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Sample records for oral trichlorfon solution

  1. Critical test and safety evaluations of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon in horses.

    PubMed

    Seibert, B P; Newcomb, K M; Michael, B F

    1986-06-01

    Critical tests were done on 24 naturally parasitized horses to compare the antiparasitic activity of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon with that of the marketed powder formulation. Each formulation was administered at the recommended dosages of 8.8 mg of mebendazole and 40 mg of trichlorfon/kg of body weight. Efficacy of the paste formulation ranged from 97.7% to 100% against 2nd- and 3rd-stage Gasterophilus spp, adult Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, Parascaris equorum, small strongyles; and larval and adult forms of Oxyuris equi. Adverse effects were generally limited to slight softening of the feces. Mild and transient restlessness or sweating were also observed in 2 of 12 horses treated with the paste formulation. The toxic effects of the paste, administered at 2.2 times the therapeutic dose, were examined in 6 horses and compared with the effects of a nonmedicated paste, administered in similar volumes to 6 other horses. Drug-related changes were not detected in clinical chemical analyses, hematologic values, or liver function tests. Transient clinical signs of organophosphate toxicosis (primarily the passage of loose feces) and prolonged inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase activity were evident within 1 hour after drug treatment. These effects were similar to those reported for the 2.2 X dose of marketed powder formulation. PMID:3524328

  2. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste. 520.1631 Section 520.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1631 Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste. 520.1326b Section 520.1326b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1326b Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste. 520.1326b Section 520.1326b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1326b Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste....

  5. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a... is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520f Trichlorfon granules.... Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520f Trichlorfon granules...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520f Trichlorfon granules...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520f Trichlorfon granules...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Thiabendazole with trichlorfon. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 grams of thiabendazole with 4.5 grams of trichlorfon, or 20 grams of thiabendazole with 18 grams of trichlorfon. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510... ascarids (Parascaris spp. ) in horses. (2) Administer 2 grams of thiabendazole with 1.8 grams...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Thiabendazole with trichlorfon. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 grams of thiabendazole with 4.5 grams of trichlorfon, or 20 grams of thiabendazole with 18 grams of trichlorfon. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510... ascarids (Parascaris spp. ) in horses. (2) Administer 2 grams of thiabendazole with 1.8 grams...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Thiabendazole with trichlorfon. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 grams of thiabendazole with 4.5 grams of trichlorfon, or 20 grams of thiabendazole with 18 grams of trichlorfon. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510... ascarids (Parascaris spp. ) in horses. (2) Administer 2 grams of thiabendazole with 1.8 grams...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Thiabendazole with trichlorfon. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 grams of thiabendazole with 4.5 grams of trichlorfon, or 20 grams of thiabendazole with 18 grams of trichlorfon. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510... ascarids (Parascaris spp. ) in horses. (2) Administer 2 grams of thiabendazole with 1.8 grams...

  17. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.198 Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder. 520.1326a Section 520.1326a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 83.3 milligrams...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder. 520.1326a Section 520.1326a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 83.3 milligrams...

  20. Oral therapy with glucose electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Nalin, D R; Pizarro, D; Hirschhorn, N

    1980-07-01

    Doctors Kahn and Blum based their views on oral rehydration on only 7 cases, and they fail to provide their methodological details. In their letter on oral rehydration with UNICEF/WHO (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund/World Health Organization) glucose electrolyte solution (GES), they maintain that hyperkalemia is a danger of GES therapy, that hypernatremia will be aggravated, that therapy should not last for longer than 24 hours, that after 24 hours monitoring of plasma potassium will be needed, and that except for developing countries where material milk is used, no plan of treatment has been proposed after the first 24 hours of rehydration. The experience of Kahn and Blum is at variance with extensive data from many carefully monitored balanced studies in infants treated with GES. GES is a potent medication and needs to be used properly. Guidelines for use are listed. Kahn and Blum fail to indicate whether their 7 patients comprised their entire treatment group or only those with biochemical or clinical problems. They also fail to indicate the degree of dehydration of the infants at onset of therapy or the extent of ongoing diarrheal losses, and they do not describe the precise treatment regimen. Their mean time of treatment -- 41 hours -- was particularly long. The hyperkalemia reported by Kahn and Blum may have resulted from excessive GES administration, without a source of free water, to infants having few diarrheal stools. Proper use of GES formula rapidly rehydrates 95-98% of mildly to severely dehydrated infants, irrespective of etiology. PMID:6104241

  1. Critical test evaluations of oxfendazole and trichlorfon: effectiveness of a paste formulation in the horse.

    PubMed

    Presson, B L; Hamm, D; Yazwinski, T A; Pote, L M

    1984-06-01

    Critical tests were performed on 6 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic effectiveness of oxfendazole given in combination with trichlorfon in a paste formulation. Treatments were given orally as a single dose. The rates of active ingredient administration were 2.5 and 40 mg/kg of body weight for oxfendazole and trichlorfon, respectively. The combined activities of the 2 antiparasitic compounds proved 100% efficacious in the removal of adult Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, Oxyuris equi, and Parascaris equorum. Fourth stage O equi, and 2nd and 3rd instars of Gasterophilus nasalis also were completely removed. Second and 3rd stage instars of G intestinalis were removed at the rates of 98.1% and 98.8%, respectively. Nematodes of the "small strongyle" category were removed at the combined rate of 97.0%. Pronounced larvicidal effects of the test formulation were demonstrated via culturing fecal nematode eggs during the trial. Untoward effects of treatment were not seen in any of the trial animals. PMID:6742583

  2. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trichlorfon granules. 520.2520f Section 520.2520f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL.... Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trichlorfon boluses. 520.2520e Section 520.2520e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  5. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  6. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  7. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  8. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  9. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 180.198 Section 180.198 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.198 Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of... emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional registrations. (d) Indirect or inadvertent residues....

  10. 21 CFR 520.2220a - Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder... § 520.2220a Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder. (a) Approvals. (1) For oral solution... use. The oral solution is administered as a cattle drench or diluted as directed to prepare...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  13. Study of paracetamol 1-g oral solution bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Farre, M; Roset, P N; Abanades, S; Menoyo, E; Alvarez, Y; Rovira, M; Baena, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess paracetamol bioavailability after administering 1 g in oral solution. Eighteen healthy volunteers were selected for this open-label study. A total of 15.4 ml of Gelocatil Oral Solution (Laboratorios Gelos, S.L.), corresponding to 1 g of paracetamol, were administered to fasting subjects. Blood samples were collected at 0 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 45 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and 12 h. Paracetamol plasma concentrations were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The study was conducted without deviations from protocol. Pharmacokinetic data from 18 subjects were allowed for estimating fast and high-paracetamol bioavailability: t(max) 20 min (10-45) [median (range)], C(max) 24. 3 mg/l (6.5) [mean (standard deviation)], AUC(0-t) 64.0 mg h/l (16.1) and AUC(0-00) 68.1 mg h/l (17.9). These results are comparable to those described for Gelocatil Oral Solution given at a 650 mg dose and for immediate release Gelocatil 650 mg tablets. Absorption speed was very fast, similar to that described for other oral-solution formulations, which provides an immediate onset of pain and fever relief. The results of this study show suitable bioavailability for 1 g Gelocatil Oral Solution, with fast-absorption speed that provides an immediate onset of pain and fever relief. PMID:18389096

  14. Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:22897202

  15. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dihydrochloride powder. 520.2520g Section 520.2520g Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520g Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder. (a) Specifications. Each 54.10 grams (1.91 ounces) of water dispersible powder contains 9.10 grams of trichlorfon,...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dihydrochloride powder. 520.2520g Section 520.2520g Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520g Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder. (a) Specifications. Each 54.10 grams (1.91 ounces) of water dispersible powder contains 9.10 grams of trichlorfon,...

  17. Effects of solutions used in infants' oral hygiene on biofilms and oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Modesto, A; Lima, K C; de Uzeda, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of oral hygiene solutions used for infants on biofilms formed in vitro from infants' saliva and dental plaque: ATCC reference strains A. viscosus; C. albicans; L. casei; S. mitis; S. mutans; S. oralis; S. sanguis; S. sobrinus and clinically isolated microorganisms (saliva) C. albicans, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguis and S. sobrinus. After exposure of the oral biofilms to H2O2 diluted 1/4 to 1/16; and NaF 0.02 percent, concentrated and diluted 1/2, for 1 and 3 minutes, the viable count of microorganisms, compared to the controls was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). They also showed a significant antimicrobial effect for all the microorganisms evaluated, when compared to the control (p < 0.05). Exposure to sodium bicarbonate solution and a camomile solution, for 1 and 3 minutes, was not significantly lethal to oral biofilms nor to any microorganism evaluated, regardless of whether they were concentrated or diluted. We do not recommend the use of H2O2 but suggest using the camomile solution and NaF 0.02 percent in a rational manner for cleaning the infant's mouth. PMID:11068666

  18. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 4.35 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 4.35 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 4.35 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2220a - Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder... § 520.2220a Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder. (a) Approvals. (1) For oral solution... 059130 in § 510.600(c). (2) For soluble powder, each 107 grams contain the equivalent of 94.6 grams...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2220a - Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder... § 520.2220a Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder. (a) Approvals. (1) For oral solution... 059130 in § 510.600(c). (2) For soluble powder, each 107 grams contain the equivalent of 94.6 grams...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each 54.10 grams (1.91 ounces) of water dispersible powder contains 9.10 grams of trichlorfon, 6.25 grams of phenothiazine, and the equivalent of 20.0 grams of piperazine base (as...

  4. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2015-05-01

    The regularities of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity have been investigated, and the induction order and constants have been determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is shown that an increase in the initial supersaturation leads to a transition from the heterogeneous nucleation of crystallites to a homogeneous one. Some additives are found to enhance nucleation: HCO{3/-} > C6H12O6 > F-, while others hinder this process: protein (casein) > Mg2+. It is established that crystallization in DPF occurs more rapidly and the DPF composition is favorable for the growth of small (52.6-26.1 μm) crystallites. On the contrary, the conditions implemented in the model saliva solution facilitate the formation of larger (198.4-41.8 μm) crystals.

  5. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  6. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  7. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  8. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  9. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  10. Physical chemistry of supersaturated solutions and implications for oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lynne S; Zhang, Geoff G Z

    2016-06-01

    Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulations are widely used for delivery of poorly soluble drugs for dissolution enhancement and bioavailability improvement. When administered, ASDs often exhibit fast dissolution to yield supersaturated solutions. The physical chemistry of these supersaturated solutions is not well understood. This review will discuss the concepts of solubility, supersaturation, and the connection to membrane transport rate. Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which occurs when the amorphous solubility is exceeded, leading to solutions with interesting properties is extensively discussed as a phenomenon that is relevant to all enabling formulations. The multiple physical processes occurring during dissolution of the ASD and during oral absorption are analyzed. The beneficial reservoir effect of a system that has undergone LLPS is demonstrated, both experimentally and conceptually. It is believed that formulations that rapidly supersaturate and subsequently undergo LLPS, with maintenance of the supersaturation at this maximum value throughout the absorption process, i.e. those that exhibit "spring and plateau" behavior, will give superior performance in terms of absorption. PMID:27013254

  11. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3)...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3)...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3)...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Levamisole powder for oral solution. 520.1242a Section 520.1242a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Levamisole powder for oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each package of powder contains 9.075, 11.7,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole powder for oral solution. 520.1242a Section 520.1242a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Levamisole powder for oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each package of powder contains 9.075, 11.7,...

  16. Investigation on the Gas-Phase Decomposition of Trichlorfon by GC-MS and Theoretical Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kezhi; Zhang, Ningwen; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Jianmei; Qian, Mingrong

    2015-01-01

    The gas phase pyrolysis of trichlorfon was investigated by the on-line gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) pyrolysis and theoretical calculations. Two reaction channels were proposed in the pyrolytic reaction, by analyzing the detected pyrolytic products in the total ion chromatography, including 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde, dimethyl phosphite, and dichlorvos. Theoretical calculations showed that there is an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group and the phosphate O atom in trichlorfon, through which the hydroxyl H atom can be easily transferred to phosphate O atom to trigger two pyrolytic channels. In path-a, migration of H atom results in direct decomposition of trichlorfon to give 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde and dimethyl phosphite in one step. In path-b, migration of H atom in trichlorfon is combined with formation of the O-P bond to give an intermediate, followed by HCl elimination to afford dichlorvos. Path-a is kinetically more favorable than path-b, which is consistent with the GC-MS results. PMID:25856549

  17. The effect of trichlorfon and methylazoxymethanol on the development of guinea pig cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, Anna; Schanke, Tore M.; Torvik, Ansgar; Fonnum, Frode . E-mail: frode.fonnum@bio.uio.no

    2007-03-15

    The pesticide trichlorfon (125 mg/kg on days 42-44 in gestation) gives hypoplasia of Brain of the offspring without any significant reduction in their body weights. The hypoplasia may be caused by trichlorfon itself or by its metabolite dichlorvos. This period of development coincides with the growth spurt period of guinea pig brain. The largest changes occurred in the cerebellum. Electron microscopic examination of the cerebellar cortex showed increased apoptotic death of cells in the granule cell layer after trichlorfon treatment. A reduction in thickness of the external germinal layer of the cerebellar cortex and an elevated amount of pyknotic and karyorrhexic cells in the granule cell layer was found. There was a significant reduction in choline esterase, choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase activities in the cerebellum. Methylazoxymethanol (15 mg/kg body weight, day 43) was examined for comparison and caused similar hypoplasia of the guinea pig cerebellum, but did also induce a reduction in body weight. Trichloroethanol, the main metabolite of trichlorfon, did not give brain hypoplasia.

  18. Efficacy of trans-2-hydroxycinnamic Acid against trichlorfon-induced oxidative stress in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

    2012-09-01

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide used to control cockroaches, crickets, silverfish, bedbugs, fleas, cattle grubs, flies, ticks, leaf miners, and leaf-hoppers. It is also used to treat domestic animals for control of internal parasites. Trans-2-hydroxycinnamic acid (T2HCA) is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. The present study highlights trichlorofon-induced toxicity and the protective role of T2HCA in the liver, kidney, and brain of female Wistar rats. The rats were given a single dose of trichlorofon (150 mg / kg bw) and pre- and post-treatment T2HCA (50 mg / kg bw) for seven days. Trichlorofon enhanced oxidative stress in liver, kidney, and brain of the rats, which was evident from the elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO). The reduced level of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) also indicated the presence of an oxidative insult. The activity of enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly decreased on trichlorfon administration. Pre and post treatment with T2HCA decreased the LPO level and increased SOD, CAT, GST, GR, GPx, and GSH in the brain, liver, and kidney. Trichlorfon-induced reduction in acelylcholinestrase was also ameliorated with T2HCA treatment. In conclusion, trichlorfon-mediated induction in the reactive oxygen species and disturbance in the antioxidant enzymes' defense system was moderately ameliorated by antioxidant trans-2-hydroxycinnamic acid. PMID:23293469

  19. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan. PMID:26357816

  20. Critical tests of morantel-trichlorfon paste formulation against internal parasites of the horse.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1984-01-01

    Critical tests were completed on six horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of a paste formulation mixture of morantel citrate and trichlorfon, administered intraorally at the dose rate of 6 mg morantel base kg-1 and trichlorfon at 30 mg kg-1. Aggregate average removals were: 78% for two horses infected with 2nd instar Gasterophilus intestinalis; 100% for one infected with 2nd instar G. nasalis; 96% for six infected with 3rd instar G. intestinalis; 100% for four infected with 3rd instar G. nasalis; 100% for five infected with Parascaris equorum; 100% for one infected with mature Oxyuris equi; 100% for five infected with Strongylus vulgaris; 72% for five infected with S. edentatus; and partial removal (25%) of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection from one infected animal. Pre- and post-treatment EPG and LPG data indicated a reduction of 97% of the mature small strongyle infections. Evidence of toxicosis was not observed in any of the horses. PMID:6538366

  1. Azimilide pharmacokinetics following intravenous and oral administration of a solution and capsule formulation.

    PubMed

    Corey, A E; Agnew, J R; Valentine, S N; Nesbitt, J D; Wagner, D L; Powell, J H; Thompson, G A

    1999-12-01

    Azimilide dihydrochloride (NE-10064) is a novel class III anti-arrhythmic agent that blocks both the slowly and rapidly acting components of the delayed rectifier potassium current of human atrial and ventricular myocytes. In clinical studies, azimilide reduced the frequency of symptomatic episodes of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. This study was conducted to characterize azimilide pharmacokinetics following single-dose administration of a 1 mg/kg intravenous infusion (18 min), 2 mg/kg oral solution, and a 150 mg orally administered capsule. This was a three-period, randomized, crossover study in 27 healthy, drug-free (including caffeine and alcohol), non-smoking male volunteers (mean [SD]; age, 25.9 [1.0] years; weight 74.3 [0.7] kg; 23 Caucasians and 4 Hispanics). Blood and urine samples were collected for 27 days and analyzed for azimilide using HPLC with UV detection. Subjects were monitored for adverse events and abnormalities in clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiography (including Holter monitoring). Mean (%CV) azimilide parameters were total clearance = 0.143 L/h/kg (38%), renal clearance = 0.014 L/h/kg (35%), steady-state volume of distribution = 13.2 L/kg (23%), and terminal exponential half-life = 78.8 h (44%). Similar parameter estimates were obtained following oral administration. Both the oral solution and capsule formulations were completely absorbed. In addition, the rate (Cmax) and extent of absorption (AUC) following oral administration of the capsule dosage form were bioequivalent to the oral solution with means for times of maximum blood concentration of 7.08 and 7.18 hours for the oral solution and capsule, respectively. Azimilide dihydrochloride was generally well tolerated in all subjects. PMID:10586393

  2. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  3. ABSORPTION AND BIOKINETICS OF U IN RATS FOLLOWING AN ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF URANYL NITRATE SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The absorption of Uranyl (U) within the male Wistar rat was determined following oral gavage with uranyl nitrate solutions at seven different dosages. Gavage levels ranged from 0.003 to 45 mg U per kilogram body weight. Uranium tissue burdens were determined at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4...

  4. [Basic Studies on the Stability of Flavored Oral Solutions of Rebamipide].

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ryo; Imaoka, Futa; Wako, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kizu, Junko; Katayama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Stomatitis frequently occurs during chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer. Because of its pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory activity and stimulatory effects on endogenous prostaglandin synthesis, rebamipide has been suggested as a potentially effective treatment against stomatitis. In the present study we tested the stability of oral rebamipide solutions prepared in our hospital pharmacy using sodium alginate as a thickener to increase retention of this agent in the oral cavity, and the addition of different flavoring mixtures intended for use in enteral diets to reduce the bitterness of rebamipide and sodium alginate. Samples of oral rebamipide solution prepared with 13 kinds of flavoring and sodium alginate were evaluated in terms of their appearance, redispersibility, pH, viscosity, and rebamipide content immediately after preparation and 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after storage at room temperature under ambient light or in a cool, dark place. After 10 days of storage, favorable stability was observed in four sample solutions supplemented with green apple, pineapple, yogurt, and tomato flavoring mixtures intended for use in Elental(®) diets. These oral solutions may have potential clinical application. PMID:26632156

  5. Determination of Trichlorfon Pesticide Residues in Milk via Gas Chromatography with μ-Electron Capture Detection and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Hem, Lina; Khay, Sathya; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Morgan, E D; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han

    2010-06-01

    The pesticide trichlorfon is readily degraded under experimental conditions to dichlorvos. A method has therefore been developed by which residues of trichlorfon in milk are determined as dichlorvos, using gas chromatography with μ-electron capture detection. The identification of dichlorvos was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Milk was extracted with acetonitrile followed by centrifugation, freezing lipid filtration, and partitioning into dichloromethane. The residue after partitioning of dichloromethane was dissolved in ethyl acetate for gas chromatography. Recovery concentration was determined at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 of times the maximum permitted residue limits (MRLs) for trichlorfon in milk. The average recoveries (n = 6) ranged from 92.4 to 103.6%. The repeatability of the measurements was expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.6%, to 6.7%. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 3.7 and 11.1 μg/l, respectively. The accuracy and precision (expressed as RSD) were estimated at concentrations from 25 to 250 μg/l. The intra- and inter-day accuracy (n = 6) ranged from 89.2%to 91% and 91.3% to 96.3%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were lower than 8%. The developed method was applied to determine trichlorfon in real samples collected from the seven major cities in the Republic of Korea. No residual trichlorfon was detected in any samples. PMID:24278518

  6. Critical tests and safety studies on trichlorfon as an antiparasitic agent in the horse.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Taylor, E L

    1976-02-01

    Three series of critical tests were completed on a combined total of 46 horses to determine the efficacy of single doses of trichlorfon against bots, ascarids, pinworms, and large strongyles. Different formulations of trichlorfon were administered by tubing intragastrically, mixing with the daily grain ration, injecting intramuscularly, or pouring on the back at dose rates between 20 and 100 mg/kg. Administration by feeding tended to be more efficacious for removal of bots and less toxic to the horese than administration by stomach tube. In many of the tests, trichlorfon was given in the grain ration at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg of body weight, and the aggregate average removals of 2nd and 3rd instars of Gastrophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis in the 3 series of tests were between 97 and 100%. Removal of Parascaris equorum was equally efficacious with both the intubation and the grain feeding methods of dosing, and at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg, the aggregate averages were 99 and 100% in the 3 series. Removal of Oxyuris equi was variable--aggregate averages were between 11 (1 infected horse in the initial series) and 96 (5 infected horses in the 3rd series) to 100% (7 infected horses in the 2nd series). Large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus were almost completely refractory to the 40-mg/kg dose rate of trichlorfon. Dose rates of 40 mg/kg and less were generally well tolerated by the critical test horses. Higher dose rates (60 and 80 mg/kg) administered by stomach tube induced moderately severe to severe colic and diarrhea, whereas a dose of 80 mg/kg given in the feed resulted in only a transient softening of the feces. Likewise, 5 consecutive doses, 1 week between doses, of a bolus formulation given at the rate of 80 mg/kg to 4 horses were well tolerated. Clinical trials involving a total of 2,294 treatments of trichlorfon at dose rate of 35 to 40 mg/kg in pregnant and nonpregnant mares, stallions, suckling and weanling foals

  7. Global oral health inequalities in incidence and outcomes for oral cancer: causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N W; Warnakulasuriya, S; Gupta, P C; Dimba, E; Chindia, M; Otoh, E C; Sankaranarayanan, R; Califano, J; Kowalski, L

    2011-05-01

    The mouth and oropharynx are among the ten most common sites affected by cancer worldwide, but global incidence varies widely. Five-year survival rates exceed 50% in only the best treatment centers. Causes are predominantly lifestyle-related: Tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, poor diet, viral infections, and pollution are all important etiological factors. Oral cancer is a disease of the poor and dispossessed, and reducing social inequalities requires national policies co-ordinated with wider health and social initiatives - the common risk factor approach: control of the environment; safe water; adequate food; public and professional education about early signs and symptoms; early diagnosis and intervention; evidence-based treatments appropriate to available resources; and thoughtful rehabilitation and palliative care. Reductions in inequalities, both within and between countries, are more likely to accrue from the application of existing knowledge in a whole-of-society approach. Basic research aimed at determining individual predisposition and acquired genetic determinants of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, thus allowing for targeted therapies, should be pursued opportunistically. PMID:21490236

  8. Oral treatment with etoposide in small cell lung cancer – dilemmas and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rezonja, Renata; Knez, Lea; Cufer, Tanja; Mrhar, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background Etoposide is a chemotherapeutic agent, widely used for the treatment of various malignancies, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Oral etoposide administration exhibits advantages for the quality of life of the patient as well as economic benefits. However, widespread use of oral etoposide is limited by incomplete and variable bioavailability. Variability in bioavailability was observed both within and between patients. This suggests that some patients may experience suboptimal tumor cytotoxicity, whereas other patients may be at risk for excess toxicity. Conclusions The article highlights dilemmas as well as solutions regarding oral treatment with etoposide by presenting and analyzing relevant literature data. Numerous studies have shown that bioavailability of etoposide is influenced by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. Several strategies were explored to improve bioavailability and to reduce pharmacokinetic variability of oral etoposide, including desired and undesired drug interactions (e.g. with ketoconazole), development of suitable drug delivery systems, use of more water-soluble prodrug of etoposide, and influence on gastric emptying. In addition to genotype-based dose administration, etoposide is suitable for pharmacokinetically guided dosing, which enables dose adjustments in individual patient. Further, it is established that oral and intravenous schedules of etoposide in SCLC patients do not result in significant differences in treatment outcome, while results of toxicity are inconclusive. To conclude, the main message of the article is that better prediction of the pharmacokinetics of oral etoposide may encourage its wider use in routine clinical practice. PMID:23450046

  9. Tolerability of Oral Xylitol Solution in Young Children: Implications for Otitis Media Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Vernacchio, Louis; Vezina, Richard M.; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Xylitol, given as two grams orally five times-a-day, significantly reduces the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. A less frequent dosing schedule, if tolerable and efficacious, would promote the more widespread use of this treatment. We sought to determine the tolerability and acceptability in young children of oral xylitol solution at doses of 5 grams three times-a-day (TID) and 7.5 grams once daily (QD). Methods. The study was a three-month randomized placebo-controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of oral xylitol solution in 120 children 6-36 months of age performed in the SCOR Network. Results. Study withdrawals and unscheduled medical visits for gastrointestinal complaints did not differ significantly among the study groups. The proportions of subjects in the xylitol TID group who experienced excessive gas or diarrhea at months one, two, and three were 22.7%, 10.0%, and 14.3%, respectively, and in the xylitol QD group were 27.3%, 17.4%, and 14.3%, respectively, and these did not differ from the placebo groups. The proportions who accepted the study solution easily or with only minor difficulty at one, two, and three months in the xylitol TID group were 77.3%, 90.0%, and 90.5% and in the xylitol QD group, 77.3%, 82.6%, and 90.5%, respectively. Conclusions. Oral xylitol solution at dosages of 5 grams TID and 7.5 grams QD is well-tolerated by young children. Given the potential for xylitol as a safe, inexpensive option for AOM prophylaxis, clinical trials using these dosages of xylitol can be conducted. PMID:17097152

  10. Relative bioavailability of diclofenac potassium from softgel capsule versus powder for oral solution and immediate-release tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Bende, Girish; Biswal, Shibadas; Bhad, Prafulla; Chen, Yuming; Salunke, Atish; Winter, Serge; Wagner, Robert; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of diclofenac potassium 50 mg administered as a soft gelatin capsule (softgel capsule), powder for oral solution (oral solution), and tablet was evaluated in a randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy adults. Plasma diclofenac concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by noncompartmental methods. The median time to achieve peak plasma concentrations of diclofenac was 0.5, 0.25, and 0.75 hours with the softgel capsule, oral solution, and tablet formulations, respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf, and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the oral solution formulation were 0.97 (0.95-1.00) and 0.85 (0.76-0.95), respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the tablet formulation were 1.04 (1.00-1.08) and 1.67 (1.43-1.96), respectively. In conclusion, the exposure (AUC) of diclofenac with the new diclofenac potassium softgel capsule formulation was comparable to that of the existing oral solution and tablet formulations. The peak plasma concentration of diclofenac from the new softgel capsule was 67% higher than the existing tablet formulation, whereas it was 15% lower in comparison with the oral solution formulation. PMID:27119581

  11. Assessing lethal and sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon on different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sónia; Oliveira, Rhaul; Pereira, Susana; Musso, Carolina; Domingues, Inês; Bhujel, Ram C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A

    2011-06-01

    Trichlorfon (TCF) is one of the most used veterinary pharmaceuticals not only to fight infestations but also as a preventive measure worldwide. The high concentrations used generate concerns about environmental and human health. In this work we assessed the acute toxicity of this compound to non-target organisms belonging to different trophic levels: Danio rerio (early life stages and adults), Daphnia magna and algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), and studied the potential of the biomarkers cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) to assess sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon in zebrafish and daphnids. The fish embryo test followed the OECD draft guideline FET and was based on the exposure of newly fertilized eggs to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/L of TCF for 5 days; the fish acute test followed the OECD guideline 203 and was based on the exposure of adult fish to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L of TCF for 4 days; Daphnia sp. immobilization assay followed the OECD guideline 202 and was based on the exposure of juvenile daphnids to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1 and 2 μg/L of TCF for 2 days and the algae growth inhibition assay followed the OECD guideline 201 and was based on the exposure of the two species to 0, 1, 3.2, 10, 32, 100 and 300 mg/L of TCF for 4 days. Biomarker levels were measured after 96 h exposure to TCF in zebrafish early life stages and adults and after 48 h exposure in D. magna. Tested organisms seem to have dissimilar sensitivities towards TCF exposure. D. magna (48 h-LC(50)=0.29 μg/L) was the most sensitive organism, followed by early life stages and adults of zebrafish (96 h-LC(50)=25.4 and 28.8 mg/L, respectively) and finally by the algae P. subcapitata (96 h-LC(50)=274.5 mg/L) and C. vulgaris (no effect observed). As daphnids are a source of food for organisms of higher trophic levels, the impairment on its population is prone to have

  12. Bioequivalence study of levothyroxine tablets compared to reference tablets and an oral solution.

    PubMed

    Koytchev, Rossen; Lauschner, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the bioequivalence of three levothyroxine sodium (CAS 51-48-9) formulations, i.e. a test and a reference tablet and an oral solution. A bioequivalence study was carried out in 25 healthy volunteers, who were administered a single dose of 600 microg levothyroxine in the form of the test formulation (levothyroxine sodium tablets 200 microg; Eferox), the originator product, and an oral solution. The trial was performed in one study center according to an open, randomized, three-way cross-over design with wash-out periods of 35 days between administration. Blood samples were taken up to 48 h post dose, the plasma was separated and the concentrations of levothyroxine and triiodothyronine were determined by radioimmunoassay with I125 labeling method. The levothyroxine mean Cmax were 112.0+/-17.3 ng/ml, 113.4+/-18.5 ng/ ml and 111.3+/-15.1 ng/ml, while the mean AUC0-24 were 2263.7+/-332.8 ng x h/ ml, 2307.3+/-351.3 ng x h/ml and 2286.1+/-331.0 ng x h/ml for the test and reference tablets as well as for the oral solution, respectively. No significant differences were found of principal pharmacokinetic parameters between the studied formulations. The 90%-confidence interval for the primary target parameters, intra-individual ratios of AUC0-24 and Cmax of levothyroxine were within the acceptance ranges for bioequivalence trials, i.e. AUC0-24 0.954-1.016 and 0.966-1.011 as well as Cmax 0.948-1.027 and 0.968-1.032 for test tablets versus reference tablets and the oral solution, respectively. Similar results were observed for triiodothyronine. In the light of the present study it can be concluded that the levothyroxine test tablet is bioequivalent to the reference formulation in respect of extent and rate of absorption. The results of the present trial confirm the findings of a previous study, performed under steady-state conditions with Eferox tablets 100 microg in patients without thyroid function. PMID:15553108

  13. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial. Methods Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo) with oral diclofenac (ODiclo). Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs), recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation. Results AEs occurred in 312 (67.1%) patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5%) of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001). Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055) AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile. PMID:21811391

  14. Kinetic characteristics of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity are investigated and the growth order and constants are determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is found that the stage in which the number of particles increases occurs in the range of mixed kinetics and their growth occurs in the diffusion range. The enhancing effect of additives HCO- 3 > C6H12O6 > F- and the retarding effect of Mg2+ are demonstrated. The HCO- 3 and Mg2+ additives, taken in high concentrations, affect the corresponding rate constants. It is revealed the crystallization in DPF is favorable for the growth of small crystallites, while the model solution of saliva is, vice versa, favorable for the growth of larger crystals.

  15. Detection of stain formation on teeth by oral antiseptic solution using fiber optic displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, H. A.; Rahim, H. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Yasin, M.; Apsari, R.; Ahmad, H.; Wan Abas, W. A. B.

    2013-02-01

    The application of a simple intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor for the detection of stain formation on human teeth is demonstrated. The proposed sensor uses a concentric type bundled plastic optical fiber (POF) as a probe in conjunction with the surfaces of five human teeth as the reflecting targets. Prior to the experiment, the stains were produced extrinsically by soaking the teeth in different concentrations of oral antiseptic solution containing hexetidine. The concentration of the oral antiseptic solution is measured in volume%. For a concentration change from 0% to 80%, the peak voltage decreases exponentially from 1.15 mV to 0.41 mV with a measured resolution of 0.48% and 1.75% for concentration ranges of 0-40% and 40-80%, respectively. The correlation between the detector output and variation in the color of human tooth surface has successfully been examined. Simple in design and low in cost, this sensor can detect color changes due to hexetidine-induced stain on a tooth surface in a fast and convenient way. Thus, this sensor will be very promising in esthetic dentistry, dental color matching techniques, chemical and biomedical applications.

  16. Oral rehydration solutions for burn management in the field and underdeveloped regions: a review

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Krishna S; Wong, Lesley K

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries are the fourth most common type of trauma worldwide, and the appropriate care of burn injuries in resource-limited settings such as the battlefield, underdeveloped nations, or in mass casualtiesremains a significant challenge. Rehydration constitutes the primary treatment of the systemic effects of burns and is a major factor in patient recovery. The standard of care for the replenishment of fluid and electrolyte losses in burn injury remains intravenous fluid therapy, but oral rehydration solution therapy (ORST) demonstrates beneficial utility in saving the lives of burn patients when they are applied in the acute phase of burn injuries, especially when intravenous rehydration is unavailable or inaccessible. Advantages of ORST as compared to intravenous therapy include availability, ease of administration in the field, low risk of infections and complications, low cost, and no requirement for accessory or specialized equipment. These benefits position ORST very attractively for the provision of interim first aid until definitive medical assistance arrives. Extensive and comprehensive investigation may be warranted to elucidate, account for and quantify individual burn patient biochemical variables toward the potential realization of such an “omniuse” oral rehydration solution for the benefit of burn injuries worldwide. PMID:23875118

  17. Response of breeding birds to aerial sprays of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-Oil) in Montana forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Henny, C.J.; Floyd, R.L.; Bobal, K.A.; Schultz, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding density, food, nesting success, and mortality of 20 bird species were monitored at Beaverhead National Forest, Montana, in 1975 in conjunction with experimental applications of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-oil) to western budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis). Bird species on nine 350- to 550-ha forested plots (three controls and three treated with each pesticide) were studied before and for 14 days after the spraying of trichlorfon at 1.1 kg in?9.4 L of Panasol AN3 per ha (1 pound active ingredient in 1.0 gallon/acre) and of carbaryl at 1.1 kg in 4.7 L of diesel oil per ha (l pound active ingredient in 0.5 gallon/acre). No significant decrease in bird numbers was detected from breeding-pair estimates or live bird counts after the spraying. Of the breeding pairs present before spraying, 92% remained on control plots, 89% on trichlorfon plots, and 92% on carbaryl plots. Counts of live birds made before and after spraying in three types of habitat supported the. results of the breeding-pair estimates. Nests with eggs or with young at the time of spraying were 74 and 97% successful, respectively, in control plots, 83 and 100% in plots sprayed with trichlorfon, and 86 and 100% in plots sprayed with carbaryl. No sick or dead birds were found after the spraying, although budworms were found in bird stomachs, and tracer-dye from the pesticide occurred on the feathers or feet of 74% of the 202 birds collected. Species dwelling in the tree canopy encountered the dye (and thus the pesticide) at a slightly higher rate (80%) than did species below the treetops (71 %) or near the ground and in open areas (70%).

  18. Evaluation of computed tomographic enterography with an orally administered lactulose solution in clinically normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Keh, Seoyeon; Sohn, Jungmin; Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Jang, Jaeyoung; Kim, Hyunwook; Chang, Dongwoo; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine optimal techniques for CT enterography in clinically normal dogs and to evaluate luminal distention after oral administration of lactulose solution as a contrast agent. ANIMALS 15 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES CT was performed in a control group (2 dogs that underwent CT to evaluate metastasis and 5 other dogs). In a bolus administration group (5 dogs from the control group), lactulose solution (1.34 g/mL) was administered (60 mL/kg) rapidly via gastric tube to anesthetized dogs, and CT was performed every 10 minutes for 1 hour. In a continuous administration group of 8 other dogs, lactulose solution (60 mL/kg) was administered slowly via nasoesophageal tube over a period of 45 minutes. Then, 15 minutes after anesthetic induction, CT was performed every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Luminal distention of the small intestines was evaluated qualitatively by use of a 3-point scale. RESULTS All small intestinal segments had poor luminal distention in the control group. The terminal ileum had poor luminal distention for the bolus administration group. Nearly all segments had good luminal distention for the continuous administration group with mild adverse effects. Luminal distention scores from 0 to 20 minutes after lactulose administration were significantly higher than scores from 30 to 60 minutes. Interobserver reproducibility was high for all intestinal segments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT performed between 0 and 20 minutes after continuous administration of lactulose solution (60 mL/kg) may reveal adequate luminal distention for examination of small intestinal segments in dogs. PMID:27027835

  19. The Effectiveness of Oral Rehydration Solution at Various Concentrations as a Storage Media for Avulsed Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Badakhsh, Samaneh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Following avulsion, the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells are at risk of necrosis. To achieve a favorable survival prognosis, the PDL cells must be kept viability. Therefore, immediate replantation is considered as the treatment of choice and in case it is not possible, storing the tooth in an appropriate storage media should be considered. Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) is a glucose-electrolyte solution which can keep the optimal osmolality as well as pH and can even provide nutrients which are necessary for cellular growth. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different concentrations of ORS in maintaining the viability of the PDL cells at different time points. Materials and Methods PDL cells were obtained from healthy extracted human premolars. Then, 8×10³ cells were seeded in each well of 96-well plate. Afterwards, each well was treated with ORS in three different concentrations and DMEM for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the MTT assay. One way-ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for comparing the study groups. Results According to the results, 25% and 50% concentrations of ORS were more effective in preserving the PDL cell viability and could maintain 79.98% and 68.34% of the PDL cells, respectively, at least for the last experimental time point (up to 9 hours). Conclusions Therefore, our findings indicate that ORS might be a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth. PMID:23412137

  20. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Çeliksular, M. Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-01-01

    Objective The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. Methods The study was performed on 80 ASA I–II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. Results The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2–3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24th postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (p<0.05). Plasma cortisol levels at the 2nd peroperative hour were higher in epidural groups than in general anaesthesia groups. Both anaesthesia techniques did not have an effect on IL-6 levels. Conclusion We concluded that epidural anaesthesia suppressed stress response, although preoperative oral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response. PMID:27366573

  1. Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects following a single oral administration of a nonaqueous pimobendan solution in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Yata, M; McLachlan, A J; Foster, D J R; Page, S W; Beijerink, N J

    2016-02-01

    Pimobendan is an inodilator used in the treatment of canine congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of a nonaqueous oral solution of pimobendan using a single-dose, operator-blinded, parallel-dose study design. Eight healthy dogs were divided into two treatment groups consisting of water (negative control) and pimobendan solution. Plasma samples and noninvasive measures of cardiovascular function were obtained over a 24-h period following dosing. Pimobendan and its active metabolite were quantified using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS) assay. The oral pimobendan solution was rapidly absorbed [time taken to reach maximum concentration (Tmax ) 1.1 h] and readily converted to the active metabolite (metabolite Tmax 1.3 h). The elimination half-life was short for both pimobendan and its active metabolite (0.9 and 1.6 h, respectively). Maximal cardiovascular effects occurred at 2-4 h after a single oral dose, with measurable effects occurring primarily in echocardiographic indices of systolic function. Significant effects persisted for <8 h. The pimobendan nonaqueous oral solution was well tolerated by study dogs. PMID:25997373

  2. Pharmacokinetics and potential advantages of a new oral solution of levothyroxine vs. other available dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Yue, C S; Scarsi, C; Ducharme, M P

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the pharmacokinetics and potential advantages of a levothyroxine oral solution vs. tablets and soft gel capsules.4 randomized, 2-treatment, single-dose (600 mcg levothyroxine), 2-way crossover bioequivalence studies in 84 healthy subjects were analyzed. Samples were collected before dosing and until 48-72 h post-dose to calculate noncompartmental baseline-adjusted pharmacokinetic parameters: maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 48 h and from 0 to 2 h.Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (±standard deviation) for tablets, capsules and solution, respectively, were: area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 2 h (ng*h/mL)=68.4±32.8, 64.4±24.4, 99.1±22.7; area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 48 h (ng*h/mL)=1 632±424, 1 752±445, 1 862±439; maximum concentration (ng/mL)=67.6±20.9, 68.0±15.9, 71.4±16.0; time of maximum concentration (hours)=2.25±0.99, 2.38±1.58, 1.96±1.07. Overall rate and extent of exposure were not statistically different between formulations, but a faster onset of absorption for the solution was suggested (greater area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 2 h and faster time to maximum concentration by an average of 30 min).Levothyroxine rate and extent of exposure are similar between tested formulations. The solution appears however to reach systemic circulation quicker as dissolution is not needed before absorption starts. The solution's greater early exposure and a faster time to maximal concentration of around 30 min may be of benefit to minimize drug-food interactions and deserves further investigations. PMID:23154888

  3. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  4. Critical tests of the anthelmintic febantel in the horse: activity of a paste formulation alone or with a trichlorfon paste.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1978-09-01

    Critical tests were carried out in 10 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of febantel given alone or with trichlorfon. Paste formulations were administered intraorally at dose levels of 6 mg of febantel (active ingredient)/kg and 35 mg of trichlorfon (active ingredient)/kg. In 5 tests with febantel alone, removal of 100% was recorded for mature or immature Parascaris equorum from 2 infected horses. Strongylus vulgaris from 4 infected horses, S edentatus from 5 infected horses, and mature Oxyuris equi from 1 infected horse; and removal of 96% was recorded for small strogyles from 1 horse tested, and bots in 5 infected horses were not affected. In 5 horses treated with both compounds, removal of 100% was recorded for mature P equorum from 2 infected horses, immature P equorum from 1 infected horse, S vulgaris from 5 infected horses, Sedentatus from 5 infected horses, mature O equi from 2 infected horses, immature O equi from 1 horse tested, 2nd Gasterophilus intestin-equi from 1 infected horse, 2nd-instar C nasalis from 1 infected horse, and 3rd-instar C nasalis from 4 infected horses. Removal of 98% was recorded for small strongyles from 1 horse tested, and removal of 65% to 100% for 3rd-instar C intestinalis from 5 infected horses. In the aggregate, removal of 3rd-instar C intestinalis was 99%. Untoward effects of treatment were quite limited. Only a transient softening of feces in 1 of 5 horses given the trichlorfon paste plus the febantel paste was recorded. PMID:697152

  5. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Andrew S.; Lessler, Justin; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Mckay, Michael V.; Khan, Azharul; Ahmed, Dilruba; Gurley, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, pharmacy-purchased oral rehydration solution (ORS) is often used to treat diarrhea, including cholera. Over-the-counter sales have been used for epidemiologic surveillance in the past, but rarely, if ever, in low-income countries. With few early indicators for cholera outbreaks in endemic areas, diarrhea-related product sales may serve as a useful surveillance tool. Methodology/Principal Findings We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents. We developed a mobile phone based system to track the sales of ORS and deployed it in parallel with a paper-based system. Our objectives were to determine if the mobile phone system was practical and acceptable to pharmacists and drug sellers, whether data were reported accurately compared to a paper-based system, and whether ORS sales were associated with future incidence of cholera hospitalizations within the community. We recorded 47,215 customers purchasing ORS, and 315 hospitalized diarrhea cases, 22% of which had culture-confirmed cholera. ORS sales and diarrhea incidence were independently associated with the mean daily temperature; therefore both unadjusted and adjusted models were explored. Through unadjusted cross-correlation statistics and generalized linear models, we found increases in ORS sales were significantly associated with increases in hospitalized diarrhea cases up to 9-days later and hospitalized cholera cases up to one day later. After adjusting for mean daily temperature, ORS was significantly associated with hospitalized diarrhea two days later and hospitalized cholera one day later. Conclusions/Significance Pharmacy sales data may serve as a feasible and useful surveillance tool. Given the relatively short lagged correlation between ORS sales and diarrhea, rapid and accurate sales data are key. More work is needed

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetic studies of fast dissolving film and oral solution of ondansetron in rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dhagla R; Patel, Vishnu A; Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Patel, Harsha V; Kundawala, Aliasgar J

    2013-12-01

    Ondansetron, selective serotonin (5-HT3) receptor blocker, is used in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Mouth dissolving films containing ondansetron were developed to have better onset and patient compliances. The drug content of prepared films was within 85%-115%. The films were found to be stable for 4 months when stored at 40 %°C and 75% RH. In-vitro dissolution studies suggested a rapid disintegration, in which most of ondansetron was released (91.5±3.4%) within 90 sec. Subsequently, Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of the formulated films with oral administration of pure drug solution. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between the two groups in which AUC0-t (ng h/ml), AUC0-∞ (ng h/ml), Cmax (ng/ml), Tmax (min), Kel (h(-1)) and t1/2 (h) of reference was 109.091±15.73, 130.32±18.56, 28.5±4.053, 60, 0.1860±0.0226, and 3.771±0.498 respectively; and for formulated film 113.663±16.64, 151.79±16.54, 30±3.51, 60, 0.1521±0.0310 and 4.755±0.653 respectively. These results suggest that the fast dissolving film containing ondansetron is likely to become one of the choices to treat chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. PMID:23755722

  7. A bioequivalence study of levothyroxine tablets versus an oral levothyroxine solution in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yannovits, N; Zintzaras, E; Pouli, A; Koukoulis, G; Lyberi, S; Savari, E; Potamianos, S; Triposkiadis, F; Stefanidis, I; Zartaloudis, E; Benakis, A

    2006-01-01

    Probably for genetic reasons a substantial part of the Greek population requires Levothyroxine treatment. Since commercially available Levothyroxine was first marketed, the manufacture and storage of the drug in tablet form has been complicated and difficult; and as cases of therapeutic failure have frequently been reported following treatment with this medicinal agent, quality control is an essential factor. Due to the unreliability of Levothyroxine-based commercial products, in the present study we decided to follow the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines*, and use a Levothyroxine solution as reference product. The bioavailability of the Levothyroxine sodium tablet formulation THYROHORMONE/Ni-The Ltd (0.2 mg/tab) and that of a reference oral solution (0.3 mg/100 ml) under fasting conditions were compared in an open, randomized, single-dose two-way crossover study. Twenty four healthy Caucasian volunteers (M/F=15/9, mean age=32.9+/-7.4yr) participated in the study. Bioavailability was assessed by pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under plasma concentration-time curve from time zero up to the measurable last time point (AUC(last)) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax). Heparinized venous blood samples were collected pre-dose and up to a 48-hour period post-dose. Levothyroxine sodium in plasma samples was assayed by a validated electrochemiluninescent immunoassay technique. Statistical analysis showed that the post-dose thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05). Regarding Levothyroxine (T4), the point estimate of the test formulation to the reference formulation ratios (T/R) for AUC(last) and Cmax was 0.92 with 90% confidence limits (0.90, 0.94) and 0.93 with 90% confidence limits (0.91, 0.94), respectively. Regarding triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the point estimate for the T/R ratios of AUC(last) and Cmax was 0.92 with 90% confidence limits (0.90, 0.95) and 0.94 with 90% confidence limits (0.92, 0

  8. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials. PMID:2345922

  9. Water-soluble beta-cyclodextrins in paediatric oral solutions of spironolactone: preclinical evaluation of spironolactone bioavailability from solutions of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, A M; Lennernäs, H; Mannermaa, J P

    1998-06-01

    Water-soluble derivatives of beta-cyclodextrin have been considered for solubilization of spironolactone in the formulation of a safe liquid preparation for premature infants. The oral absorption of spironolactone was studied in rats to evaluate the need to adjust spironolactone dosage in prospective clinical studies. Spironolactone was administered in solutions of sulphobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE7) or dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CyD) and also as spironolactone-containing powder papers (reference preparation). Spironolactone in SBE7 solution was administered intravenously to assess the extent of intestinal absorption from the different formulations. Spironolactone and the metabolites 7alpha-thiospirolactone, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone and canrenone were determined in rat serum after intravenous administration of spironolactone. Half-lives for spironolactone, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone and canrenone were 0.72 +/- 0.17, 1.5 +/- 0.3 and 2.2 +/- 0.3 h, respectively. Although, according to Cmax values, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone was the major serum metabolite in rats, higher AUC (area under the serum concentration-time curve) values were obtained for canrenone. After oral administration of spironolactone the bioavailabilities evaluated from the AUC values of 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone were 27.5 +/- 9.3%, 81.3 +/- 28.8% and 82.8 +/- 28.6% for powder papers, DM-beta-CyD and SBE7 solutions, respectively. The oral absorption of spironolactone by rats was better after administration of spironolactone in SBE7 and DM-beta-CyD solutions than after administration as powder papers. Both cyclodextrin formulations enhanced spironolactone bioavailability to a similar extent despite some deacetylation of spironolactone in the presence of SBE7. A reduction of spironolactone dosage would be recommended during clinical studies with premature infants. These results indicate that SBE7 could be a safe and suitable excipient for the solubilization of

  10. The Effect of Bamboo Leaf Extract Solution and Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Solution on Growth and Volatile Sulfur Compounds Production of Oral Malodor Associated Some Anaerobic Periodontal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Majbauddin, Abir; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Bamboo leaf extract solution (BLES) and sodium copper chlorophyllin solution (SCCS) are known for their anti-oxidant activities. Oral malodor is often related with periodontal pathogens. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-bacterial effect of both BLES and SCCS on anaerobic periodontal bacteria producing oral malodorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Methods Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 (PG), Prevotella intermidai TDC19B (PI), Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC25586 (FN) and Prevotella nigrescence ATCC33563 (PN) were investigated as oral isolated bacteria. VSC production ability of the oral strains was investigated by gas chromatography. With serial dilution of BLES or SCCS, the strains PG, PI, FN or PN were cultured anaerobically with AnaeroPack at 37 ℃ for 3 days. For the determination of anti-bacterial action of BLES or SCCS, the inoculum was cultured with original concentrations of BLES 0.16% (w/v) or SCCS 0.25% (w/v). Results Gas chromatography exhibited that all strains, PG, PI, FN and PN were responsible for producing a high range of H2S and a moderate range of CH3SH. Anti-bacterial effect of BLES or SCCS on the strains was observed. Inhibition of BLES or SCCS on the strains was revealed as concentration dependent. BLES or SCCS inhibited bacterial proliferation at higher concentrations (PG; 0.04% BLES or 0.03% SCCS, PI; 0.002% BLES or 0.03% SCCS, FN; 0.005% BLES or 0.01% SCCS, PN; 0.01% BLES or 0.015% SCCS). No viable bacterial colony observed at original concentration of BLES 0.16% or SCCS 0.25%. Strain growth was eliminated from inhibition at lower concentrations (PG; 0.02% BLES or 0.015% SCCS, PI; 0.001% BLES or 0.015% SCCS, FN; 0.002% BLES or 0.007% SCCS, PN; 0.005% BLES or 0.007% SCCS). Conclusion High concentrations of both BLES (0.16%) and SCCS (0.25%) show superior inhibiting capability on all four oral malodor associated periodontal anaerobes during testing, suggesting that these compounds might have a beneficial effect

  11. Modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission induced by sublethal doses of the organophosphate trichlorfon in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Graziele Daiane; de Freitas, Thiago Carrazoni; Heberle, Marines de Avila; de Assis, Dênis Reis; Vinadé, Lúcia; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Dal Belo, Cháriston André

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides have been used indiscriminately, based on their high dissipation rates and low residual levels in the environment. Despite the toxicity of OPs to beneficial insects is principally devoted to the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, the physiological mechanisms underlying this activity remain poorly understood. Here we showed the pharmacological pathways that might be involved in severe alterations in the insect locomotion and grooming behaviors following sublethal administration of the OP Trichlorfon (Tn) (0.25, 0.5 and 1 µM) in Phoetalia pallida. Tn inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity (46±6, 38±3 and 24±6 nmol NADPH/min/mg protein, n=3, p<0.05), respectively. Tn (1 µM) also increased the walking maintenance of animals (46±5 s; n=27; p<0.05). Tn caused a high increase in the time spent for this behavior (344±18 s/30 min, 388±18 s/30 min and 228±12 s/30 min, n=29-30, p<0.05, respectively). The previous treatment of the animals with different cholinergic modulators showed that pirenzepine>atropine>oxotremorine>d-tubocurarine>tropicamide>methoctramine induced a decrease on Tn (0.5 µM)-induced grooming increase, respectively in order of potency. Metoclopramide (0.4 µM), a DA-D2 selective inhibitor decreased the Tn-induced grooming activity (158±12 s/30 min; n=29; p<0.05). Nevertheless, the effect of the selective DA-D1 receptor blocker SCH 23390 (1.85 µM) on the Tn (0.5 µM)-induced grooming increase was significative and more intense than that of metoclopramide (54±6 s/30 min; n=30; p<0.05). Taken together the results suggest that a cross-talking between cholinergic M1/M3 and dopaminergic D1 receptors at the insect nervous system may play a role in the OP-mediated behavioral alterations. PMID:25164203

  12. Oral Health Disparities and Unmet Dental Needs among Preschool Children in Chelsea, MA: Exploring Mechanisms, Defining Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Isong, Inyang; Dantas, Laila; Gerard, Macda; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant disparities exist in children’s receipt of preventive dental care (PDC) in the United States. Many of the children at greatest risk of dental disease do not receive timely PDC; when they do receive dental care, it is often more for relief of dental pain. Chelsea is a low-income, diverse Massachusetts community with high rates of untreated childhood caries. There are various dental resources available in Chelsea, yet many children do not access dental care at levels equivalent to their needs. Objective Using Chelsea as a case-study, to explore factors contributing to forgone PDC (including the age 1 dental visit) in an in-depth way. Methods We used a qualitative study design that included semi-structured interviews with parents of preschool children residing in Chelsea, and Chelsea-based providers including pediatricians, dentists, a dental hygienist and early childhood care providers. We examined: a) parents’ dental attitudes and oral health cultural beliefs; b) parents’ and providers’ perspectives on facilitators and barriers to PDC, reasons for unmet needs, and proposed solutions to address the problem. We recorded, transcribed and independently coded all interviews. Using rigorous, iterative qualitative data analyses procedures, we identified emergent themes. Results Factors perceived to facilitate receipt of PDC included Head-Start oral health policies, strong pediatric primary care/dental linkages, community outreach and advertising, and parents’ own oral health experiences. Most parents and providers perceived there to be an adequate number of accessible dental services and resources in Chelsea, including for Medicaid enrollees. However, several barriers impeded children from receiving timely PDC, the most frequently cited being insurance related problems for children and adults. Other barriers included limited dental services for children <2 years, perceived poor quality of some dental practices, lack of emphasis on

  13. Critical tests of the antiparasitic activity of thiabendazole and trichlorfon sequentially administered to horses via stomach tube.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1977-06-01

    Thirteen critical tests were conducted in horses naturally infected with helminths and bots. Single doses of thiabendazole (44 mg/kg of body weight) and trichlorfon (40 mg/kg of body weight) powder formulations were administered as suspensions sequentially given via stomach tube to evaluate the efficacy of the combination against the large parasites of horses. Parasite removal efficacies were 100% against 2nd instar Gasterophilus intestinalis and 2nd and 3rd instar Gasterophilus nasalis and 82 to 100% against 3rd instar G intestinals. There were complete removals of mature and immature Parascaris equorum and mature Oxyuris equi. Removal efficacies against Strongylus vulgaris were 89 to 100% and against Strongylus edentatus, 82 to 100%. Of 2 horses infected with Strongylus equinus, removals were 72 and 100%. Seven of the 13 horses treated had transient, semi-liquid feces during the posttreatment hours 1 through 24. PMID:879569

  14. Oral rehydration therapy: a community trial comparing the acceptability of homemade sucrose and cereal-based solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A. M.; Karim, F.; Rohde, J. E.; Ahmed, J.; Abed, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    Sugar-based oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea is promoted in many countries of the world. One programme in Bangladesh has instructed more than 13 million mothers in the preparation of a sugar-salt solution in the home; despite very high rates of correct mixing and knowledge, subsequent application was found in only some 20% of all diarrhoea episodes. Since rice is far more available in rural homes (95%) than any type of sugar (30%) and rice gruel is a widely accepted food during illness, a field trial was conducted in three areas (total population, 68,345) to compare the acceptability and use of rice-based ORT with that of sugar-based ORT. Although the mothers unanimously agreed that the rice-based solutions "stopped" the diarrhoea more quickly, they used the sugar-based solutions twice as often (in 40% of severe watery episodes) as the rice-based solutions (in 18%), because the rice-ORT was much more time-consuming and difficult to prepare. The observed reduced utilization of home-made rice-ORT makes it a poor substitute for sugar-ORT at the community level in rural Bangladesh. PMID:1860151

  15. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brecken-Folse, J. A.; Mayer, F.L.; Pedigo, L.E.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon vanegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30ppt x 17, 22, 27°C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentradon, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of 14C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 μg/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 μg/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  16. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp. ) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Brecken-Folse, J.A. . Environmental Protection Agency) Mayer, F.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Pedigo, L.E. ); Marking, L.L. . National Fisheries Research Center)

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 ppt [times] 17, 22, 27 C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentration, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of [sup 14]C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 [mu]g/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 [mu]g/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  17. 76 FR 32366 - Determination That ORLAAM (Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Book. In the Federal Register of November 7, 2007 (72 FR 62858), FDA ] announced that it was... solution, 10 mg/mL, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  18. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial of rice versus glucose oral rehydration solutions in infants and young children with acute watery diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Faruque, A S; Hoque, S S; Fuchs, G J; Mahalanabis, D

    1997-12-01

    A randomized clinical trial was carried out to compare a packaged ready-to-mix rice oral rehydration solution (ORS) to the standard glucose ORS for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea. Children were of either gender, aged 3-35 months, presenting with a history of watery diarrhoea for 72 h or less. The main outcomes examined were stool output, ORS intake, duration of diarrhoea and nutritional recovery during follow-up at 16 d of illness. Stool output in the first 24 h (106 vs 107 g kg(-1)), ORS intake in clinic (93 vs 102 ml per motion) and duration of diarrhoea (88 h vs 81 h) were similar in the two treatment groups. The few episodes that became persistent were similar (2%) in the two groups. The weight gain during follow-up was similar in the two ORS groups. PMID:9475306

  19. Oral Reading and Handwriting Miscues Which Appear in the Literacy Period and Solution Offers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basar, Murat

    2013-01-01

    In this research, literacy miscues and the solution offers are taken stock by teachers and parents. 50 first grade teachers and 50 parents form the study group of this qualitative action research. The teachers are the ones who claim that one or more of their students have literacy miscues and the parents are the students' parents.…

  20. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  1. A comparison of three oral electrolyte solutions in the treatment of diarrheic calves

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Jonathan M.; Petrie, Lyall; Rodriguez, Maria I.; Skilnick, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-six diarrheic calves infected with rota- and coronaviruses were randomly allocated to one of three oral electrolyte treatments: Ion-Aid (Syntex Agribusiness), Life-Guard (Norden Inc), or Revibe (Langford Inc). The calves were also allowed voluntary access to milk which was offered at the rate of 5% of body weight per feeding in two feedings daily. There were significant differences in recovery rate among calves treated with the different electrolytes. Only 33% of Ion-Aid-treated calves recovered; Revibe- and Life-Guard-treated calves had high recovery rates of 92% and 83%, respectively. The much higher recovery rates with Life-Guard and Revibe were attributed to the presence of an alkalizing agent in these preparations. Life-Guard uses bicarbonate to counteract acidosis and there was some evidence that this may have interfered with milk digestion. Revibe uses acetate; this was effectively metabolized within the calves' tissues and produced alkalization without interference with milk digestion. PMID:17423689

  2. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  4. Oral pharmacological treatments for parasitic diseases of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss. III. Ichthyobodo necator.

    PubMed

    Tojo, J L; Santamarina, M T

    1998-07-30

    A total of 32 drugs were evaluated as regards their efficacy for oral treatment of Ichthyobodo necator infestation of rainbow trout. In preliminary trials, all drugs were supplied to infected fish at 40 g per kg of feed for 10 d. The majority of the drugs tested (1,3-di-6-quinolylurea, aminosidine, amprolium, benznidazole, bithionol, chloroquine, diethylcarbamazine, dimetridazole, diminazene aceturate, febantel, flubendazole, ketoconazole, levamisole, mebendazole, netobimin, niclosamide, niridazole, nitroscanate, nitroxynil, oxibendazole, parbendazole, piperazine, praziquantel, ronidazole, sulphaquinoxaline, tetramisole, thiophanate, toltrazuril and trichlorfon) were ineffectdive. Metronidazole and secnidazole were 100% effective (unlike the other nitroimidazoles tested, namely dimetridazole, benznidazole and ronidazole). The non-carbamate benzimidazole triclabendazole was likewise 100% effective. PMID:9745716

  5. Study of the acceptability of antibiotic syrups, suspensions, and oral solutions prescribed to pediatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert; de La Rocque, France; Lécuyer, Aurélie; Wollner, Claudie; Bodin, Marie Josée; Wollner, Alain

    2009-07-01

    This observational study was designed to evaluate the acceptability of oral antibiotics (including generics) commonly prescribed to children by community practitioners in France. Between February and July 2006, the parents of 953 children enrolled by 46 pediatricians completed a questionnaire, including a taste assessment based on representations of five facial expressions. The proportions of "satisfactory" taste judgments showed a significant difference between amoxicillin-clavulanate reference product and its generics (77.9% vs. 65%, p = 0.01). The amoxicillin-clavulanate generics were more likely than the reference product to be spat out at least once (28.7% vs. 19%, p = 0.05). The full treatment course was taken by 91.7% and 82.3% of children prescribed the amoxicillin-clavulanate reference product and its generics, respectively (p = 0.02). The proportions of "satisfactory" taste judgments showed no significant difference between amoxicillin reference product and generics (64.3% vs. 72.5%, p = 0.3). The amoxicillin generics were not different from the reference product to be spat out at least once (8.6% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.2). The full treatment course was taken by 90.7% and 94.6% of children prescribed the amoxicillin reference product and its generics, respectively (p = 0.3). This study suggests the role of the active substance in the taste, and calls for the evaluation of palatability of future drugs (generics and references) before granting of the marketing authorization, particularly for active substances of poor taste; this palatability plays a significant role in the compliance of the treatment, notably in children. Poor compliance increases the risk of therapeutic failures and the emergence of resistance. PMID:18958497

  6. Electrospinning of diosmin from aqueous solutions for improved dissolution and oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Vrbata, Petr; Berka, Pavel; Stránská, Denisa; Doležal, Pavel; Lázníček, Milan

    2014-10-01

    A nanofibrous membrane carrier for nearly water insoluble drug diosmin was formulated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the drug release and dissolution properties in an aqueous buffer of pH 7.8, and to compare the suitability of the drug carrier with the available drug forms and screen diosmin absorption extent. The membranes were produced from HPC/PVA/PEO-drug water solutions and then evaluated by SEM and DSC measurements. The results showed that diosmin was incorporated within the nanofibers in an amorphous state, and/or as a solid dispersion. The results of in vitro release experiments excerpt a very fast release of the drug, followed by the formation of an over saturated solution and partial precipitation of the drug (a "spring" effect). The enormous increases in dissolution of the drug from a nanofibrous carrier, compared to a micronized and crystalline form, was achieved. The in vivo bioavailability study carried out on rats showed higher initial drug plasma levels and higher AUC values after administration of the nanofibrous drug formulation, compared to the micronized form. The results of the study demonstrated that the improvement of the diosmin in vitro dissolution also brought the enhanced in vivo absorption extent of the drug. PMID:25066074

  7. Dosimetric consideration for patients with dental filling materials undergoing irradiation of oral cavity using RapidArc: challenges and solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mail, Noor; Albarakati, Y.; Khan, M. Ahmad; Saeedi, F.; Safadi, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Saoudi, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of dental filling materials (DFM) on RapidArcTM treatment plans and delivery in a patient undergoing radiotherapy treatment. The presence of DFM creates uncertainties in CT number and causes long streaking artifacts in the reconstructed images which greatly affect the dose distribution inside the oral cavity. The influence of extensive dental filling artifacts on dose distribution was performed using a geometrically well defined head and neck IMRT verification phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) together with inserts from DFM (Amalgam, 11.3 g/cm3). The phantom was scanned using Siemens SOMATOM Sensation CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany) under standard head and neck imaging protocol (120 kV, 120 mAs, voxel size 1×1×2 mm3). Three RapidArcTM plans were created in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning System (TPS) to treat oral cavity using the same CT dataset including; 1) raw CT image, 2) streaking artifacts replaced with a mask of 10 HU and 3) 2 cm thick 6000 HU virtual filter (a volume around the teeth in TPS to mimic extra attenuation). The virtual filter thickness optimization was purely based on measured PDD data acquired with DFM and the calculation in Eclipse Planning System using direct beam. The dose delivery and distribution for the three plans was verified using Gafchromic EBT2 (International Specialty Product, Wayne, NJ, USA) film measurements. The artifact mask and virtual filter around the teeth in the planning was found very useful to reduce the discrepancies between the dose plan and delivery. From clinical point of view, these results can be helpful to understand the increase of mucositis in patient having DFM, and further investigation is underway for clinical solution.

  8. Biodegradation of the Organophosphate Trichlorfon and Its Major Degradation Products by a Novel Aspergillus sydowii PA F-2.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Dong, Qiaofeng; Yu, Chenlei; Zhao, Ruixue; Wang, Jing; Chen, Lanzhou

    2016-06-01

    Trichlorfon (TCF) is an important organophosphate pesticide in agriculture. However, limited information is known about the biodegradation behaviors and kinetics of this pesticide. In this study, a newly isolated fungus (PA F-2) from pesticide-polluted soils was identified as Aspergillus sydowii on the basis of the sequencing of internal transcribed spacer rDNA. This fungus degraded TCF as sole carbon, sole phosphorus, and sole carbon-phosphorus sources in a mineral salt medium (MSM). Optimal TCF degradation conditions were determined through response surface methodology, and results also revealed that 75.31% of 100 mg/L TCF was metabolized within 7 days. The degradation of TCF was accelerated, and the mycelial dry weight of PA F-2 was remarkably increased in MSM supplemented with exogenous sucrose and yeast extract. Five TCF metabolic products were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. TCF could be initially hydrolyzed to dichlorvos and then be degraded through the cleavage of the P-C bond to produce dimethyl hydrogen phosphate and chloral hydrate. These two compounds were subsequently deoxidized to produce dimethyl phosphite and trichloroethanal. These results demonstrate the biodegradation pathways of TCF and promote the potential use of PA F-2 to bioremediate TCF-contaminated environments. PMID:27161040

  9. [Simultaneous determination of dichlorvos, trichlorfon and naled in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Sachiyo; Uranishi, Katsushige; Uno, Masakiyo

    2007-10-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of Dichlorvos (DDVP), Trichlorfon (DEP) and Naled (BRP) in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed. Pesticides were extracted with ethyl acetate together with phosphoric acid and anhydrous sodium sulfate, followed by an ENVI-Carb cartridge cleanup. Phosphoric acid prevented BRP from being converted to DDVP during extraction of pesticides from the sample. When the sample was dissolved in acetonitrile in a silanized glass vial, BRP and DEP remained intact. Mass spectral acquisition was performed with a TurbolonSpray (ESI) interface in the positive mode by applying multiple reaction monitoring. In LC separation, an ODS column was used with acetic acid-ammonium acetate-methanol as a mobile phase. Recoveries from 8 fruits and vegetables at the fortification level of 0.1 microg/g were 75.0-91.8% for BRP, 70.2-88.9% for DDVP, and 77.3-92.1% for DEP. The detection limits of BRP, DDVP and DEP were 1, 2 and 2 ng/g, respectively. PMID:18027546

  10. The Comparison of Chlorhexidine Solution and Swab With Toothbrush and Toothpaste Effect on Preventing Oral Lesions in Hospitalized Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Estaji, Zahra; Alinejad, Mohammad; Rakhshani, Mohammad Hassan; Rad, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maintaining of oral hygiene has been known as one of the basic tasks of nurses working at intensive care unit. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of chlorhexidine solution with toothbrush in prevention of oral lesions or ulcers in the different parts of the mouth. Methods: In this clinical trial study, research Society included patients hospitalized with endotracheal tube since the arrival time in intensive care unit. In this study, 30 patients were selected with target-based approach and equally divided into two groups through the permutation blocking method for oral care toothbrush and toothpaste and using chlorhexidine and swab. The modified form of Beck Oral Assessment Scale (BOAS) and MPS were used to obtain needed information. Data were analyzed by means of R software (version 3.0.2) and also multiple logistic regressions in the confidence level of 95%. Results: This study indicated an association between using toothbrush and the oral health level (OR: 1.52). In different parts of the mouth, there was no difference between two groups in prevention of lesions in gums, lips and tongue while, this was significant in relation to plaque, mucus and teeth with an odd ratio of 3.94 for teeth and 2.75 for mucus. In comparison, there was an association between implying chlorhexidine and saliva health level. (OR: 2.046). Conclusion: This survey showed that using toothbrush has a noticeable impact on declining oral lesions in varied parts of the mouth. PMID:26652098

  11. A heuristic model to quantify the impact of excess cyclodextrin on oral drug absorption from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2016-05-01

    The intestinal drug solubilising capacity (Dtot(SC)) of a drug formulated as an aqueous cyclodextrin solution is a recently proposed quantity to predict the cyclodextrin concentration needed to fully solubilise the drug in the intestinal lumen. According to this concept, the cyclodextrin concentration in the drug product must be higher than the amount needed to solubilise the compound, due to the displacement of the drug from the cyclodextrin cavity by bile salts in the intestinal lumen. On the other hand, dosing cyclodextrin at >Dtot(SC) is expected to result in decreased free intestinal drug concentrations and thus potentially a lower fraction absorbed. In this study, data from three previous in vivo studies in rats with fixed concentrations of three compounds (danazol, cinnarizine and benzo[A]pyrene) and various cyclodextrin concentrations >Dtot(SC) were analysed. The model was developed for danazol and applied to the two other compounds. Absorption, as quantified from the area under the plasma concentration-time profile, was predicted by the model to decrease at elevated concentrations of co-administered cyclodextrin in accordance with the in vivo data. In addition, at high cyclodextrin concentrations a delay in Tmax and a decrease in Cmax were predicted, again in accordance with the experimental observations. These observations were rationalised in terms of the free intestinal drug concentration by a chemical equilibrium model for Dtot(SC). This model depends on the quantity termed the dimensionless dose concentration, Dtot(∗)=Do/Pn, given as the fraction of the permeation number (Pn) and dose number (Do). The model provides the formulation scientist with a critical quality attribute for assessing the implication of having excess cyclodextrin in an oral solution. PMID:26969263

  12. Scaling up access to oral rehydration solution for diarrhea: Learning from historical experience in low– and high–performing countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shelby E.; Morris, Saul S.; Gilbert, Sarah Skye; Mosites, Emily; Hackleman, Rob; Weum, Kristoffer L.M.; Pintye, Jillian; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper aims to identify factors that systematically predict why some countries that have tried to scale up oral rehydration solution (ORS) have succeeded, and others have not. Methods We examined ORS coverage over time, across countries, and through case studies. We conducted expert interviews and literature and data searches to better understand the history of ORS scale–up efforts and why they failed or succeeded in nine countries. We used qualitative, pairwise (or three–country) comparisons of geographically or otherwise similar countries that had different outcomes in terms of ORS scale–up. An algorithm was developed which scored country performance across key supply, demand and financing activities to quantitatively assess the scale–up efforts in each country. Results The vast majority of countries have neither particularly low nor encouragingly high ORS use rates. We observed three clearly identifiable contrasts between countries that achieved and sustained high ORS coverage and those that did not. Key partners across sectors have critical roles to play to effectively address supply– and demand–side barriers. Efforts must synchronize demand generation, private provider outreach and public sector work. Many donor funds are either suspended or redirected in the event of political instability, exacerbating the health challenges faced by countries in these contexts. We found little information on the cost of scale–up efforts. Conclusions We identified a number of characteristics of successful ORS scale–up programs, including involvement of a broad range of key players, addressing supply and demand generation together, and working with both public and private sectors. Dedicated efforts are needed to launch and sustain success, including monitoring and evaluation plans to track program costs and impacts. These case studies were designed to inform programmatic decision–making; thus, rigorous academic methods to qualitatively and

  13. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption.

    PubMed Central

    el-Mougi, M.; Hendawi, A.; Koura, H.; Hegazi, E.; Fontaine, O.; Pierce, N. F.

    1996-01-01

    Previously we reported that standard oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution is not as effective as a reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS for the treatment of children with acute noncholera diarrhoea: with standard ORS the diarrhoea lasts longer, stool output is greater, serum sodium is higher, and there is more need for supplemental intravenous infusion. We studied a reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin (MD)-based ORS to determine whether it had similar benefits, and also the effect of sugar malabsorption on the efficacy of standard and MD-based ORS. A total of 90 boys aged 3-24 months with acute noncholera diarrhoea and moderate dehydration were randomly assigned to either standard ORS (glucose 20 g/l, osmolarity 311 mmol/l) or MD-ORS (MD 50 g/l, osmolarity 227 mmol/l). There were no differences in treatment results. Some 46% of subjects had a high total stool output (> 300 g/kg), which was unrelated to the type of ORS given. High stool output was significantly associated with a longer duration of diarrhoea (33 vs. 15 hours; P < 0.001), a persistently elevated serum sodium (149 vs. 144 mmol/l at 24 h; P < 0.02), the need for intravenous infusion (11/41 vs. 0/48; P < 0.002), and an increase in faecal reducing substances (10.8 vs. 3.4 g/l at 24 h; P < 0.001). We conclude that some children given standard ORS develop osmotic diarrhoea owing to the combined effect of transient sugar malabsorption and slight hypertonicity of the ORS. Earlier studies show that this adverse outcome can largely be avoided when extra water is given in reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS. Reduced osmolarity has no benefit, however, when glucose is replaced by maltodextrin, probably because the sugars released by hydrolysis of MD, when malabsorbed, raise the intraluminal osmolarity to equal or exceed that of standard ORS. Thus, reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS is superior to both standard ORS and reduced-osmolarity solutions based on maltodextrin and probably other complex carbohydrates

  14. Effect of glutamine or glycine containing oral electrolyte solutions on mucosal morphology, clinical and biochemical findings, in calves with viral induced diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, J M; Leibel, T; Middleton, D M

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-one diarrheic calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 oral electrolyte treatments. The treatments were either a conventional oral electrolyte containing glycine (40 mmol/L) as the amino acid, an oral electrolyte in which glutamine (40 mmol/L) replaced glycine or an electrolyte in which high concentrations of glutamine (400 mmol/L) replaced glycine. The calves were monitored while on trial and at the end of the treatment they were euthanized and a necropsy was immediately performed. Calves fed the high glutamine electrolyte had more treatment failures (2/7 versus 0/7 for each of the other 2 treatments). There was a significant effect of type of electrolyte on fecal consistency. Calves fed the glycine containing electrolyte had the most solid feces. Duodenal villus height was significantly affected by the type of electrolyte: values (mean +/- 1 SEM) were 0.61 +/- 0.09, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.59 +/- 0.07 mm for high glutamine, low glutamine and glycine electrolytes respectively. There was no significant difference in small intestinal surface area between groups. High glutamine treated calves had the greatest capacity to absorb xylose from the small intestine but this difference was not statistically significant. Overall, this trial does not suggest that substituting glutamine for glycine in oral electrolyte solutions improves treatment of diarrheic calves or speeds mucosal healing. PMID:9008800

  15. Treatment with Huisheng oral solution inhibits the development of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-Mei; Gou, Si; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Guo, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Huisheng oral solution (HSOS) has an inhibitory effect on the development of pulmonary thrombosis and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. A mouse model of LLC was developed, and model mice were divided into either a treatment group or a control group to undergo treatment with HSOS or normal saline. Normal mice treated with saline were used as normal controls. On day 25 after treatment, blood samples were drawn from the eyes of half the mice in each group to determine blood cell counts and plasma levels of D-Dimer and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while heart blood samples were collected from the remaining mice to measure the rate of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. For all mice, pathological analyses of the cerebrum, lung, mesentery, femoral vein, external iliac vein and spleen were performed. Tumors were weighed to assess the impact of HSOS treatment on tumor growth, and the number of thrombi, metastatic nodules and neovessels in the tumor tissue were counted. In addition, 24 normal New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups and treated with either HSOS or normal saline to determine the rates of ADP-, collagen- or thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Compared with the model group, HSOS treatment decreased the incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis, the number of metastatic nodules, the plasma levels of D-dimer and VEGF, the rate of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits and the numbers of leukocytes and tumor neovessels (P<0.05 for all). It increased the thymus and spleen coefficients and the number of platelets (P<0.05 for all), but had no significant effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in mice and rabbits, ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits, or the number of red blood cells. The reduced rate of tumor growth was 9.7% in mice treated with HSOS. HSOS treatment effectively reduced

  16. Treatment with Huisheng oral solution inhibits the development of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI; WANG, HONG; WANG, CHUN-MEI; GOU, SI; CHEN, ZHONG-HUA; GUO, JIE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Huisheng oral solution (HSOS) has an inhibitory effect on the development of pulmonary thrombosis and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. A mouse model of LLC was developed, and model mice were divided into either a treatment group or a control group to undergo treatment with HSOS or normal saline. Normal mice treated with saline were used as normal controls. On day 25 after treatment, blood samples were drawn from the eyes of half the mice in each group to determine blood cell counts and plasma levels of D-Dimer and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while heart blood samples were collected from the remaining mice to measure the rate of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. For all mice, pathological analyses of the cerebrum, lung, mesentery, femoral vein, external iliac vein and spleen were performed. Tumors were weighed to assess the impact of HSOS treatment on tumor growth, and the number of thrombi, metastatic nodules and neovessels in the tumor tissue were counted. In addition, 24 normal New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups and treated with either HSOS or normal saline to determine the rates of ADP-, collagen- or thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Compared with the model group, HSOS treatment decreased the incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis, the number of metastatic nodules, the plasma levels of D-dimer and VEGF, the rate of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits and the numbers of leukocytes and tumor neovessels (P<0.05 for all). It increased the thymus and spleen coefficients and the number of platelets (P<0.05 for all), but had no significant effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in mice and rabbits, ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits, or the number of red blood cells. The reduced rate of tumor growth was 9.7% in mice treated with HSOS. HSOS treatment effectively reduced

  17. Evaluation and comparison of efficacy of three different storage media, coconut water, propolis, and oral rehydration solution, in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Tulsi; Shah, Nimisha; Parekh, Vaishali; Singbal, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two of the most critical factors affecting the prognosis of an avulsed tooth after replantation are extra oral dry time and the storage medium in which the tooth is placed before treatment is rendered. However, the ability of a storage/transport medium to support cell viability can be more important than the extra oral time to prevent ankylosis and replacement resorption. Aim: Purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of efficacy of a new storage medium, oral rehydration solution (ORS) with coconut water, and propolis in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells by using a collagenase-dispase assay. Materials and Methods: 40 teeth were selected with intact crown which were advised for Orthodontic extraction having healthy PDL. Teeth were then randomly divided into three experimental storage solution groups. Other 10 were divided into positive and negative control groups (5 each). Statistical Analysis and Result: The results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance and multiple range by using post hoc tests. The results of the prevailing study indicated that coconut water group demonstrated a significantly higher number of viable PDL cells than propolis 50%, and ORS. There was no significant difference between coconut water and propolis 50% groups. PMID:23349581

  18. Polyethylene glycol plus an oral sulfate solution as a bowel cleansing regimen for colon capsule endoscopy: a prospective, single-arm study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Ravit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: As with colonoscopy, adequate bowel cleansing is essential prior to colon capsule endoscopy (CCE). Because CCE requires that the capsule traverse the entire gastrointestinal tract during the examination, laxative ‘boosters’ are used. The objective of this prospective, single-center, single-arm study was to evaluate the safety of a bowel preparation consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus an oral sulfate solution. Methods: Subjects were healthy volunteers aged 50–75 years old with normal baseline serum chemistry. The bowel preparation consisted of 4 Senna tablets, 4 liters of PEG (split dose), 10 mg metoclopramide, 2 oral sulfate solution boosters (6 oz. and 3 oz.), and 10 mg bisacodyl. Serum chemistry was performed at baseline, following PEG intake, 24 hours after bisacodyl administration, and at 7 days post procedure (in subjects with abnormal 24 hour results). The primary endpoints were the percentage of subjects with a clinically significant change in serum chemistry at the last test and the adverse event (AE) rate. Results: A total of 25 subjects were enrolled. The serum chemistry was normal in all subjects at the final evaluation. One subject showed a slight elevation in creatinine (1.08 mg/dl 7 days post procedure from 0.84 mg/dl at baseline), deemed not clinically significant. Another subject had a transient elevation in serum creatinine (from 1.01 mg/dl at baseline to 1.45 mg/dl at 24 hours after the bowel preparation); values returned to near baseline at 7 days post procedure (1.06 mg/dl). There were no serious AEs, three moderate AEs related to the bowel preparation (nausea, headache, elevated creatinine) and two mild unrelated AEs (chills, abdominal cramping). Conclusions: A bowel cleansing regimen of PEG plus an oral sulfate solution can be used in healthy volunteers. These data provide support for the continued study of this regimen in future CCE clinical trials and in medical practice. PMID:26327914

  19. Cholinesterase activity in the tissues of bivalves Noah's ark shell (Arca noae) and warty venus (Venus verrucosa): characterisation and in vitro sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Perić, Lorena; Ribarić, Luka; Nerlović, Vedrana

    2013-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was investigated in gills and adductor muscle of two bivalve species: Arca noae and Venus verrucosa. The properties of ChEs were investigated using acetylcholine iodide (ASCh), butyrylcholine iodide (BSCh) and propionylcholine iodide (PrSCh) as substrates and eserine, BW254c51 and iso-OMPA as specific inhibitors. The highest level of ChE activity in crude tissue extracts was detected with PrSCh followed by ASCh, while values obtained with BSCh were apparently low, except in A. noae adductor muscle. The enzyme activity in A. noae gills and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle was significantly inhibited by BW254c51, but not with iso-OMPA. ChE activity in adductor muscle of A. noae was significantly reduced by both diagnostic inhibitors. The effect of organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon on ChE activity was investigated in vitro in both species as well as in the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The highest sensitivity of ChE to trichlorfon was observed in A. noae gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.6×10(-7)M and 1.1×10(-7)M, respectively), followed by M. galloprovincialis gills (IC50 1.0×10(-6)M) and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.7×10(-5)M and 0.9×10(-5)M, respectively). The results of this study suggest the potential of ChE activity measurement in the tissues of A. noae as effective biomarker of OP exposure in marine environment. PMID:23701992

  20. Efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide and low renal solute feed in Neonatal Central Diabetes Insipidus with transition to Oral Desmopressin in early infancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of central diabetes insipidus (DI) with desmopressin in the neonatal period is challenging because of the significant risk of hyponatremia with this agent. The fixed anti-diuresis action of desmopressin and the obligate high fluid intake with milk feeds lead to considerable risk of water intoxication and hyponatremia. To reduce this risk, thiazide diuretics, part of the treatment of nephrogenic DI, were used in conjunction with low renal solute feed and were effective in a single case series of neonatal central DI. Aim We evaluated the efficacy of early treatment of neonatal central DI with hydrochlorothiazide with low solute feed and investigated the clinical indicators for transition to desmopressin during infancy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted at Princess Margaret Hospital, Perth of neonates diagnosed with central DI and treated with hydrochlorothiazide, between 2007 and 2013. Four newborns were identified. Mean sNa and mean change in sNa with desmopressin and hydrochlorothiazide treatment were recorded along with episodes of hyponatremia and hypernatremia. Length and weight trajectories during the first 12 months were assessed. Results The mean change in sNa per day with hydrochlorothiazide and low renal solute feed was 2.5 - 3 mmol/L; on desmopressin treatment, the mean change in sNa was 6.8-7.9 mmol/L. There was one episode of symptomatic hyponatremia with intranasal desmopressin with no episodes of hyponatremia or hypernatremia during treatment with hydrochlorothiazide or following transition to oral desmopressin. Transition to oral desmopressin between 3 to 12 months of age was associated with good control of DI. Following introduction of solids, sNa remained stable but weight gain was slow. This improved following transition to desmopressin in one infant. Conclusions Hydrochlorothiazide with low renal solute feed is a safe and effective treatment option in neonatal central DI. However, transition to

  1. Determination of trace vitamin C by ion-pair HPLC with UV detection in calcium gluconate and vitamin C compound oral solution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liandong; Li, Li; Luo, Zhaoliang; Yang, Jianxue; Liu, Wei

    2012-02-01

    A sensitive and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection was developed for the determination of vitamin C, using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as an ion-pair reagent in a compound oral solution containing 100 mg/mL calcium gluconate and 1.25 mg/mL vitamin C. The aqueous phase contained 0.005 mol/L tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and the mobile phase consisted of a mixture of the aqueous phase-methanol (80:20, v/v, pH 6.0 adjusted by phosphoric acid). The linearity, sensitivity and specificity, accuracy, and stability of the procedure were evaluated. The calibration curves for vitamin C were linear in the range of 10.0-100.0 µg/mL. The percentage coefficient of variation of the quantitative analysis of the vitamin C in the products analysis was within 5%. The method was successfully applied to determine the stability of vitamin C in the compound oral solution. It was found that the vitamin C peak was symmetrical and the column efficiency was high. The method is simple and suitable for stability testing of a low concentration of vitamin C preparation. PMID:22298758

  2. Stability and compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride in i.v. solutions and oral liquids and during simulated Y-site injection with selected drugs.

    PubMed

    Mayron, D; Gennaro, A R

    1996-02-01

    The stability and compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride in common i.v. fluids and oral liquids and during simulated Y-site injection with selected drugs were studied. One milliliter of solution containing granisetron 1 mg (as the hydrochloride salt) was added to 50 mL of 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection, or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and to 5 mL of 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or bacteriostatic water for injection in polypropylene syringes and stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 hours. One milliliter of the granisetron hydrochloride injection was added to 50 mL of apple juice, orange juice, cola, or an electrolyte replacement solution and stored for 60 minutes at room temperature. Twenty-nine drugs were mixed with the granisetron hydrochloride injection in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in volumes simulating Y-site injection and stored at room temperature. Finally, dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection 0.5 mL and 1 mL of the granisetron hydrochloride injection were added to 50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in a PVC bag and stored for 60 minutes. Drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and color, clarity, and pH were evaluated. Granisetron hydrochloride was stable in and compatible with all the i.v. solutions and oral liquids. Neither granisetron nor any of the drugs it was tested with during simulated Y-site injection showed any physical changes except for a slight Tyndall effect in the granisetron hydrochloride-doxorubicin hydrochloride combination; all the drugs retained at least 96% of initial concentrations. Granisetron and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were stable and compatible in the admixture. Granisetron 1 mg (as the hydrochloride salt) was stable for 24 hours in four i.v. infusion fluids in PVC bags and in 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium

  3. Reduction in incidence of invasive fungal infection in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation using combined diagnostic-driven approach and itraconazole oral solution.

    PubMed

    Tzadok, Roie; Shapira, Michael Y; Moses, Allon E; Or, Reuven; Block, Colin; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We evaluated, in our allogeneic stem cell transplant patients, the effect on the incidence of invasive fungal infection during neutropenia of a strategy combining a diagnostic-driven approach with chemoprophylaxis during higher risk periods of graft vs. host disease and prolonged neutropenia, using itraconazole oral solution with parenteral voriconazole bridging. One hundred and thirty patients admitted for allogeneic stem cell transplantation within two predefined 20 month periods were included in the study. Data for all patients were collected prospectively. Implementation of the protocol resulted in the administration of more prophylactic antifungals to more patients. Following implementation, there was a non-significant decrease in the overall number of invasive fungal infections (IFI) [11 of 65 patients (17.2%) vs. 4 of 65 patients (6.2%, P = 0.051)], as well as in the occurrence of invasive mould infections [8 of 65 patients (12.5%) vs. 2 of 65 patients (3.1%, P = 0.054)]. Survival rates at three and 6 months were not significantly affected. A combined diagnostic-driven approach and antifungal prophylaxis with oral itraconazole and an intravenous voriconazole bridging protocol, was associated with a reduced, albeit non-statistically significant, number of IFI in our medical centre. PMID:26429354

  4. Comparison of the effect of a single oral L-thyroxine dose (150 micrograms) in tablet and in solution on serum thyroxine and TSH concentrations.

    PubMed

    Carpi, A; De Gaudio, C; Cirigliano, G; Toni, M G

    1993-04-01

    150 micrograms of L-thyroxine were administered to each of 14 euthyroid goitrous patients orally between 7:30 and 8:30 a.m. after fasting overnight. The L-T4 dose given was one and half tablets of the drug "Eutirox" (L-T4 tablet of 100 micrograms distributed by Bracco, Milan, Italy) or one and half ml of the solution "Tiroxen" (solution containing 100 micrograms/ml of L-T4 distributed by Laboratori Baldacci, Pisa, Italy). Two studies (one with tablet and one with solution) were performed on each patient. The tablet or the liquid form of L-T4 were administered in random order. In each study a blood sample for serum hormone determination was drawn immediately before L-T4 administration, then 30 minutes later and every hour up to the fifth hour after. The second study was performed in similar fashion later. The mean serum TT4 concentration value at any time was very similar in the two studies, thus showing the same time course after the administration of solution and the tablet formulation. The mean basal TT4 value (9.07 +/- 0.56 and 8.90 +/- 0.73 micrograms/dl respectively) increased significantly at the first and second hours. The highest value was reached at the second and at the third hour after the solution (11.15 +/- 0.58 micrograms/dl) and the tablet (11.81 +/- 0.78 micrograms/dl) respectively. Subsequently, the mean TT4 values remained significantly higher than basally over the entire 5 hours. The FT4 mean serum concentration at all times were very similar in the two studies and showed the same time course.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508742

  5. Oral bioavailability in sheep of albendazole from a suspension and from a solution containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Evrard, B; Chiap, P; DeTullio, P; Ghalmi, F; Piel, G; Van Hees, T; Crommen, J; Losson, B; Delattre, L

    2002-12-13

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthe parasites. ABZ has a very poor aqueous solubility. This study shows that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) is able to form inclusion complexes with ABZ and that is able to increase its aqueous solubility. A synergistic effect exists between HP-beta-CD and citric acid. The combination of HP-beta-CD (200 mM) and citric acid (50 mM) allows dissolution of more than 1.5 mg of ABZ per ml. The aim of this study is the in vivo evaluation in sheep of a solution of the inclusion complex of ABZ with HP-beta-CD in comparison with a suspension of the same drug. A significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative bioavailability is obtained with the solution containing the ABZ-HP-beta-CD complex as measured by ABZSO plasma levels. The area under the curve (AUC(0--> proportional, variant )) of the solution is 37% higher than that obtained with the suspension. Likewise the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) is twice that of the solution while the time to reach C(max) (T(max)) is reduced. PMID:12480310

  6. Oral pharmacological treatments for parasitic diseases of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. II. Gyrodactylus sp.

    PubMed

    Tojo, J L; Santamarina, M T

    1998-07-30

    A total of 24 drugs were evaluated as regards their efficacy for oral treatment of gyrodactylosis in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In preliminary trials, all drugs were supplied to infected fish at 40 g per kg of feed for 10 d. Twenty-two of the drugs tested (aminosidine, amprolium, benznidazole, bithionol, chloroquine, diethylcarbamazine, flubendazole, levamisole, mebendazole, metronidazole, niclosamide, nitroxynil, oxibendazole, parbendazole, piperazine, praziquantel, ronidazole, secnidazole, tetramisole, thiophanate, toltrazuril and trichlorfon) were ineffective. Triclabendazole and nitroscanate completely eliminated the infection. Triclabendazole was effective only at the screening dosage (40 g per kg of feed for 10 d), while nitroscanate was effective at dosages as low as 0.6 g per kg of feed for 1 d. PMID:9745715

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ros-Llor, Irene; Lopez-Jornet, Pia

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential and cell death caused by the frequent use of mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and essential oils in ethanolic solution, compared to a placebo mouthwash. Study design: This double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial included 80 Caucasian patients. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group I used a mouthrinse, Triclosan; Group II used physiological saline; Group III used chlorhexidine; Group IV a mouthrinse with essential oils in ethanolic solution. All subjects used the mouthrinses for two weeks (15 ml, twice a day, rinsing for 30 s). Two cell samples per subject were collected, before and after mouthrinse use (on day 0 and day 15). Samples were processed as follows: cell collection from cheeks with a cytobrush; cell centrifuge; slide preparation, fixation and staining; and fluorescent microscope analysis. 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, particularly the presence of micronuclei by means of cytome assay. Results: No significant differences between study times (before and after use of mouthwash) were identified for any of the variables studied (p>0.05). Differences between mouthrinse groups were also compared but no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study did not observe any genotoxic effect resulting from mouthrinse use. - Highlights: • Mouthrinses are used widely, mainly for their capacity to control dental plaque. • No genotoxic effects from the mouthrinses triclosan, chlorhexidine essential oils solution. • The buccal cytome assay is a sensitive, non-invasive, and low cost technique.

  8. Controlled test evaluation of the benzimidazole anthelmintic VET 220-S alone or with concomitant trichlorfon treatment against naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.

    PubMed

    Bello, T R

    1991-04-01

    A controlled test was done in 30 naturally infected ponies to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of the dienbendazole analog VET 220-S given alone or with trichlorfon (TCF) by nasogastric intubation. Six ponies were nontreated; 6 were given VET 220-S (5.0 mg/kg); 6 were given TCF (40 mg/kg); 6 were given VET 220-S (2.5 mg/kg) and TCF (40 mg/kg); and 6 were given VET 220-S (5.0 mg/kg) and TCF (40 mg/kg). All ponies were euthanatized and necropsied 7 or 8 days after treatment. Draschia megastoma, Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and small strongyles were removed efficaciously by all doses of VET 220-S. Habronema muscae and microfilariae of Onchocerca cervicalis were not removed by VET 220-S or TCF. Gasterophilus intestinalis was 97.9% removed by TCF. Pregnant mares in all groups were not adversely affected by treatment, except for 1 mare that had diarrhea after TCF treatment. Parasite eggs per gram and larval culture data agreed with necropsy data. PMID:2053725

  9. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000

  10. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4- dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J.; Mayer, F.L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 degree C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4- nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  11. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J. . National Fisheries Research Center); Mayer, F.L. Jr. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  12. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  13. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2 mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R2) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines.

  14. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  15. An observational study using blood gas analysis to assess neonatal calf diarrhea and subsequent recovery with a European Commission-compliant oral electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Ríona G; Kennedy, Aideen; Krump, Lea; Sayers, Gearóid P; Kennedy, Emer

    2016-06-01

    An observational study was conducted on dairy calves (51 healthy, 31 with neonatal diarrhea) during outbreaks of diarrhea on 4 dairy farms. Clinical assessment scores (CAS) were assigned to each healthy and diarrheic calf [from 0 (healthy) to 4 (marked illness)]. Blood gas analysis [pH, base excess (BE), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), glucose, total hemoglobin, standard HCO3(-), strong ion difference (SID), and anion gap (AG)] was completed for each calf. Repeated measurements were taken in healthy animals, and pre- and postintervention measurements were taken for diarrheic calves. The mean CAS of diarrheic calves was 1.7, with 51, 30, 17, and 2% of calves scoring 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The mean value for blood pH, BE, AG, and SID was 7.26, -4.93mM, 16.3mM, and 38.59mM, respectively. Calves were administered an oral rehydration and buffering solution (ORBS; Vitalife for Calves, Epsilion Ltd., Cork, Ireland) and reassessed. The mean CAS decreased to 0.38 (65% of calves scored 0 and 35% scored 1) at 6 to 18h posttreatment and to 0.03 (98% of calves scored 0 and 2% scored 1) within 24 to 48h. Significant increases in mean value for pH, BE, HCO3(-), Na(+), and SID, and significant decreases in AG, K(+), Ca(2+), and total hemoglobin were recorded posttreatment. The correlation estimates indicated that pH, HCO3(-), and BE were strongly correlated with CAS, with values exceeding 0.60 in all cases. Administration of an ORBS with a high SID and bicarbonate buffer demonstrated rapid recovery from a diarrheic episode in dairy calves. PMID:27060812

  16. Ocoxin® oral solution slows down tumor growth in an experimental model of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Joana; Mena, Jorge; Hernandez-Unzueta, Iera; Benedicto, Aitor; Sanz, Eduardo; Arteta, Beatriz; Olaso, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Liver metastatic disease is the main cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. During metastatic spread of the disease an imbalance in the oxidative stress and inflammation plays a crucial role in tumor progression. In order to improve the efficacy of current therapies, new complementary therapeutic approaches are being analyzed including biologically active compounds with low side effects. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Ocoxin® oral solution (OOS) prompt us to analyze its effect on the metastatic development of CRC to the liver. First, in vitro effect of OOS in tumor cell viability and migration was analyzed. Second, in vivo effect of different dosage patterns and concentrations in the development of hepatic metastasis was analyzed by intra-splenic inoculation of C26 colon carcinoma cells in Balb/c mice. Third, the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin, caspase-3 and Ki-67 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry, then gene expression levels of inflammatory factors were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. According to our results, OOS reduced tumor cell viability and migration in vitro. Moreover, in vivo daily administration of OOS from the 7th day after tumor cell inoculation decreased the total area and size of metastatic foci in the liver. Furthermore, cell proliferation and fibroblast recruitment was decreased in tumor foci while a higher number of apoptotic cells were observed. Finally, RNA levels for the inflammatory mediators COX-2, IFNγ, IL1β, IL6 and TNFα were reduced in total liver. In conclusion, OOS reduced the metastatic development of colorectal cancer to the liver by increasing apoptosis, and decreasing tumor cell proliferation and fibroblast recruitment in the tumor foci, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators in total liver. These results point out OOS as a potential supplement to be applied as complementary therapy for the treatment of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer. PMID:26676882

  17. Safety and efficacy of aspartame-based liquid versus sucrose-based liquids used for dilution in oral sodium phosphate solutions for colonoscopy preparations.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Sherman M; Balart, J Carter; Sideridis, Kostas; Salek, Jefrey; Sridhar, Subbaramiah; Thompson, William O

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based liquids used as diluents. The primary end point was the quality of the colonoscopy preparation and secondary end points were serum electrolytes before and after preparations. No significant difference in colonoscopy preparation quality was seen between the two OSPS diluent groups (Mantel-Haenzel chi (2) = 0.795, P = 0.484). There were no significant differences in mean electrolyte shifts of sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), or BUN/Cr ratios between the two groups. There was a statistically significant increase in serum phosphorous in the aspartame-based group compared to the sucrose-based diluent group (P = 0.021). In conclusion, there was no clinically detectable difference in colonoscopy preparation quality between the two OSPS diluent groups. This study suggests that passive fluid transport by aquaporins may well be the major mediator of fluid shifts in the study subjects. This result suggests the potential importance of aquaporins and minimizes the importance of sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in fluid and electrolyte transport in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aspartame or its constituent amino acids may enhance phosphate absorption across the human small intestine. PMID:17406813

  18. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R(2)) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines. PMID:26241829

  19. Change of plasma volume, osmolality, and acid-base status in healthy calves after feeding of milk and water- and milk-based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, L; Schmidt, B; Rauwolf, U; Wenge, J; Coenen, M

    2012-10-01

    Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are a simple and cheap method to treat diarrheal dehydration and acidosis. To maintain the energy supply of diarrheic calves, it is necessary to continue milk feeding. Suckling of milk or milk-based or hypertonic water-based ORS produces a slower rate of abomasal emptying than suckling isotonic water-based ORS. The faster abomasal passage of isotonic water-based ORS implies that efficacious electrolytes reach the gut more quickly, possibly providing a faster rate of rehydration. The aim of the study was to verify when and to what extent milk and water- and milk-based ORS increase plasma volume and affect plasma osmolality and acid-base status in healthy suckling calves. Eleven calves were fed with milk and with an ORS that was prepared in water or milk. Moreover, for one experiment, the calves remained fasting without suckling milk or ORS. During the experimental phase, the calves were deprived of water, hay, and concentrates. Blood samples were taken before and at various time points after feeding. Total plasma protein, osmolality, [Na(+)], [K(+)], [Cl(-)], and albumin were determined. In 6 of 11 experiments, blood gas analysis was also performed. The calculated change in plasma volume after feeding was assessed from the plasma protein concentration before feeding (P(t=0)) and the plasma protein concentration after feeding (P(t=x)): (P(t=0)- P(t=x)) × 100/P(t=x). Water- and milk-based ORS produced equal rates of plasma expansion in healthy calves. After milk feeding, the change in plasma volume was decelerated. Because of water influx, we did not observe a significant effect of feeding regimen on plasma osmolality. Acid-base status was little affected by feeding regimen. Feeding of milk-based ORS increased plasma strong ion difference, an alkaline response, which could potentially also reduce acidosis in calves suffering from diarrhea. PMID:22863100

  20. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  1. [Renal excretion of dimethylphosphate and its thio-derivatives following application of dimethoate, bromophos, naled or trichlorfon to rats].

    PubMed

    Riemer, F; Dahlenburg, R; Grisk, A

    1985-01-01

    Dimethoate, bromophos, naled or trichlorophon were applied i.p. or p.o. to rats in 3 doses each differing by the factor 10. In the urine of 24 h gas chromatographic determination of dimethylphosphate (DM), O.O-dimethylthiophosphate (TP), and/or O.O-dimethyldithiophosphate (DT) were carried out. After i.p. application of dimethoate the excretion rate of DT calculated from the dates found with the lowest dosage differed significantly from those found with the two other doses (t-test; p = 0.01). The excretion rates of DM and TP, in the same way, or those of DM, TP, and DT after oral intake of dimethoate did not show any significant differences. The excretion rates of TP after bromophos and of DM after naled or trichlorophon did not differ significantly after the same way of application. The findings make evident that under the given test conditions the excretion rate of DM, TP, or DT is practically independent on the dose. PMID:4000249

  2. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  3. A randomized trial of amorolfine 5% solution nail lacquer combined with oral terbinafine compared with terbinafine alone in the treatment of dermatophytic toenail onychomycoses affecting the matrix region.

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Feuilhade, M; Combernale, P; Datry, A; Goettmann, S; Pietrini, P; Viguie, C; Badillet, G; Larnier, C; Czernielewski, J

    2000-06-01

    In view of recent advances in the development of antifungal agents, this study examined the possible synergy of two new antifungal agents, terbinafine and amorolfine. The study compared two different courses of terbinafine treatment combined with amorolfine 5% solution nail lacquer. Terbinafine was given orally for 6 (AT6 group) or 12 weeks (AT12 group) and amorolfine nail lacquer applied weekly for 15 months. A control group received terbinafine alone for 12 weeks. This was a randomized, prospective, open study of severe dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis with matrix region involvement. Nail samples were taken before the start of the study, at inclusion and at the visits at 6 weeks, 3, 9, 15 and 18 months. To assess the value of such combined therapy we chose an early parameter as the principal outcome variable, which was the result of mycological examination, including direct microscopy and culture, at 3 months (allowing a margin of 15 days). The secondary parameters of success were the mycological results at the later visits, clinical evaluation and a combined mycological-clinical response. Safety and tolerance were also assessed. Adverse events were recorded and liver function tests were performed monthly during the terbinafine treatment. Of the 147 patients included in the trial, 121 attended the 3-month visit, within a time limit of 15 days of 3 months after the beginning of treatment: 40 in the AT6 group, 40 in the AT12 group and 41 in the control group. In all, 32 of 121 patients (26. 4%) had negative mycological results on direct microscopy and culture: 14 of 40 (35.0%) in the AT6 group, 11 of 40 (27.5%) in the AT12 group and seven of 41 (17.1%) in the control group. The cure rate for the global (mycological and clinical cure) response measured at 18 months in 145 patients was 44.0% (22 patients) in the AT6 group, 72.3% (34 patients) in the AT12 group and 37.5% (18 patients) in the terbinafine group. These results suggest that the combination of amorolfine

  4. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  5. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  6. Oral heparins.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Linda M

    2002-01-01

    The antithrombotic drug heparin is administered parenterally and believed not effective orally. Oral heparin would be most suitable for long term administration, often required for the prevention of thrombosis. Following parenteral administration, heparin is taken up by endothelial cells. Our laboratory has shown that heparin is similarly taken up by endothelium following oral administration, despite low plasma heparin concentrations. In a twenty-four hour period, endothelial heparin concentrations are greatest within 15 minutes of oral dosing although plasma levels never exceed one percent of dose. Endothelial uptake accounts for a considerable amount of absorption if the total body endothelium is considered. In support of oral heparin absorption, we demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in thrombosis incidence in a rat jugular vein model following single oral doses of unfractionated heparins (bovine and porcine) or low molecular weight heparins (reviparin, logiparin and ardeparin). Low molecular weight heparins were effective at lower doses than unfractionated heparins where a fifty percent reduction in thrombosis was observed with 0.025 mg/kg reviparin, 0.1 mg/kg logiparin, versus 7.5 mg/kg bovine unfractionated heparin. These studies support the work of others demonstrating measurable systemic changes following oral heparin administration and suggest that heparin may be effective when administered by the oral route. It also indicates that the presence of heparin in plasma likely reflects a much greater amount associated with endothelium. PMID:11934211

  7. Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Charruf, Laurie Frey

    1984-01-01

    Oral tests for speaking skills evaluate two major skills: linguistic competence, including accuracy of pronunciation, vocabulary, and structure, and communication ease. Four factors affect students' oral performance: verbal intelligence, short-term auditory and visual memory, sound-symbol association skill, and grammatical analysis. Personality…

  8. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  9. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  10. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  11. A win-win solution in oral delivery of lipophilic drugs: supersaturation via amorphous solid dispersions increases apparent solubility without sacrifice of intestinal membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan M; Beig, Avital; Carr, Robert A; Spence, Julie K; Dahan, Arik

    2012-07-01

    Recently, we have revealed a trade-off between solubility increase and permeability decrease when solubility-enabling oral formulations are employed. We have shown this trade-off phenomenon to be ubiquitous, and to exist whenever the aqueous solubility is increased via solubilizing excipients, regardless if the mechanism involves decreased free fraction (cyclodextrins complexation, surfactant micellization) or simple cosolvent solubilization. Discovering a way to increase drug solubility without concomitant decreased permeability represents a major advancement in oral delivery of lipophilic drugs and is the goal of this work. For this purpose, we sought to elucidate the solubility-permeability interplay when increased apparent solubility is obtained via supersaturation from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation. A spray-dried ASD of the lipophilic drug progesterone was prepared in the hydrophilic polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS), which enabled supersaturation up to 4× the crystalline drug's aqueous solubility (8 μg/mL). The apparent permeability of progesterone from the ASD in HPMC-AS was then measured as a function of increasing apparent solubility (supersaturation) in the PAMPA and rat intestinal perfusion models. In contrast to previous cases in which apparent solubility increases via cyclodextrins, surfactants, and cosolvents resulted in decreased apparent permeability, supersaturation via ASD resulted in no decrease in apparent permeability with increasing apparent solubility. As a result, overall flux increased markedly with increasing apparent solubility via ASD as compared to the other formulation approaches. This work demonstrates that supersaturation via ASDs has a subtle yet powerful advantage over other solubility-enabling formulation approaches. That is, increased apparent solubility may be achieved without the expense of apparent intestinal membrane permeability. Thus, supersaturation via ASDs presents a

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  13. Methylprednisolone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  14. Dexamethasone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  15. Hydrocortisone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  16. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  17. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  18. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  19. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  20. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  3. pH-Responsive poly(itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogels with reduced ionic strength loading solutions offer improved oral delivery potential for high isoelectric point-exhibiting therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Koetting, Michael C; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2014-08-25

    pH-Responsive hydrogels comprised of itaconic acid copolymerized with N-vinylpyrrolidone (P(IA-co-NVP)) were synthesized and tested as carriers for the oral delivery of high isoelectric point (pI) exhibiting therapeutic proteins. Swelling studies show that P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogels exhibit significantly greater and faster pH-responsive swelling than previously studied methacrylic acid-based hydrogels, achieving up to 68% greater equilibrium swelling and 10.4 times greater swelling in time-limited experiments. Using salmon calcitonin as a model high pI protein therapeutic, we show that P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogels exhibit significantly greater delivery potential than methacrylic acid-based hydrogels. Additionally, we show that utilizing a lower ionic strength solution during drug loading significantly improves drug delivery potential for high pI therapeutics. By using a 1.5mM PBS buffer rather than the standard 150 mM PBS buffer during loading, up to 83 times as much calcitonin can be delivered in neutral conditions, with up to a 9.6-fold improvement in percent release. Using P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogel microparticles and a low ionic strength loading solution, up to 48 μg calcitonin/mg hydrogel can be delivered in small intestinal conditions. Based on expected absorption in the small intestine, this is sufficient delivery potential for achieving therapeutic dosage via a single, regularly-sized pill taken daily. PMID:24853463

  4. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  5. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  6. Stability of refrigerated miglustat after preparation in InOrpha® flavored suspending excipient for compounding of oral solutions and suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Sofyen; Ambühl, Michael; Stichler, Jürgen; Bandilla, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Miglustat (Zavesca®) is an oral treatment for type 1 Gaucher disease and Niemann–Pick disease type C. Patients with Niemann–Pick disease type C often have difficulties swallowing, and miglustat has an unpleasant taste. The stability of miglustat at 2°C–8°C prepared in InOrpha® suspending vehicle, a liquid taste-masking agent, was assessed. Methods The contents of Zavesca® 100 mg capsules (a powder blend comprising miglustat and several excipients) were transferred into InOrpha®. Although miglustat was soluble in InOrpha® at all concentrations tested, some of the excipients were not. An InOrpha® suspension containing 20 mg/mL miglustat was investigated initially. Subsequently, a pH-adjusted suspension of 20 mg/mL, and non-adjusted 10 and 5 mg/mL suspensions were evaluated. All suspensions were stored under refrigerated conditions. Physicochemical and microbiological challenge testing was performed at 0 hours and after 14 and 28 days. Degradation was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, appearance was assessed visually, and pH was recorded. Suspensions were inoculated with seven species of bacteria, yeast, and mold, and growth evaluated using membrane filtration. Results Miglustat 20 mg/mL suspension changed from yellow (0 hours) to brown (days 14 and 28); pH remained stable at 7.4–7.6. Pure InOrpha® (pH 4.6) remained yellow throughout the study. Pure InOrpha® adjusted to pH 7.5 displayed a brownish discoloration after 9 days. Miglustat 5 and 20 mg/mL suspensions, adjusted to pH 6.5 and 4.4, respectively, remained yellow at days 14 and 28. Miglustat 10 mg/mL suspension (pH 7.3) changed from yellow to brown on day 9. No degradates were detected for any of the concentrations tested. There was no proliferation of microorganisms over the study period; in all cases the level of contamination was clearly reduced. Conclusion InOrpha® suspensions containing miglustat 5 mg/mL (without pH adjustment) and 20 mg/mL (with pH adjusted

  7. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  8. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  9. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Children.

    PubMed

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; Miclăuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; Băbţan, Anida Maria; Mesaros, Anca; Crişan, Bogdan; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-02-01

    Oral human papillomavirus infection is rare in children, but the presence of a villous lesion with slow but continuous growth concerns parents, who need information and therapeutic solutions from the physician. All these aspects are discussed based on a case report of a 9-year-old child with an oral human papillomavirus infection. PMID:26588443

  10. Prophylactic Effects of Garlic Oil and Onion Oil Fractions as Compared to Vitamin E on Rats Orally Fed with Lead Acetate Solution.

    PubMed

    Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T; Jose, Regi

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO. PMID:27382196

  11. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose-inhalers ( inhaled steroids ), oral forms (pills or syrups) , injections (shots) and intravenous (IV) solutions. Healthcare providers ... slowly decreased. Inhaled steroids and steroid pills and syrups are often prescribed for people with a chronic ...

  12. Activity of organophosphorus insecticides in bacterial tests for mutagenicity and DNA repair--direct alkylation versus metabolic activation and breakdown. II. O,O-dimethyl-O-(1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl)-phosphate and two O-ether derivatives of trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Braun, R; Schöneich, J; Weissflog, L; Dedek, W

    1983-03-01

    The following organophosphates were tested for their ability to induce DNA damage in a rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis strains PG713 (rec- hcr-) and PG273 (wild-type) and point mutations in the his- strain TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium: O,O-dimethyl-O-(1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl)-phosphate (NALED); trichlorfon-O-methyl ether (TCP-O-ME), O,O-dimethyl-(1-methoxy-2,2,2-trichlorethyl)-phosphonate; trichlorfon-O-methyl ether vinyl derivative (TCP-O-MEVD), O,O-dimethyl-(1-methoxy-2,2-dichlorovinyl)-phosphonate. All compounds were negative in the repair test but induced base pair substitutions in S. typhimurium. The mutagenicity of NALED is due to the direct alkylating ability of the parental molecule and to mutagenic metabolites generated by enzymatic splitting of the side chain. Glutathion-dependent enzymes in the S9-mix eliminate the mutagenic activity of NALED completely. Mutation induction by TCP-O-ME and TCP-O-MEVD is predominantly caused by the reactive O-methyl ether configuration of the side chain and is resistant to metabolic inactivation by NADPH- or glutathion-dependent enzymatic pathways in the S9-mix of mice. PMID:6337735

  13. Oral mucositis

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may have symptoms such as: Mouth pain. Mouth sores. Infection. Bleeding, if you are getting chemotherapy. Radiation ... air dry between brushings. If toothpaste makes your mouth sore, brush with a solution of 1 teaspoon of ...

  14. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  15. Hansen's Oral Life Histories and Healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Lee

    2013-08-01

    The individual oral statement is human story based on experience. The personal experience forms unconsciousness which appears in a form of oral statement by ego that doesn't want to lose existence. Thus, the process which exposes a tormented hearts is the objectification of oneself. Through this step, oral person attains a healing. If this sort of individual oral is accrued, the undeserved personal affairs could be a history. In case of Hansen's disease patient, She could escape from negative understanding about herself and the world. Furthermore, She kept formating her values about meaningful life and future oriented value. Also, She wants to keep a record of her life. She comes to know that what she denied is actually what she should surmount over oral statement. As a result, She could attains a healing for oneself through oral statement. The oral statement made her look into she's problems. Therefore, oral statement is a self-realization. Through this, person could know what the problem is and solution. This research is about only one person, so there is need for more cases and studies. If this sort of individual oral statement is accrued, there could be a curative narration. This can suggest an curative alternative when we suffer from problem of life. The merit of this research is rendering this possibility. PMID:24005645

  16. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  17. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  18. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  19. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  20. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  1. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  2. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  3. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  5. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  6. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  7. Oral rehydration therapy.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, H P

    1996-08-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS), the best treatment of dehydration due to acute diarrhea, is the most important medical advance of this century since it is key to reducing infant and child morbidity and mortality. Pathogens responsible for acute diarrhea include those which produce enterotoxin at the intestinal mucosal surface, inducing secretion but are not invasive (e.g., Vibrio cholerae); those which invade and disrupt the mucosal lining (e.g., shigella species); and rotavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF ORS is considered a universal ORS. Much research has been done on the ideal composition of an ORS. An ORS must have sufficient sodium to replace losses on a volume to volume basis, a glucose concentration that matches that of sodium to ensure its delivery to the ileum, sufficient amounts of potassium and base (e.g., sodium bicarbonate or trisodium citrate dihydrate) to correct acidosis and to enhance sodium absorption, and sufficient amounts of liquid. The risk of hypernatremia with use of the WHO/UNICEF ORS is a concern since infants and young children have an immature renal concentrating capacity, increased insensible water losses, and an impaired natriuretic response. Neonates and young infants may be prone to relatively slow correction of acidosis. It appears that the potassium content (20 mmol/l) of WHO-ORS should be higher to promote a net positive potassium retention. Too much glucose in the ORS will induce reverse osmosis of water into the gut, effectively making the ORS a dehydrating solution rather than a hydrating solution. Some carbohydrates other than glucose have proven effective glucose substitutes (e.g., sucrose, rice starch and powder, other cereals). Cereals have higher acceptability levels in developing countries. Research is investigating the nutritional benefits of supplementing ORS with micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, folic acid, and zinc). ORS use with early refeeding has a beneficial effect on nutritional status after an

  8. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  9. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  10. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:25871419

  11. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  12. Pediatric drugs--a review of commercially available oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Strickley, Robert G; Iwata, Quynh; Wu, Sylvia; Dahl, Terrence C

    2008-05-01

    Pediatric oral formulations can be quite scientifically challenging to develop and the prerequisites for both a measurable dosage form to administer based upon bodyweight, and also taste-masking are two of the challenges unique for pediatric oral formulations. The physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the active drug substance such as solubility, chemical stability, and taste along with the intended dose can determine which formulations are feasible to develop. Oral pediatric formulations are available in 17 different varieties and can be either a ready-to-use formulation such as a solution, syrup, suspension, tablet, scored tablet, chewable tablet, orally disintegrating tablet, or thin strip, or can also be a formulation that requires manipulation such as a powder for constitution to a suspension, tablet for constitution to a suspension, powder for constitution to a solution, drops for reconstitution to a suspension, concentrated solution for dilution, effervescent tablet, bulk oral granules, bulk oral powder, or solid in a capsule to mix with food or drink. Recently there has been an increase in pediatric formulation development inspired by increased regulatory incentives. The intent of this review is to educate the reader on the various types of formulations administered orally to pediatrics, the rationale in deciding which type of formulation to develop, the excipients used, development challenges, the in-use handling of oral pediatric formulations, and the regulatory incentives. PMID:17823956

  13. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  14. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  16. Bioavailability of valsartan oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Bende, Girish; Mendonza, Anisha E; Solar-Yohay, Susan; Biswal, Shibadas; Neelakantham, Srikanth; Wagner, Robert; Flarakos, Jimmy; Zhang, Yiming; Jarugula, Venkateswar

    2014-03-01

    The oral bioavailability of valsartan from extemporaneous suspension and solution formulations were evaluated relative to tablet formulation in two separate open-label, randomized crossover studies in healthy adults. In both studies, the plasma concentrations of valsartan after oral administration were analyzed using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, and the corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration time-curves (AUC(0-∞) ) of valsartan from the extemporaneous suspension were higher by 1.93- and 1.56-fold, respectively, relative to the tablet formulation (P < .001). The Cmax and AUC(0-∞) of valsartan from the oral solution were higher by 2.21- and 1.74-fold, respectively, relative to the tablet formulation (P < .001). These results indicate that both rate and extent of absorption of valsartan are higher in the two liquid dosage forms (extemporaneous suspension and solution formulations) relative to the solid oral dosage form (tablet formulation). PMID:27128457

  17. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  18. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  20. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer. PMID:27482300

  1. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome [AIDS]) and other sexually transmitted diseases.Some brands of oral contraceptives are also used to treat ... your doctor.Oral contraceptives come in many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different ...

  2. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  3. Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

  4. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  5. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Lankin, Vadim Z; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation Maillard reaction end products (AGEs) are causing the complications of diabetes and skin aging, primarily via adventitious and cross-linking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen are particularly implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. The formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds represents an important step for cross-linking proteins in the glycation or Maillard reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of glycation coupled to the glycation free-radical oxidation reactions as markers of protein damage in the aging of skin tissue proteins and diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism for the cross-linking reaction, we studied the reaction between a three-carbon α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal, and amino acids using EPR spectroscopy, a spectrophotometric kinetic assay of superoxide anion production at the site of glycation and a chemiluminescence technique. The transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of proteins and lipid membranes were assessed in a number of biochemical and model systems. A 4-month randomized, double-blind, controlled study was undertaken including 42 subjects where the oral supplement of non-hydrolized carnosine (Can-C Plus® formulation) was tested against placebo for 3 months followed by a 1-month supplement-free period for both groups to assess lasting effects. Assessment of the age-related skin parameters and oral treatment efficacy measurements included objective skin surface evaluation with Visioscan® VC 98 and visual assessment of skin appearance parameters. The results together confirm that a direct one-electron transfer between a Schiff base methylglyoxal dialkylimine (or its protonated form) and methylglyoxal is responsible for

  6. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  7. The effect of chlorhexidine in reducing oral colonisation in geriatric patients: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Abdullah, Sharifah Shafinaz Binti; Chong, Mei Chan; Surindar-Kaur, Surat Singh; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inadequate oral care has been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia in frail geriatric patients and is a major cause of mortality, due to the colonisation of microbes in vulnerable patients. This type of pneumonia has been associated with an increase in respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine compared to routine oral care in edentulous geriatric inpatients. METHODS A double-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out. The intervention group received oral care with chlorhexidine 0.2%, while the control group received routine oral care with thymol. Nurses provided oral care with assigned solutions of 20 mL once daily over seven days. Oral cavity assessment using the Brief Oral Health Status Examination form was performed before each oral care procedure. Data on medication received and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia was recorded. An oral swab was performed on Day 7 to obtain specimens to test for colonisation. RESULTS The final sample consisted of 35 (control) and 43 (intervention) patients. Chlorhexidine was effective in reducing oral colonisation compared to routine oral care with thymol (p < 0.001). The risk of oral bacterial colonisation was nearly three times higher in the thymol group compared to the chlorhexidine group. CONCLUSION The use of chlorhexidine 0.2% significantly reduced oral colonisation and is recommended as an easier and more cost-effective alternative for oral hygiene. PMID:27211885

  8. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

  9. Postirradiation flap infection about the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Cabbabe, E.B.; Herbold, D.R.; Sunwoo, Y.C.; Baroudi, I.F.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation alteration of oral flora is well documented in the literature. Infection as a complication leading to partial or complete loss of a flap used to reconstruct a defect in the oral cavity is a worrisome outcome. We describe how a flap that was judged clinically to be viable became overwhelmingly infected with the Klebsiella oxytoca, an oral cavity pathogen encountered in this patient following irradiation. Local and systemic changes led to detachment of the flap. This complication may be explained, in view of the absence of venous congestion or arterial ischemia both clinically and pathologically, by the proven contamination of the flap by the Klebsiella pathogen. Local factors resulted in lower resistance and subsequent overwhelming infection. Discussion of the case, review of pertinent literature, and proposed solutions are presented.

  10. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  11. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  12. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  13. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  14. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  15. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  16. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  17. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  18. Massive Oral Decoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicke, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive reading clinic used the Massive Oral Decoding (MOD) technique to help 10 reading disabled students (grades 7 and 8) increase independent reading skills. MOD stresses large amounts of reading practice at the student's independent level. (CL)

  19. Oral hypoglycemics overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient There are many types of oral hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on ...

  20. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  1. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Groppo, F C; Ramacciato, J C; Motta, R H L; Ferraresi, P M; Sartoratto, A

    2007-05-01

    The antimicrobial activity of two garlic clones' (1: purple and 2: white) crude extracts against oral microbiota was evaluated in vitro (study 1) and in vivo (study 2). Study 1 consisted of the evaluation of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations against nine streptococci strains. In study 2, a 2.5% garlic (clone 2) solution was used as a mouthwash in a 5-week study by 30 subjects. Blood agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar were inoculated with subjects' saliva to quantify oral microorganisms and mutans streptococci. Study 1 showed MIC ranging from 0.5 to 32.0 mg ml(-1) for clone 2 and from 8 to 64.0 mg ml(-1) for clone 1. MBC ranged from 1.0 to 128.0 mg ml(-1) and from 8.0 to 128.0 mg ml(-1) regarding clones 2 and 1 respectively. Study 2 showed that 2.5% garlic mouthwash solution had good antimicrobial activity against mutans streptococci and oral microorganisms. Maintenance of reduced salivary levels of streptococci was observed after 2 weeks at the end of mouthwash use. Unpleasant taste (100%), halitosis (90%) and nausea (30%) were reported by subjects after the end of the study. It was concluded that the garlic clones have antimicrobial properties in vitro against streptococci and anticariogenic properties against oral microorganism in spite of its adverse effects. PMID:17461963

  3. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  4. Oral Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

    2014-09-01

    'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  5. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  6. Oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the staging of oral cancers. Imaging information is essential for determining tumour resectibility, post resection surgical reconstruction and radiation therapy planning. The aim of this paper is to highlight the natural history of oral cancer spread and how malignant infiltration can be accurately mapped. It focuses on buccal mucosa, hard palate, tongue and floor of mouth carcinoma. PMID:16361136

  7. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  8. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  9. [Dementia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this article is a translation of an editorial which appeared in the journal Gerodontology. The author warns that a great increase is expected in the number of dementia patients in the United Kingdom and he argues that care for these patients be given a high place on the national agenda. Dementia was also a major issue at the meeting of the International Association for Dental Research in March 2007. Several international studies presented there indicated that elderly people with dementia constitute a group at risk with respect to oral health. In the evaluation of the editorial, the situation in The Netherlands is described. There is also serious concern in The Netherlands about the statistics with respect to dementia. Due to the growing number of frail elderly people having a natural dentition, the need for professional oral care will increase. General practitioners have the important task of providing adequate oral health care for elderly people suffering from dementia who are still living at home. Guidelines for Oral Care, having to do with the improvement of oral care in institutions, appeared recently. With the guidelines, a good basis for developing adequate oral health care of frail elderly people is available. However, the implementation of these guidelines will require some attention. PMID:19280891

  10. Personality and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  11. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  12. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  13. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  14. Risperidone: effects of formulations on oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, R; Lee, P I; Huang, M L; Woestenborghs, R

    1997-01-01

    The bioavailability of risperidone was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, two-way, crossover study comparing a 1-mg tablet with a 1-mg/ml oral solution. Both formulations were administered as a single 1-mg dose with a 10-day washout period between treatments. Of 26 healthy men who entered the study, 23 completed both treatment periods. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and the active moiety (risperidone plus its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were determined by radioimmunoassays. For key pharmacokinetic values (Cmax, AUC), the 90% CIs on the relative bioequivalence of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and the active moiety were contained within the equivalence range of 80-120% (80-125% for log-transformed data). The results demonstrate that the 1-mg/ml oral solution and the 1-mg tablet are bioequivalent. PMID:9165565

  15. Formation Dynamics of Oral Oil Coatings and Their Effect on Subsequent Sweetness Perception of Liquid Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Sara; van Eck, Arianne; van de Velde, Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2015-09-16

    Knowledge of the formation of oral coatings and their influence on subsequent taste perception is necessary to understand possible taste-masking effects by oil coatings. This study investigated (a) the dynamics of the formation of oral oil coatings formed by o/w emulsions and (b) the effect of oral oil coatings on subsequent sweetness perception of sucrose solutions. In vivo fluorescence was used to quantitate the oil fraction deposited on the tongue after oral processing of oil-in-water emulsions for different times. A trained panel evaluated sweetness perception of sucrose solutions after orally processing the emulsions. The oil fraction reached its maximum value within the first 3 s of oral processing. The oil fraction did not significantly affect subsequent sweetness perception of sucrose solutions. It is suggested that the oil droplets deposited on the tongue did not form a hydrophobic barrier that is sufficient to reduce the accessibility of sucrose to taste buds. PMID:26301742

  16. Evaluation of oral care to prevent oral mucositis in estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer patients treated with everolimus (Oral Care-BC): randomized controlled phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Naoki; Ota, Yoshihide; Hayashi, Naoki; Naito, Mariko; Kashiwabara, Kosuke; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Yamashita, Toshinari; Mukai, Hirofumi; Umeda, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    This is a randomized, multi-center, open-label, phase III study to evaluate the efficacy of professional oral care in preventing oral mucositis induced by everolimus in postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. Patients will be randomized into professional oral care and control groups (1:1 ratio). All patients will receive everolimus with exemestane and will continue everolimus until disease progression. In the professional oral care group, patients will receive teeth surface cleaning, scaling and tongue cleaning before starting everolimus, and will continue to receive professional oral care weekly from oral surgeons throughout the 8 week treatment. In the control group, patients will brush their own teeth and gargle with 0.9% sodium chloride solution or water. The primary endpoint is the incidence of all grades of oral mucositis. Target accrual is 200 patients with a two-sided type I error rate of 5% and 80% power to detect 25% risk reduction. PMID:27365521

  17. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  18. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  19. Oral health during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

    2008-04-15

    Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries. PMID:18481562

  20. The Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing. PMID:27161350

  1. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL)...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL)...

  3. [Oral problems in divers].

    PubMed

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15932043

  4. Nasal vs oral intubation.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, L

    2003-05-01

    Both nasal and oral route for intubation have advantages and disadvantages. Oral intubation is easier to perform, faster and less painful than nasal intubation under direct laryngoscopy, while blind nasal intubation represents a good alternative in conscious patient, without sedation. In trauma patient, oral route should be preferred, with cervical immobilisation. By the contrary, nasal intubation can cause bleeding, retro-pharyngeal and turbinate bones injury, but it seems preferable in preventing laryngeal complications. Moreover nasal intubation seem to increase risk for sinusitis while, there is no clear advantage for any of the two routes, concerning nosocomial pneumonia, bacteriemia and otitis. Nevertheless nasal route increases comfort for the patient and decreases injury and necrosis of tongue and lips; tube fastening is simpler thus reducing accidental extubation. PMID:12768165

  5. Aetiology of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A W; Marnewick, J C

    2012-11-01

    The terms Oral cancer (OC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are used interchangeably, as more than 95% of all OCs are OSCCs. Worldwide up to 275 000 new cases of OC are seen every year. Most of these cases are seen in developing countries such as South Africa. Up to 50% of all patients living with OC will die within five years, and this survival rate has not improved over the last few decades. Tobacco and alcohol usage account for up to 75% of all OC cases. As these causative factors can be avoided, all oral health workers should be aware of the aetiology of OC so that sound preventive advice may be given to their patients. Infections and nutrition play a lesser but still important role in the aetiology of OC. This article reviews the importance of the aetiology of OC, with the emphasis on tobacco and alcohol. PMID:23957094

  6. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

  7. Acute oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. PMID:27343961

  8. Oral and perioral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

    1994-06-01

    The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed. PMID:8060823

  9. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the "literate," while the…

  10. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597