Frédéric; Chesneau, Julie; Battaglia, Séverine; Brion, Régis; Castaneda, Beatriz; Farges, Jean-Christophe; Heymann, Dominique; Rédini, Françoise

2014-11-01

122

Depleted Uranium. Is it potentially involved in the recent upsurge of malignancies in populations exposed to war dust?  

PubMed

Due to its extreme density, depleted Uranium (DU) has recently entered the warfare industry and became a major pollutant to the biosphere. Although DU is less radioactive than natural Uranium, it still retains all its chemical toxicity. Limited data exists regarding the long-term hazards of DU on humans, however, it is suspected to be a major toxic and mutagenic agent. Literature review reveals the scarcity of the World Health Organization's knowledge regarding related DU-malignancies. Battlefield reports documented a steady rise of malignancies and newborn malformations after war, that is, leukemia in the Balkans, and congenital anomalies and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in Iraq. Kaposi sarcoma in Iraq has a quite aggressive behavior compared with the classic KS before, suggesting a potential relation with DU, and possibly a different DU related KS-type. Children are more susceptible to radiation than adults. This enlarges the responsibility of the medical communities for an evidence-based attitude towards DU, and to ban its use until proven otherwise. We, as medical bodies have a human approach - stand with man not to be mistreated, and with green norms, which veto all suspected pollutants of the planet. Until further notice, DU should be thoroughly checked for safety, before it kills. PMID:22588807

Shelleh, Hamdi H

2012-05-01

123

Oral calcitonin  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

2012-01-01

124

Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of 4 cases with evidence of malignant potential.  

PubMed

A new type of breast carcinoma resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma has recently been described. To date, rare cases are on record. Here, 4 new cases of the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma of the breast are described in women aged from 45 to 80 years old. All patients presented with palpable breast nodules and were treated with quadrantectomy. One patient presented with a long clinical history and a metastatic intramammary lymph node. The patient is alive and well 3 months after surgery. The remaining 3 patients are disease free at mean 7.5 months (range, 5 to 10 months) after surgery. These data suggest that papillary thyroid-like carcinomas of the breast show malignant potential. PMID:17172492

Tosi, Anna L; Ragazzi, Moira; Asioli, Sofia; Del Vecchio, Marina; Cavalieri, Monica; Eusebi, Leonardo H U; Foschini, Maria P

2007-01-01

125

Anti-Heparanase Aptamers as Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents for Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase enzyme present in activated leucocytes, mast cells, placental tissue, neutrophils and macrophages, and is involved in tumour metastasis and tissue invasion. It presents a potential target for cancer therapies and various molecules have been developed in an attempt to inhibit the enzymatic action of heparanase. In an attempt to develop a novel therapeutic with an associated diagnostic assay, we have previously described high affinity aptamers selected against heparanase. In this work, we demonstrated that these anti-heparanase aptamers are capable of inhibiting tissue invasion of tumour cells associated with oral cancer and verified that such inhibition is due to inhibition of the enzyme and not due to other potentially cytotoxic effects of the aptamers. Furthermore, we have identified a short 30 bases aptamer as a potential candidate for further studies, as this showed a higher ability to inhibit tissue invasion than its longer counterpart, as well as a reduced potential for complex formation with other non-specific serum proteins. Finally, the aptamer was found to be stable and therefore suitable for use in human models, as it showed no degradation in the presence of human serum, making it a potential candidate for both diagnostic and therapeutic use. PMID:25295847

Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia M.; McKenzie, Edward A.; Bitu, Carolina C.; Salo, Sirpa; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Nyberg, Pia; Risteli, Juha; deAlmeida, Carlos E. B.; Brenchley, Paul E. C.; Salo, Tuula; Missailidis, Sotiris

2014-01-01

126

Immunohistochemical expression of SPARC is correlated with recurrence, survival and malignant potential in meningiomas.  

PubMed

Meningioma is a common neoplasm that constitutes almost 30% of all primary central nervous system tumors and is associated with inconsistent clinical outcomes. The extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in meningioma cell biology and are important in tumor cell invasion and in progression to malignancy. SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) (osteonectin) is a matricellular glycoprotein that regulates cell function by interacting with different extracellular matrix proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of SPARC with proliferation index, p53 reactivity in WHO grade 1 (benign), grade 2 (atypical) and grade 3 (anaplastic) meningiomas and correlate with clinical features of the patients, including location of the tumor, recurrence of the tumor and survival of patients. We studied 111 meningiomas, 69 being benign, 34 being atypical and eight being anaplastic meningiomas of various histological types. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we evaluated the expression of SPARC, Ki-67 (MIB-1) and p53 in meningiomas. Immunohistochemical scores of SPARC were determined as the sum of frequency (0-3) and intensity (0-3) of immunolabeling of the tumor cells. A high immunohistochemical score (4-6) for SPARC was more frequent in atypical and in anaplastic meningiomas than in benign meningiomas (p < 0.01). MIB-1 proliferation index showed significant association between tumor grades in meningiomas (p < 0.01). At the end of a follow-up period of 47.53 +/- 25.04 months, 30 tumors recurred. A high SPARC expression was significantly associated with tumor recurrence (p = 0.02). The immunoreactivity of p53 protein and MIB-1 score were significantly higher in recurrent meningiomas than in non-recurrent meningiomas. The cumulative survival of patients with high SPARC expression was significantly lower than patients with low SPARC expression. The high SPARC expression scores were predominantly identified in meningothelial, fibrous and chordoid meningiomas; low SPARC expression scores were mostly spotted in secretory and psammomatous meningiomas. Evaluating SPARC expression might help assessing recurrence risk and survival estimation in meningiomas. PMID:19703125

Bozkurt, Suheyla Uyar; Ayan, Erdogan; Bolukbasi, Fatihhan; Elmaci, Ilhan; Pamir, Necmettin; Sav, Aydin

2009-09-01

127

Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.  

PubMed

Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. PMID:25016285

Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

2014-10-15

128

Oral caffeine maintenance potentiates the reinforcing and stimulant subjective effects of intravenous nicotine in cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Epidemiological, clinical and pre-clinical observations suggest that caffeine can potentiate the reinforcing and discriminative\\u000a effects of nicotine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. The present study examined whether chronic exposure to moderate doses of caffeine affects the reinforcing and subjective\\u000a effects of intravenously administered nicotine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. The effects of oral caffeine maintenance on the subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered nicotine\\u000a and

Hendree E. Jones; Roland R. Griffiths

2003-01-01

129

Controlling drug release from acrylic polymers: in vitro studies with potential oral inserts.  

PubMed

The use of a drug modified polymer system which can release drugs such as hydrocortisone sodium succinate and chlorhexidine acetate has been explored. By partially coating the drug loaded acrylic, such that it acts as a core with an impermeable membrane covering most of the surface, the rapid releases of the drug can be prevented and near zero-order rates of release achieved. For chlorhexidine acetate the release time was extended from around 20 d to 80 d with at least 60% of the drug being released. A similar potential for the controlled release of hydrocortisone sodium succinate is described and represents an important stage in the development of an intra-oral insert for drug delivery. PMID:3741966

Brook, I M; Douglas, C W; van Noort, R

1986-07-01

130

Asteropsins B-D, sponge-derived knottins with potential utility as a novel scaffold for oral peptide drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Known linear knottins are unsuitable as scaffolds for oral peptide drug due to their gastrointestinal instability. Herein, a new subclass of knottin peptides from Porifera is structurally described and characterized regarding their potential for oral peptide drug development. Methods Asteropsins B–D (ASPB, ASPC, and ASPD) were isolated from the marine sponge Asteropus sp. The tertiary structures of ASPB and ASPC were determined by solution NMR spectroscopy and that of ASPD by homology modeling. Results The isolated asteropsins B–D, together with the previously reported asteropsin A (ASPA), compose a new subclass of knottins that share a highly conserved structural framework and remarkable stability against the enzymes in gastrointestinal tract (chymotrypsin, elastase, pepsin, and trypsin) and human plasma. Conclusion Asteropsins can be considered as promising peptide scaffolds for oral bioavailability. General significance The structural details of asteropsins provide essential information for the engineering of orally bioavailable peptides. PMID:24225326

Li, Huayue; Bowling, John J.; Su, Mingzhi; Hong, Jongki; Lee, Bong-Jin; Hamann, Mark T.; Jung, Jee H.

2014-01-01

131

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas  

SciTech Connect

The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlsson, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences

1994-12-31

132

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett's esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett's lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett's esophagus. PMID:25400987

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-11-15

133

Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett's esophagus  

PubMed Central

Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and surveillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of high-risk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus.

Bennett, Michael; Mashimo, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

134

Complex mucinous cystadenoma of undetermined malignant potential of the urachus: a rare case with review of the literature.  

PubMed

Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm. Benign urachal tumours are extremely rare. All urachal mucinous tumours, regardless of tumour type, have the potential to behave in an aggressive clinical manner that includes the development of pseudomyxoma peritonei. We report a 58-year-old man who presented with lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound and CT imaging defined a large lobulated cystic mass superior to the urinary bladder. At laparotomy, the multiloculated cystic mass, 10 x 8 x 6 cm, could be completely separated from the bladder and was excised. It was smooth-walled and filled with thick mucinous fluid. Histology revealed a complex mucinous cystadenoma of undetermined malignant potential of the urachus. The cystic spaces were lined by mucin-secreting columnar epithelium that showed focal areas of mild atypia. The epithelium lacked architectural features of villous adenoma. There was no stromal invasion to support an invasive neoplastic process. No pseudomyxoma peritonei was present. The patient was well, with no tumour recurrence, at 6 months follow-up. PMID:25194538

Prakash, Malur R; Vijayalaxmi, Suranagi V; Maitreyee, Roy; Ranjit, Kangle P

2014-08-01

135

MK-4815, a potential new oral agent for treatment of malaria.  

PubMed

Malaria continues to have a significant impact on the health of the developing world. Efforts to combat this disease now focus on combination therapy in order to stem the emergence of resistant parasites. Continued efforts are needed to discover and develop new agents for use in combination antimalarial regimens. MK-4815 is a small molecule with antimalarial activity that was identified from a large pharmaceutical compound collection using a semiautomated version of a well-established in vitro assay for the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. In vitro studies indicate that the compound selectively accumulates in infected red blood cells and is most effective against the metabolically active late trophozoite/early schizont stages. A variety of drug-resistant field isolates of P. falciparum were found to be as sensitive to MK-4815 as the wild-type lines. MK-4815 is orally active in a P. berghei mouse model of acute malaria. In this model, where untreated animals succumb to infection 10 to 12 days postinfection, MK-4815 was completely curative when given as a single dose of 50 mg/kg, 2 doses of 25 mg/kg, or 4.5 doses of 12.5 mg/kg. In pharmacokinetic studies with mice and rhesus monkeys, MK-4815 demonstrated oral bioavailability and low clearance. In addition, MK-4815 is inexpensive to synthesize, an important characteristic for providing affordable antimalaria therapy to the developing world. The attractive biological and pharmaceutical profile of MK-4815 demonstrates its potential for use in combination with other agents in the fight against malaria. PMID:22314528

Powles, Mary Ann; Allocco, John; Yeung, Lai; Nare, Bakela; Liberator, Paul; Schmatz, Dennis

2012-05-01

136

MK-4815, a Potential New Oral Agent for Treatment of Malaria  

PubMed Central

Malaria continues to have a significant impact on the health of the developing world. Efforts to combat this disease now focus on combination therapy in order to stem the emergence of resistant parasites. Continued efforts are needed to discover and develop new agents for use in combination antimalarial regimens. MK-4815 is a small molecule with antimalarial activity that was identified from a large pharmaceutical compound collection using a semiautomated version of a well-established in vitro assay for the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. In vitro studies indicate that the compound selectively accumulates in infected red blood cells and is most effective against the metabolically active late trophozoite/early schizont stages. A variety of drug-resistant field isolates of P. falciparum were found to be as sensitive to MK-4815 as the wild-type lines. MK-4815 is orally active in a P. berghei mouse model of acute malaria. In this model, where untreated animals succumb to infection 10 to 12 days postinfection, MK-4815 was completely curative when given as a single dose of 50 mg/kg, 2 doses of 25 mg/kg, or 4.5 doses of 12.5 mg/kg. In pharmacokinetic studies with mice and rhesus monkeys, MK-4815 demonstrated oral bioavailability and low clearance. In addition, MK-4815 is inexpensive to synthesize, an important characteristic for providing affordable antimalaria therapy to the developing world. The attractive biological and pharmaceutical profile of MK-4815 demonstrates its potential for use in combination with other agents in the fight against malaria. PMID:22314528

Allocco, John; Yeung, Lai; Nare, Bakela; Liberator, Paul; Schmatz, Dennis

2012-01-01

137

Rare variants of malignant melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personal experience with 5 rare types of malignant melanoma is reviewed to point out some of the practical problems in the diagnosis and management of these tumors. The rare forms discussed are conjunctival, nasal, oral, vulvar, and penile melanomas. All pigmented lesions in the oral cavity, but not the penis or vulva, should be prophylactically excised as lesions in

G. W. Milton; H. M. Shaw

1992-01-01

138

Prevalence of potential respiratory pathogens in the mouths of elderly patients and effects of professional oral care  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effectiveness of professional oral health care in reducing the risk of aspiration pneumonia, we examined the prevalence of potential respiratory pathogens in gargled samples from elderly persons. Samples were obtained from 54 elderly subjects over 65 years of age who required daily nursing care, from 21 healthy elderly subjects over 65 years old, and from 22 healthy

Shu Abe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Katsuji Okuda

2001-01-01

139

Arginine Metabolism in the Salivary Glands of Protein-Deficient Rats and Its Potential Association with the Oral Microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary glands and their secretions play key roles in the prevention of dental diseases. The antibacterial and physicochemical properties of saliva are compromised in chronic malnutrition. The present study has examined the possibility that some malnutrition-induced changes in salivary gland function are potentially capable of promoting growth and metabolic activities of pathogenic oral microorganisms. Compared to well-fed controls, rats fed

C. O. Enwonwu; F. Ilupeju; R. C. Warren

1994-01-01

140

Autophagy blockade enhances HDAC inhibitors' pro-apoptotic effects: potential implications for the treatment of a therapeutic-resistant malignancy.  

PubMed

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive, highly metastatic, poor prognosis tumors for which effective therapeutic strategies are currently lacking. We summarize recent work focusing on preclinical evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) for the treatment of MPNST. HDACis are a novel drug class with anti-cancer therapeutic promise. Using human MPNST cell lines and xenograft models we found that a MPNST subset is highly sensitive to HDACis, whereas a fraction is relatively resistant. HDACis were found to induce autophagy in all MPNST cells in vitro and in vivo; in "sensitive" MPNST cells autophagy occurs in concert with apoptosis, whereas unopposed autophagy develops in "resistant" cells. Genetic and chemical autophagy blockade significantly enhances HDACi-induced apoptotic cell death in both resistant and sensitive cells. Combined chloroquine and HDACi treatment abrogates growth of human MPNST xenografts and lung metastases. The potential role of autophagy in cancer therapeutic response remains controversial; however, our study supports HDACi-induced autophagy as a MPNST survival mechanism. These data also imply that the consequences of drug-induced autophagy may be compound-type, tumor-type, or even molecular context-dependent, suggesting a complex crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Clinical trials evaluating HDACis with autophagy blockade for therapy of MPNST therefore merit consideration. PMID:21224727

Lopez, Gonzalo; Torres, Keila; Lev, Dina

2011-04-01

141

Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4 signaling potentially modulates malignant behavior in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common non-skin cancer worldwide. Despite improvement in therapeutic strategies, the prognosis of advanced HNSCC remains poor. The extacellular lipid mediators known as lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis of HNSCC. LPAs activate G-protein-coupled receptors not only in the endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) family (LPA1, LPA2, LPA3) but also in the phylogenetically distant non-Edg family (LPA4, LPA5, LPA6). The distinct roles of these receptor isoforms in HNSCC tumorigenesis have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ectopic expression of LPA4 in SQ-20B, an HNSCC cell line, expressing a trivial level of endogenous LPA4. LPA (18:1) stimulated proliferation of SQ-20B cells, but did not affect proliferation of HEp-2, an SCC cell line expressing higher levels of LPA4, comparable to those of with LPA1. LPA-stimulated proliferation of SQ-20B cells was attenuated by Ki16425 and Rac1 inhibitor, but not by Y-27632. Infection with doxycycline-regulatable adenovirus vector expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged LPA4 (AdvLPA4G) abolished LPA-stimulated proliferation in SQ-20B cells with the accumulation of G2/M-phasic cells. Ectopic LPA4 induction further downregulated proliferation of Ki16425-treated SQ-20B cells, of which downregulation was partially recovered by LPA. Ectopic LPA4 induction also downregulated proliferation of Rac1 inhibitor-treated SQ-20B cells, however, LPA no longer recovered it. Finally, LPA-induced cell motility was suppressed by ectopic LPA4 expression as well as by Ki16425, Rac1 inhibitor or Y-27632. Our data suggest that LPA4 signaling potentially modulates malignant behavior of SQ-20B cells. LPA signaling, which is mediated by both Edg and non-Edg receptors, may be a determinant of malignant behavior of HNSCC and could therefore be a promising therapeutic target. PMID:23467751

Matayoshi, Sen; Chiba, Shunmei; Lin, Yanfui; Arakaki, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Hirofumi; Nakanishi, Takaya; Suzuki, Mikio; Kato, Seiya

2013-05-01

142

Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4 signaling potentially modulates malignant behavior in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common non-skin cancer worldwide. Despite improvement in therapeutic strategies, the prognosis of advanced HNSCC remains poor. The extacellular lipid mediators known as lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis of HNSCC. LPAs activate G-protein-coupled receptors not only in the endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) family (LPA1, LPA2, LPA3) but also in the phylogenetically distant non-Edg family (LPA4, LPA5, LPA6). The distinct roles of these receptor isoforms in HNSCC tumorigenesis have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ectopic expression of LPA4 in SQ-20B, an HNSCC cell line, expressing a trivial level of endogenous LPA4. LPA (18:1) stimulated proliferation of SQ-20B cells, but did not affect proliferation of HEp-2, an SCC cell line expressing higher levels of LPA4, comparable to those of with LPA1. LPA-stimulated proliferation of SQ-20B cells was attenuated by Ki16425 and Rac1 inhibitor, but not by Y-27632. Infection with doxycycline-regulatable adenovirus vector expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged LPA4 (AdvLPA4G) abolished LPA-stimulated proliferation in SQ-20B cells with the accumulation of G2/M-phasic cells. Ectopic LPA4 induction further downregulated proliferation of Ki16425-treated SQ-20B cells, of which downregulation was partially recovered by LPA. Ectopic LPA4 induction also downregulated proliferation of Rac1 inhibitor-treated SQ-20B cells, however, LPA no longer recovered it. Finally, LPA-induced cell motility was suppressed by ectopic LPA4 expression as well as by Ki16425, Rac1 inhibitor or Y-27632. Our data suggest that LPA4 signaling potentially modulates malignant behavior of SQ-20B cells. LPA signaling, which is mediated by both Edg and non-Edg receptors, may be a determinant of malignant behavior of HNSCC and could therefore be a promising therapeutic target. PMID:23467751

MATAYOSHI, SEN; CHIBA, SHUNMEI; LIN, YANFUI; ARAKAKI, KAZUNARI; MATSUMOTO, HIROFUMI; NAKANISHI, TAKAYA; SUZUKI, MIKIO; KATO, SEIYA

2013-01-01

143

Oral Cavity as a Potential Source of Gastric Reinfection by Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a common pathogen colonizing the a gastric mucosa, but some reports indicated that it may also be found in the oral cavity, which could serve as a reservoir of the bacteria and a source of gastric reinfection. Accordingly, we aimed to study whether the oral cavity, particularly gingival pockets, are colonized by Hp and whether it

El?bieta Karczewska; Joanna E. Konturek; Peter C. Konturek; Marta Cze?nikiewicz; Edward Sito; W?adys?aw Biela?ski; Nina Kwiecie?; Wojciech Obtu?owicz; Witold Ziemniak; Jolanta Majka; Eckhart G. Hahn; Stanislaw J. Konturek

2002-01-01

144

Oral cavity as a potential source of infections in recipients with diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous observations showed alterations of oral cavity status among hemodialyzed patients and kidney allograft recipients as well as differences in the prevalence and composition of microorganisms occuring in the mouths of patients. In the present work, we analysed the results of oral cavity examinations, the identification of microorganisms, and the assessment of their importance to kidney allograft recipients or

J Piekarczyk; P Fiedor; L Chomicz; D Szubinska; B Staro?ciak; B Piekarczyk; P Zawadzki; J ?ebrowska; T Dudzi?ski

2003-01-01

145

Oral tolerance in neonates: from basics to potential prevention of allergic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral tolerance refers to the observation that prior feeding of an antigen induces local and systemic immune tolerance to that antigen. Physiologically, this process is probably of central importance for preventing inflammatory responses to the numerous dietary and microbial antigens present in the gut. Defective oral tolerance can lead to gut inflammatory disease, food allergies, and celiac disease. In the

V Verhasselt

2010-01-01

146

Potential of Text-Based Internet Chats for Improving Oral Fluency in a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a number of studies have reported on the positive effects of Internet chats in the second language classroom, to the best of my knowledge no studies to date have examined the effect of text-based chats on oral fluency development. This exploratory study addressed the above question by examining the oral fluency development of 34 English…

Blake, Christopher

2009-01-01

147

The change of electric potentials in the oral cavity after application of extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field.  

PubMed

Electric potentials occurring in the oral cavity deserve attention as they may cause various diseases and subjective feelings, which are very difficult to treat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electric potentials within the oral cavity in patients with metal fillings and metal prosthetic restorations, after using a pulsed electromagnetic field. The study was carried out on 84 patients. The Viofor JPS Classic device was used in the treatment. It generates a pulsed electromagnetic field with low induction of the extremely low frequency (ELF) range. Average values of electric potentials in the preliminary test were about the same in both groups; they were 148.8 mV and 145.5 mV. After another appliance of ELF fields there was found a steady decline in the average value of electric potentials in the study group. This decrease was statistically highly significant, while mean values of electric potentials in the control group were characterized by a slightly upward tendency. The obtained statistically significant reduction of electric potentials in the oral cavity of patients having metal fillings and metal prosthetic restorations, after application of the Viofor JPS Classic device, implies a huge impact of ELF pulsed electromagnetic field on inhibition of electrochemical processes, as well as on inhibition of dental alloy corrosion.  PMID:23687218

Skomro, Piotr; Lietz-Kijak, Danuta; Kijak, Edward; Bogdziewicz-Wa??sa, Olga; Opalko, Krystyna

2012-01-01

148

Experimental oral inoculations in birds to evaluate potential definitive hosts of Neospora caninum.  

PubMed

Experimental oral inoculations to evaluate potential definitive hosts of Neospora caninum were conducted by feeding infected rodent tissues to 9 carnivorous birds of 4 species. Birds included 2 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 2 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), 2 barn owls (Tyto alba), and 3 American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchus). The rodents (mice or rats) had been inoculated with 100,000 culture-derived tachyzoites of N. caninum 1-6 mo before feeding to the birds. Fecal samples were collected from each bird daily for 1 mo after feeding rodents and examined for oocysts by fecal flotation. In addition, processed aliquots from all avian fecal samples were fed to BALB/c mice. Five weeks after feeding, mice were bled and sera were tested for antibodies against N. caninum. One to two months later, mice were killed and brain tissue was examined microscopically for protozoal cysts. While occasional oocysts were found in avian fecal samples, these were likely not N. caninum because they were not infective to BALB/c mice. It was concluded that the bird species tested are not likely to be definitive hosts of N. caninum. PMID:7472875

Baker, D G; Morishita, T Y; Brooks, D L; Shen, S K; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P

1995-10-01

149

The potential oral health impact of cost barriers to dental care: findings from a Canadian population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Prior to the 2007/09 Canadian Health Measures Survey, there was no nationally representative clinical data on the oral health of Canadians experiencing cost barriers to dental care. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status and dental treatment needs of Canadians reporting cost barriers to dental care. Methods A secondary data analysis of the 2007/09 Canadian Health Measures Survey was undertaken using a sample of 5,586 Canadians aged 6 to 79. Chi square tests were conducted to test the association between reporting cost barriers to care and oral health outcomes. Logistic regressions were conducted to identify predictors of reporting cost barriers. Results Individuals who reported cost barriers to dental care had poorer oral health and more treatment needs compared to their counterparts. Conclusions Avoiding dental care and/or foregoing recommended treatment because of cost may contribute to poor oral health. This study substantiates the potential likelihood of progressive dental problems caused by an inability to treat existing conditions due to financial barriers. PMID:24962622

2014-01-01

150

1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate inhibits growth of human oral carcinoma xenograft in mice and potentiates cisplatin effect via proinflammatory microenvironment alterations  

PubMed Central

Background Oral cancers although preventable, possess a low five-year survival rate which has remained unchanged over the past three decades. In an attempt to find a more safe, affordable and effective treatment option, we describe here the use of 1’S-1’-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a component of Malaysian ginger traditionally used for various medicinal purposes. Methods Whether ACA can inhibit the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells alone or in combination with cisplatin (CDDP), was explored both in vitro using MTT assays and in vivo using Nu/Nu mice. Occurrence of apoptosis was assessed using PARP and DNA fragmentation assays, while the mode of action were elucidated through global expression profiling followed by Western blotting and IHC assays. Results We found that ACA alone inhibited the growth of oral SCC cells, induced apoptosis and suppressed its migration rate, while minimally affecting HMEC normal cells. ACA further enhanced the cytotoxic effects of CDDP in a synergistic manner as suggested by combination index studies. We also found that ACA inhibited the constitutive activation of NF-?B through suppression of IKK?/? activation. Human oral tumor xenografts studies in mice revealed that ACA alone was as effective as CDDP in reducing tumor volume, and further potentiated CDDP effects when used in combination with minimal body weight loss. The effects of ACA also correlated with a down-regulation of NF-?B regulated gene (FasL and Bim), including proinflammatory (NF-?B and COX-2) and proliferative (cyclin D1) biomarkers in tumor tissue. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that ACA inhibits the growth of oral SCC and further potentiates the effect of standard CDDP treatment by modulation of proinflammatory microenvironment. The current preclinical data could form the basis for further clinical trials to improve the current standards for oral cancer care using this active component from the Malaysian ginger. PMID:23043547

2012-01-01

151

Clinical and biochemical studies support smokeless tobacco's carcinogenic potential in the human oral cavity.  

PubMed

In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer presented compelling evidence that linked smokeless tobacco use to the development of human oral cancer. Although these findings imply vigorous local carcinogen metabolism, little is known about levels and distribution of phase I, II, and III (drug egress) enzymes in human oral mucosa. In this study here, we integrated clinical data, and imaging and histopathologic analyses of an oral squamous cell carcinoma that arose at the site of smokeless tobacco quid placement in a patient. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were used to identify tumor and normal human oral mucosal smokeless tobacco-associated metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes. Human oral epithelium contains every known phase I enzyme associated with nitrosamine oxidative bioactivation with approximately 2-fold interdonor differences in protein levels. Previous studies have confirmed approximately 3.5-fold interdonor variations in intraepithelial phase II enzymes. Unlike the superficially located enzymes in nonreplicating esophageal surface epithelium, IHC studies confirmed that oral mucosal nitrosamine metabolizing enzymes reside in the basilar and suprabasilar region, which notably is the site of ongoing keratinocyte DNA replication. Clearly, variations in product composition, nitrosamine metabolism, and exposure duration will modulate clinical outcomes. The data presented here form a coherent picture consistent with the abundant experimental data that link tobacco-specific nitrosamines to human oral cancer. PMID:24265177

Mallery, Susan R; Tong, Meng; Michaels, Gregory C; Kiyani, Amber R; Hecht, Stephen S

2014-01-01

152

Section three: oral cancers.  

PubMed

Oral cancers are uncommon in the United States. Risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and high-risk oral human papillomavirus infection. Precancerous lesions, such as leukoplakia, may lead to oral cancers, but the majority of precancerous lesions never undergo malignant transformation. Management and prognosis for oral cancers vary widely depending on the site of the cancer. Lip cancers typically are detected early and have the greatest likelihood for cure and long-term patient survival. Cancers of the pharynx and tonsil have poor survival rates even when diagnosed in early stages. The best approach to preventing oral cancers is to control risk factors. PMID:24328950

Hueston, William J; Kaur, Dipinpreet

2013-12-01

153

Drug-Loaded Nanoparticle Systems And Adult Stem Cells: A Potential Marriage For The Treatment Of Malignant Glioma?  

PubMed Central

Despite all recent advances in malignant glioma research, only modest progress has been achieved in improving patient prognosis and quality of life. Such a clinical scenario underscores the importance of investing in new therapeutic approaches that, when combined with conventional therapies, are able to effectively eradicate glioma infiltration and target distant tumor foci. Nanoparticle-loaded delivery systems have recently arisen as an exciting alternative to improve targeted anti-glioma drug delivery. As drug carriers, they are able to efficiently protect the therapeutic agent and allow for sustained drug release. In addition, their surface can be easily manipulated with the addition of special ligands, which are responsible for enhancing tumor-specific nanoparticle permeability. However, their inefficient intratumoral distribution and failure to target disseminated tumor burden still pose a big challenge for their implementation as a therapeutic option in the clinical setting. Stem cell-based delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles offers an interesting option to overcome such issues. Their ability to incorporate nanoparticles and migrate throughout interstitial barriers, together with their inherent tumor-tropic properties and synergistic anti-tumor effects make these stem cell carriers a good fit for such combined therapy. In this review, we will describe the main nanoparticle delivery systems that are presently available in preclinical and clinical studies. We will discuss their mechanisms of targeting, current delivery methods, attractive features and pitfalls. We will also debate the potential applications of stem cell carriers loaded with therapeutic nanoparticles in anticancer therapy and why such an attractive combined approach has not yet reached clinical trials. PMID:23594406

Auffinger, Brenda; Morshed, Ramin; Tobias, Alex; Cheng, Yu; Ahmed, Atique U; Lesniak, Maciej S

2013-01-01

154

Peritoneal washing cytologic analysis of ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential to detect peritoneal implants and predict clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential (OSLMP) who have peritoneal implants, especially invasive implants, are at increased risk of developing tumor recurrence. The ability of peritoneal washing (PW) cytology, to detect the presence and type of peritoneal implants has not been adequately investigated, and its prognostic significance is unknown. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records and PW specimens of 101 patients diagnosed with and treated for OSLMP between 1996 and 2010 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. We compared patients’ staging biopsy findings with those of our review of the PWs. Follow-up data were also analyzed. Results Of the 96 patients with staging biopsy results available, 26 (27%) had peritoneal implants (17 noninvasive, 9 invasive), 19 (20%) had endosalpingiosis, and 51 (53%) had negative findings. The PW specimens of 18 of the 26 patients (69%) with peritoneal implants were positive for serous neoplasm, and a correlation was found between cytologic and histologic findings (p < 0.0001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values were 69%, 84%, 62% and 88%, respectively. Four of 101 patients had disease recurrence, 3 of these patients had invasive implants and 1 patient had noninvasive implants. None of the patients who had negative staging biopsy findings or endosalpingiosis but PW specimens positive for serous neoplasm developed disease recurrence. Conclusions PW cytology detects the presence of peritoneal implants with moderate accuracy. Long-term studies are needed to determine whether positive PW cytologic findings are an independent predictor of tumor recurrence. PMID:22826172

Sneige, Nour; Thomison, John B.; Malpica, Anais; Gong, Yun; Ensor, Joe; Silva, Elvio G.

2013-01-01

155

Corrosion in the oral cavity--potential local and systemic effects.  

PubMed

The main current-generating corrosion cells in the oral cavity are the bimetallic cell and the concentration cell, the latter mainly occurring due to differences in access to oxygen in the various parts of the metallic material. Corrosion resistance is not an intrinsic property of a metal or an alloy for it depends on an interaction with the environment. Thus, the contents of the oral cavity, have a decisive influence. This implies that corrosion tests in vitro are of limited value in predicting the clinical corrosion behaviour of a metallic material. Results from a series of clinical studies concerning a possible relationship between galvanic currents and certain oral and other symptoms in a group of patients who had been referred to the Faculty of Odontology, University of Umeå, are briefly presented. The possibility of local and systemic effects of intra-oral galvanic cells is discussed. PMID:3457767

Bergman, M

1986-03-01

156

A Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetic Study of Oral and Intravenous Hydroxyurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread usage of hydroxyurea in the treat- ment of both malignant and nonmalignant diseases and a recent expansion in the recognition of its potential therapeu- tic applications, there have been few detailed studies of hydroxyurea's pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior and oral bio- availability. Parenteral administration schedules have been evaluated because of concerns about the possibility for significant interindividual variability

Gladys I. Rodriguez; John G. Kuhn; Geoffrey R. Weiss; Susan G. Hilsenbeck; John R. Eckardt; Allison Thurman; David A. Rinaldi; Stephanie Hodges; Daniel D. Von Hoff; Eric K. Rowinsky

2010-01-01

157

Potential beneficial effects of oral administration of isoflavones in patients with chronic mountain sickness  

PubMed Central

Soy isoflavones (Ifs), which are natural phytoestrogens, have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that genistein, the most active component of Ifs, inhibits pulmonary vascular structural remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by chronic hypoxia in male Wistar rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ifs on right ventricular and pulmonary hemodynamics in individuals with chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Twenty-eight male patients living on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (5,200 m) who were suffering from CMS were treated orally with Ifs (20 mg, twice daily) for 45 days. Physiological and plasma biochemical indices, hematology and echocardiography were investigated. It was observed that 45 days of treatment with Ifs significantly increased blood oxygen saturation and markedly decreased the CMS score and heart rate (all P<0.05) of the subjects. Following treatment with Ifs, hematocrit (P<0.05), hemoglobin concentration (P<0.01) and plasma levels of malondialdehyde (P<0.05) were significantly decreased, while plasma levels of nitric oxide (P<0.01) and the plasma activity of nitric oxide synthase (P<0.01) and superoxide dismutase (P<0.01) were markedly increased compared with the respective values obtained prior to treatment with Ifs. The echocardiography results showed that Ifs significantly decreased the main pulmonary artery diameter (P<0.05), right ventricular end-diastolic anteroposterior diameter (P<0.01), right ventricular end-diastolic trans diameter (P<0.01), right ventricular anterior wall (P<0.01) and right ventricular outflow tract (P<0.01). These results indicate the potential beneficial effects of Ifs in the reduction of excessive erythrocytosis, the alleviation of oxidative damage and the amelioration of right ventricular index and pulmonary hemodynamics in CMS. PMID:24348805

CUI, JIANHUA; GAO, LIANG; YANG, HAIJUN; WANG, FULING; JIANG, CHUNHUA; GAO, YUQI

2014-01-01

158

Eudraginated polymer blends: a potential oral controlled drug delivery system for theophylline.  

PubMed

Sustained release (SR) dosage forms enable prolonged and continuous deposition of the drug in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and improve the bioavailability of medications characterized by a narrow absorption window. In this study, a new strategy is proposed for the development of SR dosage forms for theophylline (TPH). Design of the delivery system was based on a sustained release formulation, with a modified coating technique and swelling features aimed to extend the release time of the drug. Different polymers, such as Carbopol 71G (CP), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), ethylcellulose (EC) and their combinations were tried. Prepared matrix tablets were coated with a 5 % (m/m) dispersion of Eudragit (EUD) in order to get the desired sustained release profile over a period of 24 h. Various formulations were evaluated for micromeritic properties, drug concentration and in vitro drug release. It was found that the in vitro drug release rate decreased with increasing the amount of polymer. Coating with EUD resulted in a significant lag phase in the first two hours of dissolution in the acidic pH of simulated gastric fluid (SGF) due to decreased water uptake, and hence decreased driving force for drug release. Release became faster in the alkaline pH of simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) owing to increased solubility of both the coating and matrixing agents. The optimized formulation was subjected to in vivo studies in rabbits and the pharmacokinetic parameters of developed formulations were compared with the commercial (Asmanyl(®)) formulation. Asmanyl(®) tablets showed faster absorption (t(max) 4.0 h) compared to the TPH formulation showing a t(max) value of 8.0 h. The C(max) and AUC values of TPH formulation were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those for Asmanyl(®), revealing relative bioavailability of about 136.93 %. Our study demonstrated the potential usefulness of eudraginated polymers for the oral delivery of the sparingly soluble drug theophylline. PMID:22472450

Emeje, Martins; John-Africa, Lucy; Isimi, Yetunde; Kunle, Olobayo; Ofoefule, Sabinus

2012-03-01

159

MCP-1 as a potential target to inhibit the bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Bone invasion is a common complication of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and this study sought to explore whether suppressed expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) can be used to inhibit the bone invasion by OSCC. Strong staining of MCP-1 protein was observed from 10 archival blocks of OSCC by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Real-time PCR showed MCP-1 mRNA was highly expressed by OSCC cell lines (SCC25, HN5, and Tca8113), and SCC25 cells had the highest expression. An expression construct of a dominant negative variant of MCP-1 with 7 amino acids truncated (7ND), in the vector pcDNA was used to transfect SCC25 cells, and resultant stabilized SCC25 cells (SCC25-7ND) were generated by antibiotic selection. 10% conditioned media (CM, supernatant) of SCC25-7ND cells efficiently inhibited the formation of human osteoclasts grown from CD14(+) monocyte subpopulation, comparing with 10% CM of SCC25 cells. Further, cells of SCC25 or SCC25-7ND were injected onto the surface of calvariae of nude mice to establish an animal model of bone invasion by OSCC. H&E staining showed well-differentiated OSCC was formed in both groups, tumour cells invading the bone while osteoclasts locating in typical resorption lacunae. TRAP staining indicated significantly fewer osteoclasts were found in calvariae with cells of SCC25-7ND in comparison to cells of SCC25. These data demonstrate the relevance of MCP-1 with research on bone invasion by OSCC, and suggest the potential value of MCP-1 as a target to inhibit this common complication. PMID:24905457

Quan, Jingjing; Morrison, Nigel A; Johnson, Newell W; Gao, Jin

2014-10-01

160

Pharmacokinetics and potential advantages of a new oral solution of levothyroxine vs. other available dosage forms.  

PubMed

To better understand the pharmacokinetics and potential advantages of a levothyroxine oral solution vs. tablets and soft gel capsules.4 randomized, 2-treatment, single-dose (600 mcg levothyroxine), 2-way crossover bioequivalence studies in 84 healthy subjects were analyzed. Samples were collected before dosing and until 48-72?h post-dose to calculate noncompartmental baseline-adjusted pharmacokinetic parameters: maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 48?h and from 0 to 2?h.Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (±standard deviation) for tablets, capsules and solution, respectively, were: area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 2?h (ng*h/mL)=68.4±32.8, 64.4±24.4, 99.1±22.7; area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 48?h (ng*h/mL)=1?632±424, 1?752±445, 1?862±439; maximum concentration (ng/mL)=67.6±20.9, 68.0±15.9, 71.4±16.0; time of maximum concentration (hours)=2.25±0.99, 2.38±1.58, 1.96±1.07. Overall rate and extent of exposure were not statistically different between formulations, but a faster onset of absorption for the solution was suggested (greater area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 2?h and faster time to maximum concentration by an average of 30?min).Levothyroxine rate and extent of exposure are similar between tested formulations. The solution appears however to reach systemic circulation quicker as dissolution is not needed before absorption starts. The solution's greater early exposure and a faster time to maximal concentration of around 30?min may be of benefit to minimize drug-food interactions and deserves further investigations. PMID:23154888

Yue, C S; Scarsi, C; Ducharme, M P

2012-12-01

161

Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in different subtypes of oral lichenoid disease  

PubMed Central

The oral lichenoid disease (OLD) includes different chronic inflammatory processes such as oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), both entities with controversial diagnosis and malignant potential. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) is an important oral carcinogenesis biomarker and overexpressed in several oral potentially malignant disorders. Objectives: To analyze the EGFR expression in the OLD to find differences between OLP and OLL, and to correlate it with the main clinical and pathological features. Material and Methods: Forty-four OLD cases were studied and classified according to their clinical (Group C1: only papular lesions / Group C2: papular and other lesions) and histopathological features (Group HT: OLP-typical / Group HC: OLP-compatible) based in previous published criteria. Standard immunohistochemical identification of EGFR protein was performed. Comparative and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: Thirty-five cases (79.5%) showed EGFR overexpression without significant differences between clinical and histopathological groups (p<0.05). Histological groups showed significant differences in the EGFR expression pattern (p=0.016). Conlusions: All OLD samples showed high EGFR expression. The type of clinical lesion was not related with EGFR expression; however, there are differences in the EGFR expression pattern between histological groups that may be related with a different biological profile and malignant risk. Key words:Oral lichenoid disease, oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesion, oral carcinogenesis, EGFR. PMID:24880441

Cortes-Ramirez, Dionisio A.; Rodriguez-Tojo, Maria J.; Coca-Meneses, Juan C.; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier

2014-01-01

162

Long-term low-dose ?-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.  

PubMed

Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy ?-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1-2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1-2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of ?-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway. PMID:24746471

Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin

2014-05-01

163

Immunohistochemical evaluation of global DNA methylation and histone acetylation in papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential.  

PubMed

A preceding study has shown that karyometry detected subvisual differences in chromatin organization status between non-recurrent and recurrent papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP). The status of chromatin organization depends on epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. The aim of this study is to explore global DNA methylation and global histone acetylation in non-recurrent and recurrent PUNLMP. 5-methylcytosine (5MeC) and acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9) were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 20 PUNLMP cases (10 non-recurrent and 10 recurrent), in 5 cases of normal urothelium (NU) and in 5 cases of muscle invasive pT2 urothelial carcinoma (UC). For global DNA methylation, the mean percentage of positive nuclei in the cells adjacent to the stroma increased from NU (79%) through non-recurrent and recurrent PUNLMP (86% and 93%, respectively) to UC (97%). The percentages of positive nuclei in the intermediate cell layers and in the superficial cells in the four groups were similar to those adjacent to the stroma. The proportion of nuclei with weak-to-moderate intensity was far greater than that of those strongly stained and increased steadily from NU to UC. For global histone acetylation, the mean percentage of positive nuclei was highest in non-recurrent PUNLMP (i.e. 90%) and lowest in recurrent PUNLMP (i.e. 81%). In NU and UC the mean percentages of positive nuclei were 84% and 86%, respectively. The percentage of positive nuclei decreased from the cell layer adjacent to the stroma to the superficial cell layer. The proportion of nuclei with weak-to-moderate intensity was slightly greater than that of those strongly stained. In comparison with global DNA methylation, the proportion of strongly stained nuclei was much higher. In conclusion, there are differences in global DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns between non-recurrent and recurrent PUNLMP. Further studies are needed to elucidate the complex interplay between chromatin structure, its modifications and recurrence of PUNLMP. PMID:18831929

Barbisan, F; Mazzucchelli, R; Santinelli, A; Stramazzotti, D; Scarpelli, M; Lopez-Beltran, A; Cheng, L; Montironi, R

2008-01-01

164

Effects of herpes simplex virus on human oral cancer cells, and potential use of mutant viruses in therapy of oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) might be useful in treatment of oral cancer because it is strongly cytolytic, and its natural target tissue is the source of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Use of a wild-type virus would be limited by its spread and neurotoxicity, but it might be possible to develop mutants whose range could be restricted to oral

E. J Shillitoe; E Gilchrist; C Pellenz; V Murrah

1999-01-01

165

IL6 and IL8: Potential biomarkers for oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Since morbidity and mortality rates due to oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have improved little in the past 30 years, early detection or prevention of this disease is likely to be most effective. Using laser-capture microdissection, we identified the expression of 2 cellular genes that are uniquely associated with OSCC: IL-6 and IL-8. We then set

Maie St John; Yang Li; Xiaofeng Zhou; Honghu Liu; Elliot Abemayor; David T. W. Wong

2004-01-01

166

Depth sensitive oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying depth-dependent alterations associated with epithelial cancerous lesions can be challenging in the oral cavity where variable epithelial thicknesses and troublesome keratin growths are prominent. Spectroscopic methods with enhanced depth resolution would immensely aid in isolating optical properties associated with malignant transformation. Combining multiple beveled fibers, oblique collection geometry, and polarization gating, oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy (OPRS) achieves depth sensitive detection. We report promising results from a clinical trial of patients with oral lesions suspected of dysplasia or carcinoma demonstrating the potential of OPRS for the analysis of morphological and architectural changes in the context of multilayer, epithelial oral tissue.

Jimenez, Maria K.; Lam, Sylvia; Poh, Catherine; Sokolov, Konstantin

2014-05-01

167

In vivo native fluorescence spectroscopy and nicotinamide adinine dinucleotide\\/flavin adenine dinucleotide reduction and oxidation states of oral submucous fibrosis for chemopreventive drug monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native fluorescence spectroscopy has shown potential to characterize and diagnose oral malignancy. We aim at extending the native fluorescence spectroscopy technique to characterize normal and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients under pre- and post-treated conditions, and verify whether this method could also be considered in the monitoring of therapeutic prognosis noninvasively. In this study, 28 normal subjects and 28 clinically

Shanmugam Sivabalan; C. Ponranjini Vedeswari; Sadaksharam Jayachandran; Dornadula Koteeswaran; Chidambaranathan Pravda; Prakasa Rao Aruna; Singaravelu Ganesan

2010-01-01

168

Aerobic bacterial oral flora of garter snakes: development of normal flora and pathogenic potential for snakes and humans.  

PubMed Central

Garter snakes that are used for scientific laboratory studies or kept as exotic pets often become ill and die early in captivity. They may also act as reservoirs of potential human pathogens or transmit infection to man. A total of 126 strains of aerobic and facultative bacteria, most potential human and snake pathogens, were isolated from 82 garter snake oropharyngeal cultures. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were the most common species isolated. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Hafnia alvei, Arizona hinshawii, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the potential pathogens isolated. The spectrum of bacteria with potential for causing oral and pulmonary infections in garter snakes is greater than has been previously appreciated. Garter snakes should also be considered reservoirs of human pathogens, and appropriate precautions should be taken by laboratory personnel and pet owners. PMID:7240404

Goldstein, E J; Agyare, E O; Vagvolgyi, A E; Halpern, M

1981-01-01

169

Lymph node involvement in ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential: a clinicopathologic study of thirty-six cases.  

PubMed

Experience with lymph node involvement (LNI) in ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential (OSLMP) is limited, which has led to an uncertainty about the clinical significance of this phenomenon. In this study, we present the clinicopathologic features of 36 cases of OSLMP with LNI. A control group of 36 OSLMP with no LNI was established for comparison. Parameters recorded for both the study and the control group included Federation of International Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, microinvasion and micropapillary/cribriform pattern in the OSLMP, invasive and noninvasive peritoneal implants, the total number of lymph nodes, the number of lymph node sites sampled and their location (pelvic, periaortic, and abdominal), and the greatest gross lymph node dimension per each site. LNI pattern (single cells, clusters, micropapillae, small papillae, papillae, glandular, and intraglandular) and the greatest microscopic linear dimension of LNI foci were also recorded. Statistical comparisons between the study and the control group were made using the Fisher exact test and chi test. The log-rank test was used to evaluate the impact of LNI on disease-free survival and overall survival. Clinical follow-up was obtained from the review of medical records and from phone calls to the attending physicians. In terms of general pathologic features, the experimental group had a significantly higher rate of invasive (P=0.01) and noninvasive (P=0.002) implants compared with the control group. In 22% of the cases in the study group, LNI represented the only site of extraovarian disease. The highest yield of lymph nodes with LNI was obtained from pelvic lymph nodes (90%), with a sampling of 3 to 4 sites. The average gross lymph node size range was comparable between the study (0.2 to 4.0 cm) and the control (0.2 to 4.3 cm) groups. The patients in the study group (38.5 y) were on average 10 years younger than those in the control group (49.1 y). Clinical information and follow-up were available for 86% (31) of the cases in both groups. No recurrences were seen in the control group. In the study group, 11% (4) patients are alive with recurrent disease and 6% (2) died of the disease. Histologic diagnosis of recurrences was available in 5 cases and showed low-grade serous carcinoma. Two cases recurred exclusively in the lymph nodes. Although the study group had a higher proportion of patients with disease recurrence and death disease, when the two groups were compared by looking only at FIGO stage III cases, LNI did not have a statistically significant impact on disease-free survival (P=0.09) or the overall survival (P=0.40). There was no relationship between the greatest linear dimension of LNI or the pattern of LNI and disease recurrence. In summary, in cases of OSLMP, LNI is associated with a higher rate of invasive and noninvasive implants, but is not an independent predictor of disease-free survival or overall survival. Women under 40 years of age and with peritoneal implants may be at particular risk for LNI. Lymphadenectomy upstages a significant proportion of patients with LNI, highlighting the need for lymph node sampling in all OSLMP cases. Grossly unremarkable lymph nodes are not at a decreased risk of LNI. The pattern and the greatest linear dimension of LNI foci were not shown to have prognostic significance. PMID:19898226

Djordjevic, Bojana; Malpica, Anais

2010-01-01

170

Expression of p53 protein and ki-67 antigen in oral premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas: An immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study expression of p53 protein and ki-67 antigen in normal, non-dysplastic, dysplastic, premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: The standard immunohistochemical method along with MIB-1 and DO-7; DAKO antibodies was used to study the expression of p53 and ki-67 in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. Results: All samples studied showed positive staining for p53 and ki-67. Only one case each from leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) groups showed negative staining for ki-67. The staining was confined to basal layer in most of the cases except OSCC in which it was seen in all layers. The intensity of staining was moderate to intense. The percentage of p53-positive cells in normal mucosa was 15-25% which was increased to 95% in malignant mucosa. Statistical analysis revealed that the expression of p53 and ki-67 increases as normal oral mucosa becomes dysplastic and undergoes malignant transformation. Conclusion: These results emphasize the potential use of p53 protein and ki-67 antigen as markers of malignant transformation and carcinogenesis in oral premalignant lesions, conditions and OSCC, respectively; and in future they may serve as prognostic tools in the early detection of malignant transformation in oral premalignant lesions and conditions. PMID:22442608

Humayun, S.; Prasad, V. Ram

2011-01-01

171

Transcription Profiling Reveals Potential Mechanisms of Dysbiosis in the Oral Microbiome of Rhesus Macaques with Chronic Untreated SIV Infection  

PubMed Central

A majority of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy and ultimately develop debilitating oral infections that often correlate with disease progression. Due to the impracticalities of conducting host-microbe systems-based studies in HIV infected patients, we have evaluated the potential of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected rhesus macaques to serve as a non-human primate model for oral manifestations of HIV disease. We present the first description of the rhesus macaque oral microbiota and show that a mixture of human commensal bacteria and “macaque versions” of human commensals colonize the tongue dorsum and dental plaque. Our findings indicate that SIV infection results in chronic activation of antiviral and inflammatory responses in the tongue mucosa that may collectively lead to repression of epithelial development and impact the microbiome. In addition, we show that dysbiosis of the lingual microbiome in SIV infection is characterized by outgrowth of Gemella morbillorum that may result from impaired macrophage function. Finally, we provide evidence that the increased capacity of opportunistic pathogens (e.g. E. coli) to colonize the microbiome is associated with reduced production of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24312248

Ocon, Susan; Murphy, Christina; Dang, Angeline T.; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Li, Chin-Shang; Tarara, Ross; Borujerdpur, Niku; Dandekar, Satya; Paster, Bruce J.; George, Michael D.

2013-01-01

172

Liposomes containing glycocholate as potential oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, in vitro characterization, and improved protection against enzymatic degradation  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral delivery of insulin is challenging and must overcome the barriers of gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as low permeation across the intestinal epithelium. The present study aimed to develop a liposomal delivery system containing glycocholate as an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer for oral insulin delivery. Methods: Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method followed by homogenization. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of recombinant human insulin (rhINS)-loaded sodium glycocholate liposomes can be easily adjusted by tuning the homogenization parameters, phospholipid:sodium glycocholate ratio, insulin:phospholipid ratio, water:ether volume ratio, interior water phase pH, and the hydration buffer pH. Results: The optimal formulation showed an insulin entrapment efficiency of 30% ± 2% and a particle size of 154 ± 18 nm. A conformational study by circular dichroism spectroscopy and a bioactivity study confirmed the preserved integrity of rhINS against preparative stress. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a nearly spherical and deformed structure with discernable lamella for sodium glycocholate liposomes. Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed better protection of insulin against enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, and ?-chymotrypsin than liposomes containing the bile salt counterparts of sodium taurocholate and sodium deoxycholate. Conclusion: Sodium glycocholate liposomes showed promising in vitro characteristics and have the potential to be able to deliver insulin orally. PMID:21822379

Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Wu, Wei

2011-01-01

173

Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

Palombo, Enzo A.

2011-01-01

174

Malignant mesothelioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural

Alastair J Moore; Robert J Parker; John Wiggins

2008-01-01

175

Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117) overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications  

PubMed Central

Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117) onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46%) with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years). The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7%) followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%). The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage) ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1) to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A). Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A). The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9%) revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8%) revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36). Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a molecular target warranting further investigation. PMID:14617373

Potti, Anil; Hille, Rachel C; Koch, Michael

2003-01-01

176

Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SV4089 as a Potential Carrier of Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2%) and MCF-10A (0.5%) human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU) of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens. PMID:22701301

Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Ideris, Aini; Zakaria, Zunita; Omar, Abdul Rahman

2012-01-01

177

Arginine metabolism in the salivary glands of protein-deficient rats and its potential association with the oral microflora.  

PubMed

Salivary glands and their secretions play key roles in the prevention of dental diseases. The antibacterial and physicochemical properties of saliva are compromised in chronic malnutrition. The present study has examined the possibility that some malnutrition-induced changes in salivary gland function are potentially capable of promoting growth and metabolic activities of pathogenic oral microorganisms. Compared to well-fed controls, rats fed a 3% protein diet for 18 days showed a significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the submandibular gland arginase (L-arginine amidinohydrolase, EC 3.5.3.1) activity. Associated with the latter finding was a marked increase (+85%) in the glandular level of free arginine, this basic amino acid accounting for 12.2% of the total essential amino acids as compared with a figure of only 4.6% for the controls. The total free amino acid pool in whole saliva was relatively unaffected by malnutrition, but the levels of the basic amino acids arginine and histidine were marginally increased. Many oral bacterial species, some of which are dominant plaque microorganisms, utilize the arginine deiminase (EC 3.5.3.6) pathway. Thus, increased availability of free arginine from salivary glands offers a plausible explanation for the frequently reported observation of differential overgrowth of several potentially pathogenic microorganisms including some mutants streptococci in protein-deficient laboratory animals and may well apply to similar findings in malnourished populations in Third World countries. PMID:8156569

Enwonwu, C O; Ilupeju, F; Warren, R C

1994-01-01

178

Epithelial Dysplasia in Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

Among oral lesions, we encounter a series of malignant epithelial lesions that go through clinical and histopathologic processes in order to be diagnosed. Identifying these processes along with the etiology knowledge of these lesions is very important in prevention and early treatments. Dysplasia is the step preceding the formation of squamous cell carcinoma in lesions which have the potential to undergo dysplasia. Identification of etiological factors, clinical and histopathologic methods has been the topic of many articles. This article, reviews various articles presenting oral cavity dysplasia, new clinical methods of identifying lesions, and the immunohistochemical research which proposes various markers for providing more precise identification of such lesions. This article also briefly analyzes new treatment methods such as tissue engineering. PMID:25242838

Shirani, Samaneh; Kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Homayoni, Solmaz

2014-01-01

179

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

180

Potentiation of evoked calcitonin gene-related peptide release from oral mucosa: a potential basis for the  

E-print Network

, USA Keywords: buccal mucosa, capsaicin, cytisine, epibatidine, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor studies was to determine the effects of nicotine and other nAChR agonists on capsaicin nicotine (EC50 557 mM), epibatidine (EC50 317 pM) and cytisine (EC50 4.83 nM) potentiated capsaicin

Price, Theodore

181

Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. Objective This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation. PMID:21523221

Mohd Bakri, Marina; Mohd Hussaini, Haizal; Rachel Holmes, Ann; David Cannon, Richard; Mary Rich, Alison

2010-01-01

182

The Potential Association of Later Initiation of Oral/Enteral Nutrition on Euthyroid Sick Syndrome in Burn Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS). Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd–5th day) and second sample collection (9th–12th day) after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: <24?h before the injury (Group 1), 24–48?h after the injury (Group 2), and >48?h after the injury (Group 3). Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days) was, respectively, in each group, 16.77 ± 4.56, 21.98 ± 4.86, and 26.06 ± 5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61 ± 0.92 days) in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89 ± 1.01 days). Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients. PMID:23401683

Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M.; Rioja, Luis F.; DeRosier, Leo C.; de la Torre, Jorge I.

2013-01-01

183

HPV-associated oral warts.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts. PMID:21608502

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2011-03-01

184

Evaluation of the mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of standardized extract of Ocimum sanctum (OciBest™).  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) is found throughout India and in many parts of world. O. sanctum is used for the treatment of various health indications. In this lieu, it is of prime importance to investigate the safety aspects of the plant. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible genotoxic potential and acute oral toxicity of the extract of O. sanctum (OciBest™). The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, namely bacterial reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity. The results showed that OciBest™ (7.9-2500.0 µg/mL) did not increase the number of histidine revertant colonies in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98 and TAMix) with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9). OciBest™ (10.0-100.0 µg/mL) did not show structural chromosomal aberrations or increase in MN induction, with and without S9, at the tested dose range in both 4-h and 18-h exposure cell cultures. Thus, OciBest™ is not genotoxic in bacterial reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration and MN tests. In an acute oral toxicity test, rats were treated with 5 g/kg of OciBest™ and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days and the results did not show any treatment-related toxic effects to Wistar rats. PMID:23424203

Chandrasekaran, C V; Srikanth, H S; Anand, M S; Allan, J Joshua; Viji, M M Hipolith; Amit, A

2013-09-01

185

Formulating SLMs as oral pulsatile system for potential delivery of melatonin to pediatric population.  

PubMed

The formulation development of melatonin (MLT) for infants and children with neurodevelopmental difficulties was fully investigated. This population have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders and present special challenges for drug administration and swallowing. To solve these issues, solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) were designed to obtain an oral flexible dosage form constituted by GRAS excipients and a free flow pulsatile delivery system for MLT, able to maintain its release through 8h. Three groups of SLMs were produced by spray congealing and characterized as regards particle size, morphology, flowability, solid state, drug content and release behavior. The SLMs manipulation with milk and yogurt and the MLT stability in these foods were also investigated. Microparticles with different excipient composition were selected to obtain a pulsatile release pattern over 8h. The final delivery platform displayed a prompt release from group I SLMs together with a lag phase of groups II and III SLMs, followed by a repeated MLT release from group II and a prolonged MLT release related to the last group. Finally, MLT was compatible and stable in milk and yogurt suggesting that microparticles sprinkled into food is acceptable for MLT administration to children unable to swallow capsules or tablets. PMID:24768728

Albertini, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Marcello; Melegari, Cecilia; Passerini, Nadia

2014-07-20

186

Clinical relevance of breast cancer-related genes as potential biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC) is a common cancer form with relatively low 5-year survival rates, due partially to late detection and lack of complementary molecular markers as targets for treatment. Molecular profiling of head and neck cancer has revealed biological similarities with basal-like breast and lung carcinoma. Recently, we showed that 16 genes were consistently altered in invasive breast tumors displaying varying degrees of aggressiveness. Methods To extend our findings from breast cancer to another cancer type with similar characteristics, we performed an integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data to evaluate the prognostic significance of the 16 putative breast cancer-related biomarkers in OSCC using independent microarray datasets and immunohistochemistry. Predictive models for disease-specific (DSS) and/or overall survival (OS) were calculated for each marker using Cox proportional hazards models. Results We found that CBX2, SCUBE2, and STK32B protein expression were associated with important clinicopathological features for OSCC (peritumoral inflammatory infiltration, metastatic spread to the cervical lymph nodes, and tumor size). Consequently, SCUBE2 and STK32B are involved in the hedgehog signaling pathway which plays a pivotal role in metastasis and angiogenesis in cancer. In addition, CNTNAP2 and S100A8 protein expression were correlated with DSS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Taken together, these candidates and the hedgehog signaling pathway may be putative targets for drug development and clinical management of OSCC patients. PMID:24885002

2014-01-01

187

Construction and physiochemical characterisation of a multi-composite, potential oral vaccine delivery system (VDS).  

PubMed

An increasing human population requires a secure food supply and a cost effective, oral vaccine delivery system for livestock would help facilitate this end. Recombinant antigen adsorbed onto silica beads and coated with myristic acid, was released (?15% (w/v)) over 24 h at pH 8.8. At pH 2, the myristic acid acted as an enteric coating, protecting the antigen from a variety of proteases. The antigen adsorbed onto silica particles, coated in myristic acid had a conserved secondary structure (measured by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy) following its pH-triggered release. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to measure the thickness of the adsorbed antigen, finding that its adsorbed conformation was slightly greater than its solution radius of gyration, i.e. 120-160 Å. The addition of myristic acid led to a further increase in particle size, with scattering data consistent with an acid thickness slightly greater than a monolayer of fully extended alkyl chains and a degree of hydration of around 50%. Whilst adsorbed onto the silica and coated in myristic acid, the protein was stable over 14 days at 42 °C, indicating a reduced need for cold chain storage. These data indicate that further investigation is warranted into the development of this technology. PMID:24680960

Pettit, Marie W; Dyer, Paul D R; Mitchell, John C; Griffiths, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce; Cattoz, Beatrice; Heenan, Richard K; King, Stephen M; Schweins, Ralf; Pullen, Frank; Wicks, Stephen R; Richardson, Simon C W

2014-07-01

188

Oral Leukoplakia - Is Biopsy at the Initial Appointment a Must?  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral leukoplakia is a potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. Leukoplakias with chances of undergoing malignant transformation owing to the presence of dysplastic changes may not be clinically distinguishable from leukoplakias without dysplasia. The study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of biopsy in assessing the clinico-pathologic correlations of oral leukoplakia at the patient’s initial visit. Materials and Methods: Hospital records with clinical diagnosis of oral leukoplakia were retrospectively analysed. All these patients had undergone biopsy in their initial visit. Histopathological slides were reviewed and reported by a single pathologist. Diagnosis agreement was considered to be present if the clinical diagnosis matched the histopathological diagnosis. Misdiagnosis was considered if the clinical diagnosis did not match the histopathological diagnosis and underdiagnosis when malignancy was detected on histopathological examination. Results: A total of 115 patients were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia. According to clinical appearance of the leukoplakia patch was categorized in to three types viz homogeneous leukoplakia (n= 24 i.e. 20.87%), speckled leukoplakia (n=76 i.e. 66.08%) and verrucous leukoplakia (n=15 i.e. 13.04%). Histopathological examination confirmed clinical diagnosis in 88 cases (a diagnosis agreement of 76.52%). Histopathological examination of 19 cases revealed a different diagnosis, thus categorized as misdiagnosis (16.52%) and 8 cases had unexpected malignancy which accounted for underdiagnosis in 6.96% cases. There was dysplasia in 45 (51.13%) of the histopathologically confirmed cases of leukoplakia. Conclusion: The clinical appearance of suspicious white lesions does not provide a true nature of its disease status and malignant changes may be missed.

Mutalik, Vimi S.; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Phaik, Khoo Suan

2014-01-01

189

Ras-Driven Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Aurora Kinase A as a Potential Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Therapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Purpose Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) which are often inoperable and do not respond well to current chemotherapies or radiation. The goal of this study was to utilize comprehensive gene expression analysis to identify novel therapeutic targets. Experimental Design Nerve Schwann cells and/or their precursors are the tumorigenic cell types in MPNST due to the loss of the NF1 gene, which encodes the RasGAP protein neurofibromin. Therefore, we created a transgenic mouse model, CNP-HRas12V, expressing constitutively-active HRas in Schwann cells and defined a Ras-induced gene expression signature to drive a Bayesian factor regression model analysis of differentially expressed genes in mouse and human neurofibromas and MPNSTs. We tested functional significance of Aurora kinase over-expression in MPNST in vitro and in vivo using Aurora kinase shRNAs and compounds that inhibit Aurora kinase. Results We identified 2000 genes with probability of linkage to nerve Ras signaling of which 339 were significantly differentially expressed in mouse and human NF1-related tumor samples relative to normal nerves, including Aurora kinase A (AURKA). AURKA was dramatically over-expressed and genomically amplified in MPNSTs but not neurofibromas. Aurora kinase shRNAs and Aurora kinase inhibitors blocked MPNST cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, an AURKA selective inhibitor, MLN8237, stabilized tumor volume and significantly increased survival of mice with MPNST xenografts. Conclusion Integrative cross-species transcriptome analyses combined with preclinical testing has provided an effective method for identifying candidates for molecular-targeted therapeutics. Blocking Aurora kinases may be a viable treatment platform for MPNST. PMID:22811580

Patel, Ami V.; Eaves, David; Jessen, Walter J.; Rizvi, Tilat A.; Ecsedy, Jeffrey A.; Qian, Mark G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Perentesis, John P.; Serra, Eduard; Cripe, Timothy P.; Miller, Shyra J.; Ratner, Nancy

2013-01-01

190

Hydroxylforms of p-boronophenylalanine as potential boron carriers on boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors.  

PubMed

Hydroxylforms of boronophenylalanine (BPA) were synthesized by conjugation with a cascade of polyols to decrease the BPA uptake of normal parenchyma without affecting uptake into the tumor. We determined their tumor cell killing effect on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) against BPA using the human glioma cell line T98G. The thermal neutron doses yielding the D37 (dose used to inhibit 63% colony formation) values of dl-p-BPA(OH)n were 1.45 x 10(12)nvt (n = 1), 1.33 x 10(12)nvt (n = 2), 3.37 x 10(12)nvt (n = 4), and 1.72 x 10(12)nvt (n = 0). The relative tumor cell killing effect on BNCT of dl-p-BPA(OH)n against dl-p-BPA, which was defined as the ratio of D37-BPA to D37-BPA(OH)n, was 1.18 (n = 1) 1.29 (n = 2), and 0.51 (n = 4). The tumor:normal brain ratio of dl-p-BPA(OH)n in 9L rat brain tumor models was improved 1.2- (n = 1) and 1.4-fold (n = 2) against that of dl-p-BPA without a decrease of its uptake into the tumor. The water solubility of BPA(OH)n increased against BPA, and the toxicity represented as the IC50 value of dl-p-BPA(OH)2 was nearly one half that of dl-p-BPA, being established in our previous works. Hydroxylforms of BPA, especially dl-p-BPA(OH)2, might be more suitable boron carriers of BNCT to malignant brain tumors since the radiation injury to the normal parenchyma surrounding the tumor is reduced. PMID:8616843

Takagaki, M; Ono, K; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H; Nemoto, H; Iwamoto, S; Cai, J; Yamamoto, Y

1996-05-01

191

Mucinous tumor of low malignant potential ("borderline" or "atypical proliferative" tumor) of the ovary: a study of 171 cases with the assessment of intraepithelial carcinoma and microinvasion.  

PubMed

Mucinous tumors of the ovary are a continuing source of controversy in the field of gynecologic pathology. We examined a series of 171 intestinal-type mucinous tumors of low malignant potential ("borderline" or "atypical proliferative" tumors) to clarify the clinical significance of intraepithelial carcinoma (IECA) and microinvasion (area ? 10 mm²). The diagnosis of IECA was based on the presence of marked nuclear atypia (grade 3). Stromal microinvasion was classified as low grade and high grade (with nuclear grade 3). IECA was observed in 67 of 171 cases (39.2%). Microinvasion was identified in 31 (18.1%) cases, low grade in 22 (12.9%) cases, and high grade in 9 (5.3%) cases. Follow-up status was known in 144 cases and tumor recurrence was observed in 6 patients (4.2%). The risk factors for recurrence included International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage ? IC (P=0.002), microinvasion (P=0.013), age less than 45 years (P=0.032), and IECA (P=0.042). The amount of IECA ? 10% was also associated with the risk of recurrence (P=0.007). Among tumors with microinvasion, there was no significant association between the clinicopathologic variables and recurrence. When considering tumors with stage ? IC, tumor recurrence was significantly associated with IECA ? 10% (P=0.031) and age less than 45 years (P=0.047). It is important that mucinous tumors of low malignant potential should be staged and be optimally sampled for pathologic examination to document the status of the external surface or peritoneal involvement and to identify the worst degree of epithelial proliferation. Tumor stage ? IC, IECA ? 10%, microinvasion, and age less than 45 years were the features that were associated with tumor recurrence. The study results also support the use of nuclear grade 3 as the sole criterion of IECA. PMID:21464732

Khunamornpong, Surapan; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee

2011-05-01

192

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by diffuse muscular rigidity, pyrexia, sweating, cardiovascular instability, and elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase. NMS occurs in 2% of all patients exposed to neuroleptics (antipsychotic drugs). A case of successfully treated NMS is presented, and the typical symptomatic presentation, etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment options of this syndrome are described. PMID:21253261

Reinish, Lawrence W.; Remick, Ronald A.

1988-01-01

193

Activity of amine oxide against biofilms of Streptococcus mutans: a potential biocide for oral care formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the potential bactericidal activity of amine oxide (C10-C16-alkyldimethyl N-oxides) against Streptococcus mutans grown as planktonic suspension and as biofilm on hydroxyapatite discs, and its ability to control acidification of the media. Methods: Amine oxide bacteriostasis was investigated using the Bioscreen C Microbiological Growth Analyser, while a standard suspension test was used to determine its bactericidal efficacy. In

Sebastien Fraud; Jean-Yves Maillard; Michael A. Kaminski; Geoffrey W. Hanlon

194

Oral Complications in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients: The Role of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is widely used as a potentially curative treatment for patients with various hematological malignancies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and congenital immune deficiencies. The prevalence of oral complications in both autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients remains high, despite advances in transplant medicine and in supportive care. Frequently encountered oral complications include mucositis, infections, oral dryness, taste changes, and graft versus host disease in allogeneic HSCT. Oral complications are associated with substantial morbidity and in some cases with increased mortality and may significantly affect quality of life, even many years after HSCT. Inflammatory processes are key in the pathobiology of most oral complications in HSCT recipients. This review article will discuss frequently encountered oral complications associated with HSCT focusing on the inflammatory pathways and inflammatory mediators involved in their pathogenesis. PMID:24817792

Haverman, T. M.; Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Rademacher, W. M. H.; Vokurka, S.; Epstein, J. B.; Huisman, C.; Hazenberg, M. D.; de Soet, J. J.; de Lange, J.; Rozema, F. R.

2014-01-01

195

Oral tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculous lesions of the oral cavity have become so infrequent that it is virtually a forgotten disease entity and may pose a diagnostic problem. Fifteen patients with conditions that were histologically diagnosed as oral tuberculosis were reviewed. All were men ranging in age from 29 to 78 years. The most common clinical presentation was odynophagia with a duration from less than 1 week to several years. The most frequently affected sites were the tongue base and gingiva. The oral lesions took the form of an irregular ulceration or a discrete granular mass. Mandibular bone destruction was evident in two patients. Two patients had a fever, and four had cervical lymphadenopathy. Eight cases were clinically suspicious for malignancy before biopsy. Only four patients had a history of tuberculosis, but 14 of the 15 patients were later found to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in all patients. Tuberculosis should be considered in patients with an inflamed ulcer lesion. A biopsy specimen for histologic study, acid-fast stains, and cultures should be obtained for confirmation and differential diagnosis with other conditions. If a tuberculous lesion is suspected, a chest radiograph is indicated to investigate the possibility of pulmonary involvement. PMID:8705586

Eng, H L; Lu, S Y; Yang, C H; Chen, W J

1996-04-01

196

Reducing the Risk of Xerostomia and Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: The Potential Benefits of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Advanced Oral Cavity Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 {+-} 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 {+-} 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 {+-} 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 {+-} 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 {+-} 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 {+-} 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 {+-} 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 {+-} 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 {+-} 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 {+-} 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC.

Ahmed, Merina [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Hansen, Vibeke N. [Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Harrington, Kevin J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Nutting, Christopher M. [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Chris.Nutting@rmh.nhs.uk

2009-10-01

197

CKD-501, a novel selective PPAR? agonist, shows no carcinogenic potential in ICR mice following oral administration for 104 weeks.  

PubMed

CKD-501 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonist that is effective for the treatment of diabetes. However, its carcinogenic potential remains controversial. The current carcinogenicity study was conducted over a period of 104 weeks in ICR mice. Three groups, each consisting of 60 male and 60 female mice, received oral CKD-501 dosages of 0.2, 1.0 or 6.0 mg?kg(-1) day(-1) . The mortality rates of the male control, 0.2, 1.0 and 6.0 mg kg(-1) ?day(-1) treated groups were 60%, 68%, 58% and 67%, respectively and 57%, 68% and 67% in the female control, 0.2 and 1.0?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1) treated groups. It was 67% in the female 6.0?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1) treated group, which was terminated at week 98 due to its increased mortality rate. No significant treatment-related effects were observed on the survival rates, with the exception of females in the 6.0?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1) group. Body weights increased in females receiving 1.0 and 6.0?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1) due to the class effects of the PPAR? agonist. Differences were not found in hematology parameters between the CKD-501-treated groups and their corresponding controls, but the histopathological evidence did not reveal any findings attributed to CKD-501. Treated animals exhibited non-neoplastic findings (adipocyte proliferation, bone marrow hypoplasia cardiomyopathy), but all of these were expected changes for this class of compound. There were no treatment-related neoplastic changes in this study. The results of this study therefore demonstrate a lack of carcinogenicity following oral administration of CKD-501 to ICR mice for 104?weeks. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24026970

Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Lee, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hee Su; Hwang, In-Chang; Kim, Dal-Hyun; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Jo, Woori; Son, Woo-Chan; Yun, Hyo-In

2014-12-01

198

Has oral fluid the potential to replace serum for the evaluation of population immunity levels? A study of measles, rubella and hepatitis B in rural Ethiopia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the suitability of using oral-fluid samples for determining the prevalence of immunity to vaccine-preventable infections. METHODS: Paired blood and oral-fluid samples were obtained from 853 individuals of all ages from a rural Ethiopian community. Oral fluid around the gums was screened for measles- and rubella-specific antibodies using enhanced IgG antibody capture (GAC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and for anti-HBc antibodies using a prototype GACELISA. IgG antibodies in serum to measles, rubella and HBc were determined using commercial ELISAs. FINDINGS: Relative to serum, oral fluid assay sensitivity and specificity were as follows: 98% and 87% for measles, 79% and 90% for rubella, and 43% and 87% for anti-HBc. These assay characteristics yielded population prevalence estimates from oral fluid with a precision equal to that of serum for measles (all ages) and rubella (ages < 20 years). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that oral fluid could have the potential to replace serum in IgG antibody prevalence surveys. Further progress requires assessment of variation in assay performance between populations as well as the availability of standardized, easy to use assays. PMID:11477961

Nokes, D. J.; Enquselassie, F.; Nigatu, W.; Vyse, A. J.; Cohen, B. J.; Brown, D. W.; Cutts, F. T.

2001-01-01

199

Exploiting the therapeutic potential of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway in enriched populations of gynecologic malignancies.  

PubMed

Given the prevalence of phosphatase & tensin homolog mutations in histologic specimens harvested from patients with endometrial cancer, significant interest in systemic treatment with PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors has emerged. Several Phase II trials have been completed studying mTOR inhibitors in advanced/recurrent endometrial cancer. The mTOR pathway also appears to be important in some cervical cancers. Finally, because clear cell carcinoma of the ovary and renal cell carcinoma have a shared histology, the potential for activity of mTOR inhibitors in clear cell cancer of the ovary is implicit. This article reviews the results of Phase II clinical trials of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors in patients with endometrial cancer, and discusses the potential therapeutic landscape of mTOR inhibition in enriched populations in gynecologic cancers. PMID:25301678

Eskander, Ramez N; Tewari, Krishnansu S

2014-11-01

200

Patients’ perspectives regarding long-term warfarin therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulant therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine patients’ perspectives regarding long-term vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy and the potential transition to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, and to determine if factors such as residential location affect these opinions. Design, setting and participants: Patients on VKA therapy for at least 12 weeks completed a questionnaire specifically designed for the study. They were recruited while attending point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) testing at six South Australian general practice clinics during the period July–September 2013. Main outcome measures: Opinions of current VKA therapy, level of awareness of NOACs, and ratings of potential benefits and deterrents of transition to NOACs were sought. Results: Data from 290 participants were available for analysis (response rate 95.4%). The majority of the sample (79.5%, 229/288) were either satisfied or very satisfied with current VKA therapy. The mean score for the potential benefits of transition to NOACs was 7.6 (±4.2) out of a possible 20, which was significantly lower than the mean score 10.9 (±4.5) for the perceived deterrents to transition (p < 0.001). Rural patients (82.0%, 82/100) were significantly more likely (p = 0.001) to have not heard of NOACs than metropolitan patients (50.3%, 95/189) and also perceived significant less benefits in a transition to NOACs (p = 0.001). Conclusion: When considering potential transition from VKAs to NOACs it is important for prescribers to consider that some patients, in particular those from a rural location, may not perceive a significant benefit in transitioning or may have particular concerns in this area.

Gebler-Hughes, Elizabeth S.; Kemp, Linda

2014-01-01

201

Assessment of Oral Toxicity and Safety of Pentamethylchromanol (PMCol), A Potential Chemopreventative Agent, in Rats and Dogs  

PubMed Central

2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMCol) was administered by gavage in rats for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 100, 500, and 2000 mg/kg/day. PMCol administration induced decreases in body weight gains and food consumption, hepatotoxicity (increased TBILI, ALB, ALT, TP; increased relative liver weights; increased T4 and TSH), nephrotoxicity (increased BUN and BUN/CREAT, histopathology lesions), effect on lipid metabolism (increased CHOL), anemia, increase in WBC counts (total and differential), coagulation (FBGN?and PT?) and hyperkeratosis of the nonglandular stomach in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group (in one or both sexes). In the 500 mg/kg/day dose group, toxicity was seen to a lesser extent. In the 100 mg/kg/day dose group, only increased CHOL (females) was observed. To assess the toxicity of PMCol in male dogs it was administered orally by capsule administration for 28 days at dose levels of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg/day (4 male dogs/dose group). PMCol treatment at 800 mg/kg/day resulted in pronounced toxicity to the male dogs. Target organs of toxicity were liver and thymus. Treatment at 200 mg/kg/day resulted in toxicity consistent with slight adverse effect on the liver only. The results of the safety pharmacology study indicate that doses of 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg administered orally did not have an effect on the QT interval, blood pressures and body temperatures following dosing over a 24-hour recording period. Under the conditions of this study, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for daily oral administration of PMCol by gavage for 28 days to male rats was 100 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg in male dogs. In female rats, the NOAEL was not established due to statistically significant and biologically meaningful increases in CHOL level seen in the 100 mg/kg/day dose group. The results of these studies indicated that administration of PMCol at higher dose levels resulted in severe toxicity in dogs and moderate toxicity in rats, however, administration at lower levels is considered to be less likely to result in toxicity following 28 days of exposure. Sex-related differences were seen in rats. Male rats appeared to have greater sensitivity to nephrotoxicity, while female animals had a greater incidence of hepatoxicity and changes in hematological parameters evaluated, especially at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day, which correlated to the higher plasma drug levels in female rats. It appeared that dogs were generally more sensitive than rats to oral administration of PMCol. Further examination of the potential toxic effects of PMCol in longer term studies is required prior to understanding the full risks of PMCol administration as a chemopreventative agent. PMID:20430063

Lindeblad, Matthew; Kapetanovic, Izet M.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Detrisac, Carol J.; Dinger, Nancy; Mankovskaya, Irina; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

2010-01-01

202

Herpes - oral  

MedlinePLUS

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

203

Definitions of Single and Subsequent Primaries for Hematologic Malignancies  

Cancer.gov

While it is recognized that some malignancies occur predominantly (or even exclusively) in liquid or solid form, because so many malignancies can potentially arise as either leukemias or lymphomas (or both), all hematopoietic malignancies are assumed to have this potential. 2. Malignancies of the lymphoid series are considered to be different from those of the myeloid series.

204

JAMA Patient Page: Malignant Hyperthermia  

MedlinePLUS

... MH ) is severe, potentially fatal increased body energy consumption after exposure to certain anesthetic drugs. Malignant hyperthermia ... monitoring of breathing, heart function, and body temperature. Oxygen is provided with an increased breathing rate using ...

205

Evaluation of amitrole (aminotriazole) for potential carcinogenicity in orally dosed rats, mice, and golden hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Amitrole was evaluated for carcinogenic potential in lifespan studies on Wistar rats, NMRI mice, and golden hamsters. At the start of the studies the animals were 6 weeks old. Amitrole was administered, mixed with pulverized chow, at dietary concentrations of 0, 1, 10, and 100 micrograms/g (ppm). Each treated group and control group consisted of 75 male and 75 female rats and mice and of 76 male and 76 female golden hamsters. Additional animals were used to evaluate the functional state of the thyroid. Somewhat lower body weights, slightly reduced survival times, and transient effects on thyroid function were observed in golden hamsters at 100 ppm. In mice, a slight increase in pituitary gland hyperemias was seen at 100 ppm; also an effect on thyroid function usually occurred at the same concentration. In rats, a very large number of cystic dilatations of follicles in the thyroid at 100 ppm and a dose-unrelated increase in hemorrhages and hyperemias in the pituitary gland were indicative of an effect of amitrole on these organs. The strongest effect of amitrole on thyroid function, as compared to golden hamsters and mice, was seen in rats at 100 ppm. At this concentration a highly increased number of thyroid and pituitary gland tumors was observed in rats. In golden hamsters and mice, no tumor induction was seen.

Steinhoff, D.; Weber, H.; Mohr, U.; Boehme, K.

1983-06-30

206

Pediatric Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Outcomes in many pediatric tumors have improved dramatically over the last few decades. Eighty percent of all children diagnosed\\u000a today with childhood malignancies are expected to be long-term survivors [1]. The number of long-term survivors in almost\\u000a every disease site and histology has increased with advancements in combined modality therapy such that a new era in cancer\\u000a therapy, treatment de-intensification

Nadia N. Issa Laack; Paula J. Schomberg; Suzanne Wolden; Jesus Vazquez

207

Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is

Meir Gorsky; Joel B. Epstein; Harel Levi; Noam Yarom

2004-01-01

208

Mechanisms and potential molecular markers of early response to combination epigenetic therapy in patients with myeloid malignancies.  

PubMed

Combination epigenetic treatment (EGT) utilizing DNA methyl transferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may be more efficacious than single agent treatment in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The molecular mechanisms behind the potential clinical efficacy of combination EGT treatment are incompletely understood and the frequently lengthy EGT regimes required to determine clinical response have generated a significant demand for early molecular markers of treatment response. Our study aimed to identify the effect of combination azacitidine (AZA) and panobinostat (LBH589) on expression levels of a panel of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of high-risk MDS or AML in HL-60 cells. We also characterized gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMCs) from patients in a recently reported phase Ib/II clinical trial using the combination of AZA and LBH589 and correlated these findings with clinical response to treatment. In vitro analysis demonstrated increased expression of caspase-3, Nor-1, NUR77, p15INK4B and p21WAF1/CIP1 and decreased expression of Bcl?xL in HL-60 cells treated with combination EGT. Analysis of patient samples prior to treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in NUR77 and p21WAF1/CIP1 expression compared to healthy controls. NUR77 and p21WAF1/CIP1 levels were similar between treatment non?responders and responders at screening. Early post first cycle treatment (day 25) analysis demonstrated a significant increase in expression of both NUR77, and p21WAF1/CIP1. A significant increase in NUR77, and p21WAF1/CIP1 together with a trend to increase in p15INK4B first cycle expression was observed in treatment responders compared to non-responders. In summary, combination AZA and LBH589 epigenetic treatment is associated with in vitro and in vivo modulation of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of MDS/AML. Early expression of NUR77 and p21WAF1/CIP1 correlated with clinical response to combination EGT suggesting investigation for potential use as molecular markers of early treatment response may be warranted. PMID:25051119

Liu, H B; Urbanavicius, D; Tan, P; Spencer, A; Dear, A E

2014-10-01

209

CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential and excretion of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) into CD30-expressing cells. This study evaluated the CYP3A-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of brentuximab vedotin and the excretion of MMAE. Two 21-day cycles of brentuximab vedotin (1.2 or 1.8 mg/kg intravenously) were administered to 56 patients with CD30-positive hematologic malignancies. Each patient also received either a sensitive CYP3A substrate (midazolam), an effective inducer (rifampin), or a strong inhibitor (ketoconazole). Brentuximab vedotin did not affect midazolam exposures. ADC exposures were unaffected by concomitant rifampin or ketoconazole; however, MMAE exposures were lower with rifampin and higher with ketoconazole. The short-term safety profile of brentuximab vedotin in this study was generally consistent with historic clinical observations. The most common adverse events were nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, pyrexia, and neutropenia. Over a 1-week period, ~23.5% of intact MMAE was recovered after administration of brentuximab vedotin; all other species were below the limit of quantitation. The primary excretion route is via feces (median 72% of the recovered MMAE). These results suggest that brentuximab vedotin (1.8 mg/kg) and MMAE are neither inhibitors nor inducers of CYP3A; however, MMAE is a substrate of CYP3A. PMID:23754575

Han, Tae H.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan; Goy, Andre; Chen, Robert; Matous, Jeffrey V.; Cooper, Maureen; Grove, Laurie E.; Alley, Stephen C.; Lynch, Carmel M.; O'Connor, Owen A.

2013-01-01

210

Northwestern profiling of potential translation-regulatory proteins in human breast epithelial cells and malignant breast tissues: evidence for pathological activation of the IGF1R IRES  

PubMed Central

Genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and survival (those genes most important to cancer pathogenesis) are often specifically regulated at the translational level, through RNA-protein interactions involving the 5’-untranslated region of the mRNA. IGF1R is a proto-oncogene strongly implicated in human breast cancer, promoting survival and proliferation of tumor cells, as well as metastasis and chemoresistance. Our lab has focused on the molecular mechanisms regulating IGF1R expression at the translational level. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5’-untranslated region of the human IGF1R mRNA, and identified and functionally characterized two individual RNA-binding proteins, HuR and hnRNP C, which bind the IGF1R 5’-UTR and differentially regulate IRES activity. Here we have developed and implemented a high resolution northwestern profiling strategy to characterize, as a group, the full spectrum of sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins potentially regulating IGF1R translational efficiency through interaction with the 5’-untranslated sequence. The putative IGF1R IRES trans-activating factors (ITAFs) are a heterogeneous group of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNPs originating in the nucleus as well as factors tightly associated with ribosomes in the cytoplasm. The IGF1R ITAFs can be categorized into three distinct groups: (a) high molecular weight external ITAFs, which likely modulate the overall conformation of the 5’-untranslated region of the IGF1R mRNA and thereby the accessibility of the core functional IRES; (b) low molecular weight external ITAFs, which may function as general chaperones to unwind the RNA, and (c) internal ITAFs which may directly facilitate or inhibit the fundamental process of ribosome recruitment to the IRES. We observe dramatic changes in the northwestern profile of non-malignant breast cells downregulating IGF1R expression in association with acinar differentiation in 3-D culture. Most importantly, we are able to assess the RNA-binding activities of these putative translation-regulatory proteins in primary human breast surgical specimens, and begin to discern positive correlations between individual ITAFs and the malignant phenotype. Together with our previous findings, these new data provide further evidence that pathological dysregulation of IGF1R translational control may contribute to development and progression of human breast cancer, and breast metastasis in particular. PMID:20233590

Blume, Scott W.; Jackson, Nateka L.; Frost, Andra R.; Grizzle, William E.; Shcherbakov, Oleg D.; Choi, Hyoungsoo; Meng, Zheng

2010-01-01

211

Radiosensitization by fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalene on human malignant melanoma through lipid peroxidation and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalene (C60/Sqe) for the ability to potentiate the radiosensitization under X-ray irradiation on human malignant melanoma HMV-II cells, which were treated with C60/Sqe and thereafter irradiated with X-ray. The cell proliferation for C60/Sqe was inhibited more markedly than for Sqe alone. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was almost unaltered for C60/squalane (Sqa) or Sqa, a hydrogenated form of Sqe, as compared to no-additive control. Thus radiosensitization of C60/Sqe is attributed to peroxidation of unsaturated bonds of squalene by X-ray-excited C60 in contrast to squalane. The fluorescence images of HMV-II cells stained with Rhodamine123, an indicator for mitochondrial membrane potential, were monitored for 6 h after X-ray irradiation. C60/Sqe obviously exhibited more augmented fluorescence intensity on perinuclear region of HMV-II cells than Sqe alone. TBARS assay showed that the lipid peroxidation level as malondialdehyde-equivalent increased by combination of C60/Sqe and X-ray dose-dependently on X-ray doses. C60/Sqe exhibited lipid peroxidation more markedly by 1.2-fold than Sqe alone. Thus the level of lipid peroxidation of squalene was sufficiently higher in C60/Sqe than in Sqe in the absence of C60 under X-ray irradiation, suggesting the combination of C60/Sqe and X-ray irradiation induced radiosensitization on HMV-II cells by peroxidation of absorbed Sqe in mitochondrial membrane via oxidative stress mediated by fullerene-C60.

Kato, Shinya; Kimura, Masatsugu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

2014-04-01

212

The R Enantiomer of the Antitubercular Drug PA-824 as a Potential Oral Treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The novel nitroimidazopyran agent (S)-PA-824 has potent antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo and is currently in phase II clinical trials for tuberculosis (TB). In contrast to M. tuberculosis, where (R)-PA-824 is inactive, we report here that both enantiomers of PA-824 show potent parasiticidal activity against Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In leishmania-infected macrophages, (R)-PA-824 is 6-fold more active than (S)-PA-824. Both des-nitro analogues are inactive, underlining the importance of the nitro group in the mechanism of action. Although the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profiles of the two enantiomers are similar, (R)-PA-824 is more efficacious in the murine model of VL, with >99% suppression of parasite burden when administered orally at 100 mg kg of body weight?1, twice daily for 5 days. In M. tuberculosis, (S)-PA-824 is a prodrug that is activated by a deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn), an enzyme which is absent in Leishmania spp. Unlike the case with nifurtimox and fexinidazole, transgenic parasites overexpressing the leishmania nitroreductase are not hypersensitive to either (R)-PA-824 or (S)-PA-824, indicating that this enzyme is not the primary target of these compounds. Drug combination studies in vitro indicate that fexinidazole and (R)-PA-824 are additive whereas (S)-PA-824 and (R)-PA-824 show mild antagonistic behavior. Thus, (R)-PA-824 is a promising candidate for late lead optimization for VL and may have potential for future use in combination therapy with fexinidazole, currently in phase II clinical trials against VL. PMID:23856774

Patterson, Stephen; Wyllie, Susan; Stojanovski, Laste; Perry, Meghan R.; Simeons, Frederick R. C.; Norval, Suzanne; Osuna-Cabello, Maria; De Rycker, Manu

2013-01-01

213

Preservation of high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities in roots of Japanese Striped corn: a potential oral therapeutic to treat phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity, the enzyme responsible for the disposal of excess amounts of the essential amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) has potential to serve as an enzyme substitution therapy for this human genetic disease. Using 7-day-old Japanese Striped corn seedlings (Japonica Striped maize, Zea mays L. cv. japonica) that contain high activities of PAL, we investigated a number of methods to preserve the roots as an intact food and for long-term storage. The cryoprotectant effects of maple syrup and other edible sugars (mono- and oligosaccharides) were evaluated. Following thawing, the preserved roots were then examined to determine whether the rigid plant cell walls could protect the PAL enzyme from proteolysis during simulated (in vitro) digestion comprised of gastric and intestinal phases. While several treatments led to retention of PAL activity during freezing, upon thawing and in vitro digestion, root tissues that had been previously frozen in the presence of maple syrup exhibited the highest residual PAL activities (?50% of the initial enzyme activity), in marked contrast to all of the treatments using other edible sugars. The structural integrity of the root cells, and the stability of the functional PAL tetramer were also preserved with the maple syrup protocol. These results have significance for the formulation of oral enzyme/protein therapeutics. When plant tissues are adequately preserved, the rigid cell walls constitute a protective barrier even under harsh (e.g. gastrointestinal-like) conditions. PMID:24657198

López-Villalobos, Arturo; Lücker, Joost; López-Quiróz, Ana Angela; Yeung, Edward C; Palma, Kristoffer; Kermode, Allison R

2014-06-01

214

The patient with recurrent oral ulceration.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the range of recurrent oral ulceration which affects the oral mucosa. Types of ulceration covered in this paper include traumatic, infective, aphthous, ulceration related to the oral dermatoses, drug-induced, ulceration as a manifestation of systemic disease and ulceration indicating malignancy. Aspects of the aetiology, diagnosis and management of common oral recurrent ulcerative conditions are reviewed from a clinical perspective as an aid to practising dentists. PMID:20553241

Talacko, A A; Gordon, A K; Aldred, M J

2010-06-01

215

Adjuvant potential of low dose all-trans retinoic acid during oral typhoid vaccination in Zambian men.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to identify ways of enhancing the mucosal immune response to oral vaccines. Rotavirus vaccine protection is much lower in Africa and Asia than in industrialized countries, and no oral vaccine has efficacy approaching the best systemic vaccines. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) up-regulates expression of ?4?7 integrin and CCR9 on lymphocytes in laboratory animals, increasing their gut tropism. The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility of using ATRA as an oral adjuvant for oral typhoid vaccination. In order to establish that standard doses of oral ATRA can achieve serum concentrations greater than 10?nmol/l, we measured ATRA, 9-cis and 13-cis retinoic acid in serum of 14 male volunteers before and 3?h after 10?mg ATRA. We then evaluated the effect of 10?mg ATRA given 1?h before, and for 7 days following, oral typhoid vaccine in eight men, and in 24 men given various control interventions. We measured immunoglobulin (Ig)A directed against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)and protein preparations of vaccine antigens in whole gut lavage fluid (WGLF) and both IgA and IgG in serum, 1 day prior to vaccination and on day 14. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] C(max) was 26·2 (11·7-39·5) nmol/l, with no evidence of cumulation over 8 days. No adverse events were observed. Specific IgA responses to LPS (P?=?0·02) and protein (P?=?0·04) were enhanced in WGLF, but no effect was seen on IgA or IgG in serum. ATRA was well absorbed, well tolerated and may be a promising candidate oral adjuvant. PMID:24237035

Lisulo, M M; Kapulu, M C; Banda, R; Sinkala, E; Kayamba, V; Sianongo, S; Kelly, P

2014-03-01

216

Outcomes in biliary malignancy.  

PubMed

The biliary malignancies that are reviewed here are gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC), and perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC). The focus is on outcomes after potentially curative resection of biliary malignancies. Key outcomes are postoperative mortality, median and 5-year overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival, and recurrence patterns. Poor prognostic factors for recurrence and survival as well as prognostic models are also discussed. The incidence of biliary malignancies in the United States is about 5 in 100,000. Postoperative mortality for resection of GBC and IHC is similar to that of liver resections for other indications. However, 90 day postoperative mortality after liver resection for PHC is about 10%. For GBC, median OS depends strongly on the T-stage and ranges from 8 months (pT3) to 79 months (pT1b). Median OS after resection for IHC is about 30 months, and for PHC about 38 months. The majority of patients with biliary malignancies develop a recurrence after resection. Patients with GBC recur early with a median time to recurrence of 12 months, versus about 20 months for IHC and PHC. In patients with resected IHC or PHC locoregional recurrence was the only site of recurrence in about 60% of patients, versus 15% in patients with GBC. Poor prognostic factors after resection of all biliary malignancies include the presence of lymph node metastasis, a positive surgical resection margin, and moderate or poor tumor differentiation. Several prognostic nomograms have been developed to predict long-term outcomes of biliary cancer resection. J. Surg. Oncol. 2014 110:585-591. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25250887

Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Fong, Yuman

2014-10-01

217

Malignant melanoma of nose.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the uncommon malignancies of the nose. We present an unusually big proliferative like MM in the vestibule of the nose. Malignancy of nose constitutes less than 1% of all malignancies (3% of head & neck tumour). MM however contributes only 2% of all malignant neoplasms of the nose (Moore & Martin. 1955). PMID:23119756

Kundu, I N; Haldar, B; Saha, A K

2001-01-01

218

Effects of amitriptyline and intra-oral device appliance on clinical and laser-evoked potentials features in chronic tension-type headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we examined clinical and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) features in two groups of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients treated with two different approaches: intra-oral appliance of prosthesis, aiming to reduce muscular tenderness, and 10 mg daily amitriptyline. Eighteen patients suffering from CTTH (IHS, 2004) participated in the study. We performed a basal evaluation of clinical features and

M. de Tommaso; E. Shevel; G. Libro; M. Guido; D. Di Venere; S. Genco; C. Monetti; C. Serpino; G. Barile; P. Lamberti; P. Livrea

2005-01-01

219

Oral Rinse as a Simpler Approach to Exfoliative Cytology: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral rinse is a novel method that can be used to detect dysplasia in potentially malignant disorders and malignant oral lesions in resource challenged areas. A study was undertaken to compare the quality of the normal smears prepared with the oral rinse and that of the wooden tongue spatula. Material and Methods: One hundred five normal subjects were selected for the study. Two smears were prepared from clinically normal mucosa using an oral rinse and further two smears were scraped from clinically normal buccal mucosa using a wooden spatula. Statistical Analysis: The smears were graded for cell yield, dispersion and cellular clarity on a three-point scale by two observers. The results were analyzed using Mann Whitney non parametric test. Results: The Oral rinse was found to be significantly more efficient than the wooden spatula, in terms of cell yield (p<0.0001), cell dispersion (p =.0052) and cellular detail (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The study showed that the Oral rinse is an effective method for use in exfoliative cytology of normal oral mucosa. PMID:24551721

Mulki, Shaila; Shetty, Pushparaj; Pai, Prakash

2013-01-01

220

A phase contrast cytomorphometric study of squames of normal oral mucosa and oral leukoplakia: Original study  

PubMed Central

Oral leukoplakia represents the most common potentially malignant oral disorder, representing 85% of such lesions. The worldwide prevalence of leukoplakia is 1.5- 4.3%. Leukoplakia is often associated with carcinogenic exposures, such as from use of tobacco, alcohol or betel nut. The level of risk for malignant transformation of leukoplakia is associated with lesion histology. The overall malignant transformation rates for dysplastic lesions range from 11% to 36%, depending on the length of follow-up. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and minimally invasive method. Phase contrast microscope, an essential tool in the field of biology and medical research provides improved discrimination of cellular details. Aims: To study and compare the cytomorphological and cytomorphometric features of squames obtained from the mucosa of normal individuals, tobacco habituates with and without clinically evident leukoplakia. To assess the role of phase contrast microscopy as an alternative and easy method of cytological evaluation of wet and unstained smears. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases from each group were taken. Fixed, unstained smears were viewed under phase contrast microscope and were evaluated morphologically and morphometrically for nuclear and cellular diameters. Results: The study showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear diameter and decrease in the mean cellular diameter. Conclusion: Cytomorphometric changes could be the earliest indicators of cellular alterations. This indicates that there could be a cause-effect relationship between tobacco and quantitative alterations. PMID:25364176

Nadaf, Afreen; Bavle, Radhika M; Thambiah, Lalita J; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M

2014-01-01

221

Lipomatous tumors of the oral mucosa: histomorphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical features.  

PubMed

We conducted a comprehensive study of all lipomatous tumors of the oral mucosa (1996-2008) accessioned at the Department of Oral Pathology, Tel Aviv University, collected demographic data and analyzed multiple histomorphological features. Furthermore, we examined the immunostaining of aP2 (adipocyte lipid binding protein) and the polarization colors of picrosirius red (PSR)-stained collagen fibers in order to test their potential in differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. All cases were immunohistochemically stained with aP2 antibody; only tumors with considerable collagenous stroma were selected for the PSR staining. A total of 77 tumors were included in the study, 91% benign and 9% malignant. Fibrolipoma (37.7%) and lipoma (36.4%) were the most frequent tumors. Atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT) was the only type of malignancy. The most common location for the benign tumors was the buccal mucosa and for ALT, the tongue. Histomorphological features characteristic of malignant tumors were occasionally present also in the benign entities. Expression of aP2 was similar in all tumors, while the polarization colors of the PSR-stained collagen fibers differed significantly between ALT and benign tumors (p<0.05). Benign and malignant tumors occasionally show overlapping histomorphological features that require a meticulous examination. PSR staining with polarization microscopy could aid in differentiating malignant from benign tumors in equivocal cases. PMID:21376375

Allon, Irit; Aballo, Sara; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena

2011-12-01

222

The potential role of oral pH in the persistence of Trichomonas gallinae in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii).  

PubMed

Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae, affects a variety of species worldwide including avivorious raptors. Existing information suggests that the disease is most prevalent in young birds, and differential susceptibility to trichomoniasis among individuals in different age groups was documented in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) nesting in Tucson, Arizona. In that population, 85% of nestling Cooper's Hawks had T. gallinae in their oral cavity, compared to only 1% of breeding-age hawks. Trichomonads generally are sensitive to environmental pH and we explored the possibility that differences in oral pH may contribute to the differential prevalence of infection between age groups. We measured the pH of the fluid in the oral cavity in 375 Cooper's Hawks from three age groups (nestlings, fledglings, and breeding age) in Tucson, Arizona, in 2010 and 2011 and clinically tested for T. gallinae in a subsample of hawks. Oral pH of nestlings (? 6.8) was 7.3 times less acidic than in fledgling or breeding Cooper's Hawks (? 6.1). The incidence of T. gallinae was higher in nestlings (16%) than in either fledglings or breeding hawks (0%). Our findings indicate that oral pH becomes more acidic in Cooper's Hawks soon after they leave the nest. Trichomonas gallinae thrives when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but is less viable in more acidic conditions. Higher levels of acidity in the oral cavity of fledglings and breeding Cooper's Hawks may reduce their susceptibility to trichomoniasis, and play a role in the differential prevalence of infection among age groups. PMID:24171574

Urban, Elizabeth H; Mannan, R William

2014-01-01

223

An insight into salivary markers in oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Salivary diagnostics has fascinated many researcheres and has been tested as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of many systemic conditions and for drug monitoring. Advances in the field of molecular biology, salivary genomics and proteomics have led to the discovery of new molecular markers for oral cancer diagnosis, therapeutics and prognosis. Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease and the outcome of the treatment and prognosis largely depends on early diagnosis. Abnormal cellular products elucidated from malignant cells can be detected and measured in various body fluids including saliva and constitute tumor markers. This article discusses the various salivary tumor markers and their role in oral pre-cancer and cancer. PMID:24019794

Krishna Prasad, Ramnarayan Belur; Sharma, Akhilesh; Babu, Harsha Mysore

2013-01-01

224

Metabolism of [D10]Phenanthrene to Tetraols in Smokers for Potential Lung Cancer Susceptibility Assessment: Comparison of Oral and Inhalation Routes of Administration  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be among the causative agents for lung cancer in smokers. PAHs require metabolic activation for carcinogenicity. One pathway produces diol epoxides that react with DNA, causing mutations. Because diol epoxides are converted to tetraols, quantitation of tetraols can potentially be used to identify smokers who may be at higher risk for lung cancer. Our approach uses [D10]phenanthrene, a labeled version of phenanthrene, a noncarcinogenic PAH structurally analogous to carcinogenic PAH. Although smokers are exposed to PAH by inhalation, oral dosing would be more practical for phenotyping studies. Therefore, we investigated [D10]phenanthrene metabolism in smokers after administration by inhalation in cigarette smoke or orally. Sixteen smokers received 10 ?g of [D10]phenanthrene in a cigarette or orally. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed for [D10]r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene ([D10]PheT), the major end product of the diol epoxide pathway, by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The ratios of [D10]PheT (oral dosing/inhalation) in 15 smokers were 1.03 ± 0.32 and 1.02 ± 0.35, based on plasma area under the concentration-time curve (0-?) and total 48-h urinary excretion, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference in the extent of [D10]PheT formation after the two different routes of exposure in smokers. A large interindividual variation in [D10]PheT formation was observed. These results demonstrate that the level of [D10]PheT in urine after oral dosing of [D10]phenanthrene can be used to assess individual capacity of PAH metabolism by the diol epoxide pathway. PMID:21515812

Zhong, Yan; Wang, Jing; Carmella, Steven G.; Hochalter, J. Bradley; Rauch, Diane; Oliver, Andrew; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Zimmerman, Cheryl

2011-01-01

225

Significance of Peritoneal Washing Cytopathology in Ovarian Carcinomas and Tumors of Low Malignant Potential: A Quality Control Study with Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The author evaluated a consecutive group of peritoneal washings (PWs) performed in the evaluation of adnexal masses to determine whether the conventional histopathologic prognostic parameters significantly affect the tumor detection rate using this procedure. Study Design: Cytopathologic reports from all PWs performed over a 13-year (1996–2008) period in the evaluation of malignant and borderline ovarian tumors were reviewed and

Sevgiye Kaçar Özkara

2011-01-01

226

Snuff-induced malignancy of the nasal vestibule: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between nasal snuff and malignancy is not well established. There is epidemiological evidence suggesting that oral tobacco when mixed with lime and betel leaves causes oral cancer in the Indian subcontinent. Similarly, snuff spiced with dried aloe has been reported to cause upper jaw malignancies in the Bantu tribes. The last reported case of nasal snuff causing cancer

Suja Sreedharan; Mahesh Chandra Hegde; Radha Pai; Shobha Rhodrigues; Rajeev Kumar; Anwar Rasheed

2007-01-01

227

Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

2010-01-01

228

Recent advances in Oral Oncology.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the main papers related to oral squamous cell carcinoma published in 2006 in oral oncology - an international interdisciplinary journal which publishes high quality original research, clinical trials and review articles, and all other scientific articles relating to the aetiopathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with neoplasms in the head and neck, and orofacial disease in patients with malignant disease. PMID:17275742

Scully, Crispian; Bagan, Jose V

2007-02-01

229

Intrageneric coaggregation among strains of human oral bacteria: potential role in primary colonization of the tooth surface.  

PubMed Central

Of the 122 human oral bacterial strains tested from 11 genera, only streptococci and a few actinomyces exhibited coaggregation among the strains within their respective genera. Eight of the ten streptococci showed multiple intrageneric coaggregations, all of which were inhibited by galactosides. The widespread intrageneric coaggregation among the streptococci and the less extensive coaggregation among the actinomyces offers an explanation for their accretion on cleaned tooth surfaces and their dominance as primary colonizers. PMID:2082831

Kolenbrander, P E; Andersen, R N; Moore, L V

1990-01-01

230

Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.  

PubMed

The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer. PMID:25313728

Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

2014-01-01

231

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

232

Malignant hyperthermia.  

PubMed

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000-100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with greater frequency. Dantrolene sodium is a specific antagonist of the pathophysiologic changes of MH and should be available wherever general anesthesia is administered. Thanks to the dramatic progress in understanding the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of the syndrome, the mortality from MH has dropped from over 80% thirty years ago to less than 5%. PMID:17456235

Rosenberg, Henry; Davis, Mark; James, Danielle; Pollock, Neil; Stowell, Kathryn

2007-01-01

233

In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancers of oral cavities are one of the most common malignancies in India and other south-Asian countries. Tobacco habits are the main etiological factors for oral cancer. Identification of premalignant lesions is required for improving survival rates related to oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods are projected as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. We intend to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting premalignant conditions. Spectra were recorded from premalignant patches, contralateral normal (opposite to tumor site), and cancerous sites of subjects with oral cancers and also from age-matched healthy subjects with and without tobacco habits. A total of 861 spectra from 104 subjects were recorded using a fiber-optic probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectral differences in the 1200- to 1800-cm-1 region were subjected to unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised linear discriminant analysis followed by validation with leave-one-out and an independent test data set. Results suggest that premalignant conditions can be objectively discriminated with both normal and cancerous sites as well as from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits. Findings of the study further support efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral-cancer applications.

Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

2012-10-01

234

DNA Ploidy Status and Proliferative Activity as Markers of Malignant Potential in Barrett's Esophagus: Flow Cytometric Study Using Routinely Paraffin-embedded Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Regular endoscopic surveillance is recommended for patients with Barrett's esophagus to detect dysplasia and to diagnose\\u000a carcinoma while it is in an early and possibly treatable stage. However, there are numerous unknown aspects regarding the\\u000a natural history of dysplasia in this disease, and there is still a need for more accurate markers of risk of a malignant change.\\u000a The

Alberto Giménez; Alfredo Minguela; Luisa M. de Haro; Pascual Parrilla; Juan Bermejo; Domingo Pérez; Ana M. García; María A. Ortiz; Joaquín Molina; Rocío Álvarez

2000-01-01

235

A fusion protein derived from plants holds promising potential as a new oral therapy for type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is recognized as a promising candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), with one of its mimetics, exenatide (synthetic exendin-4) having already been licensed for clinical use. We seek to further improve the therapeutic efficacy of exendin-4 (Ex-4) using innovative fusion protein technology. Here, we report the production in plants a fusion protein containing Ex-4 coupled with human transferrin (Ex-4-Tf) and its characterization. We demonstrated that plant-made Ex-4-Tf retained the activity of both proteins. In particular, the fusion protein stimulated insulin release from pancreatic ?-cells, promoted ?-cell proliferation, stimulated differentiation of pancreatic precursor cells into insulin-producing cells, retained the ability to internalize into human intestinal cells and resisted stomach acid and proteolytic enzymes. Importantly, oral administration of partially purified Ex-4-Tf significantly improved glucose tolerance, whereas commercial Ex-4 administered by the same oral route failed to show any significant improvement in glucose tolerance in mice. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (IP) injection of Ex-4-Tf showed a beneficial effect in mice similar to IP-injected Ex-4. We also showed that plants provide a robust system for the expression of Ex-4-Tf, producing up to 37 ?g prEx-4-Tf/g fresh leaf weight in transgenic tobacco and 137 ?g prEx-4-Tf/g freshweight in transiently transformed leaves of N. benthamiana. These results indicate that Ex-4-Tf holds substantial promise as a new oral therapy for type 2 diabetes. The production of prEx-4-Tf in plants may offer a convenient and cost-effective method to deliver the antidiabetic medicine in partially processed plant food products. PMID:24373324

Choi, Jeehye; Diao, Hong; Feng, Zhi-Chao; Lau, Arthur; Wang, Rennian; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Ma, Shengwu

2014-05-01

236

Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) in the meninges have been reported since this entity was first recognized. While most cases previously reported were considered to be benign, the malignant potential of extrathoracic SFTs has not been excluded. The authors report a rare case of a meningeal SFT with malignant behavior occurring in a Japanese female patient, initially resected

Kumiko Ogawa; Toyohiro Tada; Satoru Takahashi; Naotake Sugiyama; Shingo Inaguma; Seishiro S. Takahashi; Tomoyuki Shirai

2004-01-01

237

Dental status, dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and oncological data as potential risk factors for infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw after radiotherapy for oral neoplasms: a retrospective evaluation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Retrospective evaluation of the dental status of patients with oral cancer before radiotherapy, the extent of dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and radiotherapy data as potential risk factors for development of infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw. Methods A total of 90 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for oral cancer were included into this retrospective evaluation. None of them had distant metastases. After tumour surgery the patients were referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for dental examination and the necessary dental rehabilitation procedures inclusive potential tooth extraction combined with primary soft tissue closure. Adjuvant radiotherapy was started after complete healing of the gingiva (> 7 days after potential extraction). The majority of patients (n?=?74) was treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses ranging from 50-70Gy whereas further 16 patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy up to 72Gy. The records of the clinical data were reviewed. Furthermore, questionnaires were mailed to the patients’ general practitioners and dentists in order to get more data concerning tumour status and osteoradionecrosis during follow-up. Results The patients’ dental status before radiotherapy was generally poor. On average 10 teeth were present, six of them were regarded to remain conservable. Extensive dental rehabilitation procedures included a mean of 3.7 tooth extractions. Chronic periodontitis with severe attachment loss was found in 40%, dental biofilm in 56%. An infected osteoradionecrosis (IORN) grade II according to (Schwartz et al., Am J Clin Oncol 25:168-171, 2002) was diagnosed in 11 of the 90 patients (12%), mostly within the first 4 years after radiotherapy. We could not find significant prognostic factors for the occurrence of IORN, but a trendwise correlation with impaired dental status, rehabilitation procedures, fraction size and tumour outcome. Conclusion The occurrence of IORN is an important long-term side effect of radiotherapy for oral cancers. From this data we only can conclude that a poor dental status, conventional fractionation and local tumour progression may enhance the risk of IORN which is in concordance with the literature. PMID:24088270

2013-01-01

238

Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin): A potential cancer chemopreventive agent through suppression of Sp1 in oral squamous cancer cells.  

PubMed

Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a coumarin compound, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several types of human cancer cells and is regarded as a promising chemotherapeutic agent. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of esculetin on two oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, HN22 and HSC4, through regulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1). We examined the apoptotic effects of esculetin were measured by MTS assay, DAPI staining, Annexin V, PI staining, RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry in HN22 and HSC4 cells. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that esculetin had anti-proliferative effect on the growth of OSCC cells (HN22 and HSC4) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The treatment of HN22 and HSC4 cells with esculetin led to a significant reduction in growth and induced apoptosis, followed by the regulation of Sp1 and Sp1 regulatory protein. This indicates that esculetin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis by suppressing Sp1 in HN22 and HSC4 cells, suggesting it to be a potent anticancer drug candidate for oral cancer. PMID:25310400

Cho, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Cho, Jung-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

2015-01-01

239

Hypertension and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Large prospective epidemiologic studies have shown that long-term use of oral contraceptives containing estrogen induce an increase in blood pressure and sharply increase the risk of hypertension. Susceptibility to the hypertensive effects of oral contraceptives is heightened where risk factors such as age, family history of hypertension, preexisting or occult renal disease, parity and obesity exist. Hypertension among pill users usually develops within the first 6 months of usage and occasionally is delayed for as long as 6 years. Anitihypertensive therapy is seldom needed as the hypertension that developes is generally mild and uncomplicated, and rapidly reverses when the pills are discontinued. However, a small percentage of patients develop severe, even life-threatening hypertension and the hypertensive effects are felt long after the pills are discontinued. Cases of malignant hypertension and irreversible renal failure requiring maintenance hemodialysis, bilateral nephrectomy, and renal transplantation have occurred following administration of oral contraceptive pills. The mechanism by which oral pills induce hypertension in susceptible women is not known and needs further research. Before oral contraceptives are prescribed, physicians should take a careful history and perform a detailed physicial examination with special attention to the cardiovascular system. Multiple blood pressure measurements should be made and routine laboratory studies including urinalysis, blood urea and nitrogen and serum creatinine should be performed. It is preferable to start with a relatively low (50 mcg) estrogenic content preparation. Patients who develop hypertension (diastolic pressure, 90 mm Hg) on oral contraceptives should stop taking the pills immediately, and should be considered to have estrogen-induced hypertension. They should never again receive estrogen-containing oral pills, although they can try pills containing only progestogen. There is no contraindication to pregnancy in these patients, as most women who become hypertensive on oral pills go on to have normotensive pregnancies. Pregnancy in women who are susceptible to essential hypertension however should be treated as high risk. PMID:12263383

Oparil, S

1981-04-01

240

Molecular and behavioral pharmacology of two novel orally-active 5HT2 modulators: potential utility as antipsychotic medications  

PubMed Central

Background Desired serotonin 5HT2 receptor pharmacology for treatment of psychoses is 5HT2A antagonism and/or 5HT2C agonism. No selective 5HT2A antagonist has been approved for psychosis and the only approved 5HT2C agonist (for obesity) also activates 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptors, which can lead to clinical complications. Studies herein tested the hypothesis that a dual-function 5HT2A antagonist/5HT2C agonist that does not activate 5HT2B receptors would be suitable for development as an antipsychotic drug, without liability for weight gain. Methods The novel compounds (+)- and (?)-trans-4-(4?-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-2-aminotetralin (p-Cl-PAT) were synthesized, characterized in vitro for affinity and functional activity at human 5HT2 receptors, and administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (gavage) routes to mice in behavioral paradigms that assessed antipsychotic efficacy and effects on feeding behavior. Results (+)- and (?)-p-Cl-PAT activated 5HT2C receptors, with (+)-p-Cl-PAT being 12-times more potent, consistent with its higher affinity across 5HT2 receptors. Neither p-Cl-PAT enantiomer activated 5HT2A or 5HT2B receptors at concentrations up to 300-times greater than their respective affinity (Ki), and (+)-p-Cl-PAT was shown to be a 5HT2A competitive antagonist. When administered i.p. or orally, (+)- and (?)-p-Cl-PAT attenuated the head-twitch response (HTR) in mice elicited by the 5HT2 agonist (?)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and reduced intake of a highly palatable food in non-food-deprived mice, with (+)-p-Cl-PAT being more potent across behavioral assays. Conclusions The novel in vitro pharmacology of (+)-p-Cl-PAT (5HT2A antagonism/5HT2C agonism without activation of 5HT2B) translated in vivo to an orally-active drug candidate with preclinical efficacy to treat psychoses without liability for weight gain. PMID:23665356

Morgan, Drake; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Kuipers, Allison; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Robertson, Kimberly L.; Rowland, Neil E.; Booth, Raymond G.

2013-01-01

241

[MALIGNANT GASTRIC LEIOMYOBLASTOMA: CASE REPORT  

PubMed

The gastric leiomyoblastoma is a benign neoplasia -extremely uncommon and potentially malignant-, which arises from the muscular layer of the stomach. We present the case of a 21 year old male patient with this disease, who suddenly had intraperitoneal hemorrhage. He underwent an exploratory operation and the surgical findings showed an ulcerated and bleeding nodular tumor, located on the anterior wall and minor curvature of the gastric antrum, ulcerated and with active bleeding. A distal subtotal gastrectomy was performed, as well as a Billroth II-type gastroenteroanastomosis from the Hoffmeister-Finsterer variety. The anatomopathologic report was, "malignant gastric leiomyoblastoma". We discuss the clinical features and therapeutical options used. PMID:12219107

Díaz Plasencia, Juan; Tantaleán, Enrique; Guzmán, Rafael; Pomatanta Plasencia, Jorge; Grados Méndez, Johnny; Vilela, Carlos

1997-01-01

242

Anatomy-Based Algorithms for Detecting Oral Cancer Using Reflectance and Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVES: We used reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to noninvasively and quantitatively distinguish benign from dysplastic/malignant oral lesions. We designed diagnostic algorithms to account for differences in ...

McGee, Sasha

243

Comparative study between the Hybrid Capture II test and PCR based assay for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Oral malignancy is a major global health problem. Besides the main risk factors of tobacco, smoking and alcohol, infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and genetic alterations are likely to play an important role in these lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of HC-II assay and PCR for the detection of specific HPV type (HPV 16 E6) in OSMF and OSCC cases as well as find out the prevalence of the high risk HPV (HR-HPV) in these lesions. Methods and materials Four hundred and thirty patients of the potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions were taken from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India from Sept 2007-March 2010. Of which 208 cases were oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 222 cases were oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The HC-II assay and PCR were used for the detection of HR-HPV DNA. Result The overall prevalence of HR-HPV 16 E6 DNA positivity was nearly 26% by PCR and 27.4% by the HC-II assay in case of potentially malignant disorder of the oral lesions such as OSMF. However, in case of malignant oral lesions such as OSCC, 32.4% HPV 16 E6 positive by PCR and 31.4% by the HC-II assay. In case of OSMF, the two test gave concordant result for 42 positive samples and 154 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 85.4% (Cohen's kappa = 66.83%, 95% CI 0.553-0.783). The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 73.7% and 92.05% (p < 0.00). In case of OSCC, the two test gave concordant result for 61 positive samples and 152 negative samples, with an overall level of agreement of 88.3% (Cohen's kappa = 79.29, 95% CI 0.769-0.939) and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 87.14% and 92.76% (p < 0.00). Conclusion This study concluded that slight difference was found between the positivity rate of HR-HPV infection detected by the HC-II and PCR assay in OSMF and OSCC cases and the HC II assay seemed to have better sensitivity in case of OSCC. PMID:20863370

2010-01-01

244

Contact inhibition and malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of contact inhibition in influencing the behaviour of malignant cells is discussed in a review. Although tissue culture cannot simulate the immense complexity of the conditions in vivo, some of the distinctive features of malignant invasion can be conveniently observed with this technique. The evidence derived from this technique indicates that defective contact inhibition of movement of malignant

M. Abercrombie

1979-01-01

245

Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma  

MedlinePLUS

... cells. The disease is metastatic malignant mesothelioma, not brain cancer. The following stages are used for malignant mesothelioma: ... distant parts of the body such as the brain, spine, thyroid , or prostate . Recurrent Malignant ... mesothelioma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has ...

246

[Oral ulcers].  

PubMed

Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

2005-10-29

247

Reflectance confocal microscope for imaging oral tissues in vivo, potentially with line scanning as a low-cost approach for clinical use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance confocal microscopy with a line scanning approach potentially offers a smaller, simpler and less expensive approach than traditional methods of point scanning for imaging in living tissues. With one moving mechanical element (galvanometric scanner), a linear array detector and off-the-shelf optics, we designed a compact (102x102x76mm) line scanning confocal reflectance microscope (LSCRM) for imaging human tissues in vivo in a clinical setting. Custom-designed electronics, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic has been developed. With 405 nm illumination and a custom objective lens of numerical aperture 0.5, lateral resolution was measured to be 0.8 um (calculated 0.64 um). The calculated optical sectioning is 3.2 um. Preliminary imaging shows nuclear and cellular detail in human skin and oral epithelium in vivo. Blood flow is also visualized in the deeper connective tissue (lamina propria) in oral mucosa. Since a line is confocal only in one dimension (parallel) but not in the other, the detection is more sensitive to multiply scattered out of focus background noise than in the traditional point scanning configuration. Based on the results of our translational studies thus far, a simpler, smaller and lower-cost approach based on a LSCRM appears to be promising for clinical imaging.

Peterson, Gary; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Eastman, Zachary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2012-02-01

248

Eliglustat tartrate, an orally active glucocerebroside synthase inhibitor for the potential treatment of Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage diseases.  

PubMed

Eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638), currently under development by Genzyme Corp, is a glucocerebroside (glucosylceramide) synthase inhibitor for the treatment of Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage disorders. Gaucher disease is an inherited defect of lysosomal functions caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene leading to accumulation of glucocerebroside, primarily in macrophages. Gaucher disease is characterized by visceromegaly and skeletal complications, including osteoporosis and painful episodes of osteonecrosis. In vitro studies demonstrated that, following exposure to eliglustat tartrate, the abundance of GM1 and GM3 gangliosides in cultured human erythroleukemia cells and murine melanoma cells was decreased. In vivo, eliglustat tartrate administered to Asp409Val/null mice lowered the concentrations of glucocerebroside in the liver, lung and spleen and reduced the number of Gaucher cells in the liver. In a phase Ib clinical trial in healthy volunteers, plasma glucocerebroside concentrations were decreased after dosing with eliglustat tartrate, and in phase II clinical trials in patients with type 1 (non-neuronopathic) Gaucher disease, spleen and liver volumes were diminished. Patients also demonstrated improved bone mineral density, correction of abnormal bone marrow signal with MRI and normalization of glucocerebroside and ganglioside GM3 levels. Eliglustat tartrate is orally active and, with potent effects on the primary identified molecular target for type 1 Gaucher disease and other glycosphingolipidoses, appears likely to fulfill high expectations for clinical efficacy. PMID:20872320

Cox, Timothy M

2010-10-01

249

Precursors to Lymphoproliferative Malignancies  

PubMed Central

We review monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) as a precursor to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a precursor to plasma cell disorders. These conditions are present in the general population and increase with age. These precursors aggregate with lymphoproliferative malignancies in families suggesting shared inheritance. MBL and MGUS may share some of the same risk factors as their related malignancies but data are limited. While these conditions are characterized by enhanced risk for the associated malignancy, the majority of individuals with these conditions do not progress to malignancy. A key focus for current work is to identify markers that predict progression to malignancy. PMID:23549397

Goldin, Lynn R.; McMaster, Mary L.; Caporaso, Neil E.

2013-01-01

250

The role of estrogen receptor {beta} (ER{beta}) in malignant diseases-A new potential target for antiproliferative drugs in prevention and treatment of cancer  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of ER{beta} in the middle of the 1990s represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of estrogen signaling. It has turned out that estrogen action is not mediated by one receptor, ER{alpha}, but by two balancing factors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, which are often antagonistic to one another. Excitingly, ER{beta} has been shown to be widespread in the body and to be involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological events. This has led to a strong interest of the pharmaceutical industry to target ER{beta} by drugs against various diseases. In this review, focus is on the role of ER{beta} in malignant diseases where the anti proliferative activity of ER{beta} gives hope of new therapeutic approaches.

Warner, Margaret [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden) [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@mednut.ki.se [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden) [Center for BioSciences, Department of BioSciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-05-21

251

Is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor expression a potential Achilles' heel of CD44+ oral squamous cell carcinoma cells?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (VDR) in oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to evaluate whether oral tissue may be a new potential target for biologically active 1,25-(OH)2D3 or its analogues. Expression of VDR was analysed in OSCC specimen (n=191) and cancer cell lines (BICR3, BICR56) by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, and Western blotting. Scanned images were digitally analysed using ImageJ and the immunomembrane plug-in. VDR expression on protein level was correlated with proliferation marker Ki-67, clinical characteristics and impact on survival. VDR was co-labelled with CD44 and Ki-67 in double labeling experiments. Expression subgroups were identified by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Low VDR expression was significantly associated with recurrence of the tumour. Multivariate analysis demonstrated low VDR expression as an independent prognostic factor (p=0.0005). Immunohistochemical double staining revealed VDR expression by CD44+ cancer cells. An inverse correlation of VDR+ expressing cancer cells with Ki-67 has been found, which was indicated by immunofluorescence double labeling. VDR specificity was confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. For the first time, our study provides evidence that decreased VDR expression in OSCC might be associated with tumour relapse. Tumour cells of a putative CD44+ cancer stem cell compartment express VDR indicating a potential Achilles' heel for the treatment of OSCC although, our results do not allow any conclusion on the function of VDR. Adjuvant chemoprevention by using 1,25-(OH)2D3 or its analogues can be a successful tool targeting adjuvant residual tumour cells and will likely help therapeutic optimization for cancer patients in the clinic. However, this hypothesis requires further in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:23314953

Grimm, Martin; Alexander, Dorothea; Munz, Adelheid; Hoffmann, Juergen; Reinert, Siegmar

2013-09-01

252

Oral dirofilariasis.  

PubMed

Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic. PMID:24992859

Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

2014-01-01

253

Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-08-21

254

Management of malignant hyperthermia: diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially lethal inherited disorder characterized by disturbance of calcium homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Volatile anesthetics and/or the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine may induce this hypermetabolic muscular syndrome due to uncontrolled sarcoplasmic calcium release via functionally altered calcium release receptors, resulting in hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, muscular rigidity, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hyperthermia in susceptible individuals. Since the clinical presentation of malignant hyperthermia is highly variable, survival of affected patients depends largely on early recognition of the symptoms characteristic of malignant hyperthermia, and immediate action on the part of the attending anesthesiologist. Clinical symptoms of malignant hyperthermia, diagnostic criteria, and current therapeutic guidelines, as well as adequate management of anesthesia in patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia, are discussed in this review. PMID:24868161

Schneiderbanger, Daniel; Johannsen, Stephan; Roewer, Norbert; Schuster, Frank

2014-01-01

255

‘The Italian Protocol’: a simplified head-up tilt testing potentiated with oral nitroglycerin to assess patients with unexplained syncope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head-up tilt testing potentiated by sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG), advocated by an Italian group, is a simple and safe but still not a standardized, diagnostic tool for the investigation of syncope. In fact, owing to its rapid spread, the original protocol received, often arbitrarily, many subsequent modifications. We now define the best methodology of the test on strictly evidence-based criteria as:

A. Bartoletti; P. Alboni; F. Ammirati; M. Brignole; A. Del Rosso; G. Foglia Manzillo; C. Menozzi; A. Raviele; R. Sutton

2000-01-01

256

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

2006-11-10

257

Unusual variants of malignant melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential diagnostic pitfall in the histologic assessment of melanoma is the inability to recognize unusual melanoma variants. Of these, the more treacherous examples include the desmoplastic melanoma, the nevoid melanoma, the so-called ‘minimal-deviation melanoma,’ melanoma with prominent pigment synthesis or ‘animal-type melanoma,’ and the malignant blue nevus. Also problematic are the unusual phenotypic profiles seen in vertical growth phase

Cynthia M Magro; A Neil Crowson; Martin C Mihm

2006-01-01

258

Malignant melanoma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cutaneous melanoma is an uncommon malignancy in children and for this reason, there is little information available regarding\\u000a the timing and patterns of recurrence in children with this disease. This study reviews the experience at a single institution\\u000a (Duke University Melanoma Clinic) in treating children with malignant melanoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Eighty-five patients ?18 years of age with malignant melanoma have

Andrew M. Davidoff; Constance Cirrincione; Hilliard F. Seigler

1994-01-01

259

Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments. PMID:23482881

BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina

2012-01-01

260

Immunohistochemistry of primary malignant neuroepithelial tumors of the kidney: a potential source of confusion? A study of 30 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Pathology Center.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is a rare primary tumor of the kidney with morphologic features similar to those of other primitive tumors. Previous studies have shown that these tumors frequently stain positively with immunostains against CD99 and FLI-1 and negatively with stains against WT-1, suggesting that these markers may be used for the distinction between Wilms tumor and pPNET. We present 30 cases of primary malignant neuroepithelial tumor with immunohistochemical profiles and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and show that immunophenotypic overlap exists between Wilms tumor and pPNET. A subset of 30 neuroepithelial tumors from the National Wilms Tumor Study originally categorized as putative pPNETs of the kidney was stained with FLI-1, WT-1, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Bicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed on 19 of the cases. Other data on these tumors were available from a previous study (Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:133). Of 7 primary tumors that had the EWS/FLI-1 fusion transcript by RT-PCR, 6 exhibited strong immunopositivity for FLI-1. Nine that were negative by RT-PCR stained positively with the FLI-1 stain. Five fusion-negative cases stained with both FLI-1 and WT-1. Three fusion-negative cases were negative for FLI-1 but positive for WT-1. Five fusion-negative cases were negative for both FLI-1 and WT-1. Of the 30 cases, 29 were positive for CD99. Seven cases that were negative for the EWS-FLI-1 fusion by RT-PCR were positive by fluorescence in situ hybridization. All cases were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Reliance upon immunohistochemistry as the sole means of ancillary diagnosis in renal pPNET can lead to confusing results. We recommend molecular fusion studies for clarification of primitive renal tumors with unexpected immunophenotypic results. PMID:17134738

Ellison, Dale A; Parham, David M; Bridge, Julia; Beckwith, J Bruce

2007-02-01

261

Galectin-7 as a potential predictive marker of chemo-and/or radio-therapy resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Treatment of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) requires the integration of multimodal approaches. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of tumor sensitivity to preoperative radiotherapy/chemotherapy for OSCC in order to allow oncologists to determine optimum therapeutic strategies without the associated adverse effects. Here, the protein expression profiles of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 18 OSCC patients, termed learning cases, who received preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy followed by surgery were analyzed by quantitative proteomics and validated by immunohistochemistry in 68 test cases as well as in the 18 learning cases. We identified galectin-7 as a potential predictive marker of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy resistance, and the sensitivity and specificity of the galectin-7 prediction score (G7PS) in predicting this resistance was of 96.0% and 39.5%, respectively, in the 68 test cases. The cumulative 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 75.2% in patients with resistant prediction using G7PS and 100% in patients with sensitive prediction. In vitro overexpression of galectin-7 significantly decreased cell viability in OSCC cell line. Therefore, our findings suggest that galectin-7 is a potential predictive marker of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy resistance in patients with OSCC. Identification of proteins differentially expressed in OSSC samples from patients sensitive or resistant. The samples were processed by LC-MS and analyzed with 2DICAL. PMID:24515895

Matsukawa, Sho; Morita, Kei-ichi; Negishi, Ayako; Harada, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Yusuke; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Tomioka, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Kae; Ono, Masaya; Yamada, Tesshi; Omura, Ken

2014-01-01

262

Smokeless tobacco, viruses and oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. OSCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, viral infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007 concluded: "there is sufficient evidence in humans to establish smokeless tobacco as carcinogenic, i.e. smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas". ST products contain a large array of carcinogens, although the number found is actually smaller than in cigarette smoke. Worldwide, ST products have many different names depending on the region where it is produced. However, there are two main types of ST, chewing tobacco and snuff. It is estimated that approximately 150 million people in the world use ST. Herein, we review available literature regarding smokeless tobacco and oral Carcinogenesis. We also discuss the role of viral infections in combination with ST in OSCC development. PMID:24984650

Sand, Lars; Wallström, Mats; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

2014-06-01

263

STMN-1 is a potential marker of lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and silencing its expression can reverse malignant phenotype of tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Background Distal esophageal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is still poor. Stathmin (STMN-1) is a ubiquitously expressed microtubule destabilizing phosphoprotein. It promotes the disassembly of microtubules and prevents assembly. STMN-1 can cause uncontrolled cell proliferation when mutated and not functioning properly. Recently, found to be overexpressed in many types of human cancers. However, its clinical significance remains elusive in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. Here, we reported for the first time that STMN-1 is highly overexpressed in adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and strongly associated with lymph node metastasis. Methods STMN-1 expression in 63 cases of distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was analyzed by immunoblotting, while expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and western blotting. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi was employed to knock-down STMN-1 expression in Human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. The relationship between STMN-1 expression and lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results STMN-1 was detected in 31 (49.21%) of the 63 cases. STMN-1 was highly overexpressed in specimens with lymph node metastasis pN (+), but its expression was almost undetected in pN (?) status. Multivarian regression analysis demonstrated that STMN-1 overexpression is an independent factor for lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. STMN-1 shRNA effectively reduced STMN-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells (P?malignancy in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. In vivo and in vitro laboratory findings, suggests that STMN-1 may be a suitable target for future therapeutic strategies in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24433541

2014-01-01

264

A new hyaluronic acid pH sensitive derivative obtained by ATRP for potential oral administration of proteins.  

PubMed

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been successfully employed to obtain a new derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA) able to change its solubility as a function of external pH and then to be potentially useful for intestinal release of bioactive molecules, included enzymes and proteins. In particular, a macroinitiator has been prepared by linking 2-bromo-2-methypropionic acid (BMP) to the amino groups of ethylenediamino derivative of tetrabutyl ammonium salt of HA (HA-TBA-EDA). This macroinititor, named HA-TBA-EDA-BMP has been used for the ATRP of sodium methacrylate (MANa) using a complex of Cu(I) and 2,2'-bipyridyl (Byp) as a catalyst. The resulting copolymer, named HA-EDA-BMP-MANa, has been characterized by (1)H NMR and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analyses. A turbidimetric analysis has showed its pH sensitive behavior, being insoluble in simulated gastric fluid but soluble when pH increases more than 2.5. To confirm the ability of HA-EDA-BMP-MANa in protecting peptides or proteins from denaturation in acidic medium, ?-chymotrypsin has been chosen as a model of protein molecule and its activity has been evaluated after entrapment into HA-EDA-BMP-MANa chains and treatment under simulated gastric conditions. Finally, cell compatibility has been evaluated by performing a MTS assay on murine dermal fibroblasts cultured with HA-EDA-BMP-MANa solutions. PMID:24060369

Fiorica, Calogero; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Di Stefano, Mauro; Calascibetta, Filippo; Giammona, Gaetano

2013-11-30

265

Familial malignant melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics associated with familial compared with nonfamilial malignant melanoma were assessed. These data were obtained from consecutive prospectively completed questionnaires on 1169 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Of these, 69 patients indicated a positive family history for this cancer. Among the various clinical and histological variables compared, those that significantly correlated with the familial occurrence of malignant melanoma include younger age at first diagnosis, smaller diameter of the lesion, lower Clark level, decreased frequency of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and reduced prevalence of noncutaneous cancer. Increased awareness of malignant melanoma among family members could account for some of these observations. Identification of the familial variety of malignant melanoma has practical implications concerning early detection and prompt intervention.

Kopf, A.W.; Hellman, L.J.; Rogers, G.S.; Gross, D.F.; Rigel, D.S.; Friedman, R.J.; Levenstein, M.; Brown, J.; Golomb, F.M.; Roses, D.F.; Gumport, S.L.

1986-10-10

266

The potential of organic-based amylose-ethylcellulose film coatings as oral colon-specific drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Amylose-ethylcellulose film coatings obtained from organic-based solvents were investigated as potential vehicles for colonic drug delivery. Amylose, in the form of an amylose-butan-1-ol dispersion, and ethylcellulose, dissolved in either ethyl lactate, ethanol, or propanol and plasticized with dibutyl sebacate, were mixed in various proportions and applied using a fluidized bed coater to achieve a range of film thicknesses on 5-aminosalicylic acid pellets. Drug release from the coated pellets was assessed under gastric and small intestinal conditions in the presence and absence of pepsin and pancreatin using dissolution methodology, and also within a simulated colonic environment involving fermentation testing with human feces in the form of a slurry. Under upper gastrointestinal tract conditions, the rate and extent of drug release were found to be related to the thickness of the coating and the ratio of amylose to ethylcellulose within the film. Modeling of the drug release data revealed that the ratio was more important than coat thickness in controlling drug release, irrespective of the solvent used for coating. Coatings with a thick film and/or low amylose content were relatively impermeable and able to delay drug release under conditions mimicking the upper gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, drug release was unaffected by the presence of pepsin and pancreatin and by long-term storage. Under simulated colonic conditions, drug release was more pronounced from coating formulations containing higher proportions of amylose. Colon-specificity can therefore be achieved using such systems by judicious choice of the appropriate ratio of amylose to ethylcellulose and coat thickness. PMID:14727908

Siew, L F; Basit, A W; Newton, J M

2000-01-01

267

Venous thromboembolism in malignant gliomas  

PubMed Central

Summary Malignant gliomas are associated with a very high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While many clinical risk factors have previously been described in brain tumor patients, the risk of VTE associated with newer anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab in these patients remains unclear. When VTE occurs in this patient population, concern regarding the potential for intracranial hemorrhage complicates management decisions regarding anticoagulation, and these patients have a worse prognosis than their VTE-free counterparts. Risk stratification models identifying patients at high risk of developing VTE along with predictive plasma biomarkers may guide the selection of eligible patients for primary prevention with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Recent studies exploring disordered coagulation, such as increased expression of tissue factor (TF), and tumorigenic molecular signaling may help to explain the increased risk of VTE in patients with malignant gliomas. PMID:19912518

JENKINS, E. O.; SCHIFF, D.; MACKMAN, N.; KEY, N. S.

2010-01-01

268

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Are Potential Predictive Biomarkers in Early Stage Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCC)  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often associated with metastatic disease and a poor 5 year survival rate. Patients diagnosed with small tumours generally have a more favourable outcome, but some of these small tumours are aggressive and lead to early death. To avoid harmful overtreatment of patients with favourable prognosis, there is a need for predictive biomarkers that can be used for treatment stratification. In this study we assessed the possibility to use components of the plasminogen activator (PA) system as prognostic markers for OSCC outcome and compared this to the commonly used biomarker Ki-67. A tissue-micro-array (TMA) based immunohistochemical analysis of primary tumour tissue obtained from a North Norwegian cohort of 115 patients diagnosed with OSCC was conducted. The expression of the biomarkers was compared with clinicopathological variables and disease specific death. The statistical analyses revealed that low expression of uPAR (p?=?0.031) and PAI-1 (p?=?0.021) in the tumour cells was significantly associated with low disease specific death in patients with small tumours and no lymph node metastasis (T1N0). The commonly used biomarker, Ki-67, was not associated with disease specific death in any of the groups of patients analysed. The conclusion is that uPAR and PAI-1 are potential predictive biomarkers in early stage tumours and that this warrants further studies on a larger cohort of patients. PMID:24999729

Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Svineng, Gunbjørg

2014-01-01

269

Comparative evaluation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan with Eudragit L100 and Eudragit L100-55 as potential carriers for oral controlled drug delivery.  

PubMed

With a view to the application in oral controlled drug delivery systems, the formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) between chitosan (CS) and Eudragit L100 (L100) or Eudragit L100-55 (L100-55) was investigated at pH 6.0, using elementary analysis. The interaction or binding ratio of a unit molecule of CS with Eudragit L copolymers depends on the molecular weight of CS, and changes from 1:0.85 to 1:1.22 (1.17potential interactions between the two polyelectrolytes were not observed. The release of the model drug diclofenac sodium (DS) was significantly delayed from tablets made up of the IPEC and can be modified by two ways: choosing Eudragit L copolymer types and/or changing the molecular weight of CS in the IPECs composition. PMID:18691856

Moustafine, Rouslan I; Margulis, Evgeniya B; Sibgatullina, Liliya F; Kemenova, Vera A; Van den Mooter, Guy

2008-09-01

270

Prevalence of oral mucosal alterations in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending a diabetic center  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore an association between oral mucosal alterations and type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Methods: This study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology and Baqai Medical University from September 2010 to September 2012. A total of 800 individuals’ 395 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 405 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. An oral clinical examination was carried out for all participants using a mouth mirror, visible light source and cotton gauze. Results: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was high significantly < 0.0001; odd ratio 2.601, CI 1.929-3.509 in type 2 diabetic as compared to non-diabetic. With respect to specific oral mucosal lesions, highly significant association p<0.0001; Odd ratio 4.275, CI 2.798-6.534 was found between coated tongue with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study did not find any association (p>0.05) between type 2 diabetes mellitus and potentially malignant disorders. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was higher in type 2 diabetic than non-diabetics. This study provides evidence that diabetes has a negative influence on oral health. PMID:25097503

Mohsin, Syed Fareed; Ahmed, Syed Azhar; Fawwad, Asher; Basit, Abdul

2014-01-01

271

[Cancers of the oral and genital mucosa].  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinomas account for over 90 % of cancers of the oral cavity in France. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Delay in diagnosis is unfortunately frequent. The management of the cancer is based on surgery, possibly associated to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The survival rate at 5 years does not exceed 30-40%. We hope to see a decrease in the number of oral cancer thanks to the development of preventive medicine (alcohol and tobacco cessation and early detection of potentially malignant lesions). Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease which traditionally affect elderly woman but continues to rise in incidence especially in younger women. There are at least 2 forms of genital squamous cell carcinoma. The most common form is found on older women arising in a background of lichen sclerosus and the second is associated with "high risk" human papillomavirus infection affecting younger women. A biopsy is usually required for diagnosis. Attempts to reduce genital cancer must focus on treating precursor lesions, namely lichen sclerosus and HPV-related intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and PIN). Most genital cancer occur on undiagnosed or untreated lichens sclerosus, vulvar inspection when women attend for their cervical smears or seeking about significance of any chronic genital symptom by a clinical examination. PMID:24167879

Dehen, Laure; Schwob, Emilie; Pascal, Francis

2013-09-01

272

Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential  

SciTech Connect

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 [ae-B20H17NH3], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 {+-} 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 {+-} 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

David W. Nigg

2012-05-01

273

Menadione (Vitamin K3) induces apoptosis of human oral cancer cells and reduces their metastatic potential by modulating the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers and inhibiting migration.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers worldwide, decreasing the patient's survival rate due to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Menadione (Vitamin K3) is known to exhibit cytotoxicity in various cancer cells but the present study focused on its effects on viability, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), anchorage independent growth and migration of oral cancer cells. The results show that menadione is more cytotoxic to SAS (oral squamous carcinoma) cells but not to non-tumorigenic HEK293 and HaCaT cells. Menadione treatment increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and p53, with a concurrent decrease in anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and p65. Menadione induced the expression of E-cadherin but reduced the expression of EMT markers, vimentin and fibronectin. Menadione also inhibited anchorage independent growth and migration in SAS cells. These findings reveal and confirm that menadione is a potential candidate in oral cancer therapy as it exhibits cytotoxic, antineoplastic and antimigratory effects besides effectively blocking EMT in oral cancer cells. PMID:24175842

Suresh, Shruthy; Raghu, Dinesh; Karunagaran, Devarajan

2013-01-01

274

Malignant eroticized countertransference.  

PubMed

Gabbard (1994) divided the pathology of therapists, both male and female, who commit sexual boundary violations into those who are psychotic, those who are predatory psychopaths, those engaging in masochistic surrender, and those called "the lovesick therapist." Lovesick therapists are the most common type and manifest crucial narcissistic themes of "a desperate need for validation by their patients, a hunger to be loved and idealized, and a tendency to use patients to regulate their own self-esteem" (p. 127). Among the psychodynamic aspects of this curiously circumscribed area of loss of reality testing that makes it difficult for the therapist to see how self-destructive and harmful such enactment is, are an unconscious reenactment of incestuous longings, a misperception of the patient's wish for maternal nurturance as a sexual overture, enactments of rescue fantasies, a projected idealization of the self of the therapist, a confusion of the therapist's needs with the patient's needs, a fantasy that love is curative, acting out disavowed rage at the patient, or rage at an organization, an institute, or one's training analyst, a manic defense against mourning, a narcissistic fantasy that their sexual affair is an exception, insecurity regarding masculine identity, and assorted primitive preoedipal themes. Gabbard's (1991) erotized countertransference is one variety of what I have termed malignant eroticized countertransference. His variety is a development that occurs under the pressure of the patient's preemptive and compelling expressions of lust and love, the patient's erotic transference. But malignant eroticized countertransference can also occur without the patient having offered any such expressions; it can even occur on first meeting the patient when he or she walks into the office! This is akin to the romantic "love-at-first-sight" theme so favored in the movies and by novelists, but it is always pathological when it occurs in the therapeutic situation. Countertransference enactments are a creation between the patient and the therapist on a continuum from one pole, where the patient has just walked into the office and contributes almost nothing directly, to the other pole, where the therapist loses control of himself or herself as a response to the unbearable pressure of the patient's lust. In the treatment of malignant eroticized countertransference it seems clear from this discussion that every case should be evaluated psychodynamically and the treatment should be made to fit the patient, not the patient to the treatment. Each situation should be studied in psychodynamic depth without preconceptions based on generalizations or formulas. Therapists who are psychotic should of course be treated with antipsychotic drugs and usually should not be allowed to practice any further. Therapists who are psychopathic or sociopathic predators should certainly never be allowed to practice. Some of the individuals who are "lovesick," or, as I put it "love/lust obsessed," or those who have made a masochistic surrender to a sadistic destructive patient, are in need of reanalysis and have the potential to continue as effective therapists under careful supervision. Therapists like this do not deserve to be summarily dismissed from the profession but, like therapists who develop other serious neurotic problems, should receive appropriate help from us. PMID:9395991

Chessick, R D

1997-01-01

275

Gynecologic malignancy in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Gynecologic malignancy during pregnancy is a stressful problem. For the diagnosis and treatment of malignancy during pregnancy, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Patients should be advised about the benefits and risk of treatment. When selecting a treatment for malignancy during pregnancy, the physiologic changes that occur with the pregnancy should be considered. Various diagnostic procedures that do not harm the fetus can be used. Laparoscopic surgery or laparotomy may be safely performed. The staging approach and treatment should be standard. Systemic chemotherapy during the first trimester should be delayed if possible. Radiation therapy should preferably start postpartum. Although delivery should be delayed preferably until after 35 weeks of gestation, termination of pregnancy may be considered when immediate treatment is required. Subsequent pregnancies do not increase the risk of malignancy recurrence. PMID:24328018

Ji, Yong Il

2013-01-01

276

Oral and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

2014-01-01

277

Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) is a rare tumor; previously only 52 cases have been reported in the English literature. This type of tumor should be distinguished from diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma, because a good outcome may be obtained by surgical resection. We report a case of LMPM which grew rapidly within 1 year. Surgical resection was performed, and at present, 6 months since the operation, the patient remains free of the disease. PMID:22566254

Nakano, Takayuki; Hamanaka, Rurika; Oiwa, Kana; Nakazato, Kenei; Masuda, Ryota; Iwazaki, Masayuki

2012-07-01

278

Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee  

Cancer.gov

The TMSC functions to harmonize an efficient, cost-effective, science-driven, and transparent process that will identify and promote the "Best Science" in clinical research of lung and other thoracic malignancies by addressing the design and prioritization of phase III trials and large phase II studies in chest malignancies. In addition to focusing on lung cancer, the TMSC addresses oncology trials in other thoracic sites, such as mesothelioma. Esophageal cancer trials are reviewed by the Gastrointestinal Cancer Steering Committee.

279

Pediatric oral leiomyosarcoma: rare case report.  

PubMed

Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a group of histologically diverse malignant neoplasms arising from mesenchymal cell lines. Among these, leiomyosarcomas are sarcomas exhibiting smooth muscle differentiation. Occurrence of this neoplasm in the oral cavity is exceedingly rare and its presentation is unusual in children. We present a case report of leiomyosarcoma of the oral cavity in an eight-year old child. Primary oral leiomyosarcoma, being a rare entity in children, this case report emphasizes the prompt recognition of this tumor to institute appropriate multimodality treatment. PMID:22842376

Divyambika, C V; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Krithika, C L; Malathi, N; Prathiba, D

2012-01-01

280

[Malignant nail tumors].  

PubMed

Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

281

DNMT3A and IDH mutations in acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloid malignancies: associations with prognosis and potential treatment strategies  

PubMed Central

The development of effective treatment strategies for most forms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has languished for the past several decades. There are a number of reasons for this, but key among them is the considerable heterogeneity of this disease and the paucity of molecular markers that can be used to predict clinical outcomes and responsiveness to different therapies. The recent large-scale sequencing of AML genomes is now providing opportunities for patient stratification and personalized approaches to treatment that are based on individual mutational profiles. It is particularly notable that studies by The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have determined that 44% of patients with AML exhibit mutations in genes that regulate methylation of genomic DNA. In particular, frequent mutation has been observed in the genes encoding DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), as well as Tet oncogene family member 2. This review will summarize the incidence of these mutations, their impact on biochemical functions including epigenetic modification of genomic DNA and their potential usefulness as prognostic indicators. Importantly, the presence of DNMT3A, IDH1 or IDH2 mutations may confer sensitivity to novel therapeutic approaches, including the use of demethylating agents. Therefore, the clinical experience with decitabine and azacitidine in the treatment of patients harboring these mutations will be reviewed. Overall, we propose that understanding the role of these mutations in AML biology will lead to more rational therapeutic approaches targeting molecularly defined subtypes of the disease. PMID:24699305

Im, AP; Sehgal, AR; Carroll, MP; Smith, BD; Tefferi, A; Johnson, DE; Boyiadzis, M

2014-01-01

282

New Potential Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of B-Cell Malignancies Using Chlorambucil/Hydroxychloroquine-Loaded Anti-CD20 Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders. PMID:24098639

Mezzaroba, Nelly; Zorzet, Sonia; Secco, Erika; Biffi, Stefania; Tripodo, Claudio; Calvaruso, Marco; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Capolla, Sara; Granzotto, Marilena; Spretz, Ruben; Larsen, Gustavo; Noriega, Sandra; Lucafo, Marianna; Mansilla, Eduardo; Garrovo, Chiara; Marin, Gustavo H.; Baj, Gabriele; Gattei, Valter; Pozzato, Gabriele; Nunez, Luis; Macor, Paolo

2013-01-01

283

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the frequency of speech/swallowing treatment, and the motivation of the patient. In some cases, reconstructive plastic ... consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow. In many cases, ...

284

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral ...

285

Impact of Hormone-Associated Resistance to Activated Protein C on the Thrombotic Potential of Oral Contraceptives: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The increased thrombotic risk of oral contraceptives (OC) has been attributed to various alterations of the hemostatic system, including acquired resistance to activated protein C (APC). To evaluate to what extent OC-associated APC resistance induces a prothrombotic state we monitored plasma levels of thrombin and molecular markers specific for thrombin formation in women starting OC use. Elevated plasma levels of thrombin have been reported to characterize situations of high thrombotic risk such as trauma-induced hypercoagulability, but have not yet been studied during OC use. Patients and Methods Blood samples were collected prospectively from healthy women (n?=?21) before and during three menstruation cycles after start of OC. APC resistance was evaluated using a thrombin generation-based assay. Plasma levels of thrombin and APC were directly measured using highly sensitive oligonucleotide-based enzyme capture assay (OECA) technology. Thrombin generation markers and other hemostasis parameters were measured additionally. Results All women developed APC resistance as indicated by an increased APC sensitivity ratio compared with baseline after start of OC (p?=?0.0003). Simultaneously, plasma levels of thrombin, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and of thrombin-antithrombin complexes did not change, ruling out increased thrombin formation. APC plasma levels were also not influenced by OC use, giving further evidence that increased thrombin formation did not occur. Conclusions In the majority of OC users no enhanced thrombin formation occurs despite the development of APC resistance. It cannot be ruled out, however, that thrombin formation might occur to a greater extent in the presence of additional risk factors. If this were the case, endogenous thrombin levels might be a potential biomarker candidate to identify women at high thrombotic risk during OC treatment. Large-scale studies are required to assess the value of plasma levels of thrombin as predictors of OC-associated thrombotic risk. PMID:25121606

Muller, Jens; Sukhitashvili, Shorena; Welz, Julia; Kuhn, Walther C.; Oldenburg, Johannes; Rudlowski, Christian; Potzsch, Bernd

2014-01-01

286

Immune therapies for malignant mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare disease which can develop in pleura, pericardium or peritoneum and in which the therapies available have limited efficacy and are associated with various side effects. Therefore, there is a need for more targeted and more effective therapies which are able to halt the disease progression. Among them immune therapies actively or passively directed against various structures of the MM cells seem to be particularly promising given their inhibitory potential demonstrated in both experimental and early clinical studies. Mesothelin in particular seem to be not only a biomarker of disease activity but also a therapeutic target. This review discusses the immune therapies currently investigated for MM. PMID:24833011

Antoniu, Sabina Antonela; Dimofte, Gabriel; Ungureanu, Didona

2014-08-01

287

Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.  

PubMed

Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions. PMID:22842360

Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

2012-01-01

288

Immunology of oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M.; Udayakumar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Kesavan, G.

2014-01-01

289

Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children's Oncology Group report  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children’s Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children’s Oncology Group. Methods An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network “Categories of Consensus” system. Results The Children’s Oncology Group oral-dental pan el selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Addition ally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent ma lignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Conclusions Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life. PMID:24781353

Migliorati, Cesar A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ruble, Kathy; Guilcher, Gregory M. T.; Shah, Ami J.; Castellino, Sharon M.

2014-01-01

290

Hemostasis and malignancy.  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence that the hemostatic system is involved in the growth and spread of malignant disease. There is an increased incidence of thromboembolic disease in patients with cancers and hemostatic abnormalities are extremely common in such patients. Antihemostatic agents have been successfully used to treat a variety of experimental tumors, and several clinical trials in humans have been initiated. Although metastasis is undoubtedly multifactorial, intravascular coagulation activation and peritumor fibrin deposition seem to be important. The mechanisms by which hemostatic activation facilitates the malignant process remain to be completely elucidated. Of central importance may be the presence on malignant cells of tissue factor and urokinase receptor. Recent studies have suggested that these proteins, and others, may be involved at several stages of metastasis, including the key event of neovascularization. Tissue factor, the principal initiator of coagulation, may have additional roles, outside of fibrin formation, that are central to the biology of some solid tumors. PMID:9579631

Francis, J L; Biggerstaff, J; Amirkhosravi, A

1998-01-01

291

Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms, thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses. Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions, therefore, is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy. In order to efficiently detect these lesions, systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed. However, most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example, serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma, and fecal occult blood test, for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures, such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes. Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool, the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can’t be avoided. The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs. Moreover, only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies, and indeed needs surveillance. To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention, it’s important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (risk-stratification), and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts. We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies, and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them. PMID:22969223

Tiwari, Ashish K; Laird-Fick, Heather S; Wali, Ramesh K; Roy, Hemant K

2012-01-01

292

Angiotropic metastatic malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

Three years after excision of a primary malignant melanoma from the lower back, a mass was noted in the right scapular region of a 51-year-old man. Histopathology revealed a malignant spindle-cell neoplasm invading the wall of a deep cutaneous blood vessel. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of angiotropic metastatic melanoma and ruled out primary leiomyosarcoma. Angiotropism is a rare pattern of metastasis of melanoma; the biochemical mechanisms that permit melanoma cells to undergo hematogenous dissemination, and the favorable milieu that the vascular wall offers for melanoma cells, may be responsible for this unusual growth pattern. PMID:7695012

Shea, C R; Kline, M A; Lugo, J; McNutt, N S

1995-02-01

293

Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU) malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies. PMID:22481927

Inamoto, Teruo; Azuma, Haruhito

2012-01-01

294

Integrating the Diagnosis of Childhood Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of pediatric malignancies. Mechanisms of pediatric acute leukemia induction include hyperdiploidy, aberrant expression of proto-oncogenes, and activation of trans- cription factors or kinases by aberrant fusion genes. Molecular analysis of these alterations has facilitated the recognition of distinct groups with different sensitivity to therapy, and identified potential targets for antileukemic

DOLORES LÓPEZ-TERRADA

295

Strong Relationship between Oral Dose and Tenofovir Hair Levels in a Randomized Trial: Hair as a Potential Adherence Measure for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)  

PubMed Central

Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials using tenofovir-based regimens have demonstrated that high levels of adherence are required to evaluate efficacy; the incorporation of objective biomarkers of adherence in trial design has been essential to interpretation, given the inaccuracy of self-report. Antiretroviral measurements in scalp hair have been useful as a marker of long-term exposure in the HIV treatment setting, and hair samples are relatively easy and inexpensive to collect, transport, and store for analysis. To evaluate the relationship between dose and tenofovir concentrations in hair, we examined the dose proportionality of tenofovir in hair in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults. Methods A phase I, crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed in 24 HIV-negative adults receiving directly-observed oral tenofovir tablets administered 2, 4, and 7 doses/week for 6 weeks, with a ?3-week break between periods. Small samples of hair were collected after each six-week period and analyzed for tenofovir concentrations. Geometric-mean-ratios compared levels between each pair of dosing conditions. Intensive plasma pharmacokinetic studies were performed during the daily-dosing period to calculate areas-under-the-time-concentration curves (AUCs). Results Over 90% of doses were observed per protocol. Median tenofovir concentrations in hair increased monotonically with dose. A log-linear relationship was seen between dose and hair levels, with an estimated 76% (95% CI 60–93%) increase in hair level per 2-fold dose increase. Tenofovir plasma AUCs modestly predicted drug concentrations in hair. Conclusions This study found a strong linear relationship between frequency of dosing and tenofovir levels in scalp hair. The analysis of quantitative drug levels in hair has the potential to improve adherence measurement in the PrEP field and may be helpful in determining exposure thresholds for protection and explaining failures in PrEP trials. Hair measures for adherence monitoring may also facilitate adherence measurement in real-world settings and merit further investigation in upcoming PrEP implementation studies and programs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov +NCT00903084. PMID:24421901

Liu, Albert Y.; Yang, Qiyun; Huang, Yong; Bacchetti, Peter; Anderson, Peter L.; Jin, Chengshi; Goggin, Kathy; Stojanovski, Kristefer; Grant, Robert; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Gandhi, Monica

2014-01-01

296

Orally delivered water soluble Coenzyme Q10 (Ubisol-Q10) blocks on-going neurodegeneration in rats exposed to paraquat: potential for therapeutic application in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Paraquat, still used as an herbicide in some parts of the world, is now regarded as a dangerous environmental neurotoxin and is linked to the development Parkinson’s disease (PD). Paraquat interacts with cellular redox systems and causes mitochondrial dysfunction and the formation of reactive oxygen species, which in turn, plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of PD. Various antioxidant therapies have been explored with the expectations that they deliver health benefits to the PD patients, however, no such therapies were effective. Here we have tested the neuroprotective efficacy of a novel water-soluble CoQ10 (Ubisol-Q10), in a rat model of paraquat-induced neurodegeneration in order to evaluate its potential application in the management of PD. Results We have developed a rat model of progressive nigrostriatal degeneration by giving rats five intraperitoneal injections of paraquat (10 mg/kg/injection), once every five days. Neuronal death occurred over a period of 8 weeks with close to 50% reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells. Ubisol-Q10, at 6 mg CoQ10/kg body weight/day, was delivered as a supplement in drinking water. The intervention begun after the completion of paraquat injections when the neurodegenerative process had already began and about 20% of TH-positive neurons were lost. Ubisol-Q10 treatment halted the progression of neurodegeneration and remaining neurons were protected. The outcomes were evaluated based on the number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra region and improved motor skills in response to the Ubisol-Q10 intervention. To maintain this neuroprotection, however, continuous Ubisol- Q10 supplementation was required, if withdrawn, the neuronal death pathway resumed, suggesting that the presence of CoQ10 was essential for blocking the pathway. Conclusion The CoQ10, given orally as Ubisol-Q10 in drinking solution, was effective in blocking the progression of neurodegeneration when administered therapeutically (post-toxin injection), at a much lower concentration than other previously tested oil soluble formulations and well within the acceptable daily intake of 12 mg/kg/day. Such unprecedented neuroprotection has never been reported before. These results are very encouraging and suggest that Ubisol-Q10 should be further tested and developed as a therapy for halting the progression of PD. PMID:24483602

2014-01-01

297

Oral lichen planus and the p53 family: what do we know?  

PubMed

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic disease of the oral mucosa for which the aetiopathogenesis is not fully understood. It mainly affects middle aged and elderly. The finding of autoantibodies against p63, a member of the p53 family, is a strong indication of autoimmunity as a causative or contributing factor. The WHO classified OLP as a potentially malignant disorder, but still there is an ongoing debate in the literature on this subject. The TP53 gene encodes a tumour suppressor protein that is involved in induction of cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis of DNA-damaged cells. The p63 gene encodes six different proteins that are crucial for formation of the oral mucosa and skin. The coordinated stabilization of p53 and decreased expression of p63 seen in OLP cause induction of apoptosis enabling removal of DNA-damaged cells. In view of the complexity of cancerogenesis, no firm statement can at present be made about the relevance of the observed relationship between p53 and p63 and the possible malignant transformation of OLP. PMID:21138483

Ebrahimi, Majid; Nylander, Karin; van der Waal, Isaäc

2011-04-01

298

Uptake and retention of estramustine and the presence of estramustine binding protein in malignant brain tumours in humans.  

PubMed

Estraumustine phosphate (EMP), a cytotoxic drug used in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma, has been shown to exert cytotoxic effects on glioma cells in vitro. The drug uptake is assumed to depend on a specific estramustine binding protein (EMBP). One of the main difficulties in achieving cytotoxic effect in malignant brain tumours is believed to be due to the poor penetration of cytotoxic drugs into tumour tissue. In patients with malignant supratentorial brain tumours we have analysed the uptake of EMP metabolites in tumour tissue after oral administration and demonstrated EMBP in the same tissue specimens. Sixteen patients were given 280 mg EMP orally 14 h prior to surgery. Specimens from brain tumour tissue, cystic fluid, and serum were collected during surgery. Using gas chromatography the metabolites of EMP, estramustine (EaM) and estromustine (EoM), were quantified, EMBP was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EaM and EoM, expressed in ng g-1, were 60.3 and 38.4 in tumour tissue and 3.5 and 56.3 in serum, respectively. An accumulation of EaM in tumour tissue was found with a mean concentration gradient of 16.1 versus serum, while the gradient for EoM was 0.76. EMBP was demonstrated with a high degree of staining in all but one tumour. The high concentrations of EaM and EoM found in malignant brain tumour tissue correspond to potentially cytotoxic levels. The present results as well as the earlier in vitro demonstrated cytotoxic effects on glioma cells strengthen the possibility of a therapeutic effect of EMP in the treatment of malignant brain tumours. PMID:8431366

Bergenheim, A T; Gunnarsson, P O; Edman, K; von Schoultz, E; Hariz, M I; Henriksson, R

1993-02-01

299

Investigating the biological properties of carbohydrate derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) as a potential novel therapy for the management of oral biofilm infections  

PubMed Central

Background A number of oral diseases, including periodontitis, derive from microbial biofilms and are associated with increased antimicrobial resistance. Despite the widespread use of mouthwashes being used as adjunctive measures to control these biofilms, their prolonged use is not recommended due to various side effects. Therefore, alternative broad-spectrum antimicrobials that minimise these effects are highly sought after. Carbohydrate derived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) is an organic acid which has previously demonstrated to be microbiocidal against Candida albicans biofilms, therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial activity of CHD-FA against orally derived biofilms and to investigate adjunctive biological effects. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated for CHD-FA and chlorhexidine (CHX) against a range of oral bacteria using standardised microdilution testing for planktonic and sessile. Scanning electron microscopy was also employed to visualise changes in oral biofilms after antimicrobial treatment. Cytotoxicity of these compounds was assessed against oral epithelial cells, and the effect of CHD-FA on host inflammatory markers was assessed by measuring mRNA and protein expression. Results CHD-FA was highly active against all of the oral bacteria tested, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, with a sessile minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5%. This concentration was shown to kill multi-species biofilms by approximately 90%, levels comparable to that of chlorhexidine (CHX). In a mammalian cell culture model, pretreatment of epithelial cells with buffered CHD-FA was shown to significantly down-regulate key inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), after stimulation with a multi-species biofilm. Conclusions Overall, CHD-FA was shown to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, with a supplementary function of being able to down-regulate inflammation. These properties offer an attractive spectrum of function from a naturally derived compound, which could be used as an alternative topical treatment strategy for oral biofilm diseases. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are required to determine the precise mechanism by which CHD-FA modulates the host immune response. PMID:24063298

2013-01-01

300

Malignant tumors of childhood  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

Brooks, B.J.

1986-01-01

301

[Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma].  

PubMed

Mesothelioma is a neoplasm originating from the mesothelial surface lining cells of the serous human cavities. It may involve the pleura, less frequently the peritoneum rarely, the pericardium, the tunica vaginalis testis and ovarian epithelium. Asbestos has been widely used in industry. A causal relationship between asbestos exposure and pleural, peritoneal and pericardial malign mesothelioma was suggested, the risk of cancer being correlated to cumulate exposure. Studies from National Cancer Institute, USA, show that the malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos related malignancy. The symptomatology is insidious and poses difficult problems in diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents the case of a 59 year old patient with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma who worked almost 40 years as an electrician, exposed to asbestos fibers. He was hospitalized for important weight loss, abdominal pain and tiredness being diagnosed after imaging tests with a giant tumor, localized at the abdominal upper level, which seems to originate from the spleen's superior pole. During surgery we discovered a tumor with cystic parts, intense vascularized, which turn to be adherent in the upper side to the lower face of the left midriff cupola, to the spleen superior pole and 1/3 middle level of the great gastric curve. It was performed surgical ablation of the tumor, splenectomy with favorable postoperative evolution, the patient being now under chemotherapy treatment. PMID:17283842

Scripcariu, V; Dajbog, Elena; Lefter, L; Ferariu, D; Pricop, Adriana; Grigora?, M; Dragomir, Cr

2006-01-01

302

Oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding oral tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will

P Garside; A. McI Mowat

2001-01-01

303

Impacts of CA9 Gene Polymorphisms and Environmental Factors on Oral-Cancer Susceptibility and Clinicopathologic Characteristics in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background In Taiwan, oral cancer has causally been associated with environmental carcinogens. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas and is generally considered a marker of malignancy. The current study explored the combined effect of CA9 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. Methodology and Principal Findings Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CA9 gene from 462 patients with oral cancer and 519 non-cancer controls were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). While the studied SNPs (CA9 rs2071676, rs3829078, rs1048638 and +376 Del) were not associated with susceptibility to oral cancer, the GAA haplotype of 3 CA9 SNPs (rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638) was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, the four CA9 SNPs combined with betel quid chewing and/or tobacco consumption could robustly elevate susceptibility to oral cancer. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least one G allele of CA9 rs2071676 were at higher risk for developing lymph-node metastasis (p?=?0.022), compared to those patients homozygous for AA. Conclusions Our results suggest that the haplotype of rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638 combined has potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis. Gene-environment interactions of CA9 polymorphisms, smoking, and betel-quid chewing might alter oral cancer susceptibility and metastasis. PMID:23226559

Chien, Ming-Hsien; Yang, Jia-Sin; Chu, Yin-Hung; Lin, Chien-Huang; Wei, Lin-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chiao-Wen

2012-01-01

304

Malignant Melanoma of the Foot  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size Print Bookmark Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

305

Genome sequencing of lymphoid malignancies.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the pathogenesis of lymphoid malignancies has been transformed by next-generation sequencing. The studies in this review have used whole-genome, exome, and transcriptome sequencing to identify recurring structural genetic alterations and sequence mutations that target key cellular pathways in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the lymphomas. Although each tumor type is characterized by a unique genomic landscape, several cellular pathways are mutated in multiple tumor types-transcriptional regulation of differentiation, antigen receptor signaling, tyrosine kinase and Ras signaling, and epigenetic modifications-and individual genes are mutated in multiple tumors, notably TCF3, NOTCH1, MYD88, and BRAF. In addition to providing fundamental insights into tumorigenesis, these studies have also identified potential new markers for diagnosis, risk stratification, and therapeutic intervention. Several genetic alterations are intuitively "druggable" with existing agents, for example, kinase-activating lesions in high-risk B-cell ALL, NOTCH1 in both leukemia and lymphoma, and BRAF in hairy cell leukemia. Future sequencing efforts are required to comprehensively define the genetic basis of all lymphoid malignancies, examine the relative roles of germline and somatic variation, dissect the genetic basis of clonal heterogeneity, and chart a course for clinical sequencing and translation to improved therapeutic outcomes. PMID:24041576

Mullighan, Charles G

2013-12-01

306

Malignancy in Neurofibromatosis Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) represents a major risk factor for development of malignancy, particularly malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), optic gliomas, other gliomas, and leukemias. The oncol- ogist will see NF1 patients referred for treatment of malignancy, and should be alert to the possibility of undiagnosed NF1 among patients with cancer. Brain tumors tend to have a more indolent

BRUCE R. KORF

307

The clinical effectiveness of reflectance optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of oral lesions  

PubMed Central

Optical spectroscopy devices are being developed and tested for the screening and diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer lesions. This study reports a device that uses white light for detection of suspicious lesions and green–amber light at 545?nm that detect tissue vascularity on patients with several suspicious oral lesions. The clinical grading of vascularity was compared to the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific biomarkers. Such a device, in the hands of dentists and other health professionals, could greatly increase the number of oral cancerous lesions detected in early phase. The purpose of this study is to correlate the clinical grading of tissue vascularity in several oral suspicious lesions using the Identafi® system with the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific vascular markers. Twenty-one patients with various oral lesions were enrolled in the study. The lesions were visualized using Identafi® device with white light illumination, followed by visualization of tissue autofluorescence and tissue reflectance. Tissue biopsied was obtained from the all lesions and both histopathological and immunohistochemical studies using a vascular endothelial biomarker (CD34) were performed on these tissue samples. The clinical vascular grading using the green–amber light at 545?nm and the expression pattern and intensity of staining for CD34 in the different biopsies varied depending on lesions, grading ranged from 1 to 3. The increase in vascularity was observed in abnormal tissues when compared to normal mucosa, but this increase was not limited to carcinoma only as hyperkeratosis and other oral diseases, such as lichen planus, also showed increase in vascularity. Optical spectroscopy is a promising technology for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further investigations with a larger population group is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant lesions. PMID:25059250

Messadi, Diana V; Younai, Fariba S; Liu, Hong-Hu; Guo, Gao; Wang, Cun-Yu

2014-01-01

308

The clinical effectiveness of reflectance optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of oral lesions.  

PubMed

Optical spectroscopy devices are being developed and tested for the screening and diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer lesions. This study reports a device that uses white light for detection of suspicious lesions and green-amber light at 545?nm that detect tissue vascularity on patients with several suspicious oral lesions. The clinical grading of vascularity was compared to the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific biomarkers. Such a device, in the hands of dentists and other health professionals, could greatly increase the number of oral cancerous lesions detected in early phase. The purpose of this study is to correlate the clinical grading of tissue vascularity in several oral suspicious lesions using the Identafi(®) system with the histological grading of the biopsied lesions using specific vascular markers. Twenty-one patients with various oral lesions were enrolled in the study. The lesions were visualized using Identafi(®) device with white light illumination, followed by visualization of tissue autofluorescence and tissue reflectance. Tissue biopsied was obtained from the all lesions and both histopathological and immunohistochemical studies using a vascular endothelial biomarker (CD34) were performed on these tissue samples. The clinical vascular grading using the green-amber light at 545?nm and the expression pattern and intensity of staining for CD34 in the different biopsies varied depending on lesions, grading ranged from 1 to 3. The increase in vascularity was observed in abnormal tissues when compared to normal mucosa, but this increase was not limited to carcinoma only as hyperkeratosis and other oral diseases, such as lichen planus, also showed increase in vascularity. Optical spectroscopy is a promising technology for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further investigations with a larger population group is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant lesions. PMID:25059250

Messadi, Diana V; Younai, Fariba S; Liu, Hong-Hu; Guo, Gao; Wang, Cun-Yu

2014-09-01

309

Comparative evaluation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan with Eudragit ® L100 and Eudragit ® L100-55 as potential carriers for oral controlled drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to the application in oral controlled drug delivery systems, the formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) between chitosan (CS) and Eudragit® L100 (L100) or Eudragit® L100-55 (L100-55) was investigated at pH 6.0, using elementary analysis. The interaction or binding ratio of a unit molecule of CS with Eudragit® L copolymers depends on the molecular weight of CS, and

Rouslan I. Moustafine; Evgeniya B. Margulis; Liliya F. Sibgatullina; Vera A. Kemenova; Guy Van den Mooter

2008-01-01

310

Fenofibrate exhibits a high potential to suppress the formation of squamous cell carcinoma in an oral-specific 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide\\/arecoline mouse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excessive use of areca nut and\\/or tobacco may induce the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, which affect the lipid contents of the cell membrane and are possibly involved in tumorigenic processes in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of fenofibrate (0.1% or 0.3%, w\\/w), a ligand of the

Nai Wen Chang; Ming-Hsui Tsai; Chingju Lin; Hui Ting Hsu; Pei-Yi Chu; Chung-Min Yeh; Chang-Fang Chiu; Kun-Tu Yeh

2011-01-01

311

Evaluation of Clinical and Histomorphological Parameters as Potential Predictors of Occult Metastases in Sentinel Lymph Nodes of Early Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for cN0 early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity has been validated by numerous studies.\\u000a Around 30% of SNB will detect occult disease. Several clinical and morphological features of the primary tumor have been claimed\\u000a to be predictive for occult metastasis in elective neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess these

Mete Goerkem; Julia Braun; Sandro J. Stoeckli

2010-01-01

312

Summary of worldwide pediatric malignancies reported after exposure to etanercept  

PubMed Central

Background Concerns have been raised about a potential link between the use of TNF inhibitors and development of malignancy in the pediatric population. We examined the worldwide experience of etanercept use in pediatric patients and the occurrence of malignancies as reported from clinical trials, registry studies, post-marketing surveillance, and published scientific literature. Methods All reports of "malignancy" in pediatric patients (including subjects who received etanercept before age 18 and developed a malignancy before age 22) were collected from the etanercept clinical trials database and global safety database using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA; v12.0) standardized MedDRA query "Malignancies" from 1998 to August 2009. Cases were collected irrespective of treatment indication. All cases were included regardless of exposure to other TNF blockers or other biologics and whether the other exposure was before or after etanercept. Results A total of 18 potential malignancies were identified: 4 leukemias, 7 lymphomas, and 7 solid tumors. Three of the 18 malignancies remain unconfirmed. No malignancies were reported from clinical trials or the open-label extension studies in any indication in children. Conclusion The data suggest that there does not appear to be an increased risk of malignancy overall with the use of etanercept. Among etanercept-exposed patients aged 4 to 17 years, the estimated worldwide and US reporting rates for lymphoma were approximately 0.01 per 100 patient-years (1 in 10,000 pt-yrs). While the reported rate of lymphoma is higher in pediatric patients treated with etanercept than in normal children, the expected rate of lymphoma in biologic naïve JIA patients is currently unknown. The risk of TNF inhibitors in the development of malignancies in children and adolescents is difficult to assess because of the rarity of malignant events, the absence of knowledge of underlying frequency of leukemia and lymphoma in JIA, and the confounding use of concomitant immunosuppressive medications. PMID:20546618

2010-01-01

313

Protection of Monascus-fermented dioscorea against DMBA-induced oral injury in hamster by anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potentials.  

PubMed

Monascus -fermented products offer valuable therapeutic benefits and have been extensively used in East Asia. This study investigated the prevention of oral tumor formation and antioxidative ability of the ethanol extracts from red mold dioscorea (RMDE) on 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The HBP was painted with DMBA three times per week for 14 weeks, and animals were painted with celecoxib, RMDE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of bw), and ethanol extracts from dioscorea (200 mg/kg of bw) on days alternate to the DMBA application. The results demonstrated that RMDE attenuated tumor formation by elevating the antioxidase activity and suppressing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the HBP caused by DMBA induction. These results indicated that RMDE exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity to prevent oral cancer. Therefore, the metabolite from Monascus fermentation may serve as a possible functional edible substance for the prevention of oral cancer. PMID:20446737

Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong; Pan, Tzu-Ming

2010-06-01

314

Development of Oral Epithelial Cell Line ROE2 with Differentiation Potential from Transgenic Rats Harboring Temperature-Sensitive Simian Virus40 Large T-Antigen Gene  

PubMed Central

We have developed an immortalized oral epithelial cell line, ROE2, from fetal transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene. The cells grew continuously at either a permissive temperature of 33°C or an intermediate temperature of 37°C. At the nonpermissive temperature of 39°C, on the other hand, growth decreased significantly, and the Sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle increased, indicating that the cells undergo apoptosis at a nonpermissive temperature. Histological and immunocytochemical analyses revealed that ROE2 cells at 37°C had a stratified epithelial-like morphology and expressed cytokeratins Krt4 and Krt13, marker proteins for oral nonkeratinized epithelial cells. Global-scale comprehensive microarray analysis, coupled with bioinformatics tools, demonstrated a significant gene network that was obtained from the upregulated genes. The gene network contained 16 genes, including Cdkn1a, Fos, Krt13, and Prdm1, and was associated mainly with the biological process of skin development in the category of biological functions, organ development. These four genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the results were nearly consistent with the microarray data. It is therefore anticipated that this cell line will be useful as an in vitro model for studies such as physiological functions, as well as for gene expression in oral epithelial cells. PMID:24521861

Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Wada, Shigehito; Ikegame, Mika; Kariya, Ayako; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Yunoki, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Nobuo; Takasaki, Ichiro; Kondo, Takashi; Suzuki, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

315

Investigation of 3-D ordered materials with a high adsorption capacity for BSA and their potential application as an oral vaccine adjuvant.  

PubMed

3-D ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials were customized for BSA adsorption and further oral immunization. These carriers have a high adsorption capacity and our customized carrier showed a distinctive double-plateau adsorption behavior. Different BSA release rates (between the two plateaus) could be obtained by adjusting the ratio of the protein adsorbed on the internal surface and the external surface. This suggests that the release pattern was determined by the adsorption state. One benefit is that the same carrier could have different release profiles making it possible to study the relationship between the release behavior and adjuvant effects without any distractions. Compared with free BSA alone, a significantly higher level of serum IgG, IgA induced by BSA/3DOM was observed and the release profile had an effect on the immunity. The IgG1 and IgG2a titers suggesting that both the Th1 and Th2 mediated immune response were induced. Therefore, this research could help in the development of a novel inorganic oral adjuvant and provide a new avenue for the administration of oral vaccine. PMID:25170604

Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Qinfu; Zhang, Ying; Han, Ning; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Chen; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

2014-11-15

316

Lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma  

SciTech Connect

The development and rationale for the use of lymphoscintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of patients with malignant melanoma being considered for elective lymph node dissection is reviewed. This overview is updated by an analysis of 135 patients with early stage malignant melanoma involving the head, neck, shoulders, and trunk at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute at the University of South Florida (Tampa, FL). High discordancy rates (overall, 41%) were seen between drainage patterns predicted from historical anatomical guidelines and those revealed by the lymphoscintigraphic examination. The high discordancy rate was most pronounced in the head (64%) and the neck (73%). Surgical management was changed in 33% of the patients, overall. A preoperative lymphoscintigram is recommended for all patients with melanoma with head, neck, and truncal lesions evaluated for elective lymph node dissection as the lymphatic drainage patterns are often unpredictable and variable.

Berman, C.G.; Norman, J.; Cruse, C.W.; Reintgen, D.S.; Clark, R.A. (Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States))

1992-01-01

317

Managing Malignant Cerebral Infarction  

PubMed Central

Opinion statement Managing patients with malignant cerebral infarction remains one of the foremost challenges in medicine. These patients are at high risk for progressive neurologic deterioration and death due to malignant cerebral edema, and they are best cared for in the intensive care unit of a comprehensive stroke center. Careful initial assessment of neurologic function and of findings on MRI, coupled with frequent reassessment of clinical and radiologic findings using CT or MRI are mandatory to promote the prompt initiation of treatments that will ensure the best outcome in these patients. Significant deterioration in either neurologic function or radiologic findings or both demand timely treatment using the best medical management, which may include osmotherapy (mannitol or hypertonic saline), endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Under appropriate circumstances, decompressive craniectomy may be warranted to improve outcome or to prevent death. PMID:21190097

Sahuquillo, Juan; Sheth, Kevin N.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Walcott, Brian P.

2011-01-01

318

Malignant insulinoma in childhood.  

PubMed

Pancreatic tumors constitute a rare surgical problem in infancy and childhood. Insulinomas are rare in all age groups with an estimated incidence of one per 250,000 person-years and even rarer in childhood. We report a 10 year-old girl with malignant insulinoma. The presenting symptom was hypoglycemic attacks. Laboratory investigation demonstrated that the hypoglycemia was due to hyperinsulinism. MRI of the abdomen revealed a mass at the tail of the pancreas. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. Histological examination showed malignant insulinoma with peripancreatic lymph node metastases. One month later abdominal MRI revealed the existence of multiple small metastatic foci in the liver, which were confirmed by In111 octreoscan. Treatment with octreotide was started and the disease is stable after 12 months of therapy. PMID:16789643

Karachaliou, Feneli; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis; Kaldrymidis, Philipos; Simatos, George; Zacharea, Maria; Spanidou-Karvouni, Erini; Michalacos, Stefanos; Voros, Dionyssios

2006-05-01

319

Chemotherapy for malignant glioma.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas comprise a small percentage of all cancers, but continue to cause disproportionate levels of morbidity and mortality. Despite decades of intensive effort from many disciplines--surgery, radiation oncology and medicine--they remain refractory to cure and, in most cases, even to prolonged treatment response. Comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment is well recognized as the optimal approach. While continued advances and refinement in both surgical and radiotherapy-based techniques are certain, medical therapies are expanding at a much more rapid rate. This is due, in large part, to an understanding of the molecular events that underlie cancer pathogenesis and improved laboratory techniques to manufacture and study molecules that influence this process. This review will focus on medical therapies in the treatment of malignant glioma, never losing sight of their place as one of several therapeutic modalities used to confront brain cancer. PMID:16274270

Nicholas, M Kelly; Lukas, Rimas; Bangalore, Samir

2005-11-01

320

Hyaluronan in human malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)] [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)] [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

2011-02-15

321

Diagnostic value of biochemical biomarkers in malignant and non-malignant pericardial effusion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the biochemical composition of pericardial effusions of different etiology and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of biochemical parameters and tumor markers to discriminate malignant from benign effusion. Pericardial and serum levels of biochemical parameters and tumor markers were compared in 105 patients who underwent pericardiocentesis and pericardioscopy with targeted epicardial biopsy. Etiologic diagnosis was based on pericardial fluid and epicardial biopsy analysis by cytology, histology, immunohistochemistry, microbiology and polymerase chain reaction. The total of 105 patients comprised 29 patients with malignant and 76 patients with non-malignant pericardial effusions (40 autoreactive, 28 viral, 5 postcardiotomy syndromes and 3 associated with systemic diseases). Malignant pericardial effusions had significantly higher pericardial fluid levels of the tumor markers CEA, CA 19-9, CA 72-4, SCC and NSE (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively) as well as higher pericardial fluid hemoglobin (p < 0.001), pericardial fluid white blood cells (p = 0.003), pericardial fluid LDH (p < 0.001) and ratio of pericardial to serum LDH levels compared to benign effusions. None of the biochemical or cell-count parameters tested proved to be accurate enough for distinguishing malignant from benign effusions. However, measurement of pericardial CA 72-4 levels offered a high diagnostic accuracy for malignancy, particularly in bloody pericardial effusions. None of the biochemical parameters tested was useful for the discrimination of malignant from benign effusions. However, measurement of pericardial CA 72-4 levels in bloody pericardial effusions yielded a high diagnostic accuracy and thus offers the potential as a diagnostic tool to distinguish between malignant and benign effusions. PMID:22638889

Karatolios, Konstantinos; Pankuweit, Sabine; Maisch, Bernhard

2013-05-01

322

Safety assessment of the butyrate-producing Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum strain 25-3(T), a potential probiotic for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, based on oral toxicity tests and whole genome sequencing.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, characterized by dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota. Probiotics have been suggested as a strategy to reduce active disease or extend remission. We isolated and characterized the butyrate-producing strain Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum 25-3(T) and identified it as a potential probiotic for patients with IBD. To evaluate the safety of 25-3(T) for use in humans, we conducted a standard acute oral toxicity test and a 28-day repeated oral dose toxicity test. The complete genome of B. pullicaecorum 25-3(T) was sequenced to search for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 21 antimicrobials was determined. Results showed no adverse effects in the oral toxicity tests. B. pullicaecorum 25-3(T) is resistant against aminoglycosides and trimethoprim. The genome of 25-3(T) contains no virulence factors, one gene related to harmful metabolites and 52 sequences with high similarity to antimicrobial and toxic compound resistance genes, that did not correspond with a resistant phenotype. This first report of a safety assessment of a butyrate-producing strain from Clostridium cluster IV shows that B. pullicaecorum 25-3(T) is a non-pathogenic strain, but carries antibiotic resistance genes with the risk of transfer, that need further investigation. PMID:25007784

Steppe, Marjan; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Vercauteren, Griet; Boyen, Filip; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Deforce, Dieter; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

2014-10-01

323

Malignant mesothelioma in women.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma reportedly shows different epidemiology and pathology in females, and a proportion are believed to arise spontaneously. METHODS: One hundred and seventy seven cases of malignant mesothelioma in females were reviewed, examined by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, assessed for asbestosis and lung fibre burden by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray analysis, and compared with 31 female controls. RESULTS: Two of one hundred and three cases tested for carcinoembryonic antigen were positive and were excluded from further analysis. Tumour cases showed increased amphibole burdens; in those in whom exposure information was known, 74 (80%) of 93 patients had a history of exposure to asbestos. Seventy two (47%) of 152 patients had lung fibrosis. Tumour site and histological type were little different from those reported in adult males. Mixed type histological pattern, lung fibrosis, and peritoneal site were associated with heavier lung asbestos burdens, but not exclusively. Thirty five (30%) of 117 patients had amphibole burdens of less than 2 x 10(6) fibres/g; the sites affected and the histological pattern of tumours in this group were similar to those in cases with amphibole fibre counts of > or = 2 x 10(6)/g lung. A higher lung amphibole burden than the mean burden in control females was found in 115 (98%) of 117 patients tested. CONCLUSIONS: The pathology of malignant mesothelioma appears to be similar in women and in men, and in cases associated and unassociated with asbestos. PMID:8497827

Dawson, A; Gibbs, A R; Pooley, F D; Griffiths, D M; Hoy, J

1993-01-01

324

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

325

Using Oral Interpretation to Affect Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To dramatize the human resource potential of persons over 65 years old and of the disabled, oral interpretation presentations using oral histories were developed. These presentations were designed to lead to a stimulating exchange of ideas concerning the potential contribution to daily life of the elderly and of the disabled, and to pose questions…

Hartman, Maryann; And Others

326

Oral health disparities in older adults: oral bacteria, inflammation, and aspiration pneumonia.  

PubMed

Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients. PMID:25201541

Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth

2014-10-01

327

Overexpression of Mcl-1L Splice Variant Is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Chemoresistance in Oral Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Altered expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, has been linked to the progression and outcome of a variety of malignancies. We have previously reported the overexpression of Mcl-1 protein in human oral cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of the expression of three known Mcl-1 isoforms in oral tumors and the effect of targeting Mcl-1L isoform on chemosensitivity of oral cancer cells. Methods The expression of Mcl-1 isoforms- Mcl-1L, Mcl-1S & Mcl-1ES was analyzed in 130 paired oral tumors and 9 oral cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR & protein by western blotting. The Mcl-1 mRNA levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and outcome of oral cancer patients. The effect of Mcl-1L shRNA or Obatoclax (a small molecule Mcl-1 inhibitor), in combination with Cisplatin on chemosensitivity of oral cancer cells was also assessed. Results Anti-apoptotic Mcl-1L was predominantly expressed, over low or undetectable pro-apoptotic Mcl-1S and Mcl-1ES isoforms. The Mcl-1L transcripts were significantly overexpressed in all cancer cell lines and in 64% oral tumors versus adjacent normals (P<0.02). In oral cancer patients, high Mcl-1L expression was significantly associated with node positivity (P?=?0.021), advanced tumor size (P?=?0.013) and poor overall survival (P?=?0.002). Multivariate analysis indicated Mcl-1L to be an independent prognostic factor for oral cancers (P?=?0.037). Mcl-1L shRNA knockdown or its inhibition by Obatoclax in combination with Cisplatin synergistically reduced viability and growth of oral cancer cells than either treatment alone. Conclusion Our studies suggest that overexpression of Mcl-1L is associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance in oral cancers. Mcl-1L is an independent prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in oral cancers. PMID:25409302

Palve, Vinayak; Mallick, Sanchita; Ghaisas, Gauri; Kannan, Sadhana; Teni, Tanuja

2014-01-01

328

Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies  

PubMed Central

Necessity is the mother of all inventions. This is also true in case of cancer therapy. With increasing incidence of head and neck malignancies, remarkable developments have been made towards cancer development and treatment which continues to be a major challenge. Approximately fifty percent of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy which contributes towards forty percent of curative treatment for cancer. New developments in radiation oncology have helped to improve outlook for patients and find more effective treatment. With the advent of new technologies, radiotherapy seems to be promising in patients with head and neck malignancies these advancements include Altered fractionation, Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, Image Guided Radiotherapy, Stereotactic radiation, Charged-particle radiotherapy, and Intraoperative radiotherapy. How to cite this article: Roopashri G, Baig M. Current advances in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):119-23 . PMID:24453456

Roopashri, G; Baig, Muqeet

2013-01-01

329

Knowledge and attitudes of saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922

Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

2014-12-01

330

An Open-Label Crossover Study To Evaluate Potential Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Oral Oseltamivir and Intravenous Zanamivir in Healthy Thai Adults?†  

PubMed Central

There is no parenteral formulation of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, the most widely used anti-influenza virus drug. Oseltamivir resistance is an increasing problem. Zanamivir is effective against the most prevalent oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses. A parenteral formulation of zanamivir is in development for the treatment of severe influenza. It is not known if there is any pharmacokinetic interaction between the two drugs. Sixteen healthy Thai adult volunteers were studied in an open-label, four-period, randomized two-sequence crossover pharmacokinetic study in which zanamivir was given by constant-rate infusion or slow intravenous injection either alone or together with oral oseltamivir. Plasma concentration profiles of oseltamivir, the active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate, and zanamivir were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Both drugs were well tolerated alone and in combination. The maximum plasma concentrations and the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate were not significantly different when oseltamivir was given separately or together with zanamivir. Maximum plasma concentrations of zanamivir were 10% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 12%) higher when zanamivir was infused concurrently with oral oseltamivir than with infusions before or after oral oseltamivir. The plasma zanamivir total AUC was positively correlated with the total oseltamivir carboxylate AUC (Pearson's correlation coefficient [rP] = 0.720, P = 0.002, n = 16) but not with the oseltamivir AUC (rp = 0.121, n = 16). There is no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between oseltamivir and zanamivir. PMID:21690287

Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Jittamala, Podjanee; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lindegardh, Niklas; Chueasuwanchai, Sunee; Leowattana, Wattana; Phakdeeraj, Aphiradee; Permpunpanich, Sutatip; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Fukuda, Caroline; Panapipat, Salwaluk; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

2011-01-01

331

Oral lichen planus in a dermatomyositis patient that resolved after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.  

PubMed

Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune muscle disorder characterized by proximal muscle weakness and skin lesions. The significance to oral health professionals includes oral manifestations and increased incidence of malignancy that might occur in the oral cavity. Reports of oral mucosal involvement in DM are scanty. When they are published, there is often a clinical description of "resembling lichen planus" or "leukoplakia-like" without histologic evaluation. This makes it difficult to establish the definitive diagnosis of these oral lesions and formulate treatment options. It is also difficult to assess the relationship between oral lesions and oral malignancy in this patient population. We report a DM patient who presented with clinical and histologic features of lichen planus of the buccal mucosa that resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for DM. PMID:25241001

Geist, Shin-Mey Rose Yin; Tanaka, Takako Imai

2014-10-01

332

Probiotics and oral health.  

PubMed

Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

2012-01-01

333

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

334

The clinical characteristics of benign oral mucosal tumors  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics and pre-biopsy provisional diagnoses of benign oral mucosal tumors. Material and Methods: A 10- year retrospective analysis of all benign tumors of the oral mucosa, from a university- affiliated oral and maxillofacial surgery department. Results: 146 benign tumors were included. The mean age was 49.6 years, with an approximately equal gender distribution. The most prevalent tumor types were lipomatous tumors (27.4%), vascular (23.3%), and salivary gland tumors (16.5%). Tongue, labial and buccal mucosa were the most frequently involved sites. The vast majority (98.6%) presented as non-ulcerated masses. Only 2 (1.4%) presented as ulcerated masses. The clinical provisional diagnosis correctly classified lesions as non-malignant in 93.3%. In only 9 (6.7%) suspicion of malignancy was included in the provisional diagnosis. However, benign neoplasia was unsuspected in 42.1% of tumors. These cases were clinically classified as reactive. Conclusions: Benign tumors were most likely to be clinically correctly classified as non-malignant, but even in the setting of experienced oral surgeons, neoplasia was unsuspected in more than 40% of cases. This data strongly supports the need to biopsy every oral mucosal mass, since inaccurate clinical evaluation of the lesion’s biological nature was a frequent event. Key words:Malignant, benign, reactive, ulcerated mass, non-ulcerated mass, clinical diagnosis. PMID:24316705

Kaplan, Ilana; Gal, Gavriel; Chaushu, Gavriel; Allon, Dror M.

2014-01-01

335

Co-expression of colligin and collagen in oral submucous fibrosis: plausible role in pathogenesis.  

PubMed

The high incidence of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity, in the Indian subcontinent is causally associated with commonly prevailing habit of chewing areca nut and tobacco. Knowledge of molecular alterations in OSF is meagre. OSF is characterised by progressive accumulation of collagen fibres in lamina propria and oral submucosa. Colligin/HSP47 is a 47KDa stress protein which acts as a chaperone for collagen. We hypothesized that since colligin plays a vital role in folding and assembling collagen it may be involved in the pathogenesis of OSF. The present study was undertaken in tobacco and areca nut chewing Indian OSF patients to investigate the correlation, if any, between the expression of colligin and collagen type I proteins in OSF lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis showed overexpression of colligin and collagen type I proteins in 16/23 (70%) and 15/23 (65%) of OSF cases, respectively. The hallmark of the study was the significant association between the increased expression of type I collagen and its chaperone, colligin, in OSF lesions (P=0.0494). The data suggest that the increased levels of colligin in OSF may contribute to the deposition of collagen and consequent increased fibrosis in the oral submucosa in OSF lesions. PMID:11287283

Kaur, J; Rao, M; Chakravarti, N; Mathur, M; Shukla, N K; Sanwal, B D; Ralhan, R

2001-04-01

336

Oral cancer-associated paraneoplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Paraneoplastic syndromes are cancer-associated endocrinological, haematological, dermatological or neurological disorders, which are directly related neither to the physical effects of the tumour mass, nor to invasion by the primary tumour, nor to metastasis of the tumour; nor are they associated either with the side-effects of anticancer treatment or with any of the complications of cancer. These syndromes are brought about by the ectopic production of biological mediators by the malignant tumour cells, or by immunological responses to the malignancy. Certain cancers are typically associated with specific paraneoplastic disorders. Though uncommonly, oral carcinomata have reportedly been associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus, humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, and paraneoplastic leukocytosis syndrome. PMID:21180290

Feller, L; Wood, N H; Khammissa, R A G; Chikte, U M E; Essop, R; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2010-10-01

337

Immunopharmacology of oral betalactams.  

PubMed

Among the oral beta-lactam antibiotics only cefaclor has demonstrated a consistent in vitro and in vivo immunopharmacological effect which favors phagocytic chemotaxis and antimicrobial potential by inducing a T-helper 1 or pro-inflammatory response. Together with cefpimizole, cefaclor significantly reduces the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against some bacterial species when cultured together with a suspension of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, as opposed to some other oral beta-lactams, co-amoxiclav and cefixime, which do not show this effect. The pro-inflammatory component of cefaclor's activity explains the clinical success of this antibiotic in a high percentage of cases, even when laboratory tests indicate in vitro resistance by the pathogen. PMID:9603632

Periti, P

1998-04-01

338

Comparative study of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence image enhancement methods to improve an optical imaging system for oral cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronics techniques to induce protoporphyrin IX fluorescence with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid on the oral mucosa have been developed to noninvasively detect oral cancer. Fluorescence imaging enables wide-area screening for oral premalignancy, but the lack of an adequate fluorescence enhancement method restricts the clinical imaging application of these techniques. This study aimed to develop a reliable fluorescence enhancement method to improve PpIX fluorescence imaging systems for oral cancer detection. Three contrast features, red-green-blue reflectance difference, R/B ratio, and R/G ratio, were developed first based on the optical properties of the fluorescence images. A comparative study was then carried out with one negative control and four biopsy confirmed clinical cases to validate the optimal image processing method for the detection of the distribution of malignancy. The results showed the superiority of the R/G ratio in terms of yielding a better contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, and this method was less prone to errors in detection. Quantitative comparison with the clinical diagnoses in the four neoplastic cases showed that the regions of premalignancy obtained using the proposed method accorded with the expert's determination, suggesting the potential clinical application of this method for the detection of oral cancer.

Jiang, Ching-Fen; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiang, Chun-Ping

2011-07-01

339

The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS. PMID:25389533

Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo

2014-01-01

340

Improving adherence to oral cancer therapy in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Adherence to oral chemotherapy regimens maximizes their effectiveness and minimizes any potential toxicities. Factors specifically related to the treatment, patient, and health care provider may influence medication adherence. Treatment-related factors include the complexity of the regimen, the cost of therapy, the possibility of side effects, and the delay in treatment benefits. Meanwhile, patients may not have an adequate support system or an understanding of the need for the medication, and providers may not fully succeed in communicating the importance of adherence and the types of side effects that may occur. Nonadherence may lead to an increased risk of toxicity, decreased effectiveness, and increased utilization of health care resources. Although various methods for measuring adherence are available, self-reporting is the most widely used. Studies describing adherence in a broad range of cancers are reviewed. Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia has been revolutionized by the development of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are highly effective in managing the disease when taken consistently. However, nonadherence is relatively common and can lead to reduced rates of response and increased medical costs. Similar effects of nonadherence on outcome and cost have also been observed in patients with various other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Interventions to improve adherence to oral chemotherapy regimens include communication about the importance of adherence and the potential consequences of nonadherence, simplification of the patient's medication schedule (if possible), and inclusion of a caregiver or family member in the conversation. Written materials should always be provided to accompany verbal instructions. This review summarizes factors influencing medication adherence, impact of nonadherence on patient outcomes, methods for measuring adherence, previous studies of nonadherence in patients with cancer, common barriers to access, and interventions to improve adherence in the community setting. PMID:24877187

McCue, Debbie A; Lohr, Lisa K; Pick, Amy M

2014-05-01

341

Cohesin mutations in myeloid malignancies: underlying mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Recently, whole genome sequencing approaches have pinpointed mutations in genes that were previously not associated with cancer. For Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML), and other myeloid disorders, these approaches revealed a high prevalence of mutations in genes encoding the chromosome cohesion complex, cohesin. Cohesin mutations represent a novel genetic pathway for AML, but how AML arises from these mutations is unknown. This review will explore the potential mechanisms by which cohesin mutations contribute to AML and other myeloid malignancies. PMID:24904756

2014-01-01

342

[Malignant cardiac tumors].  

PubMed

Cardiac neoplasms are a rare occurrence in clinical practice. The various frequencies of primary and secondary malignant tumors vary from report to report, approximately 1% in most autopsy series and 4% in cancer patient's autopsies. Cardiac malignancies account for less 1% of cardiac surgery and about for 0.1% of cardiac echographic studies. The presence of metastatic tumor to the heart usually indicates widespread metastases. Lung carcinomas are the most commonly encountered tumor followed by breast and pancreas cancer and melanoma. Apart from primary pericardial mesothelioma, primary cardiac tumors are high-grade sarcomas with a high metastatic potency that often becomes evident early after surgery. Symptoms are non specific, occur late in the disease and affect few patients; especially secondary neoplasms of the heart take their course so fast that they cannot become symptomatic. The signs of cardiac neoplasms are divided into systemic symptoms (fever, arthralgias and myalgias), cardiac symptoms (congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, chest pain) and uncommon embolisms. Diagnosis is actually made easier with cardiac echography. Cardiac RMI is helpful to estimate vessels and pericardium involvement. Due to its poor prognosis, treatment of cardiac metastases is restricted to best supportive care. For primary cardiac neoplasms, surgery must be carefully discussed because operative intervention is often followed by rapid widespread metastases that adjuvant chemotherapy cannot avoid in most cases. PMID:15899620

Debourdeau, Philippe; Gligorov, Joseph; Teixeira, Luis; Aletti, Marc; Zammit, Christine

2004-11-01

343

Relevance of cancer initiating/stem cells in carcinogenesis and therapy resistance in oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) acquires the top most position among the other malignancies and patients die with this disease complication within 5years. One of the causes behind this scenario is the identified sub-population in heterogeneous tumor mass that are purported as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Oral CSCs populations show upregulation of the stem cell related genes Oct-4, Nanog, Nestin, CK19, BMI-1, CD117 (c-kit), CD44 and CD133 with sunken expression of involucrin and CK13. This small proportion of tumor cells can sustain tumor growth, proliferation, invasion and distant metastasis playing a pivotal role in relapse of oral cancer. Unanimous risk factors include prevalent use of cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing with less explored HPV infection play an important role in origin of CSCs. Moreover, highly apoptotic resistant oral CSCs show enhanced protective autophagy for survival. Several studies report them to be more chemo and radiation resistant than non-stem cell population implicating the failure of the present cancer therapy. This resistance associated with normal stem cell protective mechanisms including increased expression of drug efflux pumps, alteration in program cell death, cell cycle, and DNA repair mechanisms. Notably, CSCs appear to play a major role in tumor recurrence and metastatic spread, common causes of the high morbidity and ultimately the death of the majority of patients with oral cancer. In this review we would like to highlight the intricate crosstalk of the cancer initiating/stem cells involved in carcinogenesis and potential hurdle to oral cancer therapy. PMID:23876628

Sinha, Niharika; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Das, Durgesh Nandini; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Bhutia, Sujit K

2013-09-01

344

Studies of the toxicological potential of capsinoids: X. Safety assessment and pharmacokinetics of capsinoids in healthy male volunteers after a single oral ingestion of CH-19 Sweet extract.  

PubMed

The safety and pharmacokinetics of capsinoids, physiologically active ingredients of CH-19 Sweet extract, were investigated in 16 healthy male volunteers following a single oral ingestion of CH-19 Sweet extract. The study subjects consumed soft gel capsules containing either capsinoids (15 or 30 mg/person) or placebo. Capsinoids were well tolerated, and no clinically significant changes in physical examinations, blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, electrocardiogram, hematology, blood chemistry, and urinalysis were observed at either the 15 or 30 mg dose. Body temperature tended to increase after the ingestion of capsinoids, but remained within the normal range. Plasma levels of capsinoids and their metabolite, vanillyl alcohol, were below the lower limit of quantitation. In addition, some study subjects showed increases in urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol that, when compared to the group receiving the placebo, did not achieve statistical significance. PMID:19037804

Bernard, Bruce K; Tsubuku, Shoji; Kayahara, Takashi; Maeda, Kazutoshi; Hamada, Minoru; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shirai, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Akira; Ueno, Satoko; Mihara, Ryuichi

2008-01-01

345

Expression of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: are potential prognostic markers?  

PubMed Central

Background Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presents with a preference for the head and neck region, and shows a distinct aggressive behavior, with frequent local recurrences, regional and distant metastasis. The alterations in the cadherin-catenin complex are fundamental requirements for the metastasis process, and this is the first study to evaluate the immunostaining of E-cadherin and ?-catenin in oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Methods Seventeen cases of this tumor located exclusively in the mouth were compared to 26 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma matched by stage and tumor site. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and ?-catenin were evaluated in the three groups and compared to their clinicopathological features and prognosis. Results For groups poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, reduction or absence of E-cadherin staining was observed in more than 80.0% of carcinomas, and it was statistically significant compared to well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = .019). A strong expression of ?-catenin was observed in 26.9% and 20.8% of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and in 41.2% of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year and 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences among all three groups. Conclusions The clinical and biological behavior of three groups of the oral cavity tumors evaluated are similar. E-cadherin and ?-catenin immunostaining showed no prognostic value for basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:24893577

2014-01-01

346

The potential for transmission of BCG from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to cattle (Bos taurus) through a contaminated environment: experimental findings.  

PubMed

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis have been shown to transmit the bacterium to other deer and cattle (Bos taurus) by sharing of pen waste and feed. The risk of transmission of M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine from orally vaccinated white-tailed deer to other deer and cattle, however, is not well understood. In order to evaluate this risk, we orally vaccinated 14 white-tailed deer with 1×10(9) colony forming units BCG in lipid-formulated baits and housed them with nine non-vaccinated deer. Each day we exposed the same seven naïve cattle to pen space utilized by the deer to look for transmission between the two species. Before vaccination and every 60 days until the end of the study, we performed tuberculin skin testing on deer and cattle, as well as interferon-gamma testing in cattle, to detect cellular immune response to BCG exposure. At approximately 27 weeks all cattle and deer were euthanized and necropsied. None of the cattle converted on either caudal fold, comparative cervical tests, or interferon-gamma assay. None of the cattle were culture positive for BCG. Although there was immunological evidence that BCG transmission occurred from deer to deer, we were unable to detect immunological or microbiological evidence of transmission to cattle. This study suggests that the risk is likely to be low that BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer would cause domestic cattle to react to the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma test through exposure to a BCG-contaminated environment. PMID:23565211

Nol, Pauline; Rhyan, Jack C; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; McCollum, Matt P; Rigg, Tara D; Saklou, Nadia T; Salman, Mo D

2013-01-01

347

The efficacy of oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted analysis in identifying precancerous and cancerous lesions  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer of the oral cavity is the sixth most common malignancy reported worldwide and one with the highest mortality rate among all malignancies. There is a paucity of reliable diagnostic methods to detect early malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of brush biopsy in identifying oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Methods Oral brush and scalpel biopsies were performed on 85 consecutive patients presenting with an oral lesion deemed to be minimally suspicious by clinical examination and the results were compared. Results Of 79 patients with adequate brush biopsy samples with matching scalpel biopsies, 27 revealed histopathologic evidence of dysplasia or carcinoma, 26 of which were independently identified with the oral brush biopsy (sensitivity: 96.3% - 95% CI, 87%-100%). 52 oral lesions did not reveal any histopathologic evidence of dysplasia or carcinoma and of these, brush biopsy reported 47 as "negative" and 5 as "atypical"(specificity of "positive" brush biopsy result is 100%- 95% CI, 93%-100%; specificity for "atypical" brush biopsy result is 90.4%- 95% CI, 82%-97%. The positive predictive value of an abnormal oral brush biopsy was 84% and the negative predictive value was 98%. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the oral brush biopsy is an accurate test in identifying oral premalignant and malignant lesions, even if minimally suspicious. PMID:21864339

2011-01-01

348

Expression of Ki-67 in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objective: To demonstrate the presence, location and pattern of cell proliferation in different histological grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium (NOE) using an antibody directed against the Ki-67 antigen and its intensity of staining evaluated respectively. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 archival paraffin embedded blocks obtained from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were studied. The case details were retrieved which consisted of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC (n = 20), low risk OED (n = 30), high risk OED (n = 30) and normal appearing mucosa (n = 20) were taken as standard for comparison. Ki-67 immunostaining was detected. Ki-67 positive cells were counted in the five random high power fields in each case. Results: Ki-67 labeling Index (LI) was restricted to the basal and parabasal layers of the normal oral epithelium irrespective of age, sex and site whereas it was seen in the basal, suprabasal and spinous layers in OED. Ki-67 LI is increased in high risk cases than the low risk cases of OED. Ki-67 positive cells in OSCC were located in the periphery of the tumor nests than the center, where frequent mitoses were observed. Conclusion: The architectural alteration evaluated by Ki-67 antibody in proliferating cell distribution in the layers of epithelial dysplasias may provide useful information to evaluate the grading of OED. Ki-67 LI increased in high risk cases than low risk cases of OED. This study showed that over expression of Ki-67 antigen between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC was in accordance with histologic grade of malignancy but not in accordance with moderately differentiated OSCC. PMID:25328294

Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M; Gadivan, Mohsin

2014-01-01

349

Gynaecological Malignancies from Palliative Care Perspective  

PubMed Central

Of the approximately 80,000 new cases of all cancers detected every year in India, 10–15% are gynecological malignancies. As per population-based registries under the National Cancer Registry Program, the leading sites of cancer among women are the cervix uteri, breast, and oral cavity. About 50–60% of all cancers among women in India are mainly of the following four organs: cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri, and ovaries. Over 70% of these women report for diagnostic and treatment services at an advanced stage of disease, resulting in poor survival and high mortality rates. Among all gynecological cancers, ovarian cancer is the deadliest one and, in 2/3rd of the cases, is detected in an advanced stage. But, in India and in other developing countries, due to inadequate screening facilities for the preventable cancer cervix, this kills more women than any other cancer in females. Gynecology Oncologist as a sub-specialist has an immensely important role in curtailing the menace of gynecological malignancies by providing comprehensive preventive, curative, palliative and follow-up services, with the aim of assuring a good quality of life to women as a cornerstone of cancer management. PMID:21811372

Mishra, Kamlesh

2011-01-01

350

Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis. PMID:23379968

Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

2013-10-01

351

Paraneoplastic leukocytoclastic vasculitis as an initial presentation of malignant pleural mesothelioma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vasculitis has been associated with malignancies, more commonly hematological rather than solid malignancies. Due to the rarity of these conditions and the lack of a temporal association, the relationship between vasculitis and malignancy remains unclear. Paraneoplastic vasculitis as a phenomenon of lung cancer has been described in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leukocytoclastic vasculitis being an initial presentation of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Case presentation We report the case of an 84-year old Greek man who presented to our facility with an erythematous, pruritic and purpuric rash affecting his limbs. This was biopsy-proven to be leukocytoclastic vasculitis and treated conservatively with topical corticosteroids as well as oral prednisolone, with good results. Six months later, he was diagnosed as having malignant pleural mesothelioma. As he remained asymptomatic from his malignancy, no systemic chemotherapy was instituted. He had a recurrence of biopsy-proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis two months after he was diagnosed as having mesothelioma, which again settled with conservative measures. Conclusions It is important to remain vigilant with regard to the association between leukocytoclastic vasculitis and malignancies. A diagnosis of vasculitis requires a search for malignancies as well as other possible etiologies. This is particularly of relevance when the vasculitis becomes chronic, recurrent or treatment is no longer effective. Should our patient have experienced refractory vasculitis, we would have instituted systemic chemotherapy to treat the underlying malignancy. PMID:22937937

2012-01-01

352

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic drugs characterized by fever, altered mental status, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction. It has been associated with virtually all neuroleptics, including newer atypical antipsychotics, as well as a variety of other medications that affect central dopaminergic neurotransmission. Although uncommon, NMS remains a critical consideration in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with fever and mental status changes because it requires prompt recognition to prevent significant morbidity and death. Treatment includes immediately stopping the offending agent and implementing supportive measures, as well as pharmacological interventions in more severe cases. Maintaining vigilant awareness of the clinical features of NMS to diagnose and treat the disorder early, however, remains the most important strategy by which physicians can keep mortality rates low and improve patient outcomes. PMID:23983836

Berman, Brian D.

2011-01-01

353

Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from an Oral Lichenoid Lesion: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lichenoid reactions represent a family of lesions with different etiologic factors and a common clinical and histologic ap-pearance. Lichen planus is included with lichenoid reactions and is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous disorder. The most important complication of lichenoid reactions is the possibility of malignant transformation. That is why it has been considered a precancerous condition. Although the malignant transformation rate varies widely in the literature, from 0.4 to 6.5 percent, in most studies it does not exceed 1%. The aim of this paper is to report a rare case of squamous cell car-cinoma (SCC) arising within an oral lichenoid lesion in a 17-year-old woman, where SCC is very uncommon. The patient did not have any risk factors and was healthy. The lesion was located on the border of the tongue. In view of thecommon occurrence of OLP (oral lichen planus) and the unresolved issues regarding its premalignant potential, this case report illus-trates the need for histologic confirmation and a close follow-up of clinical lesions with lichenoid features. PMID:22991632

Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Attaran, Rana; Bahramian, Ayla; Emamverdi Zadeh, Paria

2012-01-01

354

Investigation of infrared Fourier-Transform spectroscopy for oral cancer detection  

E-print Network

A system was developed using a Fourier Transform-n spectrometer to investigate spectral differences between malignant, benign and healthy oral tissue in the near-infrared range (2.0-2.5 microns). A hamster model for oral squamous cell carcinoma...

Cooney, Kevin Michael

2012-06-07

355

Temozolomide in malignant glioma  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme WHO grade IV (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant glioma and the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. The median survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients was between 9 to 12 months prior to treatment with temozolomide being introduced. Primary resection that is as complete as possible is recommended for malignant glioma. Conventional fractionated irradiation 55 to 60 gy with concomitant temozolomide followed by standard temozolomide 6 cycles (5/28) (EORTC/NCIC-regime published by R Stupp in 2005) is the standard of care for newly diagnosed GBM after surgery, independent of the methylation status of the MGM-T gene promoter. Age is no contraindication for treatment with temozolomide, although comorbidity and performance status have to be considered. For temozolomide naive GBM and astrocytoma grade III patients with disease progression, temozolomide is still the treatment of choice outside of clinical studies. A general consensus regarding the schedule of choice has not yet been achieved; so far the 5 out of 28 days regimen (5/28) is the standard of care in most countries. Patients with disease progression after standard temozolomide (5/28) are candidates for clinical studies. Outside of clinical studies, dose-dense (7/7), prolonged (21/28), or metronomic (28/28) temozolomide, or alternatively a nitrosourea-based regimen can be an option. The excellent toxicity profile of temozolomide allows for various combinations with antitumor agents. None of these combinations, however, have been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior compared to temozolomide alone. The role of lower dosed, dose-dense, or continuous regimen with or without drug combination and the role of temozolomide for newly diagnosed astrocytoma grade III and low grade glioma still has to be determined. PMID:20856849

Dresemann, Gregor

2010-01-01

356

Antifungal, Cytotoxic, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Tea Tree Oil and Its Derivative Components: Potential Role in Management of Oral Candidosis in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans forms oral biofilms that cause disease and are difficult to treat with conventional antifungal agents. Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural compound with reported antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. The aims of the study were to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of TTO and key derivatives against C. albicans biofilms, to assess the toxicological effects of TTO on a clinically relevant oral cell line, and to investigate its impact on inflammation. TTO and its derivatives were examined against 100 clinical strains of C. albicans. Planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method. Sessile MICs were determined using an XTT reduction assay. Inhibition, time-kill, and mode of action studies were performed. OKF6-TERT2 epithelial cells were used for cytotoxicity and cytokine expression assays. Planktonic C. albicans isolates were susceptible to TTO, terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), and ?-terpineol, with an MIC50 of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.25%, respectively. These three compounds also displayed potent activity against the 69 biofilm-forming strains, of which T-4-ol and ?-terpineol displayed rapid kill kinetics. For all three compounds, 1?×?MIC50 effectively inhibited biofilm growth when C. albicans were treated at 0, 1, and 2?h post adhesion. By scanning electron microscopy analysis and PI uptake, TTO and derivative components were shown to be cell membrane active. TTO and T-4-ol were cytotoxic at 1?×?MIC50, whereas at 0.5?×?MIC50 T-4-ol displayed no significant toxicity. Transcript and protein analysis showed a reduction of IL-8 when treated with TTO and T-4-ol. These data provide further in vitro evidence that TTO and its derivative components, specifically T-4-ol, exhibit strong antimicrobial properties against fungal biofilms. T-4-ol has safety advantages over the complete essential oil and may be suitable for prophylaxis and treatment of established oropharyngeal candidosis. A clinical trial of T-4-ol is worthy of consideration. PMID:22719736

Ramage, Gordon; Milligan, Steven; Lappin, David F.; Sherry, Leighann; Sweeney, Petrina; Williams, Craig; Bagg, Jeremy; Culshaw, Shauna

2012-01-01

357

Computational investigation of potential dosing schedules for a switch of medication from warfarin to rivaroxaban—an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor  

PubMed Central

The long-lasting anticoagulant effect of vitamin K antagonists can be problematic in cases of adverse drug reactions or when patients are switched to another anticoagulant therapy. The objective of this study was to examine in silico the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, combined with the residual effect of discontinued warfarin. Our simulations were based on the recommended anticoagulant dosing regimen for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. The effects of the combination of discontinued warfarin plus rivaroxaban were simulated using an extended version of a previously validated blood coagulation computer model. A strong synergistic effect of the two distinct mechanisms of action was observed in the first 2–3 days after warfarin discontinuation; thereafter, the effect was close to additive. Nomograms for the introduction of rivaroxaban therapy after warfarin discontinuation were derived for Caucasian and Japanese patients using safety and efficacy criteria described previously, together with the coagulation model. The findings of our study provide a mechanistic pharmacologic rationale for dosing schedules during the therapy switch from warfarin to rivaroxaban and support the switching strategies as outlined in the Summary of Product Characteristics and Prescribing Information for rivaroxaban.

Burghaus, Rolf; Coboeken, Katrin; Gaub, Thomas; Niederalt, Christoph; Sensse, Anke; Siegmund, Hans-Ulrich; Weiss, Wolfgang; Mueck, Wolfgang; Tanigawa, Takahiko; Lippert, Jörg

2014-01-01

358

Vesiculobullous disorders affecting the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Vesiculobullous disorders of the oral cavity managed by oral medicine specialists include erythema multiforme, pemphigus vulgaris, paraneoplastic pemphigus and mucous membrane pemphigoid. These conditions can have significant effects on quality of life and potentially serious sequelae if not identified early. PMID:25216166

Shephard, Martina; Hodgson, Tim; Hegarty, Anne M

2014-09-01

359

Rechallenging clozapine after neuroleptic malignant syndrome.  

PubMed

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal manifestation of antipsychotic use associated with symptoms that include mental status changes, muscle rigidity, fever and autonomic dysfunction. An occurrence of NMS with clozapine has been reported in the past but there are very few reports of successfully rechallenging the drug in individuals who have developed the syndrome. This case report discusses one of the few instances in literature where clozapine has been re-administered successfully to a patient without a reoccurrence of NMS. In conclusion, a rechallenge of clozapine after neuroleptic malignant syndrome can be done if care is taken to avoid concurrent use of lithium and other psychotropics, monitoring for NMS symptoms and titrating the dose upward slowly after a reasonable period of time. PMID:24633526

Anbalagan, Emaya; Ithman, Muaid; Lauriello, John

2014-09-01

360

Therapeutic vaccines for malignant brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Malignant gliomas are the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. Current therapy consists of surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy. Despite these treatments, the prognosis for patients is poor. As such, investigative therapies including tumor vaccines have targeted this devastating condition. Recent clinical trials involving immunotherapy, specifically dendritic cell (DC) based vaccines, have shown promising results. Overall, these vaccines are well tolerated with few documented side effects. In many patients receiving vaccines, tumor progression was delayed and the median overall survival of these patients was prolonged. Despite these encouraging results, several factors have limited the efficacy of DC vaccines. Here we discuss the potential of DC vaccines as adjuvant therapy and current obstacles of generating highly pure and potent DC vaccines in the context of malignant glioma. Taken together, the results from earlier clinical studies justify additional clinical trials aimed at improving the efficacy of DC vaccines. PMID:19707456

Gustafson, Michael P; Knutson, Keith L; Dietz, Allan B

2008-01-01

361

Oral Contraceptive Use and Risk of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease refers to a spectrum of rare be- nign and malignant gynecologic disor- ders whose pathogenesis is not well un- derstood. Recent studies from China and the United States have raised the hypothesis that long-term use of oral contraceptives before conception may increase the risk of gestational tropho- blastic tumors. A multicenter case- control study of gestational

Julie R. Palmer; Shirley G. Driscoll; Lynn Rosenberg; Ross S. Berkowitz; John R. Lurain; John Soper; Leo B. Twiggs; David M. Gershenson; Ernest I. Kohorn; Michael Berman; Samuel Shapiro; R. Sowmya

362

Oral squamous cell carcinoma in two siblings with Fanconi anemia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed

Fanconi Anemia patients are a high risk group for solid and hematologic malignancies. The risk seems to be influenced by age, chronic graft versus host disease and immunosuppressive drug regimens. Reports of oral malignant transformation in Fanconi Anemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are increasing probably because of longer survival rates. This is the report of an 18- and her 28-year old sister who developed a post-HSCT oral squamous cell carcinoma. There were significant differences regarding time to malignant transformation, marrow donor characteristics and graft versus host disease evolution and treatment. The report reinforce the need for a routine head and neck screening for cancer in this particular syndrome and suggest that familial history should also be considered in Fanconi anemia patients at risk for oral malignancy after HSCT. PMID:24274144

Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Stramandinoli-Zanicotti, Roberta Targa; Amenábar, José Miguel; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir; Galbiatti Pedruzzi, Paola Andrea; Piazzetta, Cleto M; Bonfim, Carmem

2014-01-01

363

Molecular changes in oral cancer may reflect aetiology and ethnic origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral cancer, although uncommon in the Western world, accounts for up to 40% of all malignancies in parts of India and South East Asia. Recognised aetiological agents of oral cancer include tobacco and alcohol. This paper reviews the spectrum of molecular changes found in oral squamous cell carcinomas from Western (U.K., U.S.A., Australia) and Eastern (India, S.E. Asia) countries. p53

I. C. Paterson; J. W. Eveson; S. S. Prime

1996-01-01

364

[Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma].  

PubMed

The peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare pathology with unspecific symptoms reason to be a difficult diagnosis. We report a case of a 58 year old man with diabetes mellitus type 2, arterial hypertension and smoking; without precedent of asbestos exposure. The patient presented a one month history characterized by progressive increase of the abdominal volume and sensation of fullness; three weeks later they added breathlessness and hyporexia. The patient was in regular general condition; he was not presenting hepatic stigmas, edema or adenomegalies. The examination of thorax and cardiovascular it was normal. The abdomen distended by ascites, not painful, liver and spleen not examined. Laboratory: Hemoglobin 11,9 gr/dl, WBC 6840/mm3 Bands 1 %, lymphocytes 10 %, platelets 620000/mm3, PT 12 seconds, PTT 34 seconds, glucose 158 mg/dl, BUN 20,5 mg/ dl, creatinine 1,2 mg/dl, proteins 6,1 gr/dl, albumin 2,6 gr/dl. LDH 316 U/l, beta2microglobulin 2,2 mg/l (0.83-1.15 mg/l). HBV and HCV negative. Ca 19.9, CEA, AFP and PSA negative. Hemocultive negative. Ascitic fluid: ADA 20,3 U/l, serum-ascitic albumin gradient (SAAG) 1,1. Leukocytes 2237 cells/mm3, PMN 6 %, lymphocytes 90 %, mesothelial cells 4 %, proteins 4,6 gr/dl, albumin 2,34 gr/dl, glucose 44 mg/dl, LDH 1918 U/l. Gram and cultive: negatives. BAAR and cultive: negative . Cytology: mesothelial cells with changes of type reagent, Block cell for tumour cells: negative. Abdominal US: increased peritoneum and abundant ascitic fluid. Thoracic-abdominal CT: left side pleural effusion, severe ascites with thick epyplon. Upper GI endoscopy: moderate gastritis. Colonoscopy: two small sessile polyps in sigmoid colon. The finds of the laparoscopy were interpreted like carcinomatosis or peritoneal tuberculosis. The report of the peritoneal biopsy was informed as suggestive of undifferentiated carcinoma; the reappraisal with inmunohystochemic (calretinin +,cytokeratin +, vimentin +) indicated malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, type epithelial. The evolution was torpid. The patient was transferred to the Service of Oncology where they initiated chemotherapy with Cysplatin (CDDP) and died 20 days later. The malignant mesothelioma peritoneal is a unfrequent entity, with limited therapeutic options; generally detected late, with a palliative treatment. PMID:20445731

Torrejón Reyes, Paul N; Frisancho, Oscar; Gómez, Aldo; Yábar, Alejandro

2010-01-01

365

Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential against H2O2-Radical-Mediated DNA Damage and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Extract of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have been used in medicoculturally diverse countries around the world, where it is a part of a time-honoured tradition that is respected even today. Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract has been previously reported as an efficient antioxidant in vitro. Hence, the genotoxic effects of P. longifolia leaf were investigated by using plasmid relation, comet, and Allium cepa assay. In the presence of???OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. In the plasmid relation and comet assay, the P. longifolia leaf extract exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. The abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges, and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at the interphase. The results of Allium cepa assay confirmed that the methanol extracts of P. longifolia exerted no significant genotoxic or mitodepressive effects at 100??g/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that P. longifolia leaf extract has a beneficial effect against oxidative DNA damage. This experiment is the first report for the protective effect of P. longifolia on DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radicals. Additionally in acute oral toxicity study, female rats were treated at 5000?mg/kg body weight of P. longifolia leaf extract and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. P. longifolia leaf extract did not produce any treatment-related toxic effects in rats. PMID:23878610

Jothy, Subramanion L.; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

2013-01-01

366

In Vitro Activities of Oral ?-Lactams at Concentrations Achieved in Humans against Penicillin-Susceptible and -Resistant Pneumococci and Potential to Select Resistance  

PubMed Central

The ?-lactam susceptibilities of 65 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae for which penicillin MICs covered a broad range were assessed. The order of potency was amoxicillin (AMX) = amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) > penicillin G > cefpodoxime (CPO) > cefuroxime (CXM) > cefprozil > cefaclor > loracarbef > cefixime. No decrease in susceptibility was seen following repeated subculture of two penicillin-susceptible strains of S. pneumoniae in AMX, AMC, cefaclor, or loracarbef, whereas repeated exposure to CPO and CXM resulted in 4- to 32-fold decreases in susceptibility for both strains. When one of these strains was exposed to concentrations of CPO, CXM, AMX, and AMC achieved in the serum of humans following the administration of an oral dose, all agents were rapidly bactericidal, with no decrease in susceptibility up to 72 h. This was consistent with antibiotic concentrations exceeding the MICs for 100% of the dosing interval. For a penicillin-resistant strain, MICs were exceeded for 29% of the 12-h dosing interval for 500 mg of AMX, 42% of the interval for AMC with 875 mg of AMX and 125 mg of clavulanate (875/125 mg of AMC) 21% of the interval for 500 mg of CXM, and 0% of the interval for 200 mg of CPO. Consequently, only 875/125 mg of AMC produced a sustained bactericidal effect. A four- to eightfold reduction in susceptibility to CPO and CXM and cross-resistance with cefotaxime, but not penicillin or AMC, were selected following exposure to simulated serum CPO and CXM concentrations. In addition, AMX and AMC were the only agents which consistently produced a >99% reduction in bacterial numbers in time-kill studies using concentrations of antibiotic achieved in middle ear fluid for all three strains of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae tested. PMID:9687392

Thorburn, Christine E.; Knott, Sarah J.; Edwards, David I.

1998-01-01

367

Clinical diagnosis of oral erosive lichen planus by direct oral microscopy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Direct oral microscopy is a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique that aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The principle is to reveal precancerous lesions of oral mucosae in their subclinical phase in order to begin their treatment as early as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune, inflammatory, chronic disease affecting oral mucous membranes. Buccal mucosae are most often affected. Aim To describe the in vivo picture of erosive OLP in direct oral microscopy in terms of the pattern and density of subepithelial blood vessels, surface texture, color, transparency and borders of the lesions. The study also demonstrates the utility of the method in the selection of the most appropriate biopsy site. Material and methods A total of 30 patients with erosive OLP were examined. Clinical examination of the oral cavity with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy. The most appropriate biopsy sites based on both examinations were chosen for every individual and biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation. Results Biopsies obtained based on direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 16 patients (53.3%). Biopsies obtained based on clinical examination with the naked eye revealed dysplasia in 3 cases (10%). Conclusions Direct oral microscopy makes it possible to obtain a repeated picture of erosive OLP and constitutes an alternative to the clinical examination with the naked eye in election of the most appropriate biopsy site. Thus, introduction of the most accurate and early therapy is possible. PMID:25254007

Drogoszewska, Barbara; Polcyn, Adam; Michcik, Adam

2014-01-01

368

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.  

PubMed

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are uncommon, biologically aggressive soft tissue sarcomas of neural origin that pose tremendous challenges to effective therapy. In 50% of cases, they occur in the context of neurofibromatosis type I, characterized by loss of function mutations to the tumor suppressor neurofibromin; the remainder arise sporadically or following radiation therapy. Prognosis is generally poor, with high rates of relapse following multimodality therapy in early disease, low response rates to cytotoxic chemotherapy in advanced disease, and propensity for rapid disease progression and high mortality. The last few years have seen an explosion in data surrounding the potential molecular drivers and targets for therapy above and beyond neurofibromin loss. These data span multiple nodes at various levels of cellular control, including major signal transduction pathways, angiogenesis, apoptosis, mitosis, and epigenetics. These include classical cancer-driving genetic aberrations such as TP53 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss of function, and upregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways, as well as less ubiquitous molecular abnormalities involving inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, aurora kinases, and the Wingless/int (Wnt) signaling pathway. We review the current understanding of MPNST biology, current best practices of management, and recent research developments in this disease, with a view to informing future advancements in patient care. PMID:24470531

Farid, Mohamad; Demicco, Elizabeth G; Garcia, Roberto; Ahn, Linda; Merola, Pamela R; Cioffi, Angela; Maki, Robert G

2014-02-01

369

Oral phosphate binders: history and prospects.  

PubMed

The use of an oral phosphate binder is a promising and most practical strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To secure the safety: 1) the oral phosphate binder must not cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract; 2) the oral phosphate binder should be non-absorbable or barely absorbable through the gastrointestinal tract, or 3) if partially absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, it must be eliminated from circulation through a pathway other than urinary excretion, and 4) even if it accumulates in the body, it should not cause organ dysfunctions. Metal salt type oral phosphate binder is the most classical type of oral phosphate binders that includes aluminum hydroxide gel and lanthanum carbonate. These oral phosphate binders effectively adsorb phosphate ions, however, have a potential risk for accumulation and intoxication. Calcium salt type oral phosphate binder was the most widely prescribed oral phosphate binder in the last decade but is now believed to exert potential harm, favoring progression of vascular calcification through excessive intestinal calcium load. However, recent studies failed to detect an inferiority of calcium salt type oral phosphate binders as compared to non-calcium salt type oral phosphate binders in terms of mortality and/or morbidity of hemodialysis patients. Polymerized resin type is a safe and relatively effective oral phosphate binder, which is supported by many clinical evidences. However, it sometimes causes severe constipation, especially in Japanese patients. Among metal compound type oral phosphate binder, other promising compounds include boehmite-type aluminum and hydrotalcite-like compounds but they are not yet available in the clinical setting. PMID:19442621

Kazama, Junichiro James

2009-07-01

370

Malignant granular cell tumor: a look into the diagnostic criteria.  

PubMed

Fanburg-Smith et al. classified granular cell tumors (GCTs) using six criteria with high Ki-67 and p53 in malignant cases. We aim to refine their classification and reproduce their immunohistochemical findings. We, first, classified our 48 cases according to Fanburg-Smith criteria (37 benign, seven atypical, and four malignant), and performed Ki-67 and p53 on a sample of tumors. Then, we reclassified them into 44 benign and four with uncertain malignant potential (GCT-UMP) using only necrosis and/or mitoses. (1) According to Fanburg-Smith criteria: Malignant cases were significantly younger than benign and atypical ones; occurred predominantly in males; were significantly larger in size; and showed a higher Ki-67 expression but an insignificant difference in p53 staining. (2) Comparative findings: The four malignant cases according to Fanburg-Smith corresponded to our four cases with UMP. The seven atypical cases and our benign group shared similar means, except for age. None of these atypical cases recurred or metastasized. Despite its small number, our preliminary study showed similar selectivity of two more reproducible criteria (vs six) in the classification of cases of GCT with potential aggressive behavior, preserving a role for Ki-67 in difficult cases. However, metastases remain the sole definite criterion for malignancy. PMID:21282016

Nasser, Haitham; Ahmed, Yasin; Szpunar, Susan M; Kowalski, Paul J

2011-03-15

371

Liver transplantation for malignancies.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation (LT) has become an acceptable and effective treatment for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with excellent outcomes. More recently, LT has been tried in different primary and secondary malignancies of the liver. The outcomes of LT for very selected group of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have been promising. Excellent results have been reported in LT for patients with unresectable hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE). In contrast to excellent results after LT for HEHE, results of LT for angiosarcoma have been disappointing with no long-term survivors. Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary liver cancer in pediatric age group. Long-term outcomes after LT in patients with unresectable tumor and good response to chemotherapy have been promising. Indication for LT for hepatic metastasis from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is mainly for patients with unresectable tumors and for palliation of medically uncontrollable symptoms. Posttransplant survival in those patients with low tumor activity index is excellent, despite recurrence of the tumor. More recent limited outcomes data on LT for unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer have claimed some survival benefit compared to the previous reports. However, due to the high rate of tumor recurrence in a very short time after LT, especially in the era of organ shortage, this indication has not been favored by the transplant community. PMID:24604263

Eghtesad, Bijan; Aucejo, Federico

2014-09-01

372

Malignant gonadal mesothelioma.  

PubMed

Malignant mesothelioma of the gonads is a rare and highly lethal disease. Most of these tumors arise from the tunica vaginalis, which is a continuation of the mesothelium similar to the pleura and the peritoneum. However, intratesticular and ovarian mesotheliomas have also been described. Occasionally, patients with localized disease at the time of detection have been known to survive for more than 10 years; however, the majority will not live beyond 5 years, with median survival being approximately 23 months. The principle reasons for this are difficulty in making a preoperative diagnosis and advanced stage at the time of treatment. Surgery forms the mainstay of management for all stages of the tumor. Adjuvant therapy in the form of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiotherapy has negligible benefit. It is essential to diagnose this rare entity at the early stages to allow complete surgical extirpation. For the management of localized disease, we suggest the following protocol: initial staging of suspected cases with computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis; radical inguinal orchiectomy or hemiscrotectomy; retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in cases with positive nodes on scan or biopsy; and inguinal node dissection in cases requiring hemiscrotectomy. For advanced or recurrent disease, we suggest local radical resection with chemotherapy, including high-dose cisplatin and doxorubicin for two cycles of 5 days each; add local radiotherapy for uncontrolled locally advanced disease. PMID:12194801

Gupta, Narmada P; Kumar, Rajeev

2002-10-01

373

Combining CAR T cells and the Bcl-2 family apoptosis inhibitor ABT-737 for treating B-cell malignancy.  

PubMed

B-cell malignancies upregulate the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family inhibitors of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, making them therapy resistant. However, small-molecule inhibitors of Bcl-2 family members such as ABT-737 restore a functional apoptosis pathway in cancer cells, and its oral analog ABT-263 (Navitoclax) has entered clinical trials. Gene engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells also show promise in B-cell malignancy, and as they induce apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway, we hypothesized that small-molecule inhibitors of the Bcl-2 family may potentiate the efficacy of CAR T cells by engaging both apoptosis pathways. CAR T cells targeting CD19 were generated from healthy donors as well as from pre-B-ALL (precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia) patients and tested together with ABT-737 to evaluate apoptosis induction in five B-cell tumor cell lines. The CAR T cells were effective even if the cell lines exhibited different apoptosis resistance profiles, as shown by analyzing the expression of apoptosis inhibitors by PCR and western blot. When combining T-cell and ABT-737 therapy simultaneously, or with ABT-737 as a presensitizer, tumor cell apoptosis was significantly increased. In conclusion, the apoptosis inducer ABT-737 enhanced the efficacy of CAR T cells and could be an interesting drug candidate to potentiate T-cell therapy. PMID:23788110

Karlsson, H; Karlsson, S C H; Lindqvist, A C; Fransson, M; Paul-Wetterberg, G; Nilsson, B; Essand, M; Nilsson, K; Frisk, P; Jernberg-Wiklund, H; Loskog, A; Loskog, S I A

2013-07-01

374

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

375

Snuff-induced malignancy of the nasal vestibule: a case report.  

PubMed

The association between nasal snuff and malignancy is not well established. There is epidemiological evidence suggesting that oral tobacco when mixed with lime and betel leaves causes oral cancer in the Indian subcontinent. Similarly, snuff spiced with dried aloe has been reported to cause upper jaw malignancies in the Bantu