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Sample records for oral provocation tests

  1. Provocation testing to assist craniomandibular pain diagnosis.

    PubMed

    DuPont, John S; Brown, Christopher E

    2010-04-01

    Patients with TMD often present with complex pain symptoms, which can make it difficult to reach a diagnosis. Usually palpation of the masticatory muscles and TM joints, range of motion testing and imaging are used in the diagnostic process. Sometimes it is necessary to evaluate the jaw moving muscles from a functional prospective because they cannot be palpated due to inaccessibility or because they have other structures that are more superficial to them. In these instances, provocation testing can be a helpful adjunct in providing some insight into what is occurring in the area being tested and localizing a suspected source of pain. Anesthesia blocking can be used to confirm any positive findings. This article explores several provocation tests that can be used to evaluate conditions of the masticatory musculature, the TM joints and the stylomandibular ligament. PMID:20491230

  2. A New Provocative Test for Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, TCA; Campos, LF; Vianello, MP; Corradi, J; Dorairaj, SK; Freitas, ALA; Ritch, R

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the effects of the water-drinking test (WDT) with the 30° inverted body position test on intraocular pressure (IOP) in normal patients, suspected glaucoma patients and glaucoma patients. Materials and methods: Based on clinical evaluation of the optic disk, IOP, and standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) of 71 eyes, 18 were “normal” (normal SAP and optic disk evaluation, and IOP < 21 mm Hg), 30 were “glaucoma suspect” (GS; normal SAP, cup/disk (C/D) ratio > 0.5 or asymmetry > 0.2 and/or ocular hypertension), and 31 had “early glaucoma” (MD < -6 dB, glaucomatous optic neuropathy). Standard achromatic perimetry was performed with the Octopus 3.1.1 Dynamic 24-2 program. Patients fasted before the WDT, and four measurements were performed at basal, 15’, 30, and 45’ after drinking 1 liter of water (WDT) in 5 minutes. In the 30° inverted position, IOP measurement with Perkins applanation tonometer was taken after 5 minutes lying down. Results: There was a statistical difference in all groups between the basal IOP and peak IOP during the WDT (p < 0.001) and in the inverted position IOP (p < 0.001). Controls (p = 0.50), suspects (p = 0.41) and glaucoma patients (p = 1.0) did not exhibit a difference between WDT-IOP and inverted position IOP. Conclusion: The 30° inverted position test was as efficient as WDT in detecting peak IOP. This new provocative test is easier, faster and more comfortable for both patients and doctors. How to cite this article: Kanadani FN, Moreira TCA, Campos LF, Vianello MP, Corradi J, Dorairaj SK, Freitas ALA, Ritch R. A New Provocative Test for Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(1): 1-3. PMID:27231412

  3. Overview of complications during pharmacological spasm provocation tests.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shozo; Kohno, Hiroaki

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacological spasm provocation tests are invasive methods and we always have the potential to encounter complications when performing these tests. In 1980, Buxton et al. reported three deaths when they performed intravenous ergonovine testing. However, we now employ the intracoronary ergonovine test instead of the intravenous injection of ergonovine from a safety procedure point of view. Past serious major complications of intravenous ergonovine tests, intracoronary ergonovine tests, and intracoronary acetylcholine tests were 0.31% (26/8419), 0.51% (11/2173), and 0.95% (148/15,527), respectively. Selective intracoronary testing had the serious major complications in 0.89% of patients including just one death (0.006%) and two acute myocardial infarctions (0.01%). Selective spasm provocation tests had no additional risks compared with performing diagnostic coronary angiography alone. In the Western countries, the pharmacological spasm provocation tests are not familiar in the clinic except for some specialized institutions. We need international clinical studies using the same protocol of spasm provocation tests to compare the frequency, clinical features, and prognosis of acetylcholine- or ergonovine-provoked coronary spasm between Western and Asian countries. And we hope that Western guidelines give spasm provocation testing a class I indication similar to Japanese Circulation Society guidelines because coronary artery spasm may have fewer racial differences and borders. PMID:27234219

  4. Gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity: symptoms, diagnosis and provocation tests.

    PubMed

    Arslan Lied, Gülen

    2007-03-01

    As many as 25% of the general population in Western countries believe that they suffer from adverse reactions to food. However, the actual prevalence of food allergy is much lower. Food-induced allergic reactions cause a variety of symptoms including cutaneous, gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. Food allergy might be caused by IgE-mediated, mixed (IgE and/or non-IgE) or non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. The clinical diagnosis is based on a careful history, laboratory findings (total and specific IgE), skin prick test, elimination diet and food challenges. New intestinal provocation tests have also been applied to pick up the allergic response of the duodenal mucosa by endosonography and external ultrasound. The management of food allergy continues to be a strict avoidance of the offending food item. PMID:17450488

  5. Intracoronary Acetylcholine Provocation Testing for Assessment of Coronary Vasomotor Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Intracoronary acetylcholine provocation testing (ACH-test) is an established method for assessment of epicardial coronary artery spasm in the catheterization laboratory which was introduced more than 30 years ago. Due to the short half-life of acetylcholine it can only be applied directly into the coronary arteries. Several studies have demonstrated the safety and clinical usefulness of this test. However, acetylcholine testing is only rarely applied in the U.S. or Europe. Nevertheless, it has been shown that 62% of Caucasian patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries on coronary angiography suffer from coronary vasomotor disorders that can be diagnosed with acetylcholine testing. In recent years it has been appreciated that the ACH-test not only assesses the presence of epicardial spasm but that it can also be useful for the detection of coronary microvascular spam. In such cases no epicardial spasm is seen after injection of acetylcholine but ischemic ECG shifts are present together with a reproduction of the patient's symptoms during the test. This article describes the experience with the ACH-test and its implementation in daily clinical routine. PMID:27583694

  6. Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Charruf, Laurie Frey

    1984-01-01

    Oral tests for speaking skills evaluate two major skills: linguistic competence, including accuracy of pronunciation, vocabulary, and structure, and communication ease. Four factors affect students' oral performance: verbal intelligence, short-term auditory and visual memory, sound-symbol association skill, and grammatical analysis. Personality…

  7. Optical rhinometry: application on children and adolescents for nasal provocation tests.

    PubMed

    Mittenzwey, Holger; Wüstenberg, Eike Gunther; Leupold, Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    Optical rhinometry is a new method that allows the direct, real time measurement of changes in swelling of the nasal mucosa by external measurement. The measurement is carried out with monochromatic near-infrared light. The change of intensity of the swelling is displayed and recorded. Different preceding studies on adults already showed the reliability and absence of side effects of the measuring method. With the help of a prototype of an optical rhinometer specially developed for children, 65 measurements were performed on a total of 13 children and adolescents having one-sided nasal provocation tests with histamine and allergens, negative provocation tests with control solution and decongestion with xylometazoline. The nasal provocation tests were implemented by optical rhinometry while simultaneously using the established method of active anterior rhinomanometry. We found significant differences between positive and negative provocation tests in both methods (p < 0.01). Decongestion was different from all other groups in both methods (p < 0.01). No clear connection could be made between the percentage increase of rhinometric extinction and the percentage increase of obstruction measured by anterior rhinomanometry. The evaluation of the nasal provocation test via continuous direct measurement of swelling of the nasal mucosa membrane seems feasible in children. Data which so far could not be measured, such as the beginning of swelling and the time of the maximum state of swelling, might increase the diagnostic validity of provocation tests. PMID:17617805

  8. Correlation between conjunctival provocation test results and conjunctival symptoms in pollinosis - preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lipiec, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr; Samoliński, Bolesław; Krzych, Edyta

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the level of reactivity in conjunctival provocation test and conjunctival symptoms that develop during the pollination season in grass allergic patients. Conjunctival provocation test with grass pollen allergens was performed in 22 patients suffering from pollinosis. During grass pollination season all patients monitored their symptoms with Symptoms Score Cards. A parallel measurement of the level of grass pollen count was carried out on a daily basis by volumetric method. The mean grass pollen count which triggered the reaction in individual patients depended on the results of conjunctival provocation test. The lowest pollen count level was observed in cases of patients with positive conjunctival provocation test at low allergen extract concentration of 160 and 500 BU/ml, whereas the highest count in cases of 1,600 BU/ml. The difference between the results was found to be statistically significant. A threshold grass pollen concentration for conjunctival symptoms was established at the level of 22 grains/m (3). We conclude that the patients with pollinosis and high reactivity in conjunctival provocation test develop conjunctival symptoms earlier during grass pollination season than the patients who are characterised by lower reactivity during conjunctival provocation test. PMID:16028860

  9. [The NTP in allergy research : open questions regarding nasal provocation tests using allergens].

    PubMed

    Förster, U; Sperl, A; Klimek, L

    2013-10-01

    The nasal provocation test (NPT) is a simple procedure with high specificity and sensitivity that is used in the investigation of allergic and nonallergic diseases. Uniform standards are of particular importance in the clinical setting and for the comparability of clinical and basic allergy research. These standards should cover the composition, dosage and pharmacological formulation of provocative substances (e.g. allergen extracts), the necessity of titration, allergen application methods and the evaluation criteria for a positive NPT reaction. Detection of various mediators and cytokines in nasal discharge can be very useful in the late phase reactions. NPT finds specific applications in studies of local IgE secretion in the nasal mucosa, the diagnosis of analgesic intolerance and in assessments of the efficacy of specific immunotherapies. Additional parameters warranting further evaluation include provocation with cold dry air in nasal hyperreactivity patients and nasal nitric oxide formation. Determination of nasal blood flow during NPT provides an additional clinical parameter. PMID:24127046

  10. Histamine intolerance-like symptoms in healthy volunteers after oral provocation with liquid histamine.

    PubMed

    Wöhrl, Stefan; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Focke, Margarete; Rappersberger, Klemens; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2004-01-01

    Histamine in food at non-toxic doses has been proposed to be a major cause of food intolerance causing symptoms like diarrhea, hypotension, headache, pruritus and flush ("histamine intolerance"). Histamine-rich foods such as cheese, sausages, sauerkraut, tuna, tomatoes, and alcoholic beverages may contain histamine up to 500 mg/kg. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study in 10 healthy females (age range 22-36 years, mean 29.1 +/- 5.4) who were hospitalized and challenged on two consecutive days with placebo (peppermint tea) or 75 mg of pure histamine (equaling 124 mg histamine dihydrochloride, dissolved in peppermint tea). Objective parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, peak flow) as well as a total clinical symptom score using a standardized protocol were recorded at baseline, 10, 20, 40, 80 minutes, and 24 hours. The subjects received a histamine-free diet also low in allergen 24 hours before hospitalization and over the whole observation period. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 10, 20, 40, and 80 minutes, and histamine and the histamine-degrading enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO) were determined. After histamine challenge, 5 of 10 subjects showed no reaction. One individual experienced tachycardia, mild hypotension after 20 minutes, sneezing, itching of the nose, and rhinorrhea after 60 minutes. Four subjects experienced delayed symptoms like diarrhea (4x), flatulence (3x), headache (3x), pruritus (2x) and ocular symptoms (1x) starting 3 to 24 hours after provocation. No subject reacted to placebo. No changes were observed in histamine and DAO levels within the first 80 minutes in non-reactors as well as reactors. There was no difference in challenge with histamine versus challenge with placebo. We conclude that 75 mg of pure liquid oral histamine--a dose found in normal meals--can provoke immediate as well as delayed symptoms in 50% of healthy females without a history of food intolerance. PMID:15603203

  11. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  12. Leukotriene D4 nasal provocation test: Rationale, methodology and diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, ZHENG; XIE, YANQING; GUAN, WEIJIE; GAO, YI; XIA, SHU; LIANG, JIANXIN; ZHENG, JINPING

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT) play a vital role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR), but few studies have investigated the nasal mucosal physiological response to LTs in AR patients. The aim of the present study was to establish the methodology and investigate the diagnostic value and safety of a leukotriene D4 (LTD4) nasal provocation test. LTD4 nasal provocation tests were performed in 26 AR patients and 16 normal control subjects. Nasal airway responsiveness was assessed by calculating the concentration of LTD4 required to cause a 60% increase in nasal airway resistance (PC60NAR-LTD4), which was measured using rhinomanometry and a composite symptom score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to evaluate the diagnostic value of LTD4 nasal provocation test, and adverse events were recorded. The study protocol was registered with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01963741). PC60NAR-LTD4 in AR was significantly lower compared with that of normal controls [8.36 (IQR, 10.00) vs. 17.00 (IQR, 0.00) µg/ml, P=0.005]. Composite symptom score was higher in AR as compared with normal controls (1.19±0.94 vs. 0.12±0.50, P<0.001). The symptom scores included sneezing (0.12±0.34 vs. 0.00±0.00, P=0.149), rhinorrhea (0.79±0.66 vs. 0.06±0.25, P<0.001) and chemosis or itching of the eyes (0.06±0.25 vs. 0.21±0.42, P=0.216). High diagnostic value was indicated by the ROC [AUC: 0.822, 95%CI (0.665, 0.961)]. No serious adverse events were observed. Thus, the present results indicate that AR patients exhibited nasal hyperactivity to LTD4, and the established procedure of LTD4 nasal provocation testing is effective and safe for use in the diagnosis of AR. PMID:27347089

  13. Antibiotic skin testing accompanied by provocative challenges in children is a useful clinical tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnostic testing to antibiotics other than to penicillin has not been widely available, making the diagnosis of antibiotic allergy difficult and often erroneous. There is often reluctance in performing challenges to antibiotics when standardized testing is lacking. However, while the immunogenic determinants are not known for most antibiotics, a skin reaction at a non-irritating concentration (NIC) may mean that antibodies to the native form are present in the circulation. While the NIC’s for many non penicillin antibiotics have been determined in adults, the use of these concentrations for skin testing pediatric subjects prior to provocative challenge has not been done. Our objective was to determine if we could successfully uncover the true nature of antibiotic allergy in children using these concentrations for testing. Methods Children were included between 2003–2009 upon being referred to the Drug and Adverse Reaction/Toxicology (DART) clinic of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario Canada. The referral needed to demonstrate that clinical care was being compromised by the limitation in antibiotic options or there was a significant medical condition for which the label of antibiotic allergy may prove detrimental. Patients were not seen if there was a suggestion of serum like sickness, Stevens Johnson Syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Patients were excluded from testing if there was objective evidence of anaphylaxis. All other patients were consented to receive testing and/or challenges. A retrospective chart review was then performed of the results. Results We were able to exclude an antibiotic allergy in the majority of our patients who had a negative intradermal test result and were then challenged (>90%). Only one patient was challenged with a positive intradermal test to Cotrimoxazole because of a questionable history and this patient failed the provocative challenge. While we did not challenge more patients with positive

  14. Scopolamine provocation-based pharmacological MRI model for testing procognitive agents.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Nikolett; Laszy, Judit; Gyertyán, István; Kocsis, Pál; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Deli, Levente; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Tihanyi, Károly

    2015-04-01

    There is a huge unmet need to understand and treat pathological cognitive impairment. The development of disease modifying cognitive enhancers is hindered by the lack of correct pathomechanism and suitable animal models. Most animal models to study cognition and pathology do not fulfil either the predictive validity, face validity or construct validity criteria, and also outcome measures greatly differ from those of human trials. Fortunately, some pharmacological agents such as scopolamine evoke similar effects on cognition and cerebral circulation in rodents and humans and functional MRI enables us to compare cognitive agents directly in different species. In this paper we report the validation of a scopolamine based rodent pharmacological MRI provocation model. The effects of deemed procognitive agents (donepezil, vinpocetine, piracetam, alpha 7 selective cholinergic compounds EVP-6124, PNU-120596) were compared on the blood-oxygen-level dependent responses and also linked to rodent cognitive models. These drugs revealed significant effect on scopolamine induced blood-oxygen-level dependent change except for piracetam. In the water labyrinth test only PNU-120596 did not show a significant effect. This provocational model is suitable for testing procognitive compounds. These functional MR imaging experiments can be paralleled with human studies, which may help reduce the number of false cognitive clinical trials. PMID:25586394

  15. GLENOHUMERAL MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING PROVOCATIVE TESTS DESIGNED TO DIAGNOSE SUPERIOR LABRUM ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Vanessa J.C.; Sabick, Michelle B.; Pfeiffer, Ron P.; Kuhlman, Seth M.; Christensen, Jason H.; Curtin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite considerable medical advances, arthroscopy remains the only definitive means of Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior (SLAP) lesion diagnosis. Natural shoulder anatomic variants limit the reliability of radiographic findings and clinical evaluations are not consistent. Accurate clinical diagnostic techniques would be advantageous due to the invasiveness, patient risk, and financial cost associated with arthroscopy. Purpose The purpose was to examine the behavior of the joint stabilizing muscles in provocative tests for SLAP lesions. Electromyography was used to characterize the muscle behavior, with particular interest in the long head biceps brachii (LHBB), as activation of the long head and subsequent tension in the biceps tendon should, based on related research, elicit labral symptoms in SLAP lesion patients. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study Methods Volunteers (N=21) without a history of shoulder pathology were recruited. The tests analyzed were Active Compression, Speed's, Pronated Load, Biceps I, Biceps II, Resisted Supination External Rotation, and Yergason's. Tests were performed with a dynamometer to improve reproducibility. Muscle activity was recorded for the long and short heads of the biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus. Muscle behavior for each test was characterized by peak activation and proportion of muscle activity. Results Speed's, Active Compression Palm-Up, Bicep I and Bicep II, produced higher long head activations. Resisted Supination External Rotation, Bicep I, Bicep II, and Yergason's, produced a higher LHBB proportion. Conclusion Bicep I, and Bicep II elicited promising long head behavior (high activation and selectivity). Speed's and Active Compression Palm-Up elicited higher activation of the LHBB , and Resisted Supination and Yergason's elicited selective LHBB activity. These top performing tests utilize a unique range of test variables that may

  16. [Two cases of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis difficult to evoke symptoms by provocation test].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kenichi; Sanada, Seiko; Hara, Takeshi; Hide, Michihiro

    2006-11-01

    We report two cases of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), which were hardly induced by provocation test in the hospital. Case 1: A 28-years-old Japanese female suffers repeated episodes of sternutation, nasal discharge and edema of eyelids after wheat ingestion of wheat followed by exercise. Case 2: A 14-years-old Japanese male suffers repeated episodes of wheal formation on whole body and dyspnea after lunch containing apple followed by exercise. Both of them had never developed symptoms by either ingestion or exercise alone. Provocation tests were performed on admission by combinations of the ingestion of suspected foods, exercise, and aspirin, but no symptoms were reproduced by any combination of them. After discharge, case 1 reproduced symptoms during exercise after the ingestion of wheat under prostration and cold climate. Case 2 reproduced symptoms during exercise after ingestion of apple when he suffered from common cold. Warm and comfortable condition in admission may make it harder to evoke symptoms by the provocation test. Frigidity, cold, prostration, and stress should be reckoned with in the provocation test to improve the accuracy of diagnosis for FDEIA. PMID:17159435

  17. Comparison of the basophil activation test versus the nasal provocation test in establishing eligibility for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Dyga, Wojciech; Rusinek, Barbara; Mazur, Marcel; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2016-08-25

    INTRODUCTION    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common atopic disease. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only effective treatment method for AR. In uncertain diagnostic cases, before establishing eligibility for SIT, nasal provocation tests (NPTs) should be performed. However, there are numerous contraindications to performing NPTs, and there is ongoing search for an alternative in vitro method. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine whether a specific in vitro provocation, that is, the basophil activation test (BAT), may replace a specific in vivo provocation, that is, the NPT, in establishing patient's eligibility for SIT. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 30 patients with AR caused by allergy to house dust mite or birch pollen, referred for SIT. The assessment of basophil activation by measuring CD63 antigen expression was performed using the Flow2 CAST test. Basophils were stimulated with allergen preparation (concentrations of 5000, 500, and 50 standardized biological units) used in NPTs. BAT results were expressed as stimulation index (SI) and basophil reactivity (BR). RESULTS    Allergen concentrations of 500 and 50 SBU proved to be appropriate for basophil stimulation. Median SI and BR were higher for positive NPT results than for negative NPT results (P <0.001). Sensitivity for SI and BR was in the range from 83% to 100%; specificity, from 78% to 89%; positive predictive value, from 75% to 87%; and negative predictive value, from 89% to 100%. We observed a high correlation of the analyzed parameters for the allergen concentrations of 500 and 50 SBU (range, 0.58-0.74; P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS    If there are contraindications to performing the NPT, BAT may be regarded as an alternative in establishing patients' eligibility for SIT. The optimal concentrations of allergen preparations are 500 and 50 SBU. Both SI and BR are good indicators of basophil activation. PMID:27578221

  18. Inadvertent Provocative Oral Ondansetron use Leading to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in an HIV-infected Patient

    PubMed Central

    Saraogi, Punit P; Nayak, Chitra S; Pereira, Rickson R; Dhurat, Rachita S

    2012-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction to drugs, characterized by extensive detachment of epidermis and mucous membranes with a mortality of 30-40%. An increased occurrence of cutaneous drug reactions is seen in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We present this case of TEN caused by ondansetron in an HIV-infected patient. A 24-year-old HIV-1-infected man on antitubercular therapy and cotrimoxazole, presented with extensive and confluent erosions involving the face, trunk, extremities and mucous membranes following the intake of oral ondansetron, ofloxacin and ornidazole. All the drugs were withdrawn and he was treated with intravenous dexamethasone and antibiotics with consequent healing of the erosions. However, the lesions recurred on inadvertent intake of oral ondansetron. He was treated with intravenous antibiotics, fluid resuscitation and supportive care. The skin lesions healed completely over 2 months with postinflammatory depigmentation and scarring, and the eye lesions healed with corneal opacities. We would like to emphasize that the drug most frequently associated with adverse drug reactions may be innocent in a given patient and the physician dealing with a suspected drug reaction must always remain unbiased regarding the causative drug. PMID:23248379

  19. The red wine provocation test: intolerance to histamine as a model for food intolerance.

    PubMed

    Wantke, F; Götz, M; Jarisch, R

    1994-01-01

    Sneezing, flush, headache, diarrhea, skin itch, and shortness of breath are symptoms occurring in patients intolerant to wine after drinking one glass of red wine. The role of histamine in wine intolerance was evaluated by a red wine provocation test in 28 patients with a history of wine intolerance and in 10 controls with good tolerance of wine. Patients were challenged with 125 ml red wine (equivalent to 50 micrograms histamine); blood samples were drawn before and after 15 and 30 minutes. Plasma histamine was assessed by a radioimmunoassay. Lung function tests were performed before and after the wine test. Twenty-two of twenty-eight patients had symptoms showing significantly higher plasma histamine levels 30 minutes after wine challenge (p < .01) compared with asymptomatic controls. Basal histamine levels of patients were higher (p < .05) than in controls. A slight asthmatic attack as well as a 30% decrease of FEF 25 was seen in 2/22 patients. Terfenadine premedication significantly eliminated symptoms in 10/12 patients (p < .05) in a subsequent wine test. Histamine assessment was done in 52 wines (red, white, and champagne) and in 17 beers by radioimmunoassay. Histamine levels ranged from 3-120 micrograms/l in white wines; 15-670 micrograms/l in champagnes; 60-3800 micrograms/l in red wines; and 21-305 micrograms/l in beers. Histamine is causing wine intolerance. Patients intolerant to wine seem to have diminished histamine degradation probably based on a deficiency of diamine oxidase. PMID:8005453

  20. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Tiina M; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870

  1. Provocation tests with the offending nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with urticaria/angioedema reactions.

    PubMed

    Zisa, Giuliana; Riccobono, Francesca; Bommarito, Luisa; D'Antonio, Cristian; Calamari, Ambra Marianna; Poppa, Mariangela; Moschella, Maria Adele; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Galimberti, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    The provocation test (PT) with the suspected drug represents the gold standard in the diagnosis of non-IgE hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Nevertheless, there is no consensus regarding the clinical management of suspected NSAID-sensitive patients. This study assessed if a PT with the suspected drug is a reliable and safe proceeding to confirm NSAID hypersensitivity in patients with a clinical history of urticaria/angioedema (Urt/AE). It also analyzed different patient characteristics (such as gender, age, atopy, dermographism, time interval between the last drug reaction, and number of previous NSAID reactions) in relation to PT positivity. One hundred fifty-nine patients with Urt/AE apparently related to assumption of one or more NSAIDs underwent PT with the suspected drugs. Moreover, to distinguish single/multiple NSAID reactivity in patients who did not tolerate the offending NSAID, another strong cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor PT was performed. PT was negative in 142/159 patients (89.31%), ruling out a diagnosis of NSAIDs hypersensitivity; 17/159 patients (10.69%) experienced a reaction of Urt/AE during the PT: 8 patients were diagnosed as single reactors to NSAIDs and 4 as multiple reactors to NSAIDs. Those with a history of multiple NSAID reactions and male patients were both more likely to have a positive PT. Our results suggest that in all patients with history of NSAID cutaneous reactions, the NSAID hypersensitivity should be confirmed by an oral PT and that the diagnostic proceeding can safely start with the offending NSAID. PMID:23026184

  2. Gender differences in sensitivity of acetylcholine and ergonovine to coronary spasm provocation test.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shozo; Miyoshi, Toru; Sasaki, Ysuhiro; Sakaue, Tomoki; Habara, Hirokazu; Kohno, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    We examined the sex difference concerning the coronary artery response between ACh and ER in this study. We already reported the difference of coronary response between acetylcholine (ACh) and ergonovine (ER). We performed both ACh and ER tests of 461 patients (male 294 patients, female 167 patients, mean age 64.4 ± 11.3 years) during 23 years. Positive coronary spasm was defined as >99 % transient luminal narrowing with usual chest pain and/or ischemic ECG changes. Firstly, ACh was administered in incremental doses of 20/50/(80) μg into the RCA and 20/50/100/(200) μg into the LCA over 20 s. Secondly, ER was administered in a total dose of 40 μg into the RCA and of 64 μg into the LCA over 2-4 min. Intracoronary injection of ACh and ER provoked spasm in 221 patients consisting of 160 male patients and 61 female patients. In female patients, the spasm provoked by ACh was almost perfect except in two patients (59 patients, 96.7 %), while ER provoked spasm in only 20 patients (32.8 %). In male patients, provoked spasm by ACh (129 patients, 80.6 %) was significantly higher than ER (97 patients, 60.6 %). As a spasm provocation test, ACh is more sensitive than ER in both sexes and especially in females. We may select two pharmacological agents by sex differences to provoke coronary artery spasm in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in the future. PMID:25539623

  3. [Oral exposure testing in non-aspirin-induced analgesic intolerance].

    PubMed

    Wiedow, O; Brasch, J; Christophers, E

    1996-12-01

    Although intolerance reaction to analgesics are not uncommon, there is still a lack of standardized procedures to diagnose the problem. We retrospectively analyzed results of scratch tests as well as oral challenges with analgesics in order to evaluate risk and diagnostic relevance of these procedures. In 1987-1992 a total of 650 patients with supposed intolerance to drugs were tested by oral challenge. Among them were 98 patients with a positive history of intolerance to non-aspirin analgesics. In 56 patients the intolerance could be verified by oral challenge. In order of decreasing frequency, the most likely agents were propyphenazone, diclofenac, metamizole, ibuprofen, carbamazepine, indomethacin, phenazone (antipyrine), and paracetamol (acteaminophen). Oral provocation showed clear dose-response relationships. For propyphenazone, the half-effective provocation dose was the same for all symptoms (cutaneous, nasal, bronchial, anaphylactoid). Scratch testing was not of diagnostic significance. Standardized test protocols starting with low dose oral challenges are suitable and helpful in minimizing the risk of severe side effects. PMID:9081936

  4. Nasal Hyperreactivity: Nonspecific Nasal Provocation Tests. Review by the Rhinoconjunctivitis Committee of the Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

    PubMed

    Lluch-Bernal, M; Dordal, M T; Antón, E; Campo, P; Colás, C; Dávila, I; Del Cuvillo Bernal, A; Fernández-Parra, B; González, R; González, M L; Matheu, V; Montoro, J; Panizo, C; Rondón, C; Sánchez, M C; Valero, A; Vega, F; Velázquez, E; Navarro, A

    2015-01-01

    Nasal hyperreactivity is the abnormal reaction of nasal tissue to a stimulus that is innocuous to most people. This response is caused by dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system at various levels of the nasal autonomic reflex arc. Various stimuli (methacholine, histamine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, cold air, mannitol, rapsaicin, phentolamine, and distilled water) have been used in an attempt to find the test that most reliably differentiates between healthy individuals and patients and also between different types of rhinitis. Despite the small number of publications available, in the present review, we provide an update on current nonspecific nasal provocation techniques. The studies published to date are not comparable: the stimuli applied act through different mechanisms and are used to assess different pathways, and the methodologies differ in terms of selection of participants, concentrations used, and assessment of response (criteria for positivity). Given the limited use of nonspecific nasal provocation tests in routine clinical practice, we believe that more studies are warranted to address the research issues we present at the end of the present review, for example, the need to standardize the methodology for each test or even the clinical benefits of knowing whether or not a patient has nasal hyperreactivity. PMID:26817136

  5. Resisted adduction in hip neutral is a superior provocation test to assess adductor longus pain: An experimental pain study.

    PubMed

    Drew, M K; Palsson, T S; Izumi, M; Hirata, R P; Lovell, G; Chiarelli, P; Osmotherly, P G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2016-08-01

    The criterion of long-standing groin pain diagnoses in athletes usually relies on palpation and clinical tests. An experimental pain model was developed to examine the clinical tests under standardized conditions. Pain was induced by hypertonic saline injected into the proximal adductor longus (AL) tendon or rectus femoris (RF) tendon in 15 healthy male participants. Isotonic saline was injected contralaterally as a control. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS). Resisted hip adduction at three different angles and trunk flexion were completed before, during, and after injections. Pain provocation in the presence of experimental pain was recorded as a true positive compared with pain provocation in the non-pain conditions. Similar peak VAS scores were found after hypertonic saline injections into the AL and RF and both induced higher VAS scores than isotonic saline (P < 0.01). Adduction at 0° had the greatest positive likelihood ratio (+LR = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.09-7.32) with 45° (-LR = 0.0, 95%CI: 0.00-1.90) and 90° (-LR = 0.0, 95%CI: 0.00-0.94) having the lowest negative LR. This study indicates that the 0° hip adduction test resisted at the ankles optimizes the diagnostic procedure without compromising diagnostic capacity to identify experimental groin pain. Validation in clinical populations is warranted. PMID:26247618

  6. Automatic conjunctival provocation test combining Hough circle transform and self-calibrated color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bista, Suman Raj; Sárándi, István.; Dogan, Serkan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Mösges, Ralph; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2013-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis is developed for assessment of allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis measuring the relative redness of sclera under application of allergen solution. Images of the patient's eye are taken using a commercial digital camera. The iris is robustly localized using a gradient-based Hough circle transform. From the center of the pupil, the region of interest within the sclera is extracted using geometric anatomy-based apriori information. The red color pixels are extracted thresholding in the hue, saturation and value color space. Then, redness is measured by taking mean of saturation projected into zero hue. Evaluation is performed with 98 images taken from 14 subjects, 8 responders and 6 non-responders, which were classified according to an experienced otorhinolaryngologist. Provocation is performed with 100, 1,000 and 10,000 AU/ml allergic solution and normalized to control images without provocation. The evaluation yields relative redness of 1.01, 1.05, 1.30 and 0.95, 1.00, 0.96 for responders and non-responders, respectively. Variations in redness measurements were analyzed according to alteration of parameters of the image processing chain proving stability and robustness of our approach. The results indicate that the method improves visual inspection and may be suitable as reliable surrogate endpoint in controlled clinical trials.

  7. Oral Proficiency Testing in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Barbara H., Comp.; Mayewski, Sandi, Comp.

    A handbook compiled for use in a one-day workshop on oral proficiency testing for teachers of Russian gives an overview of oral proficiency assessment principles and the available techniques. One section explains the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview process and…

  8. Noninvasive ergonovine maleate provocative testing for coronary artery spasm: the need for routine thallium-201 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shanes, J.G.; Krone, R.J.; Fisher, K.; Shah, B.; Eisenkramer, G.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    We administered ergonovine and used both electrocardiographic monitoring and thallium-/sup 201/ (/sup 201/Tl) imaging to detect reversible ischemia in 100 patients. Patients already established as having coronary artery spasm and those with nonbypassed, proximal, high-grade coronary artery stenosis were excluded. No complication occurred in any patient. The use of thallium imaging in addition to electrocardiographic monitoring resulted in a higher degree of sensitivity than did ECG monitoring alone. Fourteen patients demonstrated evidence of coronary artery spasm as documented by /sup 201/Tl imaging but of the 14, significant ECG changes occurred in only 50%, and classic ST segment elevation in 21%. Thus, in carefully selected patients the noninvasive provocation of coronary spasm can be accomplished safely, but ECG monitoring must be combined with thallium-/sup 201/ imaging to achieve an acceptable degree of sensitivity.

  9. Endovascular treatment of intracranial infectious aneurysms in eloquent cortex with super-selective provocative testing: Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Matthew R; Stapleton, Christopher J; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial infectious aneurysms (IIAs) are a rare subgroup of intracranial aneurysms. Often erroneously termed mycotic aneurysms, these lesions most often result from infectious endocarditis and involve the distal anterior cortical circulation. Diagnosis typically follows headaches or septic infarcts, although increasing numbers of lesions are found incidentally, during screening protocols for infectious endocarditis. Open surgical treatment was previously the mainstay of treatment; however, these IIAs are often fusiform and quite fragile, making open surgical obliteration difficult and typically requiring lesion trapping. Current treatment techniques more commonly involve endovascular coil embolization or parent vessel occlusion. Many of these lesions occur distally, in or around the eloquent cortex, making embolization potentially dangerous. We present cases that highlight the use of super-selective provocative testing with sodium amobarbital and lidocaine, to help clarify and predict the risk of parent vessel occlusion in IIAs located in the eloquent cortex. PMID:26672110

  10. The oestrogen provocation test: a method of assessing the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in patients with amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R W; Butt, W R; London, D R; Marshall, J C

    1975-05-01

    The oestrogen feedback and gonadotrophin release in ten amenorrhoeic women were investigated, using intramuscular injection of 1 mg oestradiol benzoate. Serial estimations of serum oestradiol and gonadotrophins (LH and FSH) were made over a period of 72 h following the injection. Five patients demonstrated positive feedback release of LH to the oestrogen stimulus with elevated levels of LH significantly above baseline (P less than 0.001), which occurred between 48 and 72 h after the injection. Two of the five patients also demonstrated elevated FSH levels accompanying these LH peaks, The hypothalamic-pituitary axis was postulated to be intact in these five patients, and all ovulated on clomiphene. None of the remaining five subjects showed any increase in serum gonadotrophin levels in response to oestradiol and none ovulated on clomiphene when given a dose of up to 200 mg daily x5 days. This 'oestrogen provocation test" seems to be a useful means of evaluating the functional capacity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis for gonadotrophin release and has proved useful in predicting responsiveness to clomiphene in amenorrhoeic women. PMID:1149302

  11. Final heights of boys with normal growth hormone responses to provocative tests following priming.

    PubMed

    Gonc, E Nazli; Kandemir, Nurgun; Ozon, Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer

    2008-10-01

    Priming with sex steroids prior to growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GH deficiency is still debatable. We analyzed the auxological data of boys with growth retardation who had normal GH responses to stimulation tests only after priming to establish the validity of priming in the diagnosis of GH deficiency. We also analyzed the effect of different protocols for priming and their efficiency in the diagnosis of GH deficiency. Fifty boys with growth retardation who failed to respond to unprimed GH stimulation tests but responded normally to primed tests were included in the study. Thirty-one of 50 boys responded to GH stimulation tests after single low dose testosterone, 11/50 boys after single conventional dose, and 8/50 boys with multiple-dose testosterone. The study group was followed till final height; height velocity, final height and height SDS were compared to parental and mid-parental heights to determine whether or not the children achieved their height potential. Mean final height SDS of the study group (-1.27 +/- 0.72 SDS) was similar to mid-parental (-1.38 +/- 0.72 SDS) (p = 0.249) and maternal height SDS (-1.26 +/- 1.05 SDS) (p = 0.941), whereas it was greater than the paternal height SDS (-1.7 +/- 0.86) (p = 0.001). The final height SDS of the study group was correlated to maternal, paternal and mid-parental height SDS. Height velocity after the test was greater than the previous height velocity. Final height SDS of the boys who responded to the GH stimulation tests with different priming protocols were compared and found to be similar. Normal responders in primed GH tests grow normally to their target height, suggesting that priming might be a valuable method in the assessment of GH status. Use of priming in the GH stimulation tests of peripubertal boys with decreased growth rate may help avoid unnecessary GH therapy. Multiple-dose testing might exclude GHD in a patient population who failed to respond to a single dose of

  12. Complete definite positive spasm on acetylcholine spasm provocation tests: comparison of clinical positive spasm.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shozo; Miyoshi, Toru; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Ohshima, Kousei; Sakaue, Tomoki; Habara, Hirokazu; Kohno, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    In the clinical grounds, patients with ≥90 % luminal narrowing during acetylcholine (ACh) testing had variable response. We investigated ischemic findings and chest symptoms in patients with ≥90 % luminal narrowing when performing ACh tests, retrospectively. We performed 763 ACh tests over 13 years (2001-2013). We analyzed chest symptoms and positive ischemic ECG changes during ACh tests. More than 90 % luminal narrowing was found in 441 patients (57.8 %) including 355 patients in the right coronary artery (RCA) and 363 patients in the left coronary artery (LCA). Chest symptom was observed in 386 patients (87.5 %) including 293 patients in the RCA and 304 patients in the LCA. ST elevation was found in 161 patients including 110 in the RCA and 85 patients in the LCA, while ST depression was recognized in 146 patients including 119 patients in the RCA and 117 patients in the LCA. Three quarter of patients with ≥90 % luminal narrowing had significant ischemic ECG changes, whereas two-third of patients with ≥90 % luminal narrowing complained usual chest pain accompanied with significant ischemic ECG changes. Unusual chest symptom was complained in 7.3 % patients with ≥90 % luminal narrowing. Neither chest symptom nor ECG changes were found in 30 patients (6.8 %) with ≥90 % luminal narrowing. A third of these patients had ischemic findings on non-invasive tests before catheterization and six patients had subtotal or total occlusion. We should realize some limitation to define positive coronary spasm based on the ischemic ECG change and chest symptom during ACh tests. PMID:25366988

  13. A significant proportion of thalassemia major patients have adrenal insufficiency detectable on provocative testing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Karen E; Mittelman, Steven D; Coates, Thomas D; Geffner, Mitchell E; Wood, John C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in chelation therapy and noninvasive monitoring of iron overload have resulted in substantial improvements in the survival of transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia major. Myocardial decompensation and sepsis remain the major causes of death. Although endocrine abnormalities are a well-recognized problem in these iron-overloaded patients, adrenal insufficiency and its consequences are underappreciated by the hematology community. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in thalassemia major subjects, to identify risk factors for adrenal insufficiency, and to localize the origin of the adrenal insufficiency within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Eighteen subjects with thalassemia major (18.9±9.3 y old, 7 female) were tested for adrenal insufficiency using a glucagon stimulation test. Those found to have adrenal insufficiency (stimulated cortisol <18 µg/dL) subsequently underwent an ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH) stimulation test to define the physiological basis for the adrenal insufficiency. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 61%, with an increased prevalence in males over females (92% vs. 29%, P=0.049). Ten of 11 subjects who failed the glucagon stimulation test subsequently demonstrated normal ACTH and cortisol responses to oCRH, indicating a possible hypothalamic origin to their adrenal insufficiency. PMID:24942024

  14. Mental stress as a provocative test in patients with various clinical syndromes of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Specchia, G; Falcone, C; Traversi, E; La Rovere, M T; Guasti, L; De Micheli, G; Ardissino, D; De Servi, S

    1991-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia and investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms by which emotional stress may induce myocardial ischemia, we studied 372 patients with angina pectoris who underwent mental arithmetic and exercise stress testings. Hyperventilation tests were also performed in 176 patients, and 340 patients underwent coronary arteriography. Sixty-one patients showed significant ST segment abnormalities during mental arithmetic and exercise stress testings (group 1). Two hundred eleven patients had negative responses to mental stress but positive exercise tests (group 2), whereas both tests were negative in 100 patients (group 3). Mental stress induced significant increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure in the three groups of patients; however, group 1 patients had higher increases in rate-pressure product (mm Hg x beats/min) than group 2 and group 3 patients (14,909 +/- 3,894 versus 12,985 +/- 2,900 versus 12,724 +/- 4,400 mm Hg x beats/min, p less than 0.01). Group 1 patients had shorter exercise durations than group 2 or group 3 (4.06 +/- 1.55 versus 7.65 +/- 3.07 versus 13.9 +/- 5.31 minutes, p less than 0.01), although rate-pressure products at peak exercise were similar in groups 1 and 2 (20,277 +/- 6,058 versus 20,768 +/- 3,864, p = NS) and significantly higher in group 3 (26,221 +/- 7,100/mm Hg x beats/min, p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2009619

  15. Drug testing in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-08-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  16. A significant proportion of thalassemia major patients have adrenal insufficiency detectable on provocative testing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Karen E.; Mittelman, Steven D.; Coates, Thomas D.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Wood, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in chelation therapy and noninvasive monitoring of iron overload have resulted in substantial improvements in the survival of transfusion dependent patients with thalassemia major. Myocardial decompensation and sepsis remain the major causes of death. While endocrine abnormalities are a well-recognized problem in these iron-overloaded patients, adrenal insufficiency and its consequences are under-appreciated by the hematology community. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in thalassemia major subjects, to identify risk factors for adrenal insufficiency, and to localize the origin of the adrenal insufficiency within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Eighteen subjects with thalassemia major (18.9 ± 9.3 years old, 7 female) were tested for adrenal insufficiency using a glucagon stimulation test (GST). Those found to have adrenal insufficiency (stimulated cortisol < 18 μg/dL) subsequently underwent an ovine corticotrophin-releasing hormone (oCRH) stimulation test to define the physiological basis for the adrenal insufficiency. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 61%, with an increased prevalence in males over females (92% vs. 29%, p=0.049). Ten of 11 subjects who failed the GST subsequently demonstrated normal ACTH and cortisol responses to oCRH, indicating a possible hypothalamic origin to their adrenal insufficiency. PMID:24942024

  17. Sub–Lingual Spray Versus Pearl of TNG as A Provocative Agent for Tilt Table Test

    PubMed Central

    Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Saburi, Amin; Shahmari, Ayat; Khosravi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the false positive ratio of Tilt Table Test (TTT) result by using TNG spray (Sub–lingual; SL) as compared to TNG pearl in patients referred to military service. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study. It was conducted on 110 cases referred for military service, expressed vasovagal symptoms. We divided the subjects into three groups; first Group (60 cases) used TNG pearl for provoking syncope in TTT, Group 2 (50 cases) and Group 3 (control cases) used TNG spray in the same dose (0.4 mg). Results: In the first step of tilt study, 10%, and 8% of subjects had fainted on not using provoking drug in cases and controls, respectively. After using the drugs, 36.6%, 96% and 18% showed positive results in pearl, spray and the control groups, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: Rather than pearl group, a 40 minute tilt using TNG spray showed significant higher positive results, which may be incorrectly positive. Using this form of TNG seems not useful for distinguishing and diagnosing vasovagal shocks, especially in subjects referred for military service capacity. For constant evidence, a cross–over clinical trial study is required, involving suspected cases divided into two groups, who both will be examined with spray and pearl. PMID:24298489

  18. The influence of European legislation on the use of diagnostic test allergens for nasal allergen provocation in routine care of patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Hammerbacher, A S; Hellings, P W; Fokkens, W J; Hoffmann, H J; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N

    2015-09-01

    In patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), the nasal provocation test (NPT) is the standard procedure to evaluate the clinical response of the nasal mucosa to allergens with a high specificity and sensitivity. In AR, it is the only test that really measures the response of the diseased mucosa to allergens while skin prick test and serum IgE confirm the clinical suspicion of sensitization. Moreover, it is of special relevance in the detection of patients with Local Allergic Rhinitis (LAR), where general sensitization cannot be measured. For the evaluation of therapeutic interventions, NPT has been used for the clinical monitoring of antiallergic drugs and allergen specific immunotherapy. Legislation within the European Union (EU) defines allergens used for diagnostic tests like NPT to be medicinal products according to Directive 2001/83 EC, but national law is considering these products to be medicinal devices in a number of EU countries. Thus, NPT products are governed by different legislations and therefore standards throughout the EU. In consequence, allergens used for diagnostic purposes need different registrations and Marketing Authorization by national authorities. After a transition period, regulations of EU Directives are to be implemented in national law by all member states. At the moment, most EU countries have not fully implemented these Directives, however, it can be expected that most countries will implement it and enforce their rules within the next years. This development has a tremendous impact on the availability of diagnostic allergens for NPT in Europe and will make make nasal provocation testing very difficult if not impossible. We describe the current situation of diagnostic allergens under the special legislative conditions in the EU with special focus on allergen products used for NPT and the consequences for the diagnosis of AR and LAR. PMID:26363167

  19. Maximal acetylcholine dose of 200 μg into the left coronary artery as a spasm provocation test: comparison with 100 μg of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shozo; Kohno, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Toru; Sakaue, Tomoki; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Habara, Hirokazu

    2015-11-01

    As a spasm provocation test of acetylcholine (ACH), incremental dose up (20/50/100 μg) into the left coronary artery (LCA) is recommended in the guidelines established by Japanese Circulation Society. Recently, Ong et al. reported the ACOVA study which maximal ACH dose was 200 μg in the LCA. We compared the angiographic findings between ACH 100 μg and ACH 200 μg in the LCA and also examined the usefulness and safety of ACH 200 μg in Japanese patients without variant angina. As a spasm provocation test, we performed intracoronary injection of ACH 200 μg after ACH 100 μg in 88 patients (55 males, 68.4 ± 11.7 years old) including 59 ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients and 29 non-IHD patients. Positive spasm was defined as >99 % transient stenosis (focal spasm) or 90 % severe diffuse vasoconstriction (diffuse spasm). Positive spasm by ACH 200 μg was significantly higher than that by ACH 100 μg (36 pts: 40.9 % vs. 17 pts: 19.3 %, p < 0.01). Diffuse distal spasm on the left anterior descending artery was more recognized in ACH 200 μg than in ACH 100 μg (30.7 vs. 13.6 %, p < 0.01). In 29 rest angina patients, positive spasm by ACH 200 μg (19 pts) was significantly higher than that by ACH 100 μg (7 pts) (65.5 vs. 24.1 %, p < 0.01). No serious irreversible complications were found during ACH 200 μg. Administration of ACH 200 μg into the LCA was safe and useful. We may reexamine the maximal ACH dose into the LCA. PMID:25179297

  20. Provocative discography: Current status

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Low back pain is a common clinical problem that may be due to a variety of causes, including disc disease. Provocative discography is an imaging-guided procedure in which a contrast agent is injected into the nucleus pulposus of the disc. Despite its controversial history, it remains the only imaging technique that provides both anatomical and functional information about a diseased disc. Disc morphology is usually assessed on either radiographs or computed tomography (CT), or both. Functional evaluation of the disc consists of pain provocation and careful assessment of the patient's response to pain. As provocative discography is an invasive procedure, it should not be used as a screening study in patients with back pain. It should instead be reserved for carefully- selected patients whose painful symptoms cannot be explained by findings on non-invasive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging or CT, and who are not responsive to conservative measures. Discography is helpful in selection of patients and disc levels to be operated upon. Careful application of indications and meticulous technique are however required if a successful outcome is to be expected. PMID:21625274

  1. How Accurate Are Oral Reading Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Leo M.

    Errors in oral reading tests result from inaccuracies that tend to creep in because children are not totally consistent while taking a test and from inaccuracies caused when the examiner does not catch a word recognition error, giving credit for an answer that is more wrong than right or vice versa. Every test contains a standard error of…

  2. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  3. IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II), an individually-administered measure of speaking and listening proficiency in English as a Second Language designed for secondary school students, is described and discussed. The test consists of 91 items and requires 5-25 minutes to administer. Raw scores are converted to one of seven proficiency…

  4. Provocative mechanical tests of the peripheral nervous system affect the joint torque-angle during passive knee motion.

    PubMed

    Andrade, R J; Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Pezarat-Correia, P

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of the head, upper trunk, and foot position on the passive knee extension (PKE) torque-angle response. PKE tests were performed in 10 healthy subjects using an isokinetic dynamometer at 2°/s. Subjects lay in the supine position with their hips flexed to 90°. The knee angle, passive torque, surface electromyography (EMG) of the semitendinosus and quadriceps vastus medialis, and stretch discomfort were recorded in six body positions during PKE. The different maximal active positions of the cervical spine (neutral; flexion; extension), thoracic spine (neutral; flexion), and ankle (neutral; dorsiflexion) were passively combined for the tests. Visual analog scale scores and EMG were unaffected by body segment positioning. An effect of the ankle joint was verified on the peak torque and knee maximum angle when the ankle was in the dorsiflexion position (P < 0.05). Upper trunk positioning had an effect on the knee submaximal torque (P < 0.05), observed as an increase in the knee passive submaximal torque when the cervical and thoracic spines were flexed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, other apparently mechanical unrelated body segments influence torque-angle response since different positions of head, upper trunk, and foot induce dissimilar knee mechanical responses during passive extension. PMID:24941915

  5. Estrogen priming effect on growth hormone (GH) provocative test: a useful tool for the diagnosis of GH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Martínez, A S; Domené, H M; Ropelato, M G; Jasper, H G; Pennisi, P A; Escobar, M E; Heinrich, J J

    2000-11-01

    We have studied the effect of estradiol (E2) on the GH-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis in 15 prepubertal GH deficiency (GHD) children and 44 prepubertal or early pubertal children with idiopathic short stature (SS). All of them received a daily dose of micronized E2 (1 or 2 mg) or placebo, for 3 days, before a sequential arginine-clonidine test. In SS children, GH maximal responses were 17.8+/-10.9 on placebo and 27.9+/-14.5 microg/L on estrogen (P < 0.0001). The lower 95% confidence limits for GH maximal response changed from 3.7 microg/L (without E2) to 8.3 microg/L (on E2). In GHD children, no significant stimulatory effect of estrogen on GH levels was observed. After placebo, a cut-off limit of 3.7 microg/L (the lower 95% confidence interval limit) resulted in 73% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and an overall 90% diagnostic efficiency. After E2, a cut-off limit of 8.3 microg/L resulted in a sensitivity of 87%, a specificity of 98%, and a diagnostic efficiency of 95%. After placebo, 68% of SS showed normal IGF-I levels, and the mean did not change on E2 (13.7+/-6.3 vs. 14.3+/-6.8 nmol/L, not significant). In 93% of SS, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels were normal during placebo. On E2, mean IGFBP-3 did not change (2.63+/-0.70 vs. 2.70+/-0.70 mg/L, not significant). In 14 of 15 GHD patients, IGF-I values were below normal on placebo, and the mean of the group did not change after E2. During placebo, 13 of 15 GHD children presented low IGFBP-3 values. During E2, there was a small significant increase in IGFBP-3 values (1.06+/-0.58 vs. 1.20+/-0.69 mg/L, P < 0.02). The highest diagnostic efficiencies for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were observed during placebo (75% and 91%, respectively). We conclude that GH stimulation tests after E2 priming had the highest diagnostic efficiency. Our findings suggest that the effect of estrogen priming on GH stimulated levels, by reducing the number of false nonresponders, might be useful to better discriminate between normal and

  6. Capability of hypertonic saline cough provocation test to predict the response to inhaled corticosteroids in chronic cough: a prospective, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic cough respond to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids but it is difficult to predict which patients are likely to respond. The primary aim of the present study was to define the capability of hypertonic saline cough provocation test to predict the responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids in chronic cough. The secondary aim was to assess the ability of the saline test to monitor the healing of cough during corticosteroid treatment. Methods Forty-three patients with chronic cough were recruited. Before therapy, spirometry, ambulatory peak flow monitoring, nitric oxide measurement, histamine airway challenge, and saline test were performed. Those responding to the first saline test repeated it and the nitric oxide measurement during the subsequent visits. The patients used inhaled budesonide, 400 ug twice daily, for twelve weeks. The treatment response was assessed by Leicester Cough Questionnaire at baseline, and at one, four, and twelve weeks. Results Seventy-seven % of the patients demonstrated the minimal important difference in the Leicester Cough Questionnaire indicating a symptomatic response. Neither the response magnitude nor the speed was predicted by the saline test. Histamine challenge showed the strongest predictive ability: The maximal improvement in Leicester Cough Questionnaire total score was 5.08 (3.76 – 6.40) points in the histamine positive and 2.78 (1.55 – 4.01) points in the histamine negative subjects (p = 0.006). Baseline nitric oxide level also associated with the improvement in Leicester Cough Questionnaire total score (p = 0.02). During the treatment, the cough sensitivity to saline gradually decreased among the budesonide responders but not in the non-responders. Nitric oxide levels decreased very rapidly among the responders. Conclusions Saline test cannot predict the responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids in chronic cough but it may be utilized to monitor the effect of this

  7. Oral fluid collection: the neglected variable in oral fluid testing.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Dennis J

    2005-06-10

    The potential to use oral fluid as a drug-testing specimen has been the subject of considerable scientific interest. The ease with which specimens can be collected and the potential for oral fluid (OF) drug concentrations to reflect blood-drug concentrations make it a potentially valuable specimen in clinical as well as forensic settings. However, the possible effects of the OF collection process on drug detection and quantification has often been over looked. Several studies have documented that drug-contamination of the oral cavity may skew oral fluid/blood drug ratios and confound interpretation when drugs are smoked, insufflated or ingested orally. OF pH is predicted to have an effect on the concentration of drugs in OF. However, in a controlled clinical study, the effect of pH was less than that of collection technique. Mean codeine OF concentrations in specimens collected a non-stimulating control method were 3.6 times higher than those in OF collected after acidic stimulation. Mean codeine concentrations were 50% lower than control using mechanical stimulation and 77% of control using commercial collection devices. Several factors should be considered if a commercial OF collection device is used. In vitro collection experiments demonstrated that the mean collection volume varied between devices from 0.82 to 1.86 mL. The percentage of the collected volume that could be recovered from the device varied from 18% to 83%. In vitro experiments demonstrated considerable variation in the recovery of amphetamines (16-59%), opiates (33-50%), cocaine and benzoylecgonine (61-97%), carboxy-THC (0-53%) and PCP (9-56%). Less variation in collection volume, volume recovered and drug recovery was observed intra-device. The THC stability was evaluated in a common commercial collection protocol. Samples in the collection buffer were relatively stable for 6 weeks when stored frozen. However, stability was marginal under refrigerated conditions and poor at room temperature. Very

  8. Work Group report: oral food challenge testing.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Assa'ad, Amal H; Bahna, Sami L; Bock, S Allan; Sicherer, Scott H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2009-06-01

    Oral food challenges are procedures conducted by allergists/immunologists to make an accurate diagnosis of immediate, and occasionally delayed, adverse reactions to foods. The timing of the challenge is carefully chosen based on the individual patient history and the results of skin prick tests and food specific serum IgE values. The type of the challenge is determined by the history, the age of the patient, and the likelihood of encountering subjective reactions. The food challenge requires preparation of the patient for the procedure and preparation of the office for the organized conduct of the challenge, for a careful assessment of the symptoms and signs and the treatment of reactions. The starting dose, the escalation of the dosing, and the intervals between doses are determined based on experience and the patient's history. The interpretation of the results of the challenge and arrangements for follow-up after a challenge are important. A negative oral food challenge result allows introduction of the food into the diet, whereas a positive oral food challenge result provides a sound basis for continued avoidance of the food. PMID:19500710

  9. Assessing Students' Oral Proficiency: A Case for Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fall, Thekla; Adair-Hauck, Bonnie; Glisan, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the Pittsburgh Public Schools Oral Ratings Assessment for Language Students (PPS ORALS) project, a Title VI Foreign Language Assistance Program grant-funded project to create an online testing Software program that makes large-scale oral testing in a world language not only feasible, but also easy to create, administer, and…

  10. Oral Fluid Testing for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bosker, Wendy M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) is an exciting alternative matrix for monitoring drugs of abuse in workplace, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. During the last 5 years, scientific and technological advances in OF collection, point-of-collection testing devices, and screening and confirmation methods were achieved. Guidelines were proposed for workplace OF testing by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DUID testing by the European Union’s Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) program, and standardization of DUID research. Although OF testing is now commonplace in many monitoring programs, the greatest current limitation is the scarcity of controlled drug administration studies available to guide interpretation. CONTENT This review outlines OF testing advantages and limitations, and the progress in OF that has occurred during the last 5 years in collection, screening, confirmation, and interpretation of cannabinoids, opioids, amphetamines, cocaine, and benzodiazepines. We examine controlled drug administration studies, immunoassay and chromatographic methods, collection devices, point-of-collection testing device performance, and recent applications of OF testing. SUMMARY Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration approval of OF testing was delayed because questions about drug OF disposition were not yet resolved, and collection device performance and testing assays required improvement. Here, we document the many advances achieved in the use of OF. Additional research is needed to identify new bio-markers, determine drug detection windows, characterize OF adulteration techniques, and evaluate analyte stability. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that OF offers multiple advantages as an alternative matrix for drug monitoring and has an important role in DUID, treatment, workplace, and criminal justice programs. PMID:19745062

  11. Interpretation of Oral Fluid Tests for Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CONE, EDWARD J.; HUESTIS, MARILYN A.

    2009-01-01

    Oral fluid testing for drugs of abuse offers significant advantages over urine as a test matrix. Collection can be performed under direct observation with reduced risk of adulteration and substitution. Drugs generally appear in oral fluid by passive diffusion from blood, but also may be deposited in the oral cavity during oral, smoked, and intranasal administration. Drug metabolites also can be detected in oral fluid. Unlike urine testing, there may be a close correspondence between drug and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid and in blood. Interpretation of oral fluid results for drugs of abuse should be an iterative process whereby one considers the test results in the context of program requirements and a broad scientific knowledge of the many factors involved in determining test outcome. This review delineates many of the chemical and metabolic processes involved in the disposition of drugs and metabolites in oral fluid that are important to the appropriate interpretation of oral fluid tests. Chemical, metabolic, kinetic, and analytic parameters are summarized for selected drugs of abuse, and general guidelines are offered for understanding the significance of oral fluid tests. PMID:17332074

  12. Patch Testing with Dental Screening Series in Oral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Il; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Background The oral mucosa is constantly exposed to several irritants and allergens including dental materials, but the role of contact allergy in oral disease is obscure. Objective To analyze positive patch test results in patients with oral diseases and evaluate the clinical relevance of oral diseases with contact allergy to dental materials. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patch test results with dental screening series in 44 patients with oral disease from 2004~2011. Results Oral diseases included oral lichen planus (54.5%), cheilitis (27.3%), burning mouth syndrome (9.1%), and others (9.1%). Thirty-one of 44 patients (70.5%) had positive reactions to one or more allergens. The most commonly detected allergens were gold sodium thiosulfate (25.0%) and nickel sulfate (25.0%), followed by potassium dichromate (22.7%), cobalt (15.9%), palladium (6.8%), mercury (4.5%), copper (4.5%), and methylhydroquinone (4.5%). Six of 24 patients with oral lichen planus had a symptom in areas adjacent to dental materials and positive patch test reactions to allergens contained in the suspected dental materials. Conclusion Patch tests with dental screening series are worth considering for oral diseases, especially for oral lichen planus. PMID:26273153

  13. The Oral Interview - A Criterion-Referenced Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    The oral interview may be viewed as a criterion-referenced test for making either/or decisions about functional use of spoken language. Speech production can be tested by either the oral interview or the Valdis (1972) "Performance Objectives for Speaking," and dialogue between the two systems can be profitable. Current literature on…

  14. The Influence of Prompt on Group Oral Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, David A.; Riazi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into how the prompt may influence the discourse of group oral tests. The group oral test, in which three or four participants are rated on their ability to discuss a prompt, is a format for assessing the spoken ability of language learners. In this study, 141 Japanese university students were videoed in 41 group…

  15. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  16. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals. PMID:26971557

  17. Deriving Oral Assessment Scales across Different Tests and Rater Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive the criteria/dimensions underlying learners' second-language oral ability scores across three tests: an oral interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. A stimulus tape of 18 speech samples was presented to 3 native speaker rater groups for evaluation. Results indicate that researchers might need to reconsider…

  18. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing

    PubMed Central

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. Methods The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Results Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Conclusions Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. PMID:27344042

  19. English Proficiency Test: The Oral Component of a Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hingle, Ishbel; Linington, Viv

    1997-01-01

    Outlines some of the problem areas described by researchers when designing a test of oral production for beginning-level speakers of English, and suggests ways in which these areas may be addressed. (Author/VWL)

  20. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  1. Provocation of nonepileptic seizures by suggestion in a general seizure population.

    PubMed

    Bazil, C W; Kothari, M; Luciano, D; Moroney, J; Song, S; Vasquez, B; Weinreb, H J; Devinsky, O

    1994-01-01

    Nonepileptic seizures (NES) are common and are often diagnosed at epilepsy centers by video-EEG recording of both spontaneous and suggestion-induced episodes, but no study has evaluated provocative testing in a general seizure population. We studied consecutive patients with a tentative diagnosis of epilepsy using saline provocation during video-EEG recording, suggesting that this could produce a typical seizure. Of 52 patients, 40% had no response, 23% had responses unlike their seizures, and 37% had typical episodes (positive test). Patients whose usual episodes resembled complex partial seizures (CPS) were more likely to have NES than were patients with a history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Of patients with positive provocations, the primary physician predicted NES in 68% of cases. This preliminary study suggests that NES are frequent in a general neurology setting, and that saline provocation is a sensitive method of identifying NES. PMID:8082620

  2. Current developments in drug testing in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Pil, Kristof; Verstraete, Alain

    2008-04-01

    In the last few years, significant developments have occurred on the key issues involved in oral fluid drug testing. New pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted, optimal cutoffs have been proposed, and new studies have examined the correlation between oral fluid drug concentrations and impairment. Recent studies (eg, the discovery of the presence of THC-COOH in oral fluid) can contribute to solve the issue of false-positive results caused by passive exposure to marijuana. Reliable point-of-care drug testing is still problematic, especially for cannabinoids and benzodiazepines. To date, there is no device that allows both reliable and practical point-of-care testing. The importance of liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry in confirmation analysis has increased over the last several years. It can be expected that this trend will continue because the low sample volumes make simultaneous detection of different drug classes with limited sample preparation necessary. Literature on proficiency testing to ensure reliability and comparability of results is limited. Oral fluid has become an important sample type in driving under the influence research, and the first legal random drug testing program in oral fluid since 2004 has been organized in Victoria. It can be expected that the role of oral fluid as an alternative matrix will keep increasing in the future. PMID:18367980

  3. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, Sam; Kardos, Keith; Salamone, Sal; Fritch, Dean; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

    2004-10-01

    Oral fluid testing for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) provides a convenient means of detection of recent cannabis usage. In this study, the risk of positive oral fluid tests from passive cannabis smoke exposure was investigated by housing four cannabis-free volunteers in a small, unventilated, and sealed room with an approximate volume of 36 m(3). Five active cannabis smokers were also present in the room, and each smoked a single cannabis cigarette (1.75% THC). Cannabis smoking occurred over the first 20 min of the study session. All subjects remained in the room for approximately 4 h. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection Device. Three urine specimens were collected (0, 20, and 245 min). In addition, three air samples were collected for measurement of THC content. All oral fluid specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for cannabinoids (cutoff concentration = 3 ng/mL) and tested by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) for THC (LOQ/LOD = 0.75 ng/mL). All urine specimens were screened by EIA for cannabinoids (cutoff concentration = 50 ng/mL) and tested by GC-MS-MS for THCCOOH (LOQ/LOD = 1 ng/mL). Air samples were measured for THC by GC-MS (LOD = 1 ng/L). A total of eight oral fluid specimens (collected 20 to 50 min following initiation of smoking) from the four passive subjects screened and confirmed positive for THC at concentrations ranging from 3.6 to 26.4 ng/mL. Two additional specimens from one passive subject, collected at 50 and 65 min, screened negative but contained THC in concentrations of 4.2 and 1.1 ng/mL, respectively. All subsequent specimens for passive participants tested negative by EIA and GC-MS-MS for the remainder of the 4-h session. In contrast, oral fluid specimens collected from the five cannabis smokers generally screened and confirmed positive for THC throughout the session at concentrations substantially higher than observed for passive subjects. Urine

  4. Oral adaptation of the Trail Making Test: A practical review.

    PubMed

    Kaemmerer, Tobias; Riordan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Despite being one of the most widely used measures in clinical neuropsychology, the Trail Making Test is highly reliant on intact vision and motor functioning. Given that these capacities are often compromised in patients requiring neuropsychological evaluation, various authors have proposed methods for adapting the Trail Making Test for oral administration. To date, a number of administration and score transformation methods have been proposed. We reviewed the existing literature on oral adaptation of the Trail Making Test in order to provide recommendations for practicing clinicians wishing to use the measure, and to highlight directions for future research. PMID:27218477

  5. Continuous Assessment in the Oral Communication Class: Teacher Constructed Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair-Venugopal, Shanta

    The oral communication course for English majors at the National University of Malaysia includes testing designed by faculty and coordinated with the curriculum. This practice is based on the ideas that a teacher who has been actively involved in curriculum design is in a good position to design a test for that curriculum, and that teacher-made…

  6. Testing Speaking Proficiency: The Oral Interview. Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.; Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    The oral interview (OI) was developed to meet the need for a testing procedure of second language speaking skills. It has been refined and expanded several times since first developed in the 1950's for use by the U.S. Government. Now known as the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Services (ACTFL/ETS) scale,…

  7. Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Rose; Tingley, Dustin; Cowden, Jonathan; Frazzetto, Giovanni; Johnson, Dominic D. P.

    2009-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has earned the nickname “warrior gene” because it has been linked to aggression in observational and survey-based studies. However, no controlled experimental studies have tested whether the warrior gene actually drives behavioral manifestations of these tendencies. We report an experiment, synthesizing work in psychology and behavioral economics, which demonstrates that aggression occurs with greater intensity and frequency as provocation is experimentally manipulated upwards, especially among low activity MAOA (MAOA-L) subjects. In this study, subjects paid to punish those they believed had taken money from them by administering varying amounts of unpleasantly hot (spicy) sauce to their opponent. There is some evidence of a main effect for genotype and some evidence for a gene by environment interaction, such that MAOA is less associated with the occurrence of aggression in a low provocation condition, but significantly predicts such behavior in a high provocation situation. This new evidence for genetic influences on aggression and punishment behavior complicates characterizations of humans as “altruistic” punishers and supports theories of cooperation that propose mixed strategies in the population. It also suggests important implications for the role of individual variance in genetic factors contributing to everyday behaviors and decisions. PMID:19168625

  8. On the lack of correlation between self-report and urine loss measured with standing provocation test in older stress-incontinent women.

    PubMed

    Miller, J M; Ashton-Miller, J A; Carchidi, L T; DeLancey, J O

    1999-03-01

    This study examined the association between the measured amount of urine lost during a standardized series of coughs in clinic (paper towel test) and questionnaire estimates of stress-related urine loss in 51 older women with mild to moderate urinary incontinence. It also examined the relationship between these questionnaire estimates and a 6-day urinary diary self-report of incontinence frequency and voiding episodes. Pearson's correlation coefficient and percent agreement were used to analyze the relationship between the variables. No significant correlations were found between the paper towel test results and questionnaire items reporting volume of urine loss. The relationship between urinary diary results and questionnaire items regarding the number of incontinence occurrences was weak but significant (r = 0.33, p = 0.045), with agreement in 53% of cases. Agreement was achieved in 68% of cases for number of voids per day recorded by urinary diary and reported by questionnaire (r = 0.65, p = 0.000). This study has quantified a weak correlation between objective and subjective measures of urine loss. These weak correlations could arise from either methodologic limitations in quantifying incontinence or the degree to which differences arise because different phenomena are being measured. PMID:10100129

  9. Effects of birth asphyxia on the modulation of pharyngeal provocation-induced adaptive reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ish K; Shubert, Theresa R; Sitaram, Swetha; Wei, Lai; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2015-10-15

    Perinatal asphyxia and aerodigestive symptoms are troublesome. We tested the hypothesis that pharyngeal provocation alters proximal and distal aerodigestive reflex coordination and kinetics in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), compared with healthy controls. Specifically, we characterized the sensory-motor properties of pharyngeal provocation-induced effects on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) reflexes. Ten orally fed controls (32.0 ± 1.5 wk gestation) and 25 infants with HIE (38.1 ± 0.4 wk gestation) were evaluated at 39.7 ± 0.9 and 41.9 ± 0.6 wk postmenstrual age respectively. Pharyngo-esophageal reflexes evoked upon graded water stimuli were tested using water-perfusion micromanometry methods. Analysis included sensory-motor characteristics of pharyngeal reflexive swallow (PRS), pharyngo-UES-contractile reflex (PUCR), esophageal body-waveform kinetics, and pharyngo-LES-relaxation reflex (PLESRR). For controls vs. infants with HIE, median appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration (APGAR) scores were 6 vs. 1 at 1 min (P < 0.001) and 8 vs. 3 at 5 min (P < 0.001). Upon pharyngeal- stimulation, HIE infants (vs. controls) had frequent PUCR (P = 0.01); increased UES basal tone (P = 0.03); decreased LES basal tone (P = 0.002); increased pharyngeal-waveforms per stimulus (P = 0.03); decreased frequency of LES relaxation (P = 0.003); and decreased proximal esophageal contractile amplitude (P = 0.002), with prolonged proximal esophageal contractile duration (P = 0.008). Increased tonicity and reactivity of the UES and dysregulation of LES may provide the pathophysiological basis for pooling of secretions, improper bolus clearance, and aspiration risk. Deficits in function at the nuclear or supranuclear level involving glossopharyngeal and vagal neural networks and respiratory regulatory pathways involved with aerodigestive protection may be contributory. PMID:26272260

  10. Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2016-04-01

    Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource. PMID:27123167

  11. Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource. PMID:27123167

  12. Oral colonization and susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa oral isolates from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, R A; Newman, M G; Kaufman, A K; Le, T V

    1985-01-01

    Microbial samples from the oral cavities of cystic fibrosis (C.F.) patients and 20 age-matched normal control subjects were characterized. Mucoid variant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the tongue, buccal mucosa, and saliva of C.F. patients only. Analysis of the data suggests that the oral cavity is a potential reservoir for this organism. Aspiration and cross-contamination from this reservoir may be important in perpetuating chronic pulmonary infection in C.F. patients. Susceptibility testing was performed on 20 mucoid variant P. aeruginosa oral isolates obtained from the patients according to standardized broth dilution procedures. The in vitro antimicrobial effects of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and chlorhexidine were measured. Analysis of the data suggests that clinically safe and achievable levels of chlorhexidine and stannous fluoride may be antimicrobial. PMID:3918088

  13. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  14. Applications of Oral Proficiency Testing to Foreign Language. Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY.

    A guide to the adaptation of oral proficiency testing for classroom language instruction contains excerpts of projects by participants in an American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) workshop. The excerpts are examples of proficiency based curricula and materials designed to personalize instruction and simulate real-life…

  15. Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

  16. Correlation between the BANA test and oral malodor parameters.

    PubMed

    Kozlovsky, A; Gordon, D; Gelernter, I; Loesche, W J; Rosenberg, M

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to test the association between the BANA test (Perioscan, Oral-B), and oral malodor parameters. The subject population consisted of 52 Israeli adults, 43 of whom complained of oral malodor. Oral malodor measurements consisted of peak and steady-state volatile sulphide measurement by a portable sulphide monitor (Interscan Corp., model 1170), as well as organoleptic measurements of malodor from whole mouth, tongue, and saliva. Samples for the BANA test were obtained from four loci (shallow pocket, deep pocket, tongue dorsum, saliva); results were scored as negative (0), weak (1), or strong (2). BANA scores were significantly associated with odor-judge ratings, with the highest association obtained when BANA saliva scores and odor-judge saliva assessment were compared (r = 0.500; p < 0.001). BANA tests from the different loci were not significantly associated with sulphide monitor levels. Stepwise multiple-regression analysis of odor-judge measurements in terms of sulphide levels and average BANA scores showed that both log peak sulphide levels as well as BANA scores were significantly factored into the equations, yielding, in all cases, highly significant correlations (multiple r = 0.57, 0.50, and 0.59, respectively, with significance levels of 0.0001, 0.001, and < 0.0001, for whole mouth, tongue, and saliva malodor, respectively). The results suggest that the BANA scores are associated with a component of oral malodor which is independent of volatile sulphide measurements and suggest its use as an adjunct test to volatile sulphide measurement. PMID:8006229

  17. Nonsuppressible Oral Dexamethasone Suppression Tests but Not Cushing Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nair, Abilash; Dhingra, Atul; Gopi, Anjana; Jyotsna, Viveka P

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the presence of definitive diagnostic criteria to diagnose Cushing syndrome diagnosis may become challenging. We report a young female with mild clinical features of Cushing syndrome, who had nonsuppressible oral dexamethasone suppression tests; also she had a suspicious pituitary lesion. She underwent pituitary surgery and a pituitary microadenoma (non-ACTH staining) was removed. Now she had come to us with similar complaints to those before. Again she had nonsuppressible oral dexamethasone suppression tests. As the diurnal variation of serum and salivary cortisol was maintained and urinary free cortisol was normal, further evaluation with IV dexamethasone suppression test was performed which clearly ruled out Cushing syndrome. The patient was not on any medicines known to alter dexamethasone metabolism. Fat malabsorption was also ruled out using appropriate tests. The reason for this discrepancy is thought to be altered (increased) metabolism of dexamethasone in this patient as it is widely variable in the general population. PMID:27092281

  18. Nonsuppressible Oral Dexamethasone Suppression Tests but Not Cushing Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Abilash; Dhingra, Atul; Gopi, Anjana; Jyotsna, Viveka P.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the presence of definitive diagnostic criteria to diagnose Cushing syndrome diagnosis may become challenging. We report a young female with mild clinical features of Cushing syndrome, who had nonsuppressible oral dexamethasone suppression tests; also she had a suspicious pituitary lesion. She underwent pituitary surgery and a pituitary microadenoma (non-ACTH staining) was removed. Now she had come to us with similar complaints to those before. Again she had nonsuppressible oral dexamethasone suppression tests. As the diurnal variation of serum and salivary cortisol was maintained and urinary free cortisol was normal, further evaluation with IV dexamethasone suppression test was performed which clearly ruled out Cushing syndrome. The patient was not on any medicines known to alter dexamethasone metabolism. Fat malabsorption was also ruled out using appropriate tests. The reason for this discrepancy is thought to be altered (increased) metabolism of dexamethasone in this patient as it is widely variable in the general population. PMID:27092281

  19. Oral Solid Dosage Form Disintegration Testing - The Forgotten Test.

    PubMed

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in the 1930s, disintegration testing has become an important quality control (QC) test in pharmaceutical industry, and disintegration test procedures for various dosage forms have been described by the different pharmacopoeias, with harmonization among them still not quite complete. However, because of the fact that complete disintegration does not necessarily imply complete dissolution, much more research has been focused on dissolution rather than on disintegration testing. Nevertheless, owing to its simplicity, disintegration testing seems to be an attractive replacement to dissolution testing as recognized by the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, in some cases. Therefore, with proper research being carried out to overcome the associated challenges, the full potential of disintegration testing could be tapped saving considerable efforts allocated to QC testing and quality assurance. PMID:25546430

  20. Acute Urticaria Induced by Oral Methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jung; Jin, Hyun Jung; Nam, Young Hee; Kim, Joo Hee; Ye, Young-Min

    2011-01-01

    Although corticosteroids have immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects, allergic reactions are rare. We report a case involving a 52-year-old-female with acute urticaria caused by oral methylprednisolone. The patient had experienced aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) for 13 years with frequent asthma exacerbations. Symptoms of asthma exacerbations improved with short-term treatments of systemic steroids, including methylprednisolone or deflazacort, which had been well tolerated. However, the current admission was prompted by the development of acute generalized urticaria following the oral ingestion of methylprednisolone (8 mg) for relief of symptoms. An oral provocation test with 4 mg oral methylprednisolone led to generalized urticaria 20 minutes later, confirming the causal association. This is the first report of acute urticaria caused by oral methylprednisolone in a patient with AERD. PMID:21966609

  1. A new modified wetting test and an alternative disintegration test for orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Patrick; Lasher, Jason; Alexander, Kenneth S; Baki, Gabriella

    2016-02-20

    Industrial manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms require quality tests, such as friability, hardness, and disintegration. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) disintegration test uses 900mL of water. However, recent studies of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have shown that this volume does not accurately portray the oral environment. In our study, various tests were conducted with a more moderate amount of water that accurately resembles the oral environment. A simulated wetting test was performed to calculate the water absorption ratio. Results showed that wetting was comparable to disintegration. Although the wetting test worked for most types of ODTs, it had limitations that produced inaccurate results. This led to the use of a modified shaking water bath test. This test was found to work for all types of ODT products and was not subject to the limitations of the wetting test. The shake test could provide disintegration times rather than water permeation times; however, it could not be used to calculate the water absorption ratio. A strong correlation was observed between the standardized shake test and the USP disintegration times for the tablets. This shake test could be used during the development stages and quality tests for ODTs with relative ease. PMID:26774944

  2. Statistical Profiling of Academic Oral English Proficiency Based on an ITA Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ick Kyu

    2013-01-01

    At the University of California, Los Angeles, the Test of Oral Proficiency (TOP), an internally developed oral proficiency test, is administered to international teaching assistant (ITA) candidates to ensure an appropriate level of academic oral English proficiency. Test taker performances are rated live by two raters according to four subscales.…

  3. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477

  4. Physiological Parameters for Oral Delivery and In vitro Testing

    PubMed Central

    Mudie, Deanna M.; Amidon, Gordon L.; Amidon, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical solid oral dosage forms must undergo dissolution in the intestinal fluids of the gastrointestinal tract before they can be absorbed and reach the systemic circulation. Therefore, dissolution is a critical part of the drug-delivery process. The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption depend on the characteristics of the active ingredient as well as properties of the dosage form. Just as importantly, characteristics of the physiological environment such as buffer species, pH, bile salts, gastric emptying rate, intestinal motility, and hydrodynamics can significantly impact dissolution and absorption. While significant progress has been made since 1970 when the first compendial dissolution test was introduced (USP Apparatus 1), current dissolution testing does not take full advantage of the extensive physiologic information that is available. For quality control purposes, where the question is one of lot-to-lot consistency in performance, using nonphysiologic test conditions that match drug and dosage form properties with practical dissolution media and apparatus may be appropriate. However, where in vitro – in vivo correlations are desired, it is logical to consider and utilize knowledge of the in vivo condition. This publication critically reviews the literature that is relevant to oral human drug delivery. Physiologically relevant information must serve as a basis for the design of dissolution test methods and systems that are more representative of the human condition. As in vitro methods advance in their physiological relevance, better in vitro - in vivo correlations will be possible. This will, in turn, lead to in vitro systems that can be utilized to more effectively design dosage forms that have improved and more consistent oral bioperformance. PMID:20822152

  5. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  6. On-Site Test for Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Lee, Dayong; Schwope, David M.; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral fluid (OF) testing offers noninvasive sample collection for on-site drug testing; however, to date, test performance for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) detection has had unacceptable diagnostic sensitivity. On-site tests must accurately identify cannabis exposure because this drug accounts for the highest prevalence in workplace drug testing and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. Methods Ten cannabis smokers (9 males, 1 female) provided written informed consent to participate in this institutional review board–approved study and smoked 1 6.8%-THC cigarette ad libitum. OF was collected with the Draeger DrugTest® 5000 test cassette and Quantisal™ device 0.5 h before and up to 22 h after smoking. Test cassettes were analyzed within 15 min (n = 66), and Quantisal GC-MS THC results obtained within 24 h. Final THC detection times and test performances were assessed at different cannabinoid cutoffs. Results Diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, and efficiency at DrugTest 5000's 5 μg/L screening cutoff and various THC confirmation cutoffs were 86.2–90.7,75.0 –77.8, and 84.8–87.9%, respectively. Last detection times were >22 h, longer than previously suggested. Confirmation of 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, absent in THC smoke, minimized the potential for passive OF contamination and still provided 22-h windows of detection, appropriate for workplace drug testing, whereas confirmation of cannabidiol, and/or cannabinol yielded shorter 6-h windows of detection, appropriate for DUID OF testing. Conclusions The DrugTest 5000 on-site device provided high diagnostic sensitivity for detection of cannabinoid exposure, and the selection of OF confirmation analytes and cutoffs provided appropriate windows of detection to meet the goals of different drug testing programs. PMID:22912396

  7. Field testing of the Alere DDS2 Mobile Test System for drugs in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John

    2013-06-01

    A preliminary field evaluation of a second-generation handheld oral fluid testing device, the Alere DDS2 Mobile Test System (DDS2), is described. As part of a larger study, drivers were randomly stopped at various locations across California (in 2012) and asked to submit voluntarily to a questionnaire regarding their drug and alcohol use, a breath alcohol test and collection of oral fluid with the Quantisal device. The Quantisal-collected oral fluid samples were sent for laboratory-based analyses. At one location, 50 drivers were asked to submit an additional oral fluid sample using the DDS2 collection device; these samples were analyzed by using the DDS2 mobile test system. Thirty-eight donors (76%) provided specimens that were successfully run on the mobile system; in 12 cases (24%), the device failed to provide a valid result. Thirty-two of the 38 collected samples were negative for all drugs; five were positive for tetrahydrocannabinol and one was positive for methamphetamine using the mobile device. These results corresponded exactly with the laboratory-based results from the Quantisal oral fluid collection. PMID:23558436

  8. The Potential Role of Oral Fluid in Antidoping Testing

    PubMed Central

    Anizan, Sebastien; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, urine and blood are the only matrices authorized for antidoping testing by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Although the usefulness of urine and blood is proven, issues remain for monitoring some drug classes and for drugs prohibited only in competition. The alternative matrix oral fluid (OF) may offer solutions to some of these issues. OF collection is easy, noninvasive, and sex neutral and is directly observed, limiting potential adulteration, a major problem for urine testing. OF is used to monitor drug intake in workplace, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, and driving under the influence of drugs programs and potentially could complement urine and blood for antidoping testing in sports. CONTENT This review outlines the present state of knowledge and the advantages and limitations of OF testing for each of the WADA drug classes and the research needed to advance OF testing as a viable alternative for antidoping testing. SUMMARY Doping agents are either prohibited at all times or prohibited in competition only. Few OF data from controlled drug administration studies are available for substances banned at all times, whereas for some agents prohibited only in competition, sufficient data may be available to suggest appropriate analytes and cutoffs (analytical threshold concentrations) to identify recent drug use. Additional research is needed to characterize the disposition of many banned substances into OF; OF collection methods and doping agent stability in OF also require investigation to allow the accurate interpretation of OF tests for antidoping monitoring. PMID:24153253

  9. Strontium oral load test in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Porfirio; Santos, Fernando; Sotorrío, Pilar; Mayordomo, Juan; Ferrero, Luis

    2007-09-01

    Increased intestinal calcium absorption may play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic hypercalciuria in children. Calcium absorption was assessed by an oral strontium load test in 22 prepubertal children (13 male) with idiopathic hypercalciuria, urinary calcium excretion 6.48 +/- 0.60 mg/kg per day (range 4.12-13.40 mg/kg per day), and ten healthy, young, normocalciuric controls (six male). After administration of 2.65 mg/kg of strontium chloride (SrCl(2)), the serum concentrations of strontium at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 240 min, and the fraction of the absorbed dose (FAD%) at 30 min, 60 min and 240 min, were similar in both groups. FAD% at 120 min was lower (P < 0.05) in hypercalciuric children than in controls (11.84 +/- 0.96% vs 15.87 +/- 1.77%). Values of the area under the curve were not different between both groups. In children with idiopathic hypercalciuria, serum basal intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (r = -0.59, P = 0.004) and the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/PTH ratio (r = 0.65; P = 0.001) were correlated with the serum concentration of strontium at 60 min. The study reported here provides, for the first time, the results of a strontium oral load test in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. With this method no major alterations of intestinal calcium absorption were found in this disorder. PMID:17541793

  10. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  11. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João

    2015-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  12. The laboratory's 2015 perspective on direct oral anticoagulant testing.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, R C; Adcock, D M

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) therapy into clinical use in the past 5 years has had significant impact on the clinical laboratory. Clinicians' desire to determine plasma drug presence or measure drug concentration, and more recent observations regarding the limitations and utility of coagulation testing in the setting of DOAC treatment, suggest that early published recommendations regarding laboratory testing should be reassessed. These initial recommendations, furthermore, were often based on drug-spiked plasma studies, rather than samples from patients receiving DOAC therapy. We have demonstrated that reagent sensitivity varies significantly whether drug-spiked samples or samples from DOAC-treated patients are tested. Data from drug-enriched samples must therefore be interpreted with caution or be used as a guide only. We present laboratory assays that can be used to determine drug presence and to measure drug concentration, and provide recommended testing algorithms. As DOAC therapy may significantly impact on specialty coagulation assays, we review those tests with the potential to give false-positive and false-negative results. PMID:26791879

  13. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products. PMID:20136876

  14. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... authorized representative to administer written or oral tests; and (b) Identify personnel by current...

  15. Cue-Free Computerized Interactive Tests--Computer Emulation of Oral Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    This discussion of the use of microcomputer software in a medical school class for the purposes of emulating oral examinations begins by stating the three major goals of testing in medical school. The limitations of multiple choice tests and oral examinations are then discussed, and the use and suitability of computers to administer and to avoid…

  16. A Review of the IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test Forms C & D-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Allison A.

    The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT-I), forms C and D, aims to determine the level of English oral language proficiency as it relates to accepted levels of NonEnglish speaking (NES), limited English speaking (LES), and fluent English speaking (FES) designations in order to place students in an appropriate classroom setting. The test was…

  17. Research funds for NCI’s Provocative Questions project announced

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s Provocative Questions project has announced that it is now seeking applications from researchers eager to influence the state of cancer research by tackling potentially game-changing, but perplexing, scientific questions that could drive progress ag

  18. Ecological validity of the five digit test and the oral trails test.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Gabrielle Chequer de Castro; Fialho, Mariana Braga; Costa, Danielle de Souza; de Paula, Jonas Jardim

    2016-01-01

    Tests evaluating the attentional-executive system are widely used in clinical practice. However, proximity of an objective cognitive test with real-world situations (ecological validity) is not frequently investigated. The present study evaluate the association between measures of the Five Digit Test (FDT) and the Oral Trails Test (OTT) with self-reported cognitive failures in everyday life as measured by the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). Brazilian adults from 18-to-65 years old voluntarily performed the FDT and OTT tests and reported the frequency of cognitive failures in their everyday life through the CFQ. After controlling for the age effect, the measures of controlled attentional processes were associated with cognitive failures, yet the cognitive flexibility of both FDT and OTT accounted for by the majority of variance in most aspects of the CFQ factors. The FDT and the OTT measures were predictive of real-world problems such as cognitive failures in everyday activities/situations. PMID:26602200

  19. Provocation Lumbar Diskography at Previously Fused Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dulai, H.S.; Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.S.; Gerszten, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recurrent or persistent low back pain (LBP) after lumbar fusion can be related to many factors. We reviewed the provocation lumbar diskogram (PLD) features and redo-fusion outcome in our patients evaluated for recurrent/persistent LBP after technically successful fusion. LD was performed in 27 patients with recurrent/persistent LBP after prior successful lumbar surgical fusion (31 fused levels: single-level fusion-23; two-level fusion-4). PLD response and imaging characteristics at fused and non-fused levels were assessed including: intra-diskal lidocaine response, diskogram-image/post-diskogram CT appearance, presence/absence of diskographic contrast leakage, and evidence of fusion integrity or hardware failure. Outcomes in patients having redo-fusion were assessed. Concordant pain was encountered at 15 out of 23 (65%) single-level fusions, non-concordant pain in one fusion with non-painful response in seven. Adjacent-level concordant pain was identified in seven out of 23 (30%) patients (three of 15 with painful fused levels; four of seven with non-painful fusions). In two-level fusions, concordant pain was encountered at one fused level in each patient. In painful fused levels, leaking and contained disks were encountered with partial or complete pain elimination after intra-diskal lidocaine injection. In anterior fusions, space or contrast surrounding the cage was noted at five of 11 levels. Pseudoarthrosis was noted only with trans-sacral screw fusions. Redo-fusion in 13 patients resulted in significant improvement in nine and moderate improvement in one. Patients with recurrent/persistent LBP after technically successful fusion may have a diskogenic pain source at the surgically fused or adjacent level confirmed by lidocaine-assisted PLD. PMID:20977869

  20. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control and Production Safety Training § 250.1508 What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must I do when BSEE administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. A Review and Critique of the Preschool IDEA Oral Language Test (Pre-IPT): Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amado, Alfred J.

    The Preschool IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test: Spanish (Pre-IPT:Spanish) developed by W. Williams and E. Dalton (1989) purports to determine the level of oral language proficiency for preschool children, aged 3 to 5 years. The instrument is designed to identify the dominant language of bilingual or primarily Spanish-speaking children, and the…

  4. A Reproducible Oral Microcosm Biofilm Model for Testing Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rudney, J.D.; Chen, R.; Lenton, P.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Jones, R.S.; Reilly, C.; Fok, A.S.; Aparicio, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Most studies of biofilm effects on dental materials use single-species biofilms, or consortia. Microcosm biofilms grown directly from saliva or plaque are much more diverse, but difficult to characterize. We used the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray (HOMIM) to validate a reproducible oral microcosm model. Methods and Results Saliva and dental plaque were collected from adults and children. Hydroxyapatite and dental composite disks were inoculated with either saliva or plaque, and microcosm biofilms were grown in a CDC biofilm reactor. In later experiments, the reactor was pulsed with sucrose. DNA from inoculums and microcosms were analyzed by HOMIM for 272 species. Microcosms included about 60% of species from the original inoculum. Biofilms grown on hydroxyapatite and composites were extremely similar. Sucrose-pulsing decreased diversity and pH, but increased the abundance of Streptococcus and Veilonella. Biofilms from the same donor, grown at different times, clustered together. Conclusions This model produced reproducible microcosm biofilms that were representative of the oral microbiota. Sucrose induced changes associated with dental caries. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first use of HOMIM to validate an oral microcosm model that can be used to study the effects of complex biofilms on dental materials. PMID:22925110

  5. Oral Reading Fluency Testing: Pitfalls for Children with Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Karole; Scaler Scott, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    As school districts nationwide have moved toward data driven intervention, oral reading fluency measures have become a prevalent means to monitor progress by assessing the degree to which a child is becoming a fast (and therefore fluent) reader. This article reviews results of a survey of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children…

  6. Testosterone reactivity to provocation mediates the effect of early intervention on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Welker, Keith M; Hariri, Ahmad R; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-05-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Fast Track intervention program for high-risk children would reduce adult aggressive behavior and that this effect would be mediated by decreased testosterone responses to social provocation. Participants were a subsample of males from the full trial sample, who during kindergarten had been randomly assigned to the 10-year Fast Track intervention or to a control group. The Fast Track program attempted to develop children's social competencies through child social-cognitive and emotional-coping skills training, peer-relations coaching, academic tutoring, and classroom management, as well as training for parents to manage their child's behavior. At a mean age of 26 years, participants responded to laboratory provocations. Results indicated that, relative to control participants, men assigned to the intervention demonstrated reduced aggression and testosterone reactivity to social provocations. Moreover, reduced testosterone reactivity mediated the effect of intervention on aggressive behavior, which provides evidence for an enduring biological mechanism underlying the effect of early psychosocial intervention on aggressive behavior in adulthood. PMID:24681586

  7. Research and Practice on College English Oral Test--A Case Study of Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jiaolan; Zhang, Weiran; Yu, Yuan; Chang, Jie; Ding, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Based on the description of implementation of College English oral test from the points of the necessity, feasibility, and implementation process, this study analyzed the current situation of university students' oral English, oral English ability, the college entrance examination results, and a band-4 written test and established their…

  8. Roadside oral fluid testing: comparison of the results of drugwipe 5 and drugwipe benzodiazepines on-site tests with laboratory confirmation results of oral fluid and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Pehrsson, Anna; Gunnar, Teemu; Engblom, Charlotta; Seppä, Heikki; Jama, Ahlam; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2008-03-01

    Drugged drivers pose a serious threat to other people in traffic as well as to themselves. Reliable oral fluid screening devices for on-site screening of drugged drivers would be both a useful and convenient means for traffic control. In this study we evaluated the appropriateness of Drugwipe 5 and Drugwipe Benzodiazepines oral fluid on-site tests for roadside drug screening. Drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs were screened with the Drugwipe tests. Oral fluid and whole blood samples were collected from the drivers and tested for amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, cannabis, opiates, cocaine and benzodiazepines by immunological methods, GC and GC-MS. The performance evaluations of the tests were made by comparing the results of the Drugwipe tests with laboratory GC-MS confirmation results of oral fluid or whole blood. In addition to the performance evaluations of the Drugwipe tests based on laboratory results, a questionnaire on the practical aspects of the tests was written for the police officers who performed the tests. The aim of the questionnaire was to obtain user comments on the practicality of the tests as well as the advantages and weak points of the tests. The results of the performance evaluations were: for oral fluid (sensitivity; specificity; accuracy) amphetamines (95.5%; 92.9%; 95.3%), cannabis (52.2%; 91.2%; 85.1%), cocaine (50.0%; 99.3%; 98.6%), opiates (100%; 95.8%; 95.9%), benzodiazepines (74.4%; 84.2%; 79.2%) and for whole blood accordingly, amphetamines (97.7%; 86.7%; 95.9%), cannabis (68.3%; 87.9%; 84.9%), cocaine (50.0%; 98.5%; 97.7%), opiates (87.5%; 96.9%; 96.6%) and benzodiazepines (66.7%; 87.0%; 74.4%). Although the Drugwipe 5 successfully detected amphetamine-type stimulant drugs and the police officers were quite pleased with the current features of the Drugwipe tests, improvements must still be made regarding the detection of cannabis and benzodiazepines. PMID:17640837

  9. Children's Moral and Affective Judgments Regarding Provocation and Retaliation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Yell, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Children's moral judgments, attributions of emotion, and their associations were examined in hypothetical, prototypical situations and situations of provocation and peer retaliation. Children judged prototypical and provoked moral transgressions (hitting and teasing). Hypothetical moral transgressions were judged to be more serious and deserving…

  10. Provocation, Hostility, Aggression, and Victimization: Firefighters and Incarcerated Felons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered…

  11. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  12. Justifying the Use of a Second Language Oral Test as an Exit Test in Hong Kong: An Application of Assessment Use Argument Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    This study employed Bachman and Palmer's (2010) Assessment Use Argument framework to investigate to what extent the use of a second language oral test as an exit test in a Hong Kong university can be justified. It also aimed to help test developers of this oral test identify the most critical areas in the current test design that might need…

  13. The Effects of a Provocation on Aggression for Three Types of Alcohol Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph J.; Randoph, Daniel Lee

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the effects of a provocation on aggression for three types of alcohol users. The results indicated that the provocation elicited significantly more feelings of hostility and verbal aggression. However, there were no significant level effects, nor a significant interaction between level of drinking and presence of a provocation.…

  14. Oral Language Proficiency Testing at the Foreign Service Institute. An Update--1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary D.; And Others

    The Foreign Service Institute (FSI) has been engaged in oral language proficiency testing theory and practice for more than 20 years. The FSI test has been consistent during this time in format, evaluation criteria, performance standards, and level definitions. Current concerns about the degree of standardization of the format and the strength of…

  15. Testing Speaking Proficiency: The Oral Interview. An Update. Q&A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.; Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    The oral interview (OI) is a testing procedure that measures a wide range of speaking abilities in a foreign language. Although somewhat different versions are used in different testing situations, the OI always consists of a structured, face-to-face conversation on a variety of topics between a student and one or two testers. The resulting speech…

  16. Performance of Elementary-Grade African American Students on the Gray Oral Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Thompson, Connie A.; Washington, Julie A.; Potter, Stephanie L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: African American students perform disproportionately more poorly on standardized reading assessments than their majority peers. Poor reading performances may be related to test biases inherent in standardized reading instruments. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the appropriateness of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Third…

  17. The effect of literacy on oral language processing: Implications for aphasia tests.

    PubMed

    Tsegaye, Mulugeta Tarekegne; De Bleser, Ria; Iribarren, Carolina

    2011-06-01

    Most studies investigating the impact of literacy on oral language processing have shown that literacy provides phonological awareness skills in the processing of oral language. The implications of these results on aphasia tests could be significant and pose questions on the adequacy of such tools for testing non-literate individuals. Aiming at examining the impact of literacy on oral language processing and its implication on aphasia tests, this study tested 12 non-literate and 12 literate individuals with a modified Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (Paradis and Amberber, 1991, Bilingual Aphasia Test. Amharic version. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.). The problems of phonological awareness skills in oral language processing in non-literates are substantiated. In addition, compared with literate participants, non-literate individuals demonstrated difficulties in the word/sentence-picture matching tasks. This study has also revealed that the Amharic version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test may be viable for testing Amharic-speaking non-literate individuals with aphasia when modifications are incorporated. PMID:21631306

  18. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  19. Interacting in Pairs in a Test of Oral Proficiency: Co-Constructing a Better Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    This study, framed within sociocultural theory, examines the interaction of adult ESL test-takers in two tests of oral proficiency: one in which they interacted with an examiner (the individual format) and one in which they interacted with another student (the paired format). The data for the eight pairs in this study were drawn from a larger…

  20. Testing the applicability of a model of oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Santos, Camila Mello Dos; Celeste, Roger Keller; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test Wilson & Cleary's conceptual model of the direct and mediated pathways between clinical and non-clinical variables in relation to oral health-related quality of life. A random sample of 578 older people was evaluated. Wilson & Cleary's conceptual model was tested using structural equations modeling including: biological variables, symptom status, functional health, oral health perceptions, oral health-related quality of life. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). In the final model, edentulism was negatively correlated to dissatisfaction of appearance of their dental prostheses (r = -0.25). Worse functional status was correlated with poor oral health perception (r = 0.24). Being aged over 68 (r = 0.25), being a female (r = 0.39) and living in rural areas (r = 0.15) had a direct effect on the edentulism. Age had a direct effect on OHIP-14 (r = -0.15). There was an indirect effect of sex on OHIP-14 via functional status (r = 0.12). The present findings partially support Wilson & Cleary's model framework. PMID:26578012

  1. Acceptability of rapid oral fluid HIV testing among male injection drug users in Taiwan, 1997 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Malow, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Rapid oral fluid HIV testing (rapid oral testing) is in the process of being adapted in Taiwan and elsewhere given its advantages over prior HIV testing methods. To guide this process, we examined the acceptability of rapid oral testing at two time points (i.e., 1997 and 2007) among one of the highest risk populations, male injection drug users (IDUs). For this purpose, an anonymous self-administered survey was completed by HIV-negative IDUs involved in the criminal justice system in 1997 (N (1)=137 parolees) and 2007 (N (2)=106 prisoners). A social marketing model helped guide the design of our questionnaire to assess the acceptability of rapid oral testing. This included assessing a new product, across four marketing dimensions: product, price, promotion, and place. Results revealed that in both 1997 and 2007, over 90% indicated that rapid oral testing would be highly acceptable, particularly if the cost was under US$6, and that a pharmacy would be the most appropriate and accessible venue for selling the rapid oral testing kits. The vast majority of survey respondents believed that the cost of rapid oral testing should be federally subsidized and that television and newspaper advertisements would be the most effective media to advertise for rapid oral testing. Both the 1997 and 2007 surveys suggested that rapid oral HIV testing would be particularly accepted in Taiwan by IDUs after release from the criminal justice system. PMID:21271392

  2. Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip based Cytologic Testing of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in Fanconi Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Floriano, Pierre; Abram, Tim; Taylor, Leander; Le, Cathy; Talavera, Humberto; Nguyen, Michael; Raja, Rameez; Gillenwater, Ann; McDevitt, John; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by mutations of DNA repair genes. The risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) among FA patients is 800-folds higher than in the general population. Early detection of OSCC, preferably at it precursor stage is critical in FA patients to improve their survival. In an ongoing clinical trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the programmable bio-nano-chip (p-BNC)-based oral cytology test in diagnosing oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in non-FA patients. We used this test to compare the cytomorphometric and molecular biomarkers in OSCC cell lines derived from FA patients and non-FA patients and brush biopsy samples of a FA patient’s OPMD and normal mucosa of healthy volunteers. Our data showed that expression patterns of molecular biomarkers were not notably different between sporadic and FA OSCC cell lines. The p-BNC assay revealed significant differences in cytometric parameters and biomarker MCM2 expression between cytobrush samples of the FA patient and cytobrush samples of normal oral mucosa obtained from healthy volunteers. Microscopic examination of the FA patient’s OPMD confirmed the presence of dysplasia. Our pilot data suggests that p-BNC brush biopsy test recognizes dysplastic oral epithelial cells in a brush biopsy sample of a FA patient. PMID:25662766

  3. Short-Term Regulation of Lipocalin-2 but not RBP-4 During Oral Lipid Tolerance Test and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2016-02-01

    The postprandial regulation of lipocalin-2 and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT and after 0, 1, and 2 h in OGTT. In order to dissect carbohydrate-induced from lipid-induced effects, a novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Whereas RBP-4 levels remained unchanged during OGTT, lipocalin-2 concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT. During OLTT, RBP-4 levels were not influenced, whereas lipocalin-2 levels decreased significantly and stepwise. Fasting concentrations of RBP-4 were negatively correlated with BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas lipocalin-2 levels were positively associated with BMI and waist-hip ratio. Female users of hormonal contraception had higher RBP-4 levels than females not on contraceptives. There is no significant short-term regulation of RBP-4 by orally ingested lipids or carbohydrates. Lipocalin-2 is downregulated after lipid and carbohydrate ingestion and this kind of regulation was not predicted by age, sex, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels. PMID:26069091

  4. Metabolic Profiling of the Response to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Detects Subtle Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Wopereis, Suzan; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Erk, Marjan J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; van Vliet, Trinette; Cnubben, Nicole H. P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Greef, Jan; van Ommen, Ben; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. Methodology To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. Conclusions Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men. PMID:19242536

  5. Practical Issues in Field Based Testing of Oral Reading Fluency at Upper Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duesbery, Luke; Braun-Monegan, Jenelle; Werblow, Jacob; Braun, Drew

    2012-01-01

    In this series of studies, we explore the ideal frequency, duration, and relative effectiveness of measuring oral reading fluency. In study one, a sample of 389 fifth graders read out loud for 1 min and then took a traditional state-level standardized reading test. Results suggest administering three passages and using the median yields the…

  6. The Relationship of Test Anxiety and Performance in Oral Comprehensive Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe A.; And Others

    The relationship between test anxiety and performance on oral comprehensive examinations was studied, with special attention to the repressor phenomenon. Repressors are persons who report low anxiety, but are actually more stressed than are low anxious subjects, as evidenced on measures not relying on self-report. Subjects were 42 female graduate…

  7. Talking and Testing: Discourse Approaches to the Assessment of Oral Proficiency. Studies in Bilingualism, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard, Ed.; He, Agnes Weiyun, Ed.

    Papers on second language oral proficiency testing include: "Language Proficiency Interviews: A Discourse Approach" (Agnes Weiyun He, Richard Young); "Re-Analyzing the OPI: How Much Does It Look Like Natural Conversation?" (Marysia Johnson, Andrea Tyler); "Evaluating Learner Interactional Skills: Conversation at the Micro Level" (Heidi…

  8. The loleva oral and written language test: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Peralbo, Manuel; Mayor, María Ángeles; Zubiauz, Begoña; Risso, Alicia; Fernández-Amado, María Luz; Tuñas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    LolEva, a computerized test for ages 3 to 8 years old, identifies issues in the development of skills that can lead to reading acquisition difficulties. Its structure captures two distinct areas: Phonological Awareness (PA, seven subtests: rhyme, identification-addition-omission of syllable and phoneme at the beginning and end of a word), and Initial Reading Competence (IRC, six subtests: reading uppercase and lowercase letters, simple words, complex words, and pseudowords, and word segmentation). With results collected in a sample of 341 children with the target ages and attending public or private schools, the alpha coefficient was .94 for PA, and .92 for IRC. Factor analysis indicated three factors are present (performance on PA and IRC, and word reading times), together explaining 75% of variance, providing evidence to support the construct validity of the test. On the other hand, analysis of variance showed significant differences for year-in-school variable for PA subscale, F(4, 336) = 191.385, p < .001, η2 p = .695, 1-β = 1.0, as well as for IRC subscale, both in number of correct answers, which increased as schooling progressed: F(4, 336) = 197.897, p < .001, η2 p = .702, 1-β = 1.0, and task completion time, which decreased as education progressed: F(4, 335) = 47.048, p < .001, η2 p = .360, 1-β = 1.0. Also, PA repeated measures analysis revealed that was easier Identification than Addition and Omission , F(2, 672) = 31.639, p < .001, η2 p = .086, 1-β = 1.0, syllable-related tasks than phoneme-related task, F(1, 336) = 229.000, p < .001, η2 p = .405, 1-β = 1.0, and syllable or phoneme at the end of the word than at the beginning, F(1, 336) = 59.201, p < .001, η2 p = .150, 1-β = 1.0. Moreover, all items were examined and indexes of difficulty and discrimination were obtained. PMID:25850336

  9. Evaluation of the Cozart DDSV test for cannabis in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Brunet, Bertrand; Muller, Jean-François; Serra, Wilfried; Villain, Marion; Cirimele, Vincent; Mura, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Saliva or "oral fluid" has been presented as an alternative matrix to establish drug exposure. The noninvasive collection of an oral fluid sample, which is relatively easy to perform and can be achieved under close supervision, is one of the most important benefits when testing for driving under the influence of drugs. Moreover, the detection of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid is a better indication of recent use than a positive urine test, so there is a higher probability that the subject is experiencing pharmacological effects at the time of sampling. Twenty-five subjects (5 free and 20 addicts from a heroin detoxification center) were included in a study to evaluate the potential application of a new device, the Cozart DDSV (drug detection system visual), to detect cannabis in oral fluid. The time cannabis was last smoked was recorded by the medical staff after interview with each subject. Samples were collected with the Cozart DDS Oral Swab and diluted with the Cozart DDS buffer as proposed by the manufacturer. The Cozart DDSV test was conducted on site at the time of collection, and the remainder of the sample retained for confirmation analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after methylation of THC (limit of quantitation 0.5 ng/mL). All 25 samples were analyzed by GC/MS. On-site results were obtained within 10 minutes. The 5 drug-free subjects were negative for cannabis, irrespective of the method. From the 20 subjects declaring that they had smoked cannabis between 30 minutes and 24 hours previously, the DDSV device identified 8 positive subjects (with THC concentrations in the buffer in the range 15-219 ng/mL), whereas 18 subjects tested positive using GC/MS. THC concentrations in the Cozart buffer using GC/MS analysis ranged from 0.7 to 219 ng/mL. These concentrations represent about one third the authentic THC concentrations in oral fluid due to the dilution by the liquid of the device. Given the results, the DDSV

  10. Amygdala hyperactivation during symptom provocation in obsessive–compulsive disorder and its modulation by distraction

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Daniela; Adler, Nele; Kaufmann, Christian; Kathmann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been linked to a hyperactivated cortico-amygdalar circuitry. Recent findings highlight the amygdala's role in mediating elevated anxiety in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, modulation of amygdala hyperactivation by attentional distraction – an effective emotion regulation strategy in healthy individuals – has not yet been examined. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging twenty-one unmedicated OCD patients and 21 controls performed an evaluation and a distraction task during symptom provocation with individually tailored OCD-relevant pictures. To test the specificity of responses, additional aversive and neutral stimuli were included. Significant group-by-picture type interactions were observed within fronto–striato–limbic circuits including the amygdala. In these regions patients showed increased BOLD responses during processing of OCD triggers relative to healthy controls. Amygdala hyperactivation was present across OCD symptom dimensions indicating that it represents a common neural correlate. During distraction, we observed dampening of patients' amygdala hyperactivity to OCD-relevant stimuli. Augmented amygdala involvement in patients during symptom provocation, present across OCD symptom dimensions, might constitute a correlate of fear expression in OCD linking it to other anxiety disorders. Attentional distraction seemed to dampen emotional processing of disorder-relevant stimuli via amygdala downregulation. The clinical impact of this strategy to manage anxiety in OCD should be further elucidated. PMID:24818080

  11. [Diagnostics of latent vestibular dysfunction based on the characteristics of provocative nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Likhachev, S A; Mar'enko, I P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a new method for the diagnostics of latent vestibular dysfunction and estimate its effectiveness based on the characteristics of spontaneous nystagmus, provocative nystagmus, and vestibuloocular optokinetic reflexes in servicemen operating moving systems. Moreover, the study was designed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of the new method. The study involved a total of 95 patients in whom the vestibular function was evaluated by clinical methods. The analysis included parameters of spontaneous nystagmus and provocative nystagmus, vestibuloocular reflex and optokinetic nystagmus in the patients of different study groups. It was demonstrated that 83.33% of the patients presenting with the minimal neurologic deficit syndrome show the positive response in the Valsalva maneuver. The medical history of peripheral vestibular syndrome and syndrome of vertebrogenic vestibular dysfunction is significantly more frequently associated with positive results of the sinocarotid test (p<0.05) than other syndromes. Mean reactivity coefficients of the vestibuloocular reflex are high in both groups and show no asymmetry. Analysis of the likelihood ratio for positive responses confirms the prognostic value of individual algorithms and of the entire scheme of diagnostic examination for the detection of latent vestibular dysfunction. PMID:23528456

  12. Ondansetron and promethazine have differential effects on hypothermic responses to lithium chloride administration and to provocative motion in rats.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Drielle D; Andrews, Paul L R; Rudd, John A; Braga, Valdir A; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that provocative motion (rotation in a home cage) causes hypothermic responses in rats, similar to the hypothermic responses associated with motion sickness in humans. Many stimuli inducing emesis in species with an emetic reflex also provoke hypothermia in the rat, therefore we hypothesized that a fall in body temperature may reflect a "nausea-like" state in these animals. As rats do not possess an emetic reflex, we employed a pharmacological approach to test this hypothesis. In humans, motion- and chemically-induced nausea have differential sensitivity to anti-emetics. We thus tested whether the hypothermia induced in rats by provocative motion (rotation at 0.7 Hz) and by the emetic LiCl (63 mg/kg i.p.) have a similar differential pharmacological sensitivity. Both provocations caused a comparable robust fall in core body temperature (-1.9 ± 0.3°C and -2.0 ± 0.2°C for chemical and motion provocations, respectively). LiCl(-)induced hypothermia was completely prevented by ondansetron (2mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that reduces cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting), but was insensitive to promethazine (10 mg/kg, i.p., a predominantly histamine-H1 and muscarinic receptor antagonist that is commonly used to treat motion sickness). Conversely, motion-induced hypothermia was unaffected by ondansetron but promethazine reduced the rate of temperature decline from 0.20 ± 0.02 to 0.11 ± 0.03°C/min (P < 0.05) with a trend to decrease the magnitude. We conclude that this differential pharmacological sensitivity of the hypothermic responses of vestibular vs. chemical etiology in rats mirrors the observations in other pre-clinical models and humans, and thus supports the idea that a "nausea-like" state in rodents is associated with disturbances in thermoregulation. PMID:27227074

  13. A confirmatory study of the up-and-down method for acute oral toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Bruce, R D

    1987-01-01

    Ten materials have been tested in parallel both by the "classical" method for acute oral toxicity (LD50) and by the up-and-down method. Materials tested included laundry and dishwashing detergents, a shampoo, a flavor, potassium hydroxide, and caffeine. All testing was done in Sprague-Dawley rats. Excellent agreement was seen between the two methods. The classical method typically used 40 to 50 animals while the up-and-down method required only six to nine animals per material. PMID:3556826

  14. Oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine level in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Dai; Nakara, Hiromi; Akagi, Keisuke; Ishii, Toshiya; Mizuguchi, Hiroyasu; Nagashima, Yoshikazu; Okaniwa, Azusa

    2004-02-01

    The present communication deals with information regarding the practice of the oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine in laboratory beagles. In the oral glucose tolerance test, a 180-min level was found to be crucial following a gavage administration of 50% glucose solution at 5 mL/kg per body weight under fasting conditions. Serum fructosamine concentration as 'determined by enzymatic assay ranged between 82 and 123 micromol/L (mean of 104 micromol/L), which was about 0.285 to 0.25 times the value obtained by the chemical method described by Johnson and colleagues. Reasons for differences are ascribed to the presence of substances with reducing potential other than fructosamine in the serum. PMID:15018152

  15. Comparing the OPI and the OPIc: The Effect of Test Method on Oral Proficiency Scores and Student Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.; Cox, Troy L.; Knapp, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    While studies have been done to rate the validity and reliability of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) and Oral Proficiency Interview-Computer (OPIc) independently, a limited amount of research has analyzed the interexam reliability of these tests, and studies have yet to be conducted comparing the results of Spanish language learners who take…

  16. Oral fluid nanosensor test (OFNASET) with advanced electrochemical-based molecular analysis platform.

    PubMed

    Gau, Vincent; Wong, David

    2007-03-01

    High-impact diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease, are challenging to diagnose without supplementing clinical evaluation with laboratory testing. Even with laboratory tools, definitive diagnosis often remains elusive. The lack of three crucial elements presents a road block to achieving the potential of clinical diagnostic tests: (1) definitive disease-associated protein and genetic markers, (2) easy and inexpensive sampling methods with minimal discomfort for the subject, and (3) an accurate and quantitative diagnostic platform. Our aim is to develop and validate a solution for requirement (3) and also to develop a portable system. Requirements (1) and (2) will be addressed through the utilization of novel and highly specific oral cancer saliva proteomic and genomic biomarkers and the use of saliva as the biofluid of choice, respectively. The Oral Fluid NanoSensor Test (OFNASET) technology platform combines cutting-edge technologies, such as self-assembled monolayers (SAM), bionanotechnology, cyclic enzymatic amplification, and microfluidics, with several well-established techniques including microinjection molding, hybridization-based detection, and molecular purification. The intended use of the OFNASET is for the point of care multiplex detection of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer. We have demonstrated that the combination of two salivary proteomic biomarkers (thioredoxin and IL-8) and four salivary mRNA biomarkers (SAT, ODZ, IL-8, and IL-1b) can detect oral cancer with high specificity and sensitivity. Our preliminary studies have shown compelling results. We sequentially delivered a serial dilution of IL-8 antigen, probe solution, wash, enzyme solution, wash, and mediator solution to sensor reaction chambers housed in a prototype cartridge and demonstrated strong signal separation at 50 pg/mL above a negative control. PMID:17435145

  17. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  18. Willingness to Use the Oral Fluid HIV Rapid Test among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongliang; Liu, Yingjie; Pan, Stephen W.; Qi, Xiao; Wang, Bo; Luo, Fengji; Xiao, Dong; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Early detection of HIV infection enables timely care and treatment. However, many men who have sex with men (MSM) remain unaware of their HIV status because they do not or are unable to access HIV testing services. Oral fluid HIV rapid tests have the potential to increase HIV testing. This study is the first to evaluate willingness to use the oral fluid test among MSM in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing from July to October, 2012. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Results Of 262 who participated in the survey, 223(85.1%) reported that they were willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Willingness to use the oral fluid test was associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13–5.10), lack of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with male partners in the past one month (AOR: 2.38; 95% 95%CI: 1.15–4.95), having taken more than 4 HIV tests (AOR: 3.54; 95%CI:1.52–8.28), and having ever heard of the oral fluid HIV rapid test from gay friends or gay organizations (AOR: 3.24, 95%CI: 1.40–7.51). Among those who expressed willingness to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test, the median amount of money they were willing to pay was 8 dollars. Among the 39 participants who were unwilling to use the oral fluid test, 79.5% (31/39) expressed concerns about the accuracy of the oral fluid HIV rapid test results and 17.9%(7/39) reported that they were not familiar with the oral fluid test and did not know how to use such a test. Conclusions A high proportion of MSM in Beijing appear to be willing to use the oral fluid HIV rapid test. Appropriate cost and education measures could help improve acceptance of the oral fluid test. PMID:23717645

  19. Concept of a point of care test to detect new oral anticoagulants in urine samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    New oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are approved for several indications for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism and for prevention of embolism in atrial fibrillation at fixed daily doses without need of laboratory guided dose adjustment. Due to their low molecular weight of about 500 to 600 Dalton and their hydrophilicity free anticoagulant is excreted immediately through glomerular filtration into the urine. Impairment of renal function may increase the plasma concentration of the anticoagulants and lowered creatinine clearance is a declared contraindication. In contrast to the initial aim of development the anticoagulant effect is required to be determined in special clinical situations. Several specific and non-specific assays using plasma samples are currently undergoing standardization. As all NOACs are excreted into the urine, specific assays were developed for this matrix to determine them quantitatively of qualitatively. Urine samples can be easily and repetitively obtained avoiding problems and risks associated with blood sampling. The qualitative assay can be performed as a point of care test (POC) also by the patient by judging the different colours for the absence or presence of the drugs with the naked eye. The test is rapid (results available within 15 min), sensitive, specific and accurate and does not require a purified NOAC as control. The tests may be a tool for clinicians who need to know for treatment decisions if a NOAC is on board or not. As the tests are specific for oral direct thrombin inhibitors and for oral direct factor Xa inhibitors, the indication does not interfere with other qualitative POC test in development using clotting systems. The test may be indicated for patients at acute hospitalization, before surgery or central nervous system puncture anaesthesia, if fibrinolytic therapy is indicated, acute deterioration of renal function, and for control of adherence to therapy. PMID:23915217

  20. Trends in drug testing in oral fluid and hair as alternative matrices.

    PubMed

    Wille, Sarah M R; Baumgartner, Markus R; Fazio, Vincent Di; Samyn, Nele; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The use of alternative matrices such as oral fluid and hair has increased in the past decades because of advances in analytical technology. However, there are still many issues that need to be resolved. Standardized protocols of sample pretreatment are needed to link the detected concentrations to final conclusions. The development of suitable proficiency testing schemes is required. Finally, interpretation issues such as link to effect, adulteration, detection markers and thresholds will hamper the vast use of these matrices. Today, several niche areas apply these matrices with success, such as drugs and driving for oral fluid and drug-facilitated crimes for hair. Once those issues are resolved, the number of applications will markedly grow in the future. PMID:25383732

  1. Test Review: J. L. Wiederholt & B. R. Bryant. (2012). Gray Oral Reading Tests-Fifth Edition (GORT-5). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Anna H.; Tannebaum, Rory P.

    2013-01-01

    The first edition of the Gray Oral Reading Tests (GORT, 1963) was written by Dr. William S. Gray, a founding member and the first president of the International Reading Association. The GORT was designed to measure oral reading abilities (i.e., Rate, Accuracy, Fluency, and Comprehension) of students in Grades 2 through 12 due to the noteworthy…

  2. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  3. [Development of a simple oral short test with the TSH releasing hormone (TRH) and its use in thyroid diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Staub, J J; Girard, J; Gemsenjäger, E

    1976-12-11

    A simple test with 40 mg of oral TRH after overnight fasting was developed and can be characterized as follows: This short oral TRH test has been found to be a most valuable thyroid function test for detection of hyper- and hypothyroidism. It is as reliable as the intravenous TRH test. Oral TRH produces much stronger and more prolonged TSH stimulation similar to that of a depot preparation. Therefore, the incidence of euthyroid controls with absent or subnormal TSH response to TRH is definitely lower than after intravenous TRH. In patients with low TSH response after i.v. TRH the oral TRH test is of particular diagnostic value in distinguishing euthyroid function from TSH suppression or pituitary failure. 40 mg or oral TRH produces reliable stimulation of T3 in most euthyroid subjects. In patients with hyper- and hypothyroidism no increase of T3 is obserable. Oral TRH allows simultaneous assessment of pituitary TSH and thyroid reserve in a single test. The practical advantages (side effects in only 2% [for i.v. TRH 60%], only 1 or 2 blood samples, fewer sampling errors and no i.v. injection) outweigh the disadvantages (longer duration of the test, dependence on food intake and gastrointestinal absorption). PMID:827812

  4. Field-Based Video Pre-Test Counseling, Oral Testing, and Telephonic Post-Test Counseling: Implementation of an HIV Field Testing Package among High-Risk Indian Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Hannah; Yeldandi, Vijay V.; Kumar, G. Prem; Liao, Chuanhong; Lakshmi, Vemu; Gandham, Sabitha R.; Muppudi, Uma; Oruganti, Ganesh; Schneider, John A.

    2012-01-01

    In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) and truck drivers are high-risk groups that often do not access HIV testing due to stigma and high mobility. This study evaluated a field testing package (FTP) that identified HIV positive participants through video pre-test counseling, OraQuick oral fluid HIV testing, and telephonic post-test counseling…

  5. Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to rapid testing in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.

    2008-04-01

    Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.

  6. Hypersensitivity to RF fields emitted from CDMA cellular phones: a provocation study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Ju Hyung; Noh, Hyung Wook; Cha, Eun Jong; Kim, Nam Hyun; Kim, Deok Won

    2009-12-01

    With the number of cellular phone users rapidly increasing, there is a considerable amount of public concern regarding the effects that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from cellular phones have on health. People with self-attributed electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) complain of subjective symptoms such as headaches, insomnia, and memory loss, and attribute these symptoms to radio frequency (RF) radiation from cellular phones and/or base stations. However, EHS is difficult to diagnose because it relies on a person's subjective judgment. Various provocation studies have been conducted on EHS caused by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) phones in which heart rate and blood pressure or subjective symptoms were investigated. However, there have been few sham-controlled provocation studies on EHS with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) phones where physiological parameters, subjective symptoms, and perception of RF radiation for EHS and non-EHS groups were simultaneously investigated. In this study, two volunteer groups of 18 self-reported EHS and 19 non-EHS persons were tested for both sham and real RF exposure from CDMA cellular phones with a 300 mW maximum exposure that lasted half an hour. We investigated not only the physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiration rate, and heart rate variability (HRV), but also various subjective symptoms and the perception of EMF. In conclusion, RF exposure did not have any effects on physiological parameters or subjective symptoms in either group. As for EMF perception, there was no evidence that the EHS group better perceived EMF than the non-EHS group. PMID:19551766

  7. Teens With Heavy Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Respond to Experimental Social Provocation with Escape Not Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, M.K.; Chiodo, L.M.; Hannigan, J.H.; Sokol, R.J.; Janisse, J.; Delaney-Black, V.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical data show that, compared to no exposure, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has age-dependent effects on social interaction and aggression. The aim of this clinical study was to determine how heavy/persistent PCE – after controlling for other prenatal drug exposures, sex and postnatal factors – predicts behavioral sensitivity to provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) using a well-validated human laboratory model of aggression. African American teens (mean = 14.2 yrs old) with histories of heavy/persistent PCE (maternal cocaine use ≥ 2 times/week during pregnancy, or positive maternal or infant urine/meconium test at delivery; n = 86) or none/some exposure (NON: maternal cocaine use < 2 times/week during pregnancy; n = 330) completed the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm. In this task, teens competed in a computer game against a fictitious opponent. There were three possible responses: (a) earn points, to exchange for money later; or (b) “aggress” against the fictitious opponent by subtracting their points; or (c) escape temporarily from point subtraction perpetrated by the fictitious opponent. The PCE group responded significantly more frequently on the escape option than the NON group, but did not differ in aggressive or money-earning responses. These data indicate that PCE-teens provoked with a social stressor exhibit a behavioral preference for escape (negative reinforcement) more than for aggressive (retaliatory) or appetitive (point- or money-reinforced) responses. These findings are consistent with preclinical data showing that social provocation of adolescent or young adult offspring after PCE is associated with greater escape behavior, inferring greater submission, social withdrawal, or anxiety, as opposed to aggressive behavior. PMID:20600841

  8. Oral Adherence Monitoring Using a Breath Test to Supplement Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Timothy E.; Booth, Matthew; Wasdo, Scott; Wishin, Judith; Quinn, Brian; Gonzalez, Daniel; Derendorf, Hartmut; McGorray, Susan P.; Simoni, Jane; Melker, Richard J.; Dennis, Donn M.

    2012-01-01

    A breath-based adherence system to document ingestion of oral medications (e.g., HAART) was investigated. Specifically, the food additive 2-butanol, which can be easily packaged with a drug, is converted via alcohol dehydrogenase to the volatile metabolite 2-butanone that rapidly appears in breath, indicating adherence. In healthy adults using a portable sensor and GC-MS, the following experiments were performed: yield of 2-butanone in breath following ingestion of 2-butanol, adherence system accuracy, and potential interference of the adherence system by food or misplacement of 2-butanol on the tongue. During feasibility testing, every subject exhaled 2-butanone with 6.6±1.5 min to peak concentrations of 548±235 ppb following ingestion of 2-butanol (40 mg). ROC areas at 5 and 10 min were 0.95 (0.86–1.00) and 3 1.00 (1.00–1.00). Food did not interfere. Tongue application resulted in large concentrations of 2-butanol, but not 2-butanone. A breath test to provide definitive evidence of oral medication adherence appears technically feasible. PMID:23001413

  9. Effect of oral anticoagulants on the outcome of faecal immunochemical test

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, L; Sarasqueta, C; Lanas, Á; Quintero, E; Cubiella, J; Hernandez, V; Morillas, J D; Perez-Fernández, T; Salas, D; Andreu, M; Carballo, F; Bessa, X; Portillo, I; Jover, R; Balaguer, F; Cosme, A; Castells, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate whether oral anticoagulants (OACs) alter faecal immunochemical test (FIT) performance in average-risk colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods: Individuals aged 50–69 years were invited to receive one FIT sample (cutoff 75 ng ml–1) between November 2008 and June 2011. Results: Faecal immunochemical test was positive in 9.3% (21 out of 224) of users of OAC and 6.2% (365 out of 5821) of non-users (P-trend=0.07). The positive predictive value (PPV) for advanced neoplasia (AN) in non-users was 50.4% vs 47.6% in users (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.3–1.8; P=0.5). The PPV for AN in OAC more antiplatelets (aspirin or clopidogrel) was 75% (odds ratio, 2; 95% CI, 0.4–10.8; P=0.4). Conclusions: Oral anticoagulant did not significantly modify the PPV for AN in this population-based colorectal screening program. The detection rate of advanced adenoma was higher in the combination OAC more antiplatelets. PMID:24496455

  10. Colonoscopic allergen provocation (COLAP): a new diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal food allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, S C; Mayer, J; Wedemeyer, J; Meier, P N; Zeck-Kapp, G; Wedi, B; Kapp, A; Cetin, Y; Gebel, M; Manns, M P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of gastrointestinal food allergy in adults is largely unknown because the mechanisms are poorly understood and the diagnosis is difficult to confirm. AIMS: To improve the diagnostic means for confirming intestinal food allergy on an objective basis, a new colonoscopic allergen provocation (COLAP) test was developed. PATIENTS: The COLAP test was performed in 70 adult patients with abdominal symptoms suspected to be related to food allergy, and in five healthy volunteers. METHODS: During the COLAP test, the caecal mucosa was challenged endoscopically with three food antigen extracts, a buffer control, and a positive control (histamine). The mucosal weal and flare reaction was registered semiquantitatively 20 minutes after challenge, and tissue biopsy specimens were examined for mast cell and eosinophil activation. RESULTS: No severe systemic anaphylactic reactions were found in response to intestinal challenge. The COLAP test was positive to at least one food antigen in 54 of 70 patients (77%), whereas no reaction in response to antigen was found in healthy volunteers. Antigen induced weal and flare reactions were correlated with intestinal mast cell and eosinophil activation, as well as with patients' history of adverse reactions to food, but not with serum concentrations of total or specific IgE or skin test results. CONCLUSION: The COLAP test may be a useful diagnostic measure in patients with suspected intestinal food allergy and may provide a new tool for the study of underlying mechanisms. Images PMID:9245928

  11. Analytical evaluation of four on-site oral fluid drug testing devices.

    PubMed

    Vanstechelman, Sylvie; Isalberti, Cristina; Van der Linden, Trudy; Pil, Kristof; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Verstraete, Alain G

    2012-03-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) as an alternative matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse has increased over the last decade, leading to the need for a rapid, simple, and reliable on-site OF testing device. Four on-site OF drug testing devices (Dräger DrugTest 5000, Cozart DDS, Mavand Rapid STAT, and Innovacon OrAlert) were evaluated on 408 volunteers at drug treatment centers. UPLC-MS-MS results were used as reference to determine sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each device, applying Belgian legal confirmation cutoffs for benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and THC (10 ng/mL); morphine and 6-acetylmorphine (5 ng/mL); and amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (25 ng/mL). Sensitivity for cocaine was 50%, 50%, 27%, and 11% for DrugTest, OrAlert, Rapid STAT, and DDS 806, respectively. For opiates, sensitivities were 84%, 73%, 77%, and 65%, respectively. For THC, the sensitivities were 81%, 23%, 43%, and 28%, respectively. For amphetamines, the sensitivities were 75%, 33%, 17%, and 67%, respectively. Specificity was >88% for opiates and THC, > 90% for amphetamines, and > 97% for cocaine. All tests showed good specificity. DrugTest had the highest sensitivity, although it was still low for some analytes. PMID:22337784

  12. Testing of iatrogenic lingual nerve injury using a novel psychophysical method and oral reflexes.

    PubMed

    van der Glas, H W; van der Rijt, E E M; van der Bilt, A; Koole, R; Vriens, J P M

    2007-06-01

    In a case of long-term sensory loss in the tongue following third molar extraction, a novel, efficient and effective psychophysical test was used. This initial test, which includes the presentation of pairs of a real and fake stimulus, and a forced-choice response, was applied to determine whether relatively thick or thin afferent fibres of the lingual nerve were affected. The results suggested that thick fibres on the right tongue side were mainly affected. Sensory loss was confirmed and its extent assessed by a standard test determining thresholds of light touch. Furthermore, sensory function was determined by an objective test based on inhibitory reflexes in masseteric electromyographic activity following electrical stimulation of oral tissue. Reflex features that are important for within-patient diagnosis are a difference between the injured and control sides in latency of the first reflex, and also in depth-contrast in signal amplitude between both sides at the post-stimulus time of the trough of an inhibition on the uninjured side. In agreement with the findings from the psychophysical tests, the finding of the absence of an early component of both inhibitions suggested sensory loss related to dysfunction of fast-conducting, relatively thick afferent fibres of the lingual nerve. Apart from being used for medicolegal reasons, the objective reflex test may have conclusive prognostic value or may influence surgical therapeutic decisions. PMID:17303387

  13. A Quantitative, Comparison Study: Oral Language Development and High Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Mercy C.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of oral language exposure a young child receives affects the child's reading-readiness skills. Factors that affect the increase of language and thus affect the reading success of children include oral language ability, learning opportunities, and behaviors that young children experience. Oral language development includes gaining…

  14. Ondansetron and promethazine have differential effects on hypothermic responses to lithium chloride administration and to provocative motion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Drielle D; Andrews, Paul L R; Rudd, John A; Braga, Valdir A; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that provocative motion (rotation in a home cage) causes hypothermic responses in rats, similar to the hypothermic responses associated with motion sickness in humans. Many stimuli inducing emesis in species with an emetic reflex also provoke hypothermia in the rat, therefore we hypothesized that a fall in body temperature may reflect a “nausea-like” state in these animals. As rats do not possess an emetic reflex, we employed a pharmacological approach to test this hypothesis. In humans, motion- and chemically-induced nausea have differential sensitivity to anti-emetics. We thus tested whether the hypothermia induced in rats by provocative motion (rotation at 0.7 Hz) and by the emetic LiCl (63 mg/kg i.p.) have a similar differential pharmacological sensitivity. Both provocations caused a comparable robust fall in core body temperature (−1.9 ± 0.3°C and −2.0 ± 0.2°C for chemical and motion provocations, respectively). LiCl−induced hypothermia was completely prevented by ondansetron (2mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that reduces cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting), but was insensitive to promethazine (10 mg/kg, i.p., a predominantly histamine-H1 and muscarinic receptor antagonist that is commonly used to treat motion sickness). Conversely, motion-induced hypothermia was unaffected by ondansetron but promethazine reduced the rate of temperature decline from 0.20 ± 0.02 to 0.11 ± 0.03°C/min (P < 0.05) with a trend to decrease the magnitude. We conclude that this differential pharmacological sensitivity of the hypothermic responses of vestibular vs. chemical etiology in rats mirrors the observations in other pre-clinical models and humans, and thus supports the idea that a “nausea-like” state in rodents is associated with disturbances in thermoregulation. PMID:27227074

  15. Reliability of intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls - a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; Yang, G; List, T; Svensson, P; Drangsholt, M

    2015-02-01

    The reliability of comprehensive intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic oro-facial pain. The aim of the present multicentre study was to examine test-retest and interexaminer reliability of intra-oral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five patients with AO and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intra-oral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on 1 day by two different examiners and once approximately 1 week later by one of the examiners). Intra-class correlation coefficients and kappa values for interexaminer and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardised intra-oral QST measures showed fair to excellent interexaminer (9-12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7-11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between patients with AO and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intra-oral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. PMID:25284726

  16. Initial Accuracy of HIV Rapid Test Kits Stored in Suboptimal Conditions and Validity of Delayed Reading of Oral Fluid Tests

    PubMed Central

    Choko, Augustine T.; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; MacPherson, Peter; Cocker, Derek; Khundi, McEwen; Thindwa, Deus; Sambakunsi, Rodrick S.; Kumwenda, Moses K.; Chiumya, Kondwani; Malema, Owen; Makombe, Simon D.; Webb, Emily L.; Corbett, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes. Design A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). Methods Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. Results Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6–99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. Conclusion Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes. PMID:27336161

  17. In Vitro Testing for Orally Inhaled Products: Developments in Science-Based Regulatory Approaches.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Ben; Bäckman, Per; Christopher, David; Dolovich, Myrna; Li, Bing V; Morgan, Beth

    2015-07-01

    This article is part of a series of reports from the "Orlando Inhalation Conference-Approaches in International Regulation" which was held in March 2014, and coorganized by the University of Florida and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS). The goal of the conference was to foster the exchange of ideas and knowledge across the global scientific and regulatory community in order to identify and help move towards strategies for internationally harmonized, science-based regulatory approaches for the development and marketing approval of inhalation medicines, including innovator and second entry products. This article provides an integrated perspective of case studies and discussion related to in vitro testing of orally inhaled products, including in vitro-in vivo correlations and requirements for in vitro data and statistical analysis that support quality or bioequivalence for regulatory applications. PMID:25940082

  18. The german version of the painful and provocative events scale: a psychometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Teismann, Tobias; Forkmann, Thomas; Wachtel, Sarah; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Nyhuis, Peter; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-03-30

    The interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner, T.E., 2005. Why People Die By Suicide. Harvard University Press, Cambridge) postulates that, for a serious or lethal suicide attempt one has to possess a desire to die and the capability to commit suicide. The capability is proposed to be acquired over time by repeated experiences with painful and provocative events such as self-injurious behavior and other experiences such as childhood abuse, combat exposure, physical fights, promiscuous sex, and playing contact sports. Up to now, experiences with painful and provocative events are measured with various versions of the Painful and Provocative Events Scale (PPES). However, a thorough validation of this assessment instrument is still lacking. Our study aimed at validating the German version of PPES, with two clinical (n=424) and one community sample (n=532). Results support a two-factor structure (eight items "active painful and provocative events", four items "passive painful and provocative events") that was invariant across the three subsamples. Nonetheless, low factor loadings, low indicator reliabilities, moderate construct reliability and mixed evidence for construct validity indicate that the PPES in its current form appears to be of limited use. The development of a new instrument to assess painful and provocative events seems appropriate. PMID:25631689

  19. The incidence of drugs of impairment in oral fluid from random roadside testing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mark; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen; Rodda, Luke; Boorman, Martin; Drummer, Olaf H

    2012-02-10

    Oral fluid (OF) has become a popular specimen to test for presence of drugs, particularly in regards to road safety. In Victoria, OF specimens from drivers have been used to test for the presence of methylamphetamine (MA) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) since 2003 and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) since 2006. LC-MS/MS has been used to test the most recent 853 submitted OF specimens from Victoria Police for 31 drugs of abuse including those listed in the Australian Standard AS4760-2006. At least one proscribed drug was detected in 96% of drivers, of which MA was the most common (77%), followed by THC (42%), MDMA (17%) and the combination of all three (3.9%). Opioids were detected in 14% of drivers of which 4.8% were positive for 6-acetylmorphine and 3.3% for methadone. The incidence of the opioids tramadol (1.2%) and oxycodone (1.1%) were relatively low. Cocaine (8.0%) was as commonly detected as benzodiazepines (8.0%), and was almost always found in combination with MA (7.9%). Samples positive to benzodiazepines were largely due to diazepam (3.5%) and alprazolam (3.4%), with only 0.2% of drivers combining the two. Ketamine was also detected in 1.5% of cases. While the incidences of the proscribed drugs itself are concerning, it is clear that many drivers are also using other drugs capable of causing impairment. PMID:21665392

  20. Confirmation by LC-MS of drugs in oral fluid obtained from roadside testing.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; de Castro, Ana; Quintela, Oscar; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two current on-site oral fluid (OF) drug detection devices (OraLab and Dräger), as part of the Spanish participation in the Roadside Testing Assessment Project (ROSITA Project). The study was done in collaboration with the Spanish Traffic Police, in Galicia (NW Spain), during 2004 and 2005. A total of 468 drivers selected at the police controls agreed to participate through informed consent. In addition, saliva samples were collected and sent to the laboratory to confirm the on-site results. For this purpose, two different analytical liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods were used to detect 11 drugs or metabolites in a 300 microL sample. Simultaneous analysis of morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, MBDB, cocaine and benzoylecgonine was carried out using 100 microL of oral fluid, after an automated solid phase extraction. A different LC-MS method was performed to detect Delta(9)-THC in 200 microL of oral fluid using liquid-liquid extraction with hexane at pH 6. Both methods were fully validated, including linearity (1-250 ng/mL, 2-250 ng/mL) recovery (>50%), within-day and between-day precision (CV<15%), accuracy (mean relative error<15%), limit of detection (0.5 and 1 ng/mL), quantitation (1 and 2 ng/mL) and matrix effect. All of the positive cases and a random selection of 30% of the negatives were analyzed for confirmation analysis. Good results (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value>90%) were obtained for cocaine and opiates by OraLab, and for cocaine by Dräger. However, the results for the other compounds could be improved for both detection devices. Differences in the ease of use and in the interpretation mode (visual or instrumental) were observed. PMID:17658709

  1. Point of care HIV testing with oral fluid among returnee migrants in a rural area of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Shah; Khan, Sharful I.; Reza, Masud; Shahriar, Ahmed; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Anisur; Rahman, Mustafizur; Azim, Tasnim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine HIV prevalence and assess the acceptability of HIV testing using oral fluid as a point of care (PoC) test method among returnee migrants in a rural area of Bangladesh. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Matlab is a rural area southeast of Dhaka where icddr,b hosts a health and demographic surveillance system covering 225 826 people of whom 934 are returnee migrants. The sample size of 304 was proportionately distributed among randomly selected households. HIV antibodies in oral fluid were tested using OraQuick Rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test. To understand reasons of acceptability a short questionnaire was applied and 32 in-depth interviews were conducted. Results Of 304 returnee migrants approached, 97.4% accepted the test. The prevalence of HIV was 0.3% without a confirmatory blood test. Reasons for acceptance included easy accessibility of the test at the door-step which saved resources (i.e., time and money), comfortable test-procedure without any pain and fear, and receiving quick results with confidentiality. Some described knowing HIV status as a way to ‘get certified’ (of sexual fidelity) and to confront a prevailing silent stigma against migrants. Acceptability was moreover found to be grounded in icddr,b's institutional reputation and its close relationship with the local community. Conclusions The PoC oral fluid test for HIV has shown for the first time that assessment of HIV prevalence in rural-based returnee migrants is possible. Findings also suggest that PoC oral fluid test has the potential of increasing accessibility to HIV testing as it was found to be highly acceptable. PMID:26945144

  2. Relative Accuracy of Serum, Whole Blood, and Oral Fluid HIV Tests among Seattle Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Stekler, Joanne D.; O’Neal, Joshua D.; Lane, Aric; Swanson, Fred; Maenza, Janine; Stevens, Claire; Coombs, Robert W.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Swenson, Paul D.; Golden, Matthew R.; Branson, Bernard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV tests have sensitivity during the “window period” comparable only to earliest generation EIAs. To date, it is unclear whether any POC test performs significantly better than others. Objective Compare abilities of POC tests to detect early infection in real time. Study Design Men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited into a prospective, cross-sectional study at two HIV testing sites and a research clinic. Procedures compared four POC tests: one performed on oral fluids and three on fingerstick whole blood specimens. Specimens from participants with negative POC results were tested by EIA and pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). McNemar’s exact tests compared numbers of HIV-infected participants detected. Results Between February 2010 and May 2013, 104 men tested HIV-positive during 2479 visits. Eighty-two participants had concordant reactive POC results, 3 participants had concordant non-reactive POC tests but reactive EIAs, and 8 participants had acute infection. Of 12 participants with discordant POC results, OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test performed on oral fluids identified fewer infections than OraQuick performed on fingerstick (p=.005), Uni-Gold Recombigen HIV Test (p=.01), and Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo (p=.005). Conclusions These data confirm that oral fluid POC testing detects fewer infections than other methods and is best reserved for circumstances precluding fingerstick or venipuncture. Regardless of specimen type, POC tests failed to identify many HIV-infected MSM in Seattle. In populations with high HIV incidence, the currently approved POC antibody tests are inadequate unless supplemented with p24 antigen tests or NAAT. PMID:24342471

  3. Evaluation of ten oral fluid point-of-collection drug-testing devices.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J Michael; Crouch, Dennis J; Danaceau, Jonathan P; Cangianelli, Leo; Liddicoat, Laura; Adkins, Randy

    2007-01-01

    Previously, the laboratory evaluations of six point-of-collection oral fluid (POC-OF) drug testing devices were reported. Four additional devices, Oralstat (American Bio Medica); SmartClip (Envitec); Impact (LifePoint); and OraLine IV s.a.t (Sun Biomedical Laboratories), were recently evaluated for their ability to meet the claimed (and proposed) cutoff concentrations set by the manufacturers for the detection of amphetamine(s), cocaine/metabolite, opiates, and cannabinoids (Oralstat also benzodiazepines). With the exception of the Sun Biomedical device, actual false-positive results were not encountered. Most devices performed well for the detection of opiates and amphetamine(s), but approximately half had amphetamine(s) cutoff concentrations greater than that proposed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Only three devices had cocaine cutoffs less than or equal to 20 ng/mL (SAMHSA), and a number of false-negative results were obtained. The devices still were not capable of detecting Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol at 4 ng/mL (SAMHSA). However, sensitivities improved since the initial studies, and approximately half of the devices met the THC-COOH cutoff proposed by SAMHSA. Results from the current and previous evaluations are presented in the paper and indicate that the sensitivity and performance of commercial OF drug testing devices is improving, but remains problematic for the reliable detection of cannabinoid use. PMID:17389083

  4. Plasma Lactate Levels Increase during Hyperinsulinemic Euglycemic Clamp and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Feven; Fite, Alemu; Daboul, Nour; Al-Janabi, Wissam; Msallaty, Zaher; Caruso, Michael; Lewis, Monique K; Yi, Zhengping; Diamond, Michael P; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi; Seyoum, Berhane

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is an early indicator that heralds the occurrence of T2D. It is imperative to understand the metabolic changes that occur at the cellular level in the early stages of insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of circulating lactate levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HIEC) study in normal nondiabetic subjects. Lactate and glycerol were determined every 30 minutes during OGTT and HIEC on 22 participants. Lactate progressively increased throughout the HIEC study period (P < 0.001). Participants with BMI < 30 had significantly higher mean M-values compared to those with BMI ≥ 30 at baseline (P < 0.05). This trend also continued throughout the OGTT. In addition, those with impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) had significantly higher mean lactate levels compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that lactate increased during HIEC study, which is a state of hyperinsulinemia similar to the metabolic milieu seen during the early stages in the development of T2D. PMID:25961050

  5. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. Methods: A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Results: Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] − 149.6; R2 = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Conclusions: Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels. PMID:26898598

  6. Critical test and safety evaluations of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon in horses.

    PubMed

    Seibert, B P; Newcomb, K M; Michael, B F

    1986-06-01

    Critical tests were done on 24 naturally parasitized horses to compare the antiparasitic activity of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon with that of the marketed powder formulation. Each formulation was administered at the recommended dosages of 8.8 mg of mebendazole and 40 mg of trichlorfon/kg of body weight. Efficacy of the paste formulation ranged from 97.7% to 100% against 2nd- and 3rd-stage Gasterophilus spp, adult Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, Parascaris equorum, small strongyles; and larval and adult forms of Oxyuris equi. Adverse effects were generally limited to slight softening of the feces. Mild and transient restlessness or sweating were also observed in 2 of 12 horses treated with the paste formulation. The toxic effects of the paste, administered at 2.2 times the therapeutic dose, were examined in 6 horses and compared with the effects of a nonmedicated paste, administered in similar volumes to 6 other horses. Drug-related changes were not detected in clinical chemical analyses, hematologic values, or liver function tests. Transient clinical signs of organophosphate toxicosis (primarily the passage of loose feces) and prolonged inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase activity were evident within 1 hour after drug treatment. These effects were similar to those reported for the 2.2 X dose of marketed powder formulation. PMID:3524328

  7. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  8. Provocation of symmetry/ordering symptoms in Anorexia nervosa: a functional neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Suda, Masashi; Brooks, Samantha J; Giampietro, Vincent; Uher, Rudolf; Mataix-Cols, David; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are often co-morbid; however, the aetiology of such co-morbidity has not been well investigated. This study examined brain activation in women with AN and in healthy control (HC) women during the provocation of symmetry/ordering-related anxiety. During provocation, patients with AN showed more anxiety compared to HCs, which was correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. Activation in the right parietal lobe and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) in response to provocation was reduced in the AN group compared with the HC group. The reduced right parietal activation observed in the AN group is consistent with parietal lobe involvement in visuospatial cognition and with studies of OCD reporting an association between structural abnormalities in this region and the severity of 'ordering' symptoms. Reduced rPFC activation in response to symmetry/ordering provocation has similarities with some, but not all, data collected from patients with AN who were exposed to images of food and bodies. Furthermore, the combination of data from the AN and HC groups showed that rPFC activation during symptom provocation was inversely correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. These data suggest that individuals with AN have a diminished ability to cognitively deal with illness-associated symptoms of provocation. Furthermore, our data also suggest that symptom provocation can progressively overload attempts by the rPFC to exert cognitive control. These findings are discussed in the context of the current neurobiological models of AN. PMID:24844926

  9. The Effects of Different Lengths of Pretask Planning Time on L2 Learners' Oral Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lanlan; Chen, Jiliang; Sun, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of planning on second language (L2) learners' oral performance is a hotly debated topic in the field of second language acquisition. However, studies on the effect of different amounts of planning time have been quite limited, especially in a testing context. The present study investigated the effects of different lengths of…

  10. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

  11. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

  12. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

  13. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

  14. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

  15. Oral versus Written Assessments: A Test of Student Performance and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Mark; Campbell, Fiona; Westwood, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Student performance in and attitudes towards oral and written assessments were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate cohorts of students were examined. The first larger cohort of students (n = 99) was randomly divided into "oral" and "written" groups, and the marks that they achieved in the same biology questions were…

  16. Validation of the Novaco Anger Scale-Provocation Inventory (Danish) With Nonclinical, Clinical, and Offender Samples.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Stine Bjerrum; Novaco, Raymond W; Heinola-Nielsen, Vivian; Hougaard, Helle

    2016-10-01

    Anger has high prevalence in clinical and forensic settings, and it is associated with aggressive behavior and ward atmosphere on psychiatric units. Dysregulated anger is a clinical problem in Danish mental health care systems, but no anger assessment instruments have been validated in Danish. Because the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI) has been extensively validated with different clinical populations and lends itself to clinical case formulation, it was selected for translation and evaluation in the present multistudy project. Psychometric properties of the NAS-PI were investigated with samples of 477 nonclinical, 250 clinical, 167 male prisoner, and 64 male forensic participants. Anger prevalence and its relationship with other anger measures, anxiety/depression, and aggression were examined. NAS-PI was found to have high reliability, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity, and its scores discriminated the samples. High scores in the offender group demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining self-report assessments of anger with this population. Retrospective and prospective validity of the NAS were tested with the forensic patient sample regarding physically aggressive behavior in hospital. Regression analyses showed that higher scores on NAS increase the risk of having acted aggressively in the past and of acting aggressively in the future. PMID:25934160

  17. Asthma caused by diphenylmethane diisocyanate in foundry workers. Clinical, bronchial provocation, and immunologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit-Tabona, M.; Sherkin, M.; Kijek, K.; Chan, H.; Chan-Yeung, M.

    1983-08-01

    Eleven foundry workers who developed asthmatic symptoms were studied with inhalation provocation tests with formaldehyde and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). These latter two chemicals are components of PepSet used for making molds for casting. Six subjects showed specific asthmatic reactions to MDI challenge (more than 20% fall in FEV1), 2 had a combined immediate and late reaction, and 4 had a predominantly late reaction. Four of the 6 subjects experienced recurrent nocturnal asthmatic reactions after a single challenge with MDI that lasted as long as 7 days, and this was associated with a significant increase in bronchial reactivity to methacholine. One subject had an immediate irritant reaction to both MDI and formaldehyde, which was spontaneously reversed in a few minutes. None of the remaining 10 subjects had a positive reaction to formaldehyde challenge. The reactors to MDI showed more evidence of air-flow obstruction in their lung function measurements and had a greater bronchial sensitivity to methacholine than the nonreactors but there was no difference in age, smoking habits, or atopic status. Specific IgE antibodies to MDI-human serum albumin conjugate were detected in 2 subjects, a reactor and a nonreactor. Specific IgG anti-MDI antibodies were detected in 4 subjects, 2 who reacted and 2 who did not. No difference in the pattern of response to MDI inhalation was observed in relation to the different immunologic findings. We conclude that MDI is a cause of asthma in foundry workers.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI) and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Student Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, Scott E.; Morera, Osvaldo F.

    2010-01-01

    This project tested the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) and the Novaco Anger Scale-Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI) in a sample of U.S. Hispanic (n = 257) and U.S. non-Hispanic White (n = 246) undergraduate students. Internal consistency, subscale correlations, convergent validity with the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI),…

  19. Provocative work experiences predict the acquired capability for suicide in physicians.

    PubMed

    Fink-Miller, Erin L

    2015-09-30

    The interpersonal psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) offers a potential means to explain suicide in physicians. The IPTS posits three necessary and sufficient precursors to death by suicide: thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability. The present study sought to examine whether provocative work experiences unique to physicians (e.g., placing sutures, withdrawing life support) would predict levels of acquired capability, while controlling for gender and painful and provocative experiences outside the work environment. Data were obtained from 376 of 7723 recruited physicians. Study measures included the Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale, the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, the Painful and Provocative Events Scale, and the Life Events Scale-Medical Doctors Version. Painful and provocative events outside of work predicted acquired capability (β=0.23, t=3.82, p<0.001, f(2)=0.09) as did provocative work experiences (β=0.12, t=2.05, p<0.05, f(2)=0.07). This represents the first study assessing the potential impact of unique work experiences on suicidality in physicians. Limitations include over-representation of Caucasian participants, limited representation from various specialties of medicine, and lack of information regarding individual differences. PMID:26216167

  20. An evaluation of selected oral fluid point-of-collection drug-testing devices.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Dennis J; Walsh, J M; Flegel, Ron; Cangianelli, Leo; Baudys, Jakub; Atkins, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Point-of-collection oral fluids drug-testing devices are being marketed for a variety of medico-legal purposes where they may complement existing technologies and be used to detect drugs following recent ingestion. To assess the utility of these devices for use in drugged-driving investigations, we performed a laboratory evaluation of four devices and those results were published previously. In the study reported here, two more devices, Oratect(R) (Branan) and Uplink(R) (OraSure), were evaluated for their ability to detect amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and cannabinoids. An additional device, Drugwipe (Securtec), was evaluated for the detection of cocaine and cannabinoids. Each of the devices was assessed for their ability to meet the manufacturers' claimed cutoff concentrations and to meet cutoffs proposed for federal workplace programs. In general, the Branan and OraSure devices detected amphetamine, methamphetamine, opiates, and cannabinoid metabolite (THC-COOH) well in the concentration ranges approximating those proposed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), but all three devices performed poorly in detecting Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at the proposed SAMHSA cutoff. The ability to accurately and reliably detect cocaine was dependent on the individual device, and the Branan and Securetec devices were more effective than OraSure at detecting parent cocaine. PMID:15975256

  1. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing. II. Two studies of extreme cannabis smoke exposure in a motor vehicle.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, R Sam; Kardos, Keith W; Fritch, Dean F; Kunsman, Kenneth P; Blum, Kristen A; Newland, Gregory A; Waga, Joe; Kurtz, Lisa; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

    2005-10-01

    ng/mL cutoff), and analyzed by GC-MS-MS for THCCOOH (LOD/LOQ = 1.0 ng/mL). Peak oral fluid THC concentrations in passive subjects recorded at the end of cannabis smoke exposure were up to 7.5 ng/mL (Study 1) and 1.2 ng/mL (Study 2). Thereafter, THC concentrations quickly declined to negative levels within 30-45 min in Study 1. It was found that environmentally exposed Collectors contained 3-14 ng/mL in Study 1. When potential contamination during collection was eliminated in Study 2, all passive subjects were negative at screening/confirmation cutoff concentrations throughout the study. Oral fluid specimens from active smokers had peak concentrations of THC approximately 100-fold greater than passive subjects in both studies. Positive oral fluid results were observed for active smokers 0-8 h. Urine analysis confirmed oral fluid results. These studies clarify earlier findings on the effects of passive cannabis smoke on oral fluid results. Oral fluid specimens collected in the presence of cannabis smoke appear to have been contaminated, thereby falsely elevating THC concentrations in oral fluid. The risk of a positive test for THC was virtually eliminated when specimens were collected in the absence of THC smoke. PMID:16419389

  2. A case of korean ginseng-induced anaphylaxis confirmed by open oral challenge and basophil activation test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Young; Jin, Hyun Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Jung, Soon Kwang; Jang, Jeng-Yun; Park, Hae-Sim

    2012-03-01

    Two case reports discussing Korean ginseng-induced allergic reactions have been published; both were inhalation-induced respiratory allergies in occupational settings. In this report we discuss the first case of anaphylaxis that developed after an oral intake of ginseng, confirmed by an open oral challenge, a skin prick test (SPT), and a basophil activation test (BAT). A 44-year-old man experienced rhinorrhea and nasal stiffness, followed by respiratory difficulty with wheeze and abdominal pain 10 minutes after oral intake of fresh ginseng. He had suffered from episodes of allergic rhinitis during the spring season for several years. Upon presentation, a physical examination, chest radiograph, and routine laboratory tests were unremarkable. Total serum IgE level was 41 IU/mL. The SPT results showed strong positive responses to alder, birch pollens, and ginseng extracts (1:500 w/v). The methacholine bronchial challenge test revealed a positive result at PC20 of 5.83 mg/mL. The open oral challenge was performed using 50 g of fresh ginseng and showed immediate onset of facial flushing, cough, respiratory difficulty with wheeze, and abdominal pain combined with a significant decrease in FEV1 levels (54% from the baseline). Serum-specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies were not detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BAT showed a remarkable increase in the expression of CD203c and CD63 with the addition of ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner, while no changes were noted in the controls. In conclusion, oral intake of Korean ginseng could induce anaphylaxis, which is mediated by non-IgE-dependent direct activation of basophil/mast cells. PMID:22379608

  3. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreases following oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Bikov, Andras; Pako, Judit; Montvai, David; Kovacs, Dorottya; Koller, Zsofia; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is a widely measured non-invasive marker of airway acidity. However, some methodological aspects have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on EBC pH in attempt to better standardize its measurement. Seventeen healthy subjects (24  ±  2 years, 6 men, 11 women) participated in the study. EBC collection and capillary blood glucose measurements were performed before as well as 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardized OGTT test. The rate of respiratory droplet dilution and pH were evaluated in EBC. Blood glucose significantly increased at 30 min and maintained elevation after 60 and 120 min following OGTT. Compared to baseline (7.99  ±  0.25) EBC pH significantly decreased immediately after OGTT (7.41  ±  0.47); this drop sustained over 30 (7.44  ±  0.72) and 60 min (7.62  ±  0.44) without a significant difference at 120 min (7.78  ±  0.26). No change was observed in the rate of respiratory droplet dilution. There was no relationship between blood glucose and EBC pH values. Sugar intake may significantly decrease EBC pH. This effect needs to be considered when performing EBC pH studies. Further experiments are also warranted to investigate the effect of diet on other exhaled biomarkers. PMID:26669903

  4. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  5. Children's emotion regulation: Self-report and physiological response to peer provocation.

    PubMed

    Hessler, Danielle M; Fainsilber Katz, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the notion that children's emotion regulation (ER) is a uniform skill by (a) investigating the concordance between self-report of ER and physiological measures and by (b) examining ER in a specific context (e.g., peer provocation) and context-free manner (e.g., during a semistructured interview of ER abilities). Seventy-two children in middle childhood (average age = 9 years) participated. Time-locked measures of heart rate reactivity and recovery were obtained in response to provoking comments, and vagal regulation was measured throughout the provocation session. Children who reported greater dysregulation showed increased heart rate reactivity to provocative comments (i.e., steeper heart rate slope) but no difference in heart rate recovery. The context-free but not the context-specific self-report measure was associated with a failure to suppress vagal tone. Implications for ER measurement and children's peer relations are discussed. PMID:17201506

  6. A Study on the Reliability of an On-Site Oral Fluid Drug Test in a Recreational Context

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Stefano; Tittarelli, Roberta; Mannocchi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of DrugWipe 5A on site test for principal drugs of abuse (cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates) detection in oral fluid was assessed by comparing the on-site results with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis on samples extracted by the device collection pad. Oral fluid samples were collected at recreational settings (e.g., discos, pubs, and music bars) of Rome metropolitan area. Eighty-three club goers underwent the on-site drug screening test with one device. Independently from the result obtained, a second device was used just to collect another oral fluid sample subsequently extracted and analyzed in the laboratory following HS-SPME procedure, gas chromatographic separation by a capillary column, and MS detection by electron impact ionization. DrugWipe 5A on-site test showed 54 samples (65.1%) positive to one or more drugs of abuse, whereas 75 samples (90.4%) tested positive for one or more substances following GC-MS assay. Comparing the obtained results, the device showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy around 80% for amphetamines class. Sensitivity (67 and 50%) was obtained for cocaine and opiates, while both sensitivity and accuracy were unsuccessful (29 and 53%, resp.) for cannabis, underlying the limitation of the device for this latter drug class. PMID:27610266

  7. A Study on the Reliability of an On-Site Oral Fluid Drug Test in a Recreational Context.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Stefano; Solimini, Renata; Tittarelli, Roberta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of DrugWipe 5A on site test for principal drugs of abuse (cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates) detection in oral fluid was assessed by comparing the on-site results with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis on samples extracted by the device collection pad. Oral fluid samples were collected at recreational settings (e.g., discos, pubs, and music bars) of Rome metropolitan area. Eighty-three club goers underwent the on-site drug screening test with one device. Independently from the result obtained, a second device was used just to collect another oral fluid sample subsequently extracted and analyzed in the laboratory following HS-SPME procedure, gas chromatographic separation by a capillary column, and MS detection by electron impact ionization. DrugWipe 5A on-site test showed 54 samples (65.1%) positive to one or more drugs of abuse, whereas 75 samples (90.4%) tested positive for one or more substances following GC-MS assay. Comparing the obtained results, the device showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy around 80% for amphetamines class. Sensitivity (67 and 50%) was obtained for cocaine and opiates, while both sensitivity and accuracy were unsuccessful (29 and 53%, resp.) for cannabis, underlying the limitation of the device for this latter drug class. PMID:27610266

  8. Choice in HIV testing: the acceptability and anticipated use of a self-administered at-home oral HIV test among South Africans.

    PubMed

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Cheruvillil, Sonia; Christian, Stephanie; Mantell, Joanne E; Milford, Cecilia; Rambally-Greener, Letitia; Mosery, Nzwakie; Greener, Ross; Smit, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    Combination HIV prevention is being widely promoted by funders. This strategy aims to offer HIV prevention choices that can be selected and combined to decrease HIV risk in ways that fit with each individual's situation. Treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis are two new evidence-based strategies to decrease HIV incidence, both of which require high HIV testing rates to be effective, and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a goal of 90% of HIV-positive individuals knowing their status by 2030. However, HIV testing rates in many countries remain suboptimal. Just as no single HIV prevention method is ideal for all people in all situations, no single HIV testing modality is likely to be acceptable to everyone. By offering HIV testing choices, we may be able to increase testing rates. However, many low-resourced countries have been slow to take up new HIV testing options such as the self-administered at-home oral HIV test that is currently available in the United States. In this paper, we present findings from 20 in-depth interviews, conducted in 2010, documenting opinions about self-administered at-home oral HIV testing, a testing modality still largely unavailable in Africa. Participants were clients of three primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. Self-testing was seen as enabling confidentiality/privacy, saving time, and facilitating testing together with partners. However, concerns were raised about psychological distress when testing at home without a counsellor. Some suggested this concern could be minimised by having experienced clinic-based HIV testing and counselling before getting self-testing kits for home use. Thus, self-administered HIV testing could be an option added to the current testing modalities to address some important barriers to testing. PMID:27399040

  9. The Role of Witnessing Violence, Peer Provocation, Family Support, and Parenting Practices in the Aggressive Behavior of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the influence of witnessing violence, peer provocation, family support, and parenting practices (monitoring and discipline) on aggression. Participants were 1,196 ninth graders at nine schools in poor, predominantly agricultural, rural communities who completed measures of these variables. Witnessing violence, peer provocation,…

  10. CGP 36,742, an orally active GABAB receptor antagonist, facilitates memory in a social recognition test in rats.

    PubMed

    Mondadori, C; Moebius, H J; Zingg, M

    1996-05-01

    CGP 36,742, an orally active GABAB receptor antagonist, improves the retention performance of rats in a social recognition test. This effect is detectable over a very wide range of doses (0.03 to 300 mg/kg, p.o.). Considering its binding (32 mumol affinity for the GABAB site) the surprisingly potent activity of CGP 36,742 makes it appear quite possible that the effect is mediated by an as yet unknown receptor subtype. PMID:8762176

  11. Effects of withholding feed on thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test results and effects of combined testing on oral sugar test and thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test results in horses.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Melissa M; Frank, Nicholas; Hermida, Pilar; Sanchez-Londoño, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess effects of withholding feed on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test results used in diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses and determine effects of combined testing on results of the TRH stimulation test and the oral sugar test (OST) used in diagnosis of equine metabolic syndrome. ANIMALS 30 adult horses. PROCEDURES All horses underwent TRH stimulation tests under fed and nonfed conditions, an OST alone, and an OST combined with TRH stimulation testing. For TRH stimulation tests, plasma ACTH concentrations were measured before (baseline) and 10 minutes after (poststimulation) IV TRH administration. For the OST, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before (baseline) and 60 and 90 minutes after oral corn syrup administration. For combined testing, the TRH stimulation test was initiated immediately after 60-minute posttreatment sample collection for the OST. Results were compared among methods by Wilcoxon matched-pairs, signed rank tests, paired t tests, and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS Feeding conditions did not affect median ACTH concentrations when TRH stimulation tests were performed alone. Median baseline ACTH concentration did not differ between TRH stimulation tests performed alone (under fed or nonfed conditions) and those combined with OSTs. Median poststimulation ACTH concentration was significantly lower for combined tests than for solitary TRH stimulation tests. Mean 60-minute plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower for solitary OSTs than for combined tests, but this difference could not be attributed to TRH administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Combined testing in the manner described impacted ACTH concentrations during TRH stimulation tests and is not recommended at this time. PMID:27347827

  12. Does Short-Term Exposure to Mobile Phone Base Station Signals Increase Symptoms in Individuals Who Report Sensitivity to Electromagnetic Fields? A Double-Blind Randomized Provocation Study

    PubMed Central

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Mirshekar-Syahkal, Dariush; Rasor, Paul; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Background Individuals with idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) believe they suffer negative health effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields from everyday objects such as mobile phone base stations. Objectives This study used both open provocation and double-blind tests to determine if sensitive and control individuals experience more negative health effects when exposed to base station-like signals compared with sham. Methods Fifty-six self-reported sensitive and 120 control participants were tested in an open provocation test. Of these, 12 sensitive and 6 controls withdrew after the first session. The remainder completed a series of double-blind tests. Subjective measures of well-being and symptoms as well as physiological measures of blood volume pulse, heart rate, and skin conductance were obtained. Results During the open provocation, sensitive individuals reported lower levels of well-being in both the global system for mobile communication (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) compared with sham exposure, whereas controls reported more symptoms during the UMTS exposure. During double-blind tests the GSM signal did not have any effect on either group. Sensitive participants did report elevated levels of arousal during the UMTS condition, whereas the number or severity of symptoms experienced did not increase. Physiological measures did not differ across the three exposure conditions for either group. Conclusions Short-term exposure to a typical GSM base station-like signal did not affect well-being or physiological functions in sensitive or control individuals. Sensitive individuals reported elevated levels of arousal when exposed to a UMTS signal. Further analysis, however, indicated that this difference was likely to be due to the effect of order of exposure rather than the exposure itself. PMID:18007992

  13. Making Choices: Simultaneous Report and Provocative Statements, Tools for Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eric M.; Wright, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Many educators find that students do not participate actively in class, and are constantly seeking a variety of techniques to encourage student participation. The focus of this paper is to show how simultaneous report and provocative statements can be combined to foster appreciative inquiry, thereby, creating a learning environment with greater…

  14. The Novaco Anger Scale--Provocation Inventory (1994 Version) in Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsveld, Ruud H. J.; Muris, Peter; Kraaimaat, Floris W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the Novaco Anger Scale--Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI, 1994 version) in Dutch violent forensic psychiatric patients and secondary vocational students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the subscale structure of the NAS was carried out, reliability was investigated, and relations were calculated between…

  15. The Photomontages of John Heartfield: A Provocative Teaching Tool for "Landeskunde."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Gustave Bording

    1992-01-01

    A case is made for the use of the politically provocative photomontages of Heartfield (a.k.a. Berlin-born Helmut Herzfeld) in the German classroom. The interplay of language, art, culture, and history makes them especially useful as realia. A model for teaching them is presented, including a chronology and nine reproductions. (Author/LB)

  16. Popular Culture as Emotional Provocation: The Material Enactment of Queer Pedagogies in a High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlivan, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the notion of popular culture as a form of queer emotional provocation, in this paper I suggest that attending to the material enactment of queer pedagogies in context enables an understanding of the importance of attending more fully to the emotional ramifications of queer pedagogies. Working within the context of a research project…

  17. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Convergent Validity of the Dundee Provocation Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alder, Lucy; Lindsay, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and consequences of anger and aggression in people with intellectual disability (ID) are of great concern. It is essential that appropriate assessment tools are developed to aid formulation of treatments and to evaluate progress and outcomes. Method: This study evaluates the "Dundee Provocation Inventory" (DPI), a…

  18. Individual Differences in Responses to Provocation and Frequent Victimization by Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Kelly M.; Clay, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between victimization by peers and intention to respond to provocative events as a function of anger arousal and motivation to improve the situation in a cross-sectional sample of school-age children (N = 506, 260 males, 246 females). Results demonstrated that more intense anger and more retaliatory motivation were…

  19. Types of Aggression, Responsiveness to Provocation, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Detained Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Luna C.; Frick, Paul J.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Aucoin, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in the behavioral and psychophysiological responses to provocation and in the level of callous-unemotional traits in boys exhibiting different patterns of aggression. Eighty-five boys (ages 13-18) in a juvenile detention center played a competitive computer task against a hypothetical peer who provided…

  20. Children's Emotion Regulation: Self-Report and Physiological Response to Peer Provocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the notion that children's emotion regulation (ER) is a uniform skill by (a) investigating the concordance between self-report of ER and physiological measures and by (b) examining ER in a specific context (e.g., peer provocation) and context-free manner (e.g., during a semistructured interview of ER abilities). Seventy-two…

  1. Provocation in the Halls of Academe: Bringing Piaget and Vygotsky into the University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dale Borman

    2014-01-01

    The author began working with preschool-aged children long before becoming a professor, and nearly every element of the author's approach to teaching in higher education is rooted in early childhood theory and practice. In addition to provocations, he seeks to activate the "whole student," promote peer supports, and incorporate…

  2. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

    2014-07-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (μmol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (μmol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  3. [Estimation of antimicrobial means action efficacy in children oral cavities by pH-test].

    PubMed

    Guliamov, S S

    2009-01-01

    Possibility of mixed saliva pH determination in the efficacy of antimicrobial mean action was assessed using fluctuations in hydrogen index (pH following consumption of sweets in teenagers according to Stephan curve). Antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine-containing preparation Eludrile and Elgidium-tooth paste, as well as furacillin solution in oral cavities of teenagers was estimated. PMID:19365352

  4. Oral Proficiency Testing in the Real World: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swender, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    The ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) is used to assess the ability of individuals to use language for real-world purposes. Today, OPIs are used by academic institutions, government agencies, and private corporations for many purposes: academic placement, student assessment, program evaluation, professional certification, hiring, and…

  5. Relationship of Oral Reading Fluency Probes on Students' Reading Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Current emphasis on adequate academic progress monitored by standardized assessments has increased focus on student acquisition of required skills. Reading ability can be assessed through student achievement on Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures. This study investigated the effectiveness of using ORF measures to predict achievement on high stakes…

  6. Genetic testing to guide warfarin dosing: Impact of direct oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Lentz, S R

    2016-08-01

    Despite rapid growth in the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), warfarin remains a widely prescribed anticoagulant drug. It is likely that the overall use of warfarin will continue to decline, but not completely disappear, as indications for DOACs expand. This changing anticoagulation landscape, along with the likelihood that personalized genomic information will become increasingly available, has several implications for the future of warfarin dosing strategies. PMID:27178490

  7. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  8. Atrial premature beats in patients with focal atrial fibrillation: incidence at baseline and impact of provocative maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Rodolfo; Weiss, Christian; Willems, Stephan; Sturm, Nina; Klemm, Hanno; Meinertz, Thomas

    2002-10-01

    This study evaluated the incidence of atrial premature beats (APBs) and the impact of various provocative maneuvers in patients with focally initiated AF. Fifty patients (39 men, 57 +/- 0.4 years) with focally initiated, paroxysmal AF underwent Holter recording and a standardized protocol of provocative maneuvers: vagomechanical stimulation, adenosine 12 mg i.v., esmolol 500 ng/kg i.v., orciprenaline i.v. 5 mg/50 mL saline 0.9%, and atropine 0.01 mg/kg i.v. A surface ECG was recorded for 20 minutes at baseline and following each part of the protocol. High focal activity was defined as > or = 1 APB/minute. During Holter ECG, 29 (58%) patients had an amount of < 200 APBs, 12 (24%) patients < 700 > or = 200, and 9 (18%) patients > or = 700 APBs. Less than 1 hour of high focal activity was observed in 34 (68%) of the 50 patients. Before starting provocative maneuvers 15 (30%) patients had high focal activity whereas 35 (70%) presented < 1 APB/minute. In 29 (58%) patients APBs increased by > or = 1/min during provocative maneuvers: by vagomechanical stimulation in 11 patients, after adenosine in 15, esmolol in 12, orciprenaline in 15, and after atropine in 9 patients. In all patients with > or = 1 APB/min at baseline, focal activity decreased or disappeared during some single provocative maneuvers. AF occurred in eight patients under provocative maneuvers. No predictive factors of a successful provocative maneuver were detected with regard to the baseline patients characteristics and Holter results. In conclusion, patients with focally initiated AF have a low incidence of spontaneous APBs. Various provocative maneuvers successfully increase APBs in more than half of the patients; orciprenaline had the highest efficacy. Some provocative maneuvers may suppress APBs in the setting of high focal activity at baseline. PMID:12418745

  9. Single oral dose toxicity test of platycodin d, a saponin from platycodin radix in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ho; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Choi, Seong-Hun

    2011-12-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of platycodin D, a saponin from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum in male and female mice. Platycodin D was administered to female and male mice as an oral dose of 2000, 1000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg (body wt.). Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after treatment, upon necropsy, organ weight and histopathology of 14 principle organs were examined. As the results, no platycodin D treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principle organs were detected up to 2000 mg/kg in both female and male mice. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of playtcodin D after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg - the limited dosages recommended by KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009], respectively. PMID:24278575

  10. Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Platycodin D, a Saponin from Platycodin Radix in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Ho; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2011-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of platycodin D, a saponin from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum in male and female mice. Platycodin D was administered to female and male mice as an oral dose of 2000, 1000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg (body wt.). Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after treatment, upon necropsy, organ weight and histopathology of 14 principle organs were examined. As the results, no platycodin D treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principle organs were detected up to 2000 mg/kg in both female and male mice. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of playtcodin D after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg - the limited dosages recommended by KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009], respectively. PMID:24278575

  11. Stakeholder Input and Test Design: A Case Study on Changing the Interlocutor Familiarity Facet of the Group Oral Discussion Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Koyama, Dennis; Setoguchi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Test takers should have a voice in testing practices (Mathew, 2004). However, when incorporating their input, systematic processes to ensure the validity of testing practices must be followed. Such processes allow for test development to be a more democratic process (Shohamy, 2001), without sacrificing the value of the resulting inferences made…

  12. [The effects of media violence on aggression: focus on the role of anger evoked by provocation].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Endo, K; Yoshida, F

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of anger evoked by earlier provocation on cognition, emotion, and aggressive behavior after being exposed to media violence. Sixty male undergraduates participated in the experiment. Before viewing one of three videos (either highly violent, violent with high entertainment, or nonviolent), half of the subjects were provoked by a confederate posing as another subject. Subjects' heart rates and eyeblink rates were recorded while viewing the video. After viewing the video, subjects described their thoughts that occurred while watching the video and rated their affective reactions toward the video. Finally, subjects' aggressive behavior toward the confederate was measured. Results of covariance structure analysis suggested that (a) anger evoked by provocation and high level of violence in videos additively elicited negative cognition and affect, which further facilitated aggressive behavior, and (b) high level of entertainment in videos elicited positive cognition and affect, which alleviated negative cognition and affect. PMID:11494654

  13. Thermal provocation to evaluate microvascular reactivity in human skin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    With increased interest in predictive medicine, development of a relatively noninvasive technique that can improve prediction of major clinical outcomes has gained considerable attention. Current tests that are the target of critical evaluation, such as flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery and pulse-wave velocity, are specific to the larger conduit vessels. However, evidence is mounting that functional changes in the microcirculation may be an early sign of globalized microvascular dysfunction. Thus development of a test of microvascular reactivity that could be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk or response to treatment is an exciting area of innovation. This mini-review is focused on tests of microvascular reactivity to thermal stimuli in the cutaneous circulation. The skin may prove to be an ideal site for evaluation of microvascular dysfunction due to its ease of access and growing evidence that changes in skin vascular reactivity may precede overt clinical signs of disease. Evaluation of the skin blood flow response to locally applied heat has already demonstrated prognostic utility, and the response to local cooling holds promise in patients in whom cutaneous disorders are present. Whether either of these tests can be used to predict cardiovascular morbidity or mortality in a clinical setting requires further evaluation. PMID:20507974

  14. Development and assessment of the disposition index based on the oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with different glycaemic status.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Yévenes, I; Cataldo, L R; Morales, M; Galgani, J; Arancibia, C; Vega, J; Olmos, P; Flores, M; Valderas, J P; Pollak, F

    2016-06-01

    Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes are related by hyperbolic functions, allowing the calculation of the disposition index (DI) as the product of the acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Our objective was to develop an oral-DI based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess its association with glucose tolerance status. This research is structured in three studies. Study 1: OGTT were performed in 833 non-diabetic Chilean women (18-60 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus. Study 2: an independent group of n = 57 non-diabetic (18-46 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus carried out an OGTT and an abbreviated IVGTT. Study 3: a sample of 1674 Chilean adults (18-60 years) with different glycaemic status performed an OGTT. An adequate statistical fit for a rectangular hyperbola was found between the area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCI/G-R) and the Matsuda ISI-COMP index (study 1). The oral-DI derived as AUCI/G-R × ISI-COMP was previously termed insulin-secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). ISSI-2 significantly correlated with DI from IVGTT (rho = 0.34; p = 0.009) (study 2). ISSI-2 shows important differences across groups of subjects with different glycaemic status (study 3). We have confirmed that ISSI-2 replicates the mathematical properties of DI, showing significant correlations with DI from the abbreviated MM-IVGTT. These results indicate that ISSI-2 constitutes a surrogate measure of insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity and emphasizes the pivotal role of impaired insulin secretion in the development of glucose homeostasis dysregulation. PMID:26660757

  15. Nickel sensitization and dietary nickel are a substantial cause of symptoms provocation in patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Soana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Data in literature seem to show that, in patients with contact allergic dermatitis, dietary nickel might be a cause of systemic dermatitis, but little information exists in literature about the role of nickel sensitization and dietary nickel in patients with allergic-like chronic dermatitis syndromes. The prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with chronic allergic-like, non-IgE-mediated skin diseases, and the possible impact of dietary nickel on symptom provocation and persistence has been assessed in the present retrospective study on a case series of 1726 patients referred to our allergy unit for chronic allergic-like skin diseases. IgE-mediated pathogenesis and other differential diagnoses excluded, patients were patch tested. Nickel-positive patients underwent an elimination diet and double-blind placebo-controlled nickel challenge (DBPCNC) test. A total of 339 (20%) tested nickel-positive. Fifty-two patients (15%) recovered by avoiding sources of nickel contact and 29 (10%) dropped out. Out of the remaining nickel-sensitized patients, 277 (80%) achieved complete or near complete recovery with low-nickel content diet, and 185 of them (89%) were positive to DBPCNC. We conclude that nickel sensitization and dietary nickel seem to be the chief trigger for provocation and persistence of symptoms in an important part (∼11%) of patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes. PMID:25747857

  16. A novel protocol for the oral administration of test chemicals to adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zang, Liqing; Morikane, Daizo; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio; Nishimura, Norihiro

    2011-12-01

    A novel protocol using gluten as a carrier material was developed to administer chemicals to adult zebrafish, per os (p.o.). To evaluate the capacity of gluten to retain chemicals, we prepared gluten granules containing eight types of chemicals with different Log P(ow) values and immersed them in water. Less than 5% of chemicals were eluted from gluten granules within 5 min, a standard feeding time for zebrafish. Although retention capability was dependent on the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the chemicals, the gluten granules retained 62%-99% of the total amount of chemical, even after immersion in water for 60 min. Vital staining dyes, such as 4-Di-2-Asp and Nile red, administered p.o., were delivered into the gastrointestinal tract where they were digested and secreted. Subsequently, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of oral administration of felbinac and confirmed that it was successfully delivered into the blood of zebrafish. This indicates that chemicals administered using gluten granules are satisfactorily absorbed from the digestive tract and delivered into the metabolic system. The absorption, distribution, and pharmacokinetics of chemicals given by oral administration were also compared with those of chemicals given by alternative administration routes such as intraperitoneal injection and exposure to chemical solution. PMID:22181663

  17. Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Blue Honeysuckle Concentrate in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Song, Chang-Hyun; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yong-Kook; Han, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency. PMID:25874034

  18. Single oral dose toxicity test of blue honeysuckle concentrate in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Soo; Park, Sang-In; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Song, Chang-Hyun; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yong-Kook; Han, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain single oral dose toxicity information for concentrated and lyophilized powder of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L., Caprifoliaceae; BHcL) in female and male ICR mice to aid in the process of developing natural origin medicinal ingredients or foods following proximate analysis and phytochemical profile measurement. The proximate analysis revealed that BHcL had an energy value of 3.80 kcal/g and contained 0.93 g/g of carbohydrate, 0.41 g/g of sugar, 0.02 g/g of protein, and 0.20 mg/g of sodium. BHcL did not contain lipids, including saturated lipids, trans fats, or cholesterols. Further, BHcL contained 4.54% of betaine, 210.63 mg/g of total phenols, 159.30 mg/g of total flavonoids, and 133.57 mg/g of total anthocyanins. Following administration of a single oral BHcL treatment, there were no treatment-related mortalities, changes in body weight (bw) or organ weight, clinical signs, necropsy or histopathological findings up to 2,000 mg/kg bw, the limited dosage for rodents of both sexes. We concluded that BHcL is a practically non-toxic material in toxicity potency. PMID:25874034

  19. Response to fifty grams oral glucose challenge test and pattern of preceding fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Godwin Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has profound implications for the baby and mother and thus active screening for this is desirable. Method: Fifty grams oral glucose challenge test was administered after obtaining consent to 222 women in good health with singleton pregnancies without diabetes mellitus at 24 to 28 weeks gestation after an overnight fast. Venous blood sample was obtained before and 1 hour after the glucose load. A diagnostic 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test was subsequently performed in all. Results: Two hundred and ten women had a normal response to oral glucose tolerance test i.e. venous plasma glucose below these cut-off levels: fasting 95 mg/dl (5.3 mmol/l), 1 hour 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l), 2 hours 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) and 3 hours 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), while 12 were found to have gestational diabetes mellitus and were subsequently excluded from the study. They were appropriately managed. The mean maternal age was 30.9 ± 4.1 years (range 19 to 45 years) and the mean parity was 1.2 ± 1.1 (range 0 to 5). The mean fasting plasma glucose was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl), while the mean plasma glucose 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test was 115.3 ± 19.1 mg/dl (range 56 to 180 mg/dl). Conclusions: The mean fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl). There is a need to re-appraise and possibly review downwards the World Health Organization fasting plasma glucose diagnostic criteria in pregnant Nigerians for better detection of gestational diabetes mellitus. Pregnant women with venous plasma glucose greater than 153.5 mg/dl (8.5 mmol/l) 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test are strongly recommended for diagnostic test of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  20. Application of ORAL.screen saliva drug test for the screening of methamphetamine, MDMA, and MDEA incorporated in hair.

    PubMed

    Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Shima, Noriaki; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2004-03-01

    By the use of a one-step immunoassay drug test for oral fluid, a convenient and fairly sensitive screening method has been devised for methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) incorporated in hair. These drugs, in a 10-mg portion of hair, were extracted into 5M HCl/methanol (1:20, v/v), and the extract reconstituted in 100 micro L water was assayed with the saliva drug test ORAL.screen trade mark. The limits of detection were 0.5 ng/mg hair for d-MA, 0.8 ng/mg for dl-MDMA, and 1.0 ng/mg for dl-MDEA. The results are in good agreement with those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. Although all positive results must be confirmed by either GC-MS or a specific alternative methodology, this method provided a simple screening, suitable for drug enforcement purposes, while requiring only a 10-mg hair specimen. PMID:15068568

  1. Assessing oral literacy demand in genetic counseling dialogue: preliminary test of a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Roter, Debra L; Erby, Lori H; Larson, Susan; Ellington, Lee

    2007-10-01

    Health literacy deficits affect half the American patient population and are linked to poor health, ineffective disease management and high rates of hospitalization. Restricted literacy has also been linked with less satisfying medical visits and communication difficulties, particularly in terms of the interpersonal and informational aspects of care. Despite growing attention to these issues by researchers and policy makers, few studies have attempted to conceptualize and assess those aspects of dialogue that challenge persons with low literacy skills, i.e., the oral literacy demand within medical encounters. The current study uses videotapes and transcripts of 152 prenatal and cancer pretest genetic counseling sessions recorded with simulated clients to develop a conceptual framework to explore oral literacy demand and its consequences for medical interaction and related outcomes. Ninety-six prenatal and 81 cancer genetic counselors-broadly representative of the US National Society of Genetic Counselors-participated in the study. Key elements of the conceptual framework used to define oral literacy demand include: (1) use of unfamiliar technical terms; (2) general language complexity, reflected in the application of Microsoft Word grammar summary statistics to session transcripts; and, (3) structural characteristics of dialogue, including pacing, density, and interactivity. Genetic counselor outcomes include self-ratings of session satisfaction, informativeness, and development of rapport. The simulated clients rated their satisfaction with session communication, the counselor's effective use of nonverbal skills, and the counselor's affective demeanor during the session. Sessions with greater overall technical term use were longer and used more complex language reflected in readability indices and multi-syllabic vocabulary (measures averaging p<.05). Sessions with a high proportionate use of technical terms were characterized by shorter visits, high readability

  2. Assessment of incretins in oral glucose and lipid tolerance tests may be indicative in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome aggravation.

    PubMed

    Kiec-Klimczak, M; Malczewska-Malec, M; Razny, U; Zdzienicka, A; Gruca, A; Goralska, J; Pach, D; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A

    2016-04-01

    Incretins stimulated by oral meals are claimed to be protective for the pancreatic beta cells, to increase insulin secretion, to inhibit glucagon release, slow gastric emptying (glucagon-like peptide-1) and suppress appetite. Recently it has however been suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is putative early biomarker of metabolic consequences of the obesity associated proinflammatory state. The study was aimed to compare the release of incretins and some of early markers of inflammation at the fasting and postprandial period induced by functional oral glucose as well as lipid load in healthy controls and patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) to see if functional tests may be helpful in searching for the inflammatory status of patients. Fifty patients with MS and 20 healthy volunteers (C) participated in this study. The 3-hour oral glucose (OGTT) and the 8-hour oral lipid (OLTT) tolerance tests were performed. At fasting leptin and adiponectin, as well as every 30 minutes of OGTT and every 2 hours of OLTT blood concentration of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-6, sE-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) and visfatin were measured. At fasting and during both OGTT and OLTT the level of incretins did not differ between the MS and the C group. Both glucose and lipids reach food activated incretins secretion. Glucose was the main GLP-1 release activator, while the lipid load activated evidently GIP secretion. A significantly larger AUC-GIP after the lipid-rich meal over the carbohydrate meal was observed, while statistically bigger value of AUC-GLP-1 was noticed in OGTT than in OLTT (P < 0.001) within each of the investigated groups. In patients with the highest fasting plasma GIP concentration (3(rd) tertile), IL-6, MCP-1, sE-selectin and visfatin blood levels were increased and correlated with glutathione peroxydase, leptin

  3. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  4. A Review of Standardized Tests of Nonverbal Oral and Speech Motor Performance in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Rebecca J.; Strand, Edythe A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review the content and psychometric characteristics of 6 published tests currently available to aid in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of motor speech disorders in children. Method: We compared the content of the 6 tests and critically evaluated the degree to which important psychometric characteristics support the tests' use for…

  5. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement. PMID:24389363

  6. Blood levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in uremia: effect of an oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schauder, P; Matthaei, D; Henning, H V; Scheler, F; Langenbeck, U

    1981-08-01

    The effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) on serum levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), i.e. alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KICA), alpha-keto-isovaleric acid (KIVA) and alpha-keto-beta methyl-n-valeric acid (KMVA) as well as on serum insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose levels was determined in uremic patients and in healthy control subjects. In controls, blood levels of KICA, KMVA and KIVA declined significantly following oral administration of 100 glucose. In uremic patients no decline of KICA was observed. The fall of KMVA was diminished, while suppression of KIVA blood levels in response to the oGGT remained unimpaired. Although serum insulin and C-peptide levels in uremic patients were not significantly different from the controls before and throughout the oGTT, six out of eight displayed abnormal glucose tolerance. It is suggested that the response of blood BCKA levels to an oGTT is altered in uremia, an abnormality restricted primarily to KICA and possibly explained by insulin antagonism and/or by insufficient insulin secretion. PMID:7021997

  7. Should oral gavage be abandoned in toxicity testing of endocrine disruptors?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For decades, hazard assessments for environmental chemicals have used intra-gastric gavage to assess the effects of ‘oral’ exposures. It is now widely used – and in some cases required – by US federal agencies to assess potential toxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this review we enumerate several reasons why gavage is not appropriate for the assessment of EDCs using bisphenol A (BPA) as a main example. First, whereas human dietary exposures interact with the oral mucosa, gavage exposures avoid these interactions, leading to dramatic differences in absorption, bioavailability and metabolism with implications for toxicokinetic assumptions and models. Additionally, there are well acknowledged complications associated with gavage, such as perforation of the esophagus that diminish its value in toxicological experiments. Finally, the gavage protocol itself can induce stress responses by the endocrine system and confound the assessment of EDCs. These serious flaws have not been taken into account in interpreting results of EDC research. We propose the exploration of alternatives to mimic human exposures when there are multiple exposure routes/sources and when exposures are chronic. We conclude that gavage may be preferred over other routes for some environmental chemicals in some circumstances, but it does not appropriately model human dietary exposures for many chemicals. Because it avoids exposure pathways, is stressful, and thus interferes with endocrine responses, gavage should be abandoned as the default route of administration for hazard assessments of EDCs. PMID:24961440

  8. Stool microbiome reveals diverse bacterial ureases as confounders of oral urea breath testing for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Maiga, Mamoudou; Cohen, Keira; Baya, Bocar; Srikrishna, Geetha; Siddiqui, Sophia; Sanogo, Moumine; Somboro, Anou M; Diarra, Bassirou; Diallo, Mariam H; Mazumdar, Varun; Yoder, Christian; Orsega, Susan; Belson, Michael; Kassambara, Hamadoun; Goita, Drissa; Murphy, Robert L; Dao, Sounkalo; Polis, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane; Timmins, Graham S; Dodd, Lori; Earl, Ashlee M; Bishai, William R

    2016-01-01

    Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H. pylori testing. Oral UBT had a sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 70% (46-88%) and 11% (3-26%), respectively, to diagnose culture-confirmed M. tuberculosis disease among patients without H. pylori, and 100% sensitivity (69-100%) and 11% specificity (3-26%) to diagnose H. pylori among patients without pulmonary TB. Stool microbiome analysis of controls without TB or H. pylori but with positive oral UBT detected high levels of non-H. pylori urease producing organisms, which likely explains the low specificity of oral UBT in this setting and in other reports of oral UBT studies in Africa. PMID:27532494

  9. Aggregated data from two double-blind base station provocation studies comparing individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance with attribution to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    PubMed

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Russo, Riccardo; Fox, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    Data from two previous studies were aggregated to provide a statistically powerful test of whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produced by telecommunication base stations negatively affects well-being in individuals who report idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) and control participants. A total of 102 IEI-EMF and 237 controls participated in open provocation trials and 88 IEI-EMF and 231 controls went on to complete double-blind trials in which they were exposed to EMFs from a base station emitting either a Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System or a Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System signal. Both experiments included a comparison sham condition. Visual analog and symptom scales measured subjective well-being. Results showed that IEI-EMF participants reported lower levels of well-being during real compared to sham exposure during open provocation, but not during double-blind trials. Additionally, participants reported lower levels of well-being during high compared to low load trials and this did not interact with radiofrequency-EMF exposure. These findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating there is no causal relationship between short-term exposure to EMFs and subjective well-being in members of the public whether or not they report perceived sensitivity to EMFs. PMID:25644455

  10. Clinically Relevant In Vitro Testing of Orally Inhaled Products-Bridging the Gap Between the Lab and the Patient.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Suggett, Jason; Nagel, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Current pharmacopeial methods for in vitro orally inhaled product (OIP) performance testing were developed primarily to support requirements for drug product registration and quality control. In addition, separate clinical studies are undertaken in order to quantify safety and efficacy in the hands of the patient. However, both laboratory and clinical studies are time-consuming and expensive and generally do not investigate either the effects of misuse or the severity of the respiratory disease being treated. The following modifications to laboratory evaluation methodologies can be incorporated without difficulty to provide a better linkage from in vitro testing to clinical reality: (1) examine all types of OIP with patient-representative breathing profiles which represent normal inhaler operation in accordance with the instructions for use (IFU); (2) evaluate OIP misuse, prioritizing the importance of such testing on the basis of (a) probability of occurrence and (b) consequential impact in terms of drug delivery in accordance with the label claim; and (3) use age-appropriate patient-simulated face and upper airway models for the evaluation of OIPs with a facemask. Although it is not necessarily foreseen that these suggestions would form part of future routine quality control testing of inhalers, they should provide a closer approximation to the clinical setting and therefore be useful in the preparation for in vivo studies and in improving guidance for correct use. PMID:27173990

  11. Accuracy and Acceptability of Oral Fluid HIV Self-Testing in a General Adult Population in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Ann E; Cleland, Charles M; Chhun, Nok; Sidle, John E; Were, Edwin; Naanyu, Violet; Emonyi, Wilfred; Macharia, Stephen M; Sang, Edwin; Siika, Abraham M

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated performance, accuracy, and acceptability parameters of unsupervised oral fluid (OF) HIV self-testing (HIVST) in a general population in western Kenya. In a prospective validation design, we enrolled 240 adults to perform rapid OF HIVST and compared results to staff administered OF and rapid fingerstick tests. All reactive, discrepant, and a proportion of negative results were confirmed with lab ELISA. Twenty participants were video-recorded conducting self-testing. All participants completed a staff administered survey before and after HIVST to assess attitudes towards OF HIVST acceptability. HIV prevalence was 14.6 %. Thirty-six of the 239 HIVSTs were invalid (15.1 %; 95 % CI 11.1-20.1 %), with males twice as likely to have invalid results as females. HIVST sensitivity was 89.7 % (95 % CI 73-98 %) and specificity was 98 % (95 % CI 89-99 %). Although sensitivity was somewhat lower than expected, there is clear interest in, and high acceptability (94 %) of OF HIV self-testing. PMID:26438487

  12. Clinical efficacy of trivalent oral polio vaccine tested: polio outbreak in Honduras.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    In response to a polio outbreak in Honduras in 1984 largely affecting children under 5 years of age, a case-control study was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV). The case definition utilized was any child with acute flaccid paralysis compatible with polio who was reported to the Ministry of Health between January 1-November 26, 1984. 59 of the 76 such cases were included, and 5 age-matched controls were selected for each case. 2 methods were used to calculate the odds ratio and vaccine efficacy. In the 1st method, a case-control matched analysis with variable matching ratio was utilized; in the 2nd method, only the first 2 controls with zero or 3 or more TOPV doses were studied. When the 1st method was applied, vaccine efficacy was 50% among all cases and 51% among the 27 comfirmed cases. When the 2nd method was used, vaccine efficacy was 35% overall and 43% among comfirmed cases. Of the 59 cases investigated, 31 (53%) had received 3 or more doses of TOPV 1 month or more before onset of disease. In addition, 51 (86%) had residual findings compatible with polio 2 months or more after onset of symptoms. 8 (14%) of the 59 cases died. Data on associated risk factors are currently being analyzed. A theoretical problem with this study is the effect of subclinical disease on vaccine efficacy. Because of the small number of cases, the 95% confidence limits were wide and the results should be interpreted with caution; however, the highest upper confidence limit was only 82%, suggesting that the receipt of 3 doses of TOPV has not provided in Honduras the expected clinical efficacy of over 90%. Vaccine management problems at the central level may account for this finding. Problems in the cold chain are being addressed, and routine monitoring of the potency of TOPV used in Honduras will be conducted. PMID:12268040

  13. Detection of Favorable Oral Cephalosporin-Clavulanate Interactions by In Vitro Disk Approximation Susceptibility Testing of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Members of the Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jennifer D.; Lewis, James S.; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Fulcher, Letitia C.

    2012-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing members of the Enterobacteriaceae are often resistant to multiple drug classes, making therapy of urinary infections with oral antibiotics difficult. Previously it was shown that amoxicillin-clavulanate can provide clavulanate inhibition of ESBLs and protect an oral cephalosporin present in combination when tested by broth microdilution. This study has shown that disk approximation testing could detect favorable cephalosporin-clavulanate interactions among a group of 101 previously characterized members of the Enterobacteriaceae with CTX-M, SHV, or TEM ESBLs. PMID:22170910

  14. Provocation 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In this article, two old men make the link: real mathematics = functional mathematics. The two old men were referred to as Alpha and Beta. Alpha talks about the problem in so many schools, now, and that they have teachers who have either forgotten how to engage learners or who have never experienced the power. Beta speaks of a plague on teachers'…

  15. New Insights into the Reliability of Automatic Dynamic Methods for Oral Bioaccessibility Testing: A Case Study for BGS102 soil.

    PubMed

    Cave, Mark R; Rosende, María; Mounteney, Ian; Gardner, Amanda; Miró, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic flow-through extraction is attracting a great deal of attention for real-time monitoring of the bioaccessible fraction of metal species in environmental solid substrates compared to its batchwise manual counterparts. There is however a lack of studies on the harmonization and validation of in vitro dynamic methods for physiologically based extraction tests against in vivo bioavailability methods. This work is aimed at evaluating the reliability of dynamic flow-through extraction methods for estimation of oral bioaccessible fractions of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and As under worst-case extraction conditions in the gastric compartment based on the BGS102 guidance soil using the in vivo validated Unified BARGE (UBM) test, commonly performed under batchwise mode. Good overall agreement between batch and dynamic UBM results was obtained for the tested elements, except for Pb, as a consequence of the slow leaching kinetics identified with the dynamic method and the contribution of readsorption phenomena in the course of the gastric digestion. Metal-soil phase associations and their relationship with gastric bioaccessible fractions were elucidated using the so-called Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions method based on sequential extraction with a variety of chemicals of increasing acidity as applied to both static and dynamic bioaccessibility data. PMID:27484882

  16. Automation of an in vitro cytotoxicity assay used to estimate starting doses in acute oral systemic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Bories, Gilles; Casado, Juan; Coecke, Sandra; Norlén, Hedvig; Parissis, Nicholaos; Rodrigues, Robim M; Whelan, Maurice P

    2012-06-01

    Application of High Throughput Screening (HTS) to the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals is still in its infancy but shows great promise in terms of facilitating better understanding of toxicological modes-of-action, reducing the reliance on animal testing, and allowing more data-poor chemicals to be assessed at a reasonable cost. To promote the uptake and acceptance of HTS approaches, we describe in a stepwise manner how a well known cytotoxicity assay can be automated to increase throughput while maintaining reliability. Results generated with selected reference chemicals compared very favourably with data obtained from a previous international validation study concerning the prediction of acute systemic toxicity in rodents. The automated assay was then included in a formal ECVAM validation study to determine if the assay could be used for binary classification of chemicals with respect to their acute oral toxicity, using a threshold equivalent to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. in a rodent bioassay (LD50). This involved the blind-testing of 56 reference chemicals on the HTS platform to produce concentration-response and IC50 data. Finally, the assay was adapted to a format more suited to higher throughput testing without compromising the quality of the data obtained. PMID:22465836

  17. Anatomical and functional overlap within the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during interoception and phobic symptom provocation.

    PubMed

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Mataix-Cols, David; López-Solà, Marina; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Ortriz, Hector; Pujol, Jesus; Torrubia, Rafael

    2013-05-01

    The anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are regarded as key brain structures associated with the integration of perceived phobic characteristics of external stimuli and the perception of ones own body responses that leads to emotional feelings. To test to what extent the activity in these two brain structures anatomically and functionally overlap during phobic reactions and interoception, we submitted the same group of phobic participants (n = 29; either spider or blood-injection-injury (BII) phobics) and controls (n = 17) to both type of experimental paradigms. Results showed that there was a clear anatomical overlap in the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) responses within the anterior insula and ACC elicited during phobic symptom provocation and during interoceptive awareness. The activity within these two brain structures also showed to be correlated in the spider phobia group, but not in the BII phobic participants. Our results seem to support the idea that the activity within these two brain areas would be associated with the integration of perceived stimuli characteristics and bodily responses that lead to what we label as "fear." However, that seems not to be the case in BII phobia, where more research is needed in order to clarify to what extent that could be associated with the idiosyncratic physiological response that these patients present in front of phobic stimuli (i.e., drop in heart rate and blood pressure). PMID:22162203

  18. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  19. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  20. SOME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SILENT AND ORAL READING RESPONSES ON A STANDARDIZED READING TEST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEIBERT, ROBERT E.

    A STUDY DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE RESPONSES ON THE GATES ADVANCED PRIMARY READING TEST AND THE KINDS OF RESPONSES OBTAINED FROM AN INFORMAL READING INVENTORY (IRI) IS REPORTED. SUBJECTS WERE 65 THIRD-GRADE PUPILS IN WEST BABYLON, NEW YORK. PUPILS AT THE SAME INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL SCORED HIGHER IN THE RECOGNITION TEST…

  1. Peptide hormones in saliva. I. Insulin in saliva during the oral glucose tolerance test in female patients.

    PubMed

    Simionescu, L; Aman, E; Muşeţeanu, P; Dinulescu, E; Giurcăneanu, M

    1985-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) of insulin was performed in the serum and saliva of 27 female patients during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The patients were divided into two groups: 19 non-diabetic patients and 8 patients diagnosed as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) disease. In one patient in each group, the OGTT was performed twice at intervals of 3-5 days. The results show that immunoreactive insulin (IRI) is present in saliva and its concentration increases during the glucose stimulation test from 6.48 +/- 1.13 microU/ml (means +/- SEM) in basal conditions at peak values of 45.46 +/- 10.14 microU/ml at 2 hrs after glucose intake. In patients with IGT salivary IRI increases from 5.18 +/- 1.39 microU/ml in basal conditions to peak values of 83.34 +/- 25.85 microU/ml at 3 hrs after glucose administration. Great response variations were observed either inter-individual or intraindividual in both groups of patients. Some patients had unusual high salivary IRI concentration especially in those with gastrointestinal troubles. Further, some hypotheses and experimental models, are advanced, considered useful for the explanation of the physiologic significance of the salivary IRI or of the IRI-like material. PMID:3901231

  2. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  3. Children's responses to hypothetical provocation by peers: coordination of assertive and aggressive strategies.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Melanie A; Suor, Jennifer H; Rusch, Dana; Frazier, Stacy L

    2014-10-01

    Children often respond to aggression by peers with assertive bids or aggressive retaliation. Little is known, however, about whether and how children coordinate these strategies across different types of provocation. The present study examined endorsement of aggressive and assertive responses to hypothetical physical, relational, and verbal provocation in a sample of lower-income children (N = 402, M age = 10.21, SD = 1.46). Latent-profile analysis revealed 3-class models for both aggression and assertion, each reflecting low, moderate, and high levels of endorsement. There was no association between children's reported use of aggression and assertion. For example, children who endorsed high levels of aggression were equally likely to be classified as low, moderate, or high on assertive responding. For both assertion and aggression, parental ratings of children's externalizing behavior and social skills differed across the low and high groups. No such differences were found between the low and moderate groups, despite the latter groups endorsing markedly higher levels of assertive and aggressive responses. This pattern of findings may be due, in part, to the situation specificity of children's responding. Our findings hint at the complexity of children's behavioral repertoires and contribute to a growing literature that suggests the need for intervention models that consider both social skills and social situations. PMID:24668163

  4. A comparison of the oral and silent reading methods of standardized science test delivery on the performance level of fifth-grade African American students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenda, Gloria Louise

    This study compared two methods of standardized test administration, oral delivery using an audio tape and the standard silent reading by the student, on the performance level (test score) and science understanding (right answer/right reason) of urban fifth grade African American students. The effect of reading ability, special needs, and socioeconomic status were also examined as possible confounding variables. A randomized post-test only control group design was used with data for the sample (N = 106) collected from student files at two Detroit Public Schools, which included the Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) reading and science scores. In addition, face-to-face interviews were completed with a small subsample to determine reasoning for selecting their answers. Six hypotheses were developed to determine if there were significant differences in science performance level and understanding in fifth grade urban African American students when the standardized science test, MEAP, Area Specific Portions, Physical Science and Earth/Space Science, were delivered orally, using the audio tape, and silently, which is the present standard delivery method. Significant differences in scores were found favoring the oral over the silent test group. A significant association was also found for reading and science MEAP scores, with students who had higher scores on the reading test achieving higher scores on the science test. Although socioeconomic status did not appear to result in differential outcomes among the students, a significant interaction was found between test administration type and socioeconomic status. The conclusion that was reached was that students who have difficulty in reading the printed material could benefit from having standardized tests administered orally (except for reading tests).

  5. An Examination of Methods for Testing Treatments: Conducting Brief Experimental Analyses of the Effects of Instructional Components on Oral Reading Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Edward J., III; Murdoch, Amy; Lillenstein, Laura; Webber, LeAnna; Lentz, F. Edward

    2002-01-01

    This study attempted to refine previous methods for testing treatments to select intervention strategies for oral reading fluency. Effective treatment packages were identified and confirmed for five second grade students. Packages differed for all subjects. Results are discussed in terms of advantages of new procedures, implications for practice,…

  6. Genotoxic evaluation of two oral antidiabetic agents in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    PubMed

    Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Çapoğlu, Ilyas; Kızılet, Halit; Halıcı, Zekai; Özçiçek, Fatih; Demirtaş, Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, two sulfonylureas--glimepiride and glipizide--commonly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus were investigated for genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test. For this purpose, three-day-old transheterozygous larvae were treated with three mutagenic compounds, and the results obtained were compared with the control group. Mutational or recombinogenic changes were recorded in two recessive genes--multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr (3)). Two recessive markers were located on the left arm of chromosome 3, mwh in map position 0.3, and flare-3 (flr3) at 38.8, while the centromere was located in position 47.7. Wing spot tests are targeted on the loss of heterozygosity, which may be grounded in different genetic mechanisms such as mutation, mitotic recombination, deletion, half-translocation, chromosome loss, or nondisjunction. Genetic changes formatting in somatic cells of the imaginal discs cause nascence different mutant cloning in different body parts of adult flies. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated that glimepiride and glipizide show the genotoxicity, which is especially dependent on homologous somatic recombination. PMID:22914262

  7. The nondestructive testing research on porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-biao; Zhang, Zhang; Ding, Yi

    2008-09-01

    PFM has the advantages of real color and anti-milled, widely be used in restoration of teeth destroyed, teeth incomplete and teeth beauty. However, due to the issue of brittleness of ceramics and its manufacturing technology, the case of lost ceramics, crack inside and interface separate often occurs in clinical. In this regard, it not only delay the restoration, but also greatly add the expense of restoration. Hence, a inspection method is required to develop, in order to judge whether there is flaw on the PFM teeth cover or inside or not both before and after restoration. This paper will adopt Scanning Acoustic Microscope and X-Ray Microscope Inspection to conduct the Nondestructive testing for PFM restoration. The results show that the above two methods are both feasible on flaw inspection. Especially, the combination of two methods could effectively inspect the flaw's depth and size on PFM cover or inside, this will provide widely application for clinical in the future.

  8. Talking to Score: Impression Management in L2 Oral Assessment and the Co-Construction of a Test Discourse Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Jasmine

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the emphasis in second language (L2) oral proficiency assessment has shifted from linguistic accuracy to discourse strategies such as the ability to initiate, respond, and negotiate meaning. This has resulted in a growing interest in the discourse analysis of students' performance in different oral proficiency assessment formats.…

  9. Depressive symptoms linked to 1-h plasma glucose concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test in men and women with the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum-Weitzman, O.; Goldberg, R.; Hurwitz, B. E.; Llabre, M. M.; Gellman, M. D.; Gutt, M.; McCalla, J. R.; Mendez, A. J.; Schneiderman, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The addition of the 1-h plasma glucose concentration measure from an oral glucose tolerance test to prediction models of future Type 2 diabetes has shown to significantly strengthen their predictive power. The present study examined the relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and hyperglycaemia, focusing on the 1-h glucose concentration vs. fasting and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test glucose measures. Methods Participants included 140 adults with the metabolic syndrome and without diabetes who completed a baseline psychobiological assessment and a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, with measurements taken every 30 min. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Multivariate linear regression revealed that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of 1-h plasma glucose concentrations after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, antidepressant use and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Results were maintained after controlling for fasting glucose as well as for indices of insulin resistance and secretion. Neither fasting nor 2-h plasma glucose concentrations were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Elevated depressive symptoms in persons with the metabolic syndrome were associated with greater glycaemic excursion 1-h following a glucose load that was not accounted for by differences in insulin secretory function or insulin sensitivity. Consistent with previous findings, this study highlights the value of the 1-h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose measurement in the relation between depressive symptoms and glucose metabolism as an indicator of metabolic abnormalities not visible when focusing on fasting and 2-h post-oral glucose tolerance test measurements alone. PMID:24344735

  10. Mandatory oral glucose tolerance tests identify more diabetics in stable patients with chronic heart failure: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are believed to have unrecognized diabetes, which is associated with a worse prognosis. This study aimed to describe glucose tolerance in a general stable CHF population and to identify determinants of glucose tolerance focusing on body composition and skeletal muscle strength. Methods A prospective observational study was set up. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of CHF, stable condition and absence of glucose-lowering medication. Patients underwent a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), isometric strength testing of the upper leg and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Health-related quality of life and physical activity level were assessed by questionnaire. Results Data of 56 participants were analyzed. Despite near-normal fasting glucose values, 55% was classified as prediabetic, 14% as diabetic, and 20% as normal glucose tolerant. Of all newly diagnosed diabetic patients, 79% were diagnosed because of 2 h glucose values only and none because of HbA1c. Univariate mixed model analysis revealed ischaemic aetiology, daily physical activity, E/E’, fat trunk/fat limbs and extension strength as possible explanatory variables for the glucose curve during the glucose tolerance test. When combined in one model, only fat trunk/fat limbs and E/E’ remained significant predictors. Furthermore, fasting insulin was correlated with fat mass/height2 (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001), extension strength (r = -0.33, p < 0.01) and triglycerides (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). Conclusions Our data confirm that a large majority of CHF patients have impaired glucose tolerance. This glucose intolerance is related to fat distribution and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. PMID:24673860

  11. Detection of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid using the Rapid Stat point-of-collection drug-testing device.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, J; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Urban, R

    2010-04-01

    The Rapid Stat assay, a point-of-collection drug-testing device for detection of amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines in oral fluid, was evaluated for cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants. The Rapid Stat tests (n = 134) were applied by police officers in routine traffic checks. Oral fluid and blood samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and methylenedioxyamphetamine. The comparison of GC-MS analysis of oral fluid with the Rapid Stat results for cannabis showed a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 87%, and a total confirmation rate of 87%. When compared with serum, the sensitivity of the cannabis assay decreased to 71%, the specificity to 60%, and the total confirmation rate to 66%. These findings were possibly caused by an incorrect reading of the THC test results. Comparison of the Rapid Stat amphetamine assay with GC-MS in oral fluid showed a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 97%, and a total confirmation rate of 97%. Compared with serum, a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 90%, and a total confirmation rate of 92% was found. The amphetamine assay must, therefore, be regarded as satisfactory. PMID:20406540

  12. Severe selective magnesium malabsorption: tests of tolerance of oral magnesium supplements.

    PubMed

    Mettey, R; Guillard, O; Merle, P; Maillet-Picker, F

    1990-12-01

    Since his birth, we have been monitoring a 12-year-old boy suffering from selective severe magnesium malabsorption. Our essential problem is to prepare a form of galena with acceptable taste, tolerated by the digestive tract and well absorbed; also, the carrier compound must not cause short- or long-term side effects. An additional factor is the steadily increasing need for magnesium from 1 mmol/kg.d at 1 year to 14 mmol/kg.d at present age (345 mg/kg.d). The galena forms currently on sale were, with the exception of lactate and pyrollidone carboxylate, immediately rejected since they contain insufficient Mg2+. Following short trials resulting in diarrhoea, the other two preparations were also rejected. We then constituted - and also abandoned - our own galena compounds: aspartate (bitterness), aspartate + glycerophosphate (GLP) (bitterness), glutamate + GLP ('Chinese restaurant syndrome' and fear of the long term toxic effect of the glutamate), gluconate (excessive volume: 11/1 proportion with Mg2+). A recent test featuring GLP of Mg 40 g + cocoa butter 40 g + cocoa 10 g, brought about vomiting and diarrhoea, and was not adequately absorbed. The best tolerated formula is: Mg GLP 21.33 g; saccharose 6 g; aspartam 1 g; gelatin 0.5 g; citric acid, conserving agent, fruity aroma; water: qs 100 g. Such composition yields a caramel cream absorbed in five small portions, at a daily quantity of 375 g (80 g GLP Mg, 10 g Mg2+). Vitamin B6, which promotes intestinal absorption of magnesium, must be given separately in tablet form at a dose of 1 g/d, since it causes nausea if it is included in the Mg preparation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2132677

  13. Plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with oral necrobacillosis (lumpy jaw disease) using an automated handheld testing system

    PubMed Central

    SOTOHIRA, Yukari; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; SASAKI, Haruka; SANO, Tadashi; TSUCHIYA, Masakazu; SUZUKI, Yohko; SHIMAMORI, Toshio; TSUKANO, Kenji; SATO, Ayano; YOKOTA, Hiroshi; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTSTM) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTSTM was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTSTM correlated with those using KT (r2=0.963, P<0.001). These findings indicated that the PTSTM is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods. PMID:26902804

  14. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  15. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  16. Plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with oral necrobacillosis (lumpy jaw disease) using an automated handheld testing system.

    PubMed

    Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Haruka; Sano, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Suzuki, Yohko; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsukano, Kenji; Sato, Ayano; Yokota, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTS(TM)) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTS(TM) was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTS(TM) correlated with those using KT (r(2)=0.963, P<0.001). These findings indicated that the PTS(TM) is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods. PMID:26902804

  17. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  18. Assessment of the influence of traffic-related particles in urban dust using sequential selective extraction and oral bioaccessibility tests.

    PubMed

    Patinha, C; Durães, N; Sousa, P; Dias, A C; Reis, A P; Noack, Y; Ferreira da Silva, E

    2015-08-01

    Urban dust is a heterogeneous mix, where traffic-related particles can combine with soil mineral compounds, forming a unique and site-specific material. These traffic-related particles are usually enriched in potentially harmful elements, enhancing the health risk for population by inhalation or ingestion. Urban dust samples from Estarreja city and traffic-related particles (brake dust and white traffic paint) were studied to understand the relative contribution of the traffic particles in the geochemical behaviour of urban dust and to evaluate the long-term impacts of the metals on an urban environment, as well as the risk to the populations. It was possible to distinguish two groups of urban dust samples according to Cu behaviour: (1) one group with low amounts of fine particles (<38 µm), low contents of organic material, high percentage of Cu in soluble phases, and low Cu bioaccessible fraction (Bf) values. This group showed similar chemical behaviour with the brake dust samples of low- to mid-range car brands (with more than 10 years old), composed by coarser wear particles; and (2) another group with greater amounts of fine particles (<38 µm), with low percentage of Cu associated with soluble phases, and with greater Cu Bf values. This group behaved similar to those found for brake dust of mid- to high-range car brands (with less than 10 years old). The results obtained showed that there is no direct correlation between the geoavailability of metals estimated by sequential selective chemical extraction (SSCE) and the in vitro oral bioaccessibility (UBM) test. Thus, oral bioaccessibility of urban dust is site specific. Geoavailability was greatly dependent on particle size, where the bioaccessibility tended to increase with a reduction in particle diameter. As anthropogenic particles showed high metal concentration and a smaller size than mineral particles, urban dusts are of major concern to the populations' health, since fine particles are easily re

  19. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  20. Do TETRA (Airwave) Base Station Signals Have a Short-Term Impact on Health and Well-Being? A Randomized Double-Blind Provocation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Background “Airwave” is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. Objectives We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported “electrosensitivity” and of participants who served as controls. Methods Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. Results We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself. PMID:20075020

  1. Swab2know: An HIV-Testing Strategy Using Oral Fluid Samples and Online Communication of Test Results for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Katrien; Apers, Ludwig; Kenyon, Chris; Albers, Laura; Vermoesen, Tine; Loos, Jasna; Florence, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background As HIV remains a public health concern, increased testing among those at risk for HIV acquisition is important. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the most important group for targeted HIV testing in Europe. Several new strategies have been developed and implemented to increase HIV-testing uptake in this group, among them the Swab2know project. Objective In this project, we aim to assess the acceptability and feasibility of outreach and online HIV testing using oral fluid samples as well as Web-based delivery of test results. Methods Sample collection happened between December 2012 and April 2014 via outreach and online sampling among MSM. Test results were communicated through a secured website. HIV tests were executed in the laboratory. Each reactive sample needed to be confirmed using state-of-the-art confirmation procedures on a blood sample. Close follow-up of participants who did not pick up their results, and those with reactive results, was included in the protocol. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the methodology using a short survey. Results During 17 months, 1071 tests were conducted on samples collected from 898 men. Over half of the samples (553/1071, 51.63%) were collected during 23 outreach sessions. During an 8-month period, 430 samples out of 1071 (40.15%) were collected from online sampling. Additionally, 88 samples out of 1071 (8.22%) were collected by two partner organizations during face-to-face consultations with MSM and male sex workers. Results of 983 out of 1071 tests (91.78%) had been collected from the website. The pickup rate was higher among participants who ordered their kit online (421/430, 97.9%) compared to those participating during outreach activities (559/641, 87.2%; P<.001). MSM participating during outreach activities versus online participants were more likely to have never been tested before (17.3% vs 10.0%; P=.001) and reported more sexual partners in the 6 months prior to participation in the

  2. Implications of In-Use Photostability: Proposed Guidance for Photostability Testing and Labeling to Support the Administration of Photosensitive Pharmaceutical Products, Part 3. Oral Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Allain, Leonardo; Baertschi, Steven W; Clapham, David; Foti, Chris; Lantaff, Wendy M; Reed, Robert A; Templeton, Allen C; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth

    2016-05-01

    The ICH Q1B guidance and additional clarifying manuscripts provide the essential information needed to conduct photostability testing for pharmaceutical drug products in the context of manufacturing, packaging, and storage. As the previous 2 papers in this series highlight for drug products administered by injection (part 1) and drug products administered via topical application (part 2), there remains a paucity of guidance and methodological approaches to conducting photostability testing to ensure effective product administration. Part 3 in the series is presented here to provide a similar approach and commentary for photostability testing for oral drug products. The approach taken, as was done previously, is to examine "worst case" photoexposure scenarios in combination with ICH-defined light sources to derive a set of practical experimental approaches to support the safe and effective administration of photosensitive oral drug products. PMID:27056630

  3. Skin changes in patients claiming to suffer from "screen dermatitis": a two-case open-field provocation study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Björnhagen, V; Hall, K

    1994-10-01

    An open-field provocation, in front of an ordinary TV set, of 2 patients regarding themselves as suffering from skin problems due to work at video display terminals (VDTs) is presented. Using immunohistochemistry, in combination with a wide range of antisera directed towards cellular and neurochemical markers, we were able to show a high-to-very high number of somatostatin-immunoreactive dendritic cells as well as histamine-positive mast cells in skin biopsies from the anterior neck taken before the start of the provocation. At the end of the provocation the number of mast cells was unchanged; however, the somatostatin-positive cells had seemingly disappeared. The reason for this latter findings is discussed in terms of loss of immunoreactivity, increase of breakdown, etc. The high number of mast cells present may explain the clinical symptoms of itch, pain, edema and erythema. Naturally, in view of the present public debate, the observed results are highly provocative and, we believe, have to be taken seriously. PMID:7881769

  4. The Relation between Early Adolescents' Trust Beliefs in Peers and Reactions to Peer Provocation: Attributions of Intention and Retaliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…

  5. Exercise but not mannitol provocation increases urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Romberg, Kerstin; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Elite swimmers have an increased risk of developing asthma, and exposure to chloramine is believed to be an important trigger factor. The aim of the present study was to explore pathophysiological mechanisms behind induced bronchoconstriction in swimmers exposed to chloramine, before and after swim exercise provocation as well as mannitol provocation. Urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) was used as a possible marker for epithelial stress. 101 elite aspiring swim athletes were investigated and urinary samples were collected before and 1 h after completed exercise and mannitol challenge. CC16, 11β-prostaglandin (PG)F(2α) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) were measured. Urinary levels of CC16 were clearly increased after exercise challenge, while no reaction was seen after mannitol challenge. Similar to CC16, the level of 11β-PGF(2α) was increased after exercise challenge, but not after mannitol challenge, while LTE(4) was reduced after exercise. There was no significant difference in urinary response between those with a negative compared to positive challenge, but a tendency of increased baseline levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) in individuals with a positive mannitol challenge. The uniform increase of CC16 after swim exercise indicates that CC16 is of importance in epithelial stress, and may as such be an important pathogenic factor behind asthma development in swimmers. The changes seen in urinary levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) indicate a pathophysiological role in both mannitol and exercise challenge. PMID:20696561

  6. End point prick test: could this new test be used to predict the outcome of oral food challenge in children with cow's milk allergy?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most frequent food allergy in childhood; the trend of CMA is often characterized by a progressive improvement to achieve tolerance in the first 4 to 5 years of life. It has been observed that specific IgE (sIgE) towards cow's milk proteins decrease when the age increases. Although food allergy can be easily diagnosed, it is difficult to predict the outcome of the oral food challenge (OFC), that remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy, by allergometric tests. Methods We considered 44 children with CMA diagnosed through OFC who returned to our Allergy and Immunology Pediatric Department between January to December 2010 to evaluate the persistence of allergy or the achievement of tolerance. On the basis of the history, we performed both allergometric skin tests and OFC in children that were still following a milk-free diet, whereas only allergometric skin tests those that had already undergone spontaneous introduction of milk protein at home without presenting symptoms. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the persistence of CMA or the acquisition of tolerance and the results of the end point prick test (EPT). Results and Discussion The OFC with cow's milk was performed on 30 children, 4 children were excluded because of a history of severe reactions to cow's milk, and 10 because they had spontaneously already taken milk food derivates at home without problems. 16/30 (53%) children showed clinical reactions and the challenge was stopped, 14/30 (47%) did not have any reaction. Comparing the mean wheal diameter of every EPT's dilution between the group of allergic children and the tolerant ones, we obtained a significant difference (p < 0.05) for the first 4 dilutions. We have also calculated sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) for each EPT dilution. Conclusions EPT is a safe and cheap test, easy

  7. Bile Acid Metabolome after an Oral Lipid Tolerance Test by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas; Neumann, Hannah; Karrasch, Thomas; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schäffler, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Context Besides their role in intestinal resorption of lipids, bile acids are regarded as endocrine and metabolic signaling molecules. The detailed profile of bile acid species in peripheral blood after an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT) is unknown. Objective We quantified the regulation of 18 bile acids after OLTT in healthy individuals. Material and methods 100 volunteers were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters and underwent OLTT. Venous blood was drawn in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2h, 4h, and 6 h after OLTT. Serum concentrations of 18 bile acids were measured by LC-MS/MS. Results All of the 6 taurine-conjugated bile acids (TUDCA, THDCA, TCA, TCDCA, TDCA, TLCA) and all of the 6 glycine-conjugated bile acids (GUDCA, GHDCA, GCA, GCDCA, GDCA, GLCA) rose significantly at 2h and remained elevated during OLTT. Of the primary bile acids, CA remained unchanged, whereas CDCA significantly decreased at 4h. Of the secondary bile acids, DCA, UDCA and HDCA were not altered, whereas LCA decreased. There was a significant positive correlation between the intestinal feed-back regulator of bile acid synthesis FGF-19 and bile acids. This correlation seems to depend on all of the six taurine-conjugated bile acids and on GCA, GDCA, and GCDCA. Females and users of hormonal contraception displayed higher levels of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Conclusions The novelty of the study is based on the identification of single bile acids during OLTT. LC-MS/MS-based quantification of bile acids in serum provides a reliable tool for future investigation of endocrine and metabolic effects of bile acids. PMID:26863103

  8. Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing identifies HIV+ infected women with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) not captured by standard DM definition

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H; Tien, Phyllis C

    2016-01-01

    Objective HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals may have differential risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to the general population, and the optimal diagnostic algorithm for DM in HIV+ persons remains unclear. We aimed to assess the utility of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for DM diagnosis in a cohort of women with or at risk for HIV infection. Methods Using American Diabetic Association DM definitions, DM prevalence and incidence were assessed among women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. DM was defined by 2-hour OGTT ≥ 200 mg/dL (DM_OGTT) or a clinical definition (DM_C) that included any of the following: (i) anti-diabetic medication use or self-reported DM confirmed by either fasting glucose (FG) ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, (ii) FG ≥ 126 mg/dL confirmed by a second FG ≥ 126 mg/dL or HbA1c 6.5%, or (iii) HbA1c 6.5% confirmed by FG ≥ 126 mg/dL cohort. Results Overall, 390 women (285 HIV+, median age 43 years; 105 HIV−, median age 37 years) were enrolled between 2003-2006. Over half of all women were African American. Using DM_C, DM prevalence rates were 5.6% and 2.8% among HIV+ and HIV− women, respectively. Among HIV+ women, adding DM_OGTT to DM_C increased DM prevalence from 5.6% to 7.4%, a 31% increase in the number of diabetes cases diagnosed (p=0.02). In HIV− women, no additional cases were diagnosed by DM-OGTT. Conclusion In HIV+ women, OGTT identified DM cases that were not identified by a standardized clinical definition. Further investigation is needed to determine whether OGTT should be considered as an adjunctive tool for DM diagnosis in the setting of HIV infection. PMID:27066296

  9. Skin Prick Test with Self-Saliva in Patients with Oral Aphthoses: A New Diagnostic Pathergy for Behcet’s Disease and Recurrent Aphthosis

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Ari; Saito, Sanae; Kaneko, Fumio; Nakamura, Koichiro; Oyama, Noritaka

    2011-01-01

    There may be some difficulties to differentiate Behcet’s disease (BD), recurrent aphthosis (RA), and herpetic aphthous ulceration, from other mimicking oral disorders. Despite of unexpected sensitivity and responsiveness, the skin pathergy test regarding a non-specific hypersensitivity has long been thought as one of auxiliary diagnostic benefits for BD. To determine the potential usefulness and disease specificity of the prick reaction with saliva, a skin prick test with neat and filter-sterilized saliva was performed on the forearm skin of 26 individuals; 10 patients with BD (8 incomplete type without uveitis, 1 complete type, and 1 neurological type), 5 with RA, 3 with herpetic oral aphthosis, 2 with erythema nodosum alone, and 6 healthy controls. We assessed the skin reaction at 48 hours after pricking, and the pricked skin lesions were biopsied and analyzed immunohistologically. Nine of 10 BD patients (90 %) exhibited an indurative erythema at the skin site pricked with self-saliva, whereas 3 of 5 RA patients (60%) were relatively weak reaction. Pricking with filter-sterilized saliva failed to recapitulate any of positive skin reactions, albeit a faint erythematous dot appeared in a few BD patients, implicating the involvement of causative microorganism(s) in oral bacterial flora. Culture of saliva from 3 randomly chosen BD patients revealed numerous streptococcal colonies on Mitis-Salivarius agar. Histology of the pricked skin sites showed perivasucular inflammatory infiltrates, composed of CD4+ T cells and CD68+ monocyte/macrophage lineage, a feature consistent with a delayed type hypersensitive reaction. Our results suggested that skin prick test using self-saliva (a new diagnostic pathergy) can be a simple and valuable in vivo diagnostic approach for differentiating BD and RA from other mimicking mucocutaneous diseases. The positive skin prick may be triggered by resident intra-oral microflora, particularly streptococci, and may in part address the

  10. Skin prick test with self-saliva in patients with oral aphthoses: a diagnostic pathergy for Behcet's disease and recurrent aphthosis.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Ari; Saito, Sanae; Kaneko, Fumio; Nakamura, Koichiro; Oyama, Noritaka

    2011-06-01

    There may be some difficulties to differentiate Behcet's disease (BD), recurrent aphthosis (RA), and herpetic aphthous ulceration, from other mimicking oral disorders. Despite of unexpected sensitivity and responsiveness, the skin pathergy test regarding a non specific hypersensitivity has long been thought as one of auxiliary diagnostic benefits for BD. To determine the potential usefulness and disease specificity of the prick reaction with saliva, a skin prick test with neat and filter-sterilized saliva was performed on the forearm skin of 26 individuals; 10 patients with BD (8 incomplete type without uveitis, 1 complete type, and 1 neurological type), 5 with RA, 3 with herpetic oral aphthosis, 2 with erythema nodosum alone, and 6 healthy controls. We assessed the skin reaction at 48 hours after pricking, and the pricked skin lesions were biopsied and analyzed immunohistologically. Nine of 10 BD patients (90 %) exhibited an indurative erythema at the skin site pricked with self-saliva, whereas 3 of 5 RA patients (60%) were relatively weak reaction. Pricking with filter-sterilized saliva failed to recapitulate any of positive skin reactions, albeit a faint erythematous dot appeared in a few BD patients, implicating the involvement of causative microorganism(s) in oral bacterial flora. Culture of saliva from 3 randomly chosen BD patients revealed numerous streptococcal colonies on Mitis-Salivarius agar. Histology of the pricked skin sites showed perivascular inflammatory infiltrates, composed of CD4+ T cells and CD68+ monocyte/macrophage lineage, a feature consistent with a delayed type hypersensitive reaction. Our results suggested that skin prick test using self-saliva (a new diagnostic pathergy) can be a simple and valuable in vivo diagnostic approach for differentiating BD and RA from other mimicking mucocutaneous diseases. The positive skin prick may be triggered by resident intra-oral microflora, particularly streptococci, and may in part address the

  11. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test is not useful for the diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Osamu; Okubo, Toshiyuki; Hiroshige, Shigeo; Takenaka, Rhyuichi; Ono, Emiko; Ueno, Takuya; Nureki, Shinichi; Ando, Masaru; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kumamoto, Toshihide

    2007-05-01

    Diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonia, which represents pulmonary toxicity caused by certain drugs, is difficult, as a large number of different drugs can elicit various immune-mediated diseases with distinct pathomechanisms. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) is widely used for diagnosing drug-induced pneumonia in Japan. Recent reports, however, indicate that DLST is not reliable for diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonia. To diagnose drug-induced pneumonia, a provocation test with the suspected drug is the most reliable method of assessing the relationship between the drug and pneumonia. We examined the correlation between the DLST and the provocation test in 6 cases of suspected drug-induced pneumonia. DLST was performed in all of the patients. The causes of pneumonia in all patients were confirmed by a provocation test. The DLST was positive in 3 of 6 cases of suspected drug-induced pneumonia, but the suspected drugs were ruled out by the provocation test. If we had relied solely on the DLST, these 3 cases would have been labeled as false allergy. The results of the DLST did not coincide with the results of the provocation test in any of the cases. Our results suggest that the DLST is not useful for the diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonia. Following provocation with the causative drug, reappearance of pulmonary infiltration was not observed in any of the cases. These findings indicate that a carefully performed provocation test is the safe and most reliable method. PMID:17464103

  12. BALB/c and SWR inbred mice differ in post-oral fructose appetition as revealed by sugar versus non-nutritive sweetener tests.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Lolier, Melanie; Warshaw, Deena; LaMagna, Sam; Natanova, Elona; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB inbred mouse strains differ in post-oral fructose conditioning. This was demonstrated by their differential flavor conditioning response to intragastric fructose and their preference for fructose versus a non-nutritive sweetener. The present study extended this analysis to SWR and BALB/c inbred strains which are of interest because they both show robust flavor conditioning responses to fructose. In the first experiment, ad-libitum fed mice were given a series of 2-day, two-bottle preference tests between 8% fructose and a more preferred, but non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose +0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution (tests 1 & 4), and fructose or S+S versus water (tests 2 and 3). In test 1, SWR mice preferred S+S to fructose, and in tests 2 and 3, they preferred both sweeteners to water. In test 4, SWR mice switched their preference and consumed more fructose than S+S. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice strongly preferred S+S to fructose in both tests 1 and 4, although they preferred both sweeteners to water in tests 2 and 3. Food-restricted BALB/c mice also preferred the non-nutritive S+S to fructose in tests 1 and 4. The experience-induced fructose preference reversal observed in SWR, but not BALB/c mice indicates that fructose has a post-oral reinforcing effect in SWR mice as in FVB mice. Because B6 and FVB mice prefer glucose to fructose based on the post-oral actions of the two sugars, the second experiment compared the preferences of SWR and BALB/c mice for 8% glucose and fructose solutions. Ad-libitum fed and food-restricted SWR mice strongly preferred glucose to fructose. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice were indifferent to the sugars, perhaps because of their overall low intakes. Food-restricted BALB/c mice, however, strongly preferred glucose. These findings indicate that SWR and BALB/c mice differ in their preference response to the post-oral actions of fructose. PMID:26485292

  13. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  14. GLP-compliant evaluation and standardization of the peripubertal castrate male rat Hershberger assay for oral exposure of test agents.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Carol S; Vick, Kristie D; Kuney, Nancy M; Fail, Patricia A; Becker, Richard A; Tyl, Rochelle W

    2013-01-01

    Since oral exposure is more relevant than the sc route for human exposure to environmental substances, studies to evaluate and standardize this route in the Hershberger assay were conducted in 2001-2003. Interest in environmental androgen agonists is increasing, so the oral route of the Hershberger assay may be useful to quantify agonist activity of these substances. Castrated Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed (PND 60-69) with androgen receptor agonists and/or antagonists, terminated on PND 70, and body, liver, and accessory sex organs (ASOs) weighed. Methyltestosterone (MT) po, at 0.1-50mg/kg/day, resulted in dose-dependent increases in ASO weights at 5-50 mg/kg; 0.1 mg/kg/day was without statistically significant effect. Testosterone propionate (TP) (sc) at 0.1-1.6 mg/kg/day also resulted in dose-dependent increases in ASO weights, at all doses. Detection of putative androgen antagonists by the oral route was confirmed with dose-response curves of antagonism from flutamide (FLU) po at 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day, with MT at 5 or 10 mg/kg/day (po, 4h later). These results extend the OECD Hershberger assay evaluation and standardization to the oral route and identify and discuss challenges of the assay to detect (anti)androgen-active compounds. PMID:23123233

  15. Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in whi...

  16. Enhancing Extemporaneous Speaking Skills in the Advanced Oral Communication Course and Team Testing Techniques in the Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppert, James E.

    In an advanced oral communication course, students make five major presentations. One of the foundations of extemporaneous speaking is the ability to outline relevant points and phrases in a coherent, orderly manner. Advanced students must be able to take any topic and dissect it quickly to determine the most succinct way to present it to an…

  17. The Development and Validation of a Spanish Elicited Imitation Test of Oral Language Proficiency for the Missionary Training Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    The Missionary Training Center (MTC), affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, needs a reliable and cost effective way to measure the oral language proficiency of missionaries learning Spanish. The MTC needed to measure incoming missionaries' Spanish language proficiency for training and classroom assignment as well as to…

  18. Non-Invasive Measurement of Skin Microvascular Response during Pharmacological and Physiological Provocations

    PubMed Central

    Iredahl, Fredrik; Löfberg, Andreas; Sjöberg, Folke; Farnebo, Simon; Tesselaar, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Microvascular changes in the skin due to pharmacological and physiological provocations can be used as a marker for vascular function. While laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been used extensively for measurement of skin microvascular responses, Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) and Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) are novel imaging techniques. TiVi measures red blood cell concentration, while LDF and LSCI measure perfusion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare responses to provocations in the skin using these different techniques. Method Changes in skin microcirculation were measured in healthy subjects during (1) iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and noradrenaline (NA), (2) local heating and (3) post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) using LDF, LSCI and TiVi. Results Iontophoresis of SNP increased perfusion (LSCI: baseline 40.9±6.2 PU; 10-min 100±25 PU; p<0.001) and RBC concentration (TiVi: baseline 119±18; 10-min 150±41 AU; p = 0.011). No change in perfusion (LSCI) was observed after iontophoresis of NA (baseline 38.0±4.4 PU; 10-min 38.9±5.0 PU; p = 0.64), while RBC concentration decreased (TiVi: baseline 59.6±11.8 AU; 10-min 54.4±13.3 AU; p = 0.021). Local heating increased perfusion (LDF: baseline 8.8±3.6 PU; max 112±55 PU; p<0.001, LSCI: baseline 50.8±8.0 PU; max 151±22 PU; p<0.001) and RBC concentration (TiVi: baseline 49.2±32.9 AU; max 99.3±28.3 AU; p<0.001). After 5 minutes of forearm occlusion with prior exsanguination, a decrease was seen in perfusion (LDF: p = 0.027; LSCI: p<0.001) and in RBC concentration (p = 0.045). Only LSCI showed a significant decrease in perfusion after 5 minutes of occlusion without prior exsanguination (p<0.001). Coefficients of variation were lower for LSCI and TiVi compared to LDF for most responses. Conclusion LSCI is more sensitive than TiVi for measuring microvascular changes during SNP-induced vasodilatation and forearm occlusion. TiVi is more sensitive to noradrenaline

  19. [Diabetes in the Belgian province of Luxembourg: frequency, importance of the oral glucose tolerance test and a modestly increased fasting blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Hortulanus-Beck, D; Lefebvre, P J; Jeanjean, M F

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 1949 subjects aged 35-64 years has been studied in the Belgian Province of Luxembourg according with the MONICA project (MONItoring of Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Diseases) elaborated by the World Health Organization. Among the data collected, were a fasting glycaemia and a glycaemia at the second hour of a 75 grams oral glucose load. Analysis of these two parameters has allowed to divide the individuals of the study into: 4.1% of diabetic subjects which half of them being unknown, 5.2% of subjects presenting an impaired glucose tolerance, 3.4% of subjects with an early reactive hypoglycaemia and 87.3% of normoglycaemic subjects. The measurement of the fasting glycaemia alone has allowed to display 15 glucidic abnormalities (that is to say 0.8%) whereas the complementary realization of the oral glucose tolerance test has disclosed about 10% of additional abnormalities. The fact to consider a borderline fasting glycaemia (included between 110 and 140 mg/dl on venous plasma) result in a greater probability to find an abnormal blood glucose value at the second hour of the oral glucose tolerance test. PMID:2265736

  20. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Intawongse, Marisa; Dean, John R

    2008-03-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. PMID:17601641

  1. A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongchul; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Song, Inja; Son, Ilhong; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Dongwoung; Lee, Jongdeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity of gami-jakyak gamcho buja decoction (Mecasin) to develop safe treatments. Methods: In order to investigate the 4-week oral toxicity of Mecasin, we administered Mecasin orally to rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of Mecasin of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution of 10 mL/kg was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weight, clinical signs, and gross findings for four weeks. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weights or food consumption between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Serum biochemistry revealed that some groups showed significant decrease in inorganic phosphorus (IP) (P < 0.05). During necropsy on the rats, one abnormal macroscopic feature, a slight loss of fur, was observed in the mid dosage (1,000 mg/ kg) male group. No abnormalities were observed in any other rats. In histopathological findings, the tubular basophilia and cast of the kidney and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen were found. However, those changes were minimal and had occurred naturally or sporadically. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, oral toxicity test of Mecasin in SD rats, no toxicity changes due to Mecasin were observed in any of the male or the female rats in the high dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. PMID:26998389

  2. Losing one’s Cool: Social Competence as a Novel Inverse Predictor of Provocation-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Hopkins, Kay; Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup

    2013-01-01

    Provocations and frustrating events can trigger an urge to act aggressively. Such behaviors can be controlled, but perhaps more so for people who can better distinguish effective from ineffective courses of action. The present three studies (total N = 285) introduce a scenario-based measure of this form of social competence. In Study 1, higher levels of social competence predicted lower levels of trait anger. Study 2 presented provocation scenarios and asked people whether they would engage in direct, indirect, and symbolic forms of aggression when provoked. Social competence was inversely predictive of all forms of aggressive responding. Study 3 focused on reactions to frustrating events in daily life. Such events were predictive of hostile behavior and cognitive failures particularly at low levels of social competence. The research establishes that social competence can be assessed in an objective manner and that variations in it are systematically predictive of reactive aggression. PMID:23754040

  3. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  4. The detection of THC, CBD and CBN in the oral fluid of Sativex® patients using two on-site screening tests and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Anna; Fu, Shanlin; Lewis, John; Allsop, David J; Copeland, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Sativex(®) is an oromucosal spray used to treat spasticity in multiple sclerosis sufferers in some European countries, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. The drug has also recently been registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Sativex(®) contains high concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with the former being the subject of random roadside drug tests across Australia to detect cannabis use. This pilot study aims to determine whether or not patients taking Sativex(®) will test positive to THC using these roadside screening tests. Detectable levels of THC, CBD and cannabinol (CBN) in their oral fluid were also confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study was a double-blind, placebo controlled design. Oral fluid was tested prior to and immediately after dosing with either Sativex(®) or placebo at intervals up to 2h after the dose. Two Sativex(®) doses were studied. The low dose contained 5.4mg THC, the high dose 21.6mg THC. Results indicate that the primary screening test used in Australian roadside drug testing, the DrugWipe(®) II Twin, often gave a false negative response for THC, even with high concentrations present. However, secondary screening test, Cozart(®) DDS (used by police after a DrugWipe test gives a positive result), gave true positive results in all cases where patients were being treated with Sativex(®). Confirmatory testing showed high concentrations of THC and CBD (>5356ng/mL THC and >3826ng/mL CBD) in the oral fluid shortly after dosing and also elevated concentrations of CBN. Levels dropped quickly but remained at detectable concentrations (>67.6ng/mL) two hours after drug administration. The average concentration ratio of THC/CBD across all positive samples was 1.10 (%RSD 19.9) reflecting the composition of the Sativex(®) spray. In conclusion, Sativex(®) users may test positive for THC by

  5. Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Clouse, Brian J; Slaughter, Jonathan L; Shaker, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P < 0.05), 2) increased pharyngeal waveform recruitment and duration, greater UES nadir pressure, decreased esophageal contraction duration, decreased distal esophageal contraction amplitude, and decreased completely propagated esophageal peristalsis (all P < 0.05), and 3) similarly developed UES contractile and LES relaxation reflexes (P > 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones. PMID:27012774

  6. Validation of a Hybrid Microwave-Optical Monitor to Investigate Thermal Provocation in the Microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Al-Armaghany, Allann; Tong, Kenneth; Highton, David; Leung, Terence S

    2016-01-01

    We have previously developed a hybrid microwave-optical system to monitor microvascular changes in response to thermal provocation in muscle. The hybrid probe is capable of inducing deep heat from the skin surface using mild microwaves (1-3 W) and raises the tissue temperature by a few degrees Celsius. This causes vasodilation and the subsequent increase in blood volume is detected by the hybrid probe using near infrared spectroscopy. The hybrid probe is also equipped with a skin cooling system which lowers the skin temperature while allowing microwaves to warm up deeper tissues. The hybrid system can be used to assess the condition of the vasculature in response to thermal stimulation. In this validation study, thermal imaging has been used to assess the temperature distribution on the surface of phantoms and human calf, following microwave warming. The results show that the hybrid system is capable of changing the skin temperature with a combination of microwave warming and skin cooling. It can also detect thermal responses in terms of changes of oxy/deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations. PMID:26782243

  7. Climate change communication: a provocative inquiry into motives, meanings, and means.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2012-06-01

    The deliberately provocative theme of this article is that perceived difficulties in climate change communication (CCC)--e.g., indifference about or denial of climate change's reality, negative consequences, anthropogenic causes, or need to mitigate or adapt to it-are partly the fault of climate change communicators. Fischhoff's model of risk communication development is used to demonstrate that CCC to date has tended to stress persuasion, rather than social movement mobilization or deliberation, and with a focus on the model's early stages. Later stages are not necessarily better, but a more diverse strategy seems superior to a focus perhaps narrowed by empathic, ideological, psychological, and resource constraints. Furthermore, even within persuasion, emphasizing a wider set of values, consequences, and audiences could be fruitful. Social movement mobilization has its own set of weaknesses, but usefully complements persuasion with a focus on developing power, subverting mainstream assumptions, and engaging people in collective action. Deliberation similarly has its drawbacks, but unlike the other two approaches does not define the solution-or even, necessarily, the problem-in advance, and thus offers the chance for people of contending viewpoints to jointly develop concepts and action agendas hitherto unimagined. Simultaneous pursuit of all three strategies can to some degree offset their respective flaws, at the potential cost of diffusion of energies and contradictory messages. Success in CCC is by no means guaranteed by a more diverse set of strategies and self-reflection by communicators, but their pursuit should better reveal CCC's limits. PMID:22126116

  8. Ruminal changes in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture.

    PubMed

    Katz, M P; Nagaraja, T G; Fina, L R

    1986-10-01

    Microbial and fermentation changes in the rumen in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture were studied using genetically bloat-susceptible, ruminally-cannulated adult cattle. Monensin at .66 and .99 mg/kg body weight daily reduced the severity of legume bloat by 41 and 73%, respectively. The same doses of lasalocid reduced bloat by 25 and 12%. Comparison of ruminal contents from animals before treatment with ruminal contents from antibiotic-treated animals showed no differences in pH, ammonia, soluble N, soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-precipitable slime and anaerobic bacterial counts. Monensin treatment decreased protozoal numbers and microbial activity, as evidenced by lower gas production from in vitro fermentation of ground alfalfa hay when compared to pretreatment. Lasalocid had no effect on protozoal counts and in vitro gas production. Addition of monensin or lasalocid (12 micrograms/ml) to in vitro fermentation of chopped, fresh alfalfa reduced microbial activity as evidenced by higher soluble N, lower ammonia concentration and decreased gas production. Monensin reduced the amount of ethanol-precipitable slime and protozoal numbers. Reduction in the severity of bloat when monensin was fed appears to be due to decreased protozoal numbers, which resulted in decreased gas production. Lasalocid did not reduce legume bloat because of its minimal effect on the ruminal protozoa. PMID:3771403

  9. Effects of Gender and Cigarette Smoking on Reactivity to Psychological and Pharmacological Stress Provocation

    PubMed Central

    Back, Sudie E.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Saladin, Michael E.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Simpson, Annie; McRae, Aimee L.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.; Sisson, Regana Contini; Spratt, Eve G.; Allen, Julia; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We examined the influence of gender and smoking status on reactivity in two human laboratory stress paradigms. Participants were 46 (21 men, 25 women) healthy individuals who completed the Trier Social Stress Task (i.e., performed a speech and math calculations in front of an audience) and a pharmacological stress provocation (i.e., administration of corticotrophin releasing hormone; CRH) after an overnight hospital stay. Approximately half (53%) of the participants were smokers. Cortisol, adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), physiologic measures (heart rate, blood pressure), and subjective stress were assessed at baseline and at several time points post-task. Men demonstrated higher baseline ACTH and blood pressure as compared to women, however ACTH and blood pressure responses were more pronounced in women. Women smokers evidenced a more blunted cortisol response as compared to nonsmoking women, whereas smoking status did not affect the cortisol response in men. Finally, there was a more robust cardiovascular and subjective response to the Trier as compared to the CRH. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that women may be more sensitive than men to the impact of cigarette smoking on cortisol response. In addition, there is some evidence for a more robust neuroendocrine and physiologic response to acute laboratory stress in women as compared to men. PMID:18321653

  10. Oral fluid testing for cannabis: on-site OraLine IV s.a.t. device versus GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, Vincent; Villain, Marion; Mura, Patrick; Bernard, Marc; Kintz, Pascal

    2006-09-12

    Saliva or "oral fluid" has been presented as an alternative matrix to document drug use. The non-invasive collection of a saliva sample, which is relatively easy to perform and can be achieved under close supervision, is one of the most important benefits in a driving under the influence situation. Moreover, the presence of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid is a better indication of recent use than when 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) is detected in urine, so there is a higher probability that the subject is experiencing pharmacological effects at the time of sampling. In the first part of the study, 27 drug addicts were tested for the presence of THC using the OraLine IV s.a.t. device to establish the potential of this new on-site DOA detection technique. In parallel, oral fluid was collected with the Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection device and tested for THC by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after methylation for THC (limit of quantification: 1 ng/mL). The OraLine device correctly identified nine saliva specimens positive for cannabis with THC concentrations ranging from 3 to 265 ng/mL, but remained negative in four other samples where low THC concentrations were detected by GC/MS (1-13 ng/mL). One false positive was noted. Secondly, two male subjects were screened in saliva using the OraLine and Intercept devices after consumption of a single cannabis cigarette containing 25mg of THC. Saliva was first tested with the OraLine device and then collected with the Intercept device for GC/MS confirmation. In one subject, the OraLine on-site test was positive for THC for 2 h following drug intake with THC concentrations decreasing from 196 to 16 ng/mL, while the test remained positive for 1.5 h for the second subject (THC concentrations ranging from 199 to 11 ng/mL). These preliminary results obtained with the OraLine IV s.a.t. device indicate more encouraging data for the detection of THC using on

  11. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  12. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. PMID:24894458

  13. A proprietary blend of quail egg for the attenuation of nasal provocation with a standardized allergenic challenge: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Benichou, Annie-Claude; Armanet, Marion; Bussière, Anthony; Chevreau, Nathalie; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Tétard, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Occasional rhinitis symptoms caused by exposure to pollution or allergens is a growing concern. Based first on empirical observation of a lesser occurrence of allergies in quail farmers and then scientific works on ovomucoids properties, we developed a dietary supplement for the relief of such occasional rhinitis symptoms. The objective of the study was to determine whether one acute oral dose of the study product attenuates nasal provocation and other allergy-related symptoms after exposure to a standardized allergenic challenge as compared to placebo. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in a randomized, double-blind, two-arm crossover, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. One acute dose of either the active study product (proprietary blend of quail egg) or placebo was given concomitantly to the standardized allergenic challenge. The primary endpoint was peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement and the secondary endpoints were subjects' perceived feelings of well-being based on Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for allergy-related symptoms, as well as immunoglobulin E count. Forty-three healthy subjects were enrolled and evaluable in a per protocol analysis. A gradual increase in PNIF from nadir up to Time 120 reflected the normal, gradual recovery from nasal obstruction induced by allergenic challenge for both the active and the placebo groups. At all postchallenge time points, the active group had higher PNIF values compared to the placebo group, indicating that the active product was associated with fewer symptoms and reduced intensity of these symptoms. The active product resulted also in statistically significant improvements of most of the subjects' perceived feelings of well-being based on VAS scores. No adverse events occurred during the study. In conclusion, the dietary supplement consisting of proprietary blend made of quail eggs provides fast and efficient relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms caused by the most common outdoor and indoor

  14. A proprietary blend of quail egg for the attenuation of nasal provocation with a standardized allergenic challenge: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Benichou, Annie-Claude; Armanet, Marion; Bussière, Anthony; Chevreau, Nathalie; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Tétard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Occasional rhinitis symptoms caused by exposure to pollution or allergens is a growing concern. Based first on empirical observation of a lesser occurrence of allergies in quail farmers and then scientific works on ovomucoids properties, we developed a dietary supplement for the relief of such occasional rhinitis symptoms. The objective of the study was to determine whether one acute oral dose of the study product attenuates nasal provocation and other allergy-related symptoms after exposure to a standardized allergenic challenge as compared to placebo. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in a randomized, double-blind, two-arm crossover, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. One acute dose of either the active study product (proprietary blend of quail egg) or placebo was given concomitantly to the standardized allergenic challenge. The primary endpoint was peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement and the secondary endpoints were subjects' perceived feelings of well-being based on Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for allergy-related symptoms, as well as immunoglobulin E count. Forty-three healthy subjects were enrolled and evaluable in a per protocol analysis. A gradual increase in PNIF from nadir up to Time 120 reflected the normal, gradual recovery from nasal obstruction induced by allergenic challenge for both the active and the placebo groups. At all postchallenge time points, the active group had higher PNIF values compared to the placebo group, indicating that the active product was associated with fewer symptoms and reduced intensity of these symptoms. The active product resulted also in statistically significant improvements of most of the subjects' perceived feelings of well-being based on VAS scores. No adverse events occurred during the study. In conclusion, the dietary supplement consisting of proprietary blend made of quail eggs provides fast and efficient relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms caused by the most common outdoor and indoor

  15. Un Test contrastif oral pour l'evaluation des difficultes lexicales dans l'apprentissage de l'anglais L2 (An Oral Contrastive Test for the Evaluation of Lexical Difficulties in Learning English as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeusser, Christiane

    1978-01-01

    The test described here is a particular type of diagnostic test; it is part of a series of tests designed to explore systematically areas of potential lexical difficulty in the English language for French-speaking students of English. The lexical units are considered under their formal, morphological, syntactic and semantic aspects. The test has…

  16. Effects of Summary Writing on Oral Proficiency Performance within a Computer-Based Test for Integrated Listening-Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Zhihong; Wang, Yanfei

    2014-01-01

    The effective design of test items within a computer-based language test (CBLT) for developing English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' listening and speaking skills has become an increasingly challenging task for both test users and test designers compared with that of pencil-and-paper tests in the past. It needs to fit integrated oral…

  17. 'I Know that I Do Have HIV but Nobody Saw Me': Oral HIV Self-Testing in an Informal Settlement in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Cox, Vivian; Ellman, Tom; Moore, Ann; Patten, Gabriela; Shroufi, Amir; Stinson, Kathryn; Van Cutsem, Gilles; Ibeto, Maryrene

    2016-01-01

    Reaching universal HIV-status awareness is crucial to ensure all HIV-infected patients access antiretroviral treatment (ART) and achieve virological suppression. Opportunities for HIV testing could be enhanced by offering self-testing in populations that fear stigma and discrimination when accessing conventional HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) in health care facilities. This qualitative research aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of unsupervised oral self-testing for home use in an informal settlement of South Africa. Eleven in-depth interviews, two couple interviews, and two focus group discussions were conducted with seven healthcare workers and thirteen community members. Thematic analysis was done concurrently with data collection. Acceptability to offer home self-testing was demonstrated in this research. Home self-testing might help this population overcome barriers to accepting HCT; this was particularly expressed in the male and youth groups. Nevertheless, pilot interventions must provide evidence of potential harm related to home self-testing, intensify efforts to offer quality counselling, and ensure linkage to HIV/ART-care following a positive self-test result. PMID:27044006

  18. ‘I Know that I Do Have HIV but Nobody Saw Me’: Oral HIV Self-Testing in an Informal Settlement in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Vivian; Ellman, Tom; Moore, Ann; Patten, Gabriela; Shroufi, Amir; Stinson, Kathryn; Van Cutsem, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Reaching universal HIV-status awareness is crucial to ensure all HIV-infected patients access antiretroviral treatment (ART) and achieve virological suppression. Opportunities for HIV testing could be enhanced by offering self-testing in populations that fear stigma and discrimination when accessing conventional HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) in health care facilities. This qualitative research aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of unsupervised oral self-testing for home use in an informal settlement of South Africa. Eleven in-depth interviews, two couple interviews, and two focus group discussions were conducted with seven healthcare workers and thirteen community members. Thematic analysis was done concurrently with data collection. Acceptability to offer home self-testing was demonstrated in this research. Home self-testing might help this population overcome barriers to accepting HCT; this was particularly expressed in the male and youth groups. Nevertheless, pilot interventions must provide evidence of potential harm related to home self-testing, intensify efforts to offer quality counselling, and ensure linkage to HIV/ART-care following a positive self-test result. PMID:27044006

  19. Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), an oral proficiency test used by government agencies to assess general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts. It begins with simple, personal…

  20. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manell, Elin; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Svensson, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW) and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW). Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research. PMID:26859145

  1. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses.

    PubMed

    Manell, Elin; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Svensson, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW) and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW). Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research. PMID:26859145

  2. Obstructive Form of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Gradient: Novel Methods of Provocation, Monitoring of Biomarkers, and Recent Advances in the Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrow, Pawel Petkow; Rajtar-Salwa, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic (latent or/and labile) obstruction of left ventricular outflow (LVOT) was recognized from the earliest clinical descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and has proved to be a complex phenomenon, as well as arguably the most audible (“visible”) pathophysiological hallmark of this heterogeneous disease. The aim of the current review is focused on two novel issues in a subgroup of obstructive HCM. Firstly, the important methodological problem in HCM is the examination of a subgroup of patients with nonobstructive hypertrophy in resting conditions and hard, but possible provoking obstruction. Recently, investigators have proposed physiological stress test (with double combined stimuli) to disclose such type of patients. The upright exercise is described in the ESC guideline on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from 2014 and may appear as a candidate for gold standard provocation test. The second novel area of interest is associated with elevated level of signaling biomarkers: hypercoagulation, hemolysis, acquired von Willebrand 2A disease, and enhanced oxidative stress. The accelerated and turbulent flow within narrow LVOT may be responsible for these biochemical disturbances. The most recent advances in the treatment of obstructive HCM are related to nonpharmacological methods of LVOT gradient reduction. This report extensively discusses novel methods. PMID:27247935

  3. Nickel-Related Intestinal Mucositis in IBS-Like Patients: Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and Oral Mucosa Patch Test in Use.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Raffaele; Puzzono, Marta; Rosato, Edoardo; Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Greco, Francesca; Picarelli, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) is often the trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like gastrointestinal disorders: its ingestion may cause allergic contact mucositis, identifiable by means of oral mucosa patch test (omPT). OmPT effectiveness has been proven, but it is still an operator-dependent method. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) was tested to support omPT in Ni allergic contact mucositis diagnosis. Group A: 22 patients with intestinal/systemic symptoms related to the ingestion of Ni-containing foods. Group B: 12 asymptomatic volunteers. Ni-related symptoms and their severity were tested by a questionnaire. All patients underwent Ni omPT with clinical evaluation at baseline (T0), after 30 min (T1), after 2 h (T2), and after 24-48 h (T3). LDPI was performed to evaluate the mean mucosal perfusion at T0, T1, and T2. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and Bonferroni multiple-comparison test. All 22 Ni-sensitive patients (group A) presented oral mucosa hyperemia and/or edema at T2. Eight out of the same 22 patients presented a local delayed vesicular reaction at T3 (group A1), unlike the remaining 14 out of 22 patients (group A2). All 12 patients belonging to control group B did not show any alteration. The mean mucosal perfusion calculated with LDPI showed an increase in both subgroups A1 and A2. In group B, no significant perfusion variations were observed. LDPI may support omPT for diagnostic purposes in Ni allergic contact mucositis. This also applies to symptomatic Ni-sensitive patients without aphthous stomatitis after 24-48 h from omPT and that could risk to miss the diagnosis. PMID:26899317

  4. Developing dissolution testing methodologies for extended-release oral dosage forms with supersaturating properties. Case example: Solid dispersion matrix of indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Tomokazu; Morita, Shigeaki; Sakamoto, Ryosaku; Mimura, Hisahi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Reppas, Christos; Kitamura, Satoshi

    2015-07-25

    The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro dissolution test method with discrimination ability for an extended-release solid dispersion matrix of a lipophilic drug using the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Apparatus 4, flow-through cell apparatus. In the open-loop configuration, the sink condition was maintained by manipulating the flow rate of the dissolution medium. To evaluate the testing conditions, the drug release mechanism from an extended-release solid dispersion matrix containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers was investigated. As the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) maintained concentrations of indomethacin higher than the solubility in a dissolution medium, the release of HPMC into the dissolution medium was also quantified using size-exclusion chromatography. We concluded that the USP Apparatus 4 is suitable for application to an in vitro dissolution method for orally administered extended-release solid dispersion matrix formulations containing poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:26022889

  5. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, “swab2know,” was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention’s acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. Methods This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper–pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. Results A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral

  6. Effects of an Oral Testing Accommodation on the Mathematics Performance of Secondary Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the performance of students with and without learning disabilities (LD) on a mathematics test using a standard administration procedure and a read-aloud accommodation. Analyses were conducted on the test scores of 625 middle and high school students (n = 388 with LD) on two equivalent 30-item multiple-choice tests. Whereas mean…

  7. Investigating the Validity of an Integrated Listening-Speaking Task: A Discourse-Based Analysis of Test Takers' Oral Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Kellie; Elder, Catherine; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Performance on integrated tasks requires candidates to engage skills and strategies beyond language proficiency alone, in ways that can be difficult to define and measure for testing purposes. While it has been widely recognized that stimulus materials impact test performance, our understanding of the way in which test takers make use of these…

  8. Oral heparins.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Linda M

    2002-01-01

    The antithrombotic drug heparin is administered parenterally and believed not effective orally. Oral heparin would be most suitable for long term administration, often required for the prevention of thrombosis. Following parenteral administration, heparin is taken up by endothelial cells. Our laboratory has shown that heparin is similarly taken up by endothelium following oral administration, despite low plasma heparin concentrations. In a twenty-four hour period, endothelial heparin concentrations are greatest within 15 minutes of oral dosing although plasma levels never exceed one percent of dose. Endothelial uptake accounts for a considerable amount of absorption if the total body endothelium is considered. In support of oral heparin absorption, we demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in thrombosis incidence in a rat jugular vein model following single oral doses of unfractionated heparins (bovine and porcine) or low molecular weight heparins (reviparin, logiparin and ardeparin). Low molecular weight heparins were effective at lower doses than unfractionated heparins where a fifty percent reduction in thrombosis was observed with 0.025 mg/kg reviparin, 0.1 mg/kg logiparin, versus 7.5 mg/kg bovine unfractionated heparin. These studies support the work of others demonstrating measurable systemic changes following oral heparin administration and suggest that heparin may be effective when administered by the oral route. It also indicates that the presence of heparin in plasma likely reflects a much greater amount associated with endothelium. PMID:11934211

  9. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  10. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  11. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  12. Emotion Control Values and Responding to an Anger Provocation inAsian-American and European-American Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mauss, Iris B.; Butler, Emily A.; Roberts, Nicole A.; Chu, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined whether Asian-American (AA) versus European-American (EA) women differed in experiential, expressive, or autonomic physiological responding to a laboratory anger provocation and assessed the mediating role of values about emotional control. Results indicate that AA participants reported and behaviorally displayed less anger than EA participants, while there were no group differences in physiological responses. Observed differences in emotional responses were partially mediated by emotion control values, suggesting a potential mechanism for effects of cultural background on anger responding. PMID:21116444

  13. Comparison of early exercise treadmill test and oral dipyridamole thallium-201 tomography for the identification of jeopardized myocardium in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute Q-wave myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.; Hicks, R.R.; Frantz, D.M.; Myers, G.H.; Rowe, M.W. )

    1990-09-01

    Thrombolytic therapy has become the treatment of choice for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Researchers are not yet able to identify patients with salvage of myocardium who are at risk for recurrent coronary events. Thus, a prospective trial was performed in 46 patients with myocardial infarction (28 anterior and 18 inferior) who received thrombolytic therapy to determine if early thallium tomography (4.7 days) using oral dipyridamole would identify more patients with residual ischemia than early symptom-limited exercise treadmill tests (5.5 days). There were no complications during the exercise treadmill tests or oral dipyridamole thallium tomography. Mean duration of exercise was 11 +/- 3 minutes and the peak heart rate was 126 beats/min. Thirteen patients had positive test results. After oral dipyridamole all patients had abnormal thallium uptake on the early images. Positive scans with partial filling in of the initial perfusion defects were evident in 34 patients. Angina developed in 13 patients and was easily reversed with intravenous aminophylline. Both symptom-limited exercise treadmill tests and thallium tomography using oral dipyridamole were safely performed early after myocardial infarction in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy. Thallium tomography identified more patients with residual ischemia than exercise treadmill tests (74 vs 28%). Further studies are required to determine whether the results of thallium tomography after oral dipyridamole can be used to optimize patient management and eliminate the need for coronary angiography in some patients.

  14. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  15. Transgenic mice as an alternative to monkeys for neurovirulence testing of live oral poliovirus vaccine: validation by a WHO collaborative study.

    PubMed Central

    Dragunsky, Eugenia; Nomura, Tatsuji; Karpinski, Kazimir; Furesz, John; Wood, David J.; Pervikov, Yuri; Abe, Shinobu; Kurata, Takeshi; Vanloocke, Olivier; Karganova, Galina; Taffs, Rolf; Heath, Alan; Ivshina, Anna; Levenbook, Inessa

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Extensive WHO collaborative studies were performed to evaluate the suitability of transgenic mice susceptible to poliovirus (TgPVR mice, strain 21, bred and provided by the Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Japan) as an alternative to monkeys in the neurovirulence test (NVT) of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). METHODS: Nine laboratories participated in the collaborative study on testing neurovirulence of 94 preparations of OPV and vaccine derivatives of all three serotypes in TgPVR21 mice. FINDINGS: Statistical analysis of the data demonstrated that the TgPVR21 mouse NVT was of comparable sensitivity and reproducibility to the conventional WHO NVT in simians. A statistical model for acceptance/rejection of OPV lots in the mouse test was developed, validated, and shown to be suitable for all three vaccine types. The assessment of the transgenic mouse NVT is based on clinical evaluation of paralysed mice. Unlike the monkey NVT, histological examination of central nervous system tissue of each mouse offered no advantage over careful and detailed clinical observation. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data from the collaborative studies the WHO Expert Committee for Biological Standardization approved the mouse NVT as an alternative to the monkey test for all three OPV types and defined a standard implementation process for laboratories that wish to use the test. This represents the first successful introduction of transgenic animals into control of biologicals. PMID:12764491

  16. Cross-sectional study of community serostatus to highlight undiagnosed HIV infections with oral fluid HIV-1/2 rapid test in non-conventional settings.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Vidoni, Gianmarino; Clemente, Felice; Mabellini, Chiara; Belloni, Teresa; Nozza, Silvia; Brignolo, Livia; Negri, Silvia; Rusconi, Stefano; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2013-04-01

    The submerged portion of undiagnosed HIV infection in Italy is about 30% of subjects found seropositive. This fact represents one of the most important public health problems hindering the control of infection progression. This means we need to fight unawareness and social stigma and promote easy and friendly access to HIV test. We developed a Prevention Program called “EASY test Project”, offering a new rapid HIV test on oral fluid, to evaluate the acceptability of an alternative, free and anonymous test available in different settings (on board a “Motor Home” at public events, Points of Care, STDs outpatient prevention units and GP surgeries). From December 2008 to December 2012 we performed 7,865 HIV saliva tests, with 50 new infections found (0.6% of the total) out of 140,000 informed subjects. From the self-reported characteristics of respondents, the population approaching the EAST test project was represented by males (70%) aged between 20 and 50 years, 61% with a medium-high education level, 62% homosexuals (MSM), 88% reported unsafe sexual behaviours, and 48% had never undergone an HIV screening test. In five years of the Prevention Program, 100% of subjects interviewed gave a general favorable consent in approaching rapid and not invasive screening, immediate return of the result, and a timely specialized approach and treatment of HIV positive subjects. Results from our study confirm that the rapid and alternative test may contribute to HIV prevention strategies and to the control of the spread of infection and HIV disease progression by reaching a larger population, particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain or are not preferred. PMID:23686118

  17. The Uptake of Screening for Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes by Means of Glycated Hemoglobin versus the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among 18 to 60-Year-Old People of South Asian Origin: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vlaar, Everlina M. A.; Nierkens, Vera; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct comparisons of the effect of a glycated haemoglobin measurement or an oral glucose tolerance test on the uptake and yield of screening in people of South Asian origin have not been made. We evaluated this in 18 to 60-year-old South Asian Surinamese. Materials and Methods We invited 3173 South Asian Surinamese for an oral glucose tolerance test between June 18th 2009- December 31st 2009 and 2012 for a glycated hemoglobin measurement between April 19th 2010-November 11th, 2010. Participants were selected from 48 general practices in The Hague, The Netherlands. We used mixed models regression to analyse differences in response and participation between the groups. We described differences in characteristics of participants and calculated the yield as the percentage of all cases identified, if all invitees had been offered screening with the specified method. Results The response and participation in the glycated hemoglobin group was higher than in the group offered an oral glucose tolerance test (participation 23.9 vs. 19.3; OR: 1.30, 95%-confidence interval1.01–1.69). After adjustment for age and sex, characteristics of participants were similar for both groups. Overall, glycated hemoglobin identified a similar percentage of type 2 diabetes cases but a higher percentage of prediabetes cases, in the population than the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusion We found that glycated hemoglobin and the oral glucose tolerance test may be equally efficient for identification of type 2 diabetes in populations of South Asian origin. However, for programs aimed at identifying people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (i.e. with prediabetes), the oral glucose tolerance test may be a less efficient choice than glycated hemoglobin. PMID:26317417

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  19. Personality and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  20. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  2. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  3. Methylprednisolone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  4. Dexamethasone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  5. Hydrocortisone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  6. Provocative diskography: safety and predictive value in the outcome of spinal fusion or pain intervention for chronic low-back pain

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    There is still no clear definition of diskogenic low-back pain and no consensus on a generally agreed test, such as provocative diskography (PD), to diagnose painful disk degeneration, and probably more importantly, to predict the outcome of therapy intended to reduce pain that is presumed to be diskogenic in nature. Nevertheless, PD is the most specific procedure to diagnose diskogenic low-back pain. Its accuracy, however, is rather low or at best unknown. Although rare, the most prevalent complication, postdiskography diskitis, can be devastating for the individual patient, so all measures, like strict sterile conditions and antibiotic prophylaxis, should be taken to avoid this complication. It is advised to perform the procedure in a pressure-controlled way with a constant low flow, and optionally computed tomography imaging. PD should not be performed in morphologically normal disks. A standardized execution of the test should be established in order to perform high-quality studies to determine its accuracy to lead to meaningful interventions, and find best practices for diagnosis and treatment of diskogenic back pain. Possibly, PD may have detrimental effects on the disk, causing early degeneration, although it is unknown whether this will be related to clinical symptoms. Especially with these possible adverse side effects in mind, the risk–benefit ratio with the lack of clear benefits from treatments provided, and possible complications of disk puncture, the rationale for PD is questionable, which should be stressed to patients in the process of shared decision making. Diskography as a stand-alone test is not recommended in clinical decision making for patients with chronic low-back pain. PMID:25506242

  7. Head exposure system for a human provocation study to assess the possible influence of UMTS-like electromagnetic fields on cerebral blood circulation using near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Hugo; Pollara, Laurent; Spichtig, Sonja; Kühn, Sven; Wolf, Martin

    2012-02-01

    A head exposure setup for efficient and precisely defined exposure of human subjects equipped with a near-infrared imaging (NIRI) sensor is presented. In a partially shielded anechoic chamber the subjects were exposed to Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)-like electromagnetic fields (EMF) by using a patch antenna at a distance of 4 cm from the head. The non-contact design of the exposure setup enabled NIRI sensors to easily attach to the head. Moreover, different regions of the head were chosen for localised exposure and simultaneous NIRI investigation. The control software enabled the simple adaptation of the test parameters during exploratory testing as well as the performance of controlled, randomised, crossover and double-blind provocation studies. Four different signals with a carrier frequency of 1900 MHz were chosen for the exposure: a simple continuous wave signal and three different UMTS signals. Furthermore, three exposure doses were available: sham, low (spatial peak specific absorption rate (SAR) = 0.18 W/kg averaged over 10 g) and high (spatial peak SAR = 1.8 W/kg averaged over 10 g). The SAR assessment was performed by measurement and simulation. Direct comparison of measurement and numerical results showed good agreement in terms of spatial peak SAR and SAR distribution. The variability analysis of the spatial peak SAR over 10 g was assessed by numerical simulations. Maximal deviations of -22% and +32% from the nominal situation were observed. Compared to other exposure setups, the present setup allows for low exposure uncertainty, combined with high SAR efficiency, easy access for the NIRI sensor and minimal impairment of test subjects. PMID:21842517

  8. Practicability of patient self-testing of oral anticoagulant therapy by the international normalized ratio (INR) using a portable whole blood monitor. A pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Hasenkam, J M; Knudsen, L; Kimose, H H; Grønnesby, H; Attermann, J; Andersen, N T; Pilegaard, H K

    1997-01-01

    The prophylactic efficacy of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) has been demonstrated in a number of clinical conditions with increased tendency to thromboembolism, and the number of individuals subjected to OAT in the industrialised world has increased substantially in recent years. Since this therapy requires considerable resources from both the health care system and the patients, the feasibility of patients' self-monitoring and self-management of OAT has been investigated (1,2,3). The anticipated advantages of this approach include improved convenience and compliance for the patient, who may increase his apprehension for managing the treatment. In addition, self-testing allows for more frequent control compared to the conventional out-patient approach. Importantly, a prerequisite for conceiving a safe and operational concept for patient self-management (PSM) is the availability of a portable INR monitoring system with an accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and long-term reliability comparable to standard coagulometric equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a commercially available INR-monitor. CoaguChek, for patient self-testing, through a step-wise investigation of the performance characteristics of the equipment in the laboratory, in command of the patient, and during self-testing and self-adjustment of treatment at home. Laboratory INR values were used as reference. PMID:8983128

  9. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Intravenous and Oral Topiramate and Its Effect on the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test in Adult Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chay Ngee; Birnbaum, Angela K; Brundage, Richard C; Leppik, Ilo E; Cloyd, James C; Clark, Annie; Marino, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    A sequential pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach was used to quantify the effects of a single dose of topiramate (100 or 200 mg) on working memory, attention, and psychomotor speed as measured by the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Established on data pooled from 3 randomized, crossover studies in healthy subjects (19-55 years of age), using both oral and a novel stable-labeled intravenous (IV) formulation of topiramate, an inhibitory Emax model was found to characterize the topiramate concentration-SDMT score relationship well. At the EC50 of 2.85 μg/mL, this topiramate plasma concentration value was estimated to be associated with a 25.5% reduction of SDMT score relative to baseline. Age was an important determinant of the baseline SDMT score, with an estimated decrease of 1.13% in baseline SDMT score with every year of age. Moreover, this approach enabled the quantification of the practice effect observed with repeated administration of the neuropsychological test over shorter testing intervals than have previously been reported in the literature. The finding of a significant effect following a single dose of topiramate in the range widely used to treat migraine and epilepsy needs to be evaluated in a broader patient population undergoing chronic treatment, as the narrow range of resultant concentrations limits the generalizability of the findings. PMID:26395889

  10. Human Exposure Estimates and Oral Equivalents of In Vitro Bioactivity for Prioritizing, Monitoring and Testing of Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput, lower-cost, in vitro toxicity testing is currently being evaluated for use in prioritization and eventually for predicting in vivo toxicity. Interpreting in vitro data in the context of in vivo human relevance remains a formidable challenge. A key component in us...

  11. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. PMID:26347060

  12. Correlations between Perceived Oral Malodor Levels and Self-Reported Oral Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Ishii, Kurumi; Tomita, Sachiyo; Tatsuta, Chihiro; Sugiyama, Toshiko; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Even though objective data indicating the absence of oral malodor are presented to patients, they may be skeptical about the results, possibly due to the presence of some discomfort in the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association among self-perceptions of oral malodor, oral complaints, and the actual oral malodor test result. Materials and Methods. Questions concerning self-perceptions of oral malodor and subjective intraoral symptoms were extracted from a questionnaire on oral malodor completed by 363 subjects who visited the clinic for oral malodor of Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital and gave consent to this study. In addition, the association of self-perception of oral malodor with values obtained after organoleptic and OralChroma measurement was analyzed. Results. No correlation between 195 subjects (54%) who were judged “with oral malodor” (organoleptic score of ≥1) and 294 subjects (81.6%) who had a self-perceptions of oral malodor was observed. Self-perception of oral malodor was significantly correlated with tongue coating (p = 0.002) and a strange intraoral taste (p = 0.016). Conclusions. Subjects with a self-perception of oral malodor were not necessarily consistent with those actually having an oral malodor. In addition, it was suggested that patients became aware of oral malodor when they felt oral complaints. PMID:26273303

  13. Evaluation of Fasting State-/Oral Glucose Tolerance Test-Derived Measures of Insulin Release for the Detection of Genetically Impaired β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Guthoff, Martina; Kantartzis, Konstantinos; Machicao, Fausto; Stefan, Norbert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced) fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. Methodology/Principal Findings A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05). The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset) were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC)Insulin(0-30)/AUCGlucose(0-30) as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUCInsulin(0-30)/AUCGlucose(0-30), corrected insulin response (CIR), AUCC-Peptide(0-30)/AUCGlucose(0-30), AUCC-Peptide(0-120)/AUCGlucose(0-120), two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0–30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI)2 and IGI1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05). AUCC-Peptide(0-120)/AUCGlucose(0-120) was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. Conclusions/Significance With AUCInsulin(0-30)/AUCGlucose(0

  14. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant rhesus macaques as a model to test antiretroviral drug prophylaxis and therapy: oral 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine prevents SIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, K K; Marthas, M L; Ramos, R A; Mandell, C P; McGowan, E K; Joye, S M; Pedersen, N C

    1992-01-01

    The prophylactic and therapeutic properties of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection were tested in four 3-month-old rhesus macaques. The infant monkeys were inoculated intravenously with a low dose (1 to 10 100% animal infectious doses) of uncloned SIVmac. The monkeys were treated orally with 50 mg of AZT per kg of body weight every 8 h; two animals were started on treatment 2 h prior to virus inoculation, and two animals were started on treatment 6 weeks later. All four animals were treated for a period of 6 to 10 weeks. Outward signs of AZT toxicity were absent, but a mild macrocytic anemia occurred soon after therapy was started and resolved shortly after it was discontinued. The two infants that were begun on AZT treatment 2 h prior to virus inoculation never became infected, as demonstrated by the inability to detect cell-free or cell-associated virus in the blood, proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or anti-SIV antibodies. AZT administration over a 10-week period had no detectable effect on the course of disease in the two animals that were begun on treatment after the infection had been established. In addition to demonstrating the prophylactic effect of AZT against low-dose SIV exposure, the study demonstrated the ease with which infant rhesus macaques can be used for antiretroviral drug testing. Images PMID:1489181

  15. Effect on morphology, oxidative stress and energy metabolism enzymes in the testes of mice after a 13-week oral administration of melamine and cyanuric acid combination.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingjun; Liu, Zhijun; Tian, Yujie; Chen, Hongbo

    2013-03-01

    Cases of pet poisoning and infant renal calculus have attracted much attention to the toxicity of melamine and its derivatives, such as cyanuric acid. Although individually melamine and cyanuric acid have low toxicity, their simultaneous presence can cause severe damage. Little is known about their adverse effects on the reproductive system. In this study, mice were orally administrated 1, 5 or 25 mg/kg/d of both melamine and cyanuric acid for 13 weeks. Lethargy, rough hair, and reduction of food and water intake and of body and testis weight were found after exposure to the combination, and pathological changes were found in the morphology of the testes, such as disruption of the seminiferous tubule structure, decrease of the spermatogenic cell series and coagulation necrosis. Total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione concentration was lower and malondialdehyde concentration was higher than in control mice. The activities of malate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were also lower in combination treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that the combined exposure to both melamine and cyanuric acid damaged testes in mice by either a direct or indirect effect, which may be related to renal failure and secondary anorexia. Oxidative stress and lower energy production levels both contributed to the testicular damage. PMID:23220542

  16. Acute oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. PMID:27343961

  17. The Influence of Assessor Training on Rater-as-Interlocutor Behaviour during a Computer-Resourced Oral Proficiency Interview-Cum-Discussion (OPI/D) Known as the "Five Star Test." Paper II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John D. E.

    This paper considers the influence of the values and the discourse behaviors of the native-speaking assessor as interlocutor. These variables in the assessments of oral proficiency interrelate in complex ways with features of test design such as tasks, prompts, topics, guidelines, and assessor training. This paper reviews some previous studies,…

  18. Importance of Heparin Provocation and SPECT/CT in Detecting Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding on 99mTc-RBC Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Gheisari, Farshid; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine. The results of frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and colonoscopies as well as both 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC) and Meckel's scintigraphies for several times were negative in detection of bleeding site. However, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) after heparin augmentation detected a site of bleeding in the distal ileum which later was confirmed during surgery with final diagnosis of angiodysplasia. It could be stated that heparin provocation of bleeding before 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy accompanied by fused SPECT/CT images should be kept in mind for management of intestinal bleeding especially in difficult cases. PMID:26313771

  19. Neural correlates associated with symptom provocation in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder after a single session of sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pedapati, Ernest; DiFrancesco, Mark; Wu, Steve; Giovanetti, Cathy; Nash, Tiffany; Mantovani, Antonio; Ammerman, Robert; Harris, Elana

    2015-09-30

    Treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could be enhanced if the physiological changes engendered by treatment were known. This study examined neural correlates of a provocation task in youth with OCD, before and after sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We hypothesized that rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex would inhibit activity in cortico-striato-thalamic (CST) circuits associated with OCD to a greater extent than sham rTMS. After baseline (Time 1) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a provocation task, subjects received one session of either fMRI-guided sham (SG; n=8) or active (AG; n=10) 1-Hz rTMS over the rDLPFC for 30min. During rTMS, subjects were presented with personalized images that evoked OCD-related anxiety. Following stimulation, fMRI and the provocation task were repeated (Time 2). Contrary to our prediction for the provocation task, the AG was associated with no changes in BOLD response from Times 1 to 2. In contrast, the SG had a significant increase at Time 2 in BOLD response in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right putamen, which persisted after adjusting for age, gender, and time to scanner as covariates. This study provides an initial framework for TMS interrogation of the CST circuit in pediatric OCD. PMID:26228567

  20. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  1. Peripheral disc margin shape and internal disc derangement: imaging correlation in significantly painful discs identified at provocation lumbar discography.

    PubMed

    Bartynski, W S; Rothfus, W E

    2012-06-01

    Annular margin shape is used to characterize lumbar disc abnormality on CT/MR imaging studies. Abnormal discs also have internal derangement including annular degeneration and radial defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between disc-margin shape and annular internal derangement on post-discogram CT in significantly painful discs encountered at provocation lumbar discography (PLD). Significantly painful discs were encountered at 126 levels in 86 patients (47 male, 39 female) studied by PLD where no prior surgery had been performed and response to intradiscal lidocaine after provocation resulted in either substantial/total relief or no improvement after lidocaine administration. Post-discogram CT and discogram imaging was evaluated for disc-margin characteristics (bulge/protrusion), features of disc internal derangement (radial annular defect [RD: radial tear/fissure/annular gap], annular degeneration) and presence/absence of discographic contrast leakage. In discs with focal protrusion, 50 of 63 (79%) demonstrated Grade 3 RD with 13 (21%) demonstrating severe degenerative change only. In discs with generalized-bulge-only, 48 of 63 (76%) demonstrated degenerative change only (primarily Dallas Grade 3) with 15 of 63 (24%) demonstrating a RD (Dallas Grade 3). Differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Pain elimination with intra-discal lidocaine correlated with discographic contrast leakage (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape correlates with features of internal derangement in significantly painful discs encountered at PLD. Discs with focal protrusion typically demonstrate RD while generalized bulging discs typically demonstrated degenerative changes only (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape may provide an important imaging clue to the cause of chronic discogenic low back pain. PMID:22681741

  2. Peripheral Disc Margin Shape and Internal Disc Derangement: Imaging Correlation in Significantly Painful Discs Identified at Provocation Lumbar Discography

    PubMed Central

    Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Annular margin shape is used to characterize lumbar disc abnormality on CT/MR imaging studies. Abnormal discs also have internal derangement including annular degeneration and radial defects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between disc-margin shape and annular internal derangement on post-discogram CT in significantly painful discs encountered at provocation lumbar discography (PLD). Significantly painful discs were encountered at 126 levels in 86 patients (47 male, 39 female) studied by PLD where no prior surgery had been performed and response to intradiscal lidocaine after provocation resulted in either substantial/total relief or no improvement after lidocaine administration. Post-discogram CT and discogram imaging was evaluated for disc-margin characteristics (bulge/protrusion), features of disc internal derangement (radial annular defect [RD: radial tear/fissure/annular gap], annular degeneration) and presence/absence of discographic contrast leakage. In discs with focal protrusion, 50 of 63 (79%) demonstrated Grade 3 RD with 13 (21%) demonstrating severe degenerative change only. In discs with generalized-bulge-only, 48 of 63 (76%) demonstrated degenerative change only (primarily Dallas Grade 3) with 15 of 63 (24%) demonstrating a RD (Dallas Grade 3). Differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Pain elimination with intra-discal lidocaine correlated with discographic contrast leakage (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape correlates with features of internal derangement in significantly painful discs encountered at PLD. Discs with focal protrusion typically demonstrate RD while generalized bulging discs typically demonstrated degenerative changes only (p<0.001). Disc-margin shape may provide an important imaging clue to the cause of chronic discogenic low back pain. PMID:22681741

  3. Academic Bias in Language Testing: A Construct Validity Critique of the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSwan, Jeff; Mahoney, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity concerns for the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT-S) as a measure of native oral language proficiency are examined. The examination included describing a subset of items that contributes most to overall score and native-language proficiency designation. Correlations between this subset of items and the overall…

  4. New head exposure system for use in human provocation studies with EEG recording during GSM900- and UMTS-like exposure.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Gernot; Cecil, Stefan; Goger, Christoph; Trimmel, Michael; Kuster, Niels; Molla-Djafari, Hamid

    2007-12-01

    A new head exposure system for double blinded human provocation studies, which requires EEG recording during exposure with GSM900- and UMTS-like signals has been developed and dosimetrically evaluated. The system uses planar patch antennas fixed at 65 mm distance from the subject's head by a special headset, which provides minimum impairment of the test subjects and ensures an almost constant position of the antennas with respect to the head, even in case of head movements. Compared to exposure concepts operating small antennas in close proximity to the head, the concept of planar antennas at a certain distance from the head produces a much more homogeneous SAR distribution in the temporal and parietal lobe of the brain. At the same time the resulting uncertainty of exposure due to variations in head size, variations of the dielectric properties of tissues and unavoidable small changes of the antenna's position with respect to the head, is reduced to the order of approximately 3 dB, which is a significant improvement to comparable head exposure systems reported in literature in the past. To avoid electromagnetic interference on the EEG recording caused by the incident RF-field an appropriate double-shielded filter circuit has been developed. Furthermore, the effect of the presence of the sintered Ag/AgCl EEG electrodes and electrode wires on the SAR distribution inside the head has been investigated and was found to be minimal if the electrode wires are arranged orthogonal to the incident electric field vector. EEG electrode arrangement parallel to the incident field vector, however, might cause drastic changes in the SAR distribution inside the head. PMID:17654486

  5. The performance of hemoglobin A1c against fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance test in detecting prediabetes and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, Jale; Akin, Safak; Karagaoglu, Ergun; Gurlek, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is accepted among the algorithms used for making diagnosis for diabetes and prediabetes since it does not require subjects to be prepared for giving a blood sample. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of HbA1c against fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in detecting prediabetes and diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 315 subjects were included in this study. The success of HbA1c in distinguishing the three diagnostic classes was examined by three-way receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The best cut-off points for HbA1c were found for discriminating the three disease status. Results: The performance of HbA1c, measured by the volume under the ROC surface (VUS), is found to be statistically significant (VUS = 0.535, P < 0.001). The best cut-off points for discriminating between normal and prediabetes groups and between prediabetes and diabetes groups are c1 = 5.2% and c2 = 6.4% respectively. Conclusion: The performance of HbA1c in distinguishing between the prediabetes and diabetes groups was higher than its ability in distinguishing between healthy and prediabetes groups. This study provides enough information to understand what proportion of diabetes patients were skipped with the HbA1c especially when the test result is healthy or prediabetes. If a subject was diagnosed as healthy or prediabetes by HbA1c, it would be beneficial to verify the status of that subject by the gold standard test (OGTT and FPG). PMID:25657750

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  7. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  8. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  9. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  10. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  11. Development and usability testing of a web-based self-management intervention for oral cancer survivors and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Badr, H; Lipnick, D; Diefenbach, M A; Posner, M; Kotz, T; Miles, B; Genden, E

    2016-09-01

    Oral cancer (OC) survivors experience debilitating side effects that affect their quality of life (QOL) and that of their caregivers. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a dyadic, web-based intervention to improve survivor self-management and survivor/caregiver QOL. A qualitative needs assessment (semi-structured interviews) with 13 OC survivors and 12 caregivers was conducted to discern information and support needs as well as preferences regarding website features and tools. Results using Grounded Theory analysis showed that OC survivors and caregivers: (1) want and need practical advice about managing side effects; (2) want to reach out to other survivors/caregivers for information and support; and (3) have both overlapping and unique needs and preferences regarding website features. Usability testing (N = 6 survivors; 5 caregivers) uncovered problems with the intuitiveness, navigation and design of the website that were subsequently addressed. Users rated the website favourably on the dimensions of attractiveness, controllability, efficiency, intuitiveness and learnability, and gave it a total usability score of 80/100. Overall, this study demonstrates that OC survivors and caregivers are interested in using an online programme to improve QOL, and that providing tailored website content and features based on the person's role as survivor or caregiver is important in this population. PMID:26507369

  12. Simple and rapid assay for effect of the new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) rivaroxaban: preliminary results support further tests with all NOACs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New oral anticoagulant (NOAC) drugs are known to influence the results of some routine hemostasis tests. Further data are needed to enable routine assessment of the effects of NOAC on clotting parameters in some special circumstances. Methods Following administration of rivaroxaban to patients, at the likely peak and trough activity times, we assessed the effects on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and clotting time using Russell’s viper venom, and in the presence of phospholipids and calcium reagent available as DVVreagent® and DVVconfirm®. The data were used to determine an adequate NOAC plasma level based on anticoagulant activities expressed as a ratio (patients/normal, R-C). Results DVVconfirm as R-C could be rapidly performed, and the results were reasonably sensitive for rivaroxaban and probably for other FX inhibitors. This assay is not influenced by lupus anticoagulant and heparin, does not require purified NOAC as control, and will measure whole-plasma clotting activity. Conclusions We propose a cut-off R-C value of 4.52 ± 0.33 for safety, but clinical studies are needed to establish whether this cut-off is useful for identifying patients at increased risk of hemorrhage or exhibiting low anticoagulation effect. It also seems possible that normal R-C could indicate an absence of anticoagulant activity when rivaroxaban is discontinued due to episodes of uncontrolled bleeding during anticoagulation or for emergency surgery. PMID:24656069

  13. Atopy patch tests are useful to predict oral tolerance in children with gastrointestinal symptoms related to non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Nocerino, R; Granata, V; Di Costanzo, M; Pezzella, V; Leone, L; Passariello, A; Terrin, G; Troncone, R; Berni Canani, R

    2013-02-01

    Atopy patch tests (APTs) have been proposed for the diagnostic approach in children with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and gastrointestinal symptoms. We aimed to investigate the benefit of APTs in predicting oral tolerance in these patients. We prospectively evaluated 172 subjects with a sure diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated CMA and gastrointestinal symptoms (97 boys, 56.4%; age, 6.37 m; range, 2-12 m). At diagnosis, 113/172 (65.7%) children had positive APTs to cow's milk proteins (CMP). After 12 months of exclusion, diet APTs were repeated immediately before OFC. APTs significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with the OFC outcome (r 0.579). Diagnostic accuracy was sensitivity of 67.95%, specificity of 88.3%, PPV of 82.81%, NPV of 76.85%, and a +LR of 5.80. APTs are a valuable tool in the follow-up of children with non-IgE-mediated CMA-related gastrointestinal symptoms by contributing in determining whether an OFC can safely be undertaken. PMID:23205566

  14. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-Glucosaminidase Levels are Positively Correlated With 2-Hr Plasma Glucose Levels During Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masao; Motoyama, Masayuki; Ohara, Makoto; Suzuki, Kazunari; Igari, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion is increased in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study investigated when during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the plasma glucose, urine glucose, and insulin levels correlate most strongly with urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in prediabetic subjects. Methods The OGTT was administered to 80 subjects who had not yet received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in whom HbA1c levels were ≤6.8% and fasting plasma glucose levels were <7.0 mmol/l. Forty-two subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 31 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 7 had DM according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of cystatin C, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine (Cr) ratio, urinary and serum β2-microglobulin, and urinary NAG were measured as markers of renal function. Results NAG levels were significantly higher in subjects with DM and in subjects with IGT than in subjects with NGT. No significant associations were observed between glycemic status and other markers of renal function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the NAG level was positively correlated with plasma glucose levels at 120 min of the OGTT and was associated with the glycemic status of prediabetic patients. Conclusion These results suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent factor that causes renal tubular damage in prediabetes patients. PMID:23143631

  15. Prehepatic secretion and disposal of insulin in obese adolescents as estimated by three-hour, eight-sample oral glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Josef A; Domzig, Christian; Wabitsch, Martin; Denzer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The body compensates for early-stage insulin resistance by increasing insulin secretion. A reliable and easy-to-use mathematical assessment of insulin secretion and disposal could be a valuable tool for identifying patients at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Because the pathophysiology of insulin resistance is incompletely understood, assessing insulin metabolism with minimal assumptions regarding its metabolic regulation is a major challenge. To assess insulin secretion and indexes of insulin disposal, our marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) was applied to a sparse sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) protocol measuring the insulin and C-peptide concentrations. Identifiability and potential bias of metabolic parameters were estimated from published data with dense sampling. The MRA was applied to OGTT data from 135 obese adolescents to demonstrate its clinical applicability. Individual prehepatic basal and dynamic insulin secretion and clearance levels were determined with a precision and accuracy greater than 10% of the nominal value. The intersubject variability in these parameters was approximately four times higher than the intrasubject variability, and there was a strong negative correlation between prehepatic secretion and plasma clearance of insulin. MRA-based analysis provides reliable estimates of insulin secretion and clearance, thereby enabling detailed glucose homeostasis characterization based on restricted datasets that are obtainable during routine patient care. PMID:27143555

  16. Hair testing in postmortem diagnosis of substance abuse: An unusual case of slow-release oral morphine abuse in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Baillif-Couniou, Valérie; Kintz, Pascal; Sastre, Caroline; Pok, Phak-Rop Pos; Chèze, Marjorie; Pépin, Gilbert; Leonetti, Georges; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2015-11-01

    Morphine sulfate misuse is essentially observed among regular heroin injectors. To our knowledge, primary addiction to morphine sulfate is exceptional, especially among young adolescents. A 13-year-old girl, with no history of addiction, was found dead with three empty blisters of Skenan(®) LP 30 mg at her side. Opiates were detected in biological fluids and hair by chromatographic methods. Blood analyses confirmed morphine overdose (free morphine: 428 ng/mL; total morphine: 584 ng/mL) and segmental hair analysis confirmed regular exposure over several months (maximum morphine concentration 250 pg/mg). Suspecting the victim's mother of recreational use of Skenan(®), the magistrate ordered analysis of her hair, with negative results. From an epidemiological viewpoint, this case of oral morphine sulfate abuse in an adolescent with no previous history suggests the emergence of a new trend of morphine sulfate consumption. From a toxicological viewpoint, it demonstrates the value of hair testing, which documented the victim's regular exposure and made an important contribution to the police investigation. PMID:26492165

  17. Development and Usability Testing of a Web-based Self-management Intervention for Oral Cancer Survivors and their Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Hoda; Lipnick, Daniella; Diefenbach, Michael A; Posner, Marshall; Kotz, Tamar; Miles, Brett; Genden, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer (OC) survivors experience debilitating side effects that affect their quality of life (QOL) and that of their caregivers. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a dyadic, web-based intervention to improve survivor self-management and survivor/caregiver QOL. A qualitative needs assessment (semi-structured interviews) with 13 OC survivors and 12 caregivers was conducted to discern information and support needs as well as preferences regarding website features and tools. Results using Grounded Theory analysis showed that OC survivors and caregivers: 1) want and need practical advice about managing side effects; 2) want to reach out to other survivors/caregivers for information and support; and, 3) have both overlapping and unique needs and preferences regarding website features. Usability testing (N=6 survivors; 5 caregivers) uncovered problems with the intuitiveness, navigation, and design of the website that were subsequently addressed. Users rated the website favorably on the dimensions of attractiveness, controllability, efficiency, intuitiveness, and learnability, and gave it a total usability score of 80/100. Overall, this study demonstrates that OC survivors and caregivers are interested in using an online program to improve QOL, and that providing tailored website content and features based on the person’s role as survivor or caregiver is important in this population. PMID:26507369

  18. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Eik, W.; Marcon, S.S.; Krupek, T.; Previdelli, I.T.S.; Pereira, O.C.N.; Silva, M.A.R.C.P.; Bazotte, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  19. Chronic toxic and carcinogenic effects of oral cadmium in the Noble (NBL/Cr) rat: induction of neoplastic and proliferative lesions of the adrenal, kidney, prostate, and testes.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P; Anver, M R; Diwan, B A

    1999-10-29

    Based on the occurrence of pulmonary cancers in exposed populations, cadmium is classified as a human carcinogen. More controversial target sites for cadmium in humans include the prostate and kidney, where some studies have shown a link between cadmium and cancer. In Wistar rats cadmium induces tumors in the ventral prostate. The relevance of such lesions to humans is debated since the rat ventral lobe, unlike the dorsolateral lobe, has no embryological homolog in the human prostate. Cadmium has not been linked with renal tumors in rodents but is a potent nephrotoxin. In this work we studied the effects of oral cadmium in the Noble (NBL/Cr) rat with particular attention to proliferative lesions of the prostate and kidneys. Cadmium (as CdCl2) was given ad libitum throughout the study in the drinking water at doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm Cd to groups (initial n = 30) of male rats, which were observed for up to 102 wk. At the lower doses of cadmium (< or =50 ppm) a clear dose-related increase in total proliferative lesions of the prostate (ventral and dorsolateral lesions combined) occurred (0 ppm = 21% incidence, 25 ppm = 46%, 50 ppm = 50%; trend p < .03). These lesions were described as intraepithelial hyperplasia with occasional areas of atypical epithelial cells without stromal invasion. The lesions occurred primarily in the dorsolateral prostate with cadmium exposure and most frequently showed three or more foci within each specimen. At higher doses, prostatic proliferative lesions declined to control levels. The loss of prostatic response at the higher doses was likely due to diminished testicular function secondary to cadmium treatment. This was reflected in lesions indicative of testicular hypofunction at the highest cadmium dose, namely, interstitial cell hyperplasia, and a strong correlation between cadmium dose and total proliferative lesions of the testes (hyperplasias and tumors combined). Renal tumors (mainly mesenchymal and pelvic transitional

  20. Speak up! Oral Examinations and Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.

    2009-01-01

    Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their feet"…

  1. Curriculum-based measurement of oral reading (R-CBM): a diagnostic test accuracy meta-analysis of evidence supporting use in universal screening.

    PubMed

    Kilgus, Stephen P; Methe, Scott A; Maggin, Daniel M; Tomasula, Jessica L

    2014-08-01

    A great deal of research over the past decade has examined the appropriateness of curriculum-based measurement of oral reading (R-CBM) in universal screening. Multiple researchers have meta-analyzed available correlational evidence, yielding support for the interpretation of R-CBM as an indicator of general reading proficiency. In contrast, researchers have yet to synthesize diagnostic accuracy evidence, which pertains to the defensibility of the use of R-CBM for screening purposes. The overall purpose of this research was to therefore conduct the first meta-analysis of R-CBM diagnostic accuracy research. A systematic search of the literature resulted in the identification of 34 studies, including 20 peer-reviewed articles, 7 dissertations, and 7 technical reports. Bivariate hierarchical linear models yielded generalized estimates of diagnostic accuracy statistics, which predominantly exceeded standards for acceptable universal screener performance. For instance, when predicting criterion outcomes within a school year (≤9 months), R-CBM sensitivity ranged between .80 and .83 and specificity ranged between .71 and .73. Multiple moderators of R-CBM diagnostic accuracy were identified, including the (a) R-CBM cut score used to define risk, (b) lag in time between R-CBM and criterion test administration, and (c) percentile rank corresponding to the criterion test cut score through which students were identified as either truly at risk or not at risk. Follow-up analyses revealed substantial variability of extracted cut scores within grade and time of year (i.e., fall, winter, and spring). This result called into question the inflexible application of a single cut score across contexts and suggested the potential necessity of local cut scores. Implications for practices, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed. PMID:25107410

  2. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, S. V.; Tillin, T.; Mayet, J.; Shibata, D. K.; Wright, A.; Heasman, J.; Beauchamp, N.; Forouhi, N. G.; Hughes, A. D.; Chaturvedi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Aims We contrasted impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes) prevalence, defined according to oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and studied cross-sectional associations between prediabetes and subclinical/clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of European and South-Asian origin. Methods For 682 European and 520 South-Asian men and women, aged 58–85 years, glycaemic status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c thresholds. Questionnaires, record review, coronary artery calcification scores and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging established clinical plus subclinical coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Results Prediabetes was more prevalent in South Asian participants when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Accounting for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist–hip ratio, prediabetes was associated with coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in European participants, most obviously when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test [odds ratios for HbA1c-defined prediabetes 1.60 (95% CI 1.07, 2.39) for coronary heart disease and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.51) for cerebrovascular disease]. By contrast, non-significant associations were present between oral glucose tolerance test-defined prediabetes only and coronary heart disease [odds ratio 1.41 (95% CI 0.84, 2.36)] and HbA1c-defined prediabetes only and cerebrovascular disease [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 0.69, 2.78)] in South Asian participants. Prediabetes defined by HbA1c or oral glucose tolerance test criteria was associated with cardiovascular disease (defined as coronary heart and/or cerebrovascular disease) in Europeans [odds ratio 1.95 (95% CI 1.31, 2.91) for HbA1c prediabetes criteria] but not in South Asian participants [odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.62, 2.66); ethnicity interaction P=0.04]. Conclusions Prediabetes appeared to be less associated with cardiovascular disease in the

  3. Pharmacogenetics in Oral Antithrombotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maier, Cheryl L; Duncan, Alexander; Hill, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Certain antithrombotic drugs exhibit high patient-to-patient variability that significantly impacts the safety and efficacy of therapy. Pharmacogenetics offers the possibility of tailoring drug treatment to patients based on individual genotypes, and this type of testing has been recommended for 2 oral antithrombotic agents, warfarin and clopidogrel, to influence use and guide dosing. Limited studies have identified polymorphisms that affect the metabolism and activity of newer oral antithrombotic drugs, without clear evidence of the clinical relevance of such polymorphisms. This article provides an overview of the current status of pharmacogenetics in oral antithrombotic therapy. PMID:27514462

  4. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  5. Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Pharmacotherapy for Stable COPD: A Systematic Review of Effect on BODE Index and Six Minute Walk Test

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiankun; May, Brian; Di, Yuan Ming; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP) on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP) from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as ‘low’ risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] −0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.94, −0.47) and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92) in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials. PMID:24622390

  6. The relationship between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose levels of 75 and 100 gram oral glucose tolerance test during gestational diabetes diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mert, Meral; Purcu, Serhat; Soyluk, Ozlem; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Karakaya, Pinar; Tamer, Gonca; Adas, Mine; Ekin, Murat; Hatipoglu, Sami; Ure, Oznur Sari; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important issue in terms of prevention of maternal and fetal complications. In our study we aimed to evaluate the relation of HbA1c and blood glucose levels of 75 and 50-100 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant patients who were screened for GDM. Materials and methods: The parameters of 913 pregnant women screened for GDM are evaluated retrospectively. The two steps screening with 50-100 gram OGTT were used in 576 patients. The remaining 337 patients were screened with 75 gram OGTT. Results: The HbA1c levels of patients having high blood glucose (≥153 mg/dl) levels at 2nd hour in 75 gram OGTT were significantly higher than patients having normal blood glucose levels at 2nd hour of 75 gram OGTT (P=0.038). Correlation analyses showed no significant relation between any blood glucose level of 100 gram OGTT and HbA1c level. Whereas in 75 gram OGTT 1st and 2nd hour blood glucose levels were found to have a significant relation with A1c levels (P=0.001, P=0.001 respectively). Conclusion: HbA1c may be used as an important tool in the diagnosis of GDM. But due to the variation of HbA1c in pregnant women and there is not an absolute cut-off level for A1c, it may be more reliable to evaluate HbA1c level together with the blood glucose levels in OGTT. PMID:26550262

  7. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  8. New oral fat tolerance tests feature tailoring of the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio to elicit a specific postprandial response.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Mark J; Wright, Amanda J; Mazurak, Vera C; Graham, Terry E; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2007-12-01

    The impact of dietary fat on postprandial metabolic biomarkers for obesity-related chronic diseases, such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has received significant recent attention. However, there is no standard method to evaluate the postprandial response to dietary fat alone. Our goals were to develop a novel oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) consisting solely of emulsified lipids tailored for specific fatty acid compositions and to evaluate the functionality of specific ratios of polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) loading on postprandial triacylglyceride (TAG) concentrations. Two OFTTs of emulsified lipids were prepared with specific P/S ratios of 0.2 and 2.0. Physical characteristics of the fat blends, including TAG composition, melting point, and emulsion droplet size were quantified. Healthy, older (age>45 y) men (n=8) underwent an 8 h postprandial study wherein they received the OFTT treatment (either the P/S ratio of 0.2 or 2.0), with a total lipid load of 1 g/kg subject body mass. All subjects received both treatments separated by at least 1 week. Both the P/S 0.2 and 2.0 OFTT significantly elevated (p<0.05) blood TAG and free fatty acid concentrations for 8 h without increasing blood glucose or serum insulin concentrations. The predominant fatty acids contained in the P/S 0.2 (palmitic acid, 16:0) and 2.0 (linoleic acid, 18:2(n-6)) OFTT blends were significantly elevated in the blood (p<0.05) during their respective postprandial periods. We concluded that blood TAGs are elevated in a specific pattern through the administration of novel OFTTs with specific P/S blends without eliciting an insulin or glucose response. PMID:18059580

  9. Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE index and six minute walk test.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiankun; May, Brian; Di, Yuan Ming; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP) on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP) from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as 'low' risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] -0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.94, -0.47) and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92) in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials. PMID:24622390

  10. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  11. Diseases of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

  12. Rapid Detection of Visually Provocative Animals by Preschool Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penkunas, Michael J.; Coss, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect dangerous animals rapidly in complex landscapes has been historically important during human evolution. Previous research has shown that snake images are more readily detected than images of benign animals. To provide a stringent test of superior snake detection in preschool children and adults, Experiment 1 consisted of two…

  13. Source localization of late electrocortical positivity during symptom provocation in spider phobia: an sLORETA study.

    PubMed

    Scharmüller, Wilfried; Leutgeb, Verena; Schäfer, Axel; Köchel, Angelika; Schienle, Anne

    2011-06-23

    This symptom provocation study on spider phobia investigated sources of late event-related potentials (ERPs) using sLORETA (standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography). Twenty-five phobic female patients and 20 non-phobic controls were confronted with phobia-relevant, generally fear-inducing, disgust-inducing and affectively neutral pictures while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Mean amplitudes of ERPs were extracted in the time windows 340-500 ms (P300) and 550-770 ms (late positive potential, LPP). Phobics showed enhanced P300 and LPP amplitudes in response to spider pictures relative to controls. Sources were mainly located in areas engaged in visuo-attentional processing (occipital and parietal regions, ventral visual pathway). Moreover, there were sources in areas which are crucial for emotional processing and the representations of aversive bodily states (cingulate cortex, insula). Further sources were located in premotor areas reflecting the priming of flight behaviour. Our findings are in good accordance with existing brain imaging studies and underline that source localization is a useful alternative for identifying phobia-relevant cortical regions. PMID:21600565

  14. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  15. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  16. The European Community Study Group on diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome. Sensitivity and specificity of tests for ocular and oral involvement in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, C; Moutsopoulos, H M; Bombardieri, S

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To establish a definitive set of diagnostic criteria in a multicentre European study a selected number of oral and ocular tests were performed on a large number of patients with Sjögrens Syndrome (SS) and controls. The diagnostic accuracy of each test for patients with primary and secondary SS and for controls at different ages, was studied. METHODS--Each centre received a clinical chart describing the series of tests to be conducted. The tests included: questionnaires for dry eye and dry mouth symptoms, Schirmer's-I-test (ScT), tear fluid lactoferrin level (TFLL), break-up time (BUT) and rose Bengal score (RBS) for the eye evaluation; unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva collection (UWSC and SWSC), salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS), parotid sialography (PS) and minor salivary gland biopsy (MSGB) for oral involvement. RESULTS--Data from 22 centres and 11 countries was collected on a total of 447 patients with SS (246 with primary SS and 201 with secondary SS) and 246 controls (of whom 113 had a connective tissue disease without SS). Among the ocular symptoms, the feeling of dry eye and 'sand in the eye' were the ones most commonly recorded in patients with SS. Similarly, the feeling of dry mouth, appearing either spontaneously or when the patient was eating or breathing, was the most frequent subjective oral symptom. Among the ocular tests, ScT showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (76.9% and 72.4% respectively), while RBS was the most specific test (81.7%). ScT and RBS gave also sufficiently concordant results. TFLL and BUT gave considerably less reliable results, which were not concordant with each other or with the other ocular tests. The quantitative lacrimal tests ScT and TFLL produced significantly different results in elderly controls, while RBS did not. Abnormal results for all of the ocular tests were less marked and less frequent in patients with secondary SS than in those with primary SS. The oral tests (except SWSC) were

  17. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo. PMID:23246604

  18. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  19. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha; Mittal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, 15 in each of the following: normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used for the study. Immunohistochemical reaction for survivin protein was performed for the 4 µm thick histological sections taken on positively charged slides. Results. 20% normal mucosa cases, 53.33% cases of leukoplakia, and 80% of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found out to be survivin positive. One way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference of survivin expression between the three different groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion. A high incidence of survivin protein expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma samples indicate that survivin protein expression may be an early event in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26457223

  20. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. PMID:25943662

  1. Single oral dose toxicity test of polycalcium, a mixed composition of polycan and calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (G/G) in SD rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Wan; Choi, Jae-Suk; Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Ki-Young; Cho, Hyung-rae; Rha, Chae-hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2013-11-01

    The object of this study was to obtain acute oral toxicity information of Polycalcium, a mixed composition of Polycan and Calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (g/g), in Sprague-Dawely (SD) rats. In order to investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, Polycalcium were once orally administered to female and male SD rats at dose levels of 2000, 1000, 500 and 0 (control) mg/kg body weights. The mortality, changes on body weight and clinical signs were monitored during 14 days after treatment with gross observation, changes on the organ weights and histopathology of principle organs and treatment sites based on the recommendation of KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009]. As the results of single oral treatment of Polycalcium, no treatment related mortalities were observed within 14 days after end of treatment up to 2000 mg/kg, the limited dosage of rodents in the both genders. In addition, no Polycalcium treatment related changes on the body and organ weights, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings were detected. The results obtained in this study suggest that the Polycalcium is non-toxic in rats. The LD50 and approximate LD in rats after single oral dose of Polycalcium were considered over 2000 mg/kg in both female and male, respectively. PMID:24191319

  2. If I Read Better, Will I Score Higher ?: The Relationship between Oral Reading Fluency Instruction and Standardized Reading Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Chad H.

    2008-01-01

    The research study examined whether a difference existed between the reading achievement scores of an experimental group and a control group in standardized reading achievement. This difference measured the effect of systematic oral reading fluency instruction with repeated readings. Data from the 4Sight Pennsylvania Benchmark Reading Assessments…

  3. Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash “Jack Pro Spülung plus” (“rheodol-Spülung plus”) on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Jana; Müller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as “rheodol-Spülung plus”) is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02–0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004–0.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02–0.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement

  4. School based oral health promotional intervention: Effect on knowledge, practices and clinical oral health related parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gauba, Arjun; Bal, Ikreet Singh; Jain, Ashish; Mittal, Hitesh Chander

    2013-01-01

    Background: No organized school oral health program is existent in India. Aim: The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and efficacy of an economical school oral health promotional intervention with educational and preventive components. Settings and Design: School oral health promotional intervention carried out in one of the randomly selected school and evaluated through short duration prospective model. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children with an age range of 10-12 years with no previous history of dental intervention were enrolled. Interventions comprised of oral health education (delivered through lecture and demonstrations by an undergraduate dental student) and topical antibacterial therapy (fluoride varnish and povidone iodine). Outcomes consisted of Knowledge and practices (KAP) regarding oral health, clinical oral health related parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and caries activity as per Modified Snyder's test. These were reported at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination by a calibrated examiner. Statistical Analysis: McNemar Bowker's test, Student's t-test, Pearson Chi-square tests were used. Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements in KAP scores, PI scores, GI scores and caries activity were reported at 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination. Conclusion: This small economical school oral health program positively influenced oral health related practices and parameters of oral health such as oral cleanliness, gingival health and caries activity. PMID:24403795

  5. Altered blood oxygen level-dependent signal variability in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder during symptom provocation

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jun; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Xu, Qiang; Li, Weihui; Hou, Cailan; Zhong, Yuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; He, Zhong; Li, Lingjiang; Lu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that variability in brain signal provides important information about brain function in health and disease. However, it is unknown whether blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability is altered in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to identify the BOLD signal variability changes of PTSD patients during symptom provocation and compare the brain patterns of BOLD signal variability with those of brain activation. Methods Twelve PTSD patients and 14 age-matched controls, who all experienced a mining accident, underwent clinical assessment as well as fMRI scanning while viewing trauma-related and neutral pictures. BOLD signal variability and brain activation were respectively examined with standard deviation (SD) and general linear model analysis, and compared between the PTSD and control groups. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between PTSD symptom severity and these two brain measures across all subjects as well as in the PTSD group. Results PTSD patients showed increased activation in the middle occipital gyrus compared with controls, and an inverse correlation was found between PTSD symptom severity and brain activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex. Brain variability analysis revealed increased SD in the insula, anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex, and vermis, and decreased SD in the parahippocapal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, somatosensory cortex, and striatum. Importantly, SD alterations in several regions were found in both traumatic and neutral conditions and were stratified by PTSD symptom severity. Conclusion BOLD signal variability may be a reliable and sensitive biomarker of PTSD, and combining brain activation and brain variability analysis may provide complementary insight into the neural basis of this disorder. PMID:26229476

  6. Fasting Increases Tobramycin Oral Absorption in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    De Leo, Luigina; Di Toro, Nicola; Decorti, Giuliana; Malusà, Noelia; Ventura, Alessandro; Not, Tarcisio

    2010-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the aminoglycoside tobramycin was evaluated after oral administration to fed or fasting (15 h) mice. As expected, under normal feeding conditions, oral absorption was negligible; however, fasting induced a dramatic increase in tobramycin bioavailability. The dual-sugar test with lactulose and l-rhamnose confirmed increased small bowel permeability via the paracellular route in fasting animals. When experiments aimed at increasing the oral bioavailability of hydrophilic compounds are performed, timing of fasting should be extremely accurate. PMID:20086144

  7. Self-reported Oral Health, Oral Hygiene, and Oral HPV Infection in At-Risk Women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M.; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women at risk for sexually transmitted infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study design Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18–45 years between August–October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of two low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. Results A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (p=.001), reporting oral lesions/problems in the past year (p=.001), and reporting a tooth loss not because of injury (p=.001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrush per day (p=.047) and gargling without toothbrush (p=.037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (p=.042); yet, the frequency of toothbrush per day did not (p=.704). Conclusion Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. PMID:26093681

  8. Tensilon test

    MedlinePlus

    Myasthenia gravis-tensilon ... Tensilon tests to help tell the difference between myasthenia gravis and other conditions. ... The test helps: Diagnose myasthenia gravis Tell the difference between ... conditions Monitor treatment with oral anticholinesterase ...

  9. 40 CFR 798.2650 - Oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral toxicity. 798.2650 Section 798.2650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2650 Oral toxicity. (a) Purpose. In the assessment and evaluation of...

  10. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Ruscello, Dennis M.

    Although speech-language pathologists are expected to be able to administer and interpret oral examinations, there are currently no screening tests available that provide careful administration instructions and data for intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE) is designed primarily for…

  11. Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Jennifer; Friedman, Fran

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Oral and Written Language Scales, an assessment of receptive and expressive language for children and young adults aged 3 to 21. The test assesses overall language skills and specific performance in oral expression, listening comprehension, and written expression. Its administration, standardization, reliability, and…

  12. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  13. Flow Cytometry-Assisted Basophil Activation Test as a Safe Diagnostic Tool for Aspirin/NSAID Hypersenstivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Shin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ASA/NSAIDs) are common causes of drug hypersensitivity. An oral provocation test is the only definitive diagnostic test. This study assessed the reliability of a flow cytometry-assisted basophil activation test (FAST) as a safe diagnostic method for ASA/NSAID-induced hypersensitivity, as its high sensitivity and specificity have been demonstrated for many other drugs. Methods Eighteen patients and 11 controls were enrolled. Using a Flow-CAST kit® (Bühlmann Laboratories AG, Schönenbuch, Switzerland), 29 analyses with aspirin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac were performed by flow cytometry to detect double-positive staining of anti-IgE and anti-CD63. The stimulation index was defined as the activated basophil percentage after drug stimulation/basally active basophil percentage. A stimulation index≥2 and an absolute activated basophil percentage≥5 were considered positive. Results Patients with hypersensitivity to ASA/NSAIDs were predominantly female, and the prevalence of atopy was higher in patients than in controls. A sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 91%, positive predictive value of 92%, and negative predictive value of 59% were achieved. Conclusions FAST is a useful additional method for diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions to ASA/NSAIDs. Further development is required to increase the sensitivity of the test. PMID:22548206

  14. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    > Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  15. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  16. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  17. Head Start Oral Health Assessment.

    PubMed

    Reed, Rebecca; York, Jill; Dady, Nadege; Chaviano-Moran, Rosa; Jiang, Shuying; Holtzman, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Purpose A Head Start program located in Paterson, New Jersey considered establishing a school-based dental clinic to address unmet oral health needs such as access to care and the need for restorative treatment. The purpose of this study was to establish the oral health status of Head Start children, their treatment needs, and parents' interest and willingness to utilize a school-based dental clinic. Description School-based dental care has been used to address access to care issues, particularly among children who live in underserved areas. A 21 item survey was used to correlate the results of an oral exam performed on the Head Start children and the parents' preferences, beliefs and access patterns. Fisher's exact test and Chi squared test were used to study the association among variable with significance levels set at 0.05. Assessment The oral exam revealed a high caries rate amongst all of the children. Parental responses indicated strong support for the establishment of a school-based clinic and identified the need for further parental education. Having a regular source of care was found to be unrelated to treatment needs. Conclusion Further education of the parents regarding the child's oral health is critical to the success and viability of this school-based clinic. PMID:27017227

  18. Using Provocative Discography and Computed Tomography to Select Patients with Refractory Discogenic Low Back Pain for Lumbar Fusion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Henry C; Fahim, Daniel K; Perez-Cruet, Mick

    2016-01-01

    Background Context Controversy remains over the use of provocative discography in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) to locate symptomatic intervertebral discs in patients with chronic, low back pain (LBP). The current study explores the relationship between discogenic pain and disc morphology using discography and CT, respectively, and investigates the efficacy of this combined method in identifying surgical candidates for lumbar fusion by evaluating outcomes. Methods 43 consecutive patients between 2006 and 2013 who presented with refractory low back pain and underwent discography and CT were enrolled in the study. For this study, "refractory LBP" was defined as pain symptoms that persisted or worsened after 6 months of non-operative treatments. Concordant pain was defined as discography-provoked LBP of similar character and location with an intensity of ≥ 8/10. Fusion candidates demonstrated positive-level discography and concordant annular tears on CT at no more than two contiguous levels, and at least one negative control disc with intact annulus. Surgical outcomes were statistically analyzed using Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) for back-related pain and disability preoperatively, and 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Results Annular tears were found in 87 discs. Concordant pain was reported by 9 (20.9%) patients at L3-L4, 21 (50.0%) at L4-L5, and 34 (82.9%) at L5-S1; pain occurred significantly more often in discs with annular tears than those without (p<0.001). Painless discs were independent of annulus status (p=0.90). 18 (42%) of the original 43 patients underwent lumbar fusion at L3-L4 (n=1(6%)), L4-L5 (n=6 (33%)), L5-S1 (n=5 (28%)), and two-level L4-S1 (n=6 (33%)) via a minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) approach with the aim to replace the nucleus pulposus with bone graft material. Median follow-up time was 18 months (range: 12–78 months

  19. Using Provocative Discography and Computed Tomography to Select Patients with Refractory Discogenic Low Back Pain for Lumbar Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Xi, Mengqiao Alan; Tong, Henry C; Fahim, Daniel K; Perez-Cruet, Mick

    2016-01-01

    Background Context Controversy remains over the use of provocative discography in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) to locate symptomatic intervertebral discs in patients with chronic, low back pain (LBP). The current study explores the relationship between discogenic pain and disc morphology using discography and CT, respectively, and investigates the efficacy of this combined method in identifying surgical candidates for lumbar fusion by evaluating outcomes. Methods 43 consecutive patients between 2006 and 2013 who presented with refractory low back pain and underwent discography and CT were enrolled in the study. For this study, "refractory LBP" was defined as pain symptoms that persisted or worsened after 6 months of non-operative treatments. Concordant pain was defined as discography-provoked LBP of similar character and location with an intensity of ≥ 8/10. Fusion candidates demonstrated positive-level discography and concordant annular tears on CT at no more than two contiguous levels, and at least one negative control disc with intact annulus. Surgical outcomes were statistically analyzed using Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) for back-related pain and disability preoperatively, and 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Results Annular tears were found in 87 discs. Concordant pain was reported by 9 (20.9%) patients at L3-L4, 21 (50.0%) at L4-L5, and 34 (82.9%) at L5-S1; pain occurred significantly more often in discs with annular tears than those without (p<0.001). Painless discs were independent of annulus status (p=0.90). 18 (42%) of the original 43 patients underwent lumbar fusion at L3-L4 (n=1(6%)), L4-L5 (n=6 (33%)), L5-S1 (n=5 (28%)), and two-level L4-S1 (n=6 (33%)) via a minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) approach with the aim to replace the nucleus pulposus with bone graft material. Median follow-up time was 18 months (range: 12-78 months

  20. Use of 99mTc-DISIDA biliary scanning with morphine provocation for the detection of elevated sphincter of Oddi basal pressure

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P; Turner, J; Dobbs, B; Burt, M; Chapman, B

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Endoscopic biliary manometry is useful in the assessment of patients with types II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, but it is time consuming and invasive.
AIM—To investigate the role of 99mTc-DISIDA scanning, with and without morphine provocation, as a non-invasive investigation in these patients compared with endoscopic biliary manometry.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS—A total of 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of type II (n=21) or III (n=13) sphincter of Oddi dysfunction were studied. Biliary scintigraphy with 100 MBq of 99mTc-DISIDA was carried out with and without morphine provocation (0.04 mg/kg intravenously) and time/activity curves were compared with the results of subsequent endoscopic biliary manometry.
RESULTS—Eighteen (nine type II, nine type III) of the 34 (53%) patients had sphincter of Oddi basal pressures above the upper limit of normal (40 mm Hg). In the standard DISIDA scan without morphine, no significant differences were observed in time to maximal activity (Tmax) or percentage excretion at 45 or 60 minutes between those with normal and those with abnormal biliary manometry. However, following morphine provocation, median percentage excretion at 60 minutes was 4.9% in those with abnormal manometry and 28.2% in the normal manometry group (p=0.002). Using a cut off value of 15% excretion at 60 minutes, the sensitivity for detecting elevated sphincter of Oddi basal pressure by the morphine augmented DISIDA scan was 83% and specificity was 81%. Also, 14 of the 18 patients with abnormal manometry complained of biliary-type pain after morphine infusion compared with only two of 16 patients in the normal manometry group (p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—99mTc-DISIDA with morphine provocation is a useful non-invasive investigation for types II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction to detect those with elevated sphincter basal pressures who may respond to endoscopic sphincterotomy.


Keywords: sphincter of Oddi

  1. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  2. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink a certain amount of glucose ( oral glucose tolerance test ) How the Test will Feel When the ... a fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test , or glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test ...

  3. Oral Manifestations in the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceição Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL

  4. Interrelations of Justice, Rejection, Provocation, and Moral Disgust Sensitivity and Their Links with the Hostile Attribution Bias, Trait Anger, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Bondü, Rebecca; Richter, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Several personality dispositions with common features capturing sensitivities to negative social cues have recently been introduced into psychological research. To date, however, little is known about their interrelations, their conjoint effects on behavior, or their interplay with other risk factors. We asked N = 349 adults from Germany to rate their justice, rejection, moral disgust, and provocation sensitivity, hostile attribution bias, trait anger, and forms and functions of aggression. The sensitivity measures were mostly positively correlated; particularly those with an egoistic focus, such as victim justice, rejection, and provocation sensitivity, hostile attributions and trait anger as well as those with an altruistic focus, such as observer justice, perpetrator justice, and moral disgust sensitivity. The sensitivity measures had independent and differential effects on forms and functions of aggression when considered simultaneously and when controlling for hostile attributions and anger. They could not be integrated into a single factor of interpersonal sensitivity or reduced to other well-known risk factors for aggression. The sensitivity measures, therefore, require consideration in predicting and preventing aggression. PMID:27303351

  5. Fall of blood ionized calcium on watching a provocative TV program and its prevention by active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca).

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Ohgitani, S; Nomura, M

    1999-01-01

    In December 1997, more than 680 children developed convulsive seizures while watching a notorious audiovisually provocative TV program, "Pocket Monster." Emotional stimulation via hyperventilation may cause respiratory alkalosis, fall of blood ionized calcium (Ca), and sensitization of the nervous system to excessive emotional stress. A study was therefore undertaken to follow the changes of blood ionized Ca in eight healthy volunteers after watching the "Pocket Monster" and also a quiet program, "Classical Music," as a control for 20min from 4 P.M. Although neither marked hyperventilation nor convulsions developed in any of these adult volunteers, blood ionized Ca showed a significantly more pronounced fall during and after watching "Pocket Monster," and their plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was significantly higher 120min after the beginning of "Pocket Monster" than the "Classical Music" program. Plasma total Ca, pH, and albumin were free of detectable changes. Ingestion of 600mg Ca as active absorbable algal Ca (AAA Ca) with high bioavailability completely prevented the fall of ionized Ca and suppressed iPTH. Plama osteocalcin was also significantly suppressed after ingestion of AAA Ca. It may be worthwhile to ingest AAA Ca before anticipated emotional stress such as watching a provocative TV program to prevent possible neuromuscular instability. PMID:10340641

  6. MR perfusion-weighted imaging and quantitative analysis of cerebral hemodynamics with symptom provocation in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Xie, Jing-Xia; Han, Hong-Bin; Cui, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Bai-Quan

    2004-11-11

    We evaluated the potential effectiveness of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted images (PWI) in determining hemodynamic activation in brain structures that may be involved in mediating the symptomatology of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as manifested by contamination obsessions with washing compulsions. Ten unmedicated female patients with OCD were subjected to PWI, and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in each region of interest (ROI) and self-ratings of OCD symptoms were compared before and after symptom provocation. We found that increases in the Anxiety Analogue Scale (AAS) and OCD Analogue Scale (OCDAS) scores were each significantly associated with provocation. The correlations between OCDAS and AAS scores were also statistically significant during both the control and provoked conditions. Compared with the control state, there was a significant increase in rCBF during the symptomatic state in the right head of caudate nucleus, thalamus, and bilateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC). No statistical changes in rCBF were found in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). These findings demonstrate that OCD symptomatology is accompanied by anxiety, and that abnormal features are particularly apparent in the orbitofrontal-subcortical circuits. PMID:15488324

  7. New oral anticoagulants: a practical guide on prescription, laboratory testing and peri-procedural/bleeding management. Australasian Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Tran, H; Joseph, J; Young, L; McRae, S; Curnow, J; Nandurkar, H; Wood, P; McLintock, C

    2014-06-01

    New oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are becoming available as alternatives to warfarin to prevent systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism. An in-depth understanding of their pharmacology is invaluable for appropriate prescription and optimal management of patients receiving these drugs should unexpected complications (such as bleeding) occur, or the patient requires urgent surgery. The Australasian Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis has set out to inform physicians on the use of the different NOAC based on current available evidence focusing on: (i) selection of the most suitable patient groups to receive NOAC, (ii) laboratory measurements of NOAC in appropriate circumstances and (iii) management of patients taking NOAC in the perioperative period, and strategies to manage bleeding complications or 'reverse' the anticoagulant effects for urgent invasive procedures. PMID:24946813

  8. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  9. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  10. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  11. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  12. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  13. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  15. Relational Aggression and Hostile Attribution Biases: Testing Multiple Statistical Methods and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used both categorical and dimensional approaches to test the association between relational and physical aggression and hostile intent attributions for both relational and instrumental provocation situations using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  16. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  17. Urine testing for isoniazid in the supervision of out-patient oral chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. The failure of a routine service.

    PubMed

    Macfadyen, D M; Heffernan, J F

    1967-01-01

    Testing urine specimens obtained at surprise visits to the home or at routine clinic attendance is an established procedure in the supervision of patients receiving ambulatory chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. A urine test service was set up in 9 East African centres, involving 37 staff members (most with limited training) who conducted a simple paper test for isoniazid. Analysis of the results obtained yielded an unbelievably high proportion of positive results, indicating that the testing system, as organized, had been a failure. Special investigations were therefore carried out into the reasons for this.Over-reading of test results, incorrect performance of the test, and, in 1 centre, dishonest recording were found as explanations. Discussing the implications of their findings, the authors stress the importance of close supervision at all stages of tuberculosis-control procedures in the field, no matter how simple; and they point out with reference to urine testing that, even if a centralized testing system, involving a sensitive test method and quality control, were to be set up in regional laboratories, adequate supervision at all stages would be essential. PMID:5300009

  18. Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation

    PubMed Central

    Goodell, Christa K.; Zhang, Jianqiang; Strait, Erin; Harmon, Karen; Patnayak, Devi; Otterson, Tracy; Culhane, Marie; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Clement, Travis; Leslie-Steen, Pamela; Hesse, Richard; Anderson, Joe; Skarbek, Kevin; Vincent, Amy; Kitikoon, Pravina; Swenson, Sabrina; Jenkins-Moore, Melinda; McGill, Jodi; Rauh, Rolf; Nelson, William; O’Connell, Catherine; Shah, Rohan; Wang, Chong; Main, Rodger; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 assays based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 assays based on virus isolation (VI). The OF specimens were inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially diluted 10-fold (10−1 to 10−8). Eight participating laboratories received 180 randomized OF samples (10 replicates × 8 dilutions × 2 IAV subtypes plus 20 IAV-negative samples) and performed the rRT-PCR and VI procedure(s) of their choice. Analysis of the results with a mixed-effect logistic-regression model identified dilution and assay as variables significant (P < 0.0001) for IAV detection in OF by rRT-PCR or VI. Virus subtype was not significant for IAV detection by either rRT-PCR (P = 0.457) or VI (P = 0.101). For rRT-PCR the cycle threshold (Ct) values increased consistently with dilution but varied widely. Therefore, it was not possible to predict VI success on the basis of Ct values. The success of VI was inversely related to the dilution of the sample; the assay was generally unsuccessful at lower virus concentrations. Successful swine health monitoring and disease surveillance require assays with consistent performance, but significant differences in reproducibility were observed among the assays evaluated. PMID:26733728

  19. Comparison of Written and Oral Examinations in a Baccalaureate Medical-Surgical Nursing Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Patricia; Eggett, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    Of four groups of medical-surgical nurses, 55 took one final and three midterm written exams, 150 took one each (written), 45 took an oral final, 92 took both written and oral, and 47 took a written test with licensure questions and an oral final. Oral exams resulted in higher scores, more effective study habits, and increased application. (SK)

  20. Oral Health in Elders with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Giselle Rodrigues; Campos, Camila Heitor; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate objectively and subjectively the oral health of elders with Parkinson's disease (PD), using clinical oral assessments and the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Subjects included 37 removable prosthesis wearers, 17 with PD (mean age 69.59±5.09 years) and 20 without PD (mean age 72.00±5.69 years). The objective assessment included an evaluation of oral characteristics, including the number of remaining teeth, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), visible plaque index (VPI), salivary flow rate and removable prosthesis conditions. The subjective assessment included self-perception of oral health collected using the GOHAI index. The number of remaining teeth, DMFT, VPI, salivary flow rate and GOHAI data were compared between the groups using t-tests. Removable prosthesis conditions were analyzed using χ2 tests (p<0.05). There were no group differences in the number of remaining teeth, DMFT, VPI or salivary flow rate (p>0.05). Greater maxillary prosthesis defects were observed in the control group (p=0.037). GOHAI scores were low for the PD group and moderate for controls, yielding a group difference (p=0.04). In conclusion, elders with PD have similar oral health to controls. Although all elders had few remaining teeth, high DMFT and high VPI, PD elders had more negative self-perceptions of their oral health than did the controls. PMID:27224571

  1. ‘Progressive-Onset' versus Injury-Associated Discogenic Low Back Pain: Features of Disc Internal Derangement in Patients Studied with Provocation Lumbar Discography

    PubMed Central

    Bartynski, W.S.; Dejohn, L.M.; Rothfus, W.E.; Gerszten, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic low back pain (LBP) can be ‘progressive onset' or injury-related. This study compares the patient-reported cause of chronic LBP to features of disc internal derangement at painful concordant discs evaluated by provocation lumbar discography. Concordant LBP was identified in 114 patients with chronic LBP studied by provocation discography. LBP cause, discogram pain response and discogram/post-discogram CT features of internal derangement were retrospectively reviewed. ‘Progressive-onset' LBP was reported in 32 (28%) patients, injury-related LBP in 75 (66%) with LBP equated to non-specific causes in seven. Injury-related LBP was more commonly identified in men (52 of 63 [83%]) with women reporting near-equal frequency of ‘progressive-onset' (23 of 44 [52%]) and injury-related (21 of 44 [48%]) LBP (p=0.002). In 172 concordant painful discs, near-equal frequency of severely degenerative (Dallas grade-3: 82 of 172 [47.3%]) and full-thickness radial fissure discs (Dallas grade-3: 90 of 172 [52.7%]) were identified. Women with ‘progressive-onset' LBP demonstrated more frequent severely degenerative discs (24 of 37 [65%]); women with injury-related LBP demonstrated more frequent radial-defect discs (21 of 31 [68%]; p=0.01). In men with injury-related LBP, severe degeneration-only (44 of 89 [49%]) and radial defect discs (45 of 89 [51%] were seen with equal frequency. In men with ‘progressive-onset' LBP, radial defects are more common (11 of 15 [73%]). ‘Progressive-onset' and injury-related chronic LBP subgroups are definable. Gender-related differences in incidence and internal derangement features at concordant discs are identified at discogram/post-discogram CT. These differences may have implications related to LBP origin/treatment-response. PMID:23472733

  2. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nivia, Mahadoon; Sunil, Sukumaran Nair; Rathy, Ravindran; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu Vijayamma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the third most common cause of oral morbidity in India despite the numerous advances made in the treatment protocol. Aim: To compare the cytomorphometric changes of oral mucosal cells in normal subjects (Group I) with that of tobacco users without any lesion (Group II), tobacco users with oral leukoplakia (Group III), and tobacco users with oral SCC (Group IV) through a semi-automated image analysis system. Materials and Methods: Oral mucosal cells collected from study subjects (n = 100) stained using rapid Papanicolaou stain. Photomicrograph of 50 nonoverlapping cells captured at 50× magnification with a digital image capture system. Cytomorphometric analysis of cells in the captured images was performed with Image-Pro image analysis software. Image analysis was performed to obtain cell diameter (CD), cytoplasmic area (CyA), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear area (NA), and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. These values were statistically compared among the groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The ND, NA, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio values were found to be increased in the samples collected from leukoplakia and oral SCC. The CD and CyA decreased compared to the normal mucosa in oral SCC samples. Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions. PMID:26811574

  3. Evaluation of a suspicious oral mucosal lesion.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Michele; Poh, Catherine F; Hovan, Allan J; Ng, Samson; Rosin, Miriam P

    2008-04-01

    Dentists who encounter a change in the oral mucosa of a patient must decide whether the abnormality requires further investigation. In this paper, we describe a systematic approach to the assessment of oral mucosal conditions that are thought likely to be premalignant or an early cancer. These steps, which include a comprehensive history, step-by-step clinical examination (including use of adjunctive visual tools), diagnostic testing and formulation of diagnosis, are routinely used in clinics affiliated with the British Columbia Oral Cancer Prevention Program (BC OCPP) and are recommended for consideration by dentists for use in daily practice. PMID:18387268

  4. The Evaluation of Oral/Aural Skills within the BA Finals Examination: Analysis and Interim Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawshaw, Robert

    An examination of the principles and techniques of oral testing in British university-level final examinations in modern languages discusses: (1) the shortcomings of present oral testing procedures; (2) the theoretical controversy surrounding the design and value of oral proficiency tests, arising from research in English as a second language…

  5. Quality Improvement Efforts in Pediatric Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai

    2016-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) and measurement are increasingly used in health care to improve patient care and outcomes. Despite current barriers in oral health measurement, there are nascent QI and measurement efforts emerging. This paper describes the role that QI and measurement can play in improving oral health care delivery in clinical practice by presenting a QI initiative that aimed to test and implement a chronic disease management approach to address early childhood caries. PMID:27265978

  6. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2006-01-01

    Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-β) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-β, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

  7. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  8. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:25871419

  9. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  10. [Usefulness of the integration between the values of the 1-hour blood xylose test and the hydrogen breath-test after xylose oral load for the indirect evaluation of mucosa damage].

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, M G; Lambertini, A; Romeo, N; Albini, P; Pozzi, M

    1985-01-01

    Considering 50 children affected by sub-acute gastrointestinal diseases by severe growth disorders, we have compared the "one-hour blood xylose test" with the "xylose and lactose H2 breath test, looking for a relationship with the duodeno-jejunal mucosal damage. Finally the integration between the "one hour blood xylose test" and the "xylose H2 breath test" may be useful in order to compare more exactly the results of both xylose tests with the mucosal damage. Lactose H2 breath test seems less reliable for our purposes because of the possible presence of children with lactase deficiences, hardly comparable with the mucosal damage. PMID:4094911

  11. Grape products and oral health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods. PMID:19640974

  12. Restructuring a Traditional Foreign Language Program for Oral Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara-Norman, Filisha; And Others

    The restructuring of the Romance language program at Howard University to improve oral proficiency involved modification of goals, syllabi, classroom activities, and testing. Goals were adapted to American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) guidelines for oral proficiency. Assessment of French…

  13. Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews: An Update. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; Kenyon, Dorry

    The Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct performance-based speaking test that emulates the face-to-face Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) as closely as practical, using a tape recording and printed test booklet. The prototypical SOPI contains simple personal background questions typical of an initial encounter (warm-up) and…

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Simulated and Direct Oral Proficiency Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the oral proficiency interview (OPI). The OPI is a method of assessing general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts: simple personal background questions posed in a simulated…

  15. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  16. MANNITOL BRONCHIAL CHALLENGE TEST IN ASTHMATIC CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Capristo, C; Decima, F; Coronella, A; Indolfi, C; Parisi, G; Maiello, N

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by bronchial obstruction, usually reversible spontaneously or after therapy, bronchial hyperreactivity and accelerated decrease of lung function that may possibly evolve into irreversible obstruction of the respiratory tract. Bronchial provocation tests can be used in order to assess the presence and degree of bronchial hyper reactivity. The recently introduced mannitol powder inhalation indirect test seems to have an interesting and promising role, especially in childhood, because of its high diagnostic specificity, easiness of execution and best standardization. In this study the authors focused on the significance and clinical use of mannitol bronchial challenge test in asthmatic children. PMID:26634590

  17. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe Dos Santos; Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa de; Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-03-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  18. Combination oral contraceptives and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gast, K; Snyder, T

    1990-07-01

    Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the use of oral contraceptives alters the risk for some types of cancer. Use of oral contraceptives for one year or more will reduce the risk of endometrial cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer by 50%, with the protective effect lasting for at least 10 years. The risk for developing cervical cancer in women who have used oral contraceptives appears to be slightly increased, although two independent studies actually found a protective effect associated with oral contraceptive use. The protective effect was probably related to the increased screening frequency found in oral contraceptive users and not related to a biologically protective effect. Therefore, women should be encouraged to undergo regular Pap tests. Data regarding breast cancer, in general, show no increased risk associated with oral contraceptive use. The latency associated with the development of breast cancer does not allow a definitive conclusion, and further study will be required. Oral contraceptives appear to increase the risk for developing benign hepatocellular adenoma, but not hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:2202849

  19. Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

    2013-02-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products. PMID:22920576

  20. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  2. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer. PMID:27482300

  3. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  4. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  5. Diagnostic testing of dogs for food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, J G; Shanley, K J; Meyer, E K

    1991-01-15

    Thirteen food-allergic dogs were studied to evaluate the efficacy of feeding a commercially available egg and rice diet, intradermal skin testing, and serologic testing by ELISA for diagnosing and/or characterizing food hypersensitivity. Feeding of a home-cooked whole lamb meat and rice diet for 3 weeks, followed by challenge with each dog's regular diet, served as the standard for diagnosing food hypersensitivity. Each dog underwent provocative testing with 6 individual ingredients to determine as many of its dietary allergens as possible. Prior to skin testing and serologic testing by ELISA, most dogs had been recently exposed to the offending diet and subsequently manifested clinical signs of allergy. All dogs that tolerated the aforementioned commercial diet were exposed to it for at least 7 weeks; 84.6% of food-hypersensitive dogs ate the commercial diet with impunity. Of the 2 reactors to the commercial diet, only 1 became pruritic in response to provocation testing with chicken eggs. Low sensitivity and high specificity were found for skin testing and the ELISA, indicating a lack of true- and false-positive reactions. Neither the positive nor negative predictive values adequately predicted positive and negative reactions, respectively, for either test. On the basis of these results, the commercial diet, skin testing, and anti-IgE ELISA cannot replace an owner-prepared food elimination diet for food hypersensitivity testing in dogs. PMID:2004984

  6. The Fluidez en La Lectura Oral (FLO) Portion of the Indicadores Dinamicos De Exito en La Lectura (IDEL) and the English Language Portion of the Illinois Standard Achievement Test (ISAT): A Correlational Study of Second and Third Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganan, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Spanish oral reading fluency (ORF) at the end of second grade and students' performance on the third grade ISAT reading test. The major research question guiding this study was: What is the direction and strength of the relationship between performance on the 2nd grade IDEL FLO, a Spanish language…

  7. Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

  8. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome [AIDS]) and other sexually transmitted diseases.Some brands of oral contraceptives are also used to treat ... your doctor.Oral contraceptives come in many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different ...

  9. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  10. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  11. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  12. The Association between HbA1c, Fasting Glucose, 1-Hour Glucose and 2-Hour Glucose during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and Cardiovascular Disease in Individuals with Elevated Risk for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Marcus; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Nerman, Olle; Eriksson, Johan; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Peltonen, Markku; Pivodic, Aldina; Lindström, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-hour (1 hPG) and 2-hour (2 hPG) glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and cardiovascular disease in individuals with elevated risk for diabetes. Design We studied the relationship between baseline, updated mean and updated (last) value of HbA1c, FPG, 1 hPG and 2 hPG after an oral 75 g glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and acute CVD events in 504 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at baseline enrolled in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Setting Follow-up of clinical trial. Participants 504 individuals with IGT were followed with yearly evaluations with OGTT, FPG and HbA1c. Main Outcome Measure Relative risk of CVD. Results Over a median follow-up of 9.0 years 34 (6.7%) participants had a CVD event, which increased to 52 (10.3%) over a median follow-up of 13.0 years when including events that occurred among participants following a diagnosis of diabetes. Updated mean HbA1c, 1 hPG and 2 hPG, HR per 1 unit SD of 1.57 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.11), p = 0.0032, 1.51 (1.03 to 2.23), p = 0.036 and 1.60 (1.10 to 2.34), p = 0.014, respectively, but not FPG (p = 0.11), were related to CVD. In analyses of the last value prior to the CVD event the same three glycaemic measurements were associated with the CVD events, with HRs per 1 unit SD of 1.45 (1.06 to 1.98), p = 0.020, 1.55 (1.04 to 2.29), p = 0.030 and 2.19 (1.51 to 3.18), p<0.0001, respectively but only 2 hPG remained significant in pairwise comparisons. Including the follow-up period after diabetes onset updated 2 hPG (p = 0.003) but not updated mean HbA1c (p = 0.08) was related to CVD. Conclusions and Relevance Current 2 hPG level in people with IGT is associated with increased risk of CVD. This supports its use in screening for prediabetes and monitoring glycaemic levels of people with prediabetes. PMID:25285769

  13. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  14. Investigating Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teacher Raters' Judgements of Oral Proficiency in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those…

  15. Oral contraceptives and exercise.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Woebkenberg, N R; Jarrett, M T

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken with volunteer females (aged 20-25) to determine the effect of OCs (oral contraceptives) on hematologic and metabolic variables during exercise. 5 of the women studied were naturally cycling and 7 were taking OCs. The women worked at 2 workloads on a bicycle ergometer at 50% and 90% of their maximal aerobic capacity during 3 different phases of their menstrual cycle. There was no better time of the month for doing the 50% or the 90% workload in either group. Heartrate for the OC group was significantly higher at the 50% maximal capacity. Results of the test indicate tha women on OCs have somewhat reduced cardiac efficiency and are ventilating more to carry out a given amount of work when compared to women who are naturally cycling. Possible explanations for the higher heart rate are put forward. The main limitation of the study is that the subject numbers involved are small and the number of cycles studied is also small. PMID:12278397

  16. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

  17. Antimicrobial action of natural substances on oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Y; Ito, Y; Shibata, M; Sato, Y; Okuda, K; Takazoe, I

    1989-08-01

    The antimicrobial action of natural substances was investigated in vitro against oral bacteria including Streptococcus sp., Actinomyces sp., Actinobacillus sp., Bacteroides sp., Capnocytophaga sp., Eikenella sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Propionibacterium sp. Among the natural substances tested, hinokitiol was the most inhibitory to oral bacteria. Cinnamon bark oil, papua-mace extracts, and clove bud oil in spice extracts were also inhibitory against many oral bacteria. Egg white lysozyme exhibited antimicrobial action against the periodontitis associated bacteria. PMID:2637783

  18. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  19. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  20. Serological diagnosis of HIV infection using oral fluid samples.

    PubMed Central

    Tamashiro, H.; Constantine, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    The serological identification of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in blood is the most widely used method to diagnose HIV infection. Recently, however, the use of oral fluid samples for the detection of antibodies to HIV has been suggested as an alternative. This review describes some basic information about oral fluids, the application of these samples for HIV testing, and summarizes results from many of the studies performed using HIV tests with oral fluids. The fluids obtained from the oral cavity include saliva and crevicular fluid, and can be collected directly (by dribbling) or by using commercially available devices. The immunoglobulin content of oral fluids is similar to that of blood, but their levels are less. However, the use of an HIV IgG antibody capture assay (GAC ELISA) designed specifically for testing oral fluids, and certain routine HIV blood tests that have been optimized for use with oral fluids, has produced encouraging results. A number of studies, including several in developing countries, report that the sensitivities and specificities of these optimized tests lie in the range 95-100% and 98-100%, respectively. Also, the performance of the GAC ELISA was consistent and in general, excellent. The article identifies several issues that need to be addressed before a recommendation on the routine use of oral fluid samples for HIV antibody detection can be made. PMID:8131250

  1. Piloting an approach to rapid and automated assessment of a new research initiative: Application to the National Cancer Institute’s Provocative Questions initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Elizabeth R.; Williams, Duane E.; DiJoseph, Leo G.; Schnell, Joshua D.; Finstad, Samantha L.; Lee, Jerry S. H.; Greenspan, Emily J.; Corrigan, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Funders of biomedical research are often challenged to understand how a new funding initiative fits within the agency’s portfolio and the larger research community. While traditional assessment relies on retrospective review by subject matter experts, it is now feasible to design portfolio assessment and gap analysis tools leveraging administrative and grant application data that can be used for early and continued analysis. We piloted such methods on the National Cancer Institute’s Provocative Questions (PQ) initiative to address key questions regarding diversity of applicants; whether applicants were proposing new avenues of research; and whether grant applications were filling portfolio gaps. For the latter two questions, we defined measurements called focus shift and relevance, respectively, based on text similarity scoring. We demonstrate that two types of applicants were attracted by the PQs at rates greater than or on par with the general National Cancer Institute applicant pool: those with clinical degrees and new investigators. Focus shift scores tended to be relatively low, with applicants not straying far from previous research, but the majority of applications were found to be relevant to the PQ the application was addressing. Sensitivity to comparison text and inability to distinguish subtle scientific nuances are the primary limitations of our automated approaches based on text similarity, potentially biasing relevance and focus shift measurements. We also discuss potential uses of the relevance and focus shift measures including the design of outcome evaluations, though further experimentation and refinement are needed for a fuller understanding of these measures before broad application. PMID:24808631

  2. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  3. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  4. Oral health beliefs in diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, T T; Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Using data from population-based samples of adults participating in the ICS-II USA study, and using principal components analysis, we constructed oral health belief measures corresponding to the Health Belief Model (HBM) dimensions. Tests of validity and reliability were performed. Scales measuring perceived benefit of preventive practices and seriousness of oral disease had the highest validity and reliability. We used multiple regression analysis to examine sociodemographic predictors of perceived benefits of preventive practices. Race-ethnicity and age cohort were significant predictors among Baltimore and San Antonio adults. White adults and middle-aged persons in both research locations were more likely to believe in the benefit of preventive practices. Female gender, higher educational attainment, and better self-rated health were significant indicators of more positive oral health beliefs in every research location. Results also characterize persons who place lower value on preventive practices (i.e., males, less-educated persons, and those reporting poorer self-rated health). The design of effective dental public health messages and outreach efforts requires an analysis of the individual's health orientation and the factors influencing oral health beliefs. Oral health education interventions designed to improve health beliefs should contain an evaluation component for assessing the impact of education on health practices and oral health status. PMID:9549989

  5. Oral hypoglycemics overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient There are many types of oral hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on ...

  6. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  7. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  8. Massive Oral Decoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicke, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive reading clinic used the Massive Oral Decoding (MOD) technique to help 10 reading disabled students (grades 7 and 8) increase independent reading skills. MOD stresses large amounts of reading practice at the student's independent level. (CL)

  9. Oral Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

    2014-09-01

    'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  10. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  11. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  12. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  13. Oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the staging of oral cancers. Imaging information is essential for determining tumour resectibility, post resection surgical reconstruction and radiation therapy planning. The aim of this paper is to highlight the natural history of oral cancer spread and how malignant infiltration can be accurately mapped. It focuses on buccal mucosa, hard palate, tongue and floor of mouth carcinoma. PMID:16361136

  14. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  15. [Dementia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this article is a translation of an editorial which appeared in the journal Gerodontology. The author warns that a great increase is expected in the number of dementia patients in the United Kingdom and he argues that care for these patients be given a high place on the national agenda. Dementia was also a major issue at the meeting of the International Association for Dental Research in March 2007. Several international studies presented there indicated that elderly people with dementia constitute a group at risk with respect to oral health. In the evaluation of the editorial, the situation in The Netherlands is described. There is also serious concern in The Netherlands about the statistics with respect to dementia. Due to the growing number of frail elderly people having a natural dentition, the need for professional oral care will increase. General practitioners have the important task of providing adequate oral health care for elderly people suffering from dementia who are still living at home. Guidelines for Oral Care, having to do with the improvement of oral care in institutions, appeared recently. With the guidelines, a good basis for developing adequate oral health care of frail elderly people is available. However, the implementation of these guidelines will require some attention. PMID:19280891

  16. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  17. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  18. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  19. Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews: Recent Developments. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Margaret

    This digest discusses the simulated oral proficiency interview (SOPI), a performance-based, tape-mediated speaking test. The SOPI follows the general structure of the oral proficiency interview (OPI) used by government agencies and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) to measure speaking proficiency. Whereas the OPI is…

  20. Using Oral Exams to Assess Communication Skills in Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…

  1. Oral Language and Reading Success: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beron, Kurt J.; Farkas, George

    2004-01-01

    Oral language skills and habits may serve as important resources for success or failure in school-related tasks such as learning to read. This article tests this hypothesis utilizing a unique data set, the original Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised norming sample. This article assesses the importance of oral language by focusing…

  2. Discoloration of Provisional Restorations after Oral Rinses

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Ulusoy, Kıvanç Utku; Altintas, Subutay Han; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bagis, Nilsun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic®) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II®, Luxatemp® and Fill-In®) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (∆E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically

  3. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  4. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  5. Assessing Paired Orals: Raters' Orientation to Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducasse, Ana Maria; Brown, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Speaking tasks involving peer-to-peer candidate interaction are increasingly being incorporated into language proficiency assessments, in both large-scale international testing contexts, and in smaller-scale, for example course-related, ones. This growth in the popularity and use of paired and group orals has stimulated research, particularly into…

  6. The effect of chlorhexidine in reducing oral colonisation in geriatric patients: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Abdullah, Sharifah Shafinaz Binti; Chong, Mei Chan; Surindar-Kaur, Surat Singh; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inadequate oral care has been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia in frail geriatric patients and is a major cause of mortality, due to the colonisation of microbes in vulnerable patients. This type of pneumonia has been associated with an increase in respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine compared to routine oral care in edentulous geriatric inpatients. METHODS A double-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out. The intervention group received oral care with chlorhexidine 0.2%, while the control group received routine oral care with thymol. Nurses provided oral care with assigned solutions of 20 mL once daily over seven days. Oral cavity assessment using the Brief Oral Health Status Examination form was performed before each oral care procedure. Data on medication received and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia was recorded. An oral swab was performed on Day 7 to obtain specimens to test for colonisation. RESULTS The final sample consisted of 35 (control) and 43 (intervention) patients. Chlorhexidine was effective in reducing oral colonisation compared to routine oral care with thymol (p < 0.001). The risk of oral bacterial colonisation was nearly three times higher in the thymol group compared to the chlorhexidine group. CONCLUSION The use of chlorhexidine 0.2% significantly reduced oral colonisation and is recommended as an easier and more cost-effective alternative for oral hygiene. PMID:27211885

  7. Reproducibility and validity of oral visual inspection by trained health workers in the detection of oral precancer and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, B.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Sunilkumar, K. B.; Kuruvila, B.; Pisani, P.; Nair, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized intervention trial is in progress in Kerala, India, to evaluate the effectiveness of oral visual inspection by trained health workers (HWs) in the prevention of oral cancer. Fourteen health workers with college graduation as the basic qualification were trained in oral visual inspection to identify oral cancers and precancers among the participants of the screening trial and to refer them for further confirmation and management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the screening test provided by the health worker against the reference oral visual findings of three physicians. A total of 2069 subjects who had already been examined were re-examined by the health workers and physicians. The sensitivity and the specificity of the oral visual inspection were 94.3% and 99.3% respectively. There was moderate agreement between the findings of the initial and the repeat mouth examinations carried out by the health workers, which were on average 6 months apart. There was almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.85) between the findings of the health workers and the physicians in identifying the different types of oral precancerous lesions. The findings of our study indicate that it is possible to train resource persons to perform the oral cancer screening test as accurately as doctors, although experience appears to be a crucial component of health workers' accuracy. The efficacy of such an approach to reduce the incidence of and mortality from oral cancer, however, remains to be proven. PMID:9252209

  8. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

  9. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  10. Oral health during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

    2008-04-15

    Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries. PMID:18481562

  11. The Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing. PMID:27161350

  12. In Search of the Trauma Memory: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Symptom Provocation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    PubMed Central

    Sartory, Gudrun; Cwik, Jan; Knuppertz, Helge; Schürholt, Benjamin; Lebens, Morena; Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Schulze, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping) were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients’ attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being involved in

  13. Effect of Intradiscal Monopolar Pulsed Radiofrequency on Chronic Discogenic Back Pain Diagnosed by Pressure-Controlled Provocative Discography: A One Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yong Jae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Cho, Yun Woo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous intradiscal monopolar pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in patients with chronic disabling discogenic back pain. Method Twenty-six subjects (7 males; mean age 43.2 years) with chronic back pain refractory to active rehabilitative management were recruited. All subjects underwent MRI for evaluation of Modic changes, and monopolar PRF (20 min at 60 V) at the center of target lumbar intervertebral disc confirmed by pressure-controlled provocative discography. Clinical outcomes were measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and sitting tolerance time (ST) for 12 months after treatment. Successful clinical outcome was described as a minimum of 2 point reduction in VAS compared with the baseline at each follow-up period. Results The mean VAS for low back pain reduced significantly from 6.4±1.1 at pre-treatment to 4.4±1.9 at 12 months (p<0.05). The mean ODI score was 47.3±15.4 points at pre-treatment and 36.7±19.5 at 12 months (p<0.001). The ST was 27.8±20.4 minutes at pre-treatment and 71.5±42.2 at 12 months (p<0.001). However, successful clinical outcome was achieved at 58%, 50%, and 42%, measured at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. There were no significant relationship between the clinical outcome and Modic changes; no adverse events were recorded. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the application of intradiscal monopolar PRF might be relatively effective but limited; successful intervention for chronic refractory discogenic back pain is needed. To achieve the optimal outcome through intradiscal PRF, we suggested further studies about stimulation duration, mode, and intensity of PRF. PMID:23185729

  14. From provocative narrative scenarios to quantitative biophysical model results: Simulating plausible futures to 2070 in an urbanizing agricultural watershed in Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, E.; Chen, X.; Motew, M.; Qiu, J.; Zipper, S. C.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kucharik, C. J.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Scenario analysis is a powerful tool for envisioning future social-ecological change and its consequences on human well-being. Scenarios that integrate qualitative storylines and quantitative biophysical models can create a vivid picture of these potential futures but the integration process is not straightforward. We present - using the Yahara Watershed in southern Wisconsin (USA) as a case study - a method for developing quantitative inputs (climate, land use/cover, and land management) to drive a biophysical modeling suite based on four provocative and contrasting narrative scenarios that describe plausible futures of the watershed to 2070. The modeling suite consists of an agroecosystem model (AgroIBIS-VSF), hydrologic routing model (THMB), and empirical lake water quality model and estimates several biophysical indicators to evaluate the watershed system under each scenario. These indicators include water supply, lake flooding, agricultural production, and lake water quality. Climate (daily precipitation and air temperature) for each scenario was determined using statistics from 210 different downscaled future climate projections for two 20-year time periods (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and modified using a stochastic weather generator to allow flexibility for matching specific climate events within the scenario narratives. Land use/cover for each scenario was determined first by quantifying changes in areal extent every decade for 15 categories at the watershed scale to be consistent with the storyline events and theme. Next, these changes were spatially distributed using a rule-based framework based on land suitability metrics that determine transition probabilities. Finally, agricultural inputs including manure and fertilizer application rates were determined for each scenario based on the prevalence of livestock, water quality regulations, and technological innovations. Each scenario is compared using model inputs (maps and time-series of land use/cover and

  15. [Oral problems in divers].

    PubMed

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15932043

  16. Aetiology of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A W; Marnewick, J C

    2012-11-01

    The terms Oral cancer (OC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are used interchangeably, as more than 95% of all OCs are OSCCs. Worldwide up to 275 000 new cases of OC are seen every year. Most of these cases are seen in developing countries such as South Africa. Up to 50% of all patients living with OC will die within five years, and this survival rate has not improved over the last few decades. Tobacco and alcohol usage account for up to 75% of all OC cases. As these causative factors can be avoided, all oral health workers should be aware of the aetiology of OC so that sound preventive advice may be given to their patients. Infections and nutrition play a lesser but still important role in the aetiology of OC. This article reviews the importance of the aetiology of OC, with the emphasis on tobacco and alcohol. PMID:23957094

  17. Nasal vs oral intubation.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, L

    2003-05-01

    Both nasal and oral route for intubation have advantages and disadvantages. Oral intubation is easier to perform, faster and less painful than nasal intubation under direct laryngoscopy, while blind nasal intubation represents a good alternative in conscious patient, without sedation. In trauma patient, oral route should be preferred, with cervical immobilisation. By the contrary, nasal intubation can cause bleeding, retro-pharyngeal and turbinate bones injury, but it seems preferable in preventing laryngeal complications. Moreover nasal intubation seem to increase risk for sinusitis while, there is no clear advantage for any of the two routes, concerning nosocomial pneumonia, bacteriemia and otitis. Nevertheless nasal route increases comfort for the patient and decreases injury and necrosis of tongue and lips; tube fastening is simpler thus reducing accidental extubation. PMID:12768165

  18. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  19. A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Dale April; Hinojosa, Fanny

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the varying degrees to which learners of Spanish at the intermediate and advanced levels use paragraph-like structure in their answers during a simulated oral proficiency exam. Subjects were 24 students preparing for the Spanish Texas Oral Proficiency Test. Data from simulated oral proficiency interviews were compared to a model…

  20. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429