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Sample records for oral trichlorfon solution

  1. Critical test and safety evaluations of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon in horses.

    PubMed

    Seibert, B P; Newcomb, K M; Michael, B F

    1986-06-01

    Critical tests were done on 24 naturally parasitized horses to compare the antiparasitic activity of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon with that of the marketed powder formulation. Each formulation was administered at the recommended dosages of 8.8 mg of mebendazole and 40 mg of trichlorfon/kg of body weight. Efficacy of the paste formulation ranged from 97.7% to 100% against 2nd- and 3rd-stage Gasterophilus spp, adult Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, Parascaris equorum, small strongyles; and larval and adult forms of Oxyuris equi. Adverse effects were generally limited to slight softening of the feces. Mild and transient restlessness or sweating were also observed in 2 of 12 horses treated with the paste formulation. The toxic effects of the paste, administered at 2.2 times the therapeutic dose, were examined in 6 horses and compared with the effects of a nonmedicated paste, administered in similar volumes to 6 other horses. Drug-related changes were not detected in clinical chemical analyses, hematologic values, or liver function tests. Transient clinical signs of organophosphate toxicosis (primarily the passage of loose feces) and prolonged inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase activity were evident within 1 hour after drug treatment. These effects were similar to those reported for the 2.2 X dose of marketed powder formulation. PMID:3524328

  2. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste. 520.1631 Section 520.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1631 Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste. 520.1326b Section 520.1326b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1326b Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste. 520.1326b Section 520.1326b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1326b Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste....

  5. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a... is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520f Trichlorfon granules.... Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520f Trichlorfon granules...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520f Trichlorfon granules...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520e Trichlorfon boluses. (a...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520f Trichlorfon granules...-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (d) NAS/NRC status. Use of this drug has been NAS/NRC...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Thiabendazole with trichlorfon. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 grams of thiabendazole with 4.5 grams of trichlorfon, or 20 grams of thiabendazole with 18 grams of trichlorfon. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510... ascarids (Parascaris spp. ) in horses. (2) Administer 2 grams of thiabendazole with 1.8 grams...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Thiabendazole with trichlorfon. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 grams of thiabendazole with 4.5 grams of trichlorfon, or 20 grams of thiabendazole with 18 grams of trichlorfon. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510... ascarids (Parascaris spp. ) in horses. (2) Administer 2 grams of thiabendazole with 1.8 grams...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Thiabendazole with trichlorfon. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 grams of thiabendazole with 4.5 grams of trichlorfon, or 20 grams of thiabendazole with 18 grams of trichlorfon. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510... ascarids (Parascaris spp. ) in horses. (2) Administer 2 grams of thiabendazole with 1.8 grams...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Thiabendazole with trichlorfon. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 grams of thiabendazole with 4.5 grams of trichlorfon, or 20 grams of thiabendazole with 18 grams of trichlorfon. (b) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510... ascarids (Parascaris spp. ) in horses. (2) Administer 2 grams of thiabendazole with 1.8 grams...

  17. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.198 Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder. 520.1326a Section 520.1326a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 83.3 milligrams...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder. 520.1326a Section 520.1326a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains 83.3 milligrams...

  20. Oral therapy with glucose electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Nalin, D R; Pizarro, D; Hirschhorn, N

    1980-07-01

    Doctors Kahn and Blum based their views on oral rehydration on only 7 cases, and they fail to provide their methodological details. In their letter on oral rehydration with UNICEF/WHO (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund/World Health Organization) glucose electrolyte solution (GES), they maintain that hyperkalemia is a danger of GES therapy, that hypernatremia will be aggravated, that therapy should not last for longer than 24 hours, that after 24 hours monitoring of plasma potassium will be needed, and that except for developing countries where material milk is used, no plan of treatment has been proposed after the first 24 hours of rehydration. The experience of Kahn and Blum is at variance with extensive data from many carefully monitored balanced studies in infants treated with GES. GES is a potent medication and needs to be used properly. Guidelines for use are listed. Kahn and Blum fail to indicate whether their 7 patients comprised their entire treatment group or only those with biochemical or clinical problems. They also fail to indicate the degree of dehydration of the infants at onset of therapy or the extent of ongoing diarrheal losses, and they do not describe the precise treatment regimen. Their mean time of treatment -- 41 hours -- was particularly long. The hyperkalemia reported by Kahn and Blum may have resulted from excessive GES administration, without a source of free water, to infants having few diarrheal stools. Proper use of GES formula rapidly rehydrates 95-98% of mildly to severely dehydrated infants, irrespective of etiology. PMID:6104241

  1. Critical test evaluations of oxfendazole and trichlorfon: effectiveness of a paste formulation in the horse.

    PubMed

    Presson, B L; Hamm, D; Yazwinski, T A; Pote, L M

    1984-06-01

    Critical tests were performed on 6 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic effectiveness of oxfendazole given in combination with trichlorfon in a paste formulation. Treatments were given orally as a single dose. The rates of active ingredient administration were 2.5 and 40 mg/kg of body weight for oxfendazole and trichlorfon, respectively. The combined activities of the 2 antiparasitic compounds proved 100% efficacious in the removal of adult Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, Oxyuris equi, and Parascaris equorum. Fourth stage O equi, and 2nd and 3rd instars of Gasterophilus nasalis also were completely removed. Second and 3rd stage instars of G intestinalis were removed at the rates of 98.1% and 98.8%, respectively. Nematodes of the "small strongyle" category were removed at the combined rate of 97.0%. Pronounced larvicidal effects of the test formulation were demonstrated via culturing fecal nematode eggs during the trial. Untoward effects of treatment were not seen in any of the trial animals. PMID:6742583

  2. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  3. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  4. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  5. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  6. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  7. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trichlorfon granules. 520.2520f Section 520.2520f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL.... Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trichlorfon boluses. 520.2520e Section 520.2520e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  9. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 180.198 Section 180.198 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.198 Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of... emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional registrations. (d) Indirect or inadvertent residues....

  10. 21 CFR 520.2220a - Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder... § 520.2220a Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder. (a) Approvals. (1) For oral solution... use. The oral solution is administered as a cattle drench or diluted as directed to prepare...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  13. Study of paracetamol 1-g oral solution bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Farre, M; Roset, P N; Abanades, S; Menoyo, E; Alvarez, Y; Rovira, M; Baena, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess paracetamol bioavailability after administering 1 g in oral solution. Eighteen healthy volunteers were selected for this open-label study. A total of 15.4 ml of Gelocatil Oral Solution (Laboratorios Gelos, S.L.), corresponding to 1 g of paracetamol, were administered to fasting subjects. Blood samples were collected at 0 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 45 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and 12 h. Paracetamol plasma concentrations were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The study was conducted without deviations from protocol. Pharmacokinetic data from 18 subjects were allowed for estimating fast and high-paracetamol bioavailability: t(max) 20 min (10-45) [median (range)], C(max) 24. 3 mg/l (6.5) [mean (standard deviation)], AUC(0-t) 64.0 mg h/l (16.1) and AUC(0-00) 68.1 mg h/l (17.9). These results are comparable to those described for Gelocatil Oral Solution given at a 650 mg dose and for immediate release Gelocatil 650 mg tablets. Absorption speed was very fast, similar to that described for other oral-solution formulations, which provides an immediate onset of pain and fever relief. The results of this study show suitable bioavailability for 1 g Gelocatil Oral Solution, with fast-absorption speed that provides an immediate onset of pain and fever relief. PMID:18389096

  14. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dihydrochloride powder. 520.2520g Section 520.2520g Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520g Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder. (a) Specifications. Each 54.10 grams (1.91 ounces) of water dispersible powder contains 9.10 grams of trichlorfon,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dihydrochloride powder. 520.2520g Section 520.2520g Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520g Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder. (a) Specifications. Each 54.10 grams (1.91 ounces) of water dispersible powder contains 9.10 grams of trichlorfon,...

  16. Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:22897202

  17. Effects of solutions used in infants' oral hygiene on biofilms and oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Modesto, A; Lima, K C; de Uzeda, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of oral hygiene solutions used for infants on biofilms formed in vitro from infants' saliva and dental plaque: ATCC reference strains A. viscosus; C. albicans; L. casei; S. mitis; S. mutans; S. oralis; S. sanguis; S. sobrinus and clinically isolated microorganisms (saliva) C. albicans, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. sanguis and S. sobrinus. After exposure of the oral biofilms to H2O2 diluted 1/4 to 1/16; and NaF 0.02 percent, concentrated and diluted 1/2, for 1 and 3 minutes, the viable count of microorganisms, compared to the controls was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). They also showed a significant antimicrobial effect for all the microorganisms evaluated, when compared to the control (p < 0.05). Exposure to sodium bicarbonate solution and a camomile solution, for 1 and 3 minutes, was not significantly lethal to oral biofilms nor to any microorganism evaluated, regardless of whether they were concentrated or diluted. We do not recommend the use of H2O2 but suggest using the camomile solution and NaF 0.02 percent in a rational manner for cleaning the infant's mouth. PMID:11068666

  18. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 4.35 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 4.35 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral solution contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 4.35 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2220a - Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder... § 520.2220a Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder. (a) Approvals. (1) For oral solution... 059130 in § 510.600(c). (2) For soluble powder, each 107 grams contain the equivalent of 94.6 grams...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2220a - Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder... § 520.2220a Sulfadimethoxine oral solution and soluble powder. (a) Approvals. (1) For oral solution... 059130 in § 510.600(c). (2) For soluble powder, each 107 grams contain the equivalent of 94.6 grams...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each 54.10 grams (1.91 ounces) of water dispersible powder contains 9.10 grams of trichlorfon, 6.25 grams of phenothiazine, and the equivalent of 20.0 grams of piperazine base (as...

  4. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2015-05-01

    The regularities of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity have been investigated, and the induction order and constants have been determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is shown that an increase in the initial supersaturation leads to a transition from the heterogeneous nucleation of crystallites to a homogeneous one. Some additives are found to enhance nucleation: HCO{3/-} > C6H12O6 > F-, while others hinder this process: protein (casein) > Mg2+. It is established that crystallization in DPF occurs more rapidly and the DPF composition is favorable for the growth of small (52.6-26.1 μm) crystallites. On the contrary, the conditions implemented in the model saliva solution facilitate the formation of larger (198.4-41.8 μm) crystals.

  5. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  6. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  7. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  8. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  9. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque medium containing 66 percent diatrizoate meglumine and... solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  10. Physical chemistry of supersaturated solutions and implications for oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lynne S; Zhang, Geoff G Z

    2016-06-01

    Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulations are widely used for delivery of poorly soluble drugs for dissolution enhancement and bioavailability improvement. When administered, ASDs often exhibit fast dissolution to yield supersaturated solutions. The physical chemistry of these supersaturated solutions is not well understood. This review will discuss the concepts of solubility, supersaturation, and the connection to membrane transport rate. Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which occurs when the amorphous solubility is exceeded, leading to solutions with interesting properties is extensively discussed as a phenomenon that is relevant to all enabling formulations. The multiple physical processes occurring during dissolution of the ASD and during oral absorption are analyzed. The beneficial reservoir effect of a system that has undergone LLPS is demonstrated, both experimentally and conceptually. It is believed that formulations that rapidly supersaturate and subsequently undergo LLPS, with maintenance of the supersaturation at this maximum value throughout the absorption process, i.e. those that exhibit "spring and plateau" behavior, will give superior performance in terms of absorption. PMID:27013254

  11. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3)...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3)...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter... infections and septicemia caused by pathogens susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3)...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Levamisole powder for oral solution. 520.1242a Section 520.1242a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Levamisole powder for oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each package of powder contains 9.075, 11.7,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole powder for oral solution. 520.1242a Section 520.1242a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Levamisole powder for oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each package of powder contains 9.075, 11.7,...

  16. The effect of trichlorfon and methylazoxymethanol on the development of guinea pig cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, Anna; Schanke, Tore M.; Torvik, Ansgar; Fonnum, Frode . E-mail: frode.fonnum@bio.uio.no

    2007-03-15

    The pesticide trichlorfon (125 mg/kg on days 42-44 in gestation) gives hypoplasia of Brain of the offspring without any significant reduction in their body weights. The hypoplasia may be caused by trichlorfon itself or by its metabolite dichlorvos. This period of development coincides with the growth spurt period of guinea pig brain. The largest changes occurred in the cerebellum. Electron microscopic examination of the cerebellar cortex showed increased apoptotic death of cells in the granule cell layer after trichlorfon treatment. A reduction in thickness of the external germinal layer of the cerebellar cortex and an elevated amount of pyknotic and karyorrhexic cells in the granule cell layer was found. There was a significant reduction in choline esterase, choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase activities in the cerebellum. Methylazoxymethanol (15 mg/kg body weight, day 43) was examined for comparison and caused similar hypoplasia of the guinea pig cerebellum, but did also induce a reduction in body weight. Trichloroethanol, the main metabolite of trichlorfon, did not give brain hypoplasia.

  17. Efficacy of trans-2-hydroxycinnamic Acid against trichlorfon-induced oxidative stress in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Singh, Rambir

    2012-09-01

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide used to control cockroaches, crickets, silverfish, bedbugs, fleas, cattle grubs, flies, ticks, leaf miners, and leaf-hoppers. It is also used to treat domestic animals for control of internal parasites. Trans-2-hydroxycinnamic acid (T2HCA) is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. The present study highlights trichlorofon-induced toxicity and the protective role of T2HCA in the liver, kidney, and brain of female Wistar rats. The rats were given a single dose of trichlorofon (150 mg / kg bw) and pre- and post-treatment T2HCA (50 mg / kg bw) for seven days. Trichlorofon enhanced oxidative stress in liver, kidney, and brain of the rats, which was evident from the elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO). The reduced level of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) also indicated the presence of an oxidative insult. The activity of enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly decreased on trichlorfon administration. Pre and post treatment with T2HCA decreased the LPO level and increased SOD, CAT, GST, GR, GPx, and GSH in the brain, liver, and kidney. Trichlorfon-induced reduction in acelylcholinestrase was also ameliorated with T2HCA treatment. In conclusion, trichlorfon-mediated induction in the reactive oxygen species and disturbance in the antioxidant enzymes' defense system was moderately ameliorated by antioxidant trans-2-hydroxycinnamic acid. PMID:23293469

  18. Investigation on the Gas-Phase Decomposition of Trichlorfon by GC-MS and Theoretical Calculation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kezhi; Zhang, Ningwen; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Jianmei; Qian, Mingrong

    2015-01-01

    The gas phase pyrolysis of trichlorfon was investigated by the on-line gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) pyrolysis and theoretical calculations. Two reaction channels were proposed in the pyrolytic reaction, by analyzing the detected pyrolytic products in the total ion chromatography, including 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde, dimethyl phosphite, and dichlorvos. Theoretical calculations showed that there is an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group and the phosphate O atom in trichlorfon, through which the hydroxyl H atom can be easily transferred to phosphate O atom to trigger two pyrolytic channels. In path-a, migration of H atom results in direct decomposition of trichlorfon to give 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde and dimethyl phosphite in one step. In path-b, migration of H atom in trichlorfon is combined with formation of the O-P bond to give an intermediate, followed by HCl elimination to afford dichlorvos. Path-a is kinetically more favorable than path-b, which is consistent with the GC-MS results. PMID:25856549

  19. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan. PMID:26357816

  20. Critical tests of morantel-trichlorfon paste formulation against internal parasites of the horse.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1984-01-01

    Critical tests were completed on six horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of a paste formulation mixture of morantel citrate and trichlorfon, administered intraorally at the dose rate of 6 mg morantel base kg-1 and trichlorfon at 30 mg kg-1. Aggregate average removals were: 78% for two horses infected with 2nd instar Gasterophilus intestinalis; 100% for one infected with 2nd instar G. nasalis; 96% for six infected with 3rd instar G. intestinalis; 100% for four infected with 3rd instar G. nasalis; 100% for five infected with Parascaris equorum; 100% for one infected with mature Oxyuris equi; 100% for five infected with Strongylus vulgaris; 72% for five infected with S. edentatus; and partial removal (25%) of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection from one infected animal. Pre- and post-treatment EPG and LPG data indicated a reduction of 97% of the mature small strongyle infections. Evidence of toxicosis was not observed in any of the horses. PMID:6538366

  1. Azimilide pharmacokinetics following intravenous and oral administration of a solution and capsule formulation.

    PubMed

    Corey, A E; Agnew, J R; Valentine, S N; Nesbitt, J D; Wagner, D L; Powell, J H; Thompson, G A

    1999-12-01

    Azimilide dihydrochloride (NE-10064) is a novel class III anti-arrhythmic agent that blocks both the slowly and rapidly acting components of the delayed rectifier potassium current of human atrial and ventricular myocytes. In clinical studies, azimilide reduced the frequency of symptomatic episodes of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. This study was conducted to characterize azimilide pharmacokinetics following single-dose administration of a 1 mg/kg intravenous infusion (18 min), 2 mg/kg oral solution, and a 150 mg orally administered capsule. This was a three-period, randomized, crossover study in 27 healthy, drug-free (including caffeine and alcohol), non-smoking male volunteers (mean [SD]; age, 25.9 [1.0] years; weight 74.3 [0.7] kg; 23 Caucasians and 4 Hispanics). Blood and urine samples were collected for 27 days and analyzed for azimilide using HPLC with UV detection. Subjects were monitored for adverse events and abnormalities in clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiography (including Holter monitoring). Mean (%CV) azimilide parameters were total clearance = 0.143 L/h/kg (38%), renal clearance = 0.014 L/h/kg (35%), steady-state volume of distribution = 13.2 L/kg (23%), and terminal exponential half-life = 78.8 h (44%). Similar parameter estimates were obtained following oral administration. Both the oral solution and capsule formulations were completely absorbed. In addition, the rate (Cmax) and extent of absorption (AUC) following oral administration of the capsule dosage form were bioequivalent to the oral solution with means for times of maximum blood concentration of 7.08 and 7.18 hours for the oral solution and capsule, respectively. Azimilide dihydrochloride was generally well tolerated in all subjects. PMID:10586393

  2. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  3. [Basic Studies on the Stability of Flavored Oral Solutions of Rebamipide].

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ryo; Imaoka, Futa; Wako, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kizu, Junko; Katayama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Stomatitis frequently occurs during chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer. Because of its pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory activity and stimulatory effects on endogenous prostaglandin synthesis, rebamipide has been suggested as a potentially effective treatment against stomatitis. In the present study we tested the stability of oral rebamipide solutions prepared in our hospital pharmacy using sodium alginate as a thickener to increase retention of this agent in the oral cavity, and the addition of different flavoring mixtures intended for use in enteral diets to reduce the bitterness of rebamipide and sodium alginate. Samples of oral rebamipide solution prepared with 13 kinds of flavoring and sodium alginate were evaluated in terms of their appearance, redispersibility, pH, viscosity, and rebamipide content immediately after preparation and 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after storage at room temperature under ambient light or in a cool, dark place. After 10 days of storage, favorable stability was observed in four sample solutions supplemented with green apple, pineapple, yogurt, and tomato flavoring mixtures intended for use in Elental(®) diets. These oral solutions may have potential clinical application. PMID:26632156

  4. ABSORPTION AND BIOKINETICS OF U IN RATS FOLLOWING AN ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF URANYL NITRATE SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The absorption of Uranyl (U) within the male Wistar rat was determined following oral gavage with uranyl nitrate solutions at seven different dosages. Gavage levels ranged from 0.003 to 45 mg U per kilogram body weight. Uranium tissue burdens were determined at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4...

  5. Determination of Trichlorfon Pesticide Residues in Milk via Gas Chromatography with μ-Electron Capture Detection and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Hem, Lina; Khay, Sathya; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Morgan, E D; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han

    2010-06-01

    The pesticide trichlorfon is readily degraded under experimental conditions to dichlorvos. A method has therefore been developed by which residues of trichlorfon in milk are determined as dichlorvos, using gas chromatography with μ-electron capture detection. The identification of dichlorvos was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Milk was extracted with acetonitrile followed by centrifugation, freezing lipid filtration, and partitioning into dichloromethane. The residue after partitioning of dichloromethane was dissolved in ethyl acetate for gas chromatography. Recovery concentration was determined at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 of times the maximum permitted residue limits (MRLs) for trichlorfon in milk. The average recoveries (n = 6) ranged from 92.4 to 103.6%. The repeatability of the measurements was expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.6%, to 6.7%. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 3.7 and 11.1 μg/l, respectively. The accuracy and precision (expressed as RSD) were estimated at concentrations from 25 to 250 μg/l. The intra- and inter-day accuracy (n = 6) ranged from 89.2%to 91% and 91.3% to 96.3%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were lower than 8%. The developed method was applied to determine trichlorfon in real samples collected from the seven major cities in the Republic of Korea. No residual trichlorfon was detected in any samples. PMID:24278518

  6. Critical tests and safety studies on trichlorfon as an antiparasitic agent in the horse.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Taylor, E L

    1976-02-01

    Three series of critical tests were completed on a combined total of 46 horses to determine the efficacy of single doses of trichlorfon against bots, ascarids, pinworms, and large strongyles. Different formulations of trichlorfon were administered by tubing intragastrically, mixing with the daily grain ration, injecting intramuscularly, or pouring on the back at dose rates between 20 and 100 mg/kg. Administration by feeding tended to be more efficacious for removal of bots and less toxic to the horese than administration by stomach tube. In many of the tests, trichlorfon was given in the grain ration at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg of body weight, and the aggregate average removals of 2nd and 3rd instars of Gastrophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis in the 3 series of tests were between 97 and 100%. Removal of Parascaris equorum was equally efficacious with both the intubation and the grain feeding methods of dosing, and at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg, the aggregate averages were 99 and 100% in the 3 series. Removal of Oxyuris equi was variable--aggregate averages were between 11 (1 infected horse in the initial series) and 96 (5 infected horses in the 3rd series) to 100% (7 infected horses in the 2nd series). Large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus were almost completely refractory to the 40-mg/kg dose rate of trichlorfon. Dose rates of 40 mg/kg and less were generally well tolerated by the critical test horses. Higher dose rates (60 and 80 mg/kg) administered by stomach tube induced moderately severe to severe colic and diarrhea, whereas a dose of 80 mg/kg given in the feed resulted in only a transient softening of the feces. Likewise, 5 consecutive doses, 1 week between doses, of a bolus formulation given at the rate of 80 mg/kg to 4 horses were well tolerated. Clinical trials involving a total of 2,294 treatments of trichlorfon at dose rate of 35 to 40 mg/kg in pregnant and nonpregnant mares, stallions, suckling and weanling foals

  7. Global oral health inequalities in incidence and outcomes for oral cancer: causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N W; Warnakulasuriya, S; Gupta, P C; Dimba, E; Chindia, M; Otoh, E C; Sankaranarayanan, R; Califano, J; Kowalski, L

    2011-05-01

    The mouth and oropharynx are among the ten most common sites affected by cancer worldwide, but global incidence varies widely. Five-year survival rates exceed 50% in only the best treatment centers. Causes are predominantly lifestyle-related: Tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, poor diet, viral infections, and pollution are all important etiological factors. Oral cancer is a disease of the poor and dispossessed, and reducing social inequalities requires national policies co-ordinated with wider health and social initiatives - the common risk factor approach: control of the environment; safe water; adequate food; public and professional education about early signs and symptoms; early diagnosis and intervention; evidence-based treatments appropriate to available resources; and thoughtful rehabilitation and palliative care. Reductions in inequalities, both within and between countries, are more likely to accrue from the application of existing knowledge in a whole-of-society approach. Basic research aimed at determining individual predisposition and acquired genetic determinants of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, thus allowing for targeted therapies, should be pursued opportunistically. PMID:21490236

  8. Oral treatment with etoposide in small cell lung cancer – dilemmas and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rezonja, Renata; Knez, Lea; Cufer, Tanja; Mrhar, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background Etoposide is a chemotherapeutic agent, widely used for the treatment of various malignancies, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Oral etoposide administration exhibits advantages for the quality of life of the patient as well as economic benefits. However, widespread use of oral etoposide is limited by incomplete and variable bioavailability. Variability in bioavailability was observed both within and between patients. This suggests that some patients may experience suboptimal tumor cytotoxicity, whereas other patients may be at risk for excess toxicity. Conclusions The article highlights dilemmas as well as solutions regarding oral treatment with etoposide by presenting and analyzing relevant literature data. Numerous studies have shown that bioavailability of etoposide is influenced by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. Several strategies were explored to improve bioavailability and to reduce pharmacokinetic variability of oral etoposide, including desired and undesired drug interactions (e.g. with ketoconazole), development of suitable drug delivery systems, use of more water-soluble prodrug of etoposide, and influence on gastric emptying. In addition to genotype-based dose administration, etoposide is suitable for pharmacokinetically guided dosing, which enables dose adjustments in individual patient. Further, it is established that oral and intravenous schedules of etoposide in SCLC patients do not result in significant differences in treatment outcome, while results of toxicity are inconclusive. To conclude, the main message of the article is that better prediction of the pharmacokinetics of oral etoposide may encourage its wider use in routine clinical practice. PMID:23450046

  9. Tolerability of Oral Xylitol Solution in Young Children: Implications for Otitis Media Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Vernacchio, Louis; Vezina, Richard M.; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Xylitol, given as two grams orally five times-a-day, significantly reduces the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. A less frequent dosing schedule, if tolerable and efficacious, would promote the more widespread use of this treatment. We sought to determine the tolerability and acceptability in young children of oral xylitol solution at doses of 5 grams three times-a-day (TID) and 7.5 grams once daily (QD). Methods. The study was a three-month randomized placebo-controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of oral xylitol solution in 120 children 6-36 months of age performed in the SCOR Network. Results. Study withdrawals and unscheduled medical visits for gastrointestinal complaints did not differ significantly among the study groups. The proportions of subjects in the xylitol TID group who experienced excessive gas or diarrhea at months one, two, and three were 22.7%, 10.0%, and 14.3%, respectively, and in the xylitol QD group were 27.3%, 17.4%, and 14.3%, respectively, and these did not differ from the placebo groups. The proportions who accepted the study solution easily or with only minor difficulty at one, two, and three months in the xylitol TID group were 77.3%, 90.0%, and 90.5% and in the xylitol QD group, 77.3%, 82.6%, and 90.5%, respectively. Conclusions. Oral xylitol solution at dosages of 5 grams TID and 7.5 grams QD is well-tolerated by young children. Given the potential for xylitol as a safe, inexpensive option for AOM prophylaxis, clinical trials using these dosages of xylitol can be conducted. PMID:17097152

  10. Relative bioavailability of diclofenac potassium from softgel capsule versus powder for oral solution and immediate-release tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Bende, Girish; Biswal, Shibadas; Bhad, Prafulla; Chen, Yuming; Salunke, Atish; Winter, Serge; Wagner, Robert; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of diclofenac potassium 50 mg administered as a soft gelatin capsule (softgel capsule), powder for oral solution (oral solution), and tablet was evaluated in a randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy adults. Plasma diclofenac concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by noncompartmental methods. The median time to achieve peak plasma concentrations of diclofenac was 0.5, 0.25, and 0.75 hours with the softgel capsule, oral solution, and tablet formulations, respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf, and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the oral solution formulation were 0.97 (0.95-1.00) and 0.85 (0.76-0.95), respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the tablet formulation were 1.04 (1.00-1.08) and 1.67 (1.43-1.96), respectively. In conclusion, the exposure (AUC) of diclofenac with the new diclofenac potassium softgel capsule formulation was comparable to that of the existing oral solution and tablet formulations. The peak plasma concentration of diclofenac from the new softgel capsule was 67% higher than the existing tablet formulation, whereas it was 15% lower in comparison with the oral solution formulation. PMID:27119581

  11. Assessing lethal and sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon on different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sónia; Oliveira, Rhaul; Pereira, Susana; Musso, Carolina; Domingues, Inês; Bhujel, Ram C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A

    2011-06-01

    Trichlorfon (TCF) is one of the most used veterinary pharmaceuticals not only to fight infestations but also as a preventive measure worldwide. The high concentrations used generate concerns about environmental and human health. In this work we assessed the acute toxicity of this compound to non-target organisms belonging to different trophic levels: Danio rerio (early life stages and adults), Daphnia magna and algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), and studied the potential of the biomarkers cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) to assess sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon in zebrafish and daphnids. The fish embryo test followed the OECD draft guideline FET and was based on the exposure of newly fertilized eggs to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/L of TCF for 5 days; the fish acute test followed the OECD guideline 203 and was based on the exposure of adult fish to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L of TCF for 4 days; Daphnia sp. immobilization assay followed the OECD guideline 202 and was based on the exposure of juvenile daphnids to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1 and 2 μg/L of TCF for 2 days and the algae growth inhibition assay followed the OECD guideline 201 and was based on the exposure of the two species to 0, 1, 3.2, 10, 32, 100 and 300 mg/L of TCF for 4 days. Biomarker levels were measured after 96 h exposure to TCF in zebrafish early life stages and adults and after 48 h exposure in D. magna. Tested organisms seem to have dissimilar sensitivities towards TCF exposure. D. magna (48 h-LC(50)=0.29 μg/L) was the most sensitive organism, followed by early life stages and adults of zebrafish (96 h-LC(50)=25.4 and 28.8 mg/L, respectively) and finally by the algae P. subcapitata (96 h-LC(50)=274.5 mg/L) and C. vulgaris (no effect observed). As daphnids are a source of food for organisms of higher trophic levels, the impairment on its population is prone to have

  12. Bioequivalence study of levothyroxine tablets compared to reference tablets and an oral solution.

    PubMed

    Koytchev, Rossen; Lauschner, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the bioequivalence of three levothyroxine sodium (CAS 51-48-9) formulations, i.e. a test and a reference tablet and an oral solution. A bioequivalence study was carried out in 25 healthy volunteers, who were administered a single dose of 600 microg levothyroxine in the form of the test formulation (levothyroxine sodium tablets 200 microg; Eferox), the originator product, and an oral solution. The trial was performed in one study center according to an open, randomized, three-way cross-over design with wash-out periods of 35 days between administration. Blood samples were taken up to 48 h post dose, the plasma was separated and the concentrations of levothyroxine and triiodothyronine were determined by radioimmunoassay with I125 labeling method. The levothyroxine mean Cmax were 112.0+/-17.3 ng/ml, 113.4+/-18.5 ng/ ml and 111.3+/-15.1 ng/ml, while the mean AUC0-24 were 2263.7+/-332.8 ng x h/ ml, 2307.3+/-351.3 ng x h/ml and 2286.1+/-331.0 ng x h/ml for the test and reference tablets as well as for the oral solution, respectively. No significant differences were found of principal pharmacokinetic parameters between the studied formulations. The 90%-confidence interval for the primary target parameters, intra-individual ratios of AUC0-24 and Cmax of levothyroxine were within the acceptance ranges for bioequivalence trials, i.e. AUC0-24 0.954-1.016 and 0.966-1.011 as well as Cmax 0.948-1.027 and 0.968-1.032 for test tablets versus reference tablets and the oral solution, respectively. Similar results were observed for triiodothyronine. In the light of the present study it can be concluded that the levothyroxine test tablet is bioequivalent to the reference formulation in respect of extent and rate of absorption. The results of the present trial confirm the findings of a previous study, performed under steady-state conditions with Eferox tablets 100 microg in patients without thyroid function. PMID:15553108

  13. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial. Methods Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo) with oral diclofenac (ODiclo). Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs), recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation. Results AEs occurred in 312 (67.1%) patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5%) of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001). Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055) AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile. PMID:21811391

  14. Kinetic characteristics of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity are investigated and the growth order and constants are determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is found that the stage in which the number of particles increases occurs in the range of mixed kinetics and their growth occurs in the diffusion range. The enhancing effect of additives HCO- 3 > C6H12O6 > F- and the retarding effect of Mg2+ are demonstrated. The HCO- 3 and Mg2+ additives, taken in high concentrations, affect the corresponding rate constants. It is revealed the crystallization in DPF is favorable for the growth of small crystallites, while the model solution of saliva is, vice versa, favorable for the growth of larger crystals.

  15. Oral rehydration solutions for burn management in the field and underdeveloped regions: a review

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Krishna S; Wong, Lesley K

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries are the fourth most common type of trauma worldwide, and the appropriate care of burn injuries in resource-limited settings such as the battlefield, underdeveloped nations, or in mass casualtiesremains a significant challenge. Rehydration constitutes the primary treatment of the systemic effects of burns and is a major factor in patient recovery. The standard of care for the replenishment of fluid and electrolyte losses in burn injury remains intravenous fluid therapy, but oral rehydration solution therapy (ORST) demonstrates beneficial utility in saving the lives of burn patients when they are applied in the acute phase of burn injuries, especially when intravenous rehydration is unavailable or inaccessible. Advantages of ORST as compared to intravenous therapy include availability, ease of administration in the field, low risk of infections and complications, low cost, and no requirement for accessory or specialized equipment. These benefits position ORST very attractively for the provision of interim first aid until definitive medical assistance arrives. Extensive and comprehensive investigation may be warranted to elucidate, account for and quantify individual burn patient biochemical variables toward the potential realization of such an “omniuse” oral rehydration solution for the benefit of burn injuries worldwide. PMID:23875118

  16. Detection of stain formation on teeth by oral antiseptic solution using fiber optic displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, H. A.; Rahim, H. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Yasin, M.; Apsari, R.; Ahmad, H.; Wan Abas, W. A. B.

    2013-02-01

    The application of a simple intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor for the detection of stain formation on human teeth is demonstrated. The proposed sensor uses a concentric type bundled plastic optical fiber (POF) as a probe in conjunction with the surfaces of five human teeth as the reflecting targets. Prior to the experiment, the stains were produced extrinsically by soaking the teeth in different concentrations of oral antiseptic solution containing hexetidine. The concentration of the oral antiseptic solution is measured in volume%. For a concentration change from 0% to 80%, the peak voltage decreases exponentially from 1.15 mV to 0.41 mV with a measured resolution of 0.48% and 1.75% for concentration ranges of 0-40% and 40-80%, respectively. The correlation between the detector output and variation in the color of human tooth surface has successfully been examined. Simple in design and low in cost, this sensor can detect color changes due to hexetidine-induced stain on a tooth surface in a fast and convenient way. Thus, this sensor will be very promising in esthetic dentistry, dental color matching techniques, chemical and biomedical applications.

  17. Response of breeding birds to aerial sprays of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-Oil) in Montana forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Henny, C.J.; Floyd, R.L.; Bobal, K.A.; Schultz, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding density, food, nesting success, and mortality of 20 bird species were monitored at Beaverhead National Forest, Montana, in 1975 in conjunction with experimental applications of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-oil) to western budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis). Bird species on nine 350- to 550-ha forested plots (three controls and three treated with each pesticide) were studied before and for 14 days after the spraying of trichlorfon at 1.1 kg in?9.4 L of Panasol AN3 per ha (1 pound active ingredient in 1.0 gallon/acre) and of carbaryl at 1.1 kg in 4.7 L of diesel oil per ha (l pound active ingredient in 0.5 gallon/acre). No significant decrease in bird numbers was detected from breeding-pair estimates or live bird counts after the spraying. Of the breeding pairs present before spraying, 92% remained on control plots, 89% on trichlorfon plots, and 92% on carbaryl plots. Counts of live birds made before and after spraying in three types of habitat supported the. results of the breeding-pair estimates. Nests with eggs or with young at the time of spraying were 74 and 97% successful, respectively, in control plots, 83 and 100% in plots sprayed with trichlorfon, and 86 and 100% in plots sprayed with carbaryl. No sick or dead birds were found after the spraying, although budworms were found in bird stomachs, and tracer-dye from the pesticide occurred on the feathers or feet of 74% of the 202 birds collected. Species dwelling in the tree canopy encountered the dye (and thus the pesticide) at a slightly higher rate (80%) than did species below the treetops (71 %) or near the ground and in open areas (70%).

  18. Evaluation of computed tomographic enterography with an orally administered lactulose solution in clinically normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Keh, Seoyeon; Sohn, Jungmin; Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Jang, Jaeyoung; Kim, Hyunwook; Chang, Dongwoo; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine optimal techniques for CT enterography in clinically normal dogs and to evaluate luminal distention after oral administration of lactulose solution as a contrast agent. ANIMALS 15 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES CT was performed in a control group (2 dogs that underwent CT to evaluate metastasis and 5 other dogs). In a bolus administration group (5 dogs from the control group), lactulose solution (1.34 g/mL) was administered (60 mL/kg) rapidly via gastric tube to anesthetized dogs, and CT was performed every 10 minutes for 1 hour. In a continuous administration group of 8 other dogs, lactulose solution (60 mL/kg) was administered slowly via nasoesophageal tube over a period of 45 minutes. Then, 15 minutes after anesthetic induction, CT was performed every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Luminal distention of the small intestines was evaluated qualitatively by use of a 3-point scale. RESULTS All small intestinal segments had poor luminal distention in the control group. The terminal ileum had poor luminal distention for the bolus administration group. Nearly all segments had good luminal distention for the continuous administration group with mild adverse effects. Luminal distention scores from 0 to 20 minutes after lactulose administration were significantly higher than scores from 30 to 60 minutes. Interobserver reproducibility was high for all intestinal segments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT performed between 0 and 20 minutes after continuous administration of lactulose solution (60 mL/kg) may reveal adequate luminal distention for examination of small intestinal segments in dogs. PMID:27027835

  19. The Effectiveness of Oral Rehydration Solution at Various Concentrations as a Storage Media for Avulsed Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Badakhsh, Samaneh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Following avulsion, the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells are at risk of necrosis. To achieve a favorable survival prognosis, the PDL cells must be kept viability. Therefore, immediate replantation is considered as the treatment of choice and in case it is not possible, storing the tooth in an appropriate storage media should be considered. Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) is a glucose-electrolyte solution which can keep the optimal osmolality as well as pH and can even provide nutrients which are necessary for cellular growth. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different concentrations of ORS in maintaining the viability of the PDL cells at different time points. Materials and Methods PDL cells were obtained from healthy extracted human premolars. Then, 8×10³ cells were seeded in each well of 96-well plate. Afterwards, each well was treated with ORS in three different concentrations and DMEM for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the MTT assay. One way-ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for comparing the study groups. Results According to the results, 25% and 50% concentrations of ORS were more effective in preserving the PDL cell viability and could maintain 79.98% and 68.34% of the PDL cells, respectively, at least for the last experimental time point (up to 9 hours). Conclusions Therefore, our findings indicate that ORS might be a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth. PMID:23412137

  20. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Çeliksular, M. Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-01-01

    Objective The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. Methods The study was performed on 80 ASA I–II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. Results The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2–3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24th postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (p<0.05). Plasma cortisol levels at the 2nd peroperative hour were higher in epidural groups than in general anaesthesia groups. Both anaesthesia techniques did not have an effect on IL-6 levels. Conclusion We concluded that epidural anaesthesia suppressed stress response, although preoperative oral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response. PMID:27366573

  1. Pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects following a single oral administration of a nonaqueous pimobendan solution in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Yata, M; McLachlan, A J; Foster, D J R; Page, S W; Beijerink, N J

    2016-02-01

    Pimobendan is an inodilator used in the treatment of canine congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of a nonaqueous oral solution of pimobendan using a single-dose, operator-blinded, parallel-dose study design. Eight healthy dogs were divided into two treatment groups consisting of water (negative control) and pimobendan solution. Plasma samples and noninvasive measures of cardiovascular function were obtained over a 24-h period following dosing. Pimobendan and its active metabolite were quantified using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS) assay. The oral pimobendan solution was rapidly absorbed [time taken to reach maximum concentration (Tmax ) 1.1 h] and readily converted to the active metabolite (metabolite Tmax 1.3 h). The elimination half-life was short for both pimobendan and its active metabolite (0.9 and 1.6 h, respectively). Maximal cardiovascular effects occurred at 2-4 h after a single oral dose, with measurable effects occurring primarily in echocardiographic indices of systolic function. Significant effects persisted for <8 h. The pimobendan nonaqueous oral solution was well tolerated by study dogs. PMID:25997373

  2. Pharmacokinetics and potential advantages of a new oral solution of levothyroxine vs. other available dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Yue, C S; Scarsi, C; Ducharme, M P

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the pharmacokinetics and potential advantages of a levothyroxine oral solution vs. tablets and soft gel capsules.4 randomized, 2-treatment, single-dose (600 mcg levothyroxine), 2-way crossover bioequivalence studies in 84 healthy subjects were analyzed. Samples were collected before dosing and until 48-72 h post-dose to calculate noncompartmental baseline-adjusted pharmacokinetic parameters: maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 48 h and from 0 to 2 h.Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (±standard deviation) for tablets, capsules and solution, respectively, were: area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 2 h (ng*h/mL)=68.4±32.8, 64.4±24.4, 99.1±22.7; area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 48 h (ng*h/mL)=1 632±424, 1 752±445, 1 862±439; maximum concentration (ng/mL)=67.6±20.9, 68.0±15.9, 71.4±16.0; time of maximum concentration (hours)=2.25±0.99, 2.38±1.58, 1.96±1.07. Overall rate and extent of exposure were not statistically different between formulations, but a faster onset of absorption for the solution was suggested (greater area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 2 h and faster time to maximum concentration by an average of 30 min).Levothyroxine rate and extent of exposure are similar between tested formulations. The solution appears however to reach systemic circulation quicker as dissolution is not needed before absorption starts. The solution's greater early exposure and a faster time to maximal concentration of around 30 min may be of benefit to minimize drug-food interactions and deserves further investigations. PMID:23154888

  3. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  4. Critical tests of the anthelmintic febantel in the horse: activity of a paste formulation alone or with a trichlorfon paste.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1978-09-01

    Critical tests were carried out in 10 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of febantel given alone or with trichlorfon. Paste formulations were administered intraorally at dose levels of 6 mg of febantel (active ingredient)/kg and 35 mg of trichlorfon (active ingredient)/kg. In 5 tests with febantel alone, removal of 100% was recorded for mature or immature Parascaris equorum from 2 infected horses. Strongylus vulgaris from 4 infected horses, S edentatus from 5 infected horses, and mature Oxyuris equi from 1 infected horse; and removal of 96% was recorded for small strogyles from 1 horse tested, and bots in 5 infected horses were not affected. In 5 horses treated with both compounds, removal of 100% was recorded for mature P equorum from 2 infected horses, immature P equorum from 1 infected horse, S vulgaris from 5 infected horses, Sedentatus from 5 infected horses, mature O equi from 2 infected horses, immature O equi from 1 horse tested, 2nd Gasterophilus intestin-equi from 1 infected horse, 2nd-instar C nasalis from 1 infected horse, and 3rd-instar C nasalis from 4 infected horses. Removal of 98% was recorded for small strongyles from 1 horse tested, and removal of 65% to 100% for 3rd-instar C intestinalis from 5 infected horses. In the aggregate, removal of 3rd-instar C intestinalis was 99%. Untoward effects of treatment were quite limited. Only a transient softening of feces in 1 of 5 horses given the trichlorfon paste plus the febantel paste was recorded. PMID:697152

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetic studies of fast dissolving film and oral solution of ondansetron in rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dhagla R; Patel, Vishnu A; Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Patel, Harsha V; Kundawala, Aliasgar J

    2013-12-01

    Ondansetron, selective serotonin (5-HT3) receptor blocker, is used in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Mouth dissolving films containing ondansetron were developed to have better onset and patient compliances. The drug content of prepared films was within 85%-115%. The films were found to be stable for 4 months when stored at 40 %°C and 75% RH. In-vitro dissolution studies suggested a rapid disintegration, in which most of ondansetron was released (91.5±3.4%) within 90 sec. Subsequently, Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of the formulated films with oral administration of pure drug solution. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between the two groups in which AUC0-t (ng h/ml), AUC0-∞ (ng h/ml), Cmax (ng/ml), Tmax (min), Kel (h(-1)) and t1/2 (h) of reference was 109.091±15.73, 130.32±18.56, 28.5±4.053, 60, 0.1860±0.0226, and 3.771±0.498 respectively; and for formulated film 113.663±16.64, 151.79±16.54, 30±3.51, 60, 0.1521±0.0310 and 4.755±0.653 respectively. These results suggest that the fast dissolving film containing ondansetron is likely to become one of the choices to treat chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. PMID:23755722

  6. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Andrew S.; Lessler, Justin; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Mckay, Michael V.; Khan, Azharul; Ahmed, Dilruba; Gurley, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, pharmacy-purchased oral rehydration solution (ORS) is often used to treat diarrhea, including cholera. Over-the-counter sales have been used for epidemiologic surveillance in the past, but rarely, if ever, in low-income countries. With few early indicators for cholera outbreaks in endemic areas, diarrhea-related product sales may serve as a useful surveillance tool. Methodology/Principal Findings We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents. We developed a mobile phone based system to track the sales of ORS and deployed it in parallel with a paper-based system. Our objectives were to determine if the mobile phone system was practical and acceptable to pharmacists and drug sellers, whether data were reported accurately compared to a paper-based system, and whether ORS sales were associated with future incidence of cholera hospitalizations within the community. We recorded 47,215 customers purchasing ORS, and 315 hospitalized diarrhea cases, 22% of which had culture-confirmed cholera. ORS sales and diarrhea incidence were independently associated with the mean daily temperature; therefore both unadjusted and adjusted models were explored. Through unadjusted cross-correlation statistics and generalized linear models, we found increases in ORS sales were significantly associated with increases in hospitalized diarrhea cases up to 9-days later and hospitalized cholera cases up to one day later. After adjusting for mean daily temperature, ORS was significantly associated with hospitalized diarrhea two days later and hospitalized cholera one day later. Conclusions/Significance Pharmacy sales data may serve as a feasible and useful surveillance tool. Given the relatively short lagged correlation between ORS sales and diarrhea, rapid and accurate sales data are key. More work is needed

  7. A bioequivalence study of levothyroxine tablets versus an oral levothyroxine solution in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yannovits, N; Zintzaras, E; Pouli, A; Koukoulis, G; Lyberi, S; Savari, E; Potamianos, S; Triposkiadis, F; Stefanidis, I; Zartaloudis, E; Benakis, A

    2006-01-01

    Probably for genetic reasons a substantial part of the Greek population requires Levothyroxine treatment. Since commercially available Levothyroxine was first marketed, the manufacture and storage of the drug in tablet form has been complicated and difficult; and as cases of therapeutic failure have frequently been reported following treatment with this medicinal agent, quality control is an essential factor. Due to the unreliability of Levothyroxine-based commercial products, in the present study we decided to follow the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines*, and use a Levothyroxine solution as reference product. The bioavailability of the Levothyroxine sodium tablet formulation THYROHORMONE/Ni-The Ltd (0.2 mg/tab) and that of a reference oral solution (0.3 mg/100 ml) under fasting conditions were compared in an open, randomized, single-dose two-way crossover study. Twenty four healthy Caucasian volunteers (M/F=15/9, mean age=32.9+/-7.4yr) participated in the study. Bioavailability was assessed by pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under plasma concentration-time curve from time zero up to the measurable last time point (AUC(last)) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax). Heparinized venous blood samples were collected pre-dose and up to a 48-hour period post-dose. Levothyroxine sodium in plasma samples was assayed by a validated electrochemiluninescent immunoassay technique. Statistical analysis showed that the post-dose thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05). Regarding Levothyroxine (T4), the point estimate of the test formulation to the reference formulation ratios (T/R) for AUC(last) and Cmax was 0.92 with 90% confidence limits (0.90, 0.94) and 0.93 with 90% confidence limits (0.91, 0.94), respectively. Regarding triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the point estimate for the T/R ratios of AUC(last) and Cmax was 0.92 with 90% confidence limits (0.90, 0.95) and 0.94 with 90% confidence limits (0.92, 0

  8. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials. PMID:2345922

  9. Water-soluble beta-cyclodextrins in paediatric oral solutions of spironolactone: preclinical evaluation of spironolactone bioavailability from solutions of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, A M; Lennernäs, H; Mannermaa, J P

    1998-06-01

    Water-soluble derivatives of beta-cyclodextrin have been considered for solubilization of spironolactone in the formulation of a safe liquid preparation for premature infants. The oral absorption of spironolactone was studied in rats to evaluate the need to adjust spironolactone dosage in prospective clinical studies. Spironolactone was administered in solutions of sulphobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE7) or dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CyD) and also as spironolactone-containing powder papers (reference preparation). Spironolactone in SBE7 solution was administered intravenously to assess the extent of intestinal absorption from the different formulations. Spironolactone and the metabolites 7alpha-thiospirolactone, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone and canrenone were determined in rat serum after intravenous administration of spironolactone. Half-lives for spironolactone, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone and canrenone were 0.72 +/- 0.17, 1.5 +/- 0.3 and 2.2 +/- 0.3 h, respectively. Although, according to Cmax values, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone was the major serum metabolite in rats, higher AUC (area under the serum concentration-time curve) values were obtained for canrenone. After oral administration of spironolactone the bioavailabilities evaluated from the AUC values of 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone were 27.5 +/- 9.3%, 81.3 +/- 28.8% and 82.8 +/- 28.6% for powder papers, DM-beta-CyD and SBE7 solutions, respectively. The oral absorption of spironolactone by rats was better after administration of spironolactone in SBE7 and DM-beta-CyD solutions than after administration as powder papers. Both cyclodextrin formulations enhanced spironolactone bioavailability to a similar extent despite some deacetylation of spironolactone in the presence of SBE7. A reduction of spironolactone dosage would be recommended during clinical studies with premature infants. These results indicate that SBE7 could be a safe and suitable excipient for the solubilization of

  10. The Effect of Bamboo Leaf Extract Solution and Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Solution on Growth and Volatile Sulfur Compounds Production of Oral Malodor Associated Some Anaerobic Periodontal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Majbauddin, Abir; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Bamboo leaf extract solution (BLES) and sodium copper chlorophyllin solution (SCCS) are known for their anti-oxidant activities. Oral malodor is often related with periodontal pathogens. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-bacterial effect of both BLES and SCCS on anaerobic periodontal bacteria producing oral malodorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Methods Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 (PG), Prevotella intermidai TDC19B (PI), Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC25586 (FN) and Prevotella nigrescence ATCC33563 (PN) were investigated as oral isolated bacteria. VSC production ability of the oral strains was investigated by gas chromatography. With serial dilution of BLES or SCCS, the strains PG, PI, FN or PN were cultured anaerobically with AnaeroPack at 37 ℃ for 3 days. For the determination of anti-bacterial action of BLES or SCCS, the inoculum was cultured with original concentrations of BLES 0.16% (w/v) or SCCS 0.25% (w/v). Results Gas chromatography exhibited that all strains, PG, PI, FN and PN were responsible for producing a high range of H2S and a moderate range of CH3SH. Anti-bacterial effect of BLES or SCCS on the strains was observed. Inhibition of BLES or SCCS on the strains was revealed as concentration dependent. BLES or SCCS inhibited bacterial proliferation at higher concentrations (PG; 0.04% BLES or 0.03% SCCS, PI; 0.002% BLES or 0.03% SCCS, FN; 0.005% BLES or 0.01% SCCS, PN; 0.01% BLES or 0.015% SCCS). No viable bacterial colony observed at original concentration of BLES 0.16% or SCCS 0.25%. Strain growth was eliminated from inhibition at lower concentrations (PG; 0.02% BLES or 0.015% SCCS, PI; 0.001% BLES or 0.015% SCCS, FN; 0.002% BLES or 0.007% SCCS, PN; 0.005% BLES or 0.007% SCCS). Conclusion High concentrations of both BLES (0.16%) and SCCS (0.25%) show superior inhibiting capability on all four oral malodor associated periodontal anaerobes during testing, suggesting that these compounds might have a beneficial effect

  11. Modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission induced by sublethal doses of the organophosphate trichlorfon in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Graziele Daiane; de Freitas, Thiago Carrazoni; Heberle, Marines de Avila; de Assis, Dênis Reis; Vinadé, Lúcia; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Dal Belo, Cháriston André

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides have been used indiscriminately, based on their high dissipation rates and low residual levels in the environment. Despite the toxicity of OPs to beneficial insects is principally devoted to the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, the physiological mechanisms underlying this activity remain poorly understood. Here we showed the pharmacological pathways that might be involved in severe alterations in the insect locomotion and grooming behaviors following sublethal administration of the OP Trichlorfon (Tn) (0.25, 0.5 and 1 µM) in Phoetalia pallida. Tn inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity (46±6, 38±3 and 24±6 nmol NADPH/min/mg protein, n=3, p<0.05), respectively. Tn (1 µM) also increased the walking maintenance of animals (46±5 s; n=27; p<0.05). Tn caused a high increase in the time spent for this behavior (344±18 s/30 min, 388±18 s/30 min and 228±12 s/30 min, n=29-30, p<0.05, respectively). The previous treatment of the animals with different cholinergic modulators showed that pirenzepine>atropine>oxotremorine>d-tubocurarine>tropicamide>methoctramine induced a decrease on Tn (0.5 µM)-induced grooming increase, respectively in order of potency. Metoclopramide (0.4 µM), a DA-D2 selective inhibitor decreased the Tn-induced grooming activity (158±12 s/30 min; n=29; p<0.05). Nevertheless, the effect of the selective DA-D1 receptor blocker SCH 23390 (1.85 µM) on the Tn (0.5 µM)-induced grooming increase was significative and more intense than that of metoclopramide (54±6 s/30 min; n=30; p<0.05). Taken together the results suggest that a cross-talking between cholinergic M1/M3 and dopaminergic D1 receptors at the insect nervous system may play a role in the OP-mediated behavioral alterations. PMID:25164203

  12. Oral Health Disparities and Unmet Dental Needs among Preschool Children in Chelsea, MA: Exploring Mechanisms, Defining Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Isong, Inyang; Dantas, Laila; Gerard, Macda; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant disparities exist in children’s receipt of preventive dental care (PDC) in the United States. Many of the children at greatest risk of dental disease do not receive timely PDC; when they do receive dental care, it is often more for relief of dental pain. Chelsea is a low-income, diverse Massachusetts community with high rates of untreated childhood caries. There are various dental resources available in Chelsea, yet many children do not access dental care at levels equivalent to their needs. Objective Using Chelsea as a case-study, to explore factors contributing to forgone PDC (including the age 1 dental visit) in an in-depth way. Methods We used a qualitative study design that included semi-structured interviews with parents of preschool children residing in Chelsea, and Chelsea-based providers including pediatricians, dentists, a dental hygienist and early childhood care providers. We examined: a) parents’ dental attitudes and oral health cultural beliefs; b) parents’ and providers’ perspectives on facilitators and barriers to PDC, reasons for unmet needs, and proposed solutions to address the problem. We recorded, transcribed and independently coded all interviews. Using rigorous, iterative qualitative data analyses procedures, we identified emergent themes. Results Factors perceived to facilitate receipt of PDC included Head-Start oral health policies, strong pediatric primary care/dental linkages, community outreach and advertising, and parents’ own oral health experiences. Most parents and providers perceived there to be an adequate number of accessible dental services and resources in Chelsea, including for Medicaid enrollees. However, several barriers impeded children from receiving timely PDC, the most frequently cited being insurance related problems for children and adults. Other barriers included limited dental services for children <2 years, perceived poor quality of some dental practices, lack of emphasis on

  13. Critical tests of the antiparasitic activity of thiabendazole and trichlorfon sequentially administered to horses via stomach tube.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1977-06-01

    Thirteen critical tests were conducted in horses naturally infected with helminths and bots. Single doses of thiabendazole (44 mg/kg of body weight) and trichlorfon (40 mg/kg of body weight) powder formulations were administered as suspensions sequentially given via stomach tube to evaluate the efficacy of the combination against the large parasites of horses. Parasite removal efficacies were 100% against 2nd instar Gasterophilus intestinalis and 2nd and 3rd instar Gasterophilus nasalis and 82 to 100% against 3rd instar G intestinals. There were complete removals of mature and immature Parascaris equorum and mature Oxyuris equi. Removal efficacies against Strongylus vulgaris were 89 to 100% and against Strongylus edentatus, 82 to 100%. Of 2 horses infected with Strongylus equinus, removals were 72 and 100%. Seven of the 13 horses treated had transient, semi-liquid feces during the posttreatment hours 1 through 24. PMID:879569

  14. Oral rehydration therapy: a community trial comparing the acceptability of homemade sucrose and cereal-based solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, A. M.; Karim, F.; Rohde, J. E.; Ahmed, J.; Abed, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    Sugar-based oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea is promoted in many countries of the world. One programme in Bangladesh has instructed more than 13 million mothers in the preparation of a sugar-salt solution in the home; despite very high rates of correct mixing and knowledge, subsequent application was found in only some 20% of all diarrhoea episodes. Since rice is far more available in rural homes (95%) than any type of sugar (30%) and rice gruel is a widely accepted food during illness, a field trial was conducted in three areas (total population, 68,345) to compare the acceptability and use of rice-based ORT with that of sugar-based ORT. Although the mothers unanimously agreed that the rice-based solutions "stopped" the diarrhoea more quickly, they used the sugar-based solutions twice as often (in 40% of severe watery episodes) as the rice-based solutions (in 18%), because the rice-ORT was much more time-consuming and difficult to prepare. The observed reduced utilization of home-made rice-ORT makes it a poor substitute for sugar-ORT at the community level in rural Bangladesh. PMID:1860151

  15. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp. ) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Brecken-Folse, J.A. . Environmental Protection Agency) Mayer, F.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Pedigo, L.E. ); Marking, L.L. . National Fisheries Research Center)

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 ppt [times] 17, 22, 27 C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentration, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of [sup 14]C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 [mu]g/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 [mu]g/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  16. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brecken-Folse, J. A.; Mayer, F.L.; Pedigo, L.E.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon vanegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30ppt x 17, 22, 27°C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentradon, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of 14C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 μg/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 μg/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  17. 76 FR 32366 - Determination That ORLAAM (Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Book. In the Federal Register of November 7, 2007 (72 FR 62858), FDA ] announced that it was... solution, 10 mg/mL, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  18. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial of rice versus glucose oral rehydration solutions in infants and young children with acute watery diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Faruque, A S; Hoque, S S; Fuchs, G J; Mahalanabis, D

    1997-12-01

    A randomized clinical trial was carried out to compare a packaged ready-to-mix rice oral rehydration solution (ORS) to the standard glucose ORS for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea. Children were of either gender, aged 3-35 months, presenting with a history of watery diarrhoea for 72 h or less. The main outcomes examined were stool output, ORS intake, duration of diarrhoea and nutritional recovery during follow-up at 16 d of illness. Stool output in the first 24 h (106 vs 107 g kg(-1)), ORS intake in clinic (93 vs 102 ml per motion) and duration of diarrhoea (88 h vs 81 h) were similar in the two treatment groups. The few episodes that became persistent were similar (2%) in the two groups. The weight gain during follow-up was similar in the two ORS groups. PMID:9475306

  19. Oral Reading and Handwriting Miscues Which Appear in the Literacy Period and Solution Offers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basar, Murat

    2013-01-01

    In this research, literacy miscues and the solution offers are taken stock by teachers and parents. 50 first grade teachers and 50 parents form the study group of this qualitative action research. The teachers are the ones who claim that one or more of their students have literacy miscues and the parents are the students' parents.…

  20. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  1. A comparison of three oral electrolyte solutions in the treatment of diarrheic calves

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Jonathan M.; Petrie, Lyall; Rodriguez, Maria I.; Skilnick, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-six diarrheic calves infected with rota- and coronaviruses were randomly allocated to one of three oral electrolyte treatments: Ion-Aid (Syntex Agribusiness), Life-Guard (Norden Inc), or Revibe (Langford Inc). The calves were also allowed voluntary access to milk which was offered at the rate of 5% of body weight per feeding in two feedings daily. There were significant differences in recovery rate among calves treated with the different electrolytes. Only 33% of Ion-Aid-treated calves recovered; Revibe- and Life-Guard-treated calves had high recovery rates of 92% and 83%, respectively. The much higher recovery rates with Life-Guard and Revibe were attributed to the presence of an alkalizing agent in these preparations. Life-Guard uses bicarbonate to counteract acidosis and there was some evidence that this may have interfered with milk digestion. Revibe uses acetate; this was effectively metabolized within the calves' tissues and produced alkalization without interference with milk digestion. PMID:17423689

  2. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  4. Oral pharmacological treatments for parasitic diseases of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss. III. Ichthyobodo necator.

    PubMed

    Tojo, J L; Santamarina, M T

    1998-07-30

    A total of 32 drugs were evaluated as regards their efficacy for oral treatment of Ichthyobodo necator infestation of rainbow trout. In preliminary trials, all drugs were supplied to infected fish at 40 g per kg of feed for 10 d. The majority of the drugs tested (1,3-di-6-quinolylurea, aminosidine, amprolium, benznidazole, bithionol, chloroquine, diethylcarbamazine, dimetridazole, diminazene aceturate, febantel, flubendazole, ketoconazole, levamisole, mebendazole, netobimin, niclosamide, niridazole, nitroscanate, nitroxynil, oxibendazole, parbendazole, piperazine, praziquantel, ronidazole, sulphaquinoxaline, tetramisole, thiophanate, toltrazuril and trichlorfon) were ineffectdive. Metronidazole and secnidazole were 100% effective (unlike the other nitroimidazoles tested, namely dimetridazole, benznidazole and ronidazole). The non-carbamate benzimidazole triclabendazole was likewise 100% effective. PMID:9745716

  5. Study of the acceptability of antibiotic syrups, suspensions, and oral solutions prescribed to pediatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert; de La Rocque, France; Lécuyer, Aurélie; Wollner, Claudie; Bodin, Marie Josée; Wollner, Alain

    2009-07-01

    This observational study was designed to evaluate the acceptability of oral antibiotics (including generics) commonly prescribed to children by community practitioners in France. Between February and July 2006, the parents of 953 children enrolled by 46 pediatricians completed a questionnaire, including a taste assessment based on representations of five facial expressions. The proportions of "satisfactory" taste judgments showed a significant difference between amoxicillin-clavulanate reference product and its generics (77.9% vs. 65%, p = 0.01). The amoxicillin-clavulanate generics were more likely than the reference product to be spat out at least once (28.7% vs. 19%, p = 0.05). The full treatment course was taken by 91.7% and 82.3% of children prescribed the amoxicillin-clavulanate reference product and its generics, respectively (p = 0.02). The proportions of "satisfactory" taste judgments showed no significant difference between amoxicillin reference product and generics (64.3% vs. 72.5%, p = 0.3). The amoxicillin generics were not different from the reference product to be spat out at least once (8.6% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.2). The full treatment course was taken by 90.7% and 94.6% of children prescribed the amoxicillin reference product and its generics, respectively (p = 0.3). This study suggests the role of the active substance in the taste, and calls for the evaluation of palatability of future drugs (generics and references) before granting of the marketing authorization, particularly for active substances of poor taste; this palatability plays a significant role in the compliance of the treatment, notably in children. Poor compliance increases the risk of therapeutic failures and the emergence of resistance. PMID:18958497

  6. Electrospinning of diosmin from aqueous solutions for improved dissolution and oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Vrbata, Petr; Berka, Pavel; Stránská, Denisa; Doležal, Pavel; Lázníček, Milan

    2014-10-01

    A nanofibrous membrane carrier for nearly water insoluble drug diosmin was formulated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the drug release and dissolution properties in an aqueous buffer of pH 7.8, and to compare the suitability of the drug carrier with the available drug forms and screen diosmin absorption extent. The membranes were produced from HPC/PVA/PEO-drug water solutions and then evaluated by SEM and DSC measurements. The results showed that diosmin was incorporated within the nanofibers in an amorphous state, and/or as a solid dispersion. The results of in vitro release experiments excerpt a very fast release of the drug, followed by the formation of an over saturated solution and partial precipitation of the drug (a "spring" effect). The enormous increases in dissolution of the drug from a nanofibrous carrier, compared to a micronized and crystalline form, was achieved. The in vivo bioavailability study carried out on rats showed higher initial drug plasma levels and higher AUC values after administration of the nanofibrous drug formulation, compared to the micronized form. The results of the study demonstrated that the improvement of the diosmin in vitro dissolution also brought the enhanced in vivo absorption extent of the drug. PMID:25066074

  7. Dosimetric consideration for patients with dental filling materials undergoing irradiation of oral cavity using RapidArc: challenges and solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mail, Noor; Albarakati, Y.; Khan, M. Ahmad; Saeedi, F.; Safadi, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Saoudi, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of dental filling materials (DFM) on RapidArcTM treatment plans and delivery in a patient undergoing radiotherapy treatment. The presence of DFM creates uncertainties in CT number and causes long streaking artifacts in the reconstructed images which greatly affect the dose distribution inside the oral cavity. The influence of extensive dental filling artifacts on dose distribution was performed using a geometrically well defined head and neck IMRT verification phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) together with inserts from DFM (Amalgam, 11.3 g/cm3). The phantom was scanned using Siemens SOMATOM Sensation CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany) under standard head and neck imaging protocol (120 kV, 120 mAs, voxel size 1×1×2 mm3). Three RapidArcTM plans were created in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning System (TPS) to treat oral cavity using the same CT dataset including; 1) raw CT image, 2) streaking artifacts replaced with a mask of 10 HU and 3) 2 cm thick 6000 HU virtual filter (a volume around the teeth in TPS to mimic extra attenuation). The virtual filter thickness optimization was purely based on measured PDD data acquired with DFM and the calculation in Eclipse Planning System using direct beam. The dose delivery and distribution for the three plans was verified using Gafchromic EBT2 (International Specialty Product, Wayne, NJ, USA) film measurements. The artifact mask and virtual filter around the teeth in the planning was found very useful to reduce the discrepancies between the dose plan and delivery. From clinical point of view, these results can be helpful to understand the increase of mucositis in patient having DFM, and further investigation is underway for clinical solution.

  8. Biodegradation of the Organophosphate Trichlorfon and Its Major Degradation Products by a Novel Aspergillus sydowii PA F-2.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Dong, Qiaofeng; Yu, Chenlei; Zhao, Ruixue; Wang, Jing; Chen, Lanzhou

    2016-06-01

    Trichlorfon (TCF) is an important organophosphate pesticide in agriculture. However, limited information is known about the biodegradation behaviors and kinetics of this pesticide. In this study, a newly isolated fungus (PA F-2) from pesticide-polluted soils was identified as Aspergillus sydowii on the basis of the sequencing of internal transcribed spacer rDNA. This fungus degraded TCF as sole carbon, sole phosphorus, and sole carbon-phosphorus sources in a mineral salt medium (MSM). Optimal TCF degradation conditions were determined through response surface methodology, and results also revealed that 75.31% of 100 mg/L TCF was metabolized within 7 days. The degradation of TCF was accelerated, and the mycelial dry weight of PA F-2 was remarkably increased in MSM supplemented with exogenous sucrose and yeast extract. Five TCF metabolic products were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. TCF could be initially hydrolyzed to dichlorvos and then be degraded through the cleavage of the P-C bond to produce dimethyl hydrogen phosphate and chloral hydrate. These two compounds were subsequently deoxidized to produce dimethyl phosphite and trichloroethanal. These results demonstrate the biodegradation pathways of TCF and promote the potential use of PA F-2 to bioremediate TCF-contaminated environments. PMID:27161040

  9. [Simultaneous determination of dichlorvos, trichlorfon and naled in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Sachiyo; Uranishi, Katsushige; Uno, Masakiyo

    2007-10-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of Dichlorvos (DDVP), Trichlorfon (DEP) and Naled (BRP) in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed. Pesticides were extracted with ethyl acetate together with phosphoric acid and anhydrous sodium sulfate, followed by an ENVI-Carb cartridge cleanup. Phosphoric acid prevented BRP from being converted to DDVP during extraction of pesticides from the sample. When the sample was dissolved in acetonitrile in a silanized glass vial, BRP and DEP remained intact. Mass spectral acquisition was performed with a TurbolonSpray (ESI) interface in the positive mode by applying multiple reaction monitoring. In LC separation, an ODS column was used with acetic acid-ammonium acetate-methanol as a mobile phase. Recoveries from 8 fruits and vegetables at the fortification level of 0.1 microg/g were 75.0-91.8% for BRP, 70.2-88.9% for DDVP, and 77.3-92.1% for DEP. The detection limits of BRP, DDVP and DEP were 1, 2 and 2 ng/g, respectively. PMID:18027546

  10. The Comparison of Chlorhexidine Solution and Swab With Toothbrush and Toothpaste Effect on Preventing Oral Lesions in Hospitalized Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Estaji, Zahra; Alinejad, Mohammad; Rakhshani, Mohammad Hassan; Rad, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maintaining of oral hygiene has been known as one of the basic tasks of nurses working at intensive care unit. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of chlorhexidine solution with toothbrush in prevention of oral lesions or ulcers in the different parts of the mouth. Methods: In this clinical trial study, research Society included patients hospitalized with endotracheal tube since the arrival time in intensive care unit. In this study, 30 patients were selected with target-based approach and equally divided into two groups through the permutation blocking method for oral care toothbrush and toothpaste and using chlorhexidine and swab. The modified form of Beck Oral Assessment Scale (BOAS) and MPS were used to obtain needed information. Data were analyzed by means of R software (version 3.0.2) and also multiple logistic regressions in the confidence level of 95%. Results: This study indicated an association between using toothbrush and the oral health level (OR: 1.52). In different parts of the mouth, there was no difference between two groups in prevention of lesions in gums, lips and tongue while, this was significant in relation to plaque, mucus and teeth with an odd ratio of 3.94 for teeth and 2.75 for mucus. In comparison, there was an association between implying chlorhexidine and saliva health level. (OR: 2.046). Conclusion: This survey showed that using toothbrush has a noticeable impact on declining oral lesions in varied parts of the mouth. PMID:26652098

  11. A heuristic model to quantify the impact of excess cyclodextrin on oral drug absorption from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2016-05-01

    The intestinal drug solubilising capacity (Dtot(SC)) of a drug formulated as an aqueous cyclodextrin solution is a recently proposed quantity to predict the cyclodextrin concentration needed to fully solubilise the drug in the intestinal lumen. According to this concept, the cyclodextrin concentration in the drug product must be higher than the amount needed to solubilise the compound, due to the displacement of the drug from the cyclodextrin cavity by bile salts in the intestinal lumen. On the other hand, dosing cyclodextrin at >Dtot(SC) is expected to result in decreased free intestinal drug concentrations and thus potentially a lower fraction absorbed. In this study, data from three previous in vivo studies in rats with fixed concentrations of three compounds (danazol, cinnarizine and benzo[A]pyrene) and various cyclodextrin concentrations >Dtot(SC) were analysed. The model was developed for danazol and applied to the two other compounds. Absorption, as quantified from the area under the plasma concentration-time profile, was predicted by the model to decrease at elevated concentrations of co-administered cyclodextrin in accordance with the in vivo data. In addition, at high cyclodextrin concentrations a delay in Tmax and a decrease in Cmax were predicted, again in accordance with the experimental observations. These observations were rationalised in terms of the free intestinal drug concentration by a chemical equilibrium model for Dtot(SC). This model depends on the quantity termed the dimensionless dose concentration, Dtot(∗)=Do/Pn, given as the fraction of the permeation number (Pn) and dose number (Do). The model provides the formulation scientist with a critical quality attribute for assessing the implication of having excess cyclodextrin in an oral solution. PMID:26969263

  12. Scaling up access to oral rehydration solution for diarrhea: Learning from historical experience in low– and high–performing countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shelby E.; Morris, Saul S.; Gilbert, Sarah Skye; Mosites, Emily; Hackleman, Rob; Weum, Kristoffer L.M.; Pintye, Jillian; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper aims to identify factors that systematically predict why some countries that have tried to scale up oral rehydration solution (ORS) have succeeded, and others have not. Methods We examined ORS coverage over time, across countries, and through case studies. We conducted expert interviews and literature and data searches to better understand the history of ORS scale–up efforts and why they failed or succeeded in nine countries. We used qualitative, pairwise (or three–country) comparisons of geographically or otherwise similar countries that had different outcomes in terms of ORS scale–up. An algorithm was developed which scored country performance across key supply, demand and financing activities to quantitatively assess the scale–up efforts in each country. Results The vast majority of countries have neither particularly low nor encouragingly high ORS use rates. We observed three clearly identifiable contrasts between countries that achieved and sustained high ORS coverage and those that did not. Key partners across sectors have critical roles to play to effectively address supply– and demand–side barriers. Efforts must synchronize demand generation, private provider outreach and public sector work. Many donor funds are either suspended or redirected in the event of political instability, exacerbating the health challenges faced by countries in these contexts. We found little information on the cost of scale–up efforts. Conclusions We identified a number of characteristics of successful ORS scale–up programs, including involvement of a broad range of key players, addressing supply and demand generation together, and working with both public and private sectors. Dedicated efforts are needed to launch and sustain success, including monitoring and evaluation plans to track program costs and impacts. These case studies were designed to inform programmatic decision–making; thus, rigorous academic methods to qualitatively and

  13. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption.

    PubMed Central

    el-Mougi, M.; Hendawi, A.; Koura, H.; Hegazi, E.; Fontaine, O.; Pierce, N. F.

    1996-01-01

    Previously we reported that standard oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution is not as effective as a reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS for the treatment of children with acute noncholera diarrhoea: with standard ORS the diarrhoea lasts longer, stool output is greater, serum sodium is higher, and there is more need for supplemental intravenous infusion. We studied a reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin (MD)-based ORS to determine whether it had similar benefits, and also the effect of sugar malabsorption on the efficacy of standard and MD-based ORS. A total of 90 boys aged 3-24 months with acute noncholera diarrhoea and moderate dehydration were randomly assigned to either standard ORS (glucose 20 g/l, osmolarity 311 mmol/l) or MD-ORS (MD 50 g/l, osmolarity 227 mmol/l). There were no differences in treatment results. Some 46% of subjects had a high total stool output (> 300 g/kg), which was unrelated to the type of ORS given. High stool output was significantly associated with a longer duration of diarrhoea (33 vs. 15 hours; P < 0.001), a persistently elevated serum sodium (149 vs. 144 mmol/l at 24 h; P < 0.02), the need for intravenous infusion (11/41 vs. 0/48; P < 0.002), and an increase in faecal reducing substances (10.8 vs. 3.4 g/l at 24 h; P < 0.001). We conclude that some children given standard ORS develop osmotic diarrhoea owing to the combined effect of transient sugar malabsorption and slight hypertonicity of the ORS. Earlier studies show that this adverse outcome can largely be avoided when extra water is given in reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS. Reduced osmolarity has no benefit, however, when glucose is replaced by maltodextrin, probably because the sugars released by hydrolysis of MD, when malabsorbed, raise the intraluminal osmolarity to equal or exceed that of standard ORS. Thus, reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS is superior to both standard ORS and reduced-osmolarity solutions based on maltodextrin and probably other complex carbohydrates

  14. Effect of glutamine or glycine containing oral electrolyte solutions on mucosal morphology, clinical and biochemical findings, in calves with viral induced diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, J M; Leibel, T; Middleton, D M

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-one diarrheic calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 oral electrolyte treatments. The treatments were either a conventional oral electrolyte containing glycine (40 mmol/L) as the amino acid, an oral electrolyte in which glutamine (40 mmol/L) replaced glycine or an electrolyte in which high concentrations of glutamine (400 mmol/L) replaced glycine. The calves were monitored while on trial and at the end of the treatment they were euthanized and a necropsy was immediately performed. Calves fed the high glutamine electrolyte had more treatment failures (2/7 versus 0/7 for each of the other 2 treatments). There was a significant effect of type of electrolyte on fecal consistency. Calves fed the glycine containing electrolyte had the most solid feces. Duodenal villus height was significantly affected by the type of electrolyte: values (mean +/- 1 SEM) were 0.61 +/- 0.09, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.59 +/- 0.07 mm for high glutamine, low glutamine and glycine electrolytes respectively. There was no significant difference in small intestinal surface area between groups. High glutamine treated calves had the greatest capacity to absorb xylose from the small intestine but this difference was not statistically significant. Overall, this trial does not suggest that substituting glutamine for glycine in oral electrolyte solutions improves treatment of diarrheic calves or speeds mucosal healing. PMID:9008800

  15. Treatment with Huisheng oral solution inhibits the development of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-Mei; Gou, Si; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Guo, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Huisheng oral solution (HSOS) has an inhibitory effect on the development of pulmonary thrombosis and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. A mouse model of LLC was developed, and model mice were divided into either a treatment group or a control group to undergo treatment with HSOS or normal saline. Normal mice treated with saline were used as normal controls. On day 25 after treatment, blood samples were drawn from the eyes of half the mice in each group to determine blood cell counts and plasma levels of D-Dimer and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while heart blood samples were collected from the remaining mice to measure the rate of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. For all mice, pathological analyses of the cerebrum, lung, mesentery, femoral vein, external iliac vein and spleen were performed. Tumors were weighed to assess the impact of HSOS treatment on tumor growth, and the number of thrombi, metastatic nodules and neovessels in the tumor tissue were counted. In addition, 24 normal New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups and treated with either HSOS or normal saline to determine the rates of ADP-, collagen- or thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Compared with the model group, HSOS treatment decreased the incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis, the number of metastatic nodules, the plasma levels of D-dimer and VEGF, the rate of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits and the numbers of leukocytes and tumor neovessels (P<0.05 for all). It increased the thymus and spleen coefficients and the number of platelets (P<0.05 for all), but had no significant effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in mice and rabbits, ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits, or the number of red blood cells. The reduced rate of tumor growth was 9.7% in mice treated with HSOS. HSOS treatment effectively reduced

  16. Treatment with Huisheng oral solution inhibits the development of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI; WANG, HONG; WANG, CHUN-MEI; GOU, SI; CHEN, ZHONG-HUA; GUO, JIE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Huisheng oral solution (HSOS) has an inhibitory effect on the development of pulmonary thrombosis and metastasis in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. A mouse model of LLC was developed, and model mice were divided into either a treatment group or a control group to undergo treatment with HSOS or normal saline. Normal mice treated with saline were used as normal controls. On day 25 after treatment, blood samples were drawn from the eyes of half the mice in each group to determine blood cell counts and plasma levels of D-Dimer and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while heart blood samples were collected from the remaining mice to measure the rate of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. For all mice, pathological analyses of the cerebrum, lung, mesentery, femoral vein, external iliac vein and spleen were performed. Tumors were weighed to assess the impact of HSOS treatment on tumor growth, and the number of thrombi, metastatic nodules and neovessels in the tumor tissue were counted. In addition, 24 normal New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups and treated with either HSOS or normal saline to determine the rates of ADP-, collagen- or thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Compared with the model group, HSOS treatment decreased the incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism and metastasis, the number of metastatic nodules, the plasma levels of D-dimer and VEGF, the rate of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits and the numbers of leukocytes and tumor neovessels (P<0.05 for all). It increased the thymus and spleen coefficients and the number of platelets (P<0.05 for all), but had no significant effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in mice and rabbits, ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rabbits, or the number of red blood cells. The reduced rate of tumor growth was 9.7% in mice treated with HSOS. HSOS treatment effectively reduced

  17. Evaluation and comparison of efficacy of three different storage media, coconut water, propolis, and oral rehydration solution, in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Tulsi; Shah, Nimisha; Parekh, Vaishali; Singbal, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two of the most critical factors affecting the prognosis of an avulsed tooth after replantation are extra oral dry time and the storage medium in which the tooth is placed before treatment is rendered. However, the ability of a storage/transport medium to support cell viability can be more important than the extra oral time to prevent ankylosis and replacement resorption. Aim: Purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of efficacy of a new storage medium, oral rehydration solution (ORS) with coconut water, and propolis in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells by using a collagenase-dispase assay. Materials and Methods: 40 teeth were selected with intact crown which were advised for Orthodontic extraction having healthy PDL. Teeth were then randomly divided into three experimental storage solution groups. Other 10 were divided into positive and negative control groups (5 each). Statistical Analysis and Result: The results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance and multiple range by using post hoc tests. The results of the prevailing study indicated that coconut water group demonstrated a significantly higher number of viable PDL cells than propolis 50%, and ORS. There was no significant difference between coconut water and propolis 50% groups. PMID:23349581

  18. Polyethylene glycol plus an oral sulfate solution as a bowel cleansing regimen for colon capsule endoscopy: a prospective, single-arm study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Ravit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: As with colonoscopy, adequate bowel cleansing is essential prior to colon capsule endoscopy (CCE). Because CCE requires that the capsule traverse the entire gastrointestinal tract during the examination, laxative ‘boosters’ are used. The objective of this prospective, single-center, single-arm study was to evaluate the safety of a bowel preparation consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus an oral sulfate solution. Methods: Subjects were healthy volunteers aged 50–75 years old with normal baseline serum chemistry. The bowel preparation consisted of 4 Senna tablets, 4 liters of PEG (split dose), 10 mg metoclopramide, 2 oral sulfate solution boosters (6 oz. and 3 oz.), and 10 mg bisacodyl. Serum chemistry was performed at baseline, following PEG intake, 24 hours after bisacodyl administration, and at 7 days post procedure (in subjects with abnormal 24 hour results). The primary endpoints were the percentage of subjects with a clinically significant change in serum chemistry at the last test and the adverse event (AE) rate. Results: A total of 25 subjects were enrolled. The serum chemistry was normal in all subjects at the final evaluation. One subject showed a slight elevation in creatinine (1.08 mg/dl 7 days post procedure from 0.84 mg/dl at baseline), deemed not clinically significant. Another subject had a transient elevation in serum creatinine (from 1.01 mg/dl at baseline to 1.45 mg/dl at 24 hours after the bowel preparation); values returned to near baseline at 7 days post procedure (1.06 mg/dl). There were no serious AEs, three moderate AEs related to the bowel preparation (nausea, headache, elevated creatinine) and two mild unrelated AEs (chills, abdominal cramping). Conclusions: A bowel cleansing regimen of PEG plus an oral sulfate solution can be used in healthy volunteers. These data provide support for the continued study of this regimen in future CCE clinical trials and in medical practice. PMID:26327914

  19. Cholinesterase activity in the tissues of bivalves Noah's ark shell (Arca noae) and warty venus (Venus verrucosa): characterisation and in vitro sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Perić, Lorena; Ribarić, Luka; Nerlović, Vedrana

    2013-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was investigated in gills and adductor muscle of two bivalve species: Arca noae and Venus verrucosa. The properties of ChEs were investigated using acetylcholine iodide (ASCh), butyrylcholine iodide (BSCh) and propionylcholine iodide (PrSCh) as substrates and eserine, BW254c51 and iso-OMPA as specific inhibitors. The highest level of ChE activity in crude tissue extracts was detected with PrSCh followed by ASCh, while values obtained with BSCh were apparently low, except in A. noae adductor muscle. The enzyme activity in A. noae gills and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle was significantly inhibited by BW254c51, but not with iso-OMPA. ChE activity in adductor muscle of A. noae was significantly reduced by both diagnostic inhibitors. The effect of organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon on ChE activity was investigated in vitro in both species as well as in the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The highest sensitivity of ChE to trichlorfon was observed in A. noae gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.6×10(-7)M and 1.1×10(-7)M, respectively), followed by M. galloprovincialis gills (IC50 1.0×10(-6)M) and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.7×10(-5)M and 0.9×10(-5)M, respectively). The results of this study suggest the potential of ChE activity measurement in the tissues of A. noae as effective biomarker of OP exposure in marine environment. PMID:23701992

  20. Efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide and low renal solute feed in Neonatal Central Diabetes Insipidus with transition to Oral Desmopressin in early infancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of central diabetes insipidus (DI) with desmopressin in the neonatal period is challenging because of the significant risk of hyponatremia with this agent. The fixed anti-diuresis action of desmopressin and the obligate high fluid intake with milk feeds lead to considerable risk of water intoxication and hyponatremia. To reduce this risk, thiazide diuretics, part of the treatment of nephrogenic DI, were used in conjunction with low renal solute feed and were effective in a single case series of neonatal central DI. Aim We evaluated the efficacy of early treatment of neonatal central DI with hydrochlorothiazide with low solute feed and investigated the clinical indicators for transition to desmopressin during infancy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted at Princess Margaret Hospital, Perth of neonates diagnosed with central DI and treated with hydrochlorothiazide, between 2007 and 2013. Four newborns were identified. Mean sNa and mean change in sNa with desmopressin and hydrochlorothiazide treatment were recorded along with episodes of hyponatremia and hypernatremia. Length and weight trajectories during the first 12 months were assessed. Results The mean change in sNa per day with hydrochlorothiazide and low renal solute feed was 2.5 - 3 mmol/L; on desmopressin treatment, the mean change in sNa was 6.8-7.9 mmol/L. There was one episode of symptomatic hyponatremia with intranasal desmopressin with no episodes of hyponatremia or hypernatremia during treatment with hydrochlorothiazide or following transition to oral desmopressin. Transition to oral desmopressin between 3 to 12 months of age was associated with good control of DI. Following introduction of solids, sNa remained stable but weight gain was slow. This improved following transition to desmopressin in one infant. Conclusions Hydrochlorothiazide with low renal solute feed is a safe and effective treatment option in neonatal central DI. However, transition to

  1. Determination of trace vitamin C by ion-pair HPLC with UV detection in calcium gluconate and vitamin C compound oral solution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liandong; Li, Li; Luo, Zhaoliang; Yang, Jianxue; Liu, Wei

    2012-02-01

    A sensitive and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection was developed for the determination of vitamin C, using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as an ion-pair reagent in a compound oral solution containing 100 mg/mL calcium gluconate and 1.25 mg/mL vitamin C. The aqueous phase contained 0.005 mol/L tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and the mobile phase consisted of a mixture of the aqueous phase-methanol (80:20, v/v, pH 6.0 adjusted by phosphoric acid). The linearity, sensitivity and specificity, accuracy, and stability of the procedure were evaluated. The calibration curves for vitamin C were linear in the range of 10.0-100.0 µg/mL. The percentage coefficient of variation of the quantitative analysis of the vitamin C in the products analysis was within 5%. The method was successfully applied to determine the stability of vitamin C in the compound oral solution. It was found that the vitamin C peak was symmetrical and the column efficiency was high. The method is simple and suitable for stability testing of a low concentration of vitamin C preparation. PMID:22298758

  2. Stability and compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride in i.v. solutions and oral liquids and during simulated Y-site injection with selected drugs.

    PubMed

    Mayron, D; Gennaro, A R

    1996-02-01

    The stability and compatibility of granisetron hydrochloride in common i.v. fluids and oral liquids and during simulated Y-site injection with selected drugs were studied. One milliliter of solution containing granisetron 1 mg (as the hydrochloride salt) was added to 50 mL of 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection, or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and to 5 mL of 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or bacteriostatic water for injection in polypropylene syringes and stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 hours. One milliliter of the granisetron hydrochloride injection was added to 50 mL of apple juice, orange juice, cola, or an electrolyte replacement solution and stored for 60 minutes at room temperature. Twenty-nine drugs were mixed with the granisetron hydrochloride injection in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in volumes simulating Y-site injection and stored at room temperature. Finally, dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection 0.5 mL and 1 mL of the granisetron hydrochloride injection were added to 50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in a PVC bag and stored for 60 minutes. Drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and color, clarity, and pH were evaluated. Granisetron hydrochloride was stable in and compatible with all the i.v. solutions and oral liquids. Neither granisetron nor any of the drugs it was tested with during simulated Y-site injection showed any physical changes except for a slight Tyndall effect in the granisetron hydrochloride-doxorubicin hydrochloride combination; all the drugs retained at least 96% of initial concentrations. Granisetron and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were stable and compatible in the admixture. Granisetron 1 mg (as the hydrochloride salt) was stable for 24 hours in four i.v. infusion fluids in PVC bags and in 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium

  3. Reduction in incidence of invasive fungal infection in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation using combined diagnostic-driven approach and itraconazole oral solution.

    PubMed

    Tzadok, Roie; Shapira, Michael Y; Moses, Allon E; Or, Reuven; Block, Colin; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We evaluated, in our allogeneic stem cell transplant patients, the effect on the incidence of invasive fungal infection during neutropenia of a strategy combining a diagnostic-driven approach with chemoprophylaxis during higher risk periods of graft vs. host disease and prolonged neutropenia, using itraconazole oral solution with parenteral voriconazole bridging. One hundred and thirty patients admitted for allogeneic stem cell transplantation within two predefined 20 month periods were included in the study. Data for all patients were collected prospectively. Implementation of the protocol resulted in the administration of more prophylactic antifungals to more patients. Following implementation, there was a non-significant decrease in the overall number of invasive fungal infections (IFI) [11 of 65 patients (17.2%) vs. 4 of 65 patients (6.2%, P = 0.051)], as well as in the occurrence of invasive mould infections [8 of 65 patients (12.5%) vs. 2 of 65 patients (3.1%, P = 0.054)]. Survival rates at three and 6 months were not significantly affected. A combined diagnostic-driven approach and antifungal prophylaxis with oral itraconazole and an intravenous voriconazole bridging protocol, was associated with a reduced, albeit non-statistically significant, number of IFI in our medical centre. PMID:26429354

  4. Comparison of the effect of a single oral L-thyroxine dose (150 micrograms) in tablet and in solution on serum thyroxine and TSH concentrations.

    PubMed

    Carpi, A; De Gaudio, C; Cirigliano, G; Toni, M G

    1993-04-01

    150 micrograms of L-thyroxine were administered to each of 14 euthyroid goitrous patients orally between 7:30 and 8:30 a.m. after fasting overnight. The L-T4 dose given was one and half tablets of the drug "Eutirox" (L-T4 tablet of 100 micrograms distributed by Bracco, Milan, Italy) or one and half ml of the solution "Tiroxen" (solution containing 100 micrograms/ml of L-T4 distributed by Laboratori Baldacci, Pisa, Italy). Two studies (one with tablet and one with solution) were performed on each patient. The tablet or the liquid form of L-T4 were administered in random order. In each study a blood sample for serum hormone determination was drawn immediately before L-T4 administration, then 30 minutes later and every hour up to the fifth hour after. The second study was performed in similar fashion later. The mean serum TT4 concentration value at any time was very similar in the two studies, thus showing the same time course after the administration of solution and the tablet formulation. The mean basal TT4 value (9.07 +/- 0.56 and 8.90 +/- 0.73 micrograms/dl respectively) increased significantly at the first and second hours. The highest value was reached at the second and at the third hour after the solution (11.15 +/- 0.58 micrograms/dl) and the tablet (11.81 +/- 0.78 micrograms/dl) respectively. Subsequently, the mean TT4 values remained significantly higher than basally over the entire 5 hours. The FT4 mean serum concentration at all times were very similar in the two studies and showed the same time course.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508742

  5. Oral bioavailability in sheep of albendazole from a suspension and from a solution containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Evrard, B; Chiap, P; DeTullio, P; Ghalmi, F; Piel, G; Van Hees, T; Crommen, J; Losson, B; Delattre, L

    2002-12-13

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthe parasites. ABZ has a very poor aqueous solubility. This study shows that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) is able to form inclusion complexes with ABZ and that is able to increase its aqueous solubility. A synergistic effect exists between HP-beta-CD and citric acid. The combination of HP-beta-CD (200 mM) and citric acid (50 mM) allows dissolution of more than 1.5 mg of ABZ per ml. The aim of this study is the in vivo evaluation in sheep of a solution of the inclusion complex of ABZ with HP-beta-CD in comparison with a suspension of the same drug. A significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative bioavailability is obtained with the solution containing the ABZ-HP-beta-CD complex as measured by ABZSO plasma levels. The area under the curve (AUC(0--> proportional, variant )) of the solution is 37% higher than that obtained with the suspension. Likewise the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) is twice that of the solution while the time to reach C(max) (T(max)) is reduced. PMID:12480310

  6. Oral pharmacological treatments for parasitic diseases of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. II. Gyrodactylus sp.

    PubMed

    Tojo, J L; Santamarina, M T

    1998-07-30

    A total of 24 drugs were evaluated as regards their efficacy for oral treatment of gyrodactylosis in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In preliminary trials, all drugs were supplied to infected fish at 40 g per kg of feed for 10 d. Twenty-two of the drugs tested (aminosidine, amprolium, benznidazole, bithionol, chloroquine, diethylcarbamazine, flubendazole, levamisole, mebendazole, metronidazole, niclosamide, nitroxynil, oxibendazole, parbendazole, piperazine, praziquantel, ronidazole, secnidazole, tetramisole, thiophanate, toltrazuril and trichlorfon) were ineffective. Triclabendazole and nitroscanate completely eliminated the infection. Triclabendazole was effective only at the screening dosage (40 g per kg of feed for 10 d), while nitroscanate was effective at dosages as low as 0.6 g per kg of feed for 1 d. PMID:9745715

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ros-Llor, Irene; Lopez-Jornet, Pia

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential and cell death caused by the frequent use of mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and essential oils in ethanolic solution, compared to a placebo mouthwash. Study design: This double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial included 80 Caucasian patients. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group I used a mouthrinse, Triclosan; Group II used physiological saline; Group III used chlorhexidine; Group IV a mouthrinse with essential oils in ethanolic solution. All subjects used the mouthrinses for two weeks (15 ml, twice a day, rinsing for 30 s). Two cell samples per subject were collected, before and after mouthrinse use (on day 0 and day 15). Samples were processed as follows: cell collection from cheeks with a cytobrush; cell centrifuge; slide preparation, fixation and staining; and fluorescent microscope analysis. 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, particularly the presence of micronuclei by means of cytome assay. Results: No significant differences between study times (before and after use of mouthwash) were identified for any of the variables studied (p>0.05). Differences between mouthrinse groups were also compared but no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study did not observe any genotoxic effect resulting from mouthrinse use. - Highlights: • Mouthrinses are used widely, mainly for their capacity to control dental plaque. • No genotoxic effects from the mouthrinses triclosan, chlorhexidine essential oils solution. • The buccal cytome assay is a sensitive, non-invasive, and low cost technique.

  8. Controlled test evaluation of the benzimidazole anthelmintic VET 220-S alone or with concomitant trichlorfon treatment against naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.

    PubMed

    Bello, T R

    1991-04-01

    A controlled test was done in 30 naturally infected ponies to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of the dienbendazole analog VET 220-S given alone or with trichlorfon (TCF) by nasogastric intubation. Six ponies were nontreated; 6 were given VET 220-S (5.0 mg/kg); 6 were given TCF (40 mg/kg); 6 were given VET 220-S (2.5 mg/kg) and TCF (40 mg/kg); and 6 were given VET 220-S (5.0 mg/kg) and TCF (40 mg/kg). All ponies were euthanatized and necropsied 7 or 8 days after treatment. Draschia megastoma, Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and small strongyles were removed efficaciously by all doses of VET 220-S. Habronema muscae and microfilariae of Onchocerca cervicalis were not removed by VET 220-S or TCF. Gasterophilus intestinalis was 97.9% removed by TCF. Pregnant mares in all groups were not adversely affected by treatment, except for 1 mare that had diarrhea after TCF treatment. Parasite eggs per gram and larval culture data agreed with necropsy data. PMID:2053725

  9. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000

  10. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4- dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J.; Mayer, F.L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 degree C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4- nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  11. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J. . National Fisheries Research Center); Mayer, F.L. Jr. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  12. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and pharynx (the back of the throat). Oral cancer accounts for roughly two percent of all cancers ...

  13. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2 mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R2) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines.

  14. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  15. Ocoxin® oral solution slows down tumor growth in an experimental model of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Joana; Mena, Jorge; Hernandez-Unzueta, Iera; Benedicto, Aitor; Sanz, Eduardo; Arteta, Beatriz; Olaso, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Liver metastatic disease is the main cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. During metastatic spread of the disease an imbalance in the oxidative stress and inflammation plays a crucial role in tumor progression. In order to improve the efficacy of current therapies, new complementary therapeutic approaches are being analyzed including biologically active compounds with low side effects. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Ocoxin® oral solution (OOS) prompt us to analyze its effect on the metastatic development of CRC to the liver. First, in vitro effect of OOS in tumor cell viability and migration was analyzed. Second, in vivo effect of different dosage patterns and concentrations in the development of hepatic metastasis was analyzed by intra-splenic inoculation of C26 colon carcinoma cells in Balb/c mice. Third, the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin, caspase-3 and Ki-67 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry, then gene expression levels of inflammatory factors were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. According to our results, OOS reduced tumor cell viability and migration in vitro. Moreover, in vivo daily administration of OOS from the 7th day after tumor cell inoculation decreased the total area and size of metastatic foci in the liver. Furthermore, cell proliferation and fibroblast recruitment was decreased in tumor foci while a higher number of apoptotic cells were observed. Finally, RNA levels for the inflammatory mediators COX-2, IFNγ, IL1β, IL6 and TNFα were reduced in total liver. In conclusion, OOS reduced the metastatic development of colorectal cancer to the liver by increasing apoptosis, and decreasing tumor cell proliferation and fibroblast recruitment in the tumor foci, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators in total liver. These results point out OOS as a potential supplement to be applied as complementary therapy for the treatment of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer. PMID:26676882

  16. Safety and efficacy of aspartame-based liquid versus sucrose-based liquids used for dilution in oral sodium phosphate solutions for colonoscopy preparations.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Sherman M; Balart, J Carter; Sideridis, Kostas; Salek, Jefrey; Sridhar, Subbaramiah; Thompson, William O

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based liquids used as diluents. The primary end point was the quality of the colonoscopy preparation and secondary end points were serum electrolytes before and after preparations. No significant difference in colonoscopy preparation quality was seen between the two OSPS diluent groups (Mantel-Haenzel chi (2) = 0.795, P = 0.484). There were no significant differences in mean electrolyte shifts of sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), or BUN/Cr ratios between the two groups. There was a statistically significant increase in serum phosphorous in the aspartame-based group compared to the sucrose-based diluent group (P = 0.021). In conclusion, there was no clinically detectable difference in colonoscopy preparation quality between the two OSPS diluent groups. This study suggests that passive fluid transport by aquaporins may well be the major mediator of fluid shifts in the study subjects. This result suggests the potential importance of aquaporins and minimizes the importance of sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in fluid and electrolyte transport in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aspartame or its constituent amino acids may enhance phosphate absorption across the human small intestine. PMID:17406813

  17. An observational study using blood gas analysis to assess neonatal calf diarrhea and subsequent recovery with a European Commission-compliant oral electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Ríona G; Kennedy, Aideen; Krump, Lea; Sayers, Gearóid P; Kennedy, Emer

    2016-06-01

    An observational study was conducted on dairy calves (51 healthy, 31 with neonatal diarrhea) during outbreaks of diarrhea on 4 dairy farms. Clinical assessment scores (CAS) were assigned to each healthy and diarrheic calf [from 0 (healthy) to 4 (marked illness)]. Blood gas analysis [pH, base excess (BE), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), glucose, total hemoglobin, standard HCO3(-), strong ion difference (SID), and anion gap (AG)] was completed for each calf. Repeated measurements were taken in healthy animals, and pre- and postintervention measurements were taken for diarrheic calves. The mean CAS of diarrheic calves was 1.7, with 51, 30, 17, and 2% of calves scoring 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The mean value for blood pH, BE, AG, and SID was 7.26, -4.93mM, 16.3mM, and 38.59mM, respectively. Calves were administered an oral rehydration and buffering solution (ORBS; Vitalife for Calves, Epsilion Ltd., Cork, Ireland) and reassessed. The mean CAS decreased to 0.38 (65% of calves scored 0 and 35% scored 1) at 6 to 18h posttreatment and to 0.03 (98% of calves scored 0 and 2% scored 1) within 24 to 48h. Significant increases in mean value for pH, BE, HCO3(-), Na(+), and SID, and significant decreases in AG, K(+), Ca(2+), and total hemoglobin were recorded posttreatment. The correlation estimates indicated that pH, HCO3(-), and BE were strongly correlated with CAS, with values exceeding 0.60 in all cases. Administration of an ORBS with a high SID and bicarbonate buffer demonstrated rapid recovery from a diarrheic episode in dairy calves. PMID:27060812

  18. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R(2)) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines. PMID:26241829

  19. Change of plasma volume, osmolality, and acid-base status in healthy calves after feeding of milk and water- and milk-based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, L; Schmidt, B; Rauwolf, U; Wenge, J; Coenen, M

    2012-10-01

    Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are a simple and cheap method to treat diarrheal dehydration and acidosis. To maintain the energy supply of diarrheic calves, it is necessary to continue milk feeding. Suckling of milk or milk-based or hypertonic water-based ORS produces a slower rate of abomasal emptying than suckling isotonic water-based ORS. The faster abomasal passage of isotonic water-based ORS implies that efficacious electrolytes reach the gut more quickly, possibly providing a faster rate of rehydration. The aim of the study was to verify when and to what extent milk and water- and milk-based ORS increase plasma volume and affect plasma osmolality and acid-base status in healthy suckling calves. Eleven calves were fed with milk and with an ORS that was prepared in water or milk. Moreover, for one experiment, the calves remained fasting without suckling milk or ORS. During the experimental phase, the calves were deprived of water, hay, and concentrates. Blood samples were taken before and at various time points after feeding. Total plasma protein, osmolality, [Na(+)], [K(+)], [Cl(-)], and albumin were determined. In 6 of 11 experiments, blood gas analysis was also performed. The calculated change in plasma volume after feeding was assessed from the plasma protein concentration before feeding (P(t=0)) and the plasma protein concentration after feeding (P(t=x)): (P(t=0)- P(t=x)) × 100/P(t=x). Water- and milk-based ORS produced equal rates of plasma expansion in healthy calves. After milk feeding, the change in plasma volume was decelerated. Because of water influx, we did not observe a significant effect of feeding regimen on plasma osmolality. Acid-base status was little affected by feeding regimen. Feeding of milk-based ORS increased plasma strong ion difference, an alkaline response, which could potentially also reduce acidosis in calves suffering from diarrhea. PMID:22863100

  20. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  1. [Renal excretion of dimethylphosphate and its thio-derivatives following application of dimethoate, bromophos, naled or trichlorfon to rats].

    PubMed

    Riemer, F; Dahlenburg, R; Grisk, A

    1985-01-01

    Dimethoate, bromophos, naled or trichlorophon were applied i.p. or p.o. to rats in 3 doses each differing by the factor 10. In the urine of 24 h gas chromatographic determination of dimethylphosphate (DM), O.O-dimethylthiophosphate (TP), and/or O.O-dimethyldithiophosphate (DT) were carried out. After i.p. application of dimethoate the excretion rate of DT calculated from the dates found with the lowest dosage differed significantly from those found with the two other doses (t-test; p = 0.01). The excretion rates of DM and TP, in the same way, or those of DM, TP, and DT after oral intake of dimethoate did not show any significant differences. The excretion rates of TP after bromophos and of DM after naled or trichlorophon did not differ significantly after the same way of application. The findings make evident that under the given test conditions the excretion rate of DM, TP, or DT is practically independent on the dose. PMID:4000249

  2. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  3. A randomized trial of amorolfine 5% solution nail lacquer combined with oral terbinafine compared with terbinafine alone in the treatment of dermatophytic toenail onychomycoses affecting the matrix region.

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Feuilhade, M; Combernale, P; Datry, A; Goettmann, S; Pietrini, P; Viguie, C; Badillet, G; Larnier, C; Czernielewski, J

    2000-06-01

    In view of recent advances in the development of antifungal agents, this study examined the possible synergy of two new antifungal agents, terbinafine and amorolfine. The study compared two different courses of terbinafine treatment combined with amorolfine 5% solution nail lacquer. Terbinafine was given orally for 6 (AT6 group) or 12 weeks (AT12 group) and amorolfine nail lacquer applied weekly for 15 months. A control group received terbinafine alone for 12 weeks. This was a randomized, prospective, open study of severe dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis with matrix region involvement. Nail samples were taken before the start of the study, at inclusion and at the visits at 6 weeks, 3, 9, 15 and 18 months. To assess the value of such combined therapy we chose an early parameter as the principal outcome variable, which was the result of mycological examination, including direct microscopy and culture, at 3 months (allowing a margin of 15 days). The secondary parameters of success were the mycological results at the later visits, clinical evaluation and a combined mycological-clinical response. Safety and tolerance were also assessed. Adverse events were recorded and liver function tests were performed monthly during the terbinafine treatment. Of the 147 patients included in the trial, 121 attended the 3-month visit, within a time limit of 15 days of 3 months after the beginning of treatment: 40 in the AT6 group, 40 in the AT12 group and 41 in the control group. In all, 32 of 121 patients (26. 4%) had negative mycological results on direct microscopy and culture: 14 of 40 (35.0%) in the AT6 group, 11 of 40 (27.5%) in the AT12 group and seven of 41 (17.1%) in the control group. The cure rate for the global (mycological and clinical cure) response measured at 18 months in 145 patients was 44.0% (22 patients) in the AT6 group, 72.3% (34 patients) in the AT12 group and 37.5% (18 patients) in the terbinafine group. These results suggest that the combination of amorolfine

  4. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  5. Oral heparins.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Linda M

    2002-01-01

    The antithrombotic drug heparin is administered parenterally and believed not effective orally. Oral heparin would be most suitable for long term administration, often required for the prevention of thrombosis. Following parenteral administration, heparin is taken up by endothelial cells. Our laboratory has shown that heparin is similarly taken up by endothelium following oral administration, despite low plasma heparin concentrations. In a twenty-four hour period, endothelial heparin concentrations are greatest within 15 minutes of oral dosing although plasma levels never exceed one percent of dose. Endothelial uptake accounts for a considerable amount of absorption if the total body endothelium is considered. In support of oral heparin absorption, we demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in thrombosis incidence in a rat jugular vein model following single oral doses of unfractionated heparins (bovine and porcine) or low molecular weight heparins (reviparin, logiparin and ardeparin). Low molecular weight heparins were effective at lower doses than unfractionated heparins where a fifty percent reduction in thrombosis was observed with 0.025 mg/kg reviparin, 0.1 mg/kg logiparin, versus 7.5 mg/kg bovine unfractionated heparin. These studies support the work of others demonstrating measurable systemic changes following oral heparin administration and suggest that heparin may be effective when administered by the oral route. It also indicates that the presence of heparin in plasma likely reflects a much greater amount associated with endothelium. PMID:11934211

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  7. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  8. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  9. Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Charruf, Laurie Frey

    1984-01-01

    Oral tests for speaking skills evaluate two major skills: linguistic competence, including accuracy of pronunciation, vocabulary, and structure, and communication ease. Four factors affect students' oral performance: verbal intelligence, short-term auditory and visual memory, sound-symbol association skill, and grammatical analysis. Personality…

  10. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  11. A win-win solution in oral delivery of lipophilic drugs: supersaturation via amorphous solid dispersions increases apparent solubility without sacrifice of intestinal membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan M; Beig, Avital; Carr, Robert A; Spence, Julie K; Dahan, Arik

    2012-07-01

    Recently, we have revealed a trade-off between solubility increase and permeability decrease when solubility-enabling oral formulations are employed. We have shown this trade-off phenomenon to be ubiquitous, and to exist whenever the aqueous solubility is increased via solubilizing excipients, regardless if the mechanism involves decreased free fraction (cyclodextrins complexation, surfactant micellization) or simple cosolvent solubilization. Discovering a way to increase drug solubility without concomitant decreased permeability represents a major advancement in oral delivery of lipophilic drugs and is the goal of this work. For this purpose, we sought to elucidate the solubility-permeability interplay when increased apparent solubility is obtained via supersaturation from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation. A spray-dried ASD of the lipophilic drug progesterone was prepared in the hydrophilic polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS), which enabled supersaturation up to 4× the crystalline drug's aqueous solubility (8 μg/mL). The apparent permeability of progesterone from the ASD in HPMC-AS was then measured as a function of increasing apparent solubility (supersaturation) in the PAMPA and rat intestinal perfusion models. In contrast to previous cases in which apparent solubility increases via cyclodextrins, surfactants, and cosolvents resulted in decreased apparent permeability, supersaturation via ASD resulted in no decrease in apparent permeability with increasing apparent solubility. As a result, overall flux increased markedly with increasing apparent solubility via ASD as compared to the other formulation approaches. This work demonstrates that supersaturation via ASDs has a subtle yet powerful advantage over other solubility-enabling formulation approaches. That is, increased apparent solubility may be achieved without the expense of apparent intestinal membrane permeability. Thus, supersaturation via ASDs presents a

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  13. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is advanced Other symptoms may include: Chewing problems Mouth sores that may bleed Pain with swallowing Speech difficulties ... Your doctor or dentist will examine your mouth area. The exam may ... bleeding Tests used to confirm oral cancer include: Gum biopsy ...

  14. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  15. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  16. Methylprednisolone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  17. Dexamethasone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  18. Hydrocortisone Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  19. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  20. pH-Responsive poly(itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogels with reduced ionic strength loading solutions offer improved oral delivery potential for high isoelectric point-exhibiting therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Koetting, Michael C; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2014-08-25

    pH-Responsive hydrogels comprised of itaconic acid copolymerized with N-vinylpyrrolidone (P(IA-co-NVP)) were synthesized and tested as carriers for the oral delivery of high isoelectric point (pI) exhibiting therapeutic proteins. Swelling studies show that P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogels exhibit significantly greater and faster pH-responsive swelling than previously studied methacrylic acid-based hydrogels, achieving up to 68% greater equilibrium swelling and 10.4 times greater swelling in time-limited experiments. Using salmon calcitonin as a model high pI protein therapeutic, we show that P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogels exhibit significantly greater delivery potential than methacrylic acid-based hydrogels. Additionally, we show that utilizing a lower ionic strength solution during drug loading significantly improves drug delivery potential for high pI therapeutics. By using a 1.5mM PBS buffer rather than the standard 150 mM PBS buffer during loading, up to 83 times as much calcitonin can be delivered in neutral conditions, with up to a 9.6-fold improvement in percent release. Using P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogel microparticles and a low ionic strength loading solution, up to 48 μg calcitonin/mg hydrogel can be delivered in small intestinal conditions. Based on expected absorption in the small intestine, this is sufficient delivery potential for achieving therapeutic dosage via a single, regularly-sized pill taken daily. PMID:24853463

  1. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  3. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  4. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  5. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  6. Stability of refrigerated miglustat after preparation in InOrpha® flavored suspending excipient for compounding of oral solutions and suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Sofyen; Ambühl, Michael; Stichler, Jürgen; Bandilla, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Miglustat (Zavesca®) is an oral treatment for type 1 Gaucher disease and Niemann–Pick disease type C. Patients with Niemann–Pick disease type C often have difficulties swallowing, and miglustat has an unpleasant taste. The stability of miglustat at 2°C–8°C prepared in InOrpha® suspending vehicle, a liquid taste-masking agent, was assessed. Methods The contents of Zavesca® 100 mg capsules (a powder blend comprising miglustat and several excipients) were transferred into InOrpha®. Although miglustat was soluble in InOrpha® at all concentrations tested, some of the excipients were not. An InOrpha® suspension containing 20 mg/mL miglustat was investigated initially. Subsequently, a pH-adjusted suspension of 20 mg/mL, and non-adjusted 10 and 5 mg/mL suspensions were evaluated. All suspensions were stored under refrigerated conditions. Physicochemical and microbiological challenge testing was performed at 0 hours and after 14 and 28 days. Degradation was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, appearance was assessed visually, and pH was recorded. Suspensions were inoculated with seven species of bacteria, yeast, and mold, and growth evaluated using membrane filtration. Results Miglustat 20 mg/mL suspension changed from yellow (0 hours) to brown (days 14 and 28); pH remained stable at 7.4–7.6. Pure InOrpha® (pH 4.6) remained yellow throughout the study. Pure InOrpha® adjusted to pH 7.5 displayed a brownish discoloration after 9 days. Miglustat 5 and 20 mg/mL suspensions, adjusted to pH 6.5 and 4.4, respectively, remained yellow at days 14 and 28. Miglustat 10 mg/mL suspension (pH 7.3) changed from yellow to brown on day 9. No degradates were detected for any of the concentrations tested. There was no proliferation of microorganisms over the study period; in all cases the level of contamination was clearly reduced. Conclusion InOrpha® suspensions containing miglustat 5 mg/mL (without pH adjustment) and 20 mg/mL (with pH adjusted

  7. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  8. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  9. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Children.

    PubMed

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; Miclăuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; Băbţan, Anida Maria; Mesaros, Anca; Crişan, Bogdan; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-02-01

    Oral human papillomavirus infection is rare in children, but the presence of a villous lesion with slow but continuous growth concerns parents, who need information and therapeutic solutions from the physician. All these aspects are discussed based on a case report of a 9-year-old child with an oral human papillomavirus infection. PMID:26588443

  10. Prophylactic Effects of Garlic Oil and Onion Oil Fractions as Compared to Vitamin E on Rats Orally Fed with Lead Acetate Solution.

    PubMed

    Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T; Jose, Regi

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO. PMID:27382196

  11. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose-inhalers ( inhaled steroids ), oral forms (pills or syrups) , injections (shots) and intravenous (IV) solutions. Healthcare providers ... slowly decreased. Inhaled steroids and steroid pills and syrups are often prescribed for people with a chronic ...

  12. Activity of organophosphorus insecticides in bacterial tests for mutagenicity and DNA repair--direct alkylation versus metabolic activation and breakdown. II. O,O-dimethyl-O-(1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl)-phosphate and two O-ether derivatives of trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Braun, R; Schöneich, J; Weissflog, L; Dedek, W

    1983-03-01

    The following organophosphates were tested for their ability to induce DNA damage in a rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis strains PG713 (rec- hcr-) and PG273 (wild-type) and point mutations in the his- strain TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium: O,O-dimethyl-O-(1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl)-phosphate (NALED); trichlorfon-O-methyl ether (TCP-O-ME), O,O-dimethyl-(1-methoxy-2,2,2-trichlorethyl)-phosphonate; trichlorfon-O-methyl ether vinyl derivative (TCP-O-MEVD), O,O-dimethyl-(1-methoxy-2,2-dichlorovinyl)-phosphonate. All compounds were negative in the repair test but induced base pair substitutions in S. typhimurium. The mutagenicity of NALED is due to the direct alkylating ability of the parental molecule and to mutagenic metabolites generated by enzymatic splitting of the side chain. Glutathion-dependent enzymes in the S9-mix eliminate the mutagenic activity of NALED completely. Mutation induction by TCP-O-ME and TCP-O-MEVD is predominantly caused by the reactive O-methyl ether configuration of the side chain and is resistant to metabolic inactivation by NADPH- or glutathion-dependent enzymatic pathways in the S9-mix of mice. PMID:6337735

  13. Oral mucositis

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may have symptoms such as: Mouth pain. Mouth sores. Infection. Bleeding, if you are getting chemotherapy. Radiation ... air dry between brushings. If toothpaste makes your mouth sore, brush with a solution of 1 teaspoon of ...

  14. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  15. Hansen's Oral Life Histories and Healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Lee

    2013-08-01

    The individual oral statement is human story based on experience. The personal experience forms unconsciousness which appears in a form of oral statement by ego that doesn't want to lose existence. Thus, the process which exposes a tormented hearts is the objectification of oneself. Through this step, oral person attains a healing. If this sort of individual oral is accrued, the undeserved personal affairs could be a history. In case of Hansen's disease patient, She could escape from negative understanding about herself and the world. Furthermore, She kept formating her values about meaningful life and future oriented value. Also, She wants to keep a record of her life. She comes to know that what she denied is actually what she should surmount over oral statement. As a result, She could attains a healing for oneself through oral statement. The oral statement made her look into she's problems. Therefore, oral statement is a self-realization. Through this, person could know what the problem is and solution. This research is about only one person, so there is need for more cases and studies. If this sort of individual oral statement is accrued, there could be a curative narration. This can suggest an curative alternative when we suffer from problem of life. The merit of this research is rendering this possibility. PMID:24005645

  16. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  17. Oral Health in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin; Haber, Judith; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Bella, Abigail; Vasilyeva, Anna; Lange Kessler, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is crucial to overall health. Because of normal physiologic changes, pregnancy is a time of particular vulnerability in terms of oral health. Pregnant women and their providers need more knowledge about the many changes that occur in the oral cavity during pregnancy. In this article we describe the importance of the recognition, prevention, and treatment of oral health problems in pregnant women. We offer educational strategies that integrate interprofessional oral health competencies. PMID:27281467

  18. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  19. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  20. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Famous People Famous historical Arts & Entertainment Sports figures ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce suffering ...

  1. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  2. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  3. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  4. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  5. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  7. Oral rehydration therapy.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, H P

    1996-08-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS), the best treatment of dehydration due to acute diarrhea, is the most important medical advance of this century since it is key to reducing infant and child morbidity and mortality. Pathogens responsible for acute diarrhea include those which produce enterotoxin at the intestinal mucosal surface, inducing secretion but are not invasive (e.g., Vibrio cholerae); those which invade and disrupt the mucosal lining (e.g., shigella species); and rotavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF ORS is considered a universal ORS. Much research has been done on the ideal composition of an ORS. An ORS must have sufficient sodium to replace losses on a volume to volume basis, a glucose concentration that matches that of sodium to ensure its delivery to the ileum, sufficient amounts of potassium and base (e.g., sodium bicarbonate or trisodium citrate dihydrate) to correct acidosis and to enhance sodium absorption, and sufficient amounts of liquid. The risk of hypernatremia with use of the WHO/UNICEF ORS is a concern since infants and young children have an immature renal concentrating capacity, increased insensible water losses, and an impaired natriuretic response. Neonates and young infants may be prone to relatively slow correction of acidosis. It appears that the potassium content (20 mmol/l) of WHO-ORS should be higher to promote a net positive potassium retention. Too much glucose in the ORS will induce reverse osmosis of water into the gut, effectively making the ORS a dehydrating solution rather than a hydrating solution. Some carbohydrates other than glucose have proven effective glucose substitutes (e.g., sucrose, rice starch and powder, other cereals). Cereals have higher acceptability levels in developing countries. Research is investigating the nutritional benefits of supplementing ORS with micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, folic acid, and zinc). ORS use with early refeeding has a beneficial effect on nutritional status after an

  8. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  9. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  10. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. PMID:25871419

  11. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  12. Pediatric drugs--a review of commercially available oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Strickley, Robert G; Iwata, Quynh; Wu, Sylvia; Dahl, Terrence C

    2008-05-01

    Pediatric oral formulations can be quite scientifically challenging to develop and the prerequisites for both a measurable dosage form to administer based upon bodyweight, and also taste-masking are two of the challenges unique for pediatric oral formulations. The physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the active drug substance such as solubility, chemical stability, and taste along with the intended dose can determine which formulations are feasible to develop. Oral pediatric formulations are available in 17 different varieties and can be either a ready-to-use formulation such as a solution, syrup, suspension, tablet, scored tablet, chewable tablet, orally disintegrating tablet, or thin strip, or can also be a formulation that requires manipulation such as a powder for constitution to a suspension, tablet for constitution to a suspension, powder for constitution to a solution, drops for reconstitution to a suspension, concentrated solution for dilution, effervescent tablet, bulk oral granules, bulk oral powder, or solid in a capsule to mix with food or drink. Recently there has been an increase in pediatric formulation development inspired by increased regulatory incentives. The intent of this review is to educate the reader on the various types of formulations administered orally to pediatrics, the rationale in deciding which type of formulation to develop, the excipients used, development challenges, the in-use handling of oral pediatric formulations, and the regulatory incentives. PMID:17823956

  13. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  14. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  16. Bioavailability of valsartan oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Bende, Girish; Mendonza, Anisha E; Solar-Yohay, Susan; Biswal, Shibadas; Neelakantham, Srikanth; Wagner, Robert; Flarakos, Jimmy; Zhang, Yiming; Jarugula, Venkateswar

    2014-03-01

    The oral bioavailability of valsartan from extemporaneous suspension and solution formulations were evaluated relative to tablet formulation in two separate open-label, randomized crossover studies in healthy adults. In both studies, the plasma concentrations of valsartan after oral administration were analyzed using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, and the corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration time-curves (AUC(0-∞) ) of valsartan from the extemporaneous suspension were higher by 1.93- and 1.56-fold, respectively, relative to the tablet formulation (P < .001). The Cmax and AUC(0-∞) of valsartan from the oral solution were higher by 2.21- and 1.74-fold, respectively, relative to the tablet formulation (P < .001). These results indicate that both rate and extent of absorption of valsartan are higher in the two liquid dosage forms (extemporaneous suspension and solution formulations) relative to the solid oral dosage form (tablet formulation). PMID:27128457

  17. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum ...

  19. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer. PMID:27482300

  20. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  1. Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

  2. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome [AIDS]) and other sexually transmitted diseases.Some brands of oral contraceptives are also used to treat ... your doctor.Oral contraceptives come in many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different ...

  3. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

  4. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  5. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Lankin, Vadim Z; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation Maillard reaction end products (AGEs) are causing the complications of diabetes and skin aging, primarily via adventitious and cross-linking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen are particularly implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. The formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds represents an important step for cross-linking proteins in the glycation or Maillard reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of glycation coupled to the glycation free-radical oxidation reactions as markers of protein damage in the aging of skin tissue proteins and diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism for the cross-linking reaction, we studied the reaction between a three-carbon α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal, and amino acids using EPR spectroscopy, a spectrophotometric kinetic assay of superoxide anion production at the site of glycation and a chemiluminescence technique. The transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of proteins and lipid membranes were assessed in a number of biochemical and model systems. A 4-month randomized, double-blind, controlled study was undertaken including 42 subjects where the oral supplement of non-hydrolized carnosine (Can-C Plus® formulation) was tested against placebo for 3 months followed by a 1-month supplement-free period for both groups to assess lasting effects. Assessment of the age-related skin parameters and oral treatment efficacy measurements included objective skin surface evaluation with Visioscan® VC 98 and visual assessment of skin appearance parameters. The results together confirm that a direct one-electron transfer between a Schiff base methylglyoxal dialkylimine (or its protonated form) and methylglyoxal is responsible for

  6. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  7. The effect of chlorhexidine in reducing oral colonisation in geriatric patients: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Abdullah, Sharifah Shafinaz Binti; Chong, Mei Chan; Surindar-Kaur, Surat Singh; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inadequate oral care has been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia in frail geriatric patients and is a major cause of mortality, due to the colonisation of microbes in vulnerable patients. This type of pneumonia has been associated with an increase in respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine compared to routine oral care in edentulous geriatric inpatients. METHODS A double-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out. The intervention group received oral care with chlorhexidine 0.2%, while the control group received routine oral care with thymol. Nurses provided oral care with assigned solutions of 20 mL once daily over seven days. Oral cavity assessment using the Brief Oral Health Status Examination form was performed before each oral care procedure. Data on medication received and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia was recorded. An oral swab was performed on Day 7 to obtain specimens to test for colonisation. RESULTS The final sample consisted of 35 (control) and 43 (intervention) patients. Chlorhexidine was effective in reducing oral colonisation compared to routine oral care with thymol (p < 0.001). The risk of oral bacterial colonisation was nearly three times higher in the thymol group compared to the chlorhexidine group. CONCLUSION The use of chlorhexidine 0.2% significantly reduced oral colonisation and is recommended as an easier and more cost-effective alternative for oral hygiene. PMID:27211885

  8. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

  9. Postirradiation flap infection about the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Cabbabe, E.B.; Herbold, D.R.; Sunwoo, Y.C.; Baroudi, I.F.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation alteration of oral flora is well documented in the literature. Infection as a complication leading to partial or complete loss of a flap used to reconstruct a defect in the oral cavity is a worrisome outcome. We describe how a flap that was judged clinically to be viable became overwhelmingly infected with the Klebsiella oxytoca, an oral cavity pathogen encountered in this patient following irradiation. Local and systemic changes led to detachment of the flap. This complication may be explained, in view of the absence of venous congestion or arterial ischemia both clinically and pathologically, by the proven contamination of the flap by the Klebsiella pathogen. Local factors resulted in lower resistance and subsequent overwhelming infection. Discussion of the case, review of pertinent literature, and proposed solutions are presented.

  10. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  11. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  12. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  13. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  14. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  15. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  16. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  17. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  18. Oral hypoglycemics overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient There are many types of oral hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on ...

  19. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  20. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  1. Massive Oral Decoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicke, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive reading clinic used the Massive Oral Decoding (MOD) technique to help 10 reading disabled students (grades 7 and 8) increase independent reading skills. MOD stresses large amounts of reading practice at the student's independent level. (CL)

  2. Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Groppo, F C; Ramacciato, J C; Motta, R H L; Ferraresi, P M; Sartoratto, A

    2007-05-01

    The antimicrobial activity of two garlic clones' (1: purple and 2: white) crude extracts against oral microbiota was evaluated in vitro (study 1) and in vivo (study 2). Study 1 consisted of the evaluation of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations against nine streptococci strains. In study 2, a 2.5% garlic (clone 2) solution was used as a mouthwash in a 5-week study by 30 subjects. Blood agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar were inoculated with subjects' saliva to quantify oral microorganisms and mutans streptococci. Study 1 showed MIC ranging from 0.5 to 32.0 mg ml(-1) for clone 2 and from 8 to 64.0 mg ml(-1) for clone 1. MBC ranged from 1.0 to 128.0 mg ml(-1) and from 8.0 to 128.0 mg ml(-1) regarding clones 2 and 1 respectively. Study 2 showed that 2.5% garlic mouthwash solution had good antimicrobial activity against mutans streptococci and oral microorganisms. Maintenance of reduced salivary levels of streptococci was observed after 2 weeks at the end of mouthwash use. Unpleasant taste (100%), halitosis (90%) and nausea (30%) were reported by subjects after the end of the study. It was concluded that the garlic clones have antimicrobial properties in vitro against streptococci and anticariogenic properties against oral microorganism in spite of its adverse effects. PMID:17461963

  3. Oral Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

    2014-09-01

    'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  4. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  5. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  6. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  7. Oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the staging of oral cancers. Imaging information is essential for determining tumour resectibility, post resection surgical reconstruction and radiation therapy planning. The aim of this paper is to highlight the natural history of oral cancer spread and how malignant infiltration can be accurately mapped. It focuses on buccal mucosa, hard palate, tongue and floor of mouth carcinoma. PMID:16361136

  8. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  9. Personality and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  10. [Dementia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this article is a translation of an editorial which appeared in the journal Gerodontology. The author warns that a great increase is expected in the number of dementia patients in the United Kingdom and he argues that care for these patients be given a high place on the national agenda. Dementia was also a major issue at the meeting of the International Association for Dental Research in March 2007. Several international studies presented there indicated that elderly people with dementia constitute a group at risk with respect to oral health. In the evaluation of the editorial, the situation in The Netherlands is described. There is also serious concern in The Netherlands about the statistics with respect to dementia. Due to the growing number of frail elderly people having a natural dentition, the need for professional oral care will increase. General practitioners have the important task of providing adequate oral health care for elderly people suffering from dementia who are still living at home. Guidelines for Oral Care, having to do with the improvement of oral care in institutions, appeared recently. With the guidelines, a good basis for developing adequate oral health care of frail elderly people is available. However, the implementation of these guidelines will require some attention. PMID:19280891

  11. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  12. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  13. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  14. Risperidone: effects of formulations on oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, R; Lee, P I; Huang, M L; Woestenborghs, R

    1997-01-01

    The bioavailability of risperidone was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, two-way, crossover study comparing a 1-mg tablet with a 1-mg/ml oral solution. Both formulations were administered as a single 1-mg dose with a 10-day washout period between treatments. Of 26 healthy men who entered the study, 23 completed both treatment periods. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and the active moiety (risperidone plus its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were determined by radioimmunoassays. For key pharmacokinetic values (Cmax, AUC), the 90% CIs on the relative bioequivalence of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and the active moiety were contained within the equivalence range of 80-120% (80-125% for log-transformed data). The results demonstrate that the 1-mg/ml oral solution and the 1-mg tablet are bioequivalent. PMID:9165565

  15. Formation Dynamics of Oral Oil Coatings and Their Effect on Subsequent Sweetness Perception of Liquid Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Sara; van Eck, Arianne; van de Velde, Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2015-09-16

    Knowledge of the formation of oral coatings and their influence on subsequent taste perception is necessary to understand possible taste-masking effects by oil coatings. This study investigated (a) the dynamics of the formation of oral oil coatings formed by o/w emulsions and (b) the effect of oral oil coatings on subsequent sweetness perception of sucrose solutions. In vivo fluorescence was used to quantitate the oil fraction deposited on the tongue after oral processing of oil-in-water emulsions for different times. A trained panel evaluated sweetness perception of sucrose solutions after orally processing the emulsions. The oil fraction reached its maximum value within the first 3 s of oral processing. The oil fraction did not significantly affect subsequent sweetness perception of sucrose solutions. It is suggested that the oil droplets deposited on the tongue did not form a hydrophobic barrier that is sufficient to reduce the accessibility of sucrose to taste buds. PMID:26301742

  16. Evaluation of oral care to prevent oral mucositis in estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer patients treated with everolimus (Oral Care-BC): randomized controlled phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Naoki; Ota, Yoshihide; Hayashi, Naoki; Naito, Mariko; Kashiwabara, Kosuke; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Yamashita, Toshinari; Mukai, Hirofumi; Umeda, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    This is a randomized, multi-center, open-label, phase III study to evaluate the efficacy of professional oral care in preventing oral mucositis induced by everolimus in postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. Patients will be randomized into professional oral care and control groups (1:1 ratio). All patients will receive everolimus with exemestane and will continue everolimus until disease progression. In the professional oral care group, patients will receive teeth surface cleaning, scaling and tongue cleaning before starting everolimus, and will continue to receive professional oral care weekly from oral surgeons throughout the 8 week treatment. In the control group, patients will brush their own teeth and gargle with 0.9% sodium chloride solution or water. The primary endpoint is the incidence of all grades of oral mucositis. Target accrual is 200 patients with a two-sided type I error rate of 5% and 80% power to detect 25% risk reduction. PMID:27365521

  17. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  18. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  19. Oral health during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

    2008-04-15

    Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries. PMID:18481562

  20. The Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing. PMID:27161350

  1. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL)...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL)...

  3. [Oral problems in divers].

    PubMed

    Scheper, W A; Lobbezoo, F; Eijkman, M A J

    2005-05-01

    Divers can have several oral problems. Firstly, problems caused by pressure changes. These are barodontalgia and odontocrexis. Barodontalgia is toothache by barotrauma. Odontocrexis is restorations coming lose or breaking or tooth fractures by expansion of air beneath restorations. Other problems can occur by cements used to fix casted restorations, by inflammations in the orofacial region, and by not yet fully healed oral wounds. Secondly, there are problems related to the diver's mouthpiece. To keep the mouthpiece in place, the mandible has to be forced in a forward position. Holding this position often and for long periods of time, may develop or aggravate temporomandibular dysfunction. Insufficient fit of the mouthpiece may induce oral mucosal lesions. Therefore, it is recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces. It is also recommended to produce individual diver mouthpieces for complete dentures wearing divers and for divers with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15932043

  4. Aetiology of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A W; Marnewick, J C

    2012-11-01

    The terms Oral cancer (OC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are used interchangeably, as more than 95% of all OCs are OSCCs. Worldwide up to 275 000 new cases of OC are seen every year. Most of these cases are seen in developing countries such as South Africa. Up to 50% of all patients living with OC will die within five years, and this survival rate has not improved over the last few decades. Tobacco and alcohol usage account for up to 75% of all OC cases. As these causative factors can be avoided, all oral health workers should be aware of the aetiology of OC so that sound preventive advice may be given to their patients. Infections and nutrition play a lesser but still important role in the aetiology of OC. This article reviews the importance of the aetiology of OC, with the emphasis on tobacco and alcohol. PMID:23957094

  5. Nasal vs oral intubation.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, L

    2003-05-01

    Both nasal and oral route for intubation have advantages and disadvantages. Oral intubation is easier to perform, faster and less painful than nasal intubation under direct laryngoscopy, while blind nasal intubation represents a good alternative in conscious patient, without sedation. In trauma patient, oral route should be preferred, with cervical immobilisation. By the contrary, nasal intubation can cause bleeding, retro-pharyngeal and turbinate bones injury, but it seems preferable in preventing laryngeal complications. Moreover nasal intubation seem to increase risk for sinusitis while, there is no clear advantage for any of the two routes, concerning nosocomial pneumonia, bacteriemia and otitis. Nevertheless nasal route increases comfort for the patient and decreases injury and necrosis of tongue and lips; tube fastening is simpler thus reducing accidental extubation. PMID:12768165

  6. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

  7. Oral and perioral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

    1994-06-01

    The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed. PMID:8060823

  8. Acute oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. PMID:27343961

  9. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the "literate," while the…

  10. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597

  11. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597

  12. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  13. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  14. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

  15. Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70.1% have periodontal disease. Periodontal Disease is higher in men than women, and greatest among Mexican Americans and Non-Hispanic blacks, and those with less than a high school education. Healthy People 2020 Works to Eliminate Oral Health ...

  16. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  17. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  18. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  19. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in ... Budesonide comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a suspension to inhale by mouth using a special jet nebulizer ( ...

  20. Evaluation and Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Articles in this journal issue focus primarily on evaluation in the language arts and oral communication. Following an introduction to the two themes, the articles discuss the following: (1) pop quizzes in literature, (2) holistic scoring, (3) self-evaluation strategies in prewriting and rewriting, (4) what not to do in student/teacher…

  1. Oral contraceptive drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Baciewicz, A M

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 50 million women use oral contraceptives (OC). Studies and case reports demonstrate that OC failure may be caused by rifampin, anticonvulsant drugs, and possibly some antibiotics. Contraceptive steroids may interfere with the metabolism of the benzodiazepines, theophylline, and the glucocorticoids. Future investigation will document the clinical significance of other OC interactions as well as give rise to new interactions. PMID:2859674

  2. Imaging in oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

  3. Oral Skills Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, J. Vernon

    1980-01-01

    Twelve methods to enhance the learning of college students and at the same time increase their oral communication skills and classroom participation are presented. They include: facilitators of class discussions, triadic critiques of students' essays, panel discussions, forum periods, debates, and manuscript reading. (JMD)

  4. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Louisville April 4-8, 2017 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine ... of Louisville April 4-8, 2017 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Patient Resources Oral Medicine practitioners are experts ...

  5. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    Progestin-only oral contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy. Progestin is a female hormone. It works by preventing the ... mucus and the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of ...

  6. Polymeric microcontainers improve oral bioavailability of furosemide.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Melero, Ana; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jacobsen, Jette; Garrigues, Teresa; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette; Boisen, Anja

    2016-05-17

    Microcontainers with an inner diameter of 223μm are fabricated using the polymer SU-8, and evaluated in vitro, in situ and in vivo for their application as an advanced oral drug delivery system for the poorly water soluble drug furosemide. An amorphous sodium salt of furosemide (ASSF) is filled into the microcontainers followed by applying a lid using Eudragit L100. It is possible to control the drug release in vitro, and in vitro absorption studies show that the microcontainers are not a hindrance for absorption of ASSF. In situ perfusion studies in rats are performed with ASSF-filled microcontainers coated with Eudragit and compared to a furosemide solution. The absorption rate constant of ASSF confined in microcontainers is found to be significantly different from the solution, and by light microscopy, it is observed that the microcontainers are engulfed by the intestinal mucus. An oral bioavailability study in rats is performed with ASSF confined in microcontainers coated with Eudragit and a control group with ASSF in Eudragit-coated capsules. A relative bioavailability of 220% for the ASSF in microcontainers compared to ASSF in capsules is found. These studies indicate that the microcontainers could serve as a promising oral drug delivery system. PMID:27033999

  7. Probiotics and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

  8. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

    IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

  9. Oral Proficiency Testing in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Barbara H., Comp.; Mayewski, Sandi, Comp.

    A handbook compiled for use in a one-day workshop on oral proficiency testing for teachers of Russian gives an overview of oral proficiency assessment principles and the available techniques. One section explains the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview process and…

  10. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  11. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures. PMID:19444317

  12. Oral health for older people.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Compared with previous generations, more older people have retained some or all of their teeth, but more than 40% of community-dwelling older people aged 75 and over have unmet oral health needs. However, the importance of oral health can be undervalued by healthcare professionals and older people. Three studies relating to oral health for older people are summarised. PMID:27573957

  13. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Cancer starts when cells in ... the parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  14. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  15. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Joseph, Paule V.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r2 > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS. PMID:26963804

  16. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to identify salivary and serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in patients with oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods Patients selected included 54 oral lichen planus (41 to 65 years), 50 oral leukoplakia (42 to 65 years), 51 oral submucous fibrosis (41 to 65 years), and 50 healthy controls (42 to 65 years). Oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis cases were diagnosed using histopathological analysis. Salivary and serum cytokine concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits in all subjects. Results The levels of serum and salivary TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were statistically significantly increased in oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and lichen planus in contrast to normal healthy subjects (P<0.05). Serum and salivary correlation analysis revealed strong and highly significant correlations for TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in all groups (r=0.72-0.82, P<0.05). Conclusion Salivary and serum cytokines were also elevated when analyzed in oral precancerous lesions. Thus, salivary and serum IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α levels might act as diagnostic markers for detection of oral precancer. PMID:26339574

  17. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Amoh, Takashi; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  18. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  19. Management of oral cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. E.; Langdon, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Oral cancer is a serious disease that is on the increase. The most pressing need is early recognition and referral for specialist treatment. Too many cases present with advanced tumours. Radiotherapy and surgery remain the primary modalities of curative treatment, but understanding of tumour pathology and developments in surgical and radiotherapeutic technique have combined to produce a rational approach to management. In many instances 'radical' methods of surgical access can be combined with a more 'conservative' resection of the mandible or cervical lymph nodes. One-stage reconstructive procedures, often incorporating osteotomy techniques, miniature bone plating and free tissue transfer, have minimised the morbidity and functional deficit so often seen after earlier operations. All surgeons involved in the modern management of oral cancer should have expertise in these techniques or be part of a team which can provide them. PMID:8540656

  20. Oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Meredith A; Rogers, Roy S; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that can affect the skin, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. Mucosal sites of involvement include oral, genital, ocular, otic, esophageal, and, less commonly, bladder, nasal, laryngeal, and anal surfaces. Oral lichen planus is a mucosal variant of lichen planus, which tends to affect women more often than men, with a typically more chronic course and potential for significant morbidity. Treatment can be challenging, and there is potentially a low risk of malignant transformation; however, therapeutic benefits can be obtained with various topical and systemic medications. Clinical monitoring is recommended to ensure symptomatic control. Increasing awareness and recognition of this entity have continued to fuel advances in therapy and in our understanding of the disease. PMID:27343965

  1. The new oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Garcia, David; Libby, Edward; Crowther, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Although their first application in clinical practice occurred in the 1940s, vitamin K antagonists remain the only form of oral anticoagulant medication approved for long-term use. Although the available vitamin K antagonists are highly effective for the prevention and/or treatment of most thrombotic disease, the significant interpatient and intrapatient variability in dose-response, the narrow therapeutic index, and the numerous drug and dietary interactions associated with these agents have led clinicians, patients, and investigators to search for alternative agents. Three new orally administered anticoagulants (apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban) are in the late stages of development and several others are just entering (or moving through) earlier phases of investigation. These novel anticoagulant medications are being studied for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. This review summarizes published clinical trial data pertinent to apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. PMID:19880491

  2. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  3. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  4. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature. PMID:27352462

  5. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D F

    1981-04-01

    Dermatologists often prescribe oral tetracycline for the control of acne, primarily, and to a much lesser extent, for the treatment of cutaneous infections. A number of the patients taking tetracycline are also taking birth control pills. A recent article in the British Medical Journal (1980;1:293) indicates that this combination can lead to a failure of the (OC) oral contraceptive. Such failure had been associated with ampicillin as well. It is believed that the mechanism for this was the disturbance in normal gut flora, with consequent effects on bacterial hydrolysis of steroid conjugates. This would interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of contraceptive steroids, resulting in a less than normal concentration of circulating steroids. It was recommended that women taking low-dose OCs take extra precautions against pregnancy during any cycle in which antibiotics are given. In regard to our care of and responsibilities to our patients, and in an era when malpractice suits for all types of reasons are more common, it certainly behooves dermatologists to recognize and be concerned about this potential consequence of prescribing oral antibiotics. PMID:7212735

  6. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  7. [Oral formulation of choice for children].

    PubMed

    Lajoinie, A; Henin, E; Kassai, B

    2015-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate oral formulation is very challenging when developing medicines for children and in routine practice. Research in pediatric pharmacology has focused on oral drug formulation, determining whether the active pharmaceutical ingredient can be successfully delivered to children. Pediatric expert committees (EMA, EuFPI) recommend that children's medicines be safe, well tolerated, easy to use (palatable and requiring minimal handling), transportable, easily produced, cost effective, commercially viable, with a minimal impact on children's life-style. Oral liquid drug formulations (OLFs: solutions, syrups, suspensions) are historically considered as the most appropriate oral formulation for children, since they are easy to swallow for younger infants and palatable for children. However, OLFs present numerous disadvantages, such as low stability, potentially toxic excipients for children, and low transportability. In the long-term, dose volume and frequency of administration might lead to non-compliance. Multiple preparation steps and volume calculations are also among risk factors for medicine errors in children. An alternative to OLFs is the conventional solid oral dosage form (OSF), such as tablets and capsules. These offer the advantages of greater stability, easy dose selection, improved transportability, and ease of storage. They also allow the modification of drug pharmacokinetic parameters, minimizing administration frequency. Finally, OSFs are less costly than OLFs, since they are easier to develop, manufacture, transport, store, and deliver. Controlled study results suggest that the use of OSFs in children would be associated with greater acceptability by children, greater preference on the part of caregivers, and higher drug compliance than OLFs. Recent controlled studies, confirming that OSFs with an acceptable size for children (mini-tablets), should shift the current paradigm of OLFs as the reference for children's oral medicine

  8. Expanding oral health preventative services for young children: a successful interprofessional model.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Evelyn; Marino, Deborah; Thacker, Sherrey; DiMarco, Marguerite; Huff, Marlene; Biordi, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Progressive solutions are needed to solve the oral health chronic disease problem in the U.S. The importance of oral health coupled with urgent community oral health needs, shortage of primary providers, and emphasis on interprofessional collaboration make the timing ripe for allied health training and practice in oral health preventative services. A successful model is described that addressed the unmet oral health care needs of low-income and at-risk children. The model is a guide for integrating an oral health screen, fluoride varnish, anticipatory guidance, and dental referrals into allied health practice. An alternative oral health provider approach was used to address the low rate of early caries detection, preventative oral care, and access for underserved children. A comprehensive system for the administrative and clinical components of the project, including implementation plan, clinical protocols, prescriptive authority, a dental home referral system, clinical training and competency testing, was developed. The interprofessional project increased oral health services capacity and practice acceptance of oral health screening and fluoride varnishing among dietitians. Oral health care services provide allied health practitioners with unique opportunities to impact the poor access and unmet needs of at risk children and adults and to improve overall health. PMID:24598903

  9. Non-Invasive Techniques for Detection and Diagnosis of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongjuan; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Dan, Hongxia; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral and maxillofacial malignancy, and its morbidity and mortality rates are still high in most countries. Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) are used to refer to a heterogeneous group of conditions that are characterized by increased risk for malignant transformation to OSCC. Currently identified oral PMDs include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, palatal lesions associated with reverse smoking, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, actinic keratosis, and discoid lupus erythematosus. The early detection and diagnosis of these lesions are important for cancer prevention and disease management. In recent years, there has been a growing and persistent demand for new non-invasive, practical diagnostic techniques that might facilitate the early detection of oral PMDs. The non-invasive detection techniques evaluated in this review are divided into four categories: vital staining with a solution that can be used as a mouth rinse or applied onto a suspected area of the mouth, light-based detection systems, optical diagnostic technologies that employ returned optical signals to reflect structural and morphological changes within tissues, and salivary biomarkers. Most of these techniques have shown great potential for screening and monitoring oral PMDs. In this review article, the authors critically assess these non-invasive detection techniques for oral PMDs. We also provide a summary of the sensitivity and specificity of each technique in detecting oral PMDs and oral cancer, as well as their advantages, disadvantages, clinical applications, and indications. PMID:26888696

  10. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  11. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  12. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  13. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  14. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  19. Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.

    PubMed

    Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration. PMID:15269123

  20. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  1. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  2. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  3. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  5. Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

    2014-11-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

  6. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  7. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions. PMID:25892249

  8. Practical pearls for oral procedures.

    PubMed

    Davari, Parastoo; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview of clinically relevant principles of oral surgical procedures required in the workup and management of oral mucosal diseases. An understanding of the fundamental concepts of how to perform safely and effectively minor oral procedures is important to the practicing dermatologist and can minimize the need for patient referrals. This chapter reviews the principles of minor oral procedures, including incisional, excisional, and punch biopsies, as well as minor salivary gland excision. Pre- and postoperative patient care is also discussed. PMID:27343958

  9. Oral periopathogens and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Costerton, John; Keller, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Management of oral biofilms allows dentists to help control the pathogens responsible for periodontal disease and decay. Increasing evidence indicates that the oral system is a portal for pathogenic microorganisms. This is a cumulative situation with systemic effects that can overcome an individual's resistance threshold, culminating in systemic sequela. New evidence indicates that controlling these oral pathogens has systemic benefits, as oral pathology is related to cardiovascular and respiratory disease, diabetes, and systemic inflammatory responses, as well as low birth weight and pre-term deliveries. Some insurance companies now cover periodontal scaling for gingivitis and periodontal disease for pregnant women and patients at risk for pregnancy. PMID:17511362

  10. Halitosis. A common oral problem.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A I; Bivona, P; Rifkin, B R

    1996-12-01

    Halitosis is caused primarily by bacterial putrefaction and the generation of volatile sulfur compounds. Ninety percent of patients suffering from halitosis have oral causes, such as poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, tongue coat, food impaction, unclean dentures, faulty restorations, oral carcinomas, and throat infections. The remaining 10 percent of halitosis sufferers have systemic causes that include renal or hepatic failure, carcinomas, diabetes or trimethylaminuria. Modern analytical and microbiological techniques permit diagnosis of bad breath. Management of halitosis involves maintaining proper oral hygiene, and periodontal treatment, including tongue brushing. PMID:9002736

  11. HIV-related oral disease.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, D; Greenspan, J S

    1996-09-14

    Few people with HIV infection fall to experience oral lesions during the course of their disease. Oral mucosal and salivary gland manifestations include several that were not seen before the AIDS epidemic, while others are more severe in this population. Oral lesions reflect HIV status and the stage of immunosuppression, are important elements in HIV staging and classification schemes, raise pertinent questions about mucosal aspect of immunosuppression, and provide therapeutic challenges. Their pervasive nature and biological significance emphasise the importance of a careful oral examination as part of the general clinical evaluation. PMID:8806295

  12. Oral and non-oral sensorimotor interventions enhance oral feeding performance in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    FUCILE, SANDRA; GISEL, ERIKA G; MCFARLAND, DAVID H; LAU, CHANTAL

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether oral, tactile/kinaesthetic (T/K), or combined (oral + T/K) interventions enhance oral feeding performance and whether combined (oral + T/K) interventions have an additive/synergistic effect. Method Seventy-five preterm infants (mean gestational age 29wk; standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.3wk; mean birthweight 1340.3g; SEM 52.5g; 49 males and 26 females) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups or a control group. The oral group received sensorimotor input to the oral structures, the T/K group received sensorimotor input to the trunk and limbs, and the combined (oral + T/K) group received both. The outcomes were time from introduction of nipple feeding to independent oral feeding (days), proficiency (intake in the first 5min, %), volume transfer (%), rate of transfer (ml/min), volume loss (%), and length of hospital stay (days). Results Infants in the three intervention groups achieved independent oral feeding 9 to 10 days earlier than those in the control group (p<0.001; effect size 1.9–2.1). Proficiency (p≤0.002; effect size 0.7–1.4) at the time of one to two and three to five oral feedings per day, volume transfer (p≤0.001; effect size 0.8–1.1) at one to two, three to five, and six to eight oral feedings per day, and overall rate of transfer (p≤0.018; effect size 0.8–1.1) were greater, and overall volume losses were less (p≤0.007; effect size 0.9–1.1), than in the control group (p≤0.042). The combined (oral + T/K) group attained independent oral feeding at a significantly younger postmenstrual age than controls (p=0.020) and had clinically greater proficiency than the T/K group (p=0.020; effect size 0.7) and oral group (p=0.109; effect size 0.5). Length of hospital stay was not significantly different between groups (p=0.792; effect size 0.02–0.3). Interpretation Oral and T/K interventions accelerated the transition from introduction to independent oral feeding and

  13. [Oral jewelry: a review].

    PubMed

    Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Oral jewelry is popular. One of the most widely spread types are so-called tooth diamonds made of composite materials which are applied to the teeth with an adhesive. Note that parents are required to sign a release form for under-aged patients in Switzerland. Tooth cap grills and gold teeth are considered status symbols within the Hip-Hop fashion scene. However, tooth ornaments favour the accumulation of plaque and can diminish the ability to articulate. With respect to jewelry in oral soft tissue especially tongue and lip piercings are of significance to dentists. Besides the systemic complications, which are mostly caused by a lack of hygiene or the failure of noting medical contraindications by the piercer, local complications occur frequently. After surgery, pain, swelling, infections as well as hemorrhages or hematomas can be observed. Long-term effects can be problematic: gingival recession can be discernes mainly in the case of lip piercings the loss of hard tooth substance in the case of tongue piercings. Because of that, conservation therapies can become indespensable. Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary. PMID:20112640

  14. Pharmacogenetics of oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K; King, Barry P

    2003-05-01

    There is wide interindividual variation in oral anticoagulant dose requirement, which is partly genetically determined. Several cytochrome P450s contribute to oxidative metabolism of oral anticoagulants. The most important of these is CYP2C9, which hydroxylates the S-enantiomers of warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon with high catalytic activity. In at least eight separate clinical studies, possession of the CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 variant alleles, which result in decreased enzyme activity, has been associated with a significant decrease in a mean warfarin dose requirement. Several studies also suggest that possession of a CYP2C9 variant allele is associated with an increased risk of adverse events, such as bleeding. Possession of the CYP2C9*3 variant also appears to be associated with a low acenocoumarol dose requirement. Other genetic factors, such as polymorphisms in the cytochromes P450 that metabolize the R-enantiomers of warfarin and acenocoumarol, may also be relevant to anticoagulant dose. The molecular basis of anticoagulant resistance where a higher than normal dose of anticoagulant is required remains unclear, but could be due to unusually high CYP2C9 activity (pharmacokinetic resistance) or to an abnormality in the target enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase (pharmacodynamic resistance). PMID:12724615

  15. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  16. Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Marie-Noelle

    2004-01-01

    In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

  17. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... reach of children. Store unused vials of the solution in the foil pack until you are ready to use them. Store the medication at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Talk to ...

  18. Oral Mucosal Lesions: Oral Cavity Biology-Part I.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Syed, Nazim Hussain; Aggarwal, Ashok; Sehgal, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the background of oral cavity biology to define morphologic abrasions in oral mucosa following a host of local and/ or systemic disorders. The oral cavity is not only the beginning of the digestive system, but it also plays a significant role in communication; the voice (although the voice is produced in the throat), tongue, lips, and jaw are its essential components to produce the range of sounds. The vestibule and the oral cavity are its major parts, and are usually moist. The lips and the teeth are in approximation, marking its start up. The anatomy of the oral cavity in brief has been reviewed in right prospective for disease related changed morphology, thus facilitating interpretation. PMID:26861428

  19. Oral glucose is the prime elicitor of preabsorptive insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Grill, H J; Berridge, K C; Ganster, D J

    1984-01-01

    Seven sugars, two sugar alcohols, and a nonnutritive sweetener were orally administered to naive rats with and without gastric drainage fistulas. Although all taste solutions were ingested, only glucose evoked a statistically significant elevation of insulin levels. This rise was independent of a rise in glycemia. The preeminence of oral glucose as an elicitor of preabsorptive insulin secretion is especially striking, considering that glucose is neither the most intense (as measured electrophysiologically) nor the most palatable (as measured by behavioral preference tests) taste stimulus tested. These results suggest the existence of a gustatory and/or gastrointestinal chemoreceptor that is most responsive to glucose. PMID:6364839

  20. Oral History in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Ron

    1979-01-01

    Defines oral history as the act of talking to another person about the past. By obtaining the common man's view, a more complete interpretation of the past results. Outlines an oral history unit on the depression. Activities include tape recorded interviews and use of letters, pictures, diaries, newspapers, films, music, and books. (KC)

  1. Dyslexia and Oral Reading Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Thomson was the first of very few researchers to have studied oral reading errors as a means of addressing the question: Are dyslexic readers different to other readers? Using the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and Goodman's taxonomy of oral reading errors, Thomson concluded that dyslexic readers are different, but he found that they do not…

  2. Oral Communications in Kentucky Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Oral communications. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The central portion of the guide is divided into five units: public speaking, voice and diction, drama, oral interpretation, and radio-television. Each unit is in straight text or list form. The guide is offset printed and perfect-bound…

  3. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  4. Pediatric soft tissue oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andres; Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of common color changes and soft tissue oral nodular abnormalities in children and adolescents. The clinical presentation and treatment options to address these conditions are presented in a concise approach, highlighting key features relevant to the oral health care professional. PMID:24655531

  5. Embracing Plurality through Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…

  6. Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2010-01-01

    Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

  7. Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Chloe

    1974-01-01

    The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

  8. The New Basic: Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Don M.; McBath, James H.

    1987-01-01

    School systems are increasingly following national reports' recommendations that oral communication instruction in the high school curriculum should develop students' everyday academic competencies, personal confidence, and research and employment abilities. This report discusses instructional applications of oral communication and offers course…

  9. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  10. Oral reconstruction with submental flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473

  11. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome. PMID:26519069

  12. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  13. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  14. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  15. Novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Reiffel, James A

    2014-04-01

    Warfarin has a proven record as an oral anticoagulant; almost every study, however, has found that it is not prescribed for 40-60% of patients who are eligible and should receive it, and of those who do receive it, serum warfarin levels only achieved a time in therapeutic range (TTR) equal to INR 2-3 about 55-60% of the time (online video available at: http://education.amjmed.com/video.php?event_id=445&stage_id=5&vcs=1). This means that only about 1 in 4 patients are adequately anticoagulated with warfarin, and thus there is a large unmet need for achieving better anticoagulation in these patients. Although physicians have sometimes tried to use antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, plus or minus clopidogrel) for anticoagulation, this may result in as much as a doubling of the risk of thromboembolic events. Recently 2 new classes of oral anticoagulant agents have appeared: direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) and factor Xa inhibitors. This review sequentially examines the recent clinical trial evidence for the 3 approved NOACs in the 2 classes, highlighting that all 3 share a class effect of being noninferior to warfarin for reducing risk of stroke and systemic embolization and reducing risk of bleeding, with a relative risk of mortality consistently reduced by 10% per year. In addition, all of the NOACs have a significantly lower risk of intracranial/intracerebral bleeding than warfarin, an important clinical consideration, since that is the most feared bleeding risk and may be sufficient reason to consider switching patients from warfarin to a NOAC, even if they seem to be doing well on warfarin. Finally in addition to reviewing the overall benefits of these NOACs over traditional therapy, the clinical application differences between the classes and between the agents are reviewed. PMID:24655744

  16. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having professional hygiene procedures performed and caries lesions filled. Baseline examination and the examination two years afterwards, evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of oral cavity environment. Caries incidence was determined based on DMFT and DMFS values, oral cavity hygiene on Plaque Index (acc. Silness & Loe) and Hygiene Index (acc. O’Leary), and the gingival status on Gingival Index (acc. Loe & Silness) and Gingival Bleeding Index (acc. Ainamo & Bay). Saliva osmolarity, pH and concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, Na+, Cl−, total protein, albumins, F− and Sr2+ were determined. Results The results confirmed ongoing changeability of the oral cavity environment. After 2 years of the study reduction in oral cavity hygiene parameters PLI and HI (P<0.1), and gingival indices as well as lower saliva concentration of Ca2+ (P<.001), Pi (P<.06), K+ (P<.04), Sr2+ (P<.03), Na+ (P<.1), against the baseline values, were observed. Total protein and albumin saliva concentrations were also significantly lower. Conclusion Physiological oral cavity environment is subject to constant, individually different, changes which should be considered when analysing studies that employ oral cavity environment parameters. PMID:19212491

  17. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128

  18. Sturge-Weber syndrome: oral and extra-oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Dwivedi, Rahul; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare, congenital, neuro-oculo-cutaneous disorder which is characterised extra-orally by unilateral port wine stains on the face, glaucoma, seizures and mental retardation, and intra-orally by ipsilateral gingival haemangioma which frequently affects the maxilla or mandible. In the present case, a 15-year-old female patient presented with a port wine stain on the right side of the face and glaucoma of the right eye, and intra-orally with gingival haemangioma on the right side of the maxilla. PMID:25766438

  19. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Do not puncture the aerosol container and do not discard it in an incinerator or fire.Levalbuterol solution must be protected from light. Store unused vials ...

  20. Isoetharine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Isoetharine comes as an aerosol and a solution to inhale by mouth. It is used as needed to relieve symptoms but usually should not be ... proper disposal of your medication. Avoid puncturing the aerosol container, and do not discard it in an ...

  1. Single oral dose safety of D-allulose in dogs

    PubMed Central

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Healthy dogs were administered acute oral doses of D-allulose (also called D-psicose) to evaluate its toxicity. Six dogs received oral doses of either a placebo or D-allulose solution (1 and 4 g/kg) on three different study days. One dog experienced vomiting, and five dogs showed transient diarrhea when 4 g/kg of D-allulose was administered. All dogs were active and had a good appetite throughout the study period. Blood glucose concentration slightly decreased without a rise in plasma insulin concentration 2 hr after D-allulose administration. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activities showed a mild increase between 12 and 48 hr after D-allulose administration. These data suggested that a single oral dose of D-allulose does not show severe toxicity in dogs. PMID:26972334

  2. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  3. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

  4. [Tobacco, snuff and oral health].

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Meurman, Jukka H; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is estimated to cause 6.3 million deaths annually worldwide. The use of snuff, differing from smoking, has significantly increased especially among the adolescents. Snuff powder contains 20-fold more nicotine compared to cigarettes, leading to strong nicotine addiction. In addition to cancer development, both smoking and snuff use exert other risks for oral health. Compared with non-smokers, smokers are at a 10-fold risk for the development and progression of periodontal diseases. Snuff causes oral mucosal changes, gingival recessions and root surface caries. Smoking induces systemic low-grade inflammation, which weakens defensive immune responses in oral mucosa, gingiva, gingival crevicular fluid and saliva. PMID:26677547

  5. Systemic diseases and oral health.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Mary; Lindefjeld Calabi, Kari A; San Martin, Laura

    2014-10-01

    The US population is at the beginning of a significant demographic shift; the American geriatric population is burgeoning, and average longevity is projected to increase in the coming years. Elder adults are affected by numerous chronic conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. These older adults need special dental care and an improved understanding of the complex interactions of oral disease and systemic chronic diseases that can complicate their treatment. Oral diseases have strong associations with systemic diseases, and poor oral health can worsen the impact of systemic diseases. PMID:25201543

  6. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  7. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  8. Pharmacogenetics in Oral Antithrombotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maier, Cheryl L; Duncan, Alexander; Hill, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Certain antithrombotic drugs exhibit high patient-to-patient variability that significantly impacts the safety and efficacy of therapy. Pharmacogenetics offers the possibility of tailoring drug treatment to patients based on individual genotypes, and this type of testing has been recommended for 2 oral antithrombotic agents, warfarin and clopidogrel, to influence use and guide dosing. Limited studies have identified polymorphisms that affect the metabolism and activity of newer oral antithrombotic drugs, without clear evidence of the clinical relevance of such polymorphisms. This article provides an overview of the current status of pharmacogenetics in oral antithrombotic therapy. PMID:27514462

  9. Polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  10. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  11. Diabetes and oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Gourdy, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing dramatically worldwide, resulting in more and more women of reproductive age being affected by either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Management of contraception is a major issue due to the specific risks associated with pregnancy and those potentially induced by hormonal contraceptives in diabetic women. This review emphasizes the urgent need to improve the use of contraception in women with diabetes. There is no consistent evidence that combined oral contraceptives significantly influence the risk of developing diabetes, even in women with a history of gestational diabetes. Furthermore, although data from specific studies remain sparse, no worsening effect has been reported in diabetic women, either in glycemic control or on the course of microvascular complications. Thus, the use of estroprogestive pills is now recognized as a safe and effective option for preconception care of women with uncomplicated diabetes. According to recent guidelines, these contraceptives must be avoided in case of associated cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease or severe microvascular complications such as nephropathy with proteinuria or active proliferative retinopathy. Prescription of combined hormonal contraception in type 2 diabetic women must also be considered with caution due to a frequent association with obesity and vascular risk factors which increase both thromboembolic and arterial risks. Thanks to their metabolic and vascular safety profile, progestin-only contraceptives, as well as non-hormonal methods, represent alternatives according to patient wishes. PMID:23384747

  12. Tigemonam, an oral monobactam.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1988-01-01

    Tigemonam is an orally administered monobactam. At less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml it inhibited the majority of strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Serratia marcescens, and Yersinia enterocolitica. At less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml it inhibited Haemophilus spp., Neisseria spp., and Branhamella catarrhalis. It did not inhibit Pseudomonas spp. or Acinetobacter spp. Tigemonam was more active than cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanate and inhibited many members of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and gentamicin. Some Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii strains resistant to aminothiazole iminomethoxy cephalosporins and aztreonam were resistant to tigemonam. The MIC for 90% of hemolytic streptococci of groups A, B, and C and for Streptococcus pneumoniae was 16 micrograms/ml, but the MIC for 90% of enterococci, Listeria spp., Bacteroides spp., and viridans group streptococci was greater than 64 micrograms/ml. Tigemonam was not hydrolyzed by the common plasmid beta-lactamases such as TEM-1 and SHV-1 or by the chromosomal beta-lactamases of Enterobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, and Bacteroides spp. Tigemonam inhibited beta-lactamases of E. cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but did not induce beta-lactamases. The growth medium had a minimal effect on the in vitro activity of tigemonam, and there was a close agreement between the MICs and MBCs. PMID:3279906

  13. Oral contraceptives and exercise.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Woebkenberg, N R; Jarrett, M T

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken with volunteer females (aged 20-25) to determine the effect of OCs (oral contraceptives) on hematologic and metabolic variables during exercise. 5 of the women studied were naturally cycling and 7 were taking OCs. The women worked at 2 workloads on a bicycle ergometer at 50% and 90% of their maximal aerobic capacity during 3 different phases of their menstrual cycle. There was no better time of the month for doing the 50% or the 90% workload in either group. Heartrate for the OC group was significantly higher at the 50% maximal capacity. Results of the test indicate tha women on OCs have somewhat reduced cardiac efficiency and are ventilating more to carry out a given amount of work when compared to women who are naturally cycling. Possible explanations for the higher heart rate are put forward. The main limitation of the study is that the subject numbers involved are small and the number of cycles studied is also small. PMID:12278397

  14. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease. PMID:23717756

  15. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that 40-60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease. PMID:23717756

  16. Delivery strategies to enhance oral vaccination against enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Christopher J H; Lavelle, Ed C

    2015-08-30

    While the majority of human pathogens infect the body through mucosal sites, most licensed vaccines are injectable. In fact the only mucosal vaccine that has been widely used globally for infant and childhood vaccination programs is the oral polio vaccine (OPV) developed by Albert Sabin in the 1950s. While oral vaccines against Cholera, rotavirus and Salmonella typhi have also been licensed, the development of additional non-living oral vaccines against these and other enteric pathogens has been slow and challenging. Mucosal vaccines can elicit protective immunity at the gut mucosa, in part via antigen-specific secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). However, despite their advantages over the injectable route, oral vaccines face many hurdles. A key challenge lies in design of delivery strategies that can protect antigens from degradation in the stomach and intestine, incorporate appropriate immune-stimulatory adjuvants and control release at the appropriate gastrointestinal site. A number of systems including micro and nanoparticles, lipid-based strategies and enteric capsules have significant potential either alone or in advanced combined formulations to enhance intestinal immune responses. In this review we will outline the opportunities, challenges and potential delivery solutions to facilitate the development of improved oral vaccines for infectious enteric diseases. PMID:25817337

  17. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  18. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  19. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  20. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  1. Update on pediatric oral healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Denise; Bowser, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    As part of the patient-centered medical home, clinicians are being asked to apply fluoride varnish and perform oral examinations in children. This article reviews the latest national recommendations for fluoride varnish use to prevent dental caries. PMID:27467301

  2. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control. PMID:27521039

  3. Pathological characteristics of oral lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, N; Kurihara, K

    1982-06-01

    Nine cases of oral extranodal lymphomas are described. Histologically, 6 cases were histiocytic, 2 lymphocytic and 1 Burkitt's lymphoma. According to the criteria of the Japanese Lymphoma Study Group, 8 cases seemingly belonged to the B-cell lymphoma classification, and one was unclassified. Geographical differences in the distribution of oral extranodal lymphomas between Japan and western countries were surveyed. A review of our cases and those in the literature revealed no significant difference in sex, age, frequency of B-cell lymphomas or site of predilection. In Japan, histiocytic lymphomas were the most common type of extranodal oral lymphomas. The most prevalent type of oral extranodal lymphomas in western countries could not be determined from the literature. PMID:6808100

  4. Diseases of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

  5. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36... Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied...

  6. 20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE § 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the discretion of the Board, on its...

  7. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  8. Compatible solutes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.1 Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen. PMID:21326913

  9. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  10. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions. PMID:27323427

  11. Communication in the Oral History Interview: Investigating Problems of Interpreting Oral Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, E. Culpepper; And Others

    The application of hermeneutic theory to the study of the oral history interview is proposed in this paper. The first section of the paper indicates why the oral interview is central to the approach of the oral historian; it then defines oral history as a communicative process and suggests an approach to investigating the oral interview that uses…

  12. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  13. Albumin microspheres for oral delivery of iron.

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, H N; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2010-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) microspheres of ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) intended for passive targeting to the Peyer's patches has been proposed for oral iron supplementation. Microspheres prepared by emulsification chemical cross linking method were characterized for surface topography, entrapment efficiency, particle size, particle charge and in vitro drug release. Microspheres of batch C with FPP to BSA ratio of 1:5 were found to be most suitable for targeting as they exhibited high entrapment (83.88 +/- 4.31), high monodispersity (span = 1.24 +/- 0.01), and least particle size (d(vm) = 4.40 +/- 0.01). In addition the amount of iron retained in these microspheres despite exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 5 h was found to be 83.72 +/- 4.22%, the highest in the three batches. The in vivo serum iron profiles in normal rats following oral administration displayed a reduced T(max) (2 h), elevated C(max) (106.06 +/- 12.18 mug/dL) and increased AUC (0-16 h) (647.44 +/- 52.33 mug.h/dL) for these microspheres which significantly differed (P <0.05) from FPP solution indicating a higher iron repletion potential of the BSA microspheres. PMID:19635031

  14. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-μm-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  15. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; Ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-μm-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  16. Oral pharmacological treatments for parasitic diseases of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. I: Hexamita salmonis.

    PubMed

    Tojo, J L; Santamarina, M T

    1998-05-14

    Various drugs were evaluated as regards efficacy for the treatment of Hexamita salmonis infection in rainbow trout. The results confirm the efficacy of nitroimidazoles: infection was completely eradicated not only by metronidazole (which has been recommended previously for the treatment of hexamitosis), but also by benznidazole, ronidazole and secnidazole, which have not been assayed previously. The non-nitroimidazoles albendazole, aminosidine, diethylcarbamazine and nitroscanate also completely eliminated infection. The remaining non-nitroimidazoles tested (amprolium, bithionol, febantel, flubendazole, levamisole, netobimin, niclosamide, nitroxynil, oxibendazole, parbendazole, piperazine, praziquentel, tetramisole, thiophanate, toltrazuril, trichlorfon and triclabendazole) were not effective. PMID:9653458

  17. [Aphthous ulcers and oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates...), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer

  18. Oral Helicobacter pylori, its relationship to successful eradication of gastric H. pylori and saliva culture confirmation.

    PubMed

    Wang, X M; Yee, K C; Hazeki-Taylor, N; Li, J; Fu, H Y; Huang, M L; Zhang, G Y

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to explore the existence of oral Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), its relationship in the oral cavity to the success rate of eradication of the gastric H. pylori infection, and to determine if the mouthwash solution contained lysine (0.4%) and glycerol monolaurate (0.2%) (LGM) could eliminate oral H. pylori, as well as using the saliva H. pylori culture to confirm the existence of oral H. pylori. A total of 159 symptomatic individuals with stomach pain and 118 asymptomatic individuals with no stomach complaints, were recruited and tested using the saliva H. pylori antigen test (HPS), the H. pylori flagellin test (HPF), the urea breath test (UBT C(13)) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which tests were also confirmed by saliva culture. The test subjects also received various treatments. It was found that the H. pylori antigen exists in the oral cavity in UBT C(13) negative individuals. Traditional treatment for gastric eradication had only a 10.67 percent (10.67%) effectiveness rate on the oral H. pylori infection. In groups of patients with the oral H. pylori infection, but with negative UBT C(13), a mouthwash solution provided a 72.58% effectiveness rate in the 95% of the confidence interval (CI) ranges on the oral H. pylori infection. Traditional drug gastric eradication and teeth cleaning (TC) had less than a 10% effectiveness rate. Treatment of the oral infection increased the success rate of eradication of the stomach infection from 61.33% to 82.26% in the 95% CI ranges. We concluded that the successful rate of eradication of gastric H. pylori bears a significant relationship to the oral infection from H. pylori. PMID:25179088

  19. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  20. Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian L; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M; Queiroz, Erica L S; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A Ross; DeLacure, Mark D; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B; Albertson, Donna G

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  1. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  2. Drug testing in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-08-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  3. Oral health and older adults.

    PubMed

    DeBiase, Christina B; Austin, Shari L

    2003-01-01

    The population of individuals aged 65 and older is growing dramatically and is expected to increase 126% by 2011, compared to only a 42% rise in the population of the United States as a whole. The fastest growing segment of the older adult population is persons aged 85 and older (Figure 1). Although many members of this generation lead healthy independent lives, the challenge faced by oral health care professionals is providing care to the chronically ill and/or homebound or institutionalized older adult, particularly the oldest old and those with limited finances. Effective communication skills are essential when dealing with older adults and their families. Collaboration between medical/allied health professionals and oral health care professionals is also critical in order to accurately assess and manage the oral health needs of the aging patient. A preventive approach to oral health with sensitivity to the physical, mental, and social status of the patient is the focus of this course. Marketing strategies to alleviate common barriers to seeking oral health care among this age group are provided. PMID:12861793

  4. Head Start Oral Health Assessment.

    PubMed

    Reed, Rebecca; York, Jill; Dady, Nadege; Chaviano-Moran, Rosa; Jiang, Shuying; Holtzman, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Purpose A Head Start program located in Paterson, New Jersey considered establishing a school-based dental clinic to address unmet oral health needs such as access to care and the need for restorative treatment. The purpose of this study was to establish the oral health status of Head Start children, their treatment needs, and parents' interest and willingness to utilize a school-based dental clinic. Description School-based dental care has been used to address access to care issues, particularly among children who live in underserved areas. A 21 item survey was used to correlate the results of an oral exam performed on the Head Start children and the parents' preferences, beliefs and access patterns. Fisher's exact test and Chi squared test were used to study the association among variable with significance levels set at 0.05. Assessment The oral exam revealed a high caries rate amongst all of the children. Parental responses indicated strong support for the establishment of a school-based clinic and identified the need for further parental education. Having a regular source of care was found to be unrelated to treatment needs. Conclusion Further education of the parents regarding the child's oral health is critical to the success and viability of this school-based clinic. PMID:27017227

  5. Helicobacter pylori in oral ulcerations.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, T; Horie, N; Kato, T; Kaneko, T; Komiyama, K

    2000-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen involved in the development of gastrointestinal ulcers, but its involvement in oral ulcerous lesions is unclear. As culture is generally recognized as the gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection, we employed this approach to assess the association of H. pylori with oral mucosal ulcerations. Samples were collected from patients with oral mucosal ulcerative disorders: 12 cases of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), 7 cases of herpes simplex virus (HSV) stomatitis, and 3 cases of erosive lichen planus (LP). Serum IgG antibodies against H. pylori were examined in all cases. All of the RAS and erosive LP cases were culture-negative for H. pylori, while two cases of HSV stomatitis were positive. The two culture-positive cases were also seropositve for the H. pylori antigen. It is suggested that H. pylori might not have a direct association with oral ulcerations. However, H. pylori in the oral cavity might exist in a non-culturable coccoid state without productive infection, and might form colonies only under special conditions such as HSV infection. PMID:11269381

  6. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. PMID:27473998

  7. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions. PMID:26632800

  8. Oral rehydration therapy: efficacy of sodium citrate equals to sodium bicarbonate for correction of acidosis in diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M R; Samadi, A R; Ahmed, S M; Bardhan, P K; Ali, A

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with moderate degrees of dehydration and acidosis because of acute watery diarrhoea were successfully treated randomly with either WHO recommended oral rehydration solution containing 2.5 g sodium bicarbonate or an oral solution containing 2.94 g sodium citrate in place of sodium bicarbonate per litre of oral rehydration rehydration solution. Efficacies were compared by measuring oral fluid intake, stool and vomitus output, change in body weight, hydration status, and rate of correction of acidosis during a period of 48 hours. Seventy five per cent (21 cases) in the citrate group and 83% (19 cases) in the bicarbonate group were successfully rehydrated (p greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences in intake, output, gain in body weight, fall in haematocrit and plasma specific gravity, and correction of acidosis between the two groups of patients within 48 hours after initiation of therapy. The solution with sodium citrate base was as effective as WHO-oral rehydration solution for management of diarrhoea. This study shows the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of citrate containing oral rehydration solution for rehydration and correction of acidosis in diarrhoea. PMID:6086466

  9. Recent advances in oral vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Rebecca; Allais, Liesbeth; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2014-01-01

    Oral vaccination is the most challenging vaccination method due to the administration route. However, oral vaccination has socio-economic benefits and provides the possibility of stimulating both humoral and cellular immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Despite the advantages of oral vaccination, only a limited number of oral vaccines are currently approved for human use. During the last decade, extensive research regarding antigen-based oral vaccination methods have improved immunogenicity and induced desired immunological outcomes. Nevertheless, several factors such as the harsh gastro-intestinal environment and oral tolerance impede the clinical application of oral delivery systems. To date, human clinical trials investigating the efficacy of these systems are still lacking. This review addresses the rationale and key biological and physicochemical aspects of oral vaccine design and highlights the use of yeast-derived β-glucan microparticles as an oral vaccine delivery platform. PMID:24553259

  10. The oral cavity in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Pittock, S; Drumm, B; Fleming, P; McDermott, M; Imrie, C; Flint, S; Bourke, B

    2001-05-01

    We assessed the utility of expert oral examination as a part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected Crohn's disease. Of 45 patients with newly diagnosed CD, 25 had been examined by a dentist. Twelve (48%) of these had oral CD lesions. Mucosal tags constituted the most frequent form of oral lesion (8/12). Of 8 oral biopsy specimens, 6 (75%) contained non-caseating granulomas. Patients with oral CD had more oral symptoms, presented for diagnosis sooner, and were more likely to have other upper gastrointestinal inflammation than those without oral lesions. Oral manifestations of CD are common in children; therefore, expert oral examination may be useful during diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:11343060

  11. Solution Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Recovery of alumina from magnetic separation tailings of red mud has been investigated by Na2CO3 solution leaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that most of the alumina is present as 12CaO·7Al2O3 and CaO·Al2O3 in the magnetic separation tailings. The shrinking core model was employed to describe the leaching kinetics. The results show that the calculated activation energy of 8.31 kJ/mol is characteristic for an internal diffusion-controlled process. The kinetic equation can be used to describe the leaching process. The effects of Na2CO3 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and particle size on recovery of Al2O3 were examined.

  12. Oral Leukoplakia – an Update

    PubMed Central

    PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

  13. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  14. Smoking related systemic and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith; Fiala, Zdenĕk; Smejkalová, Jindra; Jacob, Vimal; Somanathan, Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    This article reviewed smoking related systemic diseases and oral diseases. Smoking is related to lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and many other systemic diseases. Cigarette smoke affects the oral cavity first, so it is evident that smoking has many negative influences on oral cavity, for example, staining of teeth and dental restorations, wound healing, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and development of oral diseases such as oral cancer, periodontitis, smoker's palate, smoker's melanosis, hairy tongue, leukoplakia, oral candidiasis and implant survival rate. The article also discusses the relationship between smoking and dental caries in detail. PMID:18254267

  15. Ecstasy (MDMA) and oral health.

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Dun, S N; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2008-01-26

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as 'ecstasy' or XTC, is frequently used by young adults in the major cities. Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals who use ecstasy. This review describes systemic and oral effects of ecstasy. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatraemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include xerostomia, bruxism, and an increased risk of developing dental erosion. Mucosal changes have also been reported. Recent use of ecstasy may interfere with dental treatment. Finally, the potential use of saliva for non-invasive detection of ecstasy is discussed. PMID:18268544

  16. [Ecstasy use and oral health].

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Dun, S N; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2007-02-01

    Ecstacy is a frequently used drug, especially by young adults in the big cities.Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals that use XTC. This review of the literature describes the systemic and oral effects of XTC. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatreaemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include mucosal changes, xerostomia and an increased risk of developing dental erosion and bruxism. Finally, the potential use of saliva for detection of XTC is discussed. PMID:17361788

  17. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  18. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  19. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], −4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.22 to −2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, −3.64; 95% CI, −5.57 to −1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus

  20. Oral Liquid Formulation of Levothyroxine Is Stable in Breakfast Beverages and May Improve Thyroid Patient Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Bernareggi, Alberto; Grata, Elia; Pinorini, Maria Teresa; Conti, Ario

    2013-01-01

    Patients on treatment with levothyroxine (T4) are informed to take this drug in the morning, at least 30 min before having breakfast. A significant decrease of T4 absorption was reported, in fact, when T4 solid formulations are taken with food or coffee. According to preliminary clinical study reports, administration of T4 oral solution appears to be less sensitive to the effect of breakfast beverages on oral bioavailability. In the present study, stability of T4 oral solution added to breakfast beverages was investigated. A 1 mL ampoule of single-dose Tirosint® oral solution (IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy) was poured into defined volumes of milk, tea, coffee, and coffee with milk warmed at 50 °C, as well as in orange juice at room temperature. Samples were sequentially collected up to 20 min and analyzed by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. The results of the study demonstrated that T4 is stable in all beverages after 20 min incubation. Demonstration of T4 stability is a prerequisite for a thorough evaluation of the effect of breakfast beverages on the bioavailability of T4 given as oral solution and for a better understanding of the reasons underlying a decreased T4 bioavailability administered as solid formulations. PMID:24351573

  1. Oral liquid formulation of levothyroxine is stable in breakfast beverages and may improve thyroid patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Bernareggi, Alberto; Grata, Elia; Pinorini, Maria Teresa; Conti, Ario

    2013-01-01

    Patients on treatment with levothyroxine (T4) are informed to take this drug in the morning, at least 30 min before having breakfast. A significant decrease of T4 absorption was reported, in fact, when T4 solid formulations are taken with food or coffee. According to preliminary clinical study reports, administration of T4 oral solution appears to be less sensitive to the effect of breakfast beverages on oral bioavailability. In the present study, stability of T4 oral solution added to breakfast beverages was investigated. A 1 mL ampoule of single-dose Tirosint® oral solution (IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy) was poured into defined volumes of milk, tea, coffee, and coffee with milk warmed at 50 °C, as well as in orange juice at room temperature. Samples were sequentially collected up to 20 min and analyzed by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. The results of the study demonstrated that T4 is stable in all beverages after 20 min incubation. Demonstration of T4 stability is a prerequisite for a thorough evaluation of the effect of breakfast beverages on the bioavailability of T4 given as oral solution and for a better understanding of the reasons underlying a decreased T4 bioavailability administered as solid formulations. PMID:24351573

  2. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G. nasalis), large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G. nasalis), large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G. nasalis), large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... mixed in 5 to 10 fluid ounces of water and administered by stomach tube or drench. (3) Do not re-treat... stomach tube or drench it shall also bear the statement: Caution; Federal law restricts this drug to...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), pinworms (Oxyuris equi), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  7. Correlations between Perceived Oral Malodor Levels and Self-Reported Oral Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Ishii, Kurumi; Tomita, Sachiyo; Tatsuta, Chihiro; Sugiyama, Toshiko; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Even though objective data indicating the absence of oral malodor are presented to patients, they may be skeptical about the results, possibly due to the presence of some discomfort in the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association among self-perceptions of oral malodor, oral complaints, and the actual oral malodor test result. Materials and Methods. Questions concerning self-perceptions of oral malodor and subjective intraoral symptoms were extracted from a questionnaire on oral malodor completed by 363 subjects who visited the clinic for oral malodor of Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital and gave consent to this study. In addition, the association of self-perception of oral malodor with values obtained after organoleptic and OralChroma measurement was analyzed. Results. No correlation between 195 subjects (54%) who were judged “with oral malodor” (organoleptic score of ≥1) and 294 subjects (81.6%) who had a self-perceptions of oral malodor was observed. Self-perception of oral malodor was significantly correlated with tongue coating (p = 0.002) and a strange intraoral taste (p = 0.016). Conclusions. Subjects with a self-perception of oral malodor were not necessarily consistent with those actually having an oral malodor. In addition, it was suggested that patients became aware of oral malodor when they felt oral complaints. PMID:26273303

  8. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  9. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  10. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  11. Utilization of Compounded Medications in an Oral Medicine Practice.

    PubMed

    Stock, Shannon; Rubino, Katie; Woo, Sook-Bin; Margolis, Arthur; Thomas, Irena; Aboalela, Ali; thomas Ali; Treister, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    For many oral medicine conditions, the use of compounded topical therapies that are locally absorbed and act directly at the affected site can provide greater efficacy compared with systemically delivered medications while minimizing systemic side effects. The objective of this study was to characterize the utilization and costs associated with the use of compounded medications in an academic, hospital-based oral medicine practice. This was a retrospective analysis of outpatients treated at the Center for Oral Disease at Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) during the five-year period from November 2006 through November 2011. Patient prescription and payment information were obtained from the pharmacy's patient database. Variables included prescription compound, number of prescriptions refilled, prescription cost, and payment contributions from insurance and patients. An electronic medical record review was conducted to obtain patient demographics and diagnoses. There were 510 unique perscriptions corresponding to 423 patients filled during the study period. Four distinct medications comprised the majority (479/510; 94%) of prescriptions filled. The vast majority (94%) of prescriptions filled were at least partially paid for by insurance, with median patient co-pays ranging from $21 (clonazepam solution) to $34 (ketoprofen cream). Compound medications provide an affordable, flexible therapeutic option for patients being treated for a variety of oral medicine conditions. PMID:27323426

  12. The fluid mechanics of bolus ejection from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, M A; Robbins, J A

    2001-12-01

    The squeezing action of the tongue against the palate provides driving forces to propel swallowed material out of the mouth and through the pharynx. Transport in response to these driving forces, however, is dependent on the material properties of the swallowed bolus. Given the complex geometry of the oral cavity and the unsteady nature of this process, the mechanics governing the oral phase of swallowing are not well understood. In the current work, the squeezing flow between two approaching parallel plates is used as a simplified mathematical model to study the fluid mechanics of bolus ejection from the oral cavity. Driving forces generated by the contraction of intrinsic and extrinsic lingual muscles are modeled as a spatially uniform pressure applied to the tongue. Approximating the tongue as a rigid body, the motion of tongue and fluid are then computed simultaneously as a function of time. Bolus ejection is parameterized by the time taken to clear half the bolus from the oral cavity, t(1/2). We find that t(1/2) increases with increased viscosity and density and decreases with increased applied pressure. In addition, for low viscosity boluses (mu approximately 100 cP), density variations dominate the fluid mechanics while for high viscosity boluses (mu approximately 1000 cP), viscosity dominates. A transition region between these two regimes is found in which both properties affect the solution characteristics. The relationship of these results to the assessment and treatment of swallowing disorders is discussed. PMID:11716855

  13. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  14. New issues in oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Charles W

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphisms in CYP2C9, a critical cytochrome P-450 enzyme in the metabolism of warfarin, alters its clearance and affects dosing. CYP*1 has higher activity than either the *2 or *3 variants, and patients with the *2 or *3 variants require a lower dose. VKORC1 is the enzyme inhibited by warfarin, and its levels are affected by several polymorphisms that can be divided into high or low level haplotypes, and patients with high level haplotypes require higher warfarin doses. The use of algorithms for dosing that incorporate pharmacogenomic information perform better than those using clinical data alone. Considerable effort is ongoing to develop new oral anticoagulants as alternatives to warfarin, and three agents are in advanced development. Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor that has been compared with enoxaparin for prevention of VTE following hip or knee replacement. Based on non-inferiority results in European trials, it has now been approved for marketing in Europe. Phase III trials with a new oral Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, have been completed in hip or knee replacement, and rivaroxaban was superior to enoxaparin in prevention of VTE with no increase in bleeding complications. Phase III studies with apixaban, another oral Xa inhibitor, are in progress. These agents are also being evaluated in large studies for prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation and for VTE treatment. PMID:19074093

  15. Focus: Oral Interpretation and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue of "Indiana English Journal" are concerned with drama and oral interpretation in the classroom. Titles of articles are: "Up in the Tree, Down in the Cave, and Back to Reading: Creative Dramatics"; "Pantomime: The Stepping Stone to Drama"; "The Living Literature of Readers' Theatre"; "Do-It-Yourself Drama"; "Drama for…

  16. Pollen grains for oral vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Atwe, Shashwati U.; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to seven months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate in to mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  17. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  18. ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

  19. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities. PMID:27348951

  20. 75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... invited amicus curiae to submit briefs in these matters, see 75 FR 20007, Apr. 16, 2010; 75 FR 29366, May... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U. Aguzie v. Office of Personnel Management, MSPB Docket Number DC-0731-09-0261-R-1; Jenee Ella Hunt-O'Neal v. Office of Personnel...

  1. 75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... amicus curiae to submit briefs. See 75 FR 6728, Feb. 10, 2010. The parties, OPM, and the amici curiae... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No. CH-0752-09-0925-I-1, and Devon H. Northover v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket...

  2. Orality, Literacy, and Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Eric A.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…

  3. Oral Communication across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

  4. Comprehending Oral and Written Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Rosalind, Ed.; Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.

    Written for researchers and graduate students, this book--a collection of essays by cognitive scientists, socio- and psycholinguists, and English, reading, and language arts educators--explores theoretical and research questions associated with the relationships among oral and written language, listening and reading, and speaking and writing. The…

  5. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor about how you should take your other oral or inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment with salmeterol and fluticasone inhalation. If you were using a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) on a regular basis, your doctor ...

  6. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  7. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  8. Oral Interpretation as Performing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Eric E.

    A three-step process of description, reduction, and interpretation is employed in this paper in disentangling the complex of relationships involved in oral interpretation. In the description, contributions from various disciplines are synthesized; among the topics discussed are the communication process model usually employed in descriptions of…

  9. Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

  10. WHO activities in oral epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Barmes, D E; Infirri, J S

    1977-01-01

    Standard methods to facilitate the collection of data on a global basis have been developed by WHO. Data collection in accordance with criteria proposed by WHO began in 1969 from existing sources and was subsequently supplemented by new data collected using the standard methods. Associated with these methods developments, a WHO Global Oral Epidemiology program was begun with the objective of facilitating comparison of data and their use in planning, replanning, and evaluating oral health services according to needs and economic possibilities. That program provides an orderly storage and retrieval system and a visual representation of contrasts in prevalence of those oral diseases which are among the most common known to man. In selecting data for inclusion in the WHO oral epidemiology data bank, a liberal policy has been pursued to make maximum use of available material. The system of classification allows for data retrieval at various levels and for specific ages. Data on caries are available for 95 countries and on periodontal diseases for 50 countries. PMID:264415

  11. The Oral Accentuation of Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. Sidney

    1967-01-01

    A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths…

  12. [The oral problems of queen Elizabeth I].

    PubMed

    Eijkman, M A J

    2012-05-01

    Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603), probably the most famous English Queen ever, had persistent oral problems. Her oral problems were so serious that they probably hampered the Queen in the performance of her tasks. PMID:22667195

  13. Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Local Offices Close + - Text Size Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know There are many types of ... with any questions or concerns you have. Are you ready to start your oral chemo? Here are ...

  14. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  15. Carmellose Mucoadhesive Oral Films Containing Vermiculite/Chlorhexidine Nanocomposites as Innovative Biomaterials for Treatment of Oral Infections.

    PubMed

    Gajdziok, Jan; Holešová, Sylva; Štembírek, Jan; Pazdziora, Erich; Landová, Hana; Doležel, Petr; Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Infectious stomatitis represents the most common oral cavity ailments. Current therapy is insufficiently effective because of the short residence time of topical liquid or semisolid medical formulations. An innovative application form based on bioadhesive polymers featuring prolonged residence time on the oral mucosa may be a solution to this challenge. This formulation consists of a mucoadhesive oral film with incorporated nanocomposite biomaterial that is able to release the drug directly at the target area. This study describes the unique approach of preparing mucoadhesive oral films from carmellose with incorporating a nanotechnologically modified clay mineral intercalated with chlorhexidine. The multivariate data analysis was employed to evaluate the influence of the formulation and process variables on the properties of the medical preparation. This evaluation was complemented by testing the antimicrobial and antimycotic activity of prepared films with the aim of finding the most suitable composition for clinical application. Generally, the best results were obtained with sample containing 20 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate carried by vermiculite, with carmellose in the form of nonwoven textile in its structure. In addition to its promising physicomechanical, chemical, and mucoadhesive properties, the formulation inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus and Candida; the effect was prolonged for tens of hours. PMID:26064926

  16. Carmellose Mucoadhesive Oral Films Containing Vermiculite/Chlorhexidine Nanocomposites as Innovative Biomaterials for Treatment of Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Holešová, Sylva; Štembírek, Jan; Pazdziora, Erich; Landová, Hana; Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Infectious stomatitis represents the most common oral cavity ailments. Current therapy is insufficiently effective because of the short residence time of topical liquid or semisolid medical formulations. An innovative application form based on bioadhesive polymers featuring prolonged residence time on the oral mucosa may be a solution to this challenge. This formulation consists of a mucoadhesive oral film with incorporated nanocomposite biomaterial that is able to release the drug directly at the target area. This study describes the unique approach of preparing mucoadhesive oral films from carmellose with incorporating a nanotechnologically modified clay mineral intercalated with chlorhexidine. The multivariate data analysis was employed to evaluate the influence of the formulation and process variables on the properties of the medical preparation. This evaluation was complemented by testing the antimicrobial and antimycotic activity of prepared films with the aim of finding the most suitable composition for clinical application. Generally, the best results were obtained with sample containing 20 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate carried by vermiculite, with carmellose in the form of nonwoven textile in its structure. In addition to its promising physicomechanical, chemical, and mucoadhesive properties, the formulation inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus and Candida; the effect was prolonged for tens of hours. PMID:26064926

  17. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  18. Grape products and oral health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods. PMID:19640974

  19. Optimizing Oral Medications for Children

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Active pharmaceutical ingredients that taste bitter and/or irritate the mouth and throat are aversive to children as well as many adults. Effective methods of avoiding unpleasant tastes for adults (eg, encapsulating the medicine in pill, capsule, or tablet form) are problematic because many children cannot or will not swallow these. The unpalatable flavor of the medicine can thwart the benefits of even the most powerful of drugs. Failure to consume medication may do the child harm and can even be life-threatening. Objectives This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of the sensory capabilities and preferences of children as it relates to flavor, defined here as the combined input of taste, smell, and chemical irritation. The methods used to evaluate flavor perception in children are reviewed. Recent scientific advances are summarized that shed light on why the bitter taste of oral pharmaceuticals is an ongoing formulation problem and how discoveries of novel flavor molecules and modulators of bitter tastes hold considerable promise for the future. Alternative methods for evaluation of the palatability of medicines are described. Methods The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development sponsored a Pediatric Formulation Initiative workshop on December 6 and 7, 2005, in Bethesda, Maryland. Information for this article was gathered from literature reviews that were then discussed during this workshop as well as during several conference calls with the Taste and Flavor Working Group members. Terms for the MEDLINE search (1970-2007) included infant, children, taste, olfaction/smell, flavor, chemical senses, palatability, sensory testing, pharmaceutical, and medicines. Results Children have well-developed sensory systems for detecting tastes, smells, and chemical irritants, and their rejection of unpalatable medications is a reflection of their basic biology. Sugars, salt, and other substances reportedly

  20. Sweet solutions for procedural pain in infants.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    A sweet solution, such as sucrose or glucose, can be used for analgesia for minor short term procedural pain, such as immunisation, in infants up to 12 months of age. The sweet solution is given orally and provides short term analgesia. It has National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Level I evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported. This article is part of a series on non drug treatments summarising indications, considerations, evidence and where clinicians and patients can get further information. PMID:23971067

  1. 24 CFR 1720.625 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral argument. 1720.625 Section 1720.625 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Proceedings Appeals § 1720.625 Oral argument. Oral arguments will not be heard in cases on appeal to...

  2. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. You may use oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real property. Follow...

  3. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and other..., emphasize, and/or clarify information related to an appeal. Oral presentations are to be conducted in...

  4. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608... presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the appeals official shall be granted. The purpose of an oral presentation shall be to permit the appellant to...

  5. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102... presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the Government may substitute for, or augment, written information. Use of oral presentations as a substitute for portions of a proposal can be...

  6. 31 CFR 1.10 - Oral information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral information. 1.10 Section 1.10... Disclosure Provisions § 1.10 Oral information. (a) Officers and employees of the Department may, in response to requests, orally provide information contained in records of the Department that are determined...

  7. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  8. Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), an oral proficiency test used by government agencies to assess general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts. It begins with simple, personal…

  9. NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

  10. Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

  11. 20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... filing of an appeal. Any appeal in which a request for oral argument is not granted by the Board will..., extend the time allowed. (e) Appearances. An Appellant may appear at oral argument before the Board or... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5...

  12. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it. PMID:25701438

  13. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha; Mittal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, 15 in each of the following: normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used for the study. Immunohistochemical reaction for survivin protein was performed for the 4 µm thick histological sections taken on positively charged slides. Results. 20% normal mucosa cases, 53.33% cases of leukoplakia, and 80% of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found out to be survivin positive. One way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference of survivin expression between the three different groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion. A high incidence of survivin protein expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma samples indicate that survivin protein expression may be an early event in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26457223

  14. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity. PMID:10518916

  15. Oral neurovascular hamartoma: an extraordinary verdict in the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Junaid, Montasir; Ahmed, Sadaf Qadeer; Kazi, Maliha; Haroon, Saroona

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a neurovascular hamartoma within the oral cavity is truly a rare entity. Scarcely reported in the literature, these hamartomas are smooth, pinkish masses and are painless, and therefore difficult to diagnose. They are benign in nature and apply pressure to their surroundings. The histological diagnosis remains the gold standard as it comprises of neural tissue and vascular components. Treatment is surgical excision with adequate margins. Recurrence is reported in cases of incomplete resection. PMID:24969068

  16. Objective evaluation of oral presentation skills using Inertial Measurement Units.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Salvatore; Kong, Weisheng; Zhang, Di; Cosentino, Sarah; Manawadu, Udara; Kawasaki, Motoji; Thomas, George Thuruthel; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tsumura, Ryosuke; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentation is considered as one of the most sought after skills by companies and professional organizations and program accreditation agencies. However, both learning process and evaluation of this skill are time demanding and complex tasks that need dedication and experience. Furthermore, the role of the instructor is fundamental during the presentation assessment. The instructor needs to consider several verbal and nonverbal communications cues sent in parallel and this kind of evaluation is often subjective. Even if there are oral presentation rubrics that try to standardize the evaluation, they are not an optimal solution because they do not provide the presenter a real-time feedback. In this paper, we describe a system for behavioral monitoring during presentations. We propose an ecological measurement system based on Inertial Measurement Units to evaluate objectively the presenter's posture through objective parameters. The system can be used to provide a real-time feedback to the presenters unobtrusively. PMID:26736952

  17. Animal Models--Decoding the Molecular Biology of Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa; Raj, Thirumal

    2015-04-01

    Animal models have long been used to understand the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis, including that of oral mucosa.(1) One of the earliest models used was the chemical-induced oral cancer model, among which the Syrian Hamster check pouch was preferred for its ideal anatomical location and physiological features.(2) Salley et al(3) demonstrated that the cheek pouch mucosa underwent gradual changes from hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ to squamous cell carcinoma when exposed to polycyclic hydrocarbon 9, 10 dimethyl-1,2, benzanthracene (DMBA). Morris(4) standardized the dosage of carcinogen to 0.5% solution of DMBA in acetone and established that 5-week old animals were ideal to induce tumor with minimum time lag and maximum yield. Lin et al(5) demonstrated the synergistic effect of arecaidine with DMBA. PMID:26067740

  18. Oral health care during pregnancy recommendations for oral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jayanth; Samelson, Renee

    2009-11-01

    Pregnancy is a unique time in a woman's life and is characterized by complex physiological changes. These changes can adversely affect oral health. Pregnancy is also an opportune time to educate women about preventing dental caries in young children, a common childhood problem. Although multiple studies have shown an association between periodontal infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as premature delivery and low birth weight, recent randomized clinical trials conducted in the United States failed to show that treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy improved birth outcomes. However, the studies confirmed the safety and effectiveness of providing oral health care during pregnancy. Pregnancy by itself is not a reason to defer routine dental care and necessary treatment for oral health problems. Diagnosis and treatment, including needed dental X-rays, can be undertaken safely during the first trimester of pregnancy. Needed treatment can be provided throughout the remainder of the pregnancy; however, the time period between the 14th and 20th week is considered ideal. PMID:20069785

  19. Manifestation of psoriasis in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz

    2016-03-01

    Despite the common prevalence of cutaneous psoriasis, the existence of manifestations in the oral cavity is subject to controversy. In this article, dermatologic psoriasis is reviewed, and a patient with generalized, symptomatic oral mucosal erythema resembling atrophic candidiasis synchronous with flare of chronic skin psoriasis is described. Diagnostic work up and therapeutic response supported that these mucosal findings were the oral counterpart of cutaneous disease. Dental providers should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of oral psoriasis, institute appropriate preventive measures, and provide palliation directed at symptomatic oral changes of psoriasis. PMID:26665263

  20. Assessment of different mouthwashes on cannabis oral fluid concentrations.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Ana; Lendoiro, Elena; Fernández-Vega, Hadriana; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Cruz, Angelines

    2014-10-01

    Since the implementation of mandatory drug testing in drivers' oral fluid, several solutions to avoid an onsite positive result can be found on drug users' forums, especially for marijuana, including the use of different mouthwashes. Recently, a product for personal hygiene, Kleaner, has been sold for this purpose. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of water, whole milk, and Kleaner mouthwashes on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) oral fluid concentrations, and those observed in passive smokers subjected to extreme contamination conditions. The study was performed on four days. On day 0, study information was given to the participants. On days 1, 2, and 3, 11 chronic cannabis users smoked their usual daily dose, and oral fluid specimens were collected before smoking (t=-0.5h) and at t=0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h post-smoking. On day 1, participants rinsed their mouth with water before each specimen collection. On day 2, 5 participants rinsed their mouth with Kleaner and 6 with whole milk. On day 3, a specimen was collected before and after rinsing the mouth with water. Statistically significant lower concentrations were observed comparing concentrations in oral fluid specimens collected before and after a water rinse. However, maximum THC concentrations at t=0.25 h were >3-fold higher than the cut-off employed by the Spanish police (25 ng/mL) regardless of the use of any mouthwash. THC was also detected in the oral fluid of passive smokers subjected to extreme contamination conditions; however, concentrations were <25 ng/mL in all cases. PMID:24453092

  1. Modulation of nitrate-nitrite conversion in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    van Maanen, J M; van Geel, A A; Kleinjans, J C

    1996-01-01

    The formation of nitrite from ingested nitrate can give rise to the induction of methemoglobinemia and endogenous nitrosation resulting in the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. We investigated the possibility of modulation of the conversion of nitrate into nitrite in the oral cavity in order to seek ways of reducing the formation of the deleterious nitrite. We investigated the effectiveness of several mouthwash solutions with antibacterial constituents on the reduction of nitrate into nitrite in the oral cavity. In 15 studied subjects, the mean percentage of salivary nitrate reduced to nitrite after ingestion of 235 mg (3.8 mmol) nitrate was found to be 16.1 +/- 6.2%. The use of an antiseptic mouthwash with active antibacterial constituent chlorhexidine resulted in an almost complete decrease of the mean percentage of reduced nitrate, to 0.9 +/- 0.8%. Mouthwash solutions with antibacterial component triclosan or antimicrobial enzymes amyloglucosidase and glucose oxidase did not affect the reduction of nitrate into nitrite. A toothpaste with active components triclosan and zinc citrate with synergistic antiplaque activity was also without effect. Use of a pH-regulating chewing gum resulted in a rise in the pH in the oral cavity from 6.8 to 7.3. At 30 min after nitrate ingestion, this rise was accompanied by a significant increase in the salivary nitrite concentration, which might be explained by the pH being close to the optimal pH for nitrate reductase of 8. In conclusion, a limited number of possibilities of modulation of the conversion of nitrate into nitrite in the oral cavity are available. PMID:8939344

  2. Oral fluid collection: the neglected variable in oral fluid testing.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Dennis J

    2005-06-10

    The potential to use oral fluid as a drug-testing specimen has been the subject of considerable scientific interest. The ease with which specimens can be collected and the potential for oral fluid (OF) drug concentrations to reflect blood-drug concentrations make it a potentially valuable specimen in clinical as well as forensic settings. However, the possible effects of the OF collection process on drug detection and quantification has often been over looked. Several studies have documented that drug-contamination of the oral cavity may skew oral fluid/blood drug ratios and confound interpretation when drugs are smoked, insufflated or ingested orally. OF pH is predicted to have an effect on the concentration of drugs in OF. However, in a controlled clinical study, the effect of pH was less than that of collection technique. Mean codeine OF concentrations in specimens collected a non-stimulating control method were 3.6 times higher than those in OF collected after acidic stimulation. Mean codeine concentrations were 50% lower than control using mechanical stimulation and 77% of control using commercial collection devices. Several factors should be considered if a commercial OF collection device is used. In vitro collection experiments demonstrated that the mean collection volume varied between devices from 0.82 to 1.86 mL. The percentage of the collected volume that could be recovered from the device varied from 18% to 83%. In vitro experiments demonstrated considerable variation in the recovery of amphetamines (16-59%), opiates (33-50%), cocaine and benzoylecgonine (61-97%), carboxy-THC (0-53%) and PCP (9-56%). Less variation in collection volume, volume recovered and drug recovery was observed intra-device. The THC stability was evaluated in a common commercial collection protocol. Samples in the collection buffer were relatively stable for 6 weeks when stored frozen. However, stability was marginal under refrigerated conditions and poor at room temperature. Very

  3. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

  4. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

  5. Expanding the Metchnikoff Postulate: Oral Health Is Crucial in a Successful Global Aging Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Illuzzi, Nicola; Galli, Romina; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Licciardello, Orazio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The mouth offers a unique opportunity for the physician and dental hygienist to evaluate and monitor a number of early nutritional-related diseases and vitamin deficiencies in still-healthy people. Increasing evidence suggests that periodontal disease might be associated with several systemic diseases (diabetes, immunosuppression, obesity, hormonal changes). Conversely, oral/periodontal disease might be the perpetuating factor or possibly the trigger of chronic illnesses via the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the sub-gingival biofilm and oral microbiome unbalance. Office-based microbiological and susceptibility genomic testing in the oral cavity (e.g., BACTOdent-DENTYgen, 4P-Genomics, Luxembourg) are expected to be widespread tools in a global approach for an age-management strategy connecting oral health and personalized solutions. PMID:24050262

  6. Expanding the Metchnikoff postulate: oral health is crucial in a successful global aging management strategy.

    PubMed

    Illuzzi, Nicola; Galli, Romina; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Licciardello, Orazio; Marotta, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The mouth offers a unique opportunity for the physician and dental hygienist to evaluate and monitor a number of early nutritional-related diseases and vitamin deficiencies in still-healthy people. Increasing evidence suggests that periodontal disease might be associated with several systemic diseases (diabetes, immunosuppression, obesity, hormonal changes). Conversely, oral/periodontal disease might be the perpetuating factor or possibly the trigger of chronic illnesses via the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the sub-gingival biofilm and oral microbiome unbalance. Office-based microbiological and susceptibility genomic testing in the oral cavity (e.g., BACTOdent-DENTYgen, 4P-Genomics, Luxembourg) are expected to be widespread tools in a global approach for an age-management strategy connecting oral health and personalized solutions. PMID:24050262

  7. A composite hydrogel system containing glucose-responsive nanocarriers for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Guohua; Yu, Weijiang; Liu, Depeng; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yongkun; Huang, Qin; Tong, Zaizai; Yao, Juming; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-12-01

    Development of an oral delivery strategy for insulin therapeutics has drawn much attention in recent years. In this study, a glucose-responsive nanocarriers for loading of insulin has been prepared firstly. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited relative low cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro. In order to enhance the oral bioavailability of insulin, the insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers were further encapsulated into a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel environment for overcoming multiple barriers and providing multi-protection for insulin during the transport process. The hypoglycemic effect for oral delivery of insulin was studied in vivo. After oral administration to the diabetic rats, the released insulin from hydrogel systems containing insulin-loaded glucose-responsive nanocarriers exhibited an effective hypoglycemic effect for longer time compared with insulin-loaded nanocarriers. PMID:27612686

  8. Examining the Use of Oral Rehydration Salts and Other Oral Rehydration Therapy for Childhood Diarrhea in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Lauren S.; Oria, Prisca A.; Olson, Christine K.; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2011-01-01

    Reductions in the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the need to examine caregiver perceptions of ORT during diarrheal episodes. Qualitative research involving group discussions with childcare providers and in-depth interviews with 45 caregivers of children < 5 years of age who had experienced diarrhea was conducted in one rural and urban site in Kenya during July–December 2007. Diarrhea was considered a dangerous condition that can kill young children. Caregivers preferred to treat diarrhea with Western drugs believed to be more effective in stopping diarrhea than ORT. Inconsistent recommendations from health workers regarding use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) caused confusion about when ORS is appropriate and whether it requires a medical prescription. In the rural community, causal explanations about diarrhea, beliefs in herbal remedies, cost, and distance to health facilities presented additional barriers to ORS use. Health communication is needed to clarify the function of ORT in preventing dehydration. PMID:22144457

  9. Oral microbiota and systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Purnima S

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that bacteria are the primary cause of infectious diseases, however, evidence is emerging that these organisms are also indirectly responsible for several diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The oral cavity is home to several million bacteria that can cause two major diseases-periodontitis and caries. The relationship between periodontopathic bacteria and systemic diseases has been explored for several years. The concept of the oral cavity as a source of distant infection has been debated for at least a century. This review will discuss the historic aspects of the development of the focal infection theory, the reasons for its demise, its re-emergence and current status. PMID:24128801

  10. Reversal of novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Abo-Salem, Elsayed; Becker, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    The development of a new generation of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants represents a potential breakthrough in the management of patients with thrombotic diseases, disorders and conditions. While a large and growing body of evidence from large-scale clinical trials and registries supports a favorable safety profile, having a means to rapidly reverse their anticoagulant effects represents an unmet need among practicing clinicians. Several targeted reversal agents are currently in development and the early results are promising. Idarucizumab is a monoclonal antibody that can immediately and specifically reverse dabigatran. Andexanet alfa is a recombinant modified factor Xa that can bind and reverse oral and parenteral factor Xa inhibitors, including rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and low molecular weight heparin. Aripazine is a small molecule that can reverse the action of factor Xa inhibitors and possibly dabigatran as well through non-covalent binding and charge-charge interactions. PMID:26939028

  11. [Direct oral anticoagulant associated bleeding].

    PubMed

    Godier, A; Martin, A-C; Rosencher, N; Susen, S

    2016-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are recommended for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, they are associated with hemorrhagic complications. Management of DOAC-induced bleeding remains challenging. Activated or non-activated prothrombin concentrates are proposed, although their efficacy to reverse DOAC is uncertain. Therapeutic options also include antidotes: idarucizumab, antidote for dabigatran, has been approved for use whereas andexanet alpha, antidote for anti-Xa agents, and aripazine, antidote for all DOAC, are under development. Other options include hemodialysis for the treatment of dabigatran-associated bleeding and administration of oral charcoal if recent DOAC ingestion. DOAC plasma concentration measurement is necessary to guide DOAC reversal. We propose an update on DOAC-associated bleeding, integrating the availability of dabigatran antidote and the critical place of DOAC concentration measurements. PMID:27297642

  12. Hamartomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26539384

  13. Methamphetamine Use and Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “glass,” “crystal” and “tina.” It is ...

  14. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  15. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

  16. Use of oral rehydration therapy in acute watery diarrhoea. A practical guide.

    PubMed

    Sack, D A

    1991-04-01

    Various foods and fluids have been used in traditional treatments for diarrhoeal illnesses in infants and children for centuries. During the last 2 decades, however, with the advent of an improved scientific understanding of oral rehydration, effective treatment of dehydrating diarrhoea has been improved, expanded and simplified. The appropriate use of oral rehydration solutions depends on an appreciation of the physiological mechanisms of diarrhoeal illness. Since dehydrating diarrhoea is such a common cause of morbidity and mortality, and because oral rehydration therapy is inexpensive, effective and adaptable, it has become a powerful intervention for improvement in health care for all ages. Newer formulations using starches, cereals and/or amino acids promise to make oral rehydration therapy even more efficacious and acceptable. Nearly all developing countries now have active national diarrhoeal control programmes which facilitate rehydration therapy as the first treatment of diarrhoea while discouraging the use of other diarrhoea medicines (e.g. kaolin and pectin, antispasmodics, etc.). Industrialised countries are also increasingly using oral rather than intravenous fluids. For most patients with lesser degrees of dehydration (up to about 8%) or no detectable dehydration, oral rehydration therapy is the only form of hydration needed. The 'standard' oral replacement solution recommended by the World Health Organization has the advantage of wide experience, demonstrated safety and effectiveness and wide availability. However, rehydration is only part of the management of diarrhoea, and nutritional management (including electrolytes and glucose, alternative substrates to glucose, inclusion of starches and proteins in the solution if possible, etc.) must also be integrated into programmes for diarrhoea control. PMID:1711960

  17. Oral drug self-administration: an overview of laboratory animal studies.

    PubMed

    Meisch, R A

    2001-06-01

    Many abused drugs can be established as orally delivered reinforcers for rhesus monkeys and other animals. Benzodiazepines, barbiturates, opioids, psychomotor stimulants, dissociative anesthetics, and ethanol can come to serve as reinforcers when taken by mouth. The principal problems in establishing drugs as reinforcers by the oral route of administration are (1) aversive taste, (2) delay in onset of central nervous system effects, and (3) consumption of low volumes of drug solution. Strategies have been devised to successfully overcome these problems, and orally delivered drugs can be established as effective reinforcers. Reinforcing actions are demonstrated by consumption of greater volumes of drug solution than volumes of the water vehicle, and supporting evidence for reinforcing effects consists of the maintenance of behavior under intermittent schedules of reinforcement and the generation of orderly dose-response functions. This article presents an overview of studies of behavior reinforced by oral drug reinforcement. Factors that control oral drug intake include dose, schedule of reinforcement, food restriction, and alternative reinforcers. Many drugs, administered by the experimenter, can alter oral drug reinforcement. Relative reinforcing effects can be assessed by choice procedures and by persistence of behavior across increases in schedule size. In general, reinforcing effects increase directly with dose. Rhesus monkeys prefer combinations of reinforcing drugs to the component drugs. The taste of drug solutions may act as a conditioned reinforcer and a discriminative stimulus. Consequences of drug intake include tolerance and physiological dependence. Findings with orally self-administered drugs are similar to many findings with other positive reinforcers, including intravenously self-administered drugs. PMID:11522433

  18. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice. PMID:24159754

  19. Oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2008-10-01

    Oral health affects older adults and their quality of life. Oral care is reported to have a low priority in nursing care of older adults, and repeated assessments to detect oral health problems are seldom performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among level of oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) and to identify predictors of OHRQL in Korean older adults. The design was a descriptive, correlational study. The level of oral pain contributed most significantly to OHRQL, followed by nutrition and number of teeth. These three predictor variables explained 46.4% of the variance in OHRQL. Older adults could benefit from oral health care, such as routine screening for oral health and nutritional status. Nurses are at the forefront in providing such services, and it is recommended they integrate oral health care into their routine nursing care plans. PMID:18942537

  20. Depth of penetration in periodontal pockets with oral irrigation.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Ford, C; Boyd, R L

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Water Pik oral irrigator as a vehicle for delivering an aqueous solution into periodontal pockets. Plaque-disclosing dye diluted with sterile saline solution was applied with the irrigator toward the gingival margins of teeth at 90 degrees and at 45 degrees prior to their extraction. The mean % penetration measured between a reference notch at the gingival crest and the periodontal ligament at the bottom of the pocket showed no statistical difference between the two angles of application. Penetration ranged from 44% to 71%, the lowest being into pockets 4-7 mm; higher mean penetration was noted in both subgroups 0-3 and greater than 7 mm. No statistical difference was found between proximal and facial or lingual surfaces, maxilla and mandible, existence of tooth contact, and proximal tissue contour or consistency. The mean % penetration was independent of pocket depth (chi 2 analysis). Correlation between pocket depth and mean penetration was low for all but one subgroup (90 degrees application and pockets greater than 7 mm). The results suggest that the oral irrigator will deliver an aqueous solution into periodontal pockets and will penetrate on average to approximately half the depth of the pockets. PMID:3003166

  1. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  2. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion. PMID:27079409

  3. Developing and Integrating Courseware for Oral Presentations into ESP Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) multimedia courseware on oral presentations, and its integration into self-study learning and elective courses for students with different English proficiencies, as one solution to problems in ESP courses in Taiwan. The courseware design is based on Mayer's multimedia…

  4. [Estimation of antimicrobial means action efficacy in children oral cavities by pH-test].

    PubMed

    Guliamov, S S

    2009-01-01

    Possibility of mixed saliva pH determination in the efficacy of antimicrobial mean action was assessed using fluctuations in hydrogen index (pH following consumption of sweets in teenagers according to Stephan curve). Antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine-containing preparation Eludrile and Elgidium-tooth paste, as well as furacillin solution in oral cavities of teenagers was estimated. PMID:19365352

  5. Process Inquiry: Analysis of Oral Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trance, Naci John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents another effort in determining the difficulty of engineering students in terms of solving word problems. Students were presented with word problems in algebra. Then, they were asked to solve the word problems orally; that is, before they presented their written solutions, they were required to explain how they understood the…

  6. Acoustical, morphological and optical properties of oral rehydration salts (ORS)

    SciTech Connect

    George, Preetha Mary E-mail: jayakumars030@gmail.com; Divya, P.; Jayakumar, S. E-mail: jayakumars030@gmail.com; Subhashree, N. S.; Ahmed, M. Anees

    2015-06-24

    Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity were measured in different concentrations of oral rehydration salts (ORS) at room temperature 303 k. From the experimental data other related thermodynamic parameters, viz adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, acoustic impedence, relaxation time are calculated. The experimental data were discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the liquid mixtures. The results have been discussed in terms of solute-solvent interaction between the components. Structural characterization is important for development of new material. The morphology, structure and grain size of the samples are investigated by SEM. The optical properties of the sample have been studied using UV Visible spectroscopy.

  7. Comparative bioequivalence study of a new levothyroxine solution versus a reference L-thyroxine solution in normal healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chassard, D; Kerihuel, J C; Caplain, H; Tran Quang, N; Thebault, J J

    1991-01-01

    A bioequivalence study between a new Levothyroxine solution and a reference solution was performed in 12 healthy volunteers after one single 3000 g oral administration. Administrations were done according to a cross-over schedule with a three week wash-out period. Plasma profile of Levothyroxine was determined for 72 hours, clinical tolerance being appreciated for 10 days after each administration. No statistical difference was reported for pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical tolerance was good. PMID:1820903

  8. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

  9. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era. PMID:27051943

  10. Oral medicine and the ageing population.

    PubMed

    Yap, T; McCullough, M

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. PMID:25762041

  11. Malnutrition and its oral outcome - a review.

    PubMed

    Sheetal, Aparna; Hiremath, Vinay Kumar; Patil, Anand G; Sajjansetty, Sangmeshwar; Kumar, Sheetal R

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition affects the oral health and a poor oral health in turn, may lead to malnutrition. This interdependent relationship sees good nutritional health, thus promoting good oral health and vice versa. Malnutrition may alter the homeostasis, which can lead to disease progression of the oral cavity, reduce the resistance to the microbial biofilm and reduce the capacity of tissue healing. It may even affect the development of the oral cavity. Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when there is a deficiency of protein, energy foods or both, which are relative to a body's need. Studies have suggested that enamel hypoplasia, salivary gland hypofunction and saliva compositional changes may be the mechanisms through which the malnutrition is associated with caries, while an altered eruption timing may create a challenge in the analysis of the age specific caries rates. This paper gives an insight on the relationship of the malnutrition and the protein-energy malnutrition with the oral health status. PMID:23449967

  12. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P.; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid in the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Now a day's many adjunctive oral cancer screening techniques are available for the early diagnosis of cancer. Among these, autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool. These techniques are broadly discussed in this review. PMID:26538880

  13. ORAL LICHEN PLANUS AND ORAL LICHENOID REACTION--AN UPDATE.

    PubMed

    Rotim, Zeljko; Bolanca, Zeljana; Rogulj, Ana Andabak; Andabak, Matej; Boras, Vanja Vucićević; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-12-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) are clinically and histopathologically similar diseases. Whereas OLP is a consequence of T cell mediated autoinflammatory process to a still unknown antigen, OLR might be caused by drugs, dental restorative materials and dental plaque. Pubmed was searched and 24 publications published over the last three years regarding etiology, diagnosis and malignant alteration were included in this study. Patients with OLR who have amalgam fillings near lesions should have them replaced, i.e. when possible they should be referred to patch test, as well as when drug-induced OLR are suspected. OLR lesions induced by drugs should disappear when the offending drug has been discontinued. Histology finding in OLR consists of more eosinophils, plasma cells and granulocytes in comparison to OLP lesions. Furthermore, OLP lesions showed more p53, bcl-2 and COX-2 positivity when compared to OLR. OLP is characterized by infiltration, atrophic epithelium, rete pegs and Max Joseph spaces, while deep infiltration into connective tissue and hyperkeratosis were the criteria for making the diagnosis of OLR. The number of degranulated mastocytes in the reticular layer, as well as the number of capillaries was higher in OLR in comparison to OLP. It seems that OLR are more prone to malignant alteration in comparison to OLP. PMID:27017728

  14. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  15. Marathon Maternity Oral History Project

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing

  16. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  17. Surgical navigation in oral implantology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Bier, Jurgen

    2006-03-01

    The ability to generate 3-dimensional volumetric images of the maxillofacial area has allowed surgeons to evaluate anatomy before surgery and plan for the placement of implants in ideal positions. However, the ability to transfer that information to surgical reality has been the most challenging part of implant dentistry. With the advent of computer-assisted surgery, the surgeon may now navigate through the entire implant procedure with extremely high accuracy. A new portable laptop navigated system for oral implantology is discussed as an adjunct for complex implant cases. PMID:16569960

  18. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  19. Oral metastasis of chondroblastic osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Yeluri, Sivaranjani; Madala, Jayakiran

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant mesenchymal tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of sarcomas, with 5% incidence in the jaws. They present various clinical and histological aspects as well as variable disease prognosis and outcome. About 50% of all osteosarcomas are osteoblastic, 25% fibroblastic, 25% chondroblastic. Metastasis of osteosarcoma in the oral cavity is rare, and very few cases have been described so far in the literature. This article presents a metastatic case of chondroblastic osteosarcoma in the mandibular right-attached gingiva arising from 4th rib. This case report further suggests that chondroblastic osteosarcoma has poor prognosis. PMID:23293503

  20. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for