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  1. Green Tea Extract Improves the Post Prandial Overproduction of Intestinal Apolipoprotein B-containing Lipoproteins in Fructose Fed Hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green tea has putative medicinal properties that may be useful in preventing the metabolic syndrome. However, little is known of the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on postprandial apoB-48 containing lipoproteins and its molecular mechanisms. In a three-hour olive oil loading study, acute GTE ora...

  2. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the caffeine in black tea might slow blood clotting, though this hasn’t been shown in people. ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. Caffeine ...

  3. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    Black tea is a product made from the Camellia sinesis plant. The aged leaves and stems are ... of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness as ...

  4. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  5. Information Regarding the OraQuick In-Home HIV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test? Information on the OraQuick In-Home HIV Test can be found on FDA’s website . Additionally, information can be obtained from the manufacturer, OraSure Technologies. back to top More in Premarket Approvals (PMAs) ...

  6. Backyard Teas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  7. 78 FR 11270 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KAI ORA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel KAI ORA... intended service of the vessel KAI ORA is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Skippered Charter in...

  8. Tea Tree Oil

    MedlinePlus

    96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... us ... 96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 96262 ... https:// ...

  9. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  10. Tea with Riddles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of tea parties to stimulate children to use their creativity to plan, organize, and think about the materials they would need. Considers the use of riddles and gives examples of tea parties from literature, including fantasy books. (LRW)

  11. Is it tea time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost teas are often reported to have numerous benefits for landscape professionals and home gardeners. However, many of these benefits are not supported by the scientific literature. This article presents a brief summary of the scientific results and the merits of using composts teas for diseas...

  12. Using *ORA, a network analysis tool, to assess the relationship of handoffs to quality and safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Effken, Judith A; Gephart, Sheila M; Brewer, Barbara B; Carley, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Communication during patient handoffs has been widely implicated in patient safety issues. However, few studies have actually been able to quantify the relationship between handoffs and patient outcomes. We used *ORA, a dynamic network analysis tool, to examine handoffs between day and night shifts on seven units in three hospitals in the Southwest. Using *ORA's visualization and analysis capabilities, we examined the relationships between the handoff communication network metrics and a variety of patient safety quality and satisfaction outcomes. Unique network patterns were observed for different types of outcome variable (eg, safety, symptom management, self-care, and patient satisfaction). This exploratory project demonstrates the power of *ORA to identify communication patterns for large groups, such as patient care units. *ORA's network metrics can then be related to specific patient outcomes. PMID:23114394

  13. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea < red tea < green tea < white tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively. PMID:21365858

  14. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil. PMID:22653070

  15. Using Organization Risk Analyzer (ORA) to Explore the Relationship of Nursing Unit Communication to Patient Safety and Quality Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Effken, Judith A.; Carley, Kathleen M.; Gephart, Sheila; Verran, Joyce A.; Bianchi, Denise; Reminga, Jeff; Brewer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We used Organization Risk Analyzer (ORA), a dynamic network analysis tool, to identify patient care unit communication patterns associated with patient safety and quality outcomes. Although ORA had previously had limited use in healthcare, we felt it could effectively model communication on patient care units. Methods Using a survey methodology, we collected communication network data from nursing staff on seven patient care units on two different days. Patient outcome data were collected via a separate survey. Results of the staff survey were used to represent the communication networks for each unit in ORA. We then used ORA's analysis capability to generate communication metrics for each unit. ORA's visualization capability was used to better understand the metrics. Results We identified communication patterns that correlated with two safety (falls and medication errors) and five quality (e.g., symptom management, complex self care, and patient satisfaction) outcome measures. Communication patterns differed substantially by shift. Conclusion The results demonstrate the utility of ORA for healthcare research and the relationship of nursing unit communication patterns to patient safety and quality outcomes. PMID:21536492

  16. Tea Tells All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, Carol

    2007-01-01

    A beverage, as well as the way it is served, can be a window into the soul of a culture. For the author and her husband, Turkish tea helped them understand and enjoy the culture of Turkey. They learned that the broad nuances of culture can be as instructive as a classroom experience. The tea story begins in Chicago in the spring of 2005 when the…

  17. An assessment of upper ocean salinity content from the Ocean Reanalyses Inter-comparison Project (ORA-IP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.; Alves, O.; Wedd, R.; Balmaseda, M. A.; Chang, Y.; Chepurin, G.; Ferry, N.; Fujii, Y.; Gaillard, F.; Good, S. A.; Guinehut, S.; Haines, K.; Hernandez, F.; Lee, T.; Palmer, M.; Peterson, K. A.; Masuda, S.; Storto, A.; Toyoda, T.; Valdivieso, M.; Vernieres, G.; Wang, X.; Yin, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Many institutions worldwide have developed ocean reanalyses systems (ORAs) utilizing a variety of ocean models and assimilation techniques. However, the quality of salinity reanalyses arising from the various ORAs has not yet been comprehensively assessed. In this study, we assess the upper ocean salinity content (depth-averaged over 0-700 m) from 14 ORAs and 3 objective ocean analysis systems (OOAs) as part of the Ocean Reanalyses Intercomparison Project. Our results show that the best agreement between estimates of salinity from different ORAs is obtained in the tropical Pacific, likely due to relatively abundant atmospheric and oceanic observations in this region. The largest disagreement in salinity reanalyses is in the Southern Ocean along the Antarctic circumpolar current as a consequence of the sparseness of both atmospheric and oceanic observations in this region. The West Pacific warm pool is the largest region where the signal to noise ratio of reanalysed salinity anomalies is >1. Therefore, the current salinity reanalyses in the tropical Pacific Ocean may be more reliable than those in the Southern Ocean and regions along the western boundary currents. Moreover, we found that the assimilation of salinity in ocean regions with relatively strong ocean fronts is still a common problem as seen in most ORAs. The impact of the Argo data on the salinity reanalyses is visible, especially within the upper 500 m, where the interannual variability is large. The increasing trend in global-averaged salinity anomalies can only be found within the top 0-300 m layer, but with quite large diversity among different ORAs. Beneath the 300 m depth, the global-averaged salinity anomalies from most ORAs switch their trends from a slightly growing trend before 2002 to a decreasing trend after 2002. The rapid switch in the trend is most likely an artefact of the dramatic change in the observing system due to the implementation of Argo.

  18. Factors affecting the levels of tea polyphenols and caffeine in tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Tsai, Yao-Jen; Tsay, Jyh-Shyan; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2003-03-26

    An isocratic HPLC procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of caffeine and six catechins in tea samples. When 31 commercial teas extracted by boiling water or 75% ethanol were analyzed by HPLC, the levels of (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), and total catechins in teas were in the order green tea (old leaves) > green tea (young leaves) and oolong tea > black tea and pu-erh tea. Tea samples extracted by 75% ethanol could yield higher levels of EGCG and total catechins. The contents of caffeine and catechins also have been measured in fresh tea leaves from the Tea Experiment Station in Wen-Shan or Taitung; the old tea leaves contain less caffeine but more EGCG and total catechins than young ones. To compare caffeine and catechins in the same tea but manufactured by different fermentation processes, the level of caffeine in different manufactured teas was in the order black tea > oolong tea > green tea > fresh tea leaf, but the levels of EGCG and total catechins were in the order green tea > oolong tea > fresh tea leaf > black tea. In addition, six commercial tea extracts were used to test the biological functions including hydroxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide suppressing, and apoptotic effects. The pu-erh tea extracts protected the plasmid DNA from damage by the Fenton reaction as well as the control at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. The nitric oxide suppressing effect of tea extracts was in the order pu-erh tea >/= black tea > green tea > oolong tea. The induction of apoptosis by tea extract has been demonstrated by DNA fragmentation ladder and flow cytometry. It appeared that the ability of tea extracts to induce HL-60 cells apoptosis was in the order green tea > oolong > black tea > pu-erh tea. All tea extracts extracted by 75% ethanol have stronger biological functions than those extracted by boiling water. PMID:12643643

  19. Green tea and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  20. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Xiang, Li-Ping; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper. PMID:26978340

  1. Membrane clarification of tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Kumar, Chandini S; Sharma, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The ready-to-drink (RTD) tea beverages are becoming increasingly popular owing to the health benefits associated with tea polyphenols, but instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is a common problem encountered in the product. Membrane technology provides a scope to produce natural, additive-free RTD teas while overcoming the major disadvantages associated with the conventional decreaming methods. Approaches employing membranes for the clarification of extracts from black and green tea have been discussed together with their relative advantages and limitations. The article also outlines the concerns to be addressed in the future attempts employing membrane technology. PMID:24499147

  2. Tea and Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    The annual Women's and Girls' Tea Party and Storytelling Ceremony is held in a Berkeley redwood grove by a creek. Seeking to generate community support for creek restoration, the ceremony/celebration/site-specific performance piece uses childhood rituals and story telling to help participants connect emotionally to each other, the place, its past,…

  3. Sassafras tea and diaphoresis.

    PubMed

    Haines, J D

    1991-09-15

    A patient whose main symptom is sweating can present a diagnostic challenge. Dr Haines describes a case in which diaphoresis was caused not by a conventional medication or illness but rather by a life-style change in which the patient began consuming sassafras tea. PMID:1891436

  4. Infant weaning methods: an intergenerational view from Igbo-Ora Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Titiloye, Musibau A; Brieger, William R

    This study documents and compares the methods by which mothers and grandmothers feed children under 2 years of age in a southwest Nigerian town and the factors which influence their choice of weaning methods. The study was exploratory in design and stratified sampling was done to select respondents from all six wards of the town studied. Two hundred and forty mothers with children under 2 years of age and 246 grandmothers were interviewed. Data analysis was done using EPI INFO Software. Mothers were more likely to have used feeding bottles than grandmothers, while the reverse was true for hand- or forced-feeding. Although most women had used cups and spoons to feed their children, this was more common among current mothers. Over three-quarters of mothers said there were dangers associated with forced-feeding. Grandmothers perceived more social support and encouragement to practice hand-feeding than mothers, while the opposite was true for bottle-feeding. Both groups felt equally encouraged to use cups and spoons. In conclusion, child feeding methods in Igbo-Ora town of Oyo State may be changing with succeeding generations. Forced-feeding appears to be less popular among mothers, and grandmothers are using cups and spoons with feeding bottles. The current generation of mothers in Igbo-Ora would benefit from health education to reinforce safe ways of feeding their children. PMID:19959425

  5. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis, (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability, (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies, (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health, and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density (BMD) and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities. PMID:19700031

  6. Caffeine content of brewed teas.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jenna M; Merves, Michele L; Goldberger, Bruce A; Sampson-Cone, Angela; Cone, Edward J

    2008-10-01

    Caffeine is the world's most popular drug and can be found in many beverages including tea. It is a psychostimulant that is widely used to enhance alertness and improve performance. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of caffeine in 20 assorted commercial tea products. The teas were brewed under a variety of conditions including different serving sizes and steep-times. Caffeine was isolated from the teas with liquid-liquid extraction and quantitated by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. Caffeine concentrations in white, green, and black teas ranged from 14 to 61 mg per serving (6 or 8 oz) with no observable trend in caffeine concentration due to the variety of tea. The decaffeinated teas contained less than 12 mg of caffeine per serving, and caffeine was not detected in the herbal tea varieties. In most instances, the 6- and 8-oz serving sizes contained similar caffeine concentrations per ounce, but the steep-time affected the caffeine concentration of the tea. These findings indicate that most brewed teas contain less caffeine per serving than brewed coffee. PMID:19007524

  7. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food. PMID:23037977

  8. Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mao-Jung; Lambert, Joshua D; Prabhu, Saileta; Meng, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Maliakal, Pius; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yang, Chung S

    2004-01-01

    Catechins and theaflavins, polyphenolic compounds derived from tea (Camellia sinensis, fam. Theaceae), have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities including prevention of tooth decay and oral cancer. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness of green tea leaves and black tea extract for the delivery of catechins and theaflavins to the oral cavity. After holding either green tea leaves (2 g) or brewed black tea (2 g of black tea leaves in 100 ml) in the mouth for 2-5 min and thoroughly rinsing the mouth, high concentrations of catechins (C(max) = 131.0-2.2 micro M) and theaflavins (C(max) = 1.8-0.6 micro M) were observed in saliva in the 1st hour. Whereas there was significant interindividual variation in the peak levels of catechins and theaflavins, the overall kinetic profile was similar, with t(1/2) = 25-44 min and 49-76 min for catechins and theaflavins, respectively (average coefficient of variation in t(1/2) was 23.4%). In addition to the parent catechin and theaflavin peaks, five unidentified peaks were also observed in saliva after black tea treatment. Hydrolysis of theaflavin gallates, apparently by salivary esterases, was observed in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that tea leaves can be used as a convenient, slow-release source of catechins and theaflavins and provide information for the possible use of tea in the prevention of oral cancer and dental caries. PMID:14744744

  9. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  10. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  11. Using tea stalk lignocellulose as an adsorbent for separating decaffeinated tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Ye, J H; Jin, J; Liang, H L; Lu, J L; Du, Y Y; Zheng, X Q; Liang, Y R

    2009-01-01

    Lignocelluloses prepared from woody tea stalk, pine sawdust and sugarcane bagasse were used as adsorbents to isolate decaffeinated catechins from tea extracts and compared with synthetic macroporous resin HPD 600. HPD 600 had the highest adsorption capacity to catechins, followed by tea stalk lignocellulose while lignocelluloses of pine sawdust and bagasse the least. Tea stalk lignocellulose absorbed preferentially tea catechins and showed a good selectivity. HPD 600 absorbed caffeine and tea catechins simultaneously. The kinetics data of tea stalk lignocellulose showed a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm model. It is considered that tea stalk lignocellulose is an alternative low-cost adsorbent for preparing decaffeinated tea catechins. PMID:18710802

  12. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].

    PubMed

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Not only tea leaves, but also many kinds of plants have been used as tea, even those plants not belonging to Camellia sinensis, and they should be called "tea out of tea" in the Lucidophyllous forest zone. Generally, the tea leaf is drank after being decocted (almost boiled). The growth distribution of tea ranges in a belt-like zone of 30-40 degrees north latitude. Therefore, tea might have grown wild as "YAMACHA (mountain tea)" from ancient times in Japan as well as China. The first recored of tea drinking in Japan is the ceremony of "GYOUCHA" at the Imperial Court of the Emperor SHOUMU in 729. On the other hand, the oldest book about tea in China (CHAKYOU) was written in 770. Therefore, it seems that tea drinking started at nearly the same time in both countries. Tea was dispensed as medical supplies by Chinese medicinal prescription (SENKYUCHACHOUSAN) in Japan, but in China, tea was used as powdered medicine for drinking (SEICHA). However, the leaf of a certain plant used as "tea out of tea," was applied as a galenical preparation for traditional Chinese medicinal constitution. However, it is not possible to judge whether or not there was adaptability in Chinese medicine theory. In Japan, when tea was first consumed as a food, other than a few exceptions tea leaves were used as a coarse tea (BANCHA) until the latter half of the Meiji period. Mixing in air by stirring a tea solution, and at the same time, letting tea match with hot water. It was wisdom to improve the taste. As a result, in order to make bubble well, both of the condition and technique were devised. One of the approaches was to add the dried plant of Leguminosae (saponin) or tea flower (saponin), when "BANCHA" was decorted. And also tools such as a bamboo tea whisk (CHASEN) as well as bowl (GOROHACHI-CHAWAN), were conceived. "FURICHA" was served as a medicine by KUUYASHOUNIN in Japan in 951. Afterwards, the prayer ceremonies at shrines and temples used CHARAZU," showing the custom to serve tea in

  13. Green tea and theanine: health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    Historically, the medicinal use of green tea dates back to China 4700 years ago and drinking tea continues to be regarded traditionally in Asia as a general healthful practice. Numerous scientific publications now attest to the health benefits of both black and green teas, including clinical and epidemiological studies. Although all tea contains beneficial antioxidants, high-quality green and white teas have them in greater concentrations than black tea. Today, scientists believe that the main active ingredients of green tea include the polyphenols, in particular the catechins and the amino acid, theanine. Studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon. Recent studies describing the health benefits of these compounds will be reviewed. PMID:22039897

  14. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  15. Using *ORA, a Network Analysis Tool, to Assess the Relationship of Handoffs to Quality and Safety Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Effken, Judith A.; Gephart, Sheila M.; Brewer, Barbara B.; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Communication during patient handoffs has been widely implicated in patient safety issues. However, few studies have actually been able to quantify the relationship between handoffs and patient outcomes. We used *ORA, a dynamic network analysis tool, to examine handoffs between day and night shifts on seven units in three hospitals in the Southwest. Using *ORA’s visualization and analysis capabilities we examined the relationships between the handoff communication network metrics and a variety of patient safety quality and satisfaction outcomes. Unique network patterns were observed for different types of outcome variable (e.g., safety, symptom management, self care, and patient satisfaction). This exploratory project demonstrates the power of *ORA to identify communication patterns for large groups, such as patient care units. *ORA’s network metrics can then be related to specific patient outcomes. PMID:23114394

  16. K and Ca content of fresh green tea, black tea, and tea residue determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Nas, S; Gokalp, H Y; Sahin, Y

    1993-01-01

    X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) can be successfully used for the qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of various agricultural products. Its simplicity, high throughput and the possibility of automation make it useful for screening large numbers of samples. The K and Ca content of 138 samples of fresh green tea, black tea and black tea residues were determined by applying the XRF system. Such a method of mineral analysis of food products is not very common. Tea from different tea-growing areas of Turkey, green tea of different shooting periods, black tea processed at different tea plants and tea residues from these black tea were analysed. The K content of green tea, processed black tea and tea residues after brewing were found to have ranges of 19,049-26,254 mg/kg, 21,904-26,883 mg/kg and 9,468-13,778 mg/kg, respectively. In the same samples the Ca content was determined as 3,580-4,799 mg/kg, 3,370-4,823 mg/kg, and 3,743-5,733 mg/kg, respectively. These findings were compared with the results of atomic emission techniques and it was concluded that the XRF system could be effectively used for quantitative analysis of the K and Ca content of tea samples. PMID:8438623

  17. ORA47 (octadecanoid-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47) regulates jasmonic acid and abscisic acid biosynthesis and signaling through binding to a novel cis-element.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Hsieh, En-Jung; Cheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Chien-Yu; Hwang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2016-07-01

    ORA47 (octadecanoid-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47) of Arabidopsis thaliana is an AP2/ERF domain transcription factor that regulates jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis and is induced by methyl JA treatment. The regulatory mechanism of ORA47 remains unclear. ORA47 is shown to bind to the cis-element (NC/GT)CGNCCA, which is referred to as the O-box, in the promoter of ABI2. We proposed that ORA47 acts as a connection between ABA INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) and ABI2 and mediates an ABI1-ORA47-ABI2 positive feedback loop. PORA47:ORA47-GFP transgenic plants were used in a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to show that ORA47 participates in the biosynthesis and/or signaling pathways of nine phytohormones. Specifically, many abscisic acid (ABA) and JA biosynthesis and signaling genes were direct targets of ORA47 under stress conditions. The JA content of the P35S:ORA47-GR lines was highly induced under wounding and moderately induced under water stress relative to that of the wild-type plants. The wounding treatment moderately increased ABA accumulation in the transgenic lines, whereas the water stress treatment repressed the ABA content. ORA47 is proposed to play a role in the biosynthesis of JA and ABA and in regulating the biosynthesis and/or signaling of a suite of phytohormone genes when plants are subjected to wounding and water stress. PMID:26974851

  18. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  19. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  20. [Contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Matsushima, F; Meshitsuka, S; Nose, T

    1993-10-01

    We measured the contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions by means of various standardized infusion conditions, and by using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and investigated the influence of infusion conditions on the elution of aluminum and manganese into the tea infusions. Furthermore, we tried to estimate the daily intake of aluminum and manganese due to drinking tea infusions. The content of aluminum in tea leaves was 1420 micrograms/g in case of wulong tea, 576 micrograms/g in black tea, and 520 micrograms/g in green tea. The content of manganese was 1440 micrograms/g in the case of wulong tea, 670 micrograms/g in green tea, and 535 micrograms/g in black tea. The concentration of aluminum in tea infusions was 1.49-5.58 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, 0.90-4.92 micrograms/ml in green tea, and 0.64-4.35 micrograms/ml in black tea. The concentration of manganese was 1.75-6.67 micrograms/ml in green tea, 0.94-4.04 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, and 0.78-3.24 micrograms/ml in black tea. The ratio of the molar concentration of aluminum to that of manganese was 1-2:1 in tea leaves, and 1-5:1 in tea infusions. In the case of elevated-temperature infusion, increases of the concentrations of aluminum and manganese in tea infusions were recognized. By repeating infusion three times according to the standard method for ingredient analysis of food, 18-29% of the total content of aluminum in tea leaves was eluted, and 12-29% of the total content of manganese was eluted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8254994

  1. Preparation of partially decaffeinated instant green tea.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Jin, Jing; Liang, Hue-Ling; Du, Ying-Ying; Lu, Jian-Liang; Ye, Qian; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-01

    The caffeine level of instant tea extracted from decaffeinated leaf tea with 4.0 mg g-1 caffeine is commonly above 10.0 mg g-1, the maximum limit of caffeine for decaffeinated instant tea. Further removal of caffeine by active carbon (AC) from the green tea extract was investigated. It showed that the removal of caffeine from the tea extract solutions depended on the treatment time and tea extract concentration while the ethanol concentration and pH had little effect on the removal of caffeine. According to the removal of caffeine and the ratio of total catechins to caffeine in the tested samples, the optimum decaffeination conditions were determined to be as follows: tea extract concentration 15-30 g L-1 for common tea extract but higher for partially decaffeinated tea leaf extract; ratio of tea solution to AC, 100 mL:4 g; treatment time, 4 h; and natural tea extract pH. Instant tea powder extracted from partially decaffeinated leaf tea with a caffeine level of 4.03 mg g-1 and further decaffeinated by AC had a caffeine level of 7.81 mg g-1, which was 31% lower than that without AC treatment. PMID:17407319

  2. Tea not Tincture: Hepatotoxicity Associated with Rooibos Herbal Tea

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Michael; Matoso, Andres; Maidan, Eyal; Wands, Jack

    2013-01-01

    A 52-year-old male presented with signs of acute hepatitis and liver failure. Laboratory investigations for common etiologies were unrevealing, but history suggested liver injury secondary to ingestion of a traditional South African herbal tea made with rooibos and buchu. Livery biopsy confirmed a toxin-mediated liver injury. The patient recovered liver function after stopping the herbal tea. Although hepatotoxicity associated with rooibos and buchu has rarely been reported, anecdotal correspondence with South African physicians confirmed suspected cases. Hepatotoxicity may be due to the heterogeneous composition of herbal teas due to small-batch manufacturing. Our case clearly outlines the need to suspect herbal causes of idiopathic liver injury. PMID:26157822

  3. Mineral composition of some traditional Mexican teas.

    PubMed

    Laferriere, J E; Weber, C W; Kohlhepp, E A

    1991-07-01

    Teas of plant origin traditionally consumed by the Mountain Pima of Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for mineral nutritional content. Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg composition was determined for native teas made from shoots of Tagetes lucida, T. filifolia, Elytraria imbricata, and Holodiscus dumosus, and from root xylem of Ceanothus depressus and Phaseolus ritensis. Native uses of these teas are also described. PMID:1924192

  4. ORA1, a Zebrafish Olfactory Receptor Ancestral to All Mammalian V1R Genes, Recognizes 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, a Putative Reproductive Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Maik; Frank, Oliver; Rawel, Harshadrai; Ahuja, Gaurav; Potting, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Korsching, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    The teleost v1r-related ora genes are a small, highly conserved olfactory receptor gene family of only six genes, whose direct orthologues can be identified in lineages as far as that of cartilaginous fish. However, no ligands for fish olfactory receptor class A related genes (ORA) had been uncovered so far. Here we have deorphanized the ORA1 receptor using heterologous expression and calcium imaging. We report that zebrafish ORA1 recognizes with high specificity and sensitivity 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The carboxyl group of this compound is required in a particular distance from the aromatic ring, whereas the hydroxyl group in the para-position is not essential, but strongly enhances the binding efficacy. Low concentrations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid elicit increases in oviposition frequency in zebrafish mating pairs. This effect is abolished by naris closure. We hypothesize that 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid might function as a pheromone for reproductive behavior in zebrafish. ORA1 is ancestral to mammalian V1Rs, and its putative function as pheromone receptor is reminiscent of the role of several mammalian V1Rs as pheromone receptors. PMID:24831010

  5. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:15928624

  6. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    PubMed

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  7. Cadmium in Jamaican Bush Teas

    PubMed Central

    Hoo Fung, LA; Rattray, VR; Lalor, GC

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 μg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04–1.18 μg of Cd and would contribute 0.1 – 0.3 μg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 μg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  8. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    PubMed

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  9. Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of seven green tea catechins and four black tea theaflavins, generally referred to as flavonoids, as well as the aqueous extracts (infusions) of 36 commercial black, green, oolong, white, and herbal teas against Bacillus cereus (strain RM3190) incubated at 2...

  10. Studies on quality of orthodox teas made from anthocyanin-rich tea clones growing in Kangra valley, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Robin; Rana, Ajay; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-06-01

    Recently anthocyanin-rich purple tea varieties have been developed. The quality of these new purple tea varieties developed in Kangra valley was assessed, and compared with the quality of tea from standard Kangra clone. Purple tea shoots (PL) recorded higher amount of polyphenols compared to standard green tea shoot (GL) while epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) recorded higher levels in GL. Higher levels of theaflavins were recorded in orthodox black tea from purple shoots (BTP) compared to black tea (BT) made from green shoots. Both theanine and caffeine recorded higher levels in GL. Volatile flavour profiles of these teas showed qualitative and quantitative differences. Aroma extract dilution assay showed higher dilution factors in BTP than BT. Orthodox teas from purple shoots exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to standard black tea. Strong correlation of total quality scores with aroma and infusion colour was observed. Tea from anthocyanin-rich cultivars can become specialty teas with high antioxidant activity. PMID:25624244

  11. On cooling tea and coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.; Viney, C.

    1988-05-01

    Factors influencing the rate of cooling of hot coffee and tea have been investigated theoretically and studied experimentally using deliberately ``domestic'' apparatus. It is demonstrated that black coffee cools faster than white coffee under the same conditions. Under most (but not all) circumstances, if coffee is required to be as hot as possible several minutes after its preparation, any milk or cream should be added immediately, rather than just before drinking.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jinping; Kong, Xiangyi; Kong, Aiying; Han, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Tea is an infusion of the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant and is the most widely consumed beverage in the world after water. The main chemical components in teas are phenolic compounds (tea polyphenols, mainly tea catechins). A large number of in vitro and in vivo scientific studies have supported that the tea polyphenols can provide a number of health benefits such as, reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Recently, tea polyphenols have proven highly attractive as lead compounds for drug discovery programs. A clear understanding of chemistry, stability, pharmacokinetics and metabolic fate of tea will be significant to elucidate many medicinal effects by biochemical theory and pharmaceutical development. This article reviews the current literature on the pharmacoknetics and biotransformation of tea catechins. The half-lives of tea polyphenols are 2-4h and their absorption and elimination are rapid in humans. The peak times (tmax) are 1 and 3 h after oral administration and the peak plasma concentrations are low μM range. It has been reported that catechins are easily metabolized by enzyme and microbe, and the main metabolic pathways are methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, ring-fission metabolism, and so on. The information is important to discuss some of the challenges and benefits of pursuing this family of compounds for drug discovery. PMID:24527703

  13. Tea and its consumption: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Khizar; Iqbal, Hira; Malik, Uzma; Bilal, Uzma; Mushtaq, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    The recent convention of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or combat diseases is a centuries' old tradition. Nutritional support is an emerging advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; tea and its constituents are one of the significant components of these strategies to maintain the health and reduce the risk of various malignancies. Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide, besides water. All the three most popular types of tea, green (unfermented), black (fully fermented), and oolong (semifermented), are manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea possesses significant antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering, and thermogenic properties. Several research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses suggest that tea and its bioactive polyphenolic constituents have numerous beneficial effects on health, including the prevention of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, genital warts, and obesity. Controversies regarding beneficialts and risks of tea consumption still exist but the limitless health-promoting benefits of tea outclass its few reported toxic effects. However, with significant rise in the scientific investigation of role of tea in human life, this review is intended to highlight the beneficial effects and risks associated with tea consumption. PMID:24915350

  14. Te Whiringa Ora: person-centred and integrated care in the Eastern Bay of Plenty, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Carswell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Te Whiringa Ora is a community-based programme in New Zealand that facilitates interdisciplinary care for patients and their family. It targets those with a chronic disease whom have high inpatient admissions or emergency department presentations. It is based in a rural part of New Zealand that has a large indigenous population, and a relatively high level of social deprivation. The programme makes use of culturally appropriate care coordinators, and uses telephone support and tele-monitoring to aid self-management. The programme has been running for three years and has shown a reduction on hospital presentations, as compared to an equivalent population (not enrolled in the programme). This case study outlines the programme, and focuses specifically on the implementation processes, and lessons learnt. PMID:26417209

  15. Analysis of the diurnal development of the Ora del Garda wind in the Alps from airborne and surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiti, L.; Zardi, D.; de Franceschi, M.; Rampanelli, G.

    2013-07-01

    A lake-breeze and valley-wind coupled circulation system, known as Ora del Garda, typically arises in the late morning from the northern shorelines of Lake Garda (southeastern Italian Alps), and then channels into the Sarca and Lakes valleys to the north. After flowing over an elevated saddle, in the early afternoon this wind breaks out from the west into the nearby Adige Valley, hindering the regular development of the local up-valley wind by producing a strong and gusty anomalous flow in the area. Two targeted flights of an equipped motorglider were performed in the morning and afternoon of 23 August 2001 in the above valleys, exploring selected vertical slices of the atmosphere, from the lake's shore to the area where the two local airflows interact. At the same time, surface observations were collected during an intensive field measurement campaign held in the interaction area, as well as from routinely-operated weather stations disseminated along the whole study area, allowing the analysis of the different stages of the Ora del Garda development. From airborne measurements, an atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) vertical structure, typical of deep Alpine valleys, was detected in connection with the wind flow, with rather shallow (∼500 m) convective mixed layers surmounted by deeper, weakly stable layers. On the other hand, close to the lake's shoreline the ABL was found to be stabilized down to very low heights, as an effect of the onshore advection of cold air by the lake breeze. Airborne potential temperature observations were mapped over high-resolution 3-D grids for each valley section explored by the flights, using a geostatistical technique called residual kriging (RK). RK-regridded fields revealed fine-scale features and inhomogeneities of ABL thermal structures associated with the complex thermally-driven wind field developing in the valleys. The combined analysis of surface observations and RK-interpolated fields revealed an irregular propagation of

  16. Assay of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid-evaluation of the OraSure oral specimen collection device.

    PubMed

    Kauert, Gerold F; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie; Toennes, Stefan W

    2006-05-01

    Oral fluid is considered to be an alternative to urine testing for the detection of acute ingestion of drugs. The OraSure Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection Device (OSCD) has been used in studies for the quantitation of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but concerns have been raised. In the present study, we investigated whether the volume of oral fluid can be determined and how much THC remains adsorbed on the device. It was found that THC is markedly adsorbed onto the absorptive pad. The recovery using the standard elution procedure was only 37.8 +/- 9.4% for 10 ng/mL and 55.6 +/- 1.0% for 100 ng/mL of THC in oral fluid (n = 5 each). With an additional methanol wash, a further 25% could be eluted. Therefore, a modification of the procedure was evaluated, consisting of the addition of 2 mL of methanol to the elution buffer. THC could be completely recovered over a range of concentrations (1 to 1000 ng/mL). For the determination of the amount of oral fluid absorbed, a gravimetric approach was evaluated as the weights of the devices vary only by 0.6% relative standard deviation. After application of 0.5 mL oral fluid to pads and evaluation of the weight differences, the applied amount could be estimated with a precision of 7.5% (n = 8) and an accuracy of 6.1%. From these results it can be concluded that the OraSure OSCD is useful to collect oral fluid for reliable quantitative THC assay applying a modified elution procedure and gravimetric determination of the amount of oral fluid. PMID:16803667

  17. Wire ageing with the TEA photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-06-01

    Recently several RICH protypes successfully tested a gaseous TEA photocathode. However, its wire ageing behavior is unknown. In principle, TEA is a more strongly bonded molecule than TMAE, and, as a result, one would expect better wire ageing behavior. This paper explores this question.

  18. Oral fluid testing for cannabis: on-site OraLine IV s.a.t. device versus GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, Vincent; Villain, Marion; Mura, Patrick; Bernard, Marc; Kintz, Pascal

    2006-09-12

    Saliva or "oral fluid" has been presented as an alternative matrix to document drug use. The non-invasive collection of a saliva sample, which is relatively easy to perform and can be achieved under close supervision, is one of the most important benefits in a driving under the influence situation. Moreover, the presence of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid is a better indication of recent use than when 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) is detected in urine, so there is a higher probability that the subject is experiencing pharmacological effects at the time of sampling. In the first part of the study, 27 drug addicts were tested for the presence of THC using the OraLine IV s.a.t. device to establish the potential of this new on-site DOA detection technique. In parallel, oral fluid was collected with the Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection device and tested for THC by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after methylation for THC (limit of quantification: 1 ng/mL). The OraLine device correctly identified nine saliva specimens positive for cannabis with THC concentrations ranging from 3 to 265 ng/mL, but remained negative in four other samples where low THC concentrations were detected by GC/MS (1-13 ng/mL). One false positive was noted. Secondly, two male subjects were screened in saliva using the OraLine and Intercept devices after consumption of a single cannabis cigarette containing 25mg of THC. Saliva was first tested with the OraLine device and then collected with the Intercept device for GC/MS confirmation. In one subject, the OraLine on-site test was positive for THC for 2 h following drug intake with THC concentrations decreasing from 196 to 16 ng/mL, while the test remained positive for 1.5 h for the second subject (THC concentrations ranging from 199 to 11 ng/mL). These preliminary results obtained with the OraLine IV s.a.t. device indicate more encouraging data for the detection of THC using on

  19. Green tea from purple leaf coloured tea clones in Kenya- their quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kilel, E C; Faraj, A K; Wanyoko, J K; Wachira, F N; Mwingirwa, V

    2013-11-15

    The Kenyan tea industry wishes to diversify its tea products, and in line with this, anthocyanin - rich teas were developed at the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya. These teas have purple-coloured leaves and the green colour is masked. In total, 12 accessions of the purple leaf coloured teas and 2 standard tea varieties were studied. Clones Hanlu and Yabukita are Chinese and Japanese tea varieties, respectively, known for good green tea, and they were used as reference standards. Little if any research had been done to characterize the quality of these purple leaf coloured teas and this study investigated their total polyphenols (TPP), catechins, caffeine, gallic acid and theanine. These are the major green tea quality parameters. Results showed that the new Kenyan tea clones had higher total polyphenols than had the reference standard tea varieties, which had 17.2% and 19.7% while the lowest among the Kenyan clones was 20.8%. On catechin quality index, K-purple and TRFK 91/1 showed high index values of 15.9 and 13.3, respectively, while clones TRFK 83/1 and 73/5 showed low index values of 0.74 and 1.0, respectively. Hanlu had the highest caffeine level with 2.42% while clones TRFK KS 3, TRFK KS 2 and TRFK 83/1 had relatively high caffeine levels among the purple leaf coloured teas, with 2.33%, 2.22% and 2.21%, respectively. Clone TRFK 73/5 had the lowest caffeine content, with 1.16%. Theanine analysis showed that most purple leaf coloured teas had more theanine than had the reference standard clones, except TRFK 83/1 and K-purple, which were lower than the reference standard clones. The implication of the green tea chemical quality parameters is also discussed. It is concluded that all the studied clones/varieties have above the minimum 14% of total polyphenols. Clones K-purple and TRFK 91/1 showed high green tea quality indices with the latter doubling with high levels of theanine; hence its highly recommended for green tea manufacture. PMID:23790846

  20. Epidemiological evidence linking tea consumption to human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V

    2014-01-01

    Tea has been widely consumed around the world for thousands of years and drinking tea is a daily habit for people of all ages. Tea is a major source of flavonoids, which have become well known as antioxidants. Tea also contains caffeine and theanine, which have been found to associate with health benefits. Many animal and epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the link between tea consumption and human health. However, common questions that arise about tea consumption include: whether all teas are the same, why drinking tea is linked with health benefits, how do the different ways of tea preparation impact on availability of tea components, how much and how long a person should consume tea to obtain health benefits, and whether there is any negative health effect associated with drinking tea. To answer these questions, this paper outlines the tea components and their link to human health, discusses major factors affecting availability of tea components in a tea cup, and reviews the latest epidemiological evidence linking tea consumption to human health. PMID:24237002

  1. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health. PMID:26675858

  2. Formation of Volatile Tea Constituent Indole During the Oolong Tea Manufacturing Process.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lanting; Zhou, Ying; Gui, Jiadong; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Zhen, Yunpeng; Ye, Tingxiang; Du, Bing; Dong, Fang; Watanabe, Naoharu; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-06-22

    Indole is a characteristic volatile constituent in oolong tea. Our previous study indicated that indole was mostly accumulated at the turn over stage of oolong tea manufacturing process. However, formation of indole in tea leaves remains unknown. In this study, one tryptophan synthase α-subunit (TSA) and three tryptophan synthase β-subunits (TSBs) from tea leaves were isolated, cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. Combination of CsTSA and CsTSB2 recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli exhibited the ability of transformation from indole-3-glycerol phosphate to indole. CsTSB2 was highly expressed during the turn over process of oolong tea. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced the expression level of CsTSB2 and amount of indole. These suggested that accumulation of indole in oolong tea was due to the activation of CsTSB2 by continuous wounding stress from the turn over process. Black teas contain much less indole, although wounding stress is also involved in the manufacturing process. Stable isotope labeling indicated that tea leaf cell disruption from the rolling process of black tea did not lead to the conversion of indole, but terminated the synthesis of indole. Our study provided evidence concerning formation of indole in tea leaves for the first time. PMID:27263428

  3. Attraction of the tea aphid, toxoptera aurantii, attraction to combinations of volatiles and colors related to tea plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tea aphid, Toxoptera aurantii Boyer (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Fourteen volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS from air passed over intact tea shoots (ITSV). Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the winged tea aphids to ITSV as w...

  4. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  5. Irreversible sediment formation in green tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Chen, Gen-Sheng; Wang, Qiu-Shuang; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Feng, Chun-Hong; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2012-03-01

    The formation of irreversible tea sediment (IRS) and its chemical components in green tea infusions were investigated. The results showed that the amounts of IRS in the green tea infusions from various tea cultivars ranged from 0.10 to 1.47 mg/mL. The amount of IRS was influenced remarkably by the chemical components in the green tea infusion. Principal component analysis and regression analysis indicated that gallated catechins, Mn, Ca, caffeine, Na, and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG) were the principal components. IRS (mg/mL) = -4.226 + 0.275 gallated catechins + 79.551 Na + 7.321 Mn + 21.055 Ca + 0.513 caffeine - 0.129 GCG (R2 = 0.697). The contents of the main chemical components in the reversible tea sediment (RTS) and IRS were markedly different, especially the minerals. Large amount of minerals participated in the formation of irreversible green tea sediment. The amount of IRS increased with the extraction temperature. PMID:22329921

  6. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    PubMed Central

    Reygaert, Wanda C.

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols) found in green tea: (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities. PMID:25191312

  7. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. PMID:26616936

  8. [Residual pesticide concentrations after processing various types of tea and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takahide; Watanabe, Ayaka; Shitara, Hiroshi; Kaburagi, Yasuo; Shibata, Masahisa; Kanda, Noriko; Kurokawa, Chieko; Inoue, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Togawa, Masayuki; Ozawa, Akihito; Uchiyama, Toru; Koizumi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Masuda, Shuichi; Maitani, Tamio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of processing to produce various types of tea or infusion on the levels of pesticide residues in tea were investigated for three insecticides (chlorfenapyr, pyrimiphos-methyl, and clothianidin). Tea plants were sprayed with one of the three pesticides and cultivated under cover. The levels of pesticide residues in tea decreased after processing according to the time and temperature of heating, as well as fermentation. Although significant differences were not observed among the three pesticides in the ratio of decreased of pesticide concentration after processing to green tea, clothianidin, which is a neonicotinoid insecticide and has a lower log Pow value, tended to be transferred more than the other two insecticides into infusions. However, no significant difference in the ratios of clothianidin transferred to infusions was observed among green tea with three different leaf sizes. PMID:24025203

  9. Aroma characteristics of cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Jiaxian; Ye, Chuangxing; Kubota, Kikue

    2010-01-01

    Three types of Cocoa tea, green, oolong, and black, were prepared from fresh young leaves of Camellia ptilophylla. Their aroma characteristics were compared by a sensory evaluation with corresponding traditional tea samples made from C. sinensis. The aroma profile of Cocoa green tea was quite different from that of traditional green tea, but fermented Cocoa oolong tea and black tea showed aroma profiles similar to those of traditional oolong tea and black tea. Cocoa green tea contained vanillin as the most abundant aroma constituent. Almost the same aroma compounds of jasmine lactone, indole and monoterpene alcohols, which are known as important aroma constituents in commercial oolong tea and black tea, were identified as the main aroma compounds in the fermented Cocoa tea types. The composition of these aroma compounds well explained the aroma profile of each Cocoa tea. The monoterpene alcohols seemed to be released during fermented tea manufacture, because seventeen glycosides consisting of the aglycons of terpene alcohols were identified in Cocoa tea leaves, and hydrolytic activity of crude enzymes in the p-nitrophenol glycoside substrate was also detected. PMID:20460717

  10. Spectroscopic fingerprint of tea varieties by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buyukgoz, Guluzar Gorkem; Soforoglu, Mehmet; Basaran Akgul, Nese; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-03-01

    The fingerprinting method is generally performed to determine specific molecules or the behavior of specific molecular bonds in the desired sample content. A novel, robust and simple method based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed to obtain the full spectrum of tea varieties for detection of the purity of the samples based on the type of processing and cultivation. For this purpose, the fingerprint of seven different varieties of tea samples (herbal tea (rose hip, chamomile, linden, green and sage tea), black tea and earl grey tea) combined with silver colloids was obtained by SERS in the range of 200-2000 cm(-1) with an analysis time of 20 s. Each of the thirty-nine tea samples tested showed its own specific SERS spectra. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also applied to separate of each tea variety and different models developed for tea samples including three different models for the herbal teas and two different models for black and earl grey tea samples. Herbal tea samples were separated using mean centering, smoothing and median centering pre-processing steps while baselining and derivatisation pre-processing steps were applied to SERS data of black and earl grey tea. The novel spectroscopic fingerprinting technique combined with PCA is an accurate, rapid and simple methodology for the assessment of tea types based on the type of processing and cultivation differences. This method is proposed as an alternative tool in order to determine the characteristics of tea varieties. PMID:27570296

  11. OH and O3 in the MLT: Comparing MAHRSI and ORA measurements With the SOCRATES 2D-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrillat, S.; Kockarts, G.; Brasseur, G.; Fussen, D.; Fonteyn, D.

    2001-12-01

    New space-based measurements of two key chemical species in the MLT, OH and O3\\ , were recently published. The OH radical was measured for the first time in the stratosphere and the mesosphere by the MAHRSI instrument. Conway et al. [2000] showed the difficulty to explain these observations with a one-dimensional model. Ozone measurements were extracted from the ORA instrument, which uses solar occultation in the UV-visible wavelength range. More than 2500 vertical profiles of O3 at sunrise and sunset were obtained, up to 110 km altitude. This is the first ozone data set to extend above the mesopause, capturing the ozone secondary maximum in its totality. We compare these measurements with the results of the SOCRATES two-dimensional interactive model. The latest version of this model includes, among other improvements, an accurate calculation of the absorption of the Lyman-α solar line by O2\\ , molecular diffusion, and a parameterization of the gravity wave drag to accurately match the observed temperature distribution in the MLT - especially the temporal and spatial structure of the mesopause. We show that the observations of mesospheric OH and O3 in the MLT are reproduced in a very satisfactory manner using this new multi-dimensional model.

  12. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716

  13. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  14. [Determination of elements related to reducing blood sugar (ERBS) in tea and tea polysaccharide by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming-Yong; Nie, Shao-Ping; Fu, Bo-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2006-09-01

    Contents of elements related to reducing blood sugar (ERBS) in several kinds of green tea of Wuyuan county, their tea infusion extracted by warm water and boiling water and tea polysaccharide (TP) were determined by ICP-MS, after the samples were digested with acids by microwave method. The relation between the amount of ERBS and tea quality and the relation between the content of ERBS in TP and the total content in tea were discussed. The results showed that the amounts of ERBS in tea and TP are different in various samples. The amount of ERBS in TP extracted from coarse tea was higher than that from fresh tea. The percentage of certain ERBS in TP accounting for the ERBS in tea ranged from 0.03% to 9.57%. As to the total ERBS in TP extracted from Mt. Zhang super grade tea and grade 5 tea, the percentages were 1.11% and 2.10% respectively. As to Mt. Gu old tea, it was 0.85%. The results could provide data for selecting tea material used to extracting tea polysaccharide and for studying the mechanism of reducing blood sugar. PMID:17112052

  15. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  16. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  17. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC seven catechins [(–)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (–)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-gallocate...

  18. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  19. Factors affecting transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from made tea to tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daohui; Zhu, Lizhong; Luo, Lan

    2006-06-14

    Factors affecting transfer percentages of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated, including tea variety, tea/water ratio (TWR, g/mL), brewing times, washed tea or unwashed tea, and covered cup or uncovered cup. It was observed that %PAH transfer varied with tea variety and increased with the decrease of TWR. The mean %PAH transfer with TWR = 1/150 was 1.12 and 1.65 times higher than that with TWR = 1/100 and 1/50, respectively. %PAH transfer reduced greatly as the brewing times increased. The mean %PAH transfer in the first brewing time occupied 51.6% of the total three mean %PAH transfers in the three brewing times. The mean %PAH transfer decreased by 30.4% after the tea had been washed immediately before brewing. Brewing the tea within uncovered cup diminished %PAH transfer by a degree of 4.31-31.7% compared to brewing the tea within a covered cup. PMID:16756366

  20. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

    PubMed Central

    Dadashi, Masoud; Hashemi, Ali; Eslami, Gita; Fallah, Fatemeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Taherpour, Arezou

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are few therapeutic options for treatment of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates as a hospital infectious agent (nosocomial infection). The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 K. pneumoniae isolates from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods and detection of ESBL was carried out according to CLSI guidelines. The blaCTX-M-15 plasmid gene was detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Extracts susceptibility test was performed by broth microdilution method. Results: Among 100 K. pneumoniae strains, 48 (48%) were ESBL positive. In this study, fosfomycin, colistin and tigecycline were more active than other antibiotics. The existence of blaCTX-M-15 was detected in 30 (62.5%) of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. The chloroformic extract showed potent activity against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains (MIC50 = 1.56 mg/ml and MIC90=3.12mg/ml). The MIC50 and MIC90 (The MIC50 represents the MIC value at which ≥50% of the isolates in a test population are inhibited and the MIC90 represents the MIC value at which ≥90% of the strains within a test population are inhibited) were 3.12 and 6.25 mg/ml and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml for methanolic and acetonic extracts, respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae is very high. Therefore, detection of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in K. pneumoniae isolates and in control of infections. Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. PMID:27462557

  2. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity. PMID:26028699

  3. Antimicrobial activity of different tea varieties available in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zakir, Muhammad; Sultan, Khush Bakht; Khan, Haroon; Ihsaanullah; Khan, Murad Ali; Fazal, Hina; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-11-01

    In this antimicrobial study, various extracts of Green and Black tea (Camellia sinensis) and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates) were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains including both human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi) and plant pathogenic bacteria (Erwinia carotovora, Agro bacterium tumifaciens) and one fungal strain Candida albicans by disc diffusion susceptibility method. Of human pathogens, P. aeruginosa was most susceptible to all three different tea varieties; though rest of the strains also demonstrated prominent sensitivity. In comparison, black tea extracts were less activities than green tea and lemon grass. However, all the three tea varieties illustrated profound activity against plant pathogenic bacteria. Similarly, when extracts of tea were tested against C. albicans, green tea and lemon grass exhibited significant activity while black tea was mostly inactive. PMID:26639502

  4. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

  5. [Brick-tea type adult bone fluorosis].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianwei; Xirao, Ruodeng

    2003-03-01

    To investigate health impact of brick-tea type fluorosis in adults, the total daily fluorine intake, environment fluorine level were determined, the average urinary fluorine content assay and bone X-ray examination were conducted, the clinical manifestations were observed in the brick-tea type bone fluorosis epidemiological study conducted in Naqu County, Tibet at September, 2001. One hundred and eleven adults aged at 30-78 year-old were enrolled. It was found that the fluorine level of drinking water in Naqu County was 0.10 +/- 0.03 mg/L, but the brick-tea water processed foods-zamba and buttered tea had fluorine content of 4.52 +/- 0.74 mg/kg and 3.21 +/- 0.65 mg/kg respectively. The adult daily fluorine intake reached 11.99 mg, among which 99% is originated from the brick-tea containing foods. Positive detection rate of fluorosis osteopathy was 89% and the X-ray film confirmed that the diagnosis rate was 83%. Degenerative arthropathy and ossification of the interosteal membrane, calcification of the tendon were the characteristics that indicated by both the positive signs and reogenological examination. The prevalence of osteosclerosis type (bone matrix increased) was 74%. It is suggested that there were even more severe health impact compared with those in the water type and coal combustion type fluorosis. PMID:12793007

  6. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  7. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by panning. Panning increased (P < 0.05) contents of linalool oxide, cis jasmone, and methyl salicylate. The GC-O study also showed an increase of aroma active compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  8. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs. PMID:26365752

  9. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies. PMID:26471269

  10. Molecular characterization of tea mosquito bug from tea growing regions of India.

    PubMed

    Suganthi, M; Chandrashekara, K N; Arvinth, S; Raj Kumar, R

    2016-09-01

    The tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis (Hemiptera: Miridae), is an insidious pest that poses a significant economical threat to tea plantations. As a basic first step to control this pest is authentic identification, but the inability to determine morphological characters of Helopeltis species makes this process very difficult. DNA barcoding is a reliable alternative to traditional morphological identification of this pest. Since tea is cultivated in different parts of the country, an attempt was made to molecular characterization of Helopeltis. This is the first report on molecular identification and diversity characterization of Helopeltis collected from tea growing regions of southern and north India, using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Beginning with the molecular identification of this pest is essential to start an effective pest management strategy, and will provide basic information for diffusion pattern, population dynamics and chemical application. PMID:26186305

  11. Comparison of black, green and rooibos tea on osteoblast activity.

    PubMed

    Nash, L A; Ward, W E

    2016-02-17

    Globally, tea is the second most consumed beverage after water. Habitual tea intake has been associated with higher bone mineral density, particularly in postmenopausal women. This association may be due to its polyphenols and resulting protective antioxidant effects. While in vivo studies have shown improved bone outcomes with a consumption of individual purified tea polyphenols, it is unclear if a particular tea - due to its different profiles of polyphenols - is more beneficial than others. Therefore, we compared three different types of commercially available teas on osteoblasts: green, black and rooibos tea. Tea was normalized to 1 or 10 μg per mL gallic acid equivalents to assess differences in outcomes based on tea profiles rather than the quantity of polyphenol naturally present. The lower level of polyphenols (1 μg per mL gallic acid equivalents) - regardless of tea type and thus polyphenol profile - resulted in greater mineral content as well as cellular and alkaline phosphatase activity in Saos2 cells. Moreover, this was associated with higher markers of differentiation (osteopontin, sclerostin) and reduced cellular toxicity and pro-inflammatory markers (IL6, TNFα). Green, black and rooibos tea improved osteoblast activity at the low level and support epidemiological evidence suggesting tea consumption may benefit bone heath. PMID:26885714

  12. Utilization of tea grounds as feedstuff for ruminant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Researches on tea have been developed for decades, which prove that tea, especially green tea, has multiple functional components. With the rapid development of beverage industry, the resultant large amounts of tea grounds attract great attention. However, unreasonable utilization of tea grounds would lead to great waste and environmental pollution, especially in summer. In view of the high nutritive value and multiple functional components, tea grounds could be used as feedstuff. By now, researches of tea grounds as feedstuff are mainly on ruminant, as the utilization on other animals is limited to lower level due to high fiber content. Therefore, the following review will begin with a brief introduction of tea grounds and the possible utilization of tea grounds as feedstuff, and then elaborate on the application of ensiling and total mixed ration on ruminant. Apart from the fermentation quality, nutritive value is also provided to assess feasibilities of using tea grounds as feedstuff resources. Finally, a summary on the utilization situation and future direction of using tea grounds as feedstuff is provided in this review. PMID:24369099

  13. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  14. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the corresponding caffeinated tea. The use of mineral water containing a naturally high fluoride level during the process of decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation. PMID:8850589

  15. Effect of physicochemical parameters on enzymatic biodecaffeination during tea fermentation.

    PubMed

    Babu, V R Sarath; Thakur, M S; Patra, Sanjukta

    2012-01-01

    We report for the first time the development of a biodecaffeination process for tea synchronised with tea fermentation process using enzymes isolated from Pseudomonas alcaligenes. Cell-free extract was used for biodecaffeination of tea during fermentation of tea and 80% of the caffeine in the tea dhool was degraded within 90 min of incubation. Several factors that tend to effect the biodecaffeination during this stage, like moisture, aeration, intermittent enzyme addition and mixing, were optimized, and inhibitory interactions of proteins with polyphenols, caffeine-polyphenol interactions, which directly influence the biodecaffeination process were prevented by the use of glycine (5% w/w) in the dhool. Tea decaffeinated through the enzymatic route retained the original flavor and aroma, and there was an increase in the total polyphenol content of the tea. PMID:22116671

  16. Are odorant constituents of herbal tea transferred into human milk?

    PubMed

    Denzer, Melanie Y; Kirsch, Frauke; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-01-14

    The present study investigates aroma transfer from commercial nursing tea, consumed in the maternal diet, into human milk by correlating sensory assessments with quantitative analytical data. The target terpenes were quantified in milk (expressed before and after tea consumption) and tea samples via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using stable isotope dilution assays (volunteer donors n = 5). Sensory analyses were carried out on different milk samples from a single donor, sampled before (blank) and at different times after tea ingestion. Quantitative analysis revealed that no significant odorant transfer into milk was observed after lactating women drank the tea. The comparative sensorial analysis of milk samples expressed before and after tea consumption confirmed that tea ingestion had no significant influence on the odor profile of human milk. PMID:25436940

  17. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives. PMID:26428142

  18. A comparison of the potential health risk of aluminum and heavy metals in tea leaves and tea infusion of commercially available green tea in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanhai; Fu, Qing-Long; Achal, Varenyam; Liu, Yonglin

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals and Al in tea products are of increasing concern. In this study, contents of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in commercially available green tea and its infusions were measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. Both target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) were employed to assess the potential health risk of studied metals in tea leaves and infusions to drinkers. Results showed that the average contents of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in tea leaves were 487.57, 0.055, 0.29, 1.63, 17.04, 7.71, and 0.92 mg/kg, respectively. Except for Cu, metal contents were within their maximum limits (1, 5, 30, and 5 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively) of current standards for tea products. Concentrations of metals in tea infusions were all below their maximum limits (0.2, 0.005, 0.05, 1.0, 0.02, and 0.01 mg/L for Al, Cd, Cr(VI), Cu, Ni, and Pb, respectively) for drinking water, and decreased with the increase of infusion times. Pb, Cd, Cu, and Al mainly remained in tea leaves. The THQ from 2.33 × 10(-5) to 1.47 × 10(-1) and HI from1.41 × 10(-2) to 3.45 × 10(-1) values in tea infusions were all less than 1, suggesting that consumption of tea infusions would not cause significant health risks for consumers. More attention should be paid to monitor Co content in green tea. Both THQ and HI values decreased with the increase of infusion times. Results of this study suggest that tea drinkers should discard the first tea infusion and drink the following infusions. PMID:25840958

  19. The Other Boston Tea Party. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo; And Others

    A teachers' guide is presented that accompanies the video production of "The Other Boston Tea Party," a play used to teach about the U.S. Constitution and American legal and political systems. The play combines a comedy of manners with an historical approach to the issues surrounding the Federalist/Anti-Federalist debate over ratification of the…

  20. Art accross the Curriculum: Tea for Three?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2001-01-01

    Presents background information on the life and career of George Luks. Describes one of his paintings called "Tea Party" that pokes fun at the upper classes while paying homage to humanity. Includes activities in literature, social studies, science, mathematics, history, and visual arts. (CMK)

  1. 'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, Stretton

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

  2. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  3. Polyphenol content of plasma and litter after the oral administration of green tea and tea polyphenols in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Bin; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Shang, Yan-Yan; Hu, Jing-Wei; Shao, Lei; Chen, Wei; Li, Da-Xiang

    2012-02-22

    Metabolic profiles of broiler chickens were examined after the ingestion of green tea, tea polyphenols, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Solid-phase extraction of serum and litters yielded free catechins and their metabolites, which were then identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In plasma samples, (-)-gallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and EGCG were detected in the green tea group; pyrogallol acid, (epi)catechin-O-sulfate, 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronide, and (epi)catechin-3'-O-glucuronide were detected in the tea polyphenols group; and EGCG, (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronides were detected in the EGCG group. In litters, gallic acid, EGCG, GCG, and ECG were detected in the green tea and tea polyphenols groups; EGCG and ECG were detected in the EGCG group. The conjugated metabolites, 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-glucuronide, (epi)catechin-3'-glucuronide, and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate, were identified in the green tea group; 4'-O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate and 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-sulfate were identified in the tea polyphenols group; only 4'-O-methyl-(epi)gallocatechin-O-sulfate was detected in the EGCG group. The excretion of tea catechins was 95.8, 87.7, and 97.7% for the green tea, tea polyphenols, and EGCG groups, respectively. PMID:22224899

  4. Black tea polyphenols: a mechanistic treatise.

    PubMed

    Butt, M S; Imran, A; Sharif, M K; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Xiao, Hang; Imran, M; Rsool, H A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions are among the emerging trends to curtail physiological malfunctioning like cancer, diabetes, cardiac complications, etc. The essence of phytonutrients has developed the concept of nutraceuticals at the junction of diet health linkages. In this context, theaflavin & thearubigins are the oxidized derivatives of black tea catechins during fermentation having nutraceutical potential owing to esterification of hydroxyl ring with digallate esters. Theaflavin may influence activation of transcription factors such as NFnB or AP-1 that ultimately hinder the formation of nitric oxide expression gene. Likewise, black tea contains a unique amino acid theanine acts as neurotransmitter owing to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it boasts immunity by enhancing the disease-fighting ability of gamma delta T cells. Theaflavin & thearubigins act as safeguard against oxidative stress thereby effective in the cardiac functioning. The mechanistic approach of these antioxidants is likely to be associated with inhibition of redox sensitive transcription factors & pro-oxidant enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. However, their involvement in antioxidative enzyme induction as in glutathione-S-transferases is also well documented. They act as curative agent against numerous pathological disorders by disrupting the electron chain thus inhibiting the progression of certain ailments. Black tea polyphenols established themselves as strong antioxidants due to their standard one-electron potential, and their vitality is dependent on the concentration of polyphenols and pH for their inclusive execution. Present review is an attempt to enrich the readers regarding the health promoting aspects of black tea polyphenols. Concomitantly, it needs core attention of researchers for the exploitations of black tea flavanols as an important dietary constituent for the vulnerable segment. PMID:24499118

  5. Transfer of ochratoxin A into tea and coffee beverages.

    PubMed

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  6. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  7. Black tea improves attention and self-reported alertness.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, E A; Rowson, M J; Van Buren, L; Rycroft, J A; Owen, G N

    2011-04-01

    Tea has previously been demonstrated to better help sustain alertness throughout the day in open-label studies. We investigated whether tea improves attention and self-reported alertness in two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Participants received black tea (made from commercially available tea bags) in one condition and placebo tea (hot water with food colours and flavours) similar in taste and appearance to real tea in the other condition. Attention was measured objectively with attention tests (the switch task and the intersensory-attention test) and subjectively with a self-report questionnaire (Bond-Lader visual analogue scales). In both studies, black tea significantly enhanced accuracy on the switch task (study 1 p<.002, study 2 p=.007) and self-reported alertness on the Bond-Lader questionnaire (study 1 p<.001, study 2 p=.021). The first study also demonstrated better auditory (p<.001) and visual (p=.030) intersensory attention after black tea compared to placebo. Simulation of theanine and caffeine plasma time-concentration curves indicated higher levels in the first study compared to the second, which supports the finding that tea effects on attention were strongest in the first study. Being the second most widely consumed beverage in the world after water, tea is a relevant contributor to our daily cognitive functioning. PMID:21172396

  8. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans. PMID:21538848

  9. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  10. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors. PMID:19397734

  11. Comparative microbial ecology of the water column of an extreme acidic pit lake, Nuestra Señora del Carmen, and the Río Tinto basin (Iberian Pyrite Belt).

    PubMed

    González-Toril, Elena; Santofimia, Esther; López-Pamo, Enrique; García-Moyano, Antonio; Aguilera, Ángeles; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt, located in Southwestern Spain, represents one of the world's largest accumulations of mine wastes and acid mine drainages. This study reports the comparative microbial ecology of the water column of Nuestra Señora del Carmen acid pit lake with the extreme acidic Río Tinto basin. The canonical correspondence analysis identified members of the Leptospirillum, Acidiphilium, Metallibacterium, Acidithiobacillus, Ferrimicrobium and Acidisphaera genera as the most representative microorganisms of both ecosystems. The presence of archaeal members is scarce in both systems. Only sequences clustering with the Thermoplasmata have been retrieved in the bottom layer of Nuestra Señora del Carmen and one station of Río Tinto. Although the photosynthetically active radiation values measured in this lake upper layer were low, they were sufficient to activate photosynthesis in acidophilic microorganisms. All identified photosynthetic microorganisms in Nuestra Señora del Carmen (members of the Chlamydomonas, Zygnemopsis and Klebsormidium genera) are major members of the photosynthetic eukaryotic community characterized in Río Tinto basin. This study demonstrates a close relationship between the microbial diversity of Nuestra Señora del Carmen pit lake and the diversity detected in the Río Tinto basin, which underlain the influence of the shared mineral substrates in the microbial ecology of these ecosystems. PMID:26421738

  12. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  13. Fate of imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues during black tea manufacture and transfer into tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Shanker, A

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the loss/stability of neonicotinoids (imidacloprid and acetamiprid) residues during the manufacture of black tea and to study the transfer of these pesticides from made tea to its infusion. For orthodox black tea, the manufacturing process involves leaf harvesting (plucking two leaves and a bud), withering, rolling, fermentation (oxidation), and drying. Initial withering and final drying resulted in the loss of pesticide residues, but no significant reduction in residue levels resulted from the rolling and fermentation steps. The drying process resulted in a residue transfer of 64-70% and 69-74% of the initial level, whereas the brewing process resulted in a residue transfer of 37-39% and 45-49% of imidacloprid and acetamiprid, respectively, from dried tea into the infusion. The decrease in acetamiprid levels during drying was also significant (8-13%), whereas the total loss during the manufacturing process ranged from 26 to 31%. Further, brewing for longer periods (an extended brewing time) resulted in higher transfer (up to 44% for imidacloprid and 53% for acetamiprid) of pesticides to tea infusion. Further, the extent of pesticide leaching depends on its water solubility, partition coefficient, and the brewing time. PMID:19680885

  14. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Ying; Lin, Yu-Ru; Ho, Ruei-Fen; Liu, Ho-Yen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts. PMID:23997676

  15. Bioactive components of tea: cancer, inflammation and behavior.

    PubMed

    de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio; Puangpraphant, Sirima

    2009-08-01

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Several studies have suggested that catechins and theaflavins found in tea may reduce the risk of various types of cancers. Major advances have been made to understand the molecular events leading to cancer prevention; however, the evidence is not conclusive. Evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies also suggests that persistent inflammation can progress to cancer. Several possible mechanisms of action may explain the cancer preventive aspects of tea components specifically anti-inflammatory effects. In regards to brain health, green tea catechins have been recognized as multifunctional compounds for neuroprotection with beneficial effects on vascular function and mental performance. Theanine, a unique amino acid in tea, enhances cognition in humans and has neuroprotective effects. Human interventional studies with well characterized tea products are needed. PMID:19258034

  16. Commercial Teas Highlight Plant DNA Barcode Identification Successes and Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Gamble, Catherine C.; Kirpekar, Rohan; Young, Grace; Ahmed, Selena; Little, Damon P.

    2011-01-01

    Appearance does not easily identify the dried plant fragments used to prepare teas to species. Here we test recovery of standard DNA barcodes for land plants from a large array of commercial tea products and analyze their performance in identifying tea constituents using existing databases. Most (90%) of 146 tea products yielded rbcL or matK barcodes using a standard protocol. Matching DNA identifications to listed ingredients was limited by incomplete databases for the two markers, shared or nearly identical barcodes among some species, and lack of standard common names for plant species. About 1/3 of herbal teas generated DNA identifications not found on labels. Broad scale adoption of plant DNA barcoding may require algorithms that place search results in context of standard plant names and character-based keys for distinguishing closely-related species. Demonstrating the importance of accessible plant barcoding, our findings indicate unlisted ingredients are common in herbal teas. PMID:22355561

  17. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations. PMID:24172303

  18. HPLC ANALYSIS OF CATECHINS, THERAFLAVINS, AND ALKALOIDS IN COMMERCIAL TEAS AND GREEN TEA DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: COMARARISON OF WATER AND 80% ETHANOL/WATER EXTRACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea supplements, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea compounds, we compared the following conditions for the extraction of tea leaves and green tea-containing dietary supplements: 80% ethanol/water at 60 'C for 15 min and ...

  19. A complex magma reservoir system for a large volume intra- to extra-caldera ignimbrite: Mineralogical and chemical architecture of the VEI8, Permian Ora ignimbrite (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcock, M. A. W.; Bargossi, G. M.; Weinberg, R. F.; Gasparotto, G.; Cas, R. A. F.; Giordano, G.; Marocchi, M.

    2015-11-01

    Intra-caldera settings record a wealth of information on caldera-forming processes, yet field study is rarely possible due to lack of access and exposure. The Permian Ora Formation, Italy, preserves > 1000 m of vertical section through its intra-caldera succession. This provides an excellent opportunity to detail its mineralogical and geochemical architecture and gain understanding of the eruption evolution and insight into the pre-eruptive magma system. Detailed juvenile clast phenocryst and matrix crystal fragment point count and image analysis data, coupled with bulk-rock chemistry and single mineral compositional data, show that the Ora ignimbrite succession is rhyolitic (72.5-77.7% SiO2), crystal-rich (~ 25-57%; average 43%) and has a constant main mineral population (volcanic quartz + sanidine + plagioclase + biotite). Although a seemingly homogeneous ignimbrite succession, important subtle but detectable lateral and vertical variations in modal mineralogy and bulk-rock major and trace elements are identified here. The Ora Formation is comprised of multiple lithofacies, dominated by four densely welded ignimbrite lithofacies. They are crystal-rich, typically lithic-poor (< 2%), and juvenile clast-bearing (average 20%). The ignimbrite lithofacies are distinguished by variation in crystal fragment size and abundance and total lithic content. The intra-caldera stratigraphic architecture shows both localised and some large-scale lithofacies correlation, however, it does not conform to a 'layer-cake' stratigraphy. The intra-caldera succession is divided into two depo-centres: Southern and Northern, with proximal extra-caldera deposits preserved to the south and north of the system. The Southern and Northern intra-caldera ignimbrite successions are discriminated by variations in total biotite crystal abundance. Detailed mineralogical and chemical data records decreases across the caldera system from south to north in biotite phenocrysts in the groundmass of

  20. Arsenic species and leaching characters in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chungang; Gao, Erle; He, Bin; Jiang, Guibin

    2007-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages consumed in the world. Arsenic including species totalling to 47 Chinese tea samples from 18 tea-producing provinces in China were analyzed. By simulating the infusion process, leaching characters, effects of extraction time and temperature on arsenic extraction were investigated. Total amount of arsenic in tea leaf samples was in the range below the detection limit to 4.81 microg/g. Leaching of arsenic was strongly affected by extraction time and temperature. Because arsenic leaching ability by hot water was low and most of the arsenic was left in tea leaf residues after infusion, the concentration of arsenic in tea infusion was low even when some original tea leaf samples contained high level of arsenic. The major species in tea infusion were inorganic arsenic form (arsenite As(III) and arsenate As(V)). Compared with the amount of arsenic in infusion, more organic arsenic species were found in the original tea leaf samples. The contents of extractable inorganic arsenic in tea leaf samples were in the range below the detection limit to 226 ng/g. Considering ingestion dose and assuming one person (60 kg body weight) consumes 10 g of Chinese tea per day, the maximum inorganic arsenic contribution from tea infusion is 2.26 microg, which is equal to 0.038 microg/kg/d excluding water contribution. This value only accounts for 1.8% of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) (2.1 microg/kg/d) recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization [FAO/WHO, 1989. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Thirty-third Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series No. 776, Geneva, World Health Organization]. PMID:17892910

  1. Photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Irby, Cynthia; Katiyar, Santosh K; Elmets, Craig A

    2007-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignancy in humans and is equivalent to the incidence of malignancies in all other organs combined in the United States. Current methods of prevention depend on sunscreens in humans, efficacy of which is largely undetermined for non-melanoma skin cancers. Green tea polyphenols have the greatest effect with respect to chemoprevention and have been found to be most potent at suppressing the carcinogenic activity of UV radiation. They protect against many of the other damaging effects of UV radiation such as UV-induced sunburn response, UV-induced immunosuppression and photoaging of the skin. They exert their photoprotective effects by various cellular, molecular and biochemical mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo systems. Green tea polyphenols thus have the potential, when used in conjunction with traditional sunscreens, to further protect the skin against the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. PMID:17254040

  2. Allergy to natural honeys and camomile tea.

    PubMed

    Florido-Lopez, J F; Gonzalez-Delgado, P; Saenz de San Pedro, B; Perez-Miranda, C; Arias de Saavedra, J M; Marin-Pozo, J F

    1995-10-01

    Precipitation of food allergy reactions is well known in some patients with pollinosis when they consume natural food, such as honey or camomile tea. We present 9 patients with hay fever, with or without asthma, who experienced systemic allergic reactions after ingestion of natural honeys from two local areas (Andujar and Granada) and/or camomile tea. Pollen analysis showed a high level in sunflower pollen (23.6% of pollen grains) in the honey from Andujar but not in that from Granada. The diagnosis of food and respiratory allergy was based on history, skin prick tests and specific IgE activity against pollen from Compositae. Conjunctival challenge with camomile extract also gave positive results. The above allergological tests and the inhibition studies carried out, suggest that pollen of Compositae may be responsible for allergic reactions to certain natural foods and that the reactions are mediated by an IgE-related mechanism. PMID:7549505

  3. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the

  4. Green tea: A boon for periodontal and general health

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Saluja, Mini; Agarwal, Gunjan; Alam, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is particularly rich in health-promoting flavonoids (which account for 30% of the dry weight of a leaf), including catechins and their derivatives. The most abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is thought to play a pivotal role in the green tea's anticancer and antioxidant effects. Catechins should be considered right alongside of the better-known antioxidants like vitamins E and C as potent free radical scavengers and health-supportive for this reason. It has been suggested that green tea also promotes periodontal health by reducing inflammation, preventing bone resorption and limiting the growth of certain bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. PMID:23055579

  5. Commercialized non-Camellia tea: traditional function and molecular identification

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ping; Cui, Zhanhu; Wang, Yingli; Zhang, Chunhong; Zhang, Na; Li, Minhui; Xiao, Peigen

    2014-01-01

    Non-Camellia tea is a part of the colorful Chinese tea culture, and is also widely used as beverage and medicine in folk for disease prevention and treatment. In this study, 37 samples were collected, including 33 kinds of non-Camellia teas and 4 kinds of teas (Camellia). Traditional functions of non-Camellia teas were investigated. Furthermore, non-Camellia teas of original plants were characterized and identified by molecular methods. Four candidate regions (rbcL, matK, ITS2, psbA-trnH) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, DNA barcodes were used for the first time to discriminate the commercial non-Camellia tea and their adulterants, and to evaluate their safety. This study showed that BLASTN and the relevant phylogenetic tree are efficient tools for identification of the commercial non-Camellia tea and their adulterants. However, some sequences from original plants have not been found and there is a limitation of sequence number of original plants in GenBank. Submitting more original plant sequences to the GenBank will be helpful for evaluating the safety of non-Camellia teas. PMID:26579387

  6. Tea Consumption and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sen-Tien; Ou, Chun-Yen; Lo, Hung-I; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Chen, Ken-Chung; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Yang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Forn-Chia; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Wu, Shang-Yin; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chang, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the association between tea consumption and head and neck cancer (HNC) in Taiwan, where tea is a major agricultural product and a popular beverage. Methods Interviews regarding tea consumption (frequency, duration, and types) were conducted with 396 HNC cases and 413 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HNC risk associated with tea drinking, adjusted for sex, age, education, cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol drinking. Results A reduced HNC risk associated with tea drinking (OR for every cup per day = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–0.99; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39–0.94) was observed. The association was especially significant for pharyngeal cancer (OR for every cup per day = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.98; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16–0.66). A significant inverse association between HNC and tea consumption was observed particularly for green tea. Conclusions This study suggests that tea drinking may reduce the risk of HNC. The anticancer property of tea, if proven, may offer a natural chemopreventive measure to reduce the occurrence of HNC. PMID:24796481

  7. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years. PMID:15998989

  8. Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in use as an herbal tea for food purposes and in folk medicine. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the volatile fraction of chamomile herbal tea were performed. Volatile constituents of the infusion were isolated by two different methods, namely hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed by GC-MS. The relative proportions of particular chemical classes, present in the essential oil and volatile fractions of the infusion showed remarkable differences. The proportion of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the infusion, as compared to the essential oil, was significantly lower. Strikingly, the dichloromethane extract of the infusion contained a lower amount of bisabolol oxides and chamazulene, but higher amounts of spiroethers, sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins, as compared to the hydrodistillates of the herbal drug and the infusion. In addition to the previously known guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers with various biological activities typically occurring in Achillea species, were identified in the dichloromethane extract of chamomile tea for the first time. PMID:22410959

  9. Cloning of β-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  10. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    PubMed Central

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  11. Comparison of the level of boron concentrations in black teas with fruit teas available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  12. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-01

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  13. Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Di; Milacic, Vesna; Chen, Marina Si; Wan, Sheng Biao; Lam, Wai Har; Huo, Congde; Landis-Piwowar, Kristin R.; Cui, Qiuzhi Cindy; Wali, Anil; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (−)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity. PMID:18228206

  14. Green Tea, Soy, and Mammographic Density in Singapore Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Ursin, Giske; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Khoo, Kei-Siong; Yu, Mimi C.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from observational studies that breast cancer risk is inversely associated with soy and green tea consumption. We investigated the effects of these two dietary agents on mammographic density, a well-established biomarker for breast cancer risk, in a cross-sectional analysis of mammograms and validated food frequency questionnaires from 3,315 Chinese women in Singapore. Percent mammographic density (PMD) was assessed using a reproducible computer-assisted method. We used generalized linear models to estimate PMD by intake of soy, green tea, and black tea while adjusting for potential confounders. Daily green tea drinkers showed statistically significantly lower PMD (19.5%) than non-tea drinkers (21.7%; P = 0.002) after adjusting for relevant covariates. This difference in PMD between daily green tea drinkers and non-tea drinkers remained statistically significant after adjustment for soy (P = 0.002); the effect was more apparent among lower soy consumers (Q1–Q3; 21.9% versus 19.4%; P = 0.002) than in higher (Q4) consumers (20.9% versus 19.5%; P = 0.32). Black tea intake was unrelated to PMD. Only among postmenopausal women who reported very high soy intake (Q4) compared with those with less soy intake was there any association noted between PMD and soy intake (18.9% versus 20.5%; P = 0.035). Following adjustment for green tea intake, the association between soy and PMD was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.52). Our findings suggest that both regular green tea and high soy intake may have beneficial effects on the breast; the effect of green tea on PMD may be stronger than the effect of soy. PMID:19064551

  15. Dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether residues during tea planting and brewing process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) residues in fresh tea shoots and in tea prepared under field conditions was investigated, and the transfer of residues from brewed tea to tea infusion was determined. OCDPE levels in tea shoots, prepared tea, tea infusion, and spent tea leaves were determined using a sensitive and simple method. The dissipation of OCDPE is fairly slow in tea shoots and prepared tea, with half-life values of 5.10 and 5.46 days, respectively. The degradation rates of OCDPE residues in tea processing were 23.9-43.1 %. The terminal residues of OCDPE in tea shoots and prepared tea samples after 20 and 30 days of OCDPE application were higher than 0.01 mg/kg. However, OCDPE's transfer rates from brewed tea to tea infusion were only 6.0-14.8 %. Further studies on risk assessment of OCDPE residue in tea on the basis of the relationship of OCDPE in prepared tea and infusion are warranted. PMID:27604890

  16. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S.; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  17. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  18. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  19. Understanding Darjeeling tea flavour on a molecular basis.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Bornali; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bhorali, Priyadarshini; Agarwal, Niraj; Bhuyan, L P; Rahman, A; Sakata, K; Mizutani, M; Shimizu, B; Gurusubramaniam, G; Ravindranath, R; Kalita, M C; Hazarika, M; Das, Sudripta

    2012-04-01

    Darjeeling teas are the highest grown teas in the world and preferred for its flavour, aroma and quality. Apart from the genetic makeup of the plant, earlier reports suggest that insect infestation, particularly jassids and thrips triggers the aroma and flavour formation in Darjeeling tea. The present work encompasses the identification of the genes/transcriptomes responsible for the typical flavour of Darjeeling tea, besides understanding the role of jassids and thrips in particular, in producing the best cup character and quality. The quantitative real time PCR analysis was based on a suppression subtractive hybridisation forward library of B157 (tea clone infested with thrips), providing us transcripts related to aroma and flavour formation. We observed the expression of genes like leucine zipper, ntd, nced, geraniol synthase, raffinose synthase, trehalose synthase, amylase, farnesyl transferase, catalase, methyl transferase, linalool synthase, peroxidases, elicitor responsive proteins, linamarase, nerolidol linalool synthase 2, 12-oxophytodienoate reductase, glucosidase, MYB transcription factor, and alcohol dehydrogenase, highly regulated due to insect infestation, manufacturing stresses and mechanical injury. The first report on gene expression dynamics in thrips infested Darjeeling tea leaves can be extrapolated with increase in volatiles which is responsible for enhancing the quality of Darjeeling tea, specially the flavour and aroma of the infusion. We hope to model these responses in order to understand the molecular changes that occur during Darjeeling tea flavour formation. PMID:22328090

  20. Tea and health: preventive and therapeutic usefulness in the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Bradley W.; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To update the growing literature suggesting that tea and its constituent flavonoids are inversely related to the risk of chronic diseases common among the elderly. Recent findings Results are provided from recent observational studies and clinical trials on the relationship of tea and tea catechins to body weight control and energy metabolism, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, bone mineral density, cognitive function and neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. The evidence for the efficacy and potency of tea and tea extracts in benefiting these outcomes ranges from compelling for cardiovascular disease to equivocal at best for some forms of cancer. Summary Although randomized clinical trials of tea have generally been of short duration and with small sample sizes, together with experimental and epidemiological studies, the totality of the data suggests a role for tea in health promotion as a beverage absent in calories and rich in phytochemicals. Further research is warranted on the putative benefits of tea and the potential for synergy among its constituent flavonoids, l-theanine, and caffeine. PMID:19057186

  1. Green tea in dermatology--myths and facts.

    PubMed

    Zink, Alexander; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Green tea consumption has a long tradition in Asian countries--especially China. The epidemiologically and experimentally observed anticarcinogenic and antiinflammatory effects of green tea have led to the implementation of green tea extracts in multiple therapeutic applications - both in dermatological and cosmeceutical preparations. The most abundant evidence exists for the anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive effect of green tea or its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Almost equally evident is the effect in infectious diseases such as cutaneous viral infections. For external genital warts, a topical ointment with green tea extracts was licensed in the USA in 2010, and recently also in Europe. Experimental evidence pinpointing the block of central signal transduction factors in inflammatory mechanisms has led to the evaluation of catechins in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. The belief of green tea as a "wonder weapon" against diseases dates back thousands of years. According to a Chinese legend, ancient Emperor Shen Nung noted a delightful aroma after some leaves of a nearby tree had fallen into boiling water. He immediately proclaimed the new "drink" as "heaven-sent", starting the belief - persisting until today - of green tea as a medication from nature against many different diseases. This review summarizes biological effects and clinical implications of green tea. PMID:26177066

  2. Tea: Biological control of insect and mite pests in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. To secure its production and quality conservation biological control within the context of integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely popularized for better control of arthropod pests on tea with less chemical insecticide usage and ...

  3. Tea-drinking habit among new university students: associated factors.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsiu Chen; Wang, Chi-Jane; Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Chen, Po See; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2014-02-01

    The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12). Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1%) students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p < 0.001), coffee drinking (p < 0.001), alcohol drinking (p < 0.001), minor mental morbidity (p = 0.009), poorer sleepers (p = 0.037), higher body mass index (p = 0.004), and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p < 0.001). Our data showed that the tea-drinking habit was correlated with higher body mass index, which was contrary to the findings of a previous study. In clinical practice, perhaps we could consider more tea-drinking-related factors when we suggest tea consumption. PMID:24444540

  4. Tea and health: Preventive and therapeutic usefulness in the elderly?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the review is to update the growing literature suggesting that tea and its constituent flavonoids are inversely related to the risk of chronic diseases common among the elderly. Results are provided from recent observational studies and clinical trials on the relationship of tea and t...

  5. Jasmine tea consumption and upper gastrointestinal cancer in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Hu, Nan; Han, XiaoYou; Giffen, Carol; Ding, Ti; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Taylor, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological data on green/jasmine tea and esophageal as well as gastric cancer are limited and inconclusive. In order to study the effect of jasmine tea in upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers, we evaluated 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 598 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and 316 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) cases and 1514 age-, gender-, and neighborhood-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from logistic regression adjusted for matching factors and potential confounders. Among controls, 35% of males and 8% of females reported consumption of jasmine tea; other tea consumption was rare. Consumption of jasmine tea (ever vs. never) was not associated with risk of ESCC (OR=1.15, 95% CI 0.92–1.44), GCA (OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.88–1.37), or GNCA (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.64–1.15) in males and females combined. Among males, cumulative lifetime consumption showed a significant positive dose-response relation with ESCC risk, but not for GCA and GNCA. In exploratory analyses, occupation affected the relation between tea and ESCC such that consumption in males was associated with increased risk only in non-office workers. Overall, we found no evidence for a protective effect of tea in esophageal or gastric cancer. Further studies of the potential effects of thermal damage, tea quality, and water quality on UGI cancers are suggested. PMID:19597950

  6. Consumption of coffee or tea and symptoms of anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, W W; McLeod, J

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of consumption of coffee or tea to self-reported symptoms of anxiety is examined with data from the detailed examination component of the National Center for Health Statistics Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among this nationwide sample of 3,854 respondents, there was no significant association between consumption of coffee or tea and symptoms of anxiety. PMID:6689844

  7. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of Roman camomile tea.

    PubMed

    Carnat, A; Carnat, A P; Fraisse, D; Ricoux, L; Lamaison, J L

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the main aromatic and polyphenolic constituents of infusion from Chamaemelum nobile flowers was examined. The camomile tea contained a large amount of polyphenolic compounds (340 mg/l), the most important being chamaemeloside (155 mg/l). Only traces of essential oil were recovered in tea (7 mg/l). PMID:14693217

  8. Overview of Antibacterial, Antitoxin, Antiviral, and Antifungal Activities of Tea Flavonoids and Teas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea leaves produce secondary metabolites, organic compounds that are involved in the defense of the plants against invading pathogens including insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These metabolites include polyphenolic compounds, the six so-called catechins, and the methyl-xanthine alkaloids caf...

  9. Tea and Parkinson's disease: Constituents of tea synergize with antiparkinsonian drugs to provide better therapeutic benefits.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debashis; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2015-10-01

    The major neurodegenerative movement disorder Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by rest-tremor, akinesia, rigidity and inability to initiate movements. PD syndromes result from excessive loss of dopamine from the forebrain striatal region, due to dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain substantia nigra pars compacta. PD with multifactorial etiology is believed to ideally require a drug or different drugs that act(s) at multiple sites of action for symptomatic relief. Replenishing striatal dopamine by providing L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) along with a peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor is the mainstay treatment for PD. Such prolonged therapy leads to debilitating effects, often worsening the affection. Interestingly some under-appreciated pharmaceutical compounds, including constituents of plants and nutraceuticals can synergize with l-DOPA to support mitochondrial function, suppress inflammation, ease oxidative stress, and in turn slow the progression of the disease. Tea and other dietary polyphenols are shown to provide relief to the disease syndromes and provide neuroprotection in cellular and animal models of PD. At par with these findings, random epidemiological studies in certain populations of the world support habitual tea drinking to reduce the risk of PD. The present review addresses how these tea constituents work at the cellular level to render effective control of the disease syndromes and suggests that tea synergizes with established drugs, such as l-DOPA to maximize their effects at certain levels in the disease phenotype-inducing canonical pathways of PD. PMID:26271432

  10. Tea toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition of Huilliche herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Adsersen, Anne; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2013-01-01

    Eleven species of Huilliche medicinal plants used traditionally against infections and for wound healing were tested for their cholinesterase inhibition activity. Two different teas (a 5-7 min infusion and a 1 h decoction, both in water) were tested for their toxicity against Artemia salina. The results from the present study clearly show that teas boiled for 1 h is much more toxic than teas infused for 5-7 min. These results support the different traditional use of the two teas, where the 1h tea is for external use only. Additionally, significant inhibition of cholinesterase has been observed for MeOH extracts of Acaena argentea, Amomyrtas meli and Pseudopanax laetevirens, with that of A. argentea being the most potent. All findings call for further investigations. PMID:23652640

  11. Overview of green tea interaction with cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Werba, José P; Misaka, Shingen; Giroli, Monica G; Yamada, Shizuo; Cavalca, Viviana; Kawabe, Keisuke; Squellerio, Isabella; Laguzzi, Federica; Onoue, Satomi; Veglia, Fabrizio; Myasoedova, Veronika; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Adachi, Eisuke; Inui, Naoki; Tremoli, Elena; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive to the massive diffusion of purported metabolic and cardiovascular positive effects of green tea and catechincontaining extracts, many consumers of cardiovascular drugs assume these products as a "natural" and presumably innocuous adjunctive way to increase their overall health. However, green tea may interfere with the oral bioavailability or activity of cardiovascular drugs by various mechanisms, potentially leading to reduced drug efficacy or increased drug toxicity. Available data about interactions between green tea and cardiovascular drugs in humans, updated in this review, are limited so far to warfarin, simvastatin and nadolol, and suggest that the average effects are mild to modest. Nevertheless, in cases of unexpected drug response or intolerance, it is warranted to consider a possible green tea-drug interaction, especially in people who assume large volumes of green tea and/or catechin-enriched products with the conviction that "more-is-better". PMID:25312732

  12. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions. PMID:20865268

  13. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  14. Managing declining yields from ageing tea plantations.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Mark G; Prakash, Sudhir; Hazarika, Mridul; Burgess, Paul J; Sakrabani, Ruben

    2014-06-01

    Strong growth in the demand for tea requires further increases in the productivity of plantations. Declining or stagnant yields are commonly observed in older plantations. Possible controlling factors for yield decline are reviewed including ageing of plants, chronic disease and sub-optimal soil conditions such as excess soil acidity and low soil organic matter. Management options for addressing these factors are evaluated, including replanting. A systematic approach to decision-making about replanting is presented. Practice for replanting is reviewed and it is concluded that evidence to support a general case for replanting is limited, unless based on the introduction of more productive clones and/or better plant spacing. PMID:24464583

  15. 19 CFR 12.33 - Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Tea § 12.33 Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. (a) The importation of any merchandise as tea which is inferior in...

  16. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  17. Antimicrobial properties of green tea catechins

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter W.; Hamilton-Miller, Jeremy M.T.; Stapleton, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of leaves from the tea plant Camellia sinensis contain polyphenolic components with activity against a wide spectrum of microbes. Studies conducted over the last 20 years have shown that the green tea polyphenolic catechins, in particular (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), can inhibit the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species with moderate potency. Evidence is emerging that these molecules may be useful in the control of common oral infections, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of EGCg and ECg can suppress the expression of bacterial virulence factors and can reverse the resistance of the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus to β-lactam antibiotics. For example, relatively low concentrations of ECg can sensitize methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates to levels of oxacillin that can be readily achieved in clinical practice. Catechin gallates such as ECg intercalate into phopsholipid bilayers and it is likely that they affect both virulence and antibiotic resistance by perturbing the function of key processes associated with the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:19844590

  18. Pyridine metabolism in tea plants: salvage, conjugate formation and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed. PMID:22527843

  19. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  20. Associations of tea and coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Tea and coffee contain bioactive compounds and both beverages have recently been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: We studied associations of tea and coffee consumption with PCa risk in a population-based case-control study from King County, Washington, US. Prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2002-2005 and matched to controls by five-year age groups. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among controls, 19% and 58% consumed at least one cup per day of tea and coffee, respectively. The analysis of tea included 892 cases and 863 controls and tea consumption was associated with a reduced overall PCa risk with an adjusted OR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02) for men in the highest compared to lowest category of tea intake (≥2 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week). Risk estimates did not vary substantially by Gleason grade or disease stage. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of overall PCa or PCa in subgroups defined by tumor grade or stage. Conclusions: Our results contribute further evidence that tea consumption may be a modifiable exposure that reduces PCa risk. PMID:23412806

  1. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  2. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  3. Antioxidant properties of tea investigated by EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Polovka, Martin; Brezová, Vlasta; Stasko, Andrej

    2003-10-01

    The antioxidant properties of green, black and mixed (fruit) tea samples of different origin were investigated by means of EPR spectroscopy. A six line EPR spectrum of solid tea samples indicates the presence of Mn(II) ions and it is superimposed with a sharp singlet line attributed to semiquinone radical species (Delta H(pp)=1 mT; g=2.0022). Antioxidant properties of aqueous tea extracts in H(2)O(2)/NaOH/dimethylsulfoxide system generating reactive radicals (*OH, O(2)*-), *CH(3)) were followed by spin trapping technique. In addition, antioxidant capacity of these samples was assessed using stable radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPOL). Typically, the highest antioxidant potential to terminate superoxide radicals was found in green teas, followed by black and fruity teas. The pro-oxidant activity of green teas evidenced by spin traps was promoted in samples with higher Mn(II) and ascorbic acid concentrations. Various sources of free radicals used in the antioxidant tests due to their specific action show different termination rates in the presence of the individual tea samples. PMID:14516911

  4. Analysis of plasma and urinary tea polyphenols in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Wang, Z Y; Li, H; Chen, L; Sun, Y; Gobbo, S; Balentine, D A; Yang, C S

    1995-06-01

    Tea has been shown to inhibit chemically induced tumorigenesis in many animal models, but the effects of tea consumption on human carcinogenesis are not conclusive. In order to develop biomarkers for tea consumption, we developed methods for the analysis of tea polyphenols in human plasma and urine samples using HPLC with the coulochem electrode array detection system. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC) are the major polyphenols in green tea. Most of the tea polyphenols were in their conjugated forms in the plasma and urine. The samples were incubated with a mixture of beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase to generate the free form of tea polyphenols. After extraction into ethyl acetate and separation by reversed-phase chromatography, EGCG, EGC, and EC were identified on the basis of their retention times and electrochemical characteristics. Due to the high selectivity of the detection mode, interference was minimized. Good quantitative relationships were established for a large concentration range of tea polyphenols. The limits of detection for EGCG, EGC, ECG, and EC were from 0.5 to 1.5 ng/ml of plasma or urine sample. After ingestion of 1.2 g of decaffeinated green tea in warm water, the plasma samples collected at 1 h from 4 human volunteers contained 46-268 ng/ml of EGCG, 82-206 ng/ml of EGC, and 48-80 ng/ml of EC. ECG was not detected in plasma samples. The maximum urinary excretion of EGC and EC occurred at 3-6 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7655336

  5. Factors affecting tea consumption pattern in an urban society in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Elahe; Mirlohi, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Fallah, Azizolah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tea consumption pattern in an urban society in Isfahan. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was carried out using questioner among 664 households who were selected by two steps cluster sampling. A questionnaire was developed including demographic questions, information on the quantity of tea intake by every member of the family, tea type, and tea brand preference. Results: The individuals who prioritized black tea as their 1st choice were 90.1% of the total surveyed community. The average amount of tea consumed was calculated as 1243 ± 530 ml/day. The individuals who were between 36 and 45 and <15 years old were shown as the highest and the lowest tea consumers, respectively. Men significantly consumed more amount of tea than women did and married participants significantly used more amount of tea than singles (P < 0.05). The number of the family members, though, had no impact on tea consumption (P > 0.05). Brand preference of tea showed that the individuals who prioritized Ahmed brand as their 1st choice constituted 44% of the total participants. Conclusion: Tea consumption pattern in an Iranian sample is specific. Despite of the huge evidence on the green tea benefits, this type of tea has very low popularity and among the available black tea brands, the imported ones are the most preferred. PMID:27500166

  6. Analysis of Key Odorants in Roasted Green Tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Sawai, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in roasted green tea. The aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 25 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of ≥ 16. We identified 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as the most important odorant in roasted green tea with the highest flavor dilution factor of 4096. In addition, tetramethylpyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5- methylpyrazine were also detected as potent odorants with the high flavor dilution factors. These three alkylpyrazines would be key contributors to aroma of roasted green tea.

  7. Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G.; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

  8. Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil

    2013-07-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

  9. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  10. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  11. [Mechanisms of cerebral protection from ischemia by tea constituents].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, T D

    2012-08-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies in recent years have shown that regular consumption of green or black tea significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke. This review presents the clinical and experimental studies of the antiatherogenic, antiplatelet, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and other mechanisms of action of tea and substances in its composition. Effects of tea and its components, are described after long-term, and a short-term consumption. The role of catechins and specific amino acid L-theanine in the possible mechanisms of protection against cerebrovascular disease are discussed. PMID:23155618

  12. Extraction of Catechins from Green Tea Using Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koiwai, Hitoshi; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Recently, hazardous properties of synthetic substances contained in foods and medicines have been observed. Therefore, the pharmacological actions of natural substances became the focus of attention. Catechins, which are polyphenols, are abundant in green tea. To extract green tea catechins, there are two types of method: extraction using hot water and organic solvents. In the extraction using hot water, green tea quality deteriorates and catechins are destroyed due to the heat applied. Accordingly, the extraction of catechins at low temperatures is appropriate, although the efficiency is low. Therefore, we attempted to increase the amount of catechins extracted with ultrasonic irradiation.

  13. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Related to Kombucha Tea Consumption.

    PubMed

    Gedela, Maheedhar; Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gali, Vasantha L; Alyamany, Kimberlee; Jha, Lokesh K

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) is widespread and growing due to the popular notion that these products are of natural origins and safe. Kombucha (or "mushroom") tea is one HDS that is consumed by people for various perceived health benefits. Kombucha tea is a well-known health beverage made by fermenting sweet black tea with a round, flat, gray fungus for a week or longer. There is concern, however, from the evidence of a few case reports currently available, that it may pose life-threatening and/or adverse effects for users. PMID:26882579

  14. Identification of the varietal origin of loose leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze] is an economically important crop cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production and marketing of premium specialty tea products provides opportunities for tea growers, the tea industry and consumers. Rapid market segmentation in the tea industry has resulted ...

  15. Compositional, nutritional, and functional characteristics of instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Pelvan, Ebru; Ozdemir, Kübra Sultan; Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Paslı, Ayça Ayfer; Ozcan, Nihat; Ozçelik, Beraat; Gökmen, Vural

    2013-08-01

    Two types of instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas were examined for their proximate composition, dietary fiber, minerals, water-soluble vitamins, total phenolic content, various antioxidant assays, phenolics (flavanols, condensed phenolics, and phenolic acids), alkaloids, and carotenoids as well as taste-active compounds (sugars, organic acids, and free amino acids). Some variations, albeit to different extents, were observed (p < 0.05) among these parameters between instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas. With respect to proximate composition, carbohydrate was the predominant component (56.68-59.84 g/100 g), followed by protein (19.31-19.86 g/100 g). Ash, moisture, and, to a lesser extent, dietary fiber and fat were also present in both instant teas. Thirteen minerals, four water-soluble vitamins, six flavanols, two alkaloids, three condensed phenolics, one phenolic acid, and one carotenoid were identified. Total phenolic content varied between 17.35 and 17.82 g of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g instant tea. With regard to antioxidant activities, three different assays such as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were measured. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in total phenolic, ORAC, TEAC, and CUPRAC contents between low- and high-quality instant teas were observed. With regard to taste-active compounds, 3 sugars, 5 organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. The present work suggests that despite some differences, instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas should not be distinguished on the basis of their compositional, nutritional, and functional characteristics as well as taste-active compounds. PMID:23837397

  16. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  17. Sub-critical water extraction of residual green tea to produce a roasted green tea-like extract.

    PubMed

    Etoh, Hideo; Ohtaki, Naoko; Kato, Hideaki; Kulkarni, Aditya; Morita, Akio

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of various temperatures between 140 to 260 degrees C during sub-critical water extraction of residual green tea in making a roasted green tea-like extract, a popular beverage in Japan. Each residual green tea extract was analyzed for sensory properties and antioxidative activities, and this revealed 140 degrees C to be the best extraction temperature. 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin were found to be the major antioxidative compounds in the 140 degrees C extract, along with theanine and some important amino acids. PMID:20378975

  18. Ultraviolet photoionization in CO2 TEA lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Smith, A. L. S.

    1988-07-01

    The effects of gas composition and spark parameters on the UV emission in CO2 TEA laser gas mixtures were investigated together with the nature of photoionization process and the photoelectron-loss mechanism. A linear relationship was found between N2 concentration and photoionization (with no such dependence on C concentration, from CO and CO2), but the increases in photoionization that could be effected by optimizing the spark discharge circuit parameters were much higher than those produced by changes in gas composition. UV emission was directly proportional to the amount of stored electrical energy in the spark-discharge circuit and to the cube of the peak current produced in the spark by the discharge of this energy. Photoionization was also found to be proportional to the spark electrode gap. It was found that free-space sparks gave a considerably broader emission pattern than a surface-guided notched spark.

  19. [Suppression of glucose absorption by various health teas in rats].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Toshiki; Yoshikawa, Yukako; Masui, Hironori; Sano, Mitsuaki

    2004-04-01

    The inhibitory effects on the intestinal digestion and absorption of sugar of health teas that claim beneficial dietary and diabetes-controlling effects were compared in rats using portal cannulae. The measured durations were the times during which the elevation of portal glucose levels resulting from continuous intragastric infusion of sucrose or maltose was suppressed by concentrated teas. The teas investigated included salacia oblonga, mulberry, guava, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba. The duration of the inhibitory effect on the sucrose load of salacia oblonga, mulberry, and guava were 110 min, 20 min, and 10 min, respectively. In contrast, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba had no significant effect on the continuous infusion of sucrose. These results suggest that there is considerable difference in the efficacy of commercial health teas in influencing glucose absorption. PMID:15067185

  20. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Interactions between milk fat globules and green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Everett, David W

    2016-05-15

    The determination of putative chemical interactions between the milk fat globule membrane and green tea catechins provided useful information about the role of milk fat globules (MFGs) in high-fat dairy systems, such as cheese, and containing bioactive compounds, such as tea catechins. Catechins from green tea (125-1,000 ppm), including (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and green tea extract were added to washed MFGs to examine possible interactions. The addition of catechins gave a significant change in the size and ζ-potential of MFGs. The recovery of different catechins from the milk fat globule suspensions was found to vary, suggesting selective association with the milk fat globule membranes. The interactions were further investigated using transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. It is suggested that catechins are localised in association with milk fat globule membrane domains as they contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties with potential points of molecular interaction. PMID:26775981

  2. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements for tea catechin and caffeine content, the product labels varied in their presentation of catechin and caffeine information, and some values reported on product labels were inconsistent with analyzed values ( 1 ). How might ...

  3. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. PMID:26304374

  4. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanaro, G. B.; Duarte, R. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  5. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    PubMed

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases. PMID:26593607

  6. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. PMID:26054285

  7. Comparative studies on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of different tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Xueming; Qu, Zhishuang

    2012-06-01

    Tea is one of the most popular drinks next to water. Tea polyphenol is one of the main bioactive constituents of tea with health functions. In order to find the most bioactive tea polyphynols, polyphenol extracts from green tea, black tea and chemical oxidation products of green tea extracts were comparatively studied on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties. Results showed physicochemical and antioxidant properties of polyphenol extracts changed greatly after the chemical oxidation. Hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation products (HOP) possessed the highest antioxidant ability among the four tea polyphenol extracts. Thirteen phenolic compounds and one alkaloid in HOP were identified by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). Hydrogen peroxide induced oxidation of tea polyphenol extracts could improve the antioxidant activity and could be used to produce antioxidants for food industry. PMID:23729856

  8. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on chiral theanine and polyphenols in tea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yusheng; Li, Ping; Ge, Ling; Wang, Yan; Mo, Ting; Zeng, Xinping; Wang, Xiaodan

    2012-10-15

    Pure D/L-theanine enantiomers were synthesized separately, and SEM was used for their crystal-structure observation. The novel enantiomeric separating method by HPLC was established using the chiral selector of β-CD in the mobile phase. Green tea, white tea, oolong tea, black tea and Pu-erh tea were tested for theanine enantiomers by different degrees of fermentation. The significantly higher d-enantiomeric proportion of theanine was found in white tea than the others, which was probably due to its specific processing step of withering. The effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on enantiomeric theanine and polyphenols in tea was explored. There was no change of theanine, but rather a loss of ECG (epicatechin gallate) and an increasing amount of GA (gallic acid). ERW also reduced tea cream, which contains significant amount of polyphenols, indicating its potential application in the tea-beverage industry. PMID:23442618

  9. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry; Genuis, Stephen J.; Rodushkin, Ilia

    2013-01-01

    Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i) tea leaves, (ii) tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii) tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety. PMID:24260033

  10. Safety and anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of various tea types in mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374

  11. Metabolic dependence of green tea on plucking positions revisited: a metabolomic study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Ko, Kwang-Sup; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2011-10-12

    The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevations in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality. PMID:21899366

  12. Safety and anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of various tea types in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374

  13. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results. PMID:25325307

  14. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27162130

  15. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  16. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period. PMID:26258147

  17. Effect of Green Tea Mouthwash on Oral Malodor

    PubMed Central

    Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks. PMID:24977093

  18. Tea and cancer prevention: Molecular mechanisms and human relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chung S. Lambert, Joshua D.; Ju Jihyeung; Lu Gang; Sang Shengmin

    2007-11-01

    Tea made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis is a popular beverage. The possible cancer-preventive activity of tea and tea polyphenols has been studied extensively. This article briefly reviews studies in animal models, cell lines, and possible relevance of these studies to the prevention of human cancer. The cancer-preventive activity of tea constituents have been demonstrated in many animal models including cancer of the skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, colon, bladder, prostate, and mammary gland. The major active constituents are polyphenols, of which (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is most abundant, most active, and most studied, and caffeine. The molecular mechanisms of the cancer-preventive action, however, are just beginning to be understood. Studies in cell lines led to the proposal of many mechanisms on the action of EGCG. However, mechanisms based on studies with very high concentrations of EGCG may not be relevant to cancer prevention in vivo. The autooxidation of EGCG in cell culture may also produce activities that do not occur in many internal organs. In contrast to the cancer prevention activity demonstrated in different animal models, no such conclusion can be convincingly drawn from epidemiological studies on tea consumption and human cancers. Even though the human data are inconclusive, tea constituents may still be used for the prevention of cancer at selected organ sites if sufficient concentrations of the agent can be delivered to these organs. Some interesting examples in this area are discussed.

  19. Anti-ulcer effect of tea catechin in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamaishi, Kanoko; Kojima, Ryoji; Ito, Mikio

    2006-11-01

    Oral administration of tea catechin dose-dependently prevented absolute ethanol-induced (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) or restraint plus water immersion stress-induced acute gastric mucosal injury (300, 400 mg/kg) in rats. When the effect of test compound was evaluated on the 15th day after acetic acid injection to rats, repeated oral administration of tea catechin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg twice daily) dose-dependently accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. Tea catechin (10(-5)-10(-1) g/100 ml) concentration-dependently scavenged superoxide anions in vitro. Tea catechin (100, 200 mg/kg orally) markedly inhibited the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the injured mucosa of rats treated with 50% ethanol. Tea catechin (50, 100 mg/kg twice orally, daily) markedly inhibited the increase in content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the ulcerated region of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers on the 7th and 15th days. In addition, at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg orally, it dose-dependently prevented the decrease in gastric mucosal hexosamine content induced by absolute ethanol, although it failed to inhibit the basal gastric acid secretion. These results suggest that tea catechin may primarily protect gastric mucosa from acute gastric mucosal injury and promote the healing of chronic gastric ulcers by its antioxidant activity and gastric mucus-increasing actions. PMID:17077516

  20. Anticariogenic Activity of Black Tea - An Invivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Vishal; Srivastava, Ankit; Nandlal, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teas is known for its anticariogenic properties and various mechanisms have been invoked to explain this effect. One such proposed mechanism is inhibition of salivary alpha amylase activity by endogenous tannins present in tea. Aim The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the ingestion of black tea decoction inhibits the enzyme salivary amylase and thus interferes with the release of maltose from intraoral entrapped particles of food. Materials and Methods A total of 30 children in the age group of 12 - 15 years were selected for the study. After two hours of fasting subjects consumed two salted crackers for 60 second following which they rinsed with water (control solution) and then with 1.5% black tea decoction (test solution) next day. Retained food particles were recovered from buccal aspect of left mandibular premolar and salivary amylase activity was noted via chromatography. Paired t-test was applied for statistical analysis. Results Maltose to Sucrose ratio was used to evaluate the result. The average ratio was 3.27 for control solution and 1.82 for test solution. The results were statistically highly significant (p <0.005). Conclusion Tea inhibited the activity of salivary amylase and this inhibition assumes a special significance when it is considered that the effect of tea could be manifested over a prolonged period of time, as in a real life situation. PMID:27135007

  1. Bioconversion of tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2014-12-01

    Theabrownins (TB) are water-soluble phenolic compounds associated with the various health benefits of Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented Chinese dark tea. This work reports on the production of theabrownins from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a pure culture of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from a solid-state Pu-erh tea fermentation. A theabrownins yield of 158 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves was obtained in 6 days at 45 °C in an aerobic fermentation. In a 2 l fermenter, the yield of theabrownins was 151 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves in 48 h of aerobic culture (45 °C, 1 vvm aeration rate, 250 rpm agitation speed). Extracellular polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of A. fumigatus contributed to this bioconversion. Repeated batch fermentation process was used for producing theabrownins but was less productive than the batch process. PMID:25214210

  2. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan-zhi; Ruan, Jian-yun; Ma, Li-feng; Han, Wen-yan; Wang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field investigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above-ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants. PMID:18357630

  3. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was <5%. The risk of emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. PMID:26920285

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of Teas and Their Extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Md Wasim; Sharangi, A B; Singh, J P; Thakur, Pran K; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Singh, Archana; Dhua, R S

    2016-07-01

    Tea has recently received the attention of pharmaceutical and scientific communities due to the plethora of natural therapeutic compounds. As a result, numerous researches have been published in a bid to validate their biological activity. Moreover, major attention has been drawn to antimicrobial activities of tea. Being rich in phenolic compounds, tea has the preventive potential for colon, esophageal, and lung cancers, as well as urinary infections and dental caries, among others. The venture of this review was to illustrate the emerging findings on the antimicrobial properties of different teas and tea extracts, which have been obtained from several in vitro studies investigating the effects of these extracts against different microorganisms. Resistance to antimicrobial agents has become an increasingly important and urgent global problem. The extracts of tea origin as antimicrobial agents with new mechanisms of resistance would serve an alternative way of antimicrobial chemotherapy targeting the inhibition of microbial growth and the spread of antibiotic resistance with potential use in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. PMID:25675116

  5. Gene expression analysis of bud and leaf color in tea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants. PMID:27362295

  6. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (<30% relative humidity [RH]) and high (>90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process. PMID:25836389

  7. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. Findings This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Conclusions Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues. PMID:23578062

  8. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy for simultaneous geographical and varietal classification of tea infusions simulating a home-made tea cup.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Barbosa, Mayara Ferreira; de Melo Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino

    2016-02-01

    In this work we proposed a method to verify the differentiating characteristics of simple tea infusions prepared in boiling water alone (simulating a home-made tea cup), which represents the final product as ingested by the consumers. For this purpose we used UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable selection through the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) for simultaneous classification of the teas according to their variety and geographic origin. For comparison, KNN, CART, SIMCA, PLS-DA and PCA-LDA were also used. SPA-LDA and PCA-LDA provided significantly better results for tea classification of the five studied classes (Argentinean green tea; Brazilian green tea; Argentinean black tea; Brazilian black tea; and Sri Lankan black tea). The proposed methodology provides a simpler, faster and more affordable classification of simple tea infusions, and can be used as an alternative approach to traditional tea quality evaluation as made by skilful tasters, which is evidently partial and cannot assess geographic origins. PMID:26304362

  9. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature’s nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts. PMID:26818408

  10. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts. PMID:26818408

  11. Antioxidant potential of green and black tea determined using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay.

    PubMed

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2000-05-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and is rich in polyphenolic compounds collectively known as the tea flavonoids. Tea flavonoids possess antioxidant properties in vitro and have been proposed as key protective dietary components, reducing risk of coronary heart disease and some cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of different preparation methods on the antioxidant properties of green and black tea. Antioxidant potentials of tea infusates were assessed using an assay based upon the reduction of ferric chloride linked to a chromophore. Green tea, black leaf tea and black tea in tea bags were infused with water at 90 degrees C for time periods ranging from 0.25 to 15 min. Green tea infusates possessed approximately 2.5-fold greater antioxidant capacity than both types of black tea infusates. Both green and black teas released significant levels of antioxidants into the hot water within 2 min of infusion. Preparation of teas across a range of temperatures between 20 and 90 degrees C revealed that although antioxidants were liberated from the leaves into the water in cooler infusions, increasing the temperature could increase antioxidant potential by 4 to 9.5-fold. Black tea prepared using tea bags had significantly lower antioxidant capacity than black leaf tea at temperatures between 20 and 70 degrees C, suggesting that tea bag materials may prevent some extraction of flavonoids into the tea solution. The addition of milk appeared to diminish the antioxidant potential of black tea preparations. This effect was greatest where whole cow's milk was used and appeared to be primarily related to the fat content of the added milk. These experiments have considered the effects of commonly used domestic methods of preparation on the in vitro antioxidant potential of tea. It is concluded that maximum antioxidant capacity and hence maximal health benefit may be derived from green tea or from black leaf tea prepared by

  12. Tea and Coffee Consumption and MRSA Nasal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Eric M.; Mainous, Arch G.; Everett, Charles J.; King, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Hot tea and coffee have been found to have antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the consumption of tea, coffee, or both is associated with less frequent nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to investigate the relationship between the consumption of coffee, hot tea, cold tea, and soft drinks, and MRSA nasal carriage among the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. RESULTS An estimated 2.5 million persons (1.4% of the population) were MRSA nasal carriers. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis controlling for age, race, sex, poverty-income ratio, current health status, hospitalization in the past 12 months, and use of antibiotics in the past month, individuals who reported consuming hot tea were one-half as likely to have MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no hot tea (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.31–0.71). Similarly, individuals who reported consuming coffee had about a one-half reduction in the risk of MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no coffee (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24–0.93). CONCLUSIONS Consumption of hot tea or coffee is associated with a lower likelihood of MRSA nasal carriage. Our findings raise the possibility of a promising new method to decrease MRSA nasal carriage that is safe, inexpensive, and easily accessible. PMID:21747100

  13. Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David J; Anderton, Christopher R

    2003-09-01

    Catechins in green tea are known to have many beneficial health properties. Recently, it has been suggested that matcha has greater potential health benefits than other green teas. Matcha is a special powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony. However, there has been no investigation to quantitate the catechin intake from matcha compared to common green teas. We have developed a rapid method of analysis of five catechins and caffeine in matcha using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Results are presented for water and methanol extractions of matcha compared with water extraction of a popular green tea. Using a mg catechin/g of dry leaf comparison, results indicate that the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) available from drinking matcha is 137 times greater than the amount of EGCG available from China Green Tips green tea, and at least three times higher than the largest literature value for other green teas. PMID:14518774

  14. Transient Ejector Analysis (TEA) code user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1993-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program for the semi analytic prediction of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector performance has been developed, based on a theoretical analysis for ejectors. That analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with control-volume mixing region elements. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region allowed flexibility in the modeling of the physics for each region. In particular, the inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady-analysis, justified by the assumption that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Only the mixing region is assumed to be dominated by viscous effects. The present work provides an overview of the code structure, a description of the required input and output data file formats, and the results for a test case. Since there are limitations to the code for applications outside the bounds of the test case, the user should consider TEA as a research code (not as a production code), designed specifically as an implementation of the proposed ejector theory. Program error flags are discussed, and some diagnostic routines are presented.

  15. Composition of the volatiles from intact and mechanically pierced tea aphid-tea shoot complexes and their attraction to natural enemies of the tea aphid.

    PubMed

    Han, B Y; Chen, Z M

    2002-04-24

    The volatile components from intact tea shoots (ITS), obtained by air entrainment, were identified by their mass spectra and retention times and confirmed by comparison with standard samples. They are E-2-hexenal, ocimene, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, butanoic acid-3-hexenyl ester, linalool, 1-octanol, geraniol, and indole. Volatiles from mechanically pierced tea shoots (MPTS) were identified as E-2-hexenal, ocimene, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, butanoic acid-3-hexenyl ester, linalool, geraniol, indole, E-2-hexenoic acid, Z-3-hexenyl formate, methyl salicylate, and benzyl alcohol, and volatiles from tea aphid-tea shoot complexes (TATSC) were identified as E-2-hexenal, ocimene, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, geraniol, indole, benzaldehyde, and E-2-hexenoic acid. Z-3-Hexen-1-ol is the main component in the three different types of volatiles, and the amount of benzaldehyde in TATSC volatiles is very ample. The attraction of the volatiles from ITS, MPTS, and TATSC, and the nine components of TATSC volatiles to the natural enemies, the coccinellid, Coccinella septempunctata, the parasite, Aphidius sp., and the lacewing, Chrysopa sinica, were determined by electroantennogram (EAG) and the wind tunnel bioassay. TATSC volatiles and benzaldehyde elicited much larger EAG responses and stronger upwind flight and arresting behavior from each natural enemy in the wind tunnel than other infochemicals. PMID:11958624

  16. Brick tea fluoride as a main source of adult fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianwei; Xirao, Ruoden; Danzeng, Sangbu; Daji, Dawei; Yan, Yu

    2003-04-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in Naqu County, Tibet in September 2001 to investigate the manifestations of fluorosis in adults caused by the habitual consumption of brick tea. Profiles were obtained for the total daily fluoride intake, environmental fluoride levels and average urinary fluoride concentration, and a physical examination and a skeletal radiographic study were conducted. One hundred and eleven 30-78-year-old adults were enrolled. It was found that the fluoride level of water sources in Naqu County was 0.10+/-0.03 mg/l; no evidence of fluoride air pollution was found, but the brick tea water processed foods--zamba and buttered tea--had fluoride contents of 4.52+/-0.74 mg/kg and 3.21+/-0.65 mg/l, respectively. The adult daily fluoride intake reached 12 mg, of which 99% originated from the brick tea-containing foods. The positive rate of clinical symptoms by physical examination was 89%; furthermore, 42 of the 111 subjects were diagnosed by X-ray. The positive examination rate was 83%. Although the osteosclerosis-type skeletal fluorosis (overall increased bone matrix density) affected 74%, arthropathy and arthritis affected a significant number of the patients, resulting in functional disability. The results suggest that this brick tea-type fluorosis had even more severe adverse effects on human health compared with both the water-type and coal combustion-type fluorosis that occurred in other areas of China. PMID:12615125

  17. Tea consumption reduces the risk of de novo myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Min; Jin, Jie; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that green tea consumption may protect against certain cancers, but no previous study has examined myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in China in 2012-2013 to investigate the association between tea intake and the risk of de novo MDS in adults. The study included 208 cases aged 19-85 years with MDS and 208 controls individually matched to the cases by gender, 5-year age group and residential locality. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for all MDS combined were 0.39 (0.20-0.74), 0.45 (0.25-0.79), and 0.40 (0.21-0.77) for those who consumed tea >20 years, ≥2 cups daily, and dried tealeaves ≥750g per annum, respectively. Significant dose-response trends were observed across all the measures. The inverse association existed in both genders, in the refractory anemia with excessive blasts subtype, in cytogenetic 'good' and 'intermediated/poor' prognosis groups, and in the International Prognostic Scoring System lower and higher risk groups, but not in the refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia subtype. The study suggests that regular tea consumption reduces the risk of de novo MDS in the Chinese population. PMID:25529769

  18. Reactions of green and black teas with Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Goodman, B A; Ferreira Severino, J; Pirker, K F

    2012-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the products of reactions between Cu(II) and samples of green and black teas showed spectral components from at least six different Cu(II) complexes with both tea types. Several of these complexes were common to both teas in spite of major differences in their polyphenol compositions. The pH range observed for complex formation, and the total signal intensity in the pH range 4-8, were greatly different from those for the reactions of Cu(II) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid, the main polyphenols responsible for the free radical signals observed during oxidation of these beverages. Components with spectral parameters similar to those of Cu(II) complexes with theanine, the major amino acid in tea, may contribute to two of the spectra recorded under acidic conditions. However, the initial complexes formed at the lowest pH values investigated are still unidentified. EPR spectra with parameters consistent with Cu(II) polyphenol complexes were only observed under alkaline conditions, thus suggesting that components of tea other than polyphenols might be more important in reactions with copper, and possibly other transition metals, in solutions under physiological conditions. PMID:22159216

  19. Green tea yogurt: major phenolic compounds and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p < 0.05) in air-dried green tea-yogurt (MGT) followed by steam-treated green tea (JGT) and plain yogurts. Four major compounds in MGTY and JGTY were detected. The highest concentration of major phenolic compounds in both samples was related to quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside and quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside for MGTY and JGTY respectively during first 7 day of storage. Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods showed highest antioxidant capacity in MGTY, JGTY and PY. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus spp. were highest in MGTY followed by JGTY and PY. This paper evaluates the implementation of green tea yogurt as a new product with functional properties and valuable component to promote the growth of beneficial yogurt bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt. PMID:26139940

  20. Green tea extract: A potential cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreena S; Beer, Stacey; Kearney, Debra L; Phillips, Garrett; Carter, Beth A

    2013-01-01

    The use of herbal products has increased significantly in recent years. Because these products are not subject to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration and are often used without supervision by a healthcare provider, the indication for and consumption of these supplements is quite variable. Moreover, their use is generally regarded as safe and natural by the lay-public. Unfortunately, there has been an increase in the number of reported adverse events occurring with the use of herbal products. We present a case of acute impending liver failure in an adolescent male using a weight-loss product containing green tea extract. Our case adds to the growing concern surrounding the ingestion of green tea extract and serves to heighten healthcare provider awareness of a potential green tea extract hepatotoxicity. Despite the generally touted benefits of green tea as a whole, clinical concern regarding its use is emerging and has been linked to its concentration in multiple herbal supplements. Interestingly, the suspected harmful compounds are those previously proposed to be advantageous for weight-loss, cancer remedy, and anti-inflammatory purposes. Yet, we emphasize the need to be aware of not just green tea extract, but the importance of monitoring patient use of all dietary supplements and herbal products. PMID:23964154

  1. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to prostate cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Stott-Miller, Marni; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioactive compounds found in coffee and tea may delay the progression of prostate cancer. Methods We investigated associations of pre-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption with risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Study participants were men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2002–2005 in King County, Washington, USA. We assessed the usual pattern of coffee and tea consumption two years before diagnosis date. Prostate cancer outcome events were identified using a detailed follow-up survey. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The analysis of coffee intake in relation to prostate cancer recurrence/progression included 630 patients with a median follow-up of 6.4 years, during which 140 prostate cancer recurrence/progression events were recorded. Approximately 61% of patients consumed at least one cup of coffee per day. Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression; the adjusted HR for ≥4 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.81; P for trend = 0.01). Approximately 14% of patients consumed one or more cups of tea per day, and tea consumption was unrelated to prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Conclusion Results indicate that pre-diagnostic coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. This finding will require replication in larger studies. PMID:23907772

  2. Green tea extract-patents and diversity of uses.

    PubMed

    Saito, Samuel T; Gosmann, Grace; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Green tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Presently, Camellia sinensis has become a source not only for the development of several food extracts but also nutraceutical, cosmetic and medicinal purposes. The technology developed to produce these extracts aims to improve the organoleptic characteristics of the products as taste and smell, and their shelf life. But it also searches to demonstrate some medicinal attributes like antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-tumor and anti-viral activities in relation to the chemical composition of the green tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The target of this review is to present the various patents related to the extraction methods and their claims, and to discuss the evidence found in the literature about the pharmacological activities of green tea. It summarizes the recent progress in technology to obtain the green tea extract and in clinical studies on its applications. Health-promoting products and disease-preventing applications of green tea extract or compounds isolated from it also take part of this text. PMID:20653541

  3. Changes in the composition of raw tea leaves from the Korean Yabukida plant during high-temperature processing to pan-fried Kamairi-cha green tea.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E; Choi, Suk-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Un; Kozukue, Nobuyuki

    2009-06-01

    To develop a better understanding of compositional changes occurring during the production of commercial teas, we determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) changes in ingredient levels during each of several manufacturing steps used to produce Kamairi-cha, a premium green tea. Kamairi-cha uses pan-frying instead of the usual blanching technique to inactivate the enzymes responsible for producing traditional black tea. The resulting tea lacks the characteristic bitterness of green tea, producing a green tea that is described as sweet tasting. The processing steps used to produce this pan-fried tea were as follows: 1st roasting, 1st rolling, 2nd roasting, 2nd rolling, 1st firing, and 2nd firing. The results show that during production at temperatures up to 300 degrees C, raw leaves lost (in percent) 97.3 water, 94 two chlorophylls, 14.3 seven catechins, and 2.75 caffeine. A separate analysis showed that the final product contained 21.67 mg/g dry wt of the biologically active amino acid theanine. The results of this 1st report on changes in individual catechins and other tea ingredients in tea leaves during pan-frying make it possible to select production conditions that maximize levels of beneficial tea ingredients. The possible significance of the results for the human diet is discussed. PMID:19646035

  4. 19 CFR 12.33 - Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. 12.33 Section 12.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Tea § 12.33 Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes....

  5. 19 CFR 12.33 - Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. 12.33 Section 12.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Tea § 12.33 Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes....

  6. 37 CFR 2.53 - Requirements for drawings filed through the TEAS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... filed through the TEAS. 2.53 Section 2.53 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for drawings filed through the TEAS. The drawing must meet the requirements of § 2.52. In addition, in a TEAS submission, the drawing must meet the following requirements: (a) Standard character...

  7. Oolong tea does not improve glucose metabolism in non-diabetic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the influence of tea on glucose metabolism have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to lack of dietary control and/or unclear characterization of tea products. Therefore, a double-blind crossover study was conducted in which healthy males (n=19) consumed each of three oolong tea ...

  8. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  9. Varietal identification of tea (Camellia sinensis) using nanofluidic array of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wan-Ping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Tan, Hua-Wei; Zhou, Lin; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Apart from water, tea is the world’s most widely consumed beverage. Tea is produced in more than 50 countries with an annual production of approximately 4.7 million tons. The market segment for specialty tea has been expanding rapidly owing to increased demand, resulting in higher revenues and profits for tea growers and the industry. Accurate varietal identification is critically important to ensure traceability and authentication of premium tea products, which in turn contribute to on-farm conservation of tea genetic diversity. Using a set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers developed from the expressed sequence tag (EST) database of Camilla senensis, we genotyped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples extracted from a diverse group of tea varieties, including both fresh and processed commercial loose-leaf teas. The validation led to the designation of 60 SNPs that unambiguously identified all 40 tested tea varieties with high statistical rigor (p<0.0001). Varietal authenticity and genetic relationships among the analyzed cultivars were further characterized by ordination and Bayesian clustering analysis. These SNP markers, in combination with a high-throughput genotyping protocol, effectively established and verified specific DNA fingerprints for all tested tea varieties. This method provides a powerful tool for variety authentication and quality control for the tea industry. It is also highly useful for the management of tea genetic resources and breeding, where accurate and efficient genotype identification is essential. PMID:26504544

  10. 37 CFR 2.22 - Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.22 Section 2.22 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.22 Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application. (a) A trademark/service mark application for...'s Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual, available through the TEAS Plus form...

  11. 37 CFR 2.22 - Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.22 Section 2.22 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.22 Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application. (a) A trademark/service mark application for...'s Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual, available through the TEAS Plus form...

  12. 37 CFR 2.22 - Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.22 Section 2.22 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.22 Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application. (a) A trademark/service mark application for...'s Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual, available through the TEAS Plus form...

  13. 37 CFR 2.22 - Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.22 Section 2.22 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.22 Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application. (a) A trademark/service mark application for...'s Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual, available through the TEAS Plus form...

  14. Primary welding and crystallisation textures preserved in the intra-caldera ignimbrites of the Permian Ora Formation, northern Italy: implications for deposit thermal state and cooling history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcock, M. A. W.; Cas, R. A. F.

    2014-06-01

    Exceptional exposure through a Permian intra-caldera ignimbrite fill within the 42 × 40 km Ora caldera (>1,290 km3 erupted volume) provides an opportunity to study welding textures in a thick intra-caldera ignimbrite succession. The ignimbrite succession records primary dense welding, a simple cooling unit structure, common crystallisation zones, and remarkably preserves fresh to slightly hydrated glass in local vitrophyre zones. Evidence for primary syn- and post-emplacement welding consists of (a) viscously deformed and sintered juvenile glass and relict shard textures; (b) complete deposit welding; (c) subtle internal welding intensity variations; (d) vitrophyre preserved locally at the base of the ignimbrite succession; (e) persistent fiamme juvenile clast shapes throughout the succession at the macroscopic and microscopic scales, defining a moderate to well-developed eutaxitic texture; (f) common undulating juvenile clast (pumice) margins and feathery terminations; (g) a general loss of deposit porosity; and (h) perlitic fracturing. A low collapsing or fountaining explosive eruption column model is proposed to have facilitated the ubiquitous welding of the deposit, which in turn helped preserve original textures. The ignimbrite succession preserves no evidence of a time break through the sequence and columnar joints cross-gradational ignimbrite lithofacies boundaries, so the ignimbrite is interpreted to represent a simple cooling unit. Aspect ratio and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analyses through stratigraphic sections within the thick intra-caldera succession and at the caldera margin reveal variable welding compaction and strain profiles. Significantly, these data show that welding degree/intensity may vary in an apparently simple cooling unit because of variations in eruption process recorded in differing lithofacies. These data imply complex eruption, emplacement, and cooling processes. Three main crystallisation textural zones are

  15. Recovery of catechin compounds from Korean tea by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Row, Kyung Ho; Jin, Yinzhe

    2006-03-01

    Catechin compounds from Korean green tea as potential sources of anticancer and antioxidant components were target materials in this work. The methodologies of solvent extraction and partition were utilized to recover catechin compounds from green tea. The optimum experimental condition was obtained by optimizing operating factors, such as, the extraction solvent, extraction time and operating temperature. After extracting the green tea with water at 80 degrees C for 40 min, the extract was partitioned with water/chloroform, which was best suited to remove caffeine impurity from the extract. Further, the resulting extract was partitioned water/ethyl acetate to deeply purify the catechin compounds of EGC, EC, EGCG and ECG. The experimental result in this work could be extended to preparative HPLC to obtain EGCG on commercial scale. PMID:15919205

  16. [Anti-inflammatory effects of tea-flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Hoensch, H; Oertel, R

    2012-12-01

    Tea flavonoids belong to the large group of polyphenols and display antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic activities. These phytochemicals are xenobiotics and are synthesized by tea plants such as Camellia sinensis and Camomilla recucita. These botanicals exhibit in vivo activities similar to that of biologicals which are widely used for chronic inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, chronic inflammatory bowel disease). Epigallocathechin gallate and apigenin from these plants inhibit cytokines, chemokines and activated immune cells in vivo and in vitro. Clinical disorders with induced inflammatory pathways could benefit from flavonoid treatment. Dietary supplementation with specific tea-flavonoids could be used for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. Suppression of cytokine production could ultimately lead to inhibition of carcinogenesis. This mechanism could explain why flavonoids are effective in the prevention of intestinal neoplasia. This innovative new form of therapy should be tested in controlled, randomized clinical studies. PMID:23233307

  17. The content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua tea infusion.

    PubMed

    van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The traditional use of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua for the treatment of malaria entails the preparation of a tea infusion. In the scientific literature there have been some discrepancies on the quantity of the active principle, artemisinin, in the tea infusion. Due to these discrepancies, we decided to quantify artemisinin in tea infusions prepared according to different methods. We also studied the water solubility of pure artemisinin at room temperature and at 100  °C and compared it to the solubility of artemisinin from the plant material. We found that the extraction efficiency is very sensitive to temperature and that efficiencies of above 90 % can be reached. We also showed that the solubility of artemisinin is not improved by other components in the extract but that a supersaturated solution of artemisinin might be formed, which is stable for at least 24 hours. PMID:21544776

  18. TEA DRINKING AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDEST-OLD CHINESE

    PubMed Central

    Feng, L.; Li, J.; Ng, T.-P.; Lee, T.-S.; Kua, E.-H.; Zeng, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= −0.12, P=0.02; ‘Time’ was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese. PMID:23131816

  19. Green Tea Extract-induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Sayama, Kazutoshi; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-01-01

    Although green tea is considered to be a healthy beverage, hepatotoxicity associated with the consumption of green tea extract has been reported. In the present study, we characterized the hepatotoxicity of green tea extract in rats and explored the responsible mechanism. Six-week-old IGS rats received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 200 mg/kg green tea extract (THEA-FLAN 90S). At 8, 24, 48 and 72 hrs and 1 and 3 months after exposure, liver damage was assessed by using blood-chemistry, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry to detect cell death (TUNEL and caspase-3) and proliferative activity (PCNA). Analyses of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and the liver and of MDA and thymidine glycol (TG) by immunohistochemistry, as oxidative stress markers, were performed. Placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), which is a marker of hepatocarcinogenesis, was also immunohistochemically stained. To examine toxicity at older ages, 200 mg/kg green tea extract was administered to 18-wk-old female rats. In 6-wk-old rats, 12% of males and 50% of females died within 72 hrs. In 18-wk-old rats, 88% died within 72 hrs. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and/or total bilirubin increased in both males and females. Single-cell necrosis with positive signs of TUNEL and caspase-3 was seen in perilobular hepatocytes from 8 hrs onward in all lobular areas. PCNA-positive hepatocytes increased at 48 hrs. MDA levels in the serum and liver tended to increase, and MDA- and TG-positive hepatocytes were seen immunohistochemically. GST-P–positive hepatocellular altered foci were detected in one female rat at the 3-month time point. In conclusion, a single injection of green tea extract induced acute and severe hepatotoxicity, which might be associated with lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative stress in hepatocytes. PMID:25378801

  20. Green Tea Catechins and Cardiovascular Health: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Velayutham, Pon; Babu, Anandh; Liu, Dongmin

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have established a positive correlation between green tea consumption and cardiovascular health. Catechins, the major polyphenolic compounds in green tea, exert vascular protective effects through multiple mechanisms, including antioxidative, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-thrombogenic, and lipid lowering effects. (1) Tea catechins present antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals, chelating redox active transition-metal ions, inhibiting redox active transcription factors, inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and inducing antioxidant enzymes. (2) Tea catechins inhibit the key enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis and reduce intestinal lipid absorption, thereby improving blood lipid profile. (3) Catechins regulate vascular tone by activating endothelial nitric oxide. (4) Catechins prevent vascular inflammation that plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. The anti-inflammatory activities of catechins may be due to their suppression of leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and subsequent transmigration through inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-kB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules both in endothelial cells and inflammatory cells. (5) Catechins inhibit proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by interfering with vascular cell growth factors involved in atherogenesis. (6) Catechins suppress platelet adhesion, thereby inhibiting thrombogenesis. Taken together, catechins may be novel plant-derived small molecules for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review highlights current developments in green tea extracts and vascular health, focusing specifically on the role of tea catechins in the prevention of various vascular diseases and the underlying mechanisms for these actions. In addition, the possible structure-activity relationship of catechins is discussed. PMID:18691042

  1. Green, oolong and black tea extracts modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, M -H.; Wang, C -H.; Chen, H -L.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare effects of ethanol-soluble fractions prepared from various types of teas on sucrose-induced hyperlipidemia in 5-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (n = 6-8 per group) weighed approximately 200 g were randomly divided into control diet, sucrose-rich diet, green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Control-diet group was provided with modified AIN-93 diet while the others consumed sucrose-rich diet. Tea extracts (1% w/v) were supplied in the drink for green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Results indicated sucrose-rich diet induced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Food intake was reduced by oolong tea extract. Consuming oolong and black tea extracts also significantly decreased body weight gains and food efficiency. Hypertriglyceridemia was normalized by green and black tea drink on day 18 and by oolong tea extract on day 25, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia was normalized by green tea on day 18 and by oolong tea and black tea on day 25, respectively. Plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were not affected by any tea extract. The triglyeride content in the liver as well as the cholesterol content in the heart of rats fed sucrose-rich diet were elevated and were normalized by all types of tea drink tested. Although green and oolong tea extracts contained similar composition of catechin, our findings suggest green tea exerted greater antihyperlipidemic effect than oolong tea. Apparent fat absorption may be one of the mechanisms by which green tea reduced hyperlipidemia as well as fat storage in the liver and heart of rats consumed sucrose-rich diet. PMID:11179857

  2. Ventilatory function in workers exposed to tea and wood dust.

    PubMed Central

    Al Zuhair, Y S; Whitaker, C J; Cinkotai, F F

    1981-01-01

    Changes in ventilatory capacity during the work shift were studied in workers exposed to tea dust in tea-packing plants, wood dust in two furniture factories, and virtually no dust in an inoperational power station. The FEV1 and FVC in workers exposed to dust were found to decline during the work shift by a small but significant volume. The MMFR, Vmax 50% and Vmax 75% were to variable to display any trend. No dose-response relationship could be discerned between the fall in workers' ventilatory capacity and the concentrations of airborne dust or microbes to which they were exposed. Bronchodilators could reverse the fall in FEV1. PMID:7317296

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dry tea

    PubMed Central

    ADISA, AFOLABI; JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; WOODHAM, CARA; ANTHONY, KEVIN; NGUYEN, THAO; SALEH, MAHMOUD A.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-eight different tea samples sold in the United States were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) for their contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many PAHs exhibit carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties and have been related to several kinds of cancer in man and experimental animals. The presence of PAHs in environmental samples such as water, sediments, and particulate air has been extensively studied, but food samples have received little attention. Eighteen PAHs congeners were analyzed, with percentage recovery higher than 85%. Contamination expressed as the sum of the 18 analyzed PAHs was between 101 and 1337 μg/kg on dry mass and the average contents in all of the 28 examined samples was 300 μg/kg on dry mass. Seven of the congeners were found in all samples with wide ranges of concentrations as follows: fluorene (7–48 μg/kg), anthracene (1–31 μg/kg), pyrene (1–970 μg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1–18 μg/kg) chrysene (17–365 μg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (1–29 μg/kg), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (4–119 μg/kg). The two most toxic congeners benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene were found at high concentrations only in Earl Grey Twinnings, Earl Grey Harney& Sons Fine Teas, and Chai Ultra Spice Black Tea Twinnings. Six PAH congeners are considered as suspected carcinogens (U.S.EPA), formed the basis of the estimation of the toxic equivalent (TEQ), Chai Ultra-Spice Black Tea Twinnings had the highest TEQ (110.9) followed by two grey tea samples, Earl Grey Harney & Sons Fine Tea (57.7) and Earl Grey Twinnings (54.5). Decaffeinated grey teas had the lowest TEQs, decaffeinated Earl Grey Bigelow (9.4) and Green Tea Honey Lemon Decaffeinated Lipton (9.6). PMID:26065515

  4. Potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor from green tea

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Aica, Isabella; Donà, Massimo; Tonello, Fiorella; Piris, Alejandro; Mock, Michèle; Montecucco, Cesare; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2004-01-01

    The anthrax lethal factor (LF) has a major role in the development of anthrax. LF is delivered by the protective antigen (PA) inside the cell, where it exerts its metalloprotease activity on the N-terminus of MAPK-kinases. PA+LF are cytotoxic to macrophages in culture and kill the Fischer 344 rat when injected intravenously. We describe here the properties of some polyphenols contained in green tea as powerful inhibitors of LF metalloproteolytic activity, and how the main catechin of green tea, (−)epigallocatechin-3-gallate, prevents the LF-induced death of macrophages and Fischer 344 rats. PMID:15031715

  5. Heavy metal content in tea soils and their distribution in different parts of tea plants, Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Anderson, Todd Alan; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2016-07-01

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals may pose a threat to environment and human health if metals enter the food chain over and above threshold levels. In general, there is a lack of information on the presence of heavy metals in tea [Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze] plants and the soils in which they are grown. Therefore, an attempt was made to establish a database on the important heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). For an initial survey on heavy metals, soil samples were collected randomly from tea-growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka, India. Parallel studies were conducted in the greenhouse on uptake of Pb, Cd, and Ni from soils supplemented with these metals at different concentrations. Finally, metal distribution in the tea plants under field conditions was also documented to assess the accumulation potential and critical limit of uptake by plants. PMID:27334344

  6. Green Tea Polyphenols Extend the Lifespan of Male Drosophila melanogaster While Impairing Reproductive Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E.; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T.; Huey, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans. PMID:25058464

  7. Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Astill, C; Birch, M R; Dacombe, C; Humphrey, P G; Martin, P T

    2001-11-01

    The effects of product and preparation variables on the in-cup chemical composition of tea extracts is of interest because the appearance and taste characteristics and the possible health effects of a tea liquor arise from the chemical components extracted from the leaf during tea preparation. A comprehensive study was therefore undertaken to determine the contributions of product and preparation variables on the total soluble solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of tea extracts. The results of this study show that the variety, growing environment, manufacturing conditions, and grade (particle size) of the tea leaves each influence the tea leaf and final infusion compositions. In addition, the composition of the tea infusion was shown to be influenced by whether the tea was contained in a teabag and, if so, the size and material of construction of the bag. Finally, the preparation method, including the amounts of tea and water used, infusion time, and amount of agitation, was shown to be a major determinant of the component concentrations of tea beverages as consumed. An illustration of the variation introduced by these product and preparation factors is provided by comparing solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of green and black tea infusions when commercial products are prepared according to the instructions given on their packaging. PMID:11714326

  8. Infusing pleasure: Mood effects of the consumption of a single cup of tea.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J L; Rowson, Matthew; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood benefits. Nevertheless, few studies have empirically investigated mood changes after tea consumption. We explored immediate effects of a single cup of tea up to an hour post-consumption on self-reported valence, arousal, discrete emotions, and implicit measures of mood. In a parallel group design, 153 participants received a cup of tea or placebo tea, or a glass of water. Immediately (i.e. 5 min) after consumption, tea increased valence but reduced arousal, as compared to the placebo. There were no differences at later time points. Discrete emotions did not differ significantly between conditions, immediately or over time. Water consumption increased implicit positivity as compared to placebo. Finally, consumption of tea and water resulted in higher interest in activities overall and in specific activity types compared to placebo. The present study shows that effects of a single cup of tea may be limited to an immediate increase in pleasure and decrease in arousal, which can increase interest in activities. Differences between tea and water were not significant, while differences between water and placebo on implicit measures were unexpected. More servings over a longer time may be required to evoke tea's arousing effects and appropriate tea consumption settings may evoke more enduring valence effects. PMID:27059832

  9. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.

    2012-07-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  10. Optimum conditions for the water extraction of L-theanine from green tea.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh H; Roach, Paul D

    2011-09-01

    Theanine is a unique non-protein amino acid found in tea (Camellia sinensis). It contributes to the favourable umami taste of tea and is linked to various beneficial effects in humans. There is an increasing interest in theanine as an important component of tea, as an ingredient for novel functional foods and as a dietary supplement. Therefore, optimal conditions for extracting theanine from tea are required for the accurate quantification of theanine in tea and as an efficient first step for its purification. This study examined the effects of four different extraction conditions on the yield of theanine from green tea using water and applied response surface methodology to further optimise the extraction conditions. The results showed that temperature, extraction time, ratio of water-to-tea and tea particle sizes had significant impacts on the extraction yield of theanine. The optimal conditions for extracting theanine from green tea using water were found to be extraction at 80 °C for 30 min with a water-to-tea ratio of 20:1 mL/g and a tea particle size of 0.5-1 mm. PMID:21735551

  11. The antimicrobial activities of processed Nigerian and South African black tea.

    PubMed

    Ojo, O A; Yunusa, A O; Akindele, S K; Vera, V N; Fowora, N

    2010-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of processed Nigerian Lipton Tea and South African 5 Roses Tea, extracted using distilled water, chloroform and 70% ethanol were determined against nine (9) enteropathogenic bacteria which includes; Bacillus subtilis, Proteus sp, Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella arizona and Staphylococcus aureus. The 2 tea bags, Nigerian Lipton tea bag and the South African 5 Roses tea bag were extracted through Solvent extraction method using 3 extraction solvents; Distilled water, Chloroform and 70% Ethanol and then inoculated onto the Mueller-Hinton agar plates containing the standard isolates at 6 different points on each plate. The zones of inhibition of the bacterial isolates produced by each of these tea - extracts were determined while meaningful antibacterial activities against five (5) of the standard isolates; Enterobacter sp., K. pneumoniae, S. paratyphi A, B. subtilis and S. aureus were observed. Lipton tea water-extract was a more effective antibacterial agent than water-extract of 5 Roses tea. While the 70% ethanol-extract of 5 Roses tea had the greatest antibacterial activity of all the different tea-extract used for the study, the chloroform-extracts of the tea bags had no antimicrobial effect on all the test organisms used. PMID:22416657

  12. Classification of tea category using a portable electronic nose based on an odor imaging sensor array.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quansheng; Liu, Aiping; Zhao, Jiewen; Ouyang, Qin

    2013-10-01

    A developed portable electronic nose (E-nose) based on an odor imaging sensor array was successfully used for classification of three different fermentation degrees of tea (i.e., green tea, black tea, and Oolong tea). The odor imaging sensor array was fabricated by printing nine dyes, including porphyrin and metalloporphyrins, on the hydrophobic porous membrane. A color change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the image of sensor array before and after exposure to tea's volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Multivariate analysis was used for the classification of tea categories, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) achieved 100% classification rate by leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). This study demonstrates that the E-nose based on odor imaging sensor array has a high potential in the classification of tea category according to different fermentation degrees. PMID:23810847

  13. Anti-melanogenic effects of black, green, and white tea extracts on immortalized melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, So Young; Park, Eun Ye

    2015-01-01

    Tea contains polyphenols and is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Because most tyrosinase inhibitors that regulate melanogenesis are phenol/catechol derivatives, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Camellia sinensis water extracts (CSWEs), including black tea, green tea, and white tea extracts, on melanogenesis using immortalized melanocytes. CSWEs inhibited melanin accumulation and melanin synthesis along with tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects were superior to those of arbutin, a well-known depigmenting agent. The anti-melanogenic activity of black (fermented) tea was higher than that of a predominant tea catecholamine, epigallocatechin gallate. CSWEs, especially black tea extract, decreased tyrosinase protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-melanogenic effect of CSWEs is mediated by a decrease in both tyrosinase activity and protein expression, and may be augmented by fermentation. Thus, CSWEs could be useful skin-whitening agents in the cosmetic industry. PMID:25643794

  14. Spatial variability of theaflavins and thearubigins fractions and their impact on black tea quality.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Borah, Paban; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of theaflavin and thearubigin fractions and their impact on black tea quality were investigated using multivariate and geostatistics techniques. Black tea samples were collected from tea gardens of six geographical regions of Assam and West Bengal, India. Total theaflavin (TF) and its four fractions of upper Assam, south bank and North Bank teas were higher than the other regions. Simple theaflavin showed highest significant correlation with tasters' quality. Low molecular weight thearubigins of south bank and North Bank were significantly higher than other regions. Total thearubigin (TR) and its fractions revealed significant positive correlation with tasters' organoleptic valuations. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. The semivariogram for quality parameters were best represented by gaussian models. The nugget/sill ratio indicated a strong/moderate spatial dependence of the studied parameters. Spatial variation of tea quality parameters may be used for quality assessment in the tea growing areas of India. PMID:26604370

  15. Differentiation of tea (Camellia sinensis) varieties and their geographical origin according to their metal content.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cáceres, P L; Martín, M J; Pablos, F; González, A G

    2001-10-01

    The metal content of 46 tea samples, including green, black, and instant teas, was analyzed. Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Ti, and Zn were determined by ICP-AES. Potassium, with an average content of 15145.4 mg kg(-1) was the metal with major content. Calcium, magnesium, and aluminum had average contents of 4252.4, 1978.2, and 1074.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. The average amount of manganese was 824.8 mg kg(-1). There were no clear differences between the metal contents of green and black teas. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and artificial neural networks (ANN), were applied to differentiate the tea types. LDA and ANN provided the best results in the classification of tea varieties. These chemometric procedures were also useful for distinguishing between Asian and African teas and between the geographical origin of different Asian teas. PMID:11600020

  16. Determination of minerals extracted from several commercial teas (Camellia sinensis) to hot water (infusion).

    PubMed

    Gezgin, Sait; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Atalay, Emine

    2006-01-01

    Mineral contents of some tea and their infusions drunk in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, and S contents were very high in both infusions and tea (i.e., pieces of the tea plant). The As, Cd, Cr, Li, Pb, and Se contents of infusion and tea were found to be very low. The level of K of all samples is higher than those of other minerals. Generally, mineral contents of tea were found to be higher than those of tea infusions. In addition, the health benefits of teas and knowledge of their mineral contents are of great interest and may be useful for further study of enzyme systems and vital biochemical functions. PMID:16579740

  17. Anti-melanogenic effects of black, green, and white tea extracts on immortalized melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Chul; Choi, So Young; Park, Eun Ye

    2015-01-01

    Tea contains polyphenols and is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Because most tyrosinase inhibitors that regulate melanogenesis are phenol/catechol derivatives, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Camellia sinensis water extracts (CSWEs), including black tea, green tea, and white tea extracts, on melanogenesis using immortalized melanocytes. CSWEs inhibited melanin accumulation and melanin synthesis along with tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects were superior to those of arbutin, a well-known depigmenting agent. The anti-melanogenic activity of black (fermented) tea was higher than that of a predominant tea catecholamine, epigallocatechin gallate. CSWEs, especially black tea extract, decreased tyrosinase protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-melanogenic effect of CSWEs is mediated by a decrease in both tyrosinase activity and protein expression, and may be augmented by fermentation. Thus, CSWEs could be useful skin-whitening agents in the cosmetic industry. PMID:25643794

  18. The effect of drinking tea at high altitude on hydration status and mood.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Rycroft, Jane A; Aspen, Jennifer; Chapman, Clare; Brown, Bryce

    2004-04-01

    The effect of drinking tea on hydration status and mood was studied in nine male and four female members of expeditions based at Mt. Everest base camp at an altitude of 5,345 m. Whilst exposed to altitude-cold diuresis, participants were subjected to a crossover experimental design comprising two 24-h dietary interventions. In the "tea" condition, hot brewed tea formed a major part of fluid intake, whereas in the "no-tea" condition tea was excluded from the diet. Subjects were prohibited in both cases from consuming other caffeinated beverages, caffeinated foods, and alcoholic drinks. Mean fluids ingested [mean (SE); tea=3,193 (259) ml versus no tea=3,108 (269) ml] and urine volume (tea=2,686 (276) ml versus no tea=2,625 (342) ml] were similar under both conditions. Statistical analysis found no difference in urine stimulated as a result of the tea intervention (P=0.81). Several markers of hydration status were also taken immediately pre and post each condition, including measures of urine specific gravity, urine electrolyte balance (K+, Na+), and urine colour. None of these measures indicated a difference in hydration status as a result of the dietary intervention in either the control or tea condition. A difference was, however, found in mood, with subjects reporting reduced fatigue when tea was included in the diet (P=0.005). The study shows therefore that even when drunk at high altitude where fluid balance is stressed, there is no evidence that tea acts as a diuretic when consumed through natural routes of ingestion by regular tea drinkers, but that it does have a positive effect on mood. PMID:14872247

  19. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21673927

  20. [Identification of green tea brand based on hyperspectra imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Feng-Le; He, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology was developed to identify different brand famous green tea based on PCA information and image information fusion. First 512 spectral images of six brands of famous green tea in the 380 approximately 1 023 nm wavelength range were collected and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the goal of selecting two characteristic bands (545 and 611 nm) that could potentially be used for classification system. Then, 12 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features (i. e., mean, covariance, homogeneity, energy, contrast, correlation, entropy, inverse gap, contrast, difference from the second-order and autocorrelation) based on the statistical moment were extracted from each characteristic band image. Finally, integration of the 12 texture features and three PCA spectral characteristics for each green tea sample were extracted as the input of LS-SVM. Experimental results showed that discriminating rate was 100% in the prediction set. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) assessment methods were used to evaluate the LS-SVM classification algorithm. Overall results sufficiently demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to perform classification of green tea. PMID:25095441

  1. Components and activity of polysaccharides from coarse tea.

    PubMed

    Wang Dongfeng, W; Wang Chenghong, W; Li Jun, L; Zhao Guiwen, Z

    2001-01-01

    Coarse tea contained a high content of polysaccharide complex. Composed of polysaccharide and protein, the polysaccharide complex from tea (TPS) belonged to glycoprotein with the molecular weight () of (10.7-11.0) x 10(4). When mice (7 weeks old, C57BL/8) were injected with TPS, the levels of blood glucose (BG) in normal mice and model mice with high BG were decreased significantly by averages of 13.54 and 22.18%, respectively. The antibody concentration (OD(413 nm)) in the mice injected with 2.4 mg/mL TPS was increased evidently by 44.93% (p < 0.01). TPS treatment was beneficial not only for the subsequent production of interleukin (IL) 2 in spleen cells of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats but also because it prohibited the body from producing too much IL-1 in AA rats. Treatment of diabetes with coarse tea in both China and Japan may be related to TPS and the content of TPS in coarse tea. PMID:11170619

  2. The Secret between Storytelling and Retelling: Tea, School, & Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I will tell two of my personal stories to try to explore the secret or opaque space between the original telling and retelling of stories in narrative inquiry. Based upon my difficult struggles with the two stories of tea, school, and narrative, I suggest that narrative inquiry has to be a complex loop of relationship, reflexivity,…

  3. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dheeraj P.; Pancholi, Shyam S.; Patel, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315

  4. Tea and cinnamon polyphenols improve the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, key features of the metabolic syndrome, are leading causes of early brain alterations. Green tea, by a mechanism involving the improvement of insulin sensitivity and the control of oxidative stress, could be a factor of neuroprotection in insulin-resistant state...

  5. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  6. Antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Aman, Sahar; Naim, Asma; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2014-06-01

    The polyphenolic fractions of fruits: Terminalia catappa, Carissa carandas, Ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. All fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of C. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p < 0.05), highest for T. catappa (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC: 7.8-1000 microg/mL) and lowest for C. carandas (MIC: 62.5-1000 microg/mL). With few exceptions, both green and black teas' fractions inhibited the tested strains, however, green tea fractions (MIC: 15.63-125 microg/mL) were more active than black (MIC: 31.25-1000 microg/mL) and neutral were more active than their corresponding acidic fractions. Oil fractions of all oilseeds were found to be more active than their polyphenolic fractions, their antibacterial action decreased in the order thymol > mustard > fenugreek > poppy seeds (p < 0.05). Though the fruits used for the study are underutilized and have been emphasized for processed products, they may potentially be important to fight against pathogenic bacteria in view of their MICs. The teas and oilseeds, though a small part of total food intake, are more functional and active against the tested bacterial species and may find potential applications in therapeutics and food preservation. PMID:23703103

  7. Tea Time: Raising Awareness and Support for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Fahey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In a time of reliance on electronic media for information, chaotic programming environments, and declining public resources, Extension workers need to find unique ways to connect with stakeholders to maintain and increase support for programming. To address this need, we developed, conducted, and evaluated a series of stakeholder teas. We found…

  8. Effect of Tea Theaflavins and Catechins on Microvascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Dagmar; de Graaf, Young; van Kerckhoven, Roeland; Draijer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg), four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg) or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT) at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI): 0.2; p = 0.04) and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06) compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02), but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25514559

  9. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea

    PubMed Central

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. PMID:24136910

  10. Identification Guide for Diseases of Tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this guide on diseases associated with tea (Camellia sinensis) is to assist with p;roblem identification and raise awareness of serious plant disease pathogens not yet present in Hawaii. Blister bligtht, horse-hair blight, and twig dieback/stem canker are very destructive diseases fo...

  11. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed. PMID:20492260

  12. Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Khalafi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to design, formulate and evaluate the green tea gums with a suitable taste and quality in order to produce an anti-oxidant chewing gum. Materials and Methods: Fresh green tea leaves obtained from Northern Iran for extraction. Maceration is the extraction method that is used in this study. The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoids of the hydro alcoholic extract were measured. Various formulations of the 120 mg green tea extract chewing gums with different sweeteners, flavoring agents and various gum bases were prepared afterward release pattern, content uniformity, organoleptic results and other properties were characterized. Results: The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoid of the hydro alcoholic extraction were 207.32 mg/g, 130.00 mg/g and 200.82 mg/g, respectively. Release pattern of green tea chewing gum with different gum base ratios and various sweeteners in phosphate buffer were prepared. A total of 60 persons who were 20-30 years of age, participated in our panel test for organoleptic properties such as taste, stiffness, stickiness, etc., Acceptable gum was the one with the same ratio of the used rubber bases. Cinnamon selected as the preferred taste by volunteers. Combination of aspartame, sugar and maltitol has appropriate taste. The effect of various sweetener on release pattern was negligible, on the other hand rubber bases ratio variation, changed the release pattern obviously. Conclusion: The green tea chewing gum with sugar, maltitol and aspartame sweeteners and cinnamon flavor, using the same rubber bases ratio may be a desirable antioxidant product. PMID:25161989

  13. Tea category classification using morphological characteristics and support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. L.; He, Y.; Qiu, Z. J.; Bao, Y. D.

    2008-11-01

    Tea categories classification is an importance task for quality inspection. And traditional way for doing this by human is time-consuming, requirement of too much manual labor. This study proposed a method for discriminating green tea categories based on multi-spectral images technique. Four tea categories were selected for this study, and total of 243 multi-spectral images were collected using a common-aperture multi-spectral charged coupled device camera with three channels (550, 660 and 800 nm). A compound image which has the clearest outline of samples was process by combination of the three monochrome images (550, 660 and 800 nm). After image preprocessing, 18 morphometry parameters were obtained for each samples. The 18 parameters used including area, perimeter, centroid and eccentricity et al. To better understanding these parameters, principal component analysis was conducted on them, and score plot of the first three independent components was obtained. The first three components accounted for 99.02% of the variation of original 18 parameters. It can be found that the four tea categories were distributed in dense clusters respectively in score plot. But the boundaries among them were not clear, so a further discrimination must be developed. Three algorithms including support vector machines, artificial neural network and linear discriminant analysis were adopted for developed classification models based on the optimized 9 features. Wonderful result was obtained by support vector machines model with accuracy of 93.75% for prediction unknown samples in testing set. It can be concluded that it is an effective method to classification tea categories based on computer vision, and support vector machines is very specialized for development of classification model.

  14. Evaluation of Spray Drift from Tea Field during Pesticides Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikawa, Osamu; Miyama, Daisuke; Araki, Takuya

    Spray drift from tea field was measured by using water-sensitive papers(WSP). 1)Automated thresholding by "ImageJ", which is an open architecture image analysis program, was able to apply for extracting deposits on WSP. In order to analyze spot size of deposits and percent area coverage on WSP, the command of analyze particle was used. However, the stain area obtained by automated thresholding was larger than one by optimal threshold. The correction factor was 0.7411. 2)Although the spraying method and the nozzle type were different, 99% of the number of droplets was less than 200μm in the diameter and 80% was less than 125μm. 3)Among all nozzle treatments by manual spraying and by a riding type boom sprayer,bigger droplet size nozzles decreased drift, but there was no difference in droplet density on tea leaves. 4)Hydraulic application by a riding type boom sprayer was less spray drift than manual spraying, because a riding type boom sprayer can keep the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle shorter than manual spraying. 5)Although the anti-drift cover for a riding type boom sprayer reduced drift when smallerdroplet size nozzle was used, bigger droplet size nozzle was recommended to use for avoiding drift risk. 6)Since the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle can be short, the drift value (total droplet volume par unit area / sprayed volume par unit area) obtained in tea field was only 1/10 of the data reported by drift assessment in vegetable field.

  15. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (P<0.05). Gallic acid had statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) in almost all the samples by day 7. The Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay indicated 5 of the Kombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. PMID:26471559

  16. Preparation of herbal tea as infusion or by maceration at room temperature using mistletoe tea as an example.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Sebastian; Beffert, Markus; Hoppe, Katharina; Nadberezny, Dominik; Frank, Bruno; Scheffler, Armin

    2011-03-01

    Herbal tea can be prepared by infusion or maceration at room temperature resulting in different compositions of extractable constituents, which possibly influences the mode of action or safety profile. Knowledge on this topic is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the substantial differences between infusion and maceration as recommended preparation methods for the preparation of herbal mistletoe tea, a traditional remedy against cardiovascular diseases. No active substances are known but analytical marker substances such as proteins, triterpenoids, phenylpropane derivatives and flavonoids can be quantified within the herb and the different herbal tea preparations. Whereas phenylpropane derivatives were completely extracted by infusion and maceration, neither method dissolved viscotoxins. 43% of mistletoe lectins were extracted by maceration, whereas by infusion they are inactivated by thermal degradation. By contrast, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid are present in higher concentrations in infusates compared with macerates, but even infusion extracted less than 2%. Infusion extracted 43% of flavonoid-like substances and maceration only 31%. In conclusion this study determines some differences between both extraction methods on the profile of solved substances. The relevance of it should be determined in studies dealing with the efficacy of herbal mistletoe tea. PMID:21617779

  17. Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures.

    PubMed

    Gurusubramanian, G; Rahman, A; Sarmah, M; Ray, Somnath; Bora, S

    2008-11-01

    Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at < or = 0. 1 mgkg(-1) for the most commonly used pesticides which will not be met out in the real practice and has been a major constraint to tea exporting countries like India. In order to regulate the situation of the Indian market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European

  18. Do teas rich in antioxidants reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in humans? Pilot studies with Rooibos herbal tea and Japanese green tea.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, A; Mokoena, M; Durbach, I; Lazarus, J; de Jager, S; Ackermann, H; Breytenbach, I; Okada, A; Usami, M; Hirose, Y; Ando, R; Yasui, T; Kohri, K

    2016-08-01

    Several experimental and animal studies have demonstrated that substances rich in antioxidants can reduce the physicochemical and peroxidative risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone formation in urine and blood. However, there are very few such investigations in humans. In the present pilot study, two varieties of tea, a green one from Japan (JGT) and a herbal one from South Africa (Rooibos) (RT), both rich in antioxidants, were administered to a group of CaOx stone formers (SF) (n = 8) for 30 days. Both teas were analysed for polyphenols by high-performance liquid chromatography and for minerals by plasma atomic and optical emission spectroscopy. 24 h urines (baseline and day 30) were analysed for lithogenic factors. CaOx metastable limits and crystal nucleation and growth kinetics were also determined in each urine sample. Deposited crystals were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. Blood samples were collected (baseline and day 30). Biomarkers of oxidative stress including plasma and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were also determined. Urinary physicochemical risk factors were also investigated after ingestion of RT for 30 days in two control groups (CG1 and CG2), the latter one of which consisted of habitual JGT drinkers. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Mann-Whitney tests for paired and independent measurements, respectively. Several flavonoids and catechins were quantified in RT and JGT, respectively, confirming that both teas are rich sources of antioxidants. Mineral content was found to be far below dietary reference intakes. There were no significant changes in any of the urinary physicochemical or peroxidative risk factors in the control groups or in SF, except for the supersaturation (SS) of brushite (Bru) which decreased in the latter group after ingestion of JGT. Crystal morphology showed a tendency to change from

  19. Application of enzymes in the production of RTD black tea beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chandini S; Subramanian, R; Rao, L Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) tea is a popular beverage in many countries. Instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is the common problem faced in the production of RTD black tea beverages. Thus decreaming is an important step in the process to meet the cold stability requirements of the product. Enzymatic decreaming approaches overcome some of the disadvantages associated with other conventional decreaming methods such as cold water extraction, chill decreaming, chemical stabilization, and chemical solubilization. Enzyme treatments have been attempted at three stages of black tea processing, namely, enzymatic treatment to green tea and conversion to black tea, enzymatic treatment to black tea followed by extraction, and enzymatic clarification of extract. Tannase is the most commonly employed enzyme (tannin acyl hydrolase EC 3.1.1.20) aiming at improving cold water extractability/solubility and decreasing tea cream formation as well as improving the clarity. The major enzymatic methods proposed for processing black tea having a direct or indirect bearing on RTD tea production, have been discussed along with their relative advantages and limitations. PMID:23072532

  20. Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011. PMID:26940374

  1. Multifunctional effects of green tea catechins on prevention of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Tea catechins reduce serum cholesterol concentrations and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in experimental animals and humans. These effects are mainly ascribed to the gallate esters of catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). During pasteurization of tea drinks, tea catechins are epimerized to so-called heat-treated tea catechins such as (-)-catechin gallate (CG) and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). We showed that both tea catechins and heat-treated tea catechins with the galloyl moiety lowered intestinal absorption of cholesterol by inhibiting micellar solubility of cholesterol. Since they inhibited pancreatic lipase in vitro and slowed down lymphatic absorption of triacylglycerols, it is suggested that delayed intestinal absorption of triacylglycerols after the feeding of catechin preparations causes suppression of postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia. It has been reported that tea catechins and heat-treated tea catechins with the galloyl moiety suppress deposition of visceral fat in experimental animals and humans. Some studies suggest that the stimulation of hepatic beta-oxidation might be a cause for reduced deposition of visceral fat. However, our study did not show any acceleration of beta-oxidation in rat livers. Although there are some controversial observations, results obtained suggest a possibility that tea catechins and heat-treated tea catechins with the galloyl moiety improve lipid metabolism and contribute to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18296354

  2. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  3. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  4. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  5. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in tea prepared from naturally contaminated powdered ginger.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W

    2010-08-01

    The migration of several major mycotoxins, aflatoxins B(1) (AFB(1)), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (AFT, total of the aflatoxins) and ochratoxin A (OTA), from naturally contaminated powdered ginger to surrounding liquid (tea) was investigated. The toxins are commonly found in cereal grains and are toxic, carcinogenic and thermostable. Ginger root is widely used for digestive problems. Powdered ginger (2 g) found to contain AFT and OTA was placed in an empty heat sealable tea bag. The tea bag was heat-sealed and used to prepare tea under different conditions: temperature (50 and 100 degrees C), time (5 and 10 min) and volume (100 and 200 ml). The tea bag was placed in hot water and stirred every 1 min for 5 s during the first 5 min of steeping. After steeping, the tea bag was removed and the tea and ginger residue (in the tea bag) were analysed separately for AFT and OTA. After extraction and immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up, the isolated AFT and OTA were separated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and quantified using a fluorescence detector. At 100 degrees C, approximately 30-40% of AFB(1) and AFT and 20-30% of OTA in the contaminated ginger were found in the ginger tea; the total amounts of AFT and OTA in tea varied less than 5% under the three conditions of preparation. At 50 degrees C, about 10% of OTA and AFT were found in tea. This is the first study on the migration of AFT from botanicals to tea. It is also the first to study the distribution of AFT and OTA from powdered ginger to tea and ginger residue. PMID:20589549

  6. Changing climate and the value of the tea landscape in Assam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Gupta, N.; Duncan, J.; Saikia, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tea production has a measurable impact upon millions of people's livelihoods in northeast India. The region is experiencing changes in climate characteristics which are placing added pressure on the tea industry for sustaining livelihoods. To increase understanding of the role of tea within the Assam landscape, this research has engaged with multiple local tea-producing stakeholders. Approximately 65% of Assam's tea is produced in large plantations, with the remaining 35% produced in smallholdings. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on land management practices operationalised by plantation managers and smallholders. Focus group sessions using the Delphi technique were conducted with tea workers (labourers for the plantations) to ascertain the level of importance of the tea sector to sustaining their livelihoods. Questionnaires and focus group surveys also attempted to establish stakeholder understanding of climate change. Data were analysed using spatial statistics to investigate intra- and inter-region variation in responses. Focus group responses were categorised to determine the livelihood asset base available to tea workers within plantations, with patterns of (dis)similarity observed spatially. Results indicate that land management practices (e.g. fertiliser and pesticide application), tea processing methods (e.g. onsite factory and energy generation), and social provisions for tea workers (e.g. sanitation and education facilities) varied greatly across the main tea growing regions of Assam. Tea workers listed numerous environmental and social factors as important for sustaining livelihoods, with the top ranked factors similar across some plantations (e.g. drinking water availability and access). Plantation managers are highly concerned with how climate conditions are affecting tea production, and although workers were aware of climate change issues in some plantations, socioeconomic conditions seemed of more pressing concern to their livelihoods.

  7. Effects of a safflower tea supplement on antioxidative status and bone markers in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong-Hee; Yoon, Ji Young; Han, Chi-Dong; Choi, Youngsun; Choi, Sang-Won

    2011-01-01

    We conducted this study to examine the effects of safflower seed granular tea containing physiologically active polyphenols on antioxidative activities and bone metabolism. Forty postmenopausal women ages 49 to 64-years were recruited from Daegu and Gyeongbuk and were randomly assigned to either a safflower tea supplement (Saf-tea) group (n = 27) or a placebo group (n = 13). The Saf-tea group received 20 g of safflower seed granule tea per day containing a 13% ethanol extract of defatted safflower seeds, whereas the placebo group received a similar type of tea that lacked the ethanol extract. No significant changes in nutrient intake for either the placebo or Saf-tea groups were observed before or after the study period, except vitamin A intake increased after 6 months in the Saf-tea group. Dietary phytoestrogen intakes were similar in the Saf-tea group (60.3 mg) and placebo group (52.5 mg). Significant increases in plasma genistein and enterolactone were observed in the Saf-tea group. After 6 months of supplementation, serum levels of antioxidant vitamins such as α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid increased significantly, and TBARS levels decreased in the Saf-tea group compared to the placebo group. Serum osteocalcin levels were reduced (P < 0.05) in the Saf-tea group after 6 months, whereas serum osteocalcin did not change in the placebo group. Urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine excretion was not different between the two groups at baseline, and did not change in either group after 6 months. Bone mineral density decreased significantly in the placebo group (P < 0.01) but not in the supplemented group. It was concluded that polyphenols (72 mg/day), including serotonin derivatives, in the Saf-tea had both antioxidant and potential bone protecting effects in postmenopausal women without liver toxicity. PMID:21487492

  8. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  9. A non-targeted approach to chemical discrimination between green tea extract-based dietary supplements and green tea leaves by LC/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green tea extract-based dietary supplements (GTDS) have gained in popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of several GTDS in comparison to the composition of green tea leaves using a LC-MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric an...

  10. Changes in the Composition of Raw Tea Leaves from the Korean Yabukida Plant during High-temperature Processing to Pan-Fried Kamairi-cha Green Tea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a better understanding of compositional changes occurring during the production of commercial teas, we determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) changes in ingredient levels during each of several manufacturing steps used to produce Kamairi-cha, a premium green tea. We ...

  11. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  12. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  13. Effect of tea on iron absorption from the typical Tunisian meal 'couscous' fed to healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Hamdaoui, M; Hedhili, A; Doghri, T; Tritar, B

    1994-01-01

    Black and green tea decoctions are popular beverages in Tunisia, especially after eating. Our study was performed to examine the effect of graded amounts of black and green tea decoction prepared under realistic Tunisian conditions on nonheme iron absorption from a typical Tunisian meal, 'couscous', by extrinsic radioiron labeling in rats. Concentrations of 300, 200 and 100 micrograms/ml of black tea decreased dramatically nonheme iron bioavailability from couscous, but 50 micrograms/ml did not influence iron absorption. The inhibition of nonheme iron from couscous varied from 36 to 61% with black tea and 30.5% with green tea. Taken together, our findings show that the tea decoction in Tunisia has a great inhibitory power and may constitute an important factor for the development of iron deficiency anemia throughout Tunisia. PMID:7832583

  14. Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Sakulnak, Ratchaneekorn; Wang, Sunan

    2016-03-01

    Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB. PMID:26471674

  15. Hydrolysis of green tea residue protein using proteolytic enzyme derived from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Zhong, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Su-Qin; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2013-02-01

    Free amino acids are important chemical components which impact the taste of green tea infusion. The hydrolysis of water-insoluble protein in the green tea residue helps to increase the contents of free amino acids components except theanine. Studies indicate that the hydrolysis of the tea protein could be restricted due to interaction of polyphenols with protein. The experiment indicates that the hydrolysis of tea protein by protease is the main trend when the polyphenols concentration is lower than 5 mg ml(-1), however, the proteins (including tea protein and protease) would interact with polyphenoles instead of hydrolysis when the concentration of polyphenols is higher than 5 mg ml(-1). The hydrolysis of tea protein is absolutely restrained when concentration comes to 10 mg ml(-1). PMID:24425904

  16. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  17. Tea and cognitive health in late life: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Xu, H; Liu, F; Feng, L

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on the association between tea consumption and cognitive health in late life. Population-based studies reviewed in this article suggest that tea drinking has beneficial effects on cognitive function of elderly persons. However, a cause-effect relationship between tea consumption and cognitive decline and dementia could not be drawn given inconsistent findings from only two longitudinal cohort studies. The neuroprotective effects of tea consumption could be due to catechins, L-theanine and other compounds in tea leaves. More longitudinal observational study is needed. Information on life-time tea consumption and blood concentrations of catechins and L-theanine could be collected in future studies. PMID:22237999

  18. Impedance study of tea with added taste compounds using conducting polymer and metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Mopsy; Kapur, Pawan; Ganguli, Abhijit; Singla, Madan Lal

    2012-09-01

    In this study the sensing capabilities of a combination of metals and conducting polymer sensing/working electrodes for tea liquor prepared by addition of different compounds using an impedance mode in frequency range 1 Hz-100 KHz at 0.1 V potential has been carried out. Classification of six different tea liquor samples made by dissolving various compounds (black tea liquor + raw milk from milkman), (black tea liquor + sweetened clove syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened ginger syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened cardamom syrup), (black tea liquor + sweet chocolate syrup) and (black tea liquor + vanilla flavoured milk without sugar) using six different working electrodes in a multi electrode setup has been studied using impedance and further its PCA has been carried out. Working electrodes of Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Glassy Carbon (GC) and conducting polymer electrodes of Polyaniline (PANI) and Polypyrrole (PPY) grown on an ITO surface potentiostatically have been deployed in a three electrode set up. The impedance response of these tea liquor samples using number of working electrodes shows a decrease in the real and imaginary impedance values presented on nyquist plots depending upon the nature of the electrode and amount of dissolved salts present in compounds added to tea liquor/solution. The different sensing surfaces allowed a high cross-selectivity in response to the same analyte. From Principal Component Analysis (PCA) plots it was possible to classify tea liquor in 3-4 classes using conducting polymer electrodes; however tea liquors were well separated from the PCA plots employing the impedance data of both conducting polymer and metal electrodes. PMID:23035436

  19. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p < 0.05), albeit to different extents, were observed among volatile compounds, sugars, organic acids, and free amino acids in seven grades of black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea

  20. Therapeutic potential of green tea in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Masterjohn, Christopher; Bruno, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a constellation of progressive liver disorders that are closely related to obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance and may afflict over 70 million Americans. NAFLD may occur as relatively benign, nonprogressive liver steatosis, but in many individuals it may progress in severity to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. No validated treatments currently exist for NAFLD except for weight loss, which has a poor long-term success rate. Thus, dietary strategies that prevent the development of liver steatosis or its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are critically needed. Green tea is rich in polyphenolic catechins that have hypolipidemic, thermogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities that may mitigate the occurrence and progression of NAFLD. This review presents the experimental evidence demonstrating the hepatoprotective properties of green tea and its catechins and the proposed mechanisms by which these targeted dietary agents protect against NAFLD. PMID:22221215

  1. Dissipation kinetics of bifenazate in tea under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, Annamalai; Senthurpandian, Velu Kalaipandian; Shanmugaselvan, Veilumuthu Anandham

    2014-02-15

    Field experiments were conducted during April and May of 2011 in Valparai, Coonoor and Gudalur (Tamil Nadu, India) to determine the residues of bifenazate in black tea. From this study, residue levels of bifenazate at different harvest intervals, persistence, dissipation pattern during processing, rate constant and half-life values were calculated. Residues of bifenazate dissipated exponentially after spraying and at Gudalur trial, on the 16th day after application residues were below the maximum residue level of 0.02 mg/kg set by the European Union. However, no residues were detected in the tea brew. Regression lines drawn for bifenazate showed that it followed first order dissipation kinetics. Half-life values varied from 1.03 to 1.36 days for bifenazate and a pre-harvest interval of 16 days is suggested. PMID:24128589

  2. The TEA CO2-Lasers with High Output Emission Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.; Puchikin, А. V.; Jun, Yao

    2014-03-01

    TEA CO2-lasers generating short pulse radiation and operating in a pulse-periodic mode with the repetition rate up to 10 Hz have been developed. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen up to 8% in the mixture of molecular gases СО2:H2 = 500:50 at a total pressure of P = 0.6 bar enhances the peak emission power maintaining the temporary pulse shape. An output beam intensity of 12.3 MW/cm2 was obtained for the 30 ns pulse at a laser efficiency of 2.8%. In a compact TEA СО2-laser with an active medium volume of 6 cm3, a beam with an output intensity of 24 MW/cm2 at pulse duration of 70 ns was obtained.

  3. A new antioxidant beverage produced with green tea and apple.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M

    2014-08-01

    Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages. PMID:24601928

  4. L-Theanine: properties, synthesis and isolation from tea.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V; Bowyer, Michael C; Roach, Paul D

    2011-08-30

    Theanine is a non-protein amino acid that occurs naturally in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) and contributes to the favourable taste of tea. It is also associated with effects such as the enhancement of relaxation and the improvement of concentration and learning ability. It is also linked with health benefits including the prevention of certain cancers and cardiovascular disease, the promotion of weight loss and enhanced performance of the immune system. Thus, there has been a significant rise in the demand for theanine. While theanine has been chemically and biologically synthesised, techniques to isolate theanine from natural sources remain an important area of research. In this review article, the properties and health benefits of theanine are summarised and the synthesis and isolation of theanine are reviewed and discussed. Future perspectives for the isolation of theanine from natural sources are also outlined. PMID:21735448

  5. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, E. J. J.; Sathiyaraj, P.; Deena, T.; Kumar, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer.

  6. Anticholinergic syndrome and supraventricular tachycardia caused by lavender tea toxicity.

    PubMed

    Acikalin, Ayca; Gulen, Muge; Kara, Banu; Icme, Ferhat; Cagliyan, Caglar Emre; Satar, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Lavender plants have been used for their cosmetic and biologic benefits for many centries. Extracts from Lavandula plants have been found to cause antimuscarinic effects by blocking sodium and calcium ion channels in in vitro and in vivo studies. We present a case of poisoning by ingestion of tea made from Lavender stoechas ( grass). The patient was admitted to our emergency department with supraventricular tachycardia due to anticholinergic syndrome triggered by drinking lavender tea. On electrocardiography, a narrow QRS complex tachycardia was evident. After carotid sinus massage, the patient immediately returned to sinus rhythm. There are no reported data about the toxicity of Lavender stoechas plants with respect to supraventricular tachycardia, anticholinergic syndrome or sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:22760025

  7. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  8. Metabolism of green tea catechins by the human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Markus; Erk, Thomas; Richling, Elke

    2010-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that green tea polyphenols can be degraded in the colon, and there is abundant knowledge about the metabolites of these substances that appear in urine and plasma after green tea ingestion. However, there is very little information on the extent and nature of intestinal degradation of green tea catechins in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine in detail the microbial metabolism and chemical stability of these polyphenols in the small intestine using a well-established ex vivo model. For this purpose, fresh ileostomy fluids from two probands were incubated for 24 h under anaerobic conditions with (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatchin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA). After lyophilisation and extraction, metabolites were separated, identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. Two metabolites of EC and C (3', 4', 5'-trihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone and 3', 4'-dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone) were identified. In addition, 3', 4', 5'-trihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone was detected as a metabolite of EGC, and (after 24-h incubation) pyrogallol as a degradation product of GA. Cleavage of the GA esters of EGCG and ECG was also observed, with variations dependent on the sources (probands) of the ileal fluids, which differed substantially microbiotically. The results provide new information about the degradation of green tea catechins in the gastrointestinal tract, notably that microbiota-dependent liberation of GA esters may occur before these compounds reach the colon. PMID:20931601

  9. Oxidative Tea Polyphenols Greatly Inhibit the Absorption of Atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yun; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Tengfei; Huang, Qin; Yin, Dan; Xiang, Zemin; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative tea polyphenols (OTPs) is the oxidative polymerization product of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) forms during the process of Pu-er tea fermentation, and possesses absorption property, which may absorbs on drugs thus impact the drug bioavailability when taking medicines with Pu-er tea. Here we demonstrated that OTP inhibited the absorption of atenolol in the intestine, which was determined by testing atenolol levels of plasma via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After administration of atenolol (50 mg/kg), atenolol was absorbed (Tmax: 1.867 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 6.663 h in control group; Compared with atenolol group, AUC0-t (h*ng/ml), AUC0-∞(h∗ng/ml), and Cmax of OTP+atenolol group (OTP 500 mg/kg + atenolol 50 mg/kg) reduced 38.7, 27, and 51%, respectively, the atenolol concentration of plasma was reduced by OTP approximately 43, 49, and 55.5% at 30 min, 1 and 2 h, respectively, (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the level of atenolol in feces was higher in the OTP+atenolol group, indicating that the absorption of atenolol in rats was inhibited by OTP. Isothermal titration calorimetry assay identified that EGCG can bind to atenolol and the in vitro results showed that OTP absorbed on atenolol and formed precipitate in acid condition, demonstrating a significant positive relationship between atenolol levels and OTP dosage. Taken together, these results suggested that consuming Pu-er tea with atenolol might inhibit atenolol absorption and possible other drugs. PMID:27445825

  10. The Efficacy of Green Tea Chewing Gum on Gingival Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Aslani, Ahmad; Jamshidian, Foroogh; Noohi, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem According to previous studies, the components of green tea extracts can inhibit the growth of a wide range of gram-pos-itive and -negative bacterial species and might be useful in controlling oral infections. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of green tea chewing gum on the rate of plaque and gingival inflammation in subjects with gingivitis. Materials and Method In this double-blind randomize controlled clinical trial, 45 patients with generalized marginal gingivitis were selected and divided into two groups of green tea (23) and placebo (22) chewing gum. The patients chewed two gums for 15 minutes daily for three weeks. Sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and approximal plaque index (API) were studied at the baseline, 7 and 21 days later. Saliva sampling was conducted before and after 21 days for evaluation of IL-1β. The results were analyzed and compared by using repeated measures ANOVA, paired t test, and independent two-sample t test (α=0.05). Result The results showed that chewing gum significantly affected the SBI and API (p< 0.001). Paired t test showed that the two groups were significantly different regarding the mean changes of SBI and API at different periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 7-21 (p< 0.001). Concerning IL-1β, the repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the effect of chewing gum was significant (p<0.001). Moreover, paired t-test represented no significant difference between the mean changes of IL-1β within 1-21 day (p= 0.086). Conclusion The green tea chewing gum improved the SBI and API and effectively reduced the level of IL-1β. PMID:27284561

  11. Chemical composition and sensory evaluation of fermented tea with medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei-Fang; Guo, Xin-Yue; Ma, Li-Qing; Guo, Li-Qiong; Lin, Jun-Fang

    2013-03-01

    In commercial tea production, plenty of tea leaf waste is generated, which may not only exert pollution risk to environment, but also a huge waste of bioactive ingredients in tea. In this study, the 4th to 7th leaves of tea bush were collected and used as substrate for mycelial culture of two renown medicinal mushrooms Grifola frondosa and Tianzhi (new variants of Ganoderma lucidum) to obtain a new type of solid-state fermented tea. Result showed that the polysaccharides of Grifola frondosa and Tianzhi fermented tea were 1.52 and 4.14 %, tea polyphenols were 1.51 and 1.85 %, the free amino acids were 1.52 and 0.94 %, caffeine were 1.16 and 1.70 %, polyphenols/amid acids ratio were 1.0 and 1.98, water extractions were 35.53 and 32.86 %, protein contents were 17.63 and 6.13 mg/g, respectively. The volatile components were mainly composed of alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones. The contents of major flavor compositions of fermented tea had changed and their relation tended to be harmonious, and the variety of amino acids significantly increased. Therefore, the sensory flavor and therapeutic qualities of fermented tea were significantly improved. PMID:24426081

  12. Mechanisms of body weight reduction and metabolic syndrome alleviation by tea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was three to four cups (600-900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: (i) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) activating AMP-activated protein kinase by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMP-activated protein kinase would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and metabolic syndrome alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  13. Ameliorative effect of black tea on nicotine induced cardiovascular pathogenesis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Joukar, Siyavash; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Najafipour, Hamid; Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Joukar, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the role of nicotine in the development of cardiovascular complications of smoking, we investigated whether black tea has a modulatory effect on cardiovascular pathogenesis of nicotine in rat. Animals were randomized to control, tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups. Test groups received black tea brewed (adding 400 ml boiling water to 10 g Lipton black tea for 5 min) orally alone or with nicotine 2 mg/kg/day, s.c. separately or combined for four weeks. On 28th day, lipids profile of blood and also malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of heart tissue were measured. Nicotine administration caused a significant increase in total cholesterol, TG and HDL-C and also atherogenic index of plasma (log TG/HDL-C). Moreover, nicotine increased MDA level of heart. Black tea alone increased the antioxidant capacity of heart tissue without significant effect on lipid profile and MDA levels. Concomitant use of black tea and nicotine significantly attenuated the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of nicotine but was unable to attenuate the MDA. Our findings suggest that black tea consumption reduces hyperlipidemia and atherogenesis as two cardiovascular risk factors and complications of nicotine, in rat. If these results can be extrapolated to human, smokers who daily drink black tea may be less at risk of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea.

    PubMed

    Peng, L X; Zou, L; Wang, J B; Zhao, J L; Xiang, D B; Zhao, G

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  15. A novel convenient process to obtain a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction using a lignocellulose column.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Senji

    2003-05-01

    Lignocellulose prepared from sawdust was investigated for its potential application in obtaining a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction from tea extract. Tea polyphenols having gallate residues, namely, (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), were adsorbed on the lignocellulose column, while caffeine was passed through it. Adsorbed polyphenols were eluted with 60% ethanol, and the elute was found to consist mainly of EGCg and ECg. The caffeine/EGCg ratio was 0.696 before lignocellulose column treatment, but it became 0.004 after the column treatment. These results suggest that the lignocellulose column provides a useful and convenient process of purification of tea polyphenol fraction accompanied by decaffeination. PMID:12720405

  16. Impact of instantaneous controlled pressure drop on microstructural modification of green tea and its infusion quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuefei; Xu, Ping; Feng, Liyun; Yang, Xianqiang; Qian, Lisheng

    2014-01-01

    Instantaneous controlled pressure drop (DIC) was applied to obtain a suitable cell disruption extent as a technology in green tea processing. Microstructural observations showed that DIC increased cell disruption in an even manner as reflected from loosened palisade, distorted cells, widened space between cells, disrupted and rearranged cellular membrane in tea leaves. Color difference determination supported that DIC could facilitate the release and transport of cell contents. DIC sample showed a rise in redness, over 2.5 times greater than the control after spreading naturally for 24 h. Chemical determination revealed a better infusion behavior of tea polyphenols and amino acids in green tea manufactured by DIC method both at high and low temperature. The increase in tea polyphenols content in liquor for the first brew from twisted and needle tea was about 35% and that from flat tea was about 15% in DIC method over the traditional processing. These results suggest that DIC process can be applied in green tea processing for both a traditional product and a new kind of tea capable of making with cold water. PMID:24426047

  17. The cessation and detoxification effect of tea filters on cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingqi; Di, Xiaojing; Liu, Caiyi; Zhang, Huimin; Huang, Xiouqin; Zhang, Junjing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Longze; Chang, Yanzhong; Liang, Yonglin; Tao, Ran; Zhao, Baolu

    2010-05-01

    To treat tobacco addiction, a tea filter was developed and studied for smoking cessation. This work reports the smoking cessation effect of tea when it was used as a component of cigarette filters. In one trial it was found that after using the tea filters for 2 months, the volunteer smokers decreased their cigarette consumption by 56.5%, and 31.7% of them stopped smoking. This work identified a new method and material, tea filter and theanine, which inhibit tobacco and nicotine addiction and provide an effective strategy for treating tobacco addiction. PMID:20596936

  18. [Vertical distribution characteristics of N2O emission in tea garden and its adjacent woodland].

    PubMed

    Fan, Li-chao; Han, Wen-yan; Li, Xin; Li, Zhi-xin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we determined the vertical distribution of N2O emission rates in tea soils and its adjacent woodland soils. The results showed that total nitrogen contents, N2O fluxes and cumulative emissions in the tea garden and woodland decreased with the increasing depth of the soil layer, and their average values were greater in tea garden than in woodland. Generally, pH, soil water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N contents had a downward trend with the increasing depth of soil layer. The WSON, MBN, NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N contents from each soil layer were greater in tea garden than in woodland, but the pH value in tea garden was lower than that in woodland. The N2O emission rate was significantly positively related with TN, MBN and NH(4+)-N contents, but not with pH value. The N2O emission rate was significantly correlated with WSON content in woodland, but not in tea garden. The N20 emission rate was significantly correlated with NO(3-)-N concentration in tea garden, but not in woodland. WSON/TN and N2O-N/SMBN were averagely greater than in tea garden in woodland, and SMBN/TN was opposite. These results indicated that tea soil was not conducive to accumulate nitrogen pool, maintain soil quality and its sustainable use compared to woodland. PMID:26785543

  19. Recent advances in tea polysaccharides: Extraction, purification, physicochemical characterization and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guijie; Yuan, Qingxia; Saeeduddin, Muhammad; Ou, Shiyi; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Ye, Hong

    2016-11-20

    Tea has a long history of medicinal and dietary use. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is regarded as one of the main bioactive constituents of tea and is beneficial for health. Over the last decades, considerable efforts have been devoted to the studies on TPS: extraction, structural feature and bioactivity of TPS. However, it has been received much less attention compared with tea polyphenols. In order to provide new insight for further development of TPS in functional foods, in present review we summarize the recent literature, update the information and put forward future perspectives on TPS covering its extraction, purification, quantitative determination techniques as well as physicochemical characterization and bioactivities. PMID:27561538

  20. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea

    PubMed Central

    Peng, L. X.; Zou, L.; Wang, J. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Xiang, D. B.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  1. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea. PMID:26613545

  2. Effects of spraying rare earths on contents of rare Earth elements and effective components in tea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongfeng; Wang, Changhong; Ye, Sheng; Qi, Hongtao; Zhao, Guiwen

    2003-11-01

    Rare earth (RE) fertilizer is widely applied in China to increase the yield and the quality of crops including tea. However, the effects of spraying RE fertilizer on the contents of rare earth elements (REE) and effective components in tea are unknown. The results from basin and field experiments show that the values of the REE concentrations in new shoots of tea plants and the concentration of REE in the soil (REE/REEs) either from control basins or from treatment basins were smaller than those in other parts of tea plant and similar between control and treatment. The longer the interval between spraying RE fertilizer and picking the shoots of tea plants, the less the effects from spraying. About 80% summation operator REE (the sum of the concentrations of 15 REE) in tea, whether it came from spraying or not, was insoluble in the infusion. About 10% the soluble REE of summation operator REE in tea infusion was bound to polysaccharide, and the amount of REE bound polysaccharide decreased over time. At least a 25 day safety interval is needed between spraying and picking if the microelement fertilizer is used, in order to enhance tea output and to ensure tea safety. PMID:14582968

  3. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a green tea manufacturer

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuko; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Asada, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by numerous agents, and one of its histopathological features is poorly formed granulomas. We report here a rare case of occupational HP caused by green tea, showing well‐formed granulomas. The patient, a 54‐year‐old woman who had worked for 15 years in a green tea factory, was referred for abnormal chest X‐ray shadows with cough and breathlessness over a 2‐month period. The chest X‐ray and high‐resolution computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground‐glass opacities and poorly defined centrilobular nodules. Histopathological examination of the thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens showed bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia with well‐formed granulomas. Although the form of granulomas were atypical, laboratory data, CT findings, and intradermal skin testing suggested the diagnosis of subacute HP caused by green tea. After transfer to a different department, her condition improved markedly. Taking a precise medical history and avoidance of the suspected environmental agent proved useful in diagnosing this condition. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology Case Reports published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of The Asian Pacific Society of Respirology PMID:27081492

  4. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a green tea manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuko; Shirai, Toshihiro; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Asada, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by numerous agents, and one of its histopathological features is poorly formed granulomas. We report here a rare case of occupational HP caused by green tea, showing well-formed granulomas. The patient, a 54-year-old woman who had worked for 15 years in a green tea factory, was referred for abnormal chest X-ray shadows with cough and breathlessness over a 2-month period. The chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and poorly defined centrilobular nodules. Histopathological examination of the thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens showed bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia with well-formed granulomas. Although the form of granulomas were atypical, laboratory data, CT findings, and intradermal skin testing suggested the diagnosis of subacute HP caused by green tea. After transfer to a different department, her condition improved markedly. Taking a precise medical history and avoidance of the suspected environmental agent proved useful in diagnosing this condition. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology Case Reports published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of The Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. PMID:27081492

  5. Treatment of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypotension With Tea: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Petramfar, Peyman; Mohammadi, S. Saeed; Hosseinzadeh, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The syndrome of spontaneous intracranial hypotension has been increasingly diagnosed since its discovery through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a rare syndrome that is due to the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a tear in the dura and can occur at any age, even among adolescents, but is most frequently seen among females in late middle age. Case Presentation Here, we describe a 32-year-old woman with a two-month history of headaches and occasional nausea and vomiting (N/V). MRI without gadolinium was normal, but meningeal enhancement was seen in MRI with gadolinium. The lumbar puncture revealed a low opening pressure. Computed tomography myelography (CT myelography) showed no leakage; Therefore, idiopathic intracranial hypotension was diagnosed. Treatment was started using tea, and the patient’s headache got significantly better in about a day. Conclusions Conservative therapy, such as bed rest and caffeine treatment with eight cups of tea daily, yielded a significant improvement in our patient. Effectively, the patient constitutes a case of idiopathic intracranial hypotension due to undetectable CSF leakage or hyper-absorption, with good response to conservative management through tea-drinking. Further investigations with an appropriate sample size are needed in order to confirm this intervention in the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypotension. PMID:27621920

  6. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  7. A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  8. Effective extraction method for determination of neonicotinoid residues in tea.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ru-Yan; Jiao, Wei-Ting; Qian, Xiao-San; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Xiao, Yu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2013-12-26

    Sample preparation using an absorbent for removal of polyphenols and a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge for cleanup followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been investigated for the simultaneous determination of eight neonicotinoid insecticides (dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, clothianidin, imidaclothiz, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid). After tea samples were soaked with water and extracted with acetonitrile, sample extracts were treated with an appropriate amount of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) to effectively remove polyphenols. The treated extract was cleaned up with a Carb-PSA cartridge. Neonicotinoid insecticides were eluted with acetonitrile from the cartridge and dried. The extract was redissolved with methanol/water (1:9, v/v) and analyzed by conventional HPLC coupled with an ultraviolet detector. The recoveries of eight neonicotinoid insecticides in tea samples were 71.4-106.6% at 0.1-1.0 mg kg(-1) spiked levels. Relative standard deviations were <10% for all of the recovery tests. The established method was simple, effective, and accurate and could be used for monitoring neonicotinoid insecticides in tea. PMID:24308380

  9. Tea is the major source of flavan-3-ol and flavonol in the U.S. diet.

    PubMed

    Song, Won O; Chun, Ock K

    2008-08-01

    Flavonoid intake is inversely associated with the incidence of chronic diseases, but the sources of flavonoid intake in free-living U.S. adults have not yet been reported. We tested hypotheses that tea is the major dietary source of flavonoids in U.S. adults; tea consumers differ from those of tea nonconsumers in sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, and dietary and beverage sources of flavonoid intake. We matched the flavonoid contents of the USDA Flavonoid Databases with dietary intake data of adults (n = 8809) included in NHANES of 1999-2002. Only 21.3% of U.S. adults reported drinking tea daily. Daily total flavonoid intake of tea consumers was over 20 times that of tea nonconsumers (697.9 vs. 32.6 mg/d); per capita flavonoid intake from tea was 157 mg/d. Tea consumers are more likely to be older, female, white, and to have higher income than tea nonconsumers (P < 0.001); to have lower nonleisure-time physical activity level (P < 0.01); and to take dietary supplements (P < 0.001) than tea nonconsumers. Intake of flavonols and flavan-3-ols, the major tea flavonoids, differed between the 2 groups (P < 0.01). Other dietary flavonoid sources after tea were citrus juice, wine, and citrus fruits for both tea consumer and nonconsumer groups. For tea nonconsumers, flavonoid intake from wine, fruitades, and fruit drinks was higher than that in tea consumers. Flavonoid intake differs among subgroups, mainly because of the percentage of tea consumers and the prevalence of tea consumption within each subgroup. PMID:18641204

  10. The cell end marker protein TeaC is involved in growth directionality and septation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Higashitsuji, Yuhei; Herrero, Saturnino; Takeshita, Norio; Fischer, Reinhard

    2009-07-01

    Polarized growth in filamentous fungi depends on the correct spatial organization of the microtubule (MT) and actin cytoskeleton. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe it was shown that the MT cytoskeleton is required for the delivery of so-called cell end marker proteins, e.g., Tea1 and Tea4, to the cell poles. Subsequently, these markers recruit several proteins required for polarized growth, e.g., a formin, which catalyzes actin cable formation. The latest results suggest that this machinery is conserved from fission yeast to Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we have characterized TeaC, a putative homologue of Tea4. Sequence identity between TeaC and Tea4 is only 12.5%, but they both share an SH3 domain in the N-terminal region. Deletion of teaC affected polarized growth and hyphal directionality. Whereas wild-type hyphae grow straight, hyphae of the mutant grow in a zig-zag way, similar to the hyphae of teaA deletion (tea1) strains. Some small, anucleate compartments were observed. Overexpression of teaC repressed septation and caused abnormal swelling of germinating conidia. In agreement with the two roles in polarized growth and in septation, TeaC localized to hyphal tips and to septa. TeaC interacted with the cell end marker protein TeaA at hyphal tips and with the formin SepA at hyphal tips and at septa. PMID:19429780

  11. Performance studies of a TEA-TEA HF oscillator-amplifier laser system with semiconductor and corona preionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafetinides, A. A.; Papadopoulos, D. N.; Chourdakis, G.

    2002-06-01

    A TEA-TEA HF (SF 6:C 3H 8:He) oscillator-amplifier laser system with one common switching element and one common power supply unit was designed. Two different preionization schemes were employed, one using a corona discharge on a glass plate and another one using semiconductor slabs. For both arrangements the small signal gain coefficient g0 and the gain value G were determined and the dependence of g0 and G on the charging voltage and the active gas concentrations was investigated. Measurements of the performance characteristics of the HF laser oscillator (i.e. beam divergence, pulse energy, pulse duration, etc.) are presented and the improvement of the output laser beam profile is discussed in detail via 2D and 3D figures obtained with the help of a beam analyzer. The laser system presented is suitable as a research tool for a number of applications and among them some medical ones (microsurgery, dentistry etc.).

  12. Electroantennogram Responses of the Tea Slug Moth, Iragoides fasciata to Some Plant Volatiles Associated with Tea, Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, An-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Ben-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Jiang; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Ning, J ing; Han, Bao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly different responses according to gender. The green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in males. In general, the antennae of males were more sensitive, and responded more strongly, to most of the compounds. Responses to sesquiterpenoids were lower in both males and females. Dose-dependent response studies indicated differences in response between genders and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the green leaf volatiles class appeared to be important clues in host-plant selection by this oligophagous species. PMID:23414096

  13. Electroantennogram responses of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata to some plant volatiles associated with tea, Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, An-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Cun; Liu, Ben-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Jiang; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Ning, Jing; Han, Bao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly different responses according to gender. The green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in males. In general, the antennae of males were more sensitive, and responded more strongly, to most of the compounds. Responses to sesquiterpenoids were lower in both males and females. Dose-dependent response studies indicated differences in response between genders and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the green leaf volatiles class appeared to be important clues in host-plant selection by this oligophagous species. PMID:23414096

  14. Predation of Egg Masses of Oriental Tea Tortrix Homona magnanima Diakonoff and Smaller Tea Tortrix Adoxophyes honmai Yasuda by Valencia Slug Lehmannia valentiana (Férussac)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Yukio

    The ability of the Valencia slug Lehmannia valentiana (Férussac) to prey upon egg masses of the Oriental tea tortrix Homona magnanima Diakonoff (OTT) and the Smaller tea tortrix Adoxophyes honmai Yasuda (STT) was investigated in a rearing cage and in tea fields. In the cage, Valencia slugs prey upon an average of 6.1 to 9.3 egg masses of OTT out of placed 20 egg masses per night. In the case of STT the slugs preyed upon an average of 14.3 egg masses out of 20 egg masses per night. The total number of eggs preyed upon by a Valencia slug was equivalent to the number of eggs oviposited by one OTT female or two STT females. In tea fields, Valencia slugs preyed upon the egg masses of OTT that were both experimentally attached to tea leaves and oviposited on the leaves. The number of egg masses preyed upon by slugs differed among the tea fields, and it tended to be related to the number of slugs captured in traps. Copper sprayed on the egg masses of tea tortrix had no influence on predation by Valencia slugs, however, spraying of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides did have an influence on slugs predation.

  15. Survey of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in teas and herbal teas on the Swiss market using HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mathon, Caroline; Edder, Patrick; Bieri, Stefan; Christen, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a large class of natural compounds amongst which the esterified 1,2-unsaturated necine base is toxic for humans and livestock. In the present study, a method was developed and validated for the screening and quantification of nine PAs and one PA N-oxide in teas (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and herbal teas (camomile, fennel, linden, mint, rooibos, verbena). Samples were analysed by HPLC on a RP-column, packed with sub-2 μm core-shell particles, and quantified using tandem mass spectrometry operating in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. These PAs and some of their isomers were detected in a majority of the analysed beverages (50/70 samples). In 24 samples, PA concentrations were above the limit of quantification and the sum of the nine targeted PAs was between 0.021 and 0.954 μg per cup of tea. Thus, in some cases, total concentrations exceed the maximum daily intake recommended by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and the UK's Committee On Toxicity (i.e. 0.007 μg kg(-1) bw). PMID:25286874

  16. [Aging Process of Puer Black Tea Studied by FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Curve-Fitting Analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-yu; Shi, You-ming; Yi, Shi Lai

    2015-07-01

    For better determination of the chemical components in the Puer black tea, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of Puer black tea at different aging time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that the chemical components had change in Puer black tea at different aging time. The leaf of Puer black tea was a complex system, its Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a total overlap of each absorption spectrum of various components. Each band represented an overall overlap of some characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups in the Puer black tea. In order to explore the change of characteristic absorption peaks of functional groups with aging time, the prediction positions and the number of second peaks in the range of 1900-900 cm(-1) were determined by Fourier self-deconvolution at first, and later the curve fitting analysis was performed in this overlap band. At different aging time of Puer black tea, the wave number of second peaks of amide II, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides at overlap band were assigned by curve fitting analysis. The second peak at 1520 cm(-1) was characteristic absorption band of amide II, the second peaks of tea polyphenol and pectin appeared at 1278 and 1103 cm(-1) respectively. Two second peaks at 1063 and 1037 cm(-1), corresponds mainly to glucomannan and arabinan. The relative area of these second peaks could be indicated the content of protein, tea polyphenol, pectin and polysaccharides in the Puer black tea. The results of curve fitting analysis showed that the relative area of amide II was increasing first and then decreasing, it indicated the change of protein in Puer black tea. At the same time, the content of tea polyphenol and pectin were decreased with the increase of aging time, but the glucomannan and arabinan were increased in reverse. It explained that the bitter taste was become weak and a sweet taste appeared in the tea with the increase of

  17. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law. PMID:17135020

  18. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea (Camellia sinensis) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anesini, Claudia; Ferraro, Graciela E; Filip, Rosana

    2008-10-01

    Tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae) is cultivated in Argentina in the northeastern region (provinces of Misiones and Corrientes), between 26 degrees and 28 degrees south latitude, the southernmost area of the world where tea is cultivated. The objective of this work was to determine the total polyphenol content and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of green and black tea cultivated and industrialized in Argentina. Twelve samples of eight brands were analyzed. The total polyphenol content was determined according to the International Organization for Standardization method (ISO) 14502-1 for the determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea. The antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging assay. Green tea showed a higher polyphenol content than black tea. The total polyphenol concentration in green tea was found to vary from 21.02 +/- 1.54 to 14.32 +/- 0.45% of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), whereas in black tea, the polyphenol content ranged from 17.62 +/- 0.42 to 8.42 +/- 0.55% of GAE (P < 0.05). A similar profile was observed for the antioxidant capacity determined by both methods. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total polyphenol content (r (2) = 0.9935 for the ferric thiocyanate method and r (2) = 0.9141 for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay). This is the first systematic screening for the quantification of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in tea commercialized in Argentine markets. The results obtained herein allow one to conclude that Argentine tea is of very good quality when compared to teas from other sources. PMID:18778031

  19. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - AES). The mean ± SD level of Pb in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.802 ± 0.633, 0.993 ± 0.667 and 1.367 ± 1.06 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.135 ± 0.274, 0.244 ± 0.46 and 0.343 ± 0.473 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.277 ± 0.272, 0.426 ± 0.402 and 0.563 ± 0.454 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. Also, the results showed that the locations and the infusion times influenced upon the amount of these metals (P < 0.05). PMID:23369381

  20. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

  1. Modifying Role of GSTP1 Polymorphism on the Association between Tea Fluoride Exposure and the Brick-Tea Type Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Ye, Yan; Li, Bingyun; Liu, Xiaona; Liu, Hongxu; Sun, Zhenqi; Li, Mang; Cui, Jing; Sun, Dianjun; Yang, Yanmei; Gao, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    Background Brick tea type fluorosis is a public health concern in the north-west area of China. The association between SNPs of genes influencing bone mass and fluorosis has attracted attention, but the association of SNPs with the risk of brick-tea type of fluorosis has not been reported. Objective To investigate the modifying roles of GSTP1 rs1695 polymorphisms on this association. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. Brick-tea water was tested by the standard of GB1996-2005 (China). Urinary fluoride was tested by the standard of WS/T 89-2006 (China). Skeletal fluorosis was diagnosed by X-ray, the part we scheduled was forearm, shank, and pelvic, then diagnosed the skeletal fluorosis by the standard of WS/192-2008 (China). Gene polymorphism was tested by Sequenom MassARRAY system. Result The prevalence rate in different ethnical participants was different: Tibetan individuals had the highest prevalence rate of skeletal fluorosis. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies of GSTP1 Rs1695 among different ethnical participants (p<0.001): Tibetan, Mongolian and Han subjects with homozygous wild type (GSTP1-AA) genotype were numerically higher than Kazakh and Russian subjects (p<0.001). Compared to Tibetan participants who carried homozygous A allele of GSTP1 Rs1695, Tibetan participants who carried G allele had a significantly decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis (OR = 0.558 [95% CI, 0.326-0.955]). For Kazakh participants, a decreased risk of skeletal fluorosis among carriers of the G allele was limited to non high-loaded fluoride status (OR = 0. 166 [95% CI, 0.035–0.780] vs. OR = 1.478 [95% CI, 0.866–2.552] in participants with high-loaded fluoride status). Neither SNP-IF nor SNP-age for GSTP1 Rs1695 was observed. Conclusion The prevalence rate of the brick tea type fluorosis might have ethnic difference. For Tibetan individuals, who had the highest prevalence rate, G allele of GSTP1 Rs1695 might be a protective factor for brick tea

  2. TEA CO 2 Laser Simulator: A software tool to predict the output pulse characteristics of TEA CO 2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.

    2005-09-01

    "TEA CO 2 Laser Simulator" has been designed to simulate the dynamic emission processes of the TEA CO 2 laser based on the six-temperature model. The program predicts the behavior of the laser output pulse (power, energy, pulse duration, delay time, FWHM, etc.) depending on the physical and geometrical input parameters (pressure ratio of gas mixture, reflecting area of the output mirror, media length, losses, filling and decay factors, etc.). Program summaryTitle of program: TEA_CO2 Catalogue identifier: ADVW Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVW Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: P.IV DELL PC Setup: Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Scientific Services Department, Mathematics and Informatics Division Operating system: MS-Windows 9x, 2000, XP Programming language: Delphi 6.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 47 315 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:7 681 109 Distribution format:tar.gz Classification: 15 Laser Physics Nature of the physical problem: "TEA CO 2 Laser Simulator" is a program that predicts the behavior of the laser output pulse by studying the effect of the physical and geometrical input parameters on the characteristics of the output laser pulse. The laser active medium consists of a CO 2-N 2-He gas mixture. Method of solution: Six-temperature model, for the dynamics emission of TEA CO 2 laser, has been adapted in order to predict the parameters of laser output pulses. A simulation of the laser electrical pumping was carried out using two approaches; empirical function equation (8) and differential equation (9). Typical running time: The program's running time mainly depends on both integration interval and step; for a 4 μs period of time and 0.001 μs integration step (defaults values used in the program), the running time will be about 4 seconds. Restrictions on the complexity: Using a very small integration

  3. Varietal identification of tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) using nanofluidic array of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apart from water, tea is the world’s most widely consumed beverage. Tea is produced in more than 50 countries with an annual production of approximately 4.7 million tons. The market segment for specialty tea has been expanding rapidly owing to increased demand, resulting in higher revenues and profi...

  4. Green tea EGCG suppresses T cell proliferation through impairment of IL-2/IL-2 receptor signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have suggested a benefit of consuming green tea in promoting general health and reducing the risk of certain diseases. However, little is known about the effect of green tea on immune function. In this study we determined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major active comp...

  5. Immunomodulating effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea: mechanisms and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consuming green tea or its active ingredient, epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown consistently to benefit the healthy functioning of several body systems. In the immune system specifically, accumulating evidence has revealed an immunomodulating effect of green tea/EGCG. Several types ...

  6. Antibacterial property and mechanism of a novel Pu-erh tea nanofibrous membrane.

    PubMed

    Su, Yajuan; Zhang, Chenlu; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping

    2012-02-01

    Pu-erh tea is made via a natural fermentation process. In this study, Pu-erh tea was used as a raw material for nanomaterials preparation and as an antibacterial agent. Antibacterial activities on Escherichia coli of Pu-erh tea, Pu-erh tea powder (PTP) of different sizes, and Pu-erh tea residual powder were firstly determined, respectively. With polyvinyl alcohol as the carrier, through an electrospinning technique, different kinds of nanofibrous membranes were obtained from the extract of Pu-erh tea and nano-PTP (NPTP), and their antibacterial properties and mechanism against E. coli were evaluated. The results showed better antibacterial activity with smaller PTP particles, the nano-sized particles had the best effects, and the MIC of NPTP was 13.5 mg/mL. When NPTP was in nanofibrous membranes, the antibacterial activity decreased slightly, but increased with modification by ZnO. Pu-erh tea in nanofibrous membranes damaged the E. coli cell membranes and caused leakage of K(+) and enzymes. What is more is that damage of the cell walls led to the leakage of fluorescent proteins from enhanced green fluorescence protein-expressing E. coli. These results indicate that the Pu-erh tea nanofibrous membranes had good antibacterial activities against E. coli, which may provide a promising application of novel antibacterial materials. PMID:21858494

  7. Evaluation of ice-tea quality by DART-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Rajchl, Aleš; Prchalová, Jana; Kružík, Vojtěch; Ševčík, Rudolf; Čížková, Helena

    2015-11-01

    DART (Direct Analysis in Real Time) coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF/MS) has been used for analyses of ice-teas. The article focuses on quality and authenticity of ice-teas as one of the most important tea-based products on the market. Twenty-one samples of ice-teas (black and green) were analysed. Selected compounds of ice-teas were determined: theobromine, caffeine, total phenolic compounds, total soluble solids, total amino acid concentration, preservatives and saccharides were determined. Fingerprints of DART-TOF/MS spectra were used for comprehensive assessment of the ice-tea samples. The DART-TOF/MS method was used for monitoring the following compounds: citric acid, caffeine, saccharides, artificial sweeteners (saccharin, acesulphame K), and preservatives (sorbic and benzoic acid), phosphoric acid and phenolic compounds. The measured data were subjected to a principal components analysis. The HPLC and DART-TOF/MS methods were compared in terms of determination of selected compounds (caffeine, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and saccharides) in the ice-teas. The DART-TOF/MS technique seems to be a suitable method for fast screening, testing quality and authenticity of tea-based products. PMID:26505766

  8. Contribution of presystemic hepatic extraction to the low oral bioavailability of green tea catechins in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan; Anavy, Nathan D; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2002-11-01

    Green tea and green tea catechins have been shown to possess potent cancer-preventive activities in rodent cancer models. At present, epidemiological evidence of the protective effect of green tea consumption against the development of human cancers is not conclusive. Oral bioavailability of green tea catechins has been shown to be low in animals and possibly in humans. This study is designed to determine the contribution of first-pass hepatic elimination to the low oral bioavailability of green tea catechins. Green tea catechin mixture was dosed to rats by intravenous or intraportal infusion. Blood samples were collected after dosing and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with the coulometric electrode array detection system. The systemic clearance of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC) was 8.9, 6.3, and 9.4 ml/min, respectively. The steady state volume of distribution (V(ss)) of EGCG, EGC, and EC was 432, 220, and 187 ml, respectively. We found that high percentage of green tea catechins escaped first-pass hepatic elimination, with 87.0, 108.3, and 94.9% of EGCG, EGC, and EC, respectively, available in the systemic blood following intraportal infusion. Our results suggest that factors within the gastrointestinal tract such as limited membrane permeability, transporter mediated intestinal secretion, or gut wall metabolism may contribute more significantly to the low oral bioavailability of green tea catechins. PMID:12386131

  9. The Way of Tea as a Part of the Outdoor Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspros, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the roots of the tea ceremony, which began in China, but flourished in Japan by way of Zen Buddhist faith. Describes four principles of the tea ceremony--harmony, respect, purity, and tranquility--each of which may be linked to professional and personal goals of outdoor education. (CDS)

  10. Introduction to the Proceedings of the Fourth International Scientific Symposium on Tea and Human Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article provides an introduction to the Fourth International Scientific Symposium on Tea and Human Health. Recent observational studies support a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease among tea drinkers but a critical evaluation of this work raises the challenge of conducting long-term ra...

  11. Integrating satellite images and spectroscopy to measuring green and black tea quality.

    PubMed

    Dutta, R; Stein, A; Bhagat, R M

    2011-07-15

    This study quantifies the effects of green leaf and black tea parameters that influence tea quality in Northeast India. It was motivated by a decline in tea quality that is of concern to tea growers. The rationale of the study is to identify the different parameters that have a significant influence on liquor brightness and other variables measuring tea quality. Here, we investigate several methods for estimating tea quality based on tea quality data, near infrared spectroscopy and remotely sensed data (NDVI). Attention focused on two high yielding clones (TV1 and S3A3). NDVI was obtained from ASTER images. Statistical analysis shows that liquor brightness is affected by the levels of caffeine content, theaflavins and catechins. Relationships exist between quality parameters and remote sensing in particular for the S3A3 clone. NDVI has a positive relation with caffeine, theogallin, EC, and ECG. NIR is negatively related to caffeine, theogallin, and catechins. We conclude that NDVI and Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have a large potential to be used for monitoring tea quality in the future. PMID:23140747

  12. Potential role of green tea catechins in various disease therapies: progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Mak, Judith C W

    2012-03-01

    Green tea (from the plant Camellia sinensis), a beverage whose consumption started 5000 years ago in China, has important biological and pharmacological properties. The beneficial effects of green tea have been attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds that are powerful anti-oxidants and free iron scavengers. Of all the catechins found in green tea, namely (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), EGCG is the most abundant and powerful. It is widely believed that green tea may protect against death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease and stroke) owing to the presence of catechins associated with green tea consumption. Other health benefits include various types of cancer chemoprevention, weight loss and protective effects against neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease). Thus far, numerous pharmacological activities regulating disease-specific molecular targets have been reported in vitro for EGCG concentrations in the micromolar range, which are physiologically irrelevant. Although most of the studies have shown benefits with two to three cups of green tea per day, the optimal dose has not yet been established to enable any solid conclusions to be drawn regarding the various health benefits of green tea or its constituents in humans. With Phase I trials providing information on the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of EGCG, the window of opportunity is wider to undertake well-controlled long-term human studies to enable a full understanding of the protective effects of green tea catechins on various parameters in different settings. PMID:22229384

  13. Application of a Functional Mathematical Index for Antibacterial and Anticarcinogenic Effects of Tea Catechins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea leaves produce secondary metabolites that are involved in the defense of the plants against invading pathogens. In the case of green teas, these metabolites are polyphenolic compounds called catechins. In previous studies, we developed a mathematical formula called functional mathematical index ...

  14. Tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chenshu; Tang, Rongrui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures. Methods: Paired case-control method was used for face-to-face interviews from January 2010 to June 2014. Patients (n=435) with newly osteoporotic hip/femur fracture and 435 controls with the same gender and age (±3) were given questionnaire survey. The survey content included general situation, detailed tea drinking and other diet condition, health-related behavior and family history of fractures, etc. Results: Single factor logistic analysis showed that the habit of drinking tea can significantly reduce the risk of hip/femur fracture. Cumulative year of tea drinking, the cumulative amount of tea and tea concentration (low dose group) have the maximum protection for fracture, while the high dose group is weaker in protection (trend test, P<0.05). After adjustment for age, energy, BMI, education degree, parents’ history of fracture, second hand smoke exposure, calcium supplements, and equivalent energy consumption of physical activity, etc, the above association still showed significant linear trend, but the associated strength was slightly reduced. But stratified analysis found that the effect of tea drinking was only statistically significant in men. And there were no statistically significant differences of people with different education degree. Conclusions: Regular tea drinking can reduce the risk of osteoporotic hip/femur fractures in middle-aged and elderly men. PMID:27182250

  15. Molecular and cellular targets affected by green tea extracts in vascular cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of green or black tea has been associated with a lower risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, but despite many studies, a firm connection has not been delineated. Several molecular and cellular mechanisms may play a role in the preventive activity of tea. As reviewed here, ...

  16. Chamomile and marigold tea: chemical characterization and evaluation of anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Matić, Ivana Z; Juranić, Zorica; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Nađvinski, Neva; Gođevac, Dejan

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to evaluate the selectivity in the antitumor action, the cytotoxic activity of chamomile and marigold tea was tested against various malignant cell lines and against healthy immunocompetent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Chemical profiles of chamomile and marigold infusions and decoctions were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; their total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity were determined, too. Results from present research demonstrate that chamomile and marigold tea exert selective dose-dependent cytotoxic action against target cancer cells. It is noteworthy that cytotoxicity of tea prepared from Calendula officinalis is remarkably higher in comparison to that from Matricaria recutita tea. The cytotoxic effect of chamomile tea is very weak to healthy PBMC, while the effect of marigold tea on PBMC is more pronounced. Marigold tea exerts highly selective antitumor effect especially to melanoma Fem-x cells in comparison to the action to normal healthy PBMC. Chemical analyses show that dominant phenolic compounds in examined infusions and decoctions are flavonoid glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. There are no considerable differences in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity between examined infusions. Antitumor potential of chamomile and marigold tea should be further investigated. PMID:22899374

  17. Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guibin; Liu, Guibin; Liu, Liu Hongmei; Zhao, Huanli; Zhang, Fengfang; Li, Shufa; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhenchun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between oolong tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Han Chinese women, while living and diet habits, fertility, disease elements and other baseline conditions were controlled. One group included 124 cases who routinely drank oolong tea, and the other included 556 who did not drink tea. Data were collected on participant age, lifestyle habits, fertility condition, disease elements, and lumbar, and hip bone densities. It was found that the bone densities of the greater trochanteric bone in tea drinkers were higher (0.793 ± 0.119 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.759 ± 0.116 kg/cm(2), F = 6.248, p = 0.013). Similarly, the bone density of Ward's triangular bone in tea drinkers was higher (0.668 ± 0.133 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.637 ± 0.135 kg/cm(2), F = 6.152, p = 0.013). Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women. PMID:24989680

  18. [Chemical and sensory characterization of tea (Thea sinensis) consumed in Chile].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; José Zúñiga, María; Fuenzalida, Regina; López-Planes, Reinaldo

    2005-03-01

    By means of descriptive analysis four varieties of tea (Thea sinensis) were assesed: Argentinean OP (orange pekoe) tea (black), Brazilian OP tea (black), Ceylan OP tea (black) and Darjeeling OP tea (green). The appearance of dry tea leaves were qualitatively characterized comparing with dry leaves standard. The attributes: colour, form, regularity of the leaves, fibre and stem cutting were evaluated The differences obtained were related to the differences produced by the effect of the fermentation process. Flavour and aroma descriptors of the tea liqueur were generated by a trained panel. Colour and astringency were evaluated in comparison with qualified standards using non structured linear scales. In order to relate the sensory analysis and the chemical composition for the different varieties of tea, following determinations were made: chemical moisture, dry material, aqueous extract, tannin and caffeine. Through multifactor regression analysis the equations in relation to the following chemical parameters were determined. Dry material, aqueous extract and tannins for colour and moisture, dry material and aqueous extract for astringency, respectively. Statistical analysis through ANOVA (3 variation sources: samples, judges and replications) showed for samples four significant different groups for astringency and three different groups for colour. No significant differences between judges or repetitions were found. By multifactor regression analysis of both, colour and astringency, on their dependence of chemist results were calculated in order to asses the corresponding equations. PMID:16187684

  19. Interaction mechanism between green tea extract and human α-amylase for reducing starch digestion.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Huan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xingfeng

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of the green tea extract on human pancreatic α-amylase activity and its molecular mechanism. The green tea extract was composed of epicatechin (59.2%), epigallocatechin gallate (14.6%) and epicatechin gallate (26.2%) as determined by HPLC analysis. Enzyme activity measurement showed that % inhibition and IC50 of the green tea extract (10%, based on starch) were 63.5% and 2.07 mg/ml, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant remained unchanged but the maximal velocity decreased from 0.43 (control) to 0.07 mg/(ml × min) (4 mg/ml of the green tea extract), indicating that the green tea extract was an effective inhibitor against α-amylase with a non-competitive mode. The fluorescence data revealed that the green tea extract bound with α-amylase to form a new complex with static quenching mechanism. Docking study showed the epicatechin gallate in the green tea extract presented stronger affinity than epigallocatechin gallate, with more number of amino acid residues involved in amylase binding with hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. Thus, the green tea extract could be used to manipulate starch digestion for potential health benefits. PMID:25976786

  20. New phenolic components and chromatographic profiles of green and fermented teas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized profiling method based on liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was applied to establish the phenolic profiles of 41 green teas and 25 fermented teas. More than 80 phenolic compounds were either identified that ...

  1. Effects of Tea Phenolics on Iron Uptake from Different Fortificants by Caco-2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The in vitro effects of tea phenolics on Fe uptake from different fortificants (FeSO4, FeCl3, FeEDTA) by Caco-2 cells were compared. Cell cultures were exposed to catechin, tannic acid, green or black tea solutions added within Fe-containing solution, or used to pre-treat cell cultures before Fe-exp...

  2. Use of a Tea Infuser to Submerge Low-Density Dry Ice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fictorie, Carl P.; Vitz, Ed

    2004-01-01

    A simple tea infuser is obtained and been used as a container for the dry ice to simulate the effect from high-density dry ice. The tea infuser is a simple, low cost device to allow instructors with access to dry ice makers to effectively use the interesting demonstration.

  3. Field hyperspectral data analysis for discriminating spectral behavior of tea plantations under various management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Manjunath, K. R.; Meenakshi; Bala, Renu; Sud, R. K.; Singh, R. D.; Panigrahy, Sushma

    2013-08-01

    The quality and yield of tea depends upon management of tea plantations, which takes into account the factors like type, age of plantation, growth stage, pruning status, light conditions, and disease incidence. Recognizing the importance of hyperspectral data in detecting minute spectral variations in vegetation, the present study was conducted to explore applicability of such data in evaluating these factors. Also stepwise discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were conducted to identify the appropriate bands for accessing the above mentioned factors. The Green region followed by NIR region was found as most appropriate best band for discriminating different types of tea plants, and the tea in sunlit and shade condition. For discriminating age of plantation, growth stage of tea, and diseased and healthy bush, Blue region was most appropriate. The Red and NIR regions were best bands to discriminate pruned and unpruned tea. The study concluded that field hyperspectral data can be efficiently used to know the plantation that need special care and may be an indicator of tea productivity. The spectral signature of these characteristics of tea plantations may also be used to classify the hyperspectral satellite data to derive these parameters at regional scale.

  4. Can Tea Consumption be a Safe and Effective Therapy Against Diabetes Mellitus-Induced Neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ana R; Alves, Marco G; Moreira, Paula I; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that is rapidly increasing and has become a major public health problem. Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the most common type, accounting for up to 90-95% of the new diagnosed DM cases. The brain is very susceptible to glucose fluctuations and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress (OS). It is well known that DM and the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases are associated. Tea, Camellia sinensis L., is one of the most consumed beverages. It contains several phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, methylxanthines (mainly caffeine) and L-theanine that are often reported to be responsible for tea's health benefits, including in brain. Tea phytochemicals have been reported to be responsible for tea's significant antidiabetic and neuroprotective properties and antioxidant potential. Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of tea has positive effects on DM-caused complications and protects the brain against oxidative damage, contributing to an improvement of the cognitive function. Among the several reported benefits of tea consumption, those related with neurodegenerative diseases are of great interest. Herein, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of tea consumption and tea phytochemicals on DM and how their action can counteract the severe brain damage induced by this disease. PMID:25977676

  5. Metabolomic unveiling of a diverse range of green tea (Camellia sinensis) metabolites dependent on geography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Hak-Nam; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Sungheuk; Lee, Hyosang; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2015-05-01

    Numerous factors such as geographical origin, cultivar, climate, cultural practices, and manufacturing processes influence the chemical compositions of tea, in the same way as growing conditions and grape variety affect wine quality. However, the relationships between these factors and tea chemical compositions are not well understood. In this study, a new approach for non-targeted or global analysis, i.e., metabolomics, which is highly reproducible and statistically effective in analysing a diverse range of compounds, was used to better understand the metabolome of Camellia sinensis and determine the influence of environmental factors, including geography, climate, and cultural practices, on tea-making. We found a strong correlation between environmental factors and the metabolome of green, white, and oolong teas from China, Japan, and South Korea. In particular, multivariate statistical analysis revealed strong inter-country and inter-city relationships in the levels of theanine and catechin derivatives found in green and white teas. This information might be useful for assessing tea quality or producing distinct tea products across different locations, and highlights simultaneous identification of diverse tea metabolites through an NMR-based metabolomics approach. PMID:25529705

  6. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing...

  7. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing...

  8. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing...

  9. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing...

  10. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  11. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Green Tea Catechins in Extract and Sustained-Release Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Janle, Elsa M.; Morré, Dorothy M.; Morré, D. James; Zhou, Qin; Zhu, Yongxin

    2009-01-01

    Catechins are a major constituent of green tea. For green tea to have cancer therapeutic benefit, catechin concentrations in the range of 100 nM are required continuously until apoptosis (programmed cell death) is induced. To prolong elevated plasma and interstitial concentrations of catechins, a sustained-release formulation of green tea extract was tested and compared to a commercial green tea extract (Tegreen97®). Sustained-release formulations are usually developed in the pharmaceutical industry to slowly deliver the compound over a period of time and increase the dosing interval. Plasma and interstitial fluid (ISF) pharmacokinetics of catechins were determined following an oral dose in the rat. The sustained-release formulation profile included multiple smaller peaks of total catechins in both plasma and ISF. Interstitial fluid profiles of green tea extract indicate that higher catechins concentration and longer duration in tissue than in blood may make a sustained-release form unnecessary. PMID:19885387

  13. Chemical fingerprint analysis for quality control and identification of Ziyang green tea by HPLC.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoye; Li, Jianke; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Run; Zhang, Lin; Kong, Xianghong

    2015-03-15

    A simple and reliable HPLC fingerprint method was developed and validated for the quality control and identification of Ziyang green tea. Ten batches of Ziyang green tea collected from different plantations in Shaanxi Ziyang of China were used to establish the fingerprint. The feasibility and advantages of the used HPLC fingerprint were verified for its similarity evaluation by systematically comparing chromatograms with professional analytical software recommended by State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) of China. The similarities of the fingerprints of 10 batches of tea samples were all more than 0.981. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of 10 major bioactive ingredients in the tea samples was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results indicated that the HPLC fingerprint as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantification analysis can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of Ziyang green tea. PMID:25308687

  14. The Effects of Green Tea Consumption on Cardiometabolic Alterations Induced by Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fiorino, Patricia; Evangelista, Fabiana Sant'Anna; Santos, Fernando; Magri, Fátima Maria Motter; Delorenzi, Jan Carlo Morais O. B.; Ginoza, Milton; Farah, Vera

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated cardiac autonomic modulation by heart rate (HRV), and arterial pressure variability (APV), and metabolic response in streptozotocin diabetic rats treated with green tea. Male Wistar rats were separated in groups: control, drinking tap water (C), green tea-treated (GT) group, diabetic, drinking tap water (D), and diabetic, treated with green tea (DGT). Kidney mass was greater in D and DGT than in C and GT, but reduced in DGT compared to D. Green tea prevented the increase in creatinine clearance and reduced hyperglycemia in DGT compared to D. Arterial pressure was increased in GT and decreased in D compared to C. HRV was reduced in D compared with all groups. APV was decreased in D compared to C and recovery in DGT. Sympathetic modulation of APV was decreased in D compared with all groups. Green tea reduced hyperglycemia, prevented renal injury and autonomic dysfunction, suggesting reduced cardiovascular risk and target organ damage in diabetes. PMID:22474420

  15. The distribution of minerals and flavonoids in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Ferrara, L; Montesano, D; Senatore, A

    2001-01-01

    Camellia sinensis is a plant growing in India, Sri Lanka, Java, Japan and its properties were known 4000 years ago. Since then, traditional Chinese medicine has recommended this plant for headaches, body aches and pains, digestion, depression, detoxification, as an energiser and, in general, to prolong life. Tea contains volatile oils, vitamins, minerals, purines, polyphenols, particularly carechins. We have analysed ten commercial teas from various countries to determine their mineral composition and we have analysed a green tea, an Oolong tea and a White tea to determine their polyphenols and flavonoids content. Our study shows that the variation of mineral composition, polyphenols and flavonoids are linked to different origins of the plant. For the determination of phenols compounds and flavonoids we used an HPLC apparatus and for mineral analysis an atomic absorption apparatus. PMID:11482766

  16. Effects of green tea and physical exercise on memory impairments associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Maíra F; Martins, Alexandre; Schimidt, Helen L; Santos, Francielli W; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of physical exercise and green tea supplementation (associated or not) on biochemical and behavioral parameters in the time course of normal aging. Male Wistar rats aged 9 months were divided into groups: control, physical exercise (treadmill running), and supplemented with green tea while either performing physical exercise or not. A young control group was also studied. Physical exercise and green tea supplementation lasted 3 months. Afterwards, behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. Biochemical measurements revealed differences in antioxidant and oxidant responses in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Behavioral testing showed age-related memory impairments reversed by physical exercise. The association of green tea supplementation and physical exercise did not provide aged rats with additional improvements in memory or brain oxidative markers. Green tea per se significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and improved antioxidant defenses although it did not reverse memory deficits associated with normal aging. PMID:25195719

  17. Persistence of napropamide in/on tea under North-East Indian climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Pramanik, Sukhendu Kumar; Mitra, Santi Ranjan; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2007-11-01

    Napropamide is an amide group of herbicide, used as pre-emergence herbicide controlling in broad leaved weeds of tea, ground nut, citrus, etc. Napropamide 45 SC (Devrinol) was applied on tea bushes twice @ 1.125 and 2.250 g a.i./ha along with untreated control. After following the standard extraction process, the residue of napropamide in made tea and soil cropped with tea was analyzed by HPLC. Napropamide was rapidly dissipated in soil following the first-order kinetics with half-lives in the range of 12.54-27.87 days. The residue in made tea found to be below detectable limit on 7th day samples. PMID:17924045

  18. Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide decaffeination on volatile components of green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Park, M K; Kim, K H; Kim, Y-S

    2007-09-01

    Volatile components in regular and decaffeinated green teas were isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and then analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 41 compounds, including 8 alcohols, 15 terpene-type compounds, 10 carbonyls, 4 N-containing compounds, and 4 miscellaneous compounds, were found in regular and decaffeinated green teas. Among them, linalool and phenylacetaldehyde were quantitatively dominant in both regular and decaffeinated green teas. By a decaffeination process using supercritical carbon dioxide, most volatile components decreased. The more caffeine was removed, the more volatile components were reduced in green teas. In particular, relatively nonpolar components such as terpene-type compounds gradually decreased according to the decaffeination process. Aroma-active compounds in regular and decaffeinated green teas were also determined and compared by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Most greenish and floral flavor compounds such as hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and some unknown compounds disappeared or decreased after the decaffeination process. PMID:17995663

  19. Kinetics and Mechanistic Studies on the Reaction between Cytochrome c and Tea Catechins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihua; Santos, Elizabeth; Schenk, Desiree; Rabago-Smith, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is characterized by the presence of an abundance of polyphenolic compounds, also known as catechins, including epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (EGC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). In addition to being a popular beverage, tea consumption has been suggested as a mean of chemoprevention. However, its mode of action is unclear. It was discovered that tea catechins can react with cytochrome c. When oxidized cytochrome c was mixed with catechins commonly found in green tea under non-steady-state conditions, a reduction of cytochrome c was observed. The reaction rate of the catechins was dependent on the pH and the nature of the catechin. The pseudo-first order rate constant obtained increased in the order of EC < ECG < EGC < EGCG, which is consistent with previously reported superoxide reduction activities and Cu2+ reduction activities of tea catechins. PMID:26785071

  20. Effect of Black Tea and Black Tea Pomace Polyphenols on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibition, Relevant to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Striegel, Lisa; Kang, Bouhee; Pilkenton, Sarah J.; Rychlik, Michael; Apostolidis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT) and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT) were 5.77 and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was subjected to C18 extraction and the resulting hydrophobic fraction (HBBT) was further subjected to LH-20 extraction to recover a low molecular weight phenolic enriched fraction (LMW) and a high molecular weight enriched fraction (HMW). The phenolic content of the LMW and HMW fraction were 1.42 and 2.66 mg/mL, respectively. Among water extracts the HMW fraction was most bioactive against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 8.97 μg/mL) followed by HBBT fraction (IC50 = 14.83 μg/mL). However, the HBBT fraction was the most bioactive fraction against α-amylase (IC50 = 0.049 mg/mL). The black tea pomace (AOBT) had significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 14.72 μg/mL) but lower α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.21 mg/mL). The phenolic profiles for LMW and HMW fractions were evaluated using HPLC and the differences between the two profiles were identified. Further research is underway to identify and evaluate the phenolic compounds that are present in the HMW fraction. Our findings suggest that black tea and black tea pomace has potential for carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition and this activity depends on high molecular weight phenolic compounds. PMID:25988132

  1. Survey of tea for the presence of gluten.

    PubMed

    Garber, Eric A E; Panda, Rakhi; Shireen, Kaniz F

    2015-06-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration conducted a survey of green and white teas marketed in the northeastern United States for the presence of undeclared wheat. Based on the requirement for concurrence between the RIDASCREEN gliadin (R5) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the Morinaga Institutes of Biological Science (MIoBS) wheat protein ELISA, none of the 20 products included in the survey tested positive for wheat, rye, barley, or gluten. However, eight of the teas generated responses indicative of the presence of gluten with the RIDASCREEN gliadin (R5), AgraQuant gluten G12, and Aller-Tek (Skerritt) sandwich ELISAs. Five of the eight teas generated responses indicative of >20 ppm of gluten using the RIDASCREEN and AgraQuant ELISA test kits, and all eight had ≥ 20 ppm based on the Aller-Tek ELISA. Extracts prepared using the RIDASCREEN validated protocol and the MIoBS validated sodium dodecyl sulfate plus β-mercaptoethanol (overnight) protocol were analyzed using both test kits. The extracts prepared using the RIDASCREEN protocol tested positive for gluten with both test kits. Western blot analyses of the two sets of extracts using the R5 and MIoBS antibodies to visualize the bands revealed the presence of antigenic proteins in both sets of extracts, although the profiles and band intensities were different and inconsistent with the ELISA results. These results raise questions regarding the screening procedures used to detect gluten and how the observation of a homologous antigenic element is defined. PMID:26038920

  2. Tea and flavonoids: where we are, where to go next12345

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to evaluate the evidence about the health effects of tea flavonoids and to provide valid, specific, and actionable tea consumption information to consumers. Emerging evidence suggests that the flavonoids in tea may be associated with beneficial health outcomes, whereas the benefits and risks of tea extracts and supplements are less well known. The next steps in developing tea science should include a focus on the most promising leads, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, rather than pursuing smaller, more diffuse studies of many different health outcomes. Future tea research should also include the use of common reference standards, better characterization of intervention products, and application of batteries of biomarkers of intakes and outcomes across studies, which will allow a common body of evidence to be developed. Mechanistic studies should determine which tea bioactive constituents have effects, whether they act alone or in combination, and how they influence health. Clinical studies should use well-characterized test products, better descriptions of baseline diets, and validated biomarkers of intake and disease risk reduction. There should be more attention to careful safety monitoring and adverse event reporting. Epidemiologic investigations should be of sufficient size and duration to detect small effects, involve populations most likely to benefit, use more complete tea exposure assessment, and include both intermediary markers of risk as well as morbidity and mortality outcomes. The construction of a strong foundation of scientific evidence on tea and health outcomes is essential for developing more specific and actionable messages on tea for consumers. PMID:24172298

  3. Climate-Smart Landscapes for Managing Water Resources in the Tea Growing Regions of Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Biggs, E. M.; Saikia, S. D.; Duncan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tea is an important global agricultural commodity, both commercially and culturally. Assam, an agrarian state in northeast India is the largest single tea growing region in the world and the productivity (both in terms of quantity and quality) requires a specific range of enviro-climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are two climate factors which highly influence productivity. Thus water plays a critical role in sustaining future tea production in Assam. Recently the region has been affected by heterogeneous spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and rising temperatures. This has led to temporally varying drought-like conditions during the tea production season, reducing crop resilience and degrading yield quality. Quantifying regional climate-yield characteristics enables more effective decision-making regarding climate change mitigation, water resources management and adaptation to sustain (and enhance) future tea crop production. This research used a panel based regression model to statistically quantify the extent to which precipitation and temperature variables are associated with changes in tea yield. Monthly time-series climate and yield data were regressed for the period 2004 to 2014. Yield data were obtained from 80 tea estates across the four main tea growing regions of Assam, and 120 climate variables were selected for analysis. Results indicate that periods of drought (e.g. more than 10 consecutive days of zero precipitation) are significantly associated with reductions in yield, whereas periods of intense precipitation (e.g. number of days where the 95th percentile was exceeded) are generally associated with increased yield. These results have provided an enhanced understanding of climate-yield characteristics, which will subsequently be used to deliver more climate-smart advisory decision-support services to tea producers in the region. Although water resources management practices, such as water harvesting structures, check dams

  4. The effects of black tea and other beverages on aspects of cognition and psychomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I; Quinlan, P T; Moore, K L; Parkin, C

    1998-10-01

    Nineteen healthy volunteers ingested 400 ml black tea, coffee, caffeinated water, decaffeinated tea or plain water on three occasions through the day (0900, 1400 and 1900 hours). A 2 x 2 factorial design with caffeine (0, 100 mg) and beverage type (water, tea) was employed, with coffee (100 mg caffeine) as a positive internal control, based on a five-way crossover. A psychometric test battery comprising critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), short-term memory (STM) and subjective sedation (LARS) was performed at regular intervals throughout the day, and intensively so immediately following each beverage. Consumption of tea compared to water was associated with transient improvements in performance (CFF) within 10 min of ingestion and was not affected by the time of day. Caffeine ingestion was associated with a rapid (10 min) and persistent reduction in subjective sedation values (LARS), again independent of time of day, but did not acutely alter CFF threshold. Over the whole day, consumption of tea rather than water, and of caffeinated compared to decaffeinated beverages, largely prevented the steady decline in alertness (LARS) and cognitive capacity observed with water ingestion. The effects of tea and coffee were similar on all measures, except that tea consumption was associated with less variation in CFF over the whole day. No significant treatment effects were apparent in the data for the STM. Tea ingestion is associated with rapid increases in alertness and information processing capacity and tea drinking throughout the day largely prevents the diurnal pattern of performance decrements found with the placebo (no caffeine) condition. It appears that the effects of tea and coffee were not entirely due to caffeine per se; other factors either intrinsic to the beverage (e.g. sensory attributes or the presence of other biologically active substances) or of a psychological nature (e.g. expectancy) are likely to play a significant role in

  5. Long-Term Green Tea Supplementation Does Not Change the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Pilou L. H. R.; Penders, John; Hursel, Rick; Budding, Andries E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Green tea catechins may play a role in body weight regulation through interactions with the gut microbiota. Aim We examined whether green tea supplementation for 12 weeks induces changes in composition of the human gut microbiota. Methods 58 Caucasian men and women were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled design. For 12 weeks, subjects consumed either green tea (>0.56 g/d epigallocatechin-gallate + 0.28 ∼ 0.45 g/d caffeine) or placebo capsules. Fecal samples were collected twice (baseline, vs. week 12) for analyses of total bacterial profiles by means of IS-profiling, a 16S-23S interspacer region-based profiling method. Results No significant changes between baseline and week 12 in subjects receiving green tea or placebo capsules, and no significant interactions between treatment (green tea or placebo) and time (baseline and week 12) were observed for body composition. Analysis of the fecal samples in subjects receiving green tea and placebo showed similar bacterial diversity and community structures, indicating there were no significant changes in bacterial diversity between baseline and week 12 in subjects receiving green tea capsules or in subjects receiving placebo capsules. No significant interactions were observed between treatment (green tea or placebo) and time (baseline and week 12) for the gut microbial diversity. Although, there were no significant differences between normal weight and overweight subjects in response to green tea, we did observe a reduced bacterial alpha diversity in overweight as compared to normal weight subjects (p = 0.002). Conclusion Green tea supplementation for 12 weeks did not have a significant effect on composition of the gut microbiota. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556321 PMID:27054321

  6. Green tea and the prevention of breast cancer: a case-control study in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Huang, Jiang-ping; Xie, Xing

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Tea has anticarcinogenic effects against breast cancer in experimental studies. However, epidemiologic evidence that tea protects against breast cancer has been inconsistent. A case-control study was conducted in Southeast China between 2004 and 2005. The incidence cases were 1009 female patients aged 20-87 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer. The 1009 age-matched controls were healthy women randomly recruited from breast disease clinics. Information on duration, frequency, quantity, preparation, type of tea consumption, diet and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals. Compared with non-tea drinkers, green tea drinkers tended to reside in urban, have better education and have higher consumption of coffee, alcohol, soy, vegetables and fruits. After adjusting established and potential confounders, green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. The ORs were 0.87 (0.73-1.04) in women consuming 1-249 g of dried green tea leaves per annum, 0.68 (0.54-0.86) for 250-499 g per annum, 0.59 (0.45-0.77) for 500-749 g per annum and 0.61 (0.48-0.78) for >or=750 g per annum, with a statistically significant test for trend (P < 0.001). Similar dose-response relationships were observed for duration of drinking green tea, number of cups consumed and new batches prepared per day. We conclude that regular consumption of green tea can protect against breast cancer. More research to closely examine the relationship between tea consumption and breast cancer risk is warranted. PMID:17183063

  7. Inhibition of Eph receptor-ephrin ligand interaction by tea polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Noberini, Roberta; Koolpe, Mitchell; Lamberto, Ilaria; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2013-01-01

    Tea contains a variety of bioactive chemicals, such as catechins and other polyphenols. These compounds are thought to be responsible for the health benefits of tea consumption by affecting the function of many cellular targets, not all of which have been identified. In a high-throughput screen for small molecule antagonists of the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase, we identified five tea polyphenols that substantially inhibit EphA4 binding to a synthetic peptide ligand. Further characterization of theaflavin monogallates from black tea and epigallocatechin-3,5-digallate from green tea revealed that these compounds at low micromolar concentrations also inhibit binding of the natural ephrin ligands to EphA4 and several other Eph receptors in in vitro assays. The compounds behave as competitive EphA4 antagonists, and their inhibitory activity is affected by amino acid mutations within the ephrin binding pocket of EphA4. In contrast, the major green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), does not appear to be an effective Eph receptor antagonist. In cell culture assays, theaflavin monogallates and epigallocatechin-3,5-digallate inhibit ephrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation (activation) of Eph receptors and endothelial capillary-like tube formation. However, the wider spectrum of Eph receptors affected by the tea derivatives in cells suggests additional mechanisms of inhibition besides interfering with ephrin binding. These results show that tea polyphenols derived from both black and green tea can suppress the biological activities of Eph receptors. Thus, the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family represents an important class of targets for tea-derived phytochemicals. PMID:22750215

  8. Factors determining copper concentration in tea leaves produced at Yuyao County, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chong Wei; Du, Shao Ting; Zhang, Kai; Lin, Xian Yong

    2008-06-01

    Over consumption of copper (Cu) from food and beverages is detrimental to human health. In this study, we investigated Cu accumulation in tea leaves produced in Yuyao County in China. Copper concentrations in all tea leaves sampled from tea gardens were below 60mgkg(-1), the permissible level given by the Chinese Ministry of Health; however, 15% of the samples were over 15mgkg(-1), the allowable level of 'green food' as defined by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture. These observations indicate that Cu concentrations in tea leaves from the investigated producing areas are acceptable, but still a concern. To understand what factors affect the Cu accumulation in the tea leaves, we further analyzed soils from the tea gardens for Cu availability, pH and organic matter content. The Cu availability in soil was found to be closely correlated with the soil's H+ activity, followed by organic matter content. The soils in the tea gardens were also found to be severely acidic with the lowest pH of 3.58. The tea garden soils, if fertilized with animal manure, could also contribute to the risk of Cu contamination. Additionally, Cu concentrations in the final products of tea leaves were greatly increased by the machinery processing in factories that used copper boards at the twisting stage. In one factory, the Cu level was increased by 32.1mgkg(-1). This study suggests that both edaphic and non-edaphic factors can contribute to the final Cu accumulation in tea leaves used by consumers. PMID:18331777

  9. Lead contamination in tea leaves and non-edaphic factors affecting it.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chong Wei; He, Yun Feng; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Gen Di; Shi, Jian Liang; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2005-11-01

    Recent tests have detected high lead (Pb) concentrations in some commercial brands of tea leaves and this finding has raised concerns due to the possible health-related problems associated with Pb poisoning. In present research, we investigated the Pb contamination in tea leaves produced in Zhejiang province in China. Pb concentrations in all tea leaves sampled were below 5 mg/kg, the permissible levels given by Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, indicating that Pb contamination in this province is not excessive. We then investigated the non-edaphic factors that may potentially contribute to Pb accumulation in tea leaves. Pb concentration in tea leaves was found to be positively correlated with the industrialization level of a district (R = 0.83, the significant level at P < 0.05), and greater amounts of Pb were washed from the leaves of plants in districts with more industrial activity. This suggests that Pb accumulation in tea leaves could, in part, be attributed to industrial activity through the precipitation of atmospheric Pb. Furthermore greater amounts of Pb were washed from the leaves of plants growing near road than those growing farther away from road. This trend indicates that automobile activity was another likely contributor to Pb accumulation in tea. Pb content of green tea was also affected by the processing of the leaves in the factory. In particular the twisting and water-removal stages caused increases in Pb content in the tea product. This study suggests that non-edaphic factors also contribute to the Pb accumulation in tea. PMID:16219507

  10. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    PubMed

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C. PMID:27472310

  11. Stereochemistry of the Black Tea Pigments Theacitrins A and C.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Okuda, Keita; Morikawa, Hitomi; Oowatashi, Ryosuke; Saito, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    Theacitrins A-C are yellow pigments of black tea that are produced by oxidative coupling of gallocatechins, i.e., flavan-3-ols with pyrogallol-type B-rings. However, their stereostructures have not yet been determined. In this study, DFT calculations of NMR chemical shifts of theacitrin C (1) and TDDFT calculations of the ECD spectra of theacitrinin A (5), a degradation product of theacitrin C (1), were used to determine the stereostructure of the theacitrins. Furthermore, the preparation of theacitrins A (4) and C (1) by enzymatic oxidation of an epigallocatechin (7) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2) mixture confirmed their structural relationship. PMID:26689950

  12. Boron and strontium isotope ratios and major/trace elements concentrations in tea leaves at four major tea growing gardens in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Ta; You, Chen-Feng; Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Chao, Hung-Chun; Liu, Hou-Chun

    2016-06-01

    Isotopic compositions of B and Sr in rocks and sediments can be used as tracers for plant provincial sources. This study aims to test whether tea leaf origin can be discriminated using (10)B/(11)B and Sr isotopic composition data, along with concentrations of major/trace elements, in tea specimens collected from major plantation gardens in Taiwan. The tea leaves were digested by microwave and analyzed by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The data showed significant variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios (from 0.70482 to 0.71462), which reflect changes in soil, groundwater or irrigation conditions. The most radiogenic tea leaves were found at the Taitung garden and the least radiogenic ones were from the Hualien garden. The δ (11)B was found to change appreciably (δ (11)B = 0.38-23.73 ‰) which could be due to fertilizers. The maximum δ (11)B was also observed in tea samples from the Hualien garden. Principal component analysis combining (87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ (11)B and major/trace elements results successfully discriminated different sources of major tea gardens in Taiwan, except the Hualien gardens, and this may be due to rather complicated local geological settings. PMID:26254888

  13. Influence of the Exposure Time after Removing of Covering Materials over Shading Tea Field on the Quality of Gyokuro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaida, Teruki; Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Nitabaru, Juichi; Nakazono, Kentaro; Kubota, Akira; Nariyama, Hideki

    We revealed the influences of the exposure time after removing of covering materials over shading tea field for making gyokuro on the quality of made tea. As the exposure time increased, the green color of the fresh leaves faded; their total amino acid and theanine contents reduced; and the concentration of dimethyl sulfide, a representative aromatic compound in gyokuro, decreased. In contrast, the catechin content increased. The overall quality of the tea was lowered. These results indicated it was necessary to plucking of tea shoots for short time after removing of covering materials over shading tea field.

  14. Comparative Studies on Bioactive Constituents in Hawk Tea Infusions with Different Maturity Degree and Their Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ming; Jia, Xuejing; Ding, Chunbang; Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Zhongwei; Chen, Yanger

    2014-01-01

    Hawk tea (Litsea coreana var. lanuginose) is a very popular herbal tea in the southwest of China. According to the maturity degree of raw materials, Hawk tea can usually be divided into three types: Hawk bud tea (HB), Hawk primary leaf tea (HP), and Hawk mature leaf tea (HM). In this study, some of the bioactive constituents and antioxidant properties of the three kinds of Hawk tea infusions were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the contents of total flavonoids, vitamin C, and carbohydrates in Hawk bud tea infusion (HBI) were higher than those in Hawk primary leaf tea infusion (HPI) and Hawk mature leaf tea infusion (HMI). HPI had higher contents of total polyphenols and exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity power. HBI could provide more effective protection against erythrocyte hemolysis. As age is going from bud to mature leaf, the ability to inhibit the formation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) conjugated diene and the loss of tryptophan fluorescence decreased. The bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of Hawk tea infusions were significantly affected by the maturity degree of the raw material. PMID:25133263

  15. Antioxidative potential, nutritional value and sensory profiles of confectionery fortified with green and yellow tea leaves (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Helak, Barbara; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on development of functional food products containing green and yellow tea leaves. The results indicated that green and yellow tea are significant tools in the creation of the nutritional value, antioxidative potential and stability of the lipid fraction of cookies. Tea-fortified cookies showed considerably higher contents of dietary fiber, especially hemicellulose and insoluble fractions, and were characterized by significantly higher antioxidant potential associated with their phenolics content. Results of ABTS, DPPH, ORACFL and PCL assay showed significantly higher antioxidant potential of tea cookies, highest for yellow tea. The antioxidative potential of applied teas was significant in terms of the inhibition of hydroperoxide content, while formation of secondary lipid oxidation products was less spectacular. It is concluded that tea leaves could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, as well as fiber; thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer. PMID:27283654

  16. Compositional variation among black tea across geographies and their potential influence on endothelial nitric oxide and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dias, Paul Mark; Changarath, Jayashree; Damodaran, Anita; Joshi, Manoj Kumar

    2014-07-16

    Black tea (C. sinensis) consumption is well associated with enhanced endothelial function (EF) and reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk. This clinical end benefit is endorsed to flavonoids in tea. The black tea flavonoid composition varies across geographies and may impact its health benefits. Moreover, the underlying functional species and a precise working mechanism responsible for the observed health benefit also remain to be investigated. In this Article, we investigated the effect of black teas from various geographies (WoBTs) on different working mechanisms (antioxidant potential and endothelial function) proposed to influence certain risk factors of CVH, in vitro. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant benefits are fairly influenced by majority of tea actives such as catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, and phenolic acids, while NO potentiating effects are mainly regulated by catechins in black tea. The data also suggest that the net vascular function benefit of black tea is majorly influenced by NO enhancement, while mildly contributed by its antioxidant benefit. PMID:24990074

  17. Effects of green tea catechins on membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, H

    1999-07-01

    Catechins originating from green tea have been used in plaque inhibition for caries prevention and treatment for liver damage because of their antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria and protective activity on hepatic cells. The effects of catechins on membrane fluidity were studied by a fluorescence polarization method using liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine to assess their pharmacological mechanism at micromol/l levels found in human body fluids after clinical application. All eight catechins tested, ranging from 1 to 1,000 micromol/l, significantly reduced membrane fluidity in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of lipid bilayers. Catechin gallate esters were superior in fluidity reduction to the corresponding nonesters. The fluidity-reducing degree was different between the cis and trans forms, suggesting the stereospecific activity of catechins. A reference antiplaque agent, chlorhexidine, similarly reduced membrane fluidity at the antibacterial concentration. (+)-Catechin (250 micromol/l) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (2.5 micromol/l) significantly prevented the membrane fluidization induced by hepatotoxic chloroform. These results indicate that the reduction in membrane fluidity is responsible for the antiplaque and hepatoprotective effects of green tea catechins. PMID:10352424

  18. Green tea flavour determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Flavour determinants in tea infusions and their changes during manufacturing processes were studied using Camellia sinensis cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') possessing significant floral scents and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD') with common green tea odour. Metabolite profiling based on odour activity threshold revealed that 'BAS' contained higher levels of the active odorants β-ionone, linalool and its two oxides, geraniol, epoxylinalool, decanal and taste determinant catechins than 'FUD' (p<0.05). Enhanced transcription of some terpenoid and catechin biosynthetic genes in 'BAS' suggested genetically enhanced production of those flavour compounds. Due to manufacturing processes, the levels of linalool and geraniol decreased whereas those of β-ionone, linalool oxides, indole and cis-jasmone increased. Compared with pan-fire treatment, steam treatment reduced the levels of catechins and proportion of geraniol, linalool and its derivatives, consequently, reducing catechin-related astringency and monoterpenol-related floral scent. Our study suggests that flavour determinant targeted modulation could be made through genotype and manufacturing improvements. PMID:27374591

  19. The evening tea break ritual--a case study.

    PubMed

    Lee, D S

    1999-03-01

    Many nursing scholars, such as Carter (1990), Ford and Walsh (1994), Huey (1986), James (1990), Thomlinson (1990), Larson (1987), Rush et al (1990), Spiller (1992), Street (1990a,b; 1992a,b,c,d), Lawrence (1996), Walker (1967), Walsh and Ford (1989 a,b,c,d; 1991 a,b), have examined the effects of rituals in nursing practice, and have argued for a need to scrutinise these ritual practices because of their negative effect on patients. Other scholars, such as Holland (1993) and Biley and Wright (1997), have argued that these rituals have meanings for nurses. Street (1992c) has argued that rituals are resilient in nursing practice. In order to identify the factors that contribute to rituals' resilience, there is a need to understand their meanings and effects on nurses, and how nurses keep them alive. This study has explored the meanings of the 'evening tea break' ritual to a group of nurses in a medical ward. The study has employed an ethnographic approach, and has found that the evening tea break ritual had affective effects on the participating nurses. It provides the time, space, the process and the environment for nurses to ventilate their feelings, to gain support from each other. PMID:10514600

  20. Aluminum induced metabolic responses in two tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingshan; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Song, Lubin; Li, Yusheng; Ma, Dexin; Wang, Yi; Shen, Jiazhi; Jia, Sisi; Sun, Haiwei; Zhang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.)], is an aluminum (Al(3+)) hyperaccumulator plant and grows well in acid soils. In the present study, roots of two tea cultivars, JHC and YS were treated with different concentrations of Al(3+). After treatments, the root length, dry matter, root activity and chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of JHC had greater increase than that of YS. We also detected metabolic changes of two varieties using GC-MS method. Comparison between two cultivars indicated that shikimic pathway was more enhanced in YS roots by Al(3+) with higher levels of catechine, quinic acid and shikimic acid. While, more active amino acid synthesis was found in JHC roots and JHC leaves remained the higher level contents of metabolites related to cysteine synthesis. The comparison also showed that a large amount of sugar alcohols were accumulated in roots of two varieties, whereas most of them were reduced in YS leaves. Other well-known ligands, such as phosphoric acid and malic acid were observed in two cultivars that showed significantly altered abundances under Al(3+) treatments. The results indicated that Al(3+) adaptation of two cultivars may be correlated with their differential metabolism of amino acids, sugars and shikimic acids. PMID:26895429

  1. Tea derived galloylated polyphenols cross-link purified gastrointestinal mucins.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Pantelis; Pudney, Paul D A; Rogers, Sarah; Thornton, David J; Waigh, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols derived from tea are thought to be important for human health. We show using a combination of particle tracking microrheology and small-angle neutron scattering that polyphenols acts as cross-linkers for purified gastrointestinal mucin, derived from the stomach and the duodenum. Both naturally derived purified polyphenols, and green and black tea extracts are shown to act as cross-linkers. The main active cross-linking component is found to be the galloylated forms of catechins. The viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time of the mucin solutions experience an order of magnitude change in value upon addition of the polyphenol cross-linkers. Similarly small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate a sol-gel transition with the addition of polyphenols, with a large increase in the scattering at low angles, which is attributed to the formation of large scale (>10 nm) heterogeneities during gelation. Cross-linking of mucins by polyphenols is thus expected to have an impact on the physicochemical environment of both the stomach and duodenum; polyphenols are expected to modulate the barrier properties of mucus, nutrient absorption through mucus and the viscoelastic microenvironments of intestinal bacteria. PMID:25162539

  2. Extraction of light filth from tea: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Lim, F F; Barnett, J; Bright, A; Chaput, M P; Cox, C; Floyd, D M; Gentry, J; Thrasher, J; Washbon, E C

    1981-03-01

    The present AOAC method for determining insect and rodent filth in tea is time-consuming because it produced filter papers which are heavy in plant residue and therefore required long paper-reading times. A new method for the analysis of light filth in tea was developed to remedy existing problems and to improve recoveries. The method consists of the following steps: sample preparation, wet sieving, dilution with 40% isopropanol, flotation with mineral oil-heptane, and trapping off in a Wildman trap flask. In an interlaboratory collaborative study, analysts reported combined insect fragment recoveries of 99.2% for the proposed method and 93.0% for the AOAC method; the same analysts recorded combined rodent hair recoveries of 92.2% for the proposed method and 47.6% for the official method. Average times for reading individual subsamples were 9 min for the proposed method and 27 min for AOAC method. the proposed method has been adopted official first action. PMID:7228825

  3. Pyrolysis condition affected sulfamethazine sorption by tea waste biochars.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Vithanage, Meththika; Zhang, Ming; Ahmad, Mahtab; Mohan, Dinesh; Chang, Scott X; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-08-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMT) as a veterinary drug has been detected frequently in the environment. In this study, six biochars produced from tea waste (TW) at 300 and 700 °C with or without N2 and steam activation were characterized and evaluated for SMT sorption in water. The sorption of SMT was interpreted as a function of biochar production condition, SMT concentration, pH and physicochemical characteristics of biochar. Distribution coefficient data showed high sorption of SMT at low pH (∼3) and the highest sorption density of 33.81 mg g(-1) was achieved by the steam activated biochar produced at 700 °C. The steam activation process increased the adsorption capacity by increasing the surface area of the biochar. The π-π electron donor-acceptor interaction, cation-π interaction and cation exchange at low pH were the primary mechanisms governing SMT retention by biochars. Overall, steam activated tea waste biochar could be a promising remedy of SMT removal from water. PMID:24926603

  4. Anti-wrinkle Effects of Water Extracts of Teas in Hairless Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Nam; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Tea flavonoids and polyphenols are well known for their extraordinary antioxidant activity which is considered important for anti-aging processes in animals. This study evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of three different kinds of tea (Camellia sinensis) water extracts (CSWEs) including green, white, and black teas using a photoaged hairless mouse model. Data showed that the CSWE-treatment greatly improved skin conditions of mice suffering from UVB-induced photoaging, based on the parameters including the skin erythema index, moisture capacity, and transepidermal water loss. In addition, the wrinkle measurement and image analysis of skin replicas indicated that CSWEs remarkably inhibited wrinkle formation. In histological examination, the CSWE-treated mice exhibited diminished epidermal thickness and increased collagen and elastic fiber content, key signatures for skin restoration. Furthermore, the reduced expression of MMP-3, a collagen-degradative enzyme, was observed in the skin of CSWE-treated animals. Interestingly, comparative data between green, white, and black tea indicated that the anti-wrinkle activity of white tea and black tea is equally greater than that of green tea. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrated that CSWEs could be used as an effective anti-wrinkle agent in photoaged animal skin, implying their extended uses in therapeutics. PMID:25584148

  5. Texture discrimination of green tea categories based on least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong; Qiu, Zhengjun; Wu, Di

    2008-03-01

    This research aimed for development multi-spectral imaging technique for green tea categories discrimination based on texture analysis. Three key wavelengths of 550, 650 and 800 nm were implemented in a common-aperture multi-spectral charged coupled device camera, and images were acquired for 190 unique images in a four different kinds of green tea data set. An image data set consisting of 15 texture features for each image was generated based on texture analysis techniques including grey level co-occurrence method (GLCM) and texture filtering. For optimization the texture features, 5 features that weren't correlated with the category of tea were eliminated. Unsupervised cluster analysis was conducted using the optimized texture features based on principal component analysis. The cluster analysis showed that the four kinds of green tea could be separated in the first two principal components space, however there was overlapping phenomenon among the different kinds of green tea. To enhance the performance of discrimination, least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) classifier was developed based on the optimized texture features. The excellent discrimination performance for sample in prediction set was obtained with 100%, 100%, 75% and 100% for four kinds of green tea respectively. It can be concluded that texture discrimination of green tea categories based on multi-spectral image technology is feasible.

  6. Xerophilic aflatoxigenic black tea fungi and their inhibition by Elettaria cardamomum and Syzygium aromaticum extracts.

    PubMed

    Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Murugan, K; Lakshimi, G; Anandraj, K

    2011-10-01

    Black tea is consumed worldwide and is believed to play a role in cancer prevention. Xerophilic aflatoxigenic fungi are highly hazardous contaminants of tea since they are associated with tea quality impairment and human health risk. The present study reports isolation of such xerophilic and aflatoxigenic fungi associated with marketed tea. Twenty different tea samples collected from the local markets of Tamilnadu, India were investigated for fungal contamination. The results indicated contamination by 0.38% Aspergillus flavus. Other common contaminant fungi including Penicillium spp. (0.30%), Pacelomyces spp. (0.14%), and Mucor spp. (0.19%) were also isolated. Amongst the fungi isolated Aspergillus niger ML01 and A. flavus ML02 were found to be xerophilic aflatoxigenic mycoflora. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rRNA revealed their close ancestry. The chloroform and acetone extracts of spices Elettaria cardamomum and Syzygium aromaticum exhibited antifungal inhibitory activity on growth and toxin elaboration of both these xerophilic tea contaminants A. niger ML01 and A. flavus ML02. The results advocate the use of these spices plant or their extracts as novel antimicrobials which may add preservation and flavour in marketed tea. PMID:23961151

  7. Effectiveness of Green Tea in a Randomized Human Cohort: Relevance to Diabetes and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Aruoma, Okezie I.; Gunness, Teeluck K.; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Dambala, Venkatesh; Murad, Fatima; Googoolye, Kreshna; Daus, Diana; Indelicato, Joseph; Rondeau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have argued that green tea could mitigate diabetes and its complications. This study investigated the phytophenolic profile of Mauritian green tea and its antioxidant propensity. The effect of green tea on the risk factors: waist-hip ratio, glucose level, arterial pressure, antioxidant status, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in prediabetics was assessed. The experimental group consumed 3 cups of green tea daily for 14 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period. The control group followed a water regimen. Green tea contained high level of phenolics related to its antioxidant power. Green tea suppressed waist-hip ratio of women from a significant increase and suppressed mean arterial pressure of men and women from a significant decrease after week 14. It reduced ALT level in women by 13.0% (P < 0.1) while increasing the antioxidant potential of men and women sera by 2.7% (P < 0.1) and 5.1% (P < 0.1). The study timescale may have been too short to enable demonstration of effects on fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c outcomes. Green tea regimen could form part of a healthy lifestyle that might ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome and subsequent risks for diabetes and its complications. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248143. PMID:24102055

  8. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea.

    PubMed

    Tang, John Yew Huat; Izenty, Bariah Ibrahim; Nur' Izzati, Ahmad Juanda; Masran, Siti Rahmah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Roslan, Arshad; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk) held at room temperature (27°C). The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; P < 0.05). However, all 3 types of rice preparation showed significant growth of V. cholerae after 24 h (P < 0.05). For coffee and tea preparations, V. cholerae survived up to 6 h in tea with condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL) but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided. PMID:26904604

  9. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing γ-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  10. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  11. Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Beresniak, Ariel; Duru, Gerard; Berger, Genevieve; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? Design Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. Setting Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, have been studied at a global level. Participants Data from 50 participating countries in the World Health Survey were investigated. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Level of statistical relationships between variables. Results Principal component analysis established a very high contribution of the black tea consumption parameter on the third axis (81%). The correlation circle confirmed that the ‘black tea’ vector was negatively correlated with the diabetes vector and was not correlated with any of the other four health indicators. A linear correlation model then confirmed a significant statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence. Conclusions This innovative study establishes a linear statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence in the world. These results are consistent with biological and physiological studies conducted on the effect of black tea on diabetes and confirm the results of a previous ecological study in Europe. Further epidemiological research and randomised studies are necessary to investigate the causality. PMID:23138107

  12. 2-DE combined with two-layer feature selection accurately establishes the origin of oolong tea.

    PubMed

    Chien, Han-Ju; Chu, Yen-Wei; Chen, Chi-Wei; Juang, Yu-Min; Chien, Min-Wei; Liu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chang; Tzen, Jason T C; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2016-11-15

    Taiwan is known for its high quality oolong tea. Because of high consumer demand, some tea manufactures mix lower quality leaves with genuine Taiwan oolong tea in order to increase profits. Robust scientific methods are, therefore, needed to verify the origin and quality of tea leaves. In this study, we investigated whether two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy (nano-LC/MS/MS) coupled with a two-layer feature selection mechanism comprising information gain attribute evaluation (IGAE) and support vector machine feature selection (SVM-FS) are useful in identifying characteristic proteins that can be used as markers of the original source of oolong tea. Samples in this study included oolong tea leaves from 23 different sources. We found that our method had an accuracy of 95.5% in correctly identifying the origin of the leaves. Overall, our method is a novel approach for determining the origin of oolong tea leaves. PMID:27283647

  13. Effects of the main extraction parameters on chemical and microbial characteristics of compost tea.

    PubMed

    Islam, M K; Yaseen, T; Traversa, A; Ben Kheder, M; Brunetti, G; Cocozza, C

    2016-06-01

    The rising popularity of compost tea as fertilizer or foliar spray against pathogens has encouraged many researchers to evaluate its performance without standardizing its quality, so obtaining inconsistent and controversial results. The fertilizing and pesticide-like effects of compost tea are due to its chemical and microbiological properties. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the best combination of the compost tea extraction parameters for exalting both chemical and microbiological features. A factorial design was adopted to evaluate the effects of compost/water ratio, extraction time, storage duration and storage temperature in different combination on physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of compost tea, and the results were elaborated through different statistical analyses. Compost tea nutrients and microorganisms were influenced by compost/water ratio and extraction time. In addition, the storage duration affected the microbial populations, whereas the storage temperature influenced only the fungal population of compost tea. Results suggested that the best combination of the studied parameters was: 1:2.5 compost/water ratio, 2days of extraction time and the compost tea should be utilized immediately after the extraction, since the storage reduced the microbial populations. PMID:27040088

  14. Deepure Tea Improves High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jing-Na; Li, Juan; Mu, Hong-Na; Liu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Ming-Xia; Pan, Chun-Shui; Fan, Jing-Yu; Ye, Fei; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study was to explore the protective effects of Deepure tea against insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis and elucidate the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce the metabolic syndrome. In the Deepure tea group, HFD mice were administrated with Deepure tea at 160 mg/kg/day by gavage for 14 days. The mice in HFD group received water in the same way over the same period. The age-matched C57BL/6 mice fed with standard chow were used as normal control. Compared to the mice in HFD group, mice that received Deepure tea showed significantly reduced plasma insulin and improved insulin sensitivity. Deepure tea increased the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2), which plays an important role in hepatic insulin signaling pathway. Deepure tea also led to a decrease in hepatic fatty acid synthesis and lipid accumulation, which were mediated by the downregulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthesis (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) proteins that are involved in liver lipogenesis. These results suggest that Deepure tea may be effective for protecting against insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis via modulating IRS-2 and downstream signaling SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC. PMID:26504484

  15. Interaction of green tea polyphenols with dairy matrices in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, Sophie; Azimy, Naheed; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of polyphenols in green tea has been associated with beneficial health effects. Although polyphenols are unstable in the intestinal environment, they may be protected by interactions with dairy proteins during digestion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a green tea extract on the digestibility of different dairy matrices and to monitor the antioxidant activity of these matrices with or without the green tea extract during digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Milk, yogurt and cheese with similar fat-to-protein ratios were subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein and fat hydrolysis, polyphenol concentration and radical scavenging activity were analyzed during gastric and intestinal digestion phases. Cheese was the matrix most resistant to protein and fat digestion. The addition of the green tea extract significantly decreased proteolysis in the gastric phase but had no effect in the intestinal phase. The kinetics of fatty acid release was reduced by the presence of the green tea extract. Transition from the gastric phase to the intestinal phase induced a 50% decrease in the antioxidant activity of the control (tea extract dispersed in water) due to the degradation of polyphenols. The presence of dairy matrices significantly improved polyphenol stability in the intestinal phase and increased the antioxidant activity by 29% (cheese) to 42% (milk) compared to the control. These results suggest that simultaneous consumption of green tea and dairy products helps to maintain the integrity and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during digestion. PMID:25154916

  16. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea

    PubMed Central

    Tang, John Yew Huat; Izenty, Bariah Ibrahim; Nur' Izzati, Ahmad Juanda; Masran, Siti Rahmah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Roslan, Arshad; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk) held at room temperature (27°C). The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; P < 0.05). However, all 3 types of rice preparation showed significant growth of V. cholerae after 24 h (P < 0.05). For coffee and tea preparations, V. cholerae survived up to 6 h in tea with condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL) but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided. PMID:26904604

  17. Chemical profiling and gene expression profiling during the manufacturing process of Taiwan oolong tea "Oriental Beauty".

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Mizutani, Masaharu; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Ogura, Miharu; Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Lin, Mu-Lien; Sakata, Kanzo

    2007-06-01

    Oriental Beauty, which is made from tea leaves infested by the tea green leafhopper (Jacobiasca formosana) in Taiwan, has a unique aroma like ripe fruits and honey. To determine what occurs in the tea leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process, the gene expression profiles and the chemical profiles were investigated. Tea samples were prepared from Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Chin-shin Dah-pang while the tea leaves were attacked by the insect. The main volatile compounds, such as linalool-oxides, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2,6-dimethylocta-3,7-diene-2,6-diol, increased during manufacture. The gene expression profiles during manufacture were analyzed by differential screening between fresh leaves and tea leaves of the first turn over. Many up-regulated transcripts were found to encode various proteins homologous to stress response proteins. Accordingly, the endogenous contents of abscisic acid and raffinose increased during manufacture. Thus the traditional manufacturing method is a unique process that utilizes plant defense responses to elevate the production of volatile compounds and other metabolites. PMID:17587678

  18. Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Huang, Linpei

    2014-01-01

    The history of tea is poorly known, mainly due to the questionable identification of decayed tea plants in archaeological samples. This paper attempts to test the utility of calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) for the identification of tea in archaeological samples. It provides the first survey of the macropatterns of calciphytoliths in several species of Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants. Crystals were extracted from 45 samples of tea, Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants, and detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. In tea plants, druse and trichome base are the most distinctive crystals. Druses have the smallest diameter (11.65 ± 3.64 μm), and trichome bases have four distinctive straight and regular cracks, similar to a regular extinction cross. The results provide morphological criteria for distinguishing tea from other plants, specifically the presence of identifiable druses together with calcified trichome bases. The implications are significant for understanding the history of tea and plant exploitation, especially for plants for which the preservation of macrofossils is poor. PMID:25342006

  19. Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Huang, Linpei

    2014-01-01

    The history of tea is poorly known, mainly due to the questionable identification of decayed tea plants in archaeological samples. This paper attempts to test the utility of calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) for the identification of tea in archaeological samples. It provides the first survey of the macropatterns of calciphytoliths in several species of Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants. Crystals were extracted from 45 samples of tea, Theaceae and common non-Theaceae plants, and detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. In tea plants, druse and trichome base are the most distinctive crystals. Druses have the smallest diameter (11.65 ± 3.64 μm), and trichome bases have four distinctive straight and regular cracks, similar to a regular extinction cross. The results provide morphological criteria for distinguishing tea from other plants, specifically the presence of identifiable druses together with calcified trichome bases. The implications are significant for understanding the history of tea and plant exploitation, especially for plants for which the preservation of macrofossils is poor. PMID:25342006

  20. Removal of caffeine from green tea by microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zaixiang; Er, Chaojuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Sun, Juntao

    2012-02-24

    In order to selectively remove caffeine from green tea, a microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction (MVIE) method was proposed. The effects of MVIE variables including extraction time, microwave power, and solvent to solid radio on the removal yield of caffeine and the loss of total phenolics (TP) from green tea were investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: solvent (mL) to solid (g) ratio was 10:1, microwave extraction time was 6 min, microwave power was 350 W and 2.5 h of vacuum ice water extraction. The removal yield of caffeine by MVIE was 87.6%, which was significantly higher than that by hot water extraction, indicating a significant improvement of removal efficiency. Moreover, the loss of TP of green tea in the proposed method was much lower than that in the hot water extraction. After decaffeination by MVIE, the removal yield of TP tea was 36.2%, and the content of TP in green tea was still higher than 170 mg g(-1). Therefore, the proposed microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction was selective, more efficient for the removal of caffeine. The main phenolic compounds of green tea were also determined, and the results indicated that the contents of several catechins were almost not changed in MVIE. This study suggests that MVIE is a new and good alternative for the removal of caffeine from green tea, with a great potential for industrial application. PMID:22284877

  1. Frequency of micronucleus in oral epithelial cells after exposure to mate-tea in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Eduardo B.; Milan, José R.; Reinheimer, Angélica; Masson, Maicon; Capella, Diogo L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of technique simplification for cytology slides in order to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (FMic) and conduct a experiment looking to know the FMic of oral epithelial cells of healthy volunteers exposed to mate tea (Ilex paraguarariensis). Material and Methods: This is a laboratorial and nonrandomized trial (quasi-experiment), where the nonusers subjects were exposed to mate-tea, consumed in the traditional way, two drinks, two times a day for a single week. Two cytology of exfoliated epithelial cells were obtained before and after the mate tea exposition. Results: The sample was composed by 10 volunteers. The age ranged from 18 to 33 years (Mean 23; SD5.5). The use of mate tea did not showed significant variation in the FMic (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test p= .24). Conclusions: The proposed technique simplification showed to be reliable, without losses when compared to the conventional technique and with the advantage of eliminate toxic substances, becoming simple and practical tool for research in dentistry. The acute exposure to mate tea did not induce an increase of FMic in exfoliated buccal cells of healthy nondrinkers and nonsmokers subjects and may not have genotoxic effect. More human studies are needed before a conclusion can be made on the oral carcinogenic risk of mate tea to humans. Key words:Micronucleus, Oral Cancer, Cytology, Mate tea, Ilex paraguariensis. PMID:24608213

  2. Comparison of the dissipation behaviour of three neonicotinoid insecticides in tea.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Jin-Feng; Qian, Xiao-San; Su, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Xiu-Xia; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The dissipation behaviour of three neonicotinoids - thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and acetamiprid - was compared in tea shoots, in Chinese green and black tea, and after tea infusion in hot water. The simple and rapid analytical procedures for the quantification of these three residues in these matrices were developed using HPLC with ultraviolet (UV) detection. Degradation rates in tea shoots of neonicotinoids applied in either recommended or double dosages followed first-order kinetics, with half-lives of 1.62 or 1.58 days for thiamethoxam, of 2.45 or 2.67 days for imidacloprid, and of 3.24 or 3.85 days for acetamiprid, respectively. Through harvest and processing the residue retentions for thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and acetamiprid were 85.0%, 84.1% and 70.6% of the initial dosages in green tea, and 77.1%, 52.4% and 57.4% in black tea. These three residues all showed high transfer rates through green or black tea brewing of 80.5% or 81.6% for thiamethoxam, of 63.1% or 62.2% for imidacloprid, and of 78.3% or 80.6% for acetamiprid. Waiting periods between the last application and harvest of at least 12, 17 and 20 days were suggested for thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, respectively, after application at their recommend dosages to ensure levels below a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.05 mg kg(-1). PMID:23906092

  3. Clinical trial on the effect of regular tea drinking on iron accumulation in genetic haemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaltwasser, J; Werner, E; Schalk, K; Hansen, C; Gottschalk, R; Seidl, C

    1998-01-01

    Background—Black tea is known to be a potent inhibitor of intestinal absorption of non-haem iron at least in healthy subjects. 
Aims—To investigate this effect in patients with genetic haemochromatosis, and, more importantly, the effect of regular tea drinking on the accumulation of storage iron in these patients over one year. 
Patients—Investigations were carried out on 18 patients with clinically proven genetic haemochromatosis. For the study of storage iron accumulation, they were separated into a group instructed to drink a particularly tannin rich tea regularly with meals and a control group. 
Methods—Intestinal iron absorption from a test meal was measured using whole body counting. Body iron stores were evaluated quantitatively by exhaustive phlebotomy, using haemoglobin, saturation of serum iron binding capacity, and serum ferritin for the assessment of body iron status. 
Results—A significant reduction in iron absorption was observed when the test meal was accompanied by drinks of tea instead of water. In the tea drinking group, the increase in storage iron was reduced by about one third compared with that of the control group. 
Conclusions—Regular tea drinking with meals reduces the frequency of phlebotomies required in the management of patients with haemochromatosis. 

 Keywords: genetic haemochromatosis; iron absorption; tea; storage iron accumulation PMID:9824354

  4. Xerophilic aflatoxigenic black tea fungi and their inhibition by Elettaria cardamomum and Syzygium aromaticum extracts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Murugan, K.; Lakshimi, G.; Anandraj, K.

    2011-01-01

    Black tea is consumed worldwide and is believed to play a role in cancer prevention. Xerophilic aflatoxigenic fungi are highly hazardous contaminants of tea since they are associated with tea quality impairment and human health risk. The present study reports isolation of such xerophilic and aflatoxigenic fungi associated with marketed tea. Twenty different tea samples collected from the local markets of Tamilnadu, India were investigated for fungal contamination. The results indicated contamination by 0.38% Aspergillus flavus. Other common contaminant fungi including Penicillium spp. (0.30%), Pacelomyces spp. (0.14%), and Mucor spp. (0.19%) were also isolated. Amongst the fungi isolated Aspergillus niger ML01 and A. flavus ML02 were found to be xerophilic aflatoxigenic mycoflora. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rRNA revealed their close ancestry. The chloroform and acetone extracts of spices Elettaria cardamomum and Syzygium aromaticum exhibited antifungal inhibitory activity on growth and toxin elaboration of both these xerophilic tea contaminants A. niger ML01 and A. flavus ML02. The results advocate the use of these spices plant or their extracts as novel antimicrobials which may add preservation and flavour in marketed tea. PMID:23961151

  5. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. PMID:26304363

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Saliha

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature) were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA). The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I). The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III) and blackberry (I), respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 °C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts. PMID:26784459

  7. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste. PMID:24594160

  8. Using Magnetically Responsive Tea Waste to Remove Lead in Waters under Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Siang Yee; Choi, Siwon; Dien, Vivian; Sow-Peh, Yoke Keow; Qi, Genggeng; Hatton, T. Alan; Doyle, Patrick S.; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb2+) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water–deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater–that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16–5.55 ppm) of Pb2+ ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb2+ ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ∼70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb2+ ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions. PMID:23818955

  9. Tea consumption is inversely associated with weight status and other markers for Metabolic Syndrome in U.S. adults1

    PubMed Central

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage, and laboratory and some intervention studies have indicated the potential health benefits of hot tea. The present study examines the association between tea consumption (evaluating hot and iced tea independently) and markers for MetS adults in a sample of 6,472 who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) surveys. Methods Tea consumption was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recalls. Seventy percent of the sample reported any consumption of iced tea, and 16% were daily consumers; whereas approximately 56% of this sample reported hot tea consumption and 9% were daily consumers. Results Hot tea consumption was inversely associated with obesity: tea consumers had lower mean waist circumference and lower BMI (25 vs. 28 kg/m2 in men; 26 vs. 29 kg/m2 in women; both P<0.001), than non-consumers after controlling for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other confounders. For iced tea consumption, the association was reversed: increased iced tea consumption was associated with higher BMI, greater waist circumference, and greater subcutaneous skinfold thickness after controlling for age, physical activity, energy intake, sugar intake, and other confounders. Hot tea consumption was associated with beneficial biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation (increased high density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol and decreased C-reactive protein in both sexes, and reduced triglycerides in women), whereas the association with iced tea consumption was again reversed. Conclusions These cross-sectional results support growing laboratory data which demonstrate the negative association of hot tea intake with markers of MetS. PMID:22777108

  10. Preventive effect of insect tea against reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, YA-LIN; WANG, RUI; FENG, XIA; ZHAO, XIN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the preventive effect of insect tea against reserpine-induced gastric ulcers in ICR mice. A high (800 mg/kg) dose of insect tea reduced the serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ compared with those in mice treated with a low (400 mg/kg) dose and the control mice. The serum levels of somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mice treated with insect tea were higher compared with those in the control mice; however, the serum levels of motilin (MOT) and substance P (SP) were lower in mice treated with insect tea than in the control mice. Gastric ulcer inhibitory rate of the insect tea treatment group of mice were much lower compared to the control mice, and the high concentration treated mice were similar to the ranitidine treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mice treated with insect tea were higher compared with those in control mice, and similar to those in normal mice and ranitidine-treated mice. The nitric oxide (NO) and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) levels of mice treated with a high concentration of insect tea compared with the normal group were close. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, the present study revealed that insect tea significantly induced inflammation in the tissues of mice by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and upregulating the expression of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor α (IκB-α). These results suggest that insect tea is as effective at preventing gastric ulcers as the gastric ulcer drug, ranitidine and it can be used as medicine. PMID:25187847

  11. White Tea extract induces lipolytic activity and inhibits adipogenesis in human subcutaneous (pre)-adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Söhle, Jörn; Knott, Anja; Holtzmann, Ursula; Siegner, Ralf; Grönniger, Elke; Schepky, Andreas; Gallinat, Stefan; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Winnefeld, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. To investigate how natural substances influence lipolysis and adipogenesis, we determined the effects of White Tea extract on cultured human subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies we used a White Tea extract solution that contained polyphenols and methylxanthines. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes we investigated White Tea extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. In vitro studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of White Tea extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To characterize White Tea extract solution-mediated effects on a molecular level, we analyzed gene expression of essential adipogenesis-related transcription factors by qRT-PCR and determined the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c on the protein level utilizing immunofluorescence analysis. Results Our data show that incubation of preadipocytes with White Tea extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner (n = 10) without affecting cell viability (n = 10). These effects were, at least in part, mediated by EGCG (n = 10, 50 μM). In addition, White Tea extract solution also stimulated lipolytic activity in adipocytes (n = 7). Differentiating preadipocytes cultivated in the presence of 0.5% White Tea extract solution showed a decrease in PPARγ, ADD1/SREBP-1c, C/EBPα and C/EBPδ mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c was not only decreased on the mRNA but also on the protein level. Conclusion White Tea extract is a natural source that effectively inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis-activity. Therefore, it can be utilized to modulate different

  12. Pesticide residue level in tea ecosystems of Hill and Dooars regions of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bishnu, Avhik; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Chakraborty, Ashis; Saha, Tapan

    2009-02-01

    In the present study we quantified the residues of organophosphorus (e.g. ethion and chlorpyrifos), organochlorine (e.g. heptachlor, dicofol, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate) and synthetic pyrethroid (e.g. cypermethrin and deltamethrin) pesticides in made tea, fresh tea leaves, soils and water bodies from selected tea gardens in the Dooars and Hill regions of West Bengal, India during April and November, 2006. The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues were detected in 100% substrate samples of made tea, fresh tea leaves and soil in the Dooars region. In the Hill region, 20% to 40% of the substrate samples contained residues of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. The organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues were detected in 33% to 100% of the substrate samples, excluding the water bodies in the Dooars region and 0% to 40% in the Hill region. The estimated mean totals of studied pesticides were higher in fresh tea leaves than in made tea and soils. The synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticide residues could not be detected in the soils of both the regions and in the water bodies of the Dooars. Sixteen percent and 20% of the made tea samples exceeded the MRL level of chlorpyrifos in Dooars and Hill regions respectively. The residues of heptachlor exceeded the MRL in 33% (April) and 100% (November) in the Dooars and 40% (April) and 20% (November) in the Hill region. Based on the study it was revealed that the residues of banned items like heptachlor and chlorpyrifos in made tea may pose health hazards to the consumers. PMID:18286381

  13. Salt tea consumption and esophageal cancer: a possible role of alkaline beverages in esophageal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nazir Ahmad; Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Shah, Idrees Ayoub; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nabi, Sumaiya; Lone, Mohd Maqbool; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2015-03-15

    Salt tea is the most commonly used beverage in Kashmir, India, where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common cancer. Salt tea is brewed in a unique way in Kashmir, usually with addition of sodium bicarbonate, which makes salt tea alkaline. As little information about the association between salt tea drinking and ESCC was available, we conducted a large-scale case-control study to investigate this association in Kashmir. We recruited 703 histologically confirmed cases of ESCC and 1664 controls individually matched to cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Participants who consumed >1,250 ml day(-1) showed an increased risk of ESCC (OR = 2.60, 95% CIs = 1.68-4.02). Samovar (a special vessel for the beverage preparation) users (OR = 1.77, 95% CIs 1.25-2.50) and those who ate cereal paste with salt tea (OR = 2.14, 95% CIs = 1.55-2.94) or added bicarbonate sodium to salt tea (OR = 2.12, 95% CIs = 1.33-3.39) were at higher risk of ESCC than others. When analysis was limited to alkaline tea drinkers only, those who both consumed cereal paste with salt tea and used samovar vessel were at the highest risk (OR = 4.58, 95% CIs = 2.04-10.28). This study shows significant associations of salt tea drinking and some related habits with ESCC risk. PMID:25209106

  14. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool. PMID:24237351

  15. Determination of theanine, GABA, and other amino acids in green, oolong, black, and Pu-erh teas with dabsylation and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Syu, Kai-Yang; Lin, Chih-Li; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2008-09-10

    Dabsyl chloride (dimethylaminoazobenzene sulfonyl chloride), a useful chromophoric labeling reagent for amino acids and amines, was developed in this laboratory in 1975. Although several methods have been developed to determine various types of amino acids, a quick and easy method of determining theanine, GABA, and other amino acids has not been developed in one HPLC system. In this paper are analyzed the free amino acid contents of theanine and GABA in different teas (green tea, black tea, oolong tea, Pu-erh tea, and GABA tea) with a dabsylation and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with a detector at 425 nm absorbance. Two reverse phase columns, Hypersil GOLD and Zorbax ODS, were used and gave different resolutions of dabsyl amino acids in the gradient elution program. The data suggest that the tea source or the steps of tea-making may contribute to the theanine contents variations. High theanine contents of high-mountain tea were observed in both green tea and oolong tea. Furthermore, the raw (natural fermented) Pu-erh tea contained more theanine than ripe (wet fermented) Pu-erh tea, and the GABA contents in normal teas were generally lower than that in GABA tea. PMID:18652476

  16. In vitro Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Tea Polyphenols and Tea Saponin against Rhizopus stolonifer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Feng, Kejue; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activities and mechanism of action of tea polyphenols (TP), tea saponin (TS) and their combination were evaluated against Rhizopus stolonifer. The results showed that both TP and TS inhibited the mycelial growth in a dose-dependent manner, and their combination at the ratio of 7:3 exhibited synergistic antifungal interaction. We also observed that the treatment of TP or TS significantly induced the production of H2O2 and resulted in membrane lipid peroxidation, thus leading to an increase in cell membrane permeability and the leakage of K(+), soluble protein and soluble sugar. Moreover, combining them for treatment increased the induction of H2O2 production and oxidative damage. Scanning electron microscopic observations also showed the damage to the hyphal cell structure. It was concluded that TP, TS and their combination inhibit the growth of R. stolonifer through the induction of H2O2 production, leading to cell membrane oxidative damage and intracellular constituent leakage. These findings suggest that TP and TS can potentially be used as an alternative to control postharvest fruit diseases caused by R. stolonifer. PMID:26138353

  17. Genoprotective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in human subjects: results of a controlled supplementation trial.

    PubMed

    Han, K C; Wong, W C; Benzie, Iris F F

    2011-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants and has widely reported but largely unsubstantiated health benefits. In the present study, genoprotective effects of two types of green tea were studied both in an in vitro and in a human supplementation trial. For the in vitro study, human lymphocytes were pre-incubated in tea (0·005-0·1 %, w/v), washed and subjected to oxidant challenge induced by H2O2. In a placebo-controlled, cross-over supplementation study, eighteen healthy volunteers took 2 x 150 ml/d of 1% (w/v) green tea ('Longjing' green tea or 'screw-shaped' green tea) or water (control) for 4 weeks (n 6). Subjects took all the three treatments in a random order, with 6 weeks' washout between each treatment. Fasting blood and urine were collected before and after each treatment. The comet assay was used to measure the resistance of lymphocytic DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Basal oxidation-induced DNA damage was measured using the formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg) enzyme-assisted comet assay. Urine 7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG, mol/mmol creatinine), a biomarker of whole-body oxidative stress, was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem MS. In vitro testing results of tea-treated cells showed increased (P < 0·05) resistance of DNA to the challenge. In the supplementation trial, a significant (P < 0·05) increase in resistance was also observed. Furthermore, the FPg comet data showed .20% decrease in DNA damage with tea supplementation: mean and standard deviation changes in %DNA in comet tail in the Fpg-assisted comet assay were: -5·96 (SD 3·83) % after Longjing tea; -6·22 (SD 3·34) % after screw-shaped tea; +0·91 (SD 5·79) % after water (P < 0·05). No significant changes in urine 8-oxodG were seen. The results indicate that green tea has significant genoprotective effects and provide evidence for green tea as a 'functional food'. PMID:20807462

  18. Evaluation of biomass materials as energy sources: Upgrading of tea waste by briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    1999-04-01

    Tea waste was briquetted at ambient and elevated temperatures in a calibrated laboratory hydraulic press using a punch and die set for 5--30 minutes under pressures of 300--800 MPa. The effects of the briquetting pressure on the density, the moisture content, and the compressive strength of the briquettes were examined at different pressures. The optimum moisture contents and compressive strengths were found to be 15--18% and 36.2--37.1 MPa for tea wastes samples. The effect of the briquetting temperature and time on the briquette density of tea waste were determined.

  19. An LC-ESI/MS method for determining theanine in green tea dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bedner, Mary; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2010-07-01

    Theanine is the major amino acid present in Camellia sinensis or green tea. A method for determining theanine in its native state using liquid chromatography with positive-mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection was developed. Quantitation of theanine was achieved using theanine-[(2)H(5)] as an internal standard. This approach was utilized on different green tea matrix materials that are commonly used as dietary supplements including powdered plant leaves, a powdered plant leaf extract, and an oral dosage form that contains green tea. The theanine response was linear over several orders of magnitude, and excellent measurement precision was obtained for all three materials using the developed method. PMID:20422160

  20. A Possible Effect of Concentrated Oolong Tea Causing Transient Ischemic Attack-Like Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Layher, John W.; Poling, Jon S.; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Alvarez-Manilla, Gerardo; Puett, David

    2014-01-01

    Aims Tea (green, oolong, and black) is the second most widely consumed beverage worldwide, second only to water. Aside from a few reported adverse effects, tea, particularly green tea, appears to be beneficial for human health. In the case described herein, a male experienced several transient ischemic attack-like symptoms immediately following the consumption of a cup of high quality oolong tea. A thorough medical evaluation uncovered no evidence of such an attack and leads to the suggestion of a heretofore unreported response to oolong tea. Presentation of Case A 72-year old male with hypertension and atrial fibrillation, who takes valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide to control hypertension and warfarin to reduce the risk of thrombosis and thromboembolism, presented at the emergency room of a local hospital describing several transient ischemic attack-like symptoms immediately after consuming a cup of oolong tea. His symptoms included presyncope, disequilibrium, bilateral hand parathesias, mild dysphasia, and visual problems (but apparently not presbyopia or amaurosis fugax), all of which had disappeared in approximately two hours after drinking the tea. (Mild presyncope was previously noted by the patient when ingesting a strong green tea.) No unusual features emerged from his physical examination, and his blood work was unremarkable except for elevation of his partial thromboplastin time (39 sec) and prothrombin time (22.5 sec), giving an international reference of 2.0, all consistent with the effects of warfarin. A battery of tests by the emergency room physician, a cardiologist, and a neurologist, e.g. electrocardiogram, brain computerized tomography, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram, brain magnetic resonance imaging, with and without 20 ml Gadolinium, and a magnetic resonance angiogram, confirmed the earlier diagnosis of atrial fibrillation but disclosed no additional malfunction in his heart. His brain showed no evidence of a prior hemorrhage, and his

  1. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration. PMID:27087091

  2. Theanine and Caffeine Content of Infusions Prepared from Commercial Tea Samples

    PubMed Central

    Boros, Klára; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Csupor, Dezső

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caffeine and L-theanine are pharmacologically important constituents of tea, especially due to their effects on the central nervous system. The effects of these two compounds are opposite: While caffeine is a well-known stimulant, theanine has a relaxing effect. Tea processing may influence the caffeine and theanine content of tea leaves. Objective: The aim of our work was to quantify these constituents from a set of commercial products to reveal the possible correlations of caffeine and theanine content and processing methods. Materials and Methods: Theanine and caffeine contents of 37 commercial white, green, oolong, black, and pu-erh tea samples were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Results: The mean L-theanine content of white, green, oolong, and black teas were 6.26, 6.56, 6.09, and 5.13 mg/g, respectively. The same values for caffeine content were 16.79, 16.28, 19.31, and 17.73 mg/g. Conclusion: Though the effect of processing on theanine content was evident, quantification for these analytes does not seem to be a good criterion to discriminate the different types of tea. Caffeine content provided no information on the effect of processing, and the theanine content of the samples was rather variable, independently from the type of the tea. The quantitative analysis of caffeine and theanine is essential to assess the stimulating effect of the tea, however, for chemical profiling further secondary metabolites have to be determined. SUMMARY Thirty-seven commercial white, green, oolong, black, and pu-erh tea samples were analyzed for caffeine and theanine contentWhile the caffeine content was similar, the theanine contents of black teas were slightly lower and practically zero in pu-erhThe great variability of these two compound within the tea categories allows no discrimination of tea types based solely on theanine and caffeine quantificationContrary to the previous data, the way of processing has no

  3. Speciation of chromium and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion using titanium dioxide nanotubes packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shizhong; Zhu, Shengping; He, Yuanyuan; Lu, Dengbo

    2014-05-01

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TDNTs) were used as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for chromium species by a packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), including total, suspended and soluble chromium as well as Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tea leaves and tea infusion. The experimental results indicated that Cr(III) was quantitatively retained on TDNTs in the pH range of 5.0-8.0, while Cr(VI) remained in the solution. The total chromium was determined after reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The concentration of Cr(VI) is calculated by the difference between total chromium and Cr(III). Under optimal conditions, the detection limits of this method were 0.0075ngmL(-1) for Cr(III). The relative standard deviation was 3.8% (n=9, c=1.0ngmL(-1)). This method was applied for the analysis of the speciation of chromium and its distribution and content in tea leaves, tea infusion and a certified reference material of tea leaves with satisfactory results. PMID:24360447

  4. A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Yukio

    In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ℃ for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ℃) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

  5. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in the beverage prepared from Darjeeling black tea: quantitative differences between tea leaves and infusion.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Christian; Schieberle, Peter

    2006-02-01

    By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the volatile fraction isolated from a black tea infusion (Darjeeling Gold Selection), vanillin (vanilla-like), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel), 2-phenylethanol (flowery), and (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal (oat-flake-like) were identified with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 24 odor-active compounds detected in the FD factor range of 4-128. Quantitative measurements performed by means of stable isotope dilution assays and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold in water) revealed, in particular, the previously unknown tea constituent (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal as a key odorant in the infusion and confirmed the important role of linalool and geraniol for the tea aroma. An aroma recombinate performed by the 18 odorants for which OAVs > 1 were determined in their "natural" concentrations matched the overall aroma of the tea beverage. In the black tea leaves, a total of 42 odorants were identified, most of which were identical with those in the beverage prepared thereof. However, quantitative measurements indicated that, in particular, geraniol, but also eight further odorants were significantly increased in the infusion as compared to their concentration in the leaves. PMID:16448203

  6. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP α). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea PMID:26833256

  7. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP α). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea. PMID:26833256

  8. Determinations for Pesticides on Black, Green, Oolong, and White Teas by Gas Chromatography Triple-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Douglas G; Wong, Jon W; Park, Hoon Y

    2015-09-23

    Black, green, white, and Oolong teas, all derived from leaves of Camellia sinensis, are widely consumed throughout the world and represent a significant part of the beverages consumed by Americans. A gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-based method, previously validated for pesticides on dried botanical dietary supplements, including green tea, was used to measure pesticides fortified into black and green teas at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg. Teas from 18 vendors of tea products were then surveyed for pesticides. Of 62 black, green, white, and Oolong tea products, 31 (50%) had residues of pesticides for which no United States Environmental Protection Agency tolerances are established for tea. The following pesticides were identified on tea leaves, with concentrations between 1 and 3200 μg/kg: anthraquinone, azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, buprofesin, chlorpyrifos, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, DDE-p,p', DDT-o,p, DDT-p,p', deltamethrin, endosulfan, fenvalerate, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexanes (α,β,γ,δ), phenylphenol, pyridaben, tebuconazole, tebufenpyrad, and triazophos. DDT-p,p' was found at much higher concentrations than DDE-p,p' or DDT-o,p' in 9 of 10 teas with DDTs. A comparison between three commercially available solid-phase extraction (SPE) column brands of the same type revealed that two brands of SPE columns could be interchanged without modification of the tea method. PMID:26209005

  9. Simultaneous determination of caffeine and some selected polyphenols in Wuyi Rock tea by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Lin, He-Tong; Zhang, Shen; Lin, Yi-Fen; Yang, Jiang-Fan; Ye, Nai-Xing

    2014-04-01

    The primary taste and healthy benefits of tea are mainly attributed to tea polyphenols and caffeine. Due to very many kinds of flavonoid glycosides in tea and the lack of commercial standards of flavonoid glycosides, it is critical to develop a rapid and cheap method for determining flavonoid glycosides of tea. Contents of myricetin glycosides and quercetin glycosides in Wuyi Rock tea were determined by detecting contents of corresponding myricetin and quercetin. Optimizing hydrolysis conditions for hydrolyzing flavonoid glycosides to their corresponding flavonols including quercetin and myricetin in Wuyi Rock tea was a key technology for detecting contents of corresponding myricetin and quercetin. The results showed that hydrolysis at 2 mol/L HCl solution and at 90 °C for 1 h was an optimizing condition for hydrolyzing flavonoid glycosides to myricetin and quercetin in Wuyi Rock tea. Caffeine and seven kinds of polyphenols (GA, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and CGA) in 20 samples of Wuyi Rock tea were simultaneously determined using a simple and fast reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography procedure coupled with photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-PDAD). The results indicated that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences of ECG, CGA, ECG, and myricetin glycosides in 'Wuyi Rougui' and 'Wuyi Shuixian', which were credited with causing the difference in taste between these two cultivar of Wuyi Rock tea. The study may be useful for clarifying the cause of "cultivated varieties flavor" of Wuyi Rock tea. PMID:24625357

  10. Stimulatory effect of oral administration of green tea and caffeine on locomotor activity in SKH-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Michna, Laura; Lu, Yao-Ping; Lou, You-Rong; Wagner, George C; Conney, Allan H

    2003-08-01

    Administration of green tea or caffeine was shown previously to inhibit ultraviolet B light-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice, and this effect was associated with a reduction in dermal fat. In the present study, oral administration of 0.6% green tea (6 mg tea solids/ml) or 0.04% caffeine (0.4 mg/ml; equivalent to the amount of caffeine in 0.6% green tea) as the sole source of drinking fluid to SKH-1 mice for 15 weeks increased total 24 hr locomotor activity by 47 and 24%, respectively (p<0.0001). Oral administration of 0.6% decaffeinated green tea (6 mg tea solids/ml) for 15 weeks increased locomotor activity by 9% (p<0.05). The small increase in locomotor activity observed in mice treated with decaffeinated green tea may have resulted from the small amounts of caffeine still remaining in decaffeinated green tea solutions (0.047 mg/ml). The stimulatory effects of orally administered green tea and caffeine on locomotor activity were paralleled by a 38 and 23% increase, respectively, in the dermal muscle layer thickness. In addition, treatment of the mice with 0.6% green tea or 0.04% caffeine for 15 weeks decreased the weight of the parametrial fat pad by 29 and 43%, respectively, and the thickness of the dermal fat layer was decreased by 51 and 47%, respectively. These results indicate that oral administration of green tea or caffeine to SKH-1 mice increases locomotor activity and muscle mass and decreases fat stores. The stimulatory effect of green tea and caffeine administration on locomotor activity described here may contribute to the effects of green tea and caffeine to decrease fat stores and to inhibit carcinogenesis induced by UVB in SKH-1 mice. PMID:12850499

  11. Relationship between gene expression and the accumulation of catechin during spring and autumn in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Tian, Heng-lu; Wu, Jian-Hua; Cang, Ren-Rong; Wang, Run-Xian; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Xue-Hao

    2015-01-01

    The tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) is an important commercial crop with remarkably high catechin concentrations. Tea is popular worldwide given the plant's health benefits. Catechins are the main astringent substance in tea and are synthesized mainly via the phenylpropanoid pathway. In this study, eight cultivars of tea plants harvested both in spring and autumn were used to investigate differences in catechin concentrations by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression levels of genes associated with catechin biosynthesis were investigated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the total catechin (TC) concentrations were significantly higher in tea plants harvested in autumn than in those harvested in spring, based on higher concentrations of epigallocatechin (EGC) in autumn tea (P<0.01). The expression of the genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) is closely related to the TC content of tea plants in both spring and autumn. Positive correlations between PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), F3H, and DFR expression and EGC accumulation in autumn tea were identified, with correlation coefficients of 0.710, 0.763, 0.884, and 0.707, respectively. A negative correlation between ANS expression level and EGC concentrations in tea plants harvested in spring was noted (r=−0.732). Additionally, negative correlations between F3H and ANS expression levels and the catechin content were identified in spring tea, whereas the correlations were positive in autumn tea. Significant differences in the F3H and ANS expression levels between spring and autumn tea indicate that F3H and ANS are potentially key genes affecting catechin accumulation in tea plants. PMID:26504566

  12. Epigenetic effects of green tea polyphenols in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Susanne M; Wang, Piwen; Carpenter, Catherine L; Heber, David

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics describes heritable alterations of gene expression and chromatin organization without changes in DNA sequence. Both hypermethylation and hypomethylation of DNA can affect gene expression and the multistep process of carcinogenesis. Epigenetic changes are reversible and may be targeted by dietary interventions. Bioactive compounds from green tea (GT) such as (–)-epigallocatechin gallate have been shown to alter DNA methyltransferase activity in studies of esophageal, oral, skin, Tregs, lung, breast and prostate cancer cells, which may contribute to the chemopreventive effect of GT. Three out of four mouse model studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of (–)-epigallocatechin gallate on DNA methylation. A human study demonstrated that decreased methylation of CDX2 and BMP-2 in gastric carcinoma was associated with higher GT consumption. It is the goal of this review to summarize our current knowledge of the potential of GT to alter epigenetic processes, which may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24283885

  13. Domestic science: making chemistry your cup of tea.

    PubMed

    Keene, Melanie

    2008-03-01

    In the early Victorian home, there were plenty of scientific lessons to be uncovered. With the appropriate interrogation, everyday objects could transform seemingly mundane activities such as eating breakfast, washing clothes or reading by candle-light into household lectures that gave children a familiar base from which to explore the hidden properties and marvellous histories of common commodities. Responding to an unprecedented hunger for scientific knowledge, a profusion of introductory texts appeared in the mid-nineteenth century that directed lessons into homes across Britain and beyond. In particular, the science of chemistry found its way into this domestic setting, as writers promoted its practice and practitioners as a source of authoritative expertise on everyday life. One of the most compelling illustrations of this encounter between the public and chemistry took place over a simple cup of tea. PMID:18328565

  14. POLYMERIC IMPLANTS FOR DELIVERY OF GREEN TEA POLYPHENOLS

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Pengxiao; Aqil, Farrukh; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Vadhanam, Manicka V.

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric implants (millirods) have been tested for local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Modeling of drug release profiles is critical as it may provide theoretical insights on rational implant design. In this study, a biodegradable poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymeric implant delivery system was tested to deliver green tea polyphenols (GTPs), both in vitro and in vivo. Factors including polymer compositions, supplements, drug loads and surface area of implants were investigated. Our data showed that GTPs were released from PCL implants continuously for long durations, and drug load was the main determining factor of GTPs release. Furthermore, the rates of in vitro release and in vivo release in the rat model followed similar kinetics for up to 16 months. A mathematical model was deduced and discussed. GTPs implants have the potential to be used locally as an alternative strategy. GTP implants have the potential to be used systemically and locally at the tumor site as an alternative strategy. PMID:24464784

  15. Polymeric implants for the delivery of green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengxiao; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Aqil, Farrukh; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C; Vadhanam, Manicka V

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric implants (millirods) have been tested for local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Modeling of drug release profiles is critical as it may provide theoretical insights on rational implant design. In this study, a biodegradable poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymeric implant delivery system was tested to deliver green tea polyphenols (GTPs), both in vitro and in vivo. Factors including polymer compositions, supplements, drug loads, and surface area of implants were investigated. Our data showed that GTPs were released from PCL implants continuously for long durations, and drug load was the main determining factor of GTPs release. Furthermore, rates of in vitro release and in vivo release in the rat model followed similar kinetics for up to 16 months. A mathematical model was deduced and discussed. GTP implants have the potential to be used systemically and locally at the tumor site as an alternative strategy. PMID:24464784

  16. Modulatory effects of black tea polyphenols on rat forestomach carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Murugan, R Senthil; Mohan, K V P Chandra; Nagini, S

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Intragastric administration of MNNG induced well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas that showed diminished mitochondrial lipid and protein oxidation and an increase in antioxidants. In contrast to tumor tissue, the liver mitochondria of tumor-bearing animals showed elevated lipid and protein oxidation with compromised antioxidant defenses. Dietary administration of Polyphenon-B effectively suppressed MNNG-induced stomach tumors, modulated mitochondrial lipid and protein oxidation, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities in the stomach and liver. Our results suggest that Polyphenon-B may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulating mitochondrial cellular redox status in the tumor as well as in the host liver. PMID:20020873

  17. Anti-minority attitudes and Tea Party Movement membership.

    PubMed

    Tope, Daniel; Pickett, Justin T; Chiricos, Ted

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, shortly after the election of the United States' first black President, a new protest movement emerged. When some supporters of this new Tea Party Movement (TPM) expressed their ire with race-laden messages various commentators suggested that racism may be a major motive for TPM activism. Accordingly, this study draws on national survey data to examine the extent to which racial attitudes and conservative ideology are associated with self-declared membership in the TPM while controlling for contextual factors that have proven influential in other rightist movement research. Key findings reveal that aside from conservative political ideology, racial resentment is indeed among the strongest predictors of TPM membership. Supplemental analyses explore the extent to which conservatives differ from TPM members. The results show that very conservative individuals and TPM members evince similar attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of contemporary race relations and the implications for future social movement research. PMID:25769870

  18. A Grandmothers’ Tea: Evaluation of a Breastfeeding Support Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Grassley, Jane S.; Spencer, Becky S.; Law, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to evaluate an intervention to facilitate grandmothers’ knowledge and support of breastfeeding. A pilot study with a quasi-experimental two-group posttest design was used to evaluate whether the intervention made a difference in grandmothers’ knowledge, attitudes, and intent to recommend breastfeeding. The 26 grandmothers in the intervention group attended A Grandmothers’ Tea program; the 23 grandmothers in the control group received written information. The intervention group had greater posttest knowledge scores than the control group but had no significant differences in attitudes or intent. However, a significant difference was evident between the attitude scores of grandmothers who breastfed their infants and of grandmothers who did not breastfeed their infants regardless of receiving the intervention. PMID:23449807

  19. Plasma detector for TEA CO2 laser pulse measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Mitsuishi, A.; Fujita, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Iwasaki, T.; Takai, M.

    1983-10-01

    Laser-pulse evolution can be detected by measuring the emf generated by fast electrons in a laser-produced plasma when the laser radiation is focused onto a solid metal target in a vacuum. Using this phenomenon a 'plasma detector' is constructed, and its characteristics for the TEA CO2 laser radiation of intensity 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 10th W/sq cm are investigated experimentally. The plasma detector operates at room temperature and is strong against laser damages. For the evacuated plasma detector down to 0.1 torr, a maximum output voltage of 90 V and a rise time shorter than 1 ns are observed. The plasma detector, therefore, can be used as a power monitor for laser pulses and as a trigger voltage source.

  20. The green tea molecule EGCG inhibits Zika virus entry.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Bruno M; Batista, Mariana N; Braga, Ana Cláudia S; Nogueira, Maurício L; Rahal, Paula

    2016-09-01

    During ZIKV the outbreak in Brazil it was observed an increase of almost 20 times the number of reported cases of microcephaly in newborn babies. There is no vaccine or approved drug available for the treatment and prevention of infections by this virus. EGCG, a polyphenol present in green tea has been shown to have an antiviral activity for many viruses. In view of the need for the development of a drug against a Brazilian strain of ZIKV, we assessed the effect of EGCG on ZIKV entry in Vero E6 cells. The drug was capable of inhibiting the virus entry by at least 1-log (>90%) at higher concentrations (>100μM). The pre-treatment of cells with EGCG did not show any effect on virus attachment. This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of EGCG on ZIKV indicating that this drug might be possibility to be used for prevention of Zika virus infections. PMID:27344138

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (Tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient of many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties. In animal models, extracts of hibiscus calyces possess hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that...

  2. Injection locking of wide-aperture TEA CO/sub 2/ lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tratt, D.M.; Kar, A.K.; Mathew, J.G.H.; Harrison, R.G.

    1983-01-15

    The performance and operation of a TEA CO/sub 2/ laser is described and the single longitudinal mode (SLM) TEM/sub 00/ pulses are analyzed. The wide-aperture SLM output was reproducible 98% of the time. (AIP)

  3. [Quantitative analysis of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in tea leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Sakata, I; Ikeuchi, M; Maruyama, I; Okuda, T

    1991-12-01

    The quantitative analysis of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a C-18 reversed-phase column. EGCG was then eluted within 20 min by using methanol-water-acetic acid (20:75:5 (v/v/v)) as an eluent. As an internal standard, tryptophan was used. The content of EGCG in five kinds of green tea (sencha, gyokuro, bancha, matsucha and oolong tea) and in a cup of those was determined by both the extraction method with 50% (v/v) methanol and the infusion method with water. The largest amount of EGCG was obtained from matsucha by the extraction method, or from sencha by the infusion method. Furthermore, EGCG contents in various parts of the tea plant were examined. The first leaf had the highest concentration of EGCG, and the concentration of EGCG decreased with the aging of the leaf. PMID:1806661

  4. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation and plasma protein interaction of white, green, and black tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-02-15

    The gastrointestinal digestion, intestinal permeation, and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from a single tea cultivar at different stages of processing (white, green, and black teas) were simulated. The salivary phase contained 74.8-99.5% of native polyphenols, suggesting potential bioavailability of significant amounts of antioxidants through the oral mucosal epithelium that might be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. White tea had the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability for catechins. Since most of native catechins were not absorbed, they were expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular glucose and cholesterol uptake was assumed. The permeated catechins (approximately, 2-15% of intestinal levels) significantly bound (about 37%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. White tea and its potential nutraceuticals could be effective in the regulation of plasma glucose and cholesterol levels. PMID:25236233

  5. Development and certification of green tea-containing standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, L C; Bedner, M; Tims, M C; Yen, J H; Duewer, D L; Porter, B; Christopher, S J; Day, R D; Long, S E; Molloy, J L; Murphy, K E; Lang, B E; Lieberman, R; Wood, L J; Payne, M J; Roman, M C; Betz, J M; NguyenPho, A; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A

    2012-01-01

    A suite of three green tea-containing Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 3254 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Leaves, SRM 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract, and SRM 3256 Green Tea-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. The materials are characterized for catechins, xanthine alkaloids, theanine, and toxic elements. As many as five methods were used in assigning certified and reference values to the constituents, with measurements carried out at NIST and at collaborating laboratories. The materials are intended for use in the development and validation of new analytical methods, and for use as control materials as a component in the support of claims of metrological traceability. PMID:22127575

  6. The major factors influencing the formation of sediments in reconstituted green tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Hu, Xiong-Fei; Tang, Ping; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Du, Qi-Zhen; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2015-04-01

    The effects of Ca(2+), caffeine and polyphenols on the formation of reversible tea sediments (RTS) and irreversible tea sediments (IRS) in green tea infusion were studied. Adding Ca(2+) (2 mmol/l) was found to increase the formation of RTS by 8% and IRS by 92%, while adding chelating ions of Na2EDTA significantly decreased the amount of RTS by 14.6%, but not the amount of IRS. Under acid conditions, Ca(2+) combined with oxalic ions to form indissoluble oxalate that is the principal constituent of IRS, despite the existence of the chelating ions. Decaffeination largely inhibited the formation of RTS (73%) and IRS (60%), even in the presence of Ca(2+). The amount of sediment could be reduced by removing polyphenols using polyvinyl-polypyrrolidone. The results suggest that sediment formation in green tea infusions can be inhibited by lowering the concentration of Ca(2+), caffeine or polyphenols. PMID:25442627

  7. Black tea extract suppresses transformation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced by dioxin.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Itsuko; Sakane, Iwao; Yabushita, Yoshiyuki; Sawamura, Shin-ichi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Dioxins cause various adverse effects through binding to an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and transformation of the receptor. In this study, we investigated whether black tea extract suppresses AhR transformation. Dried black tea leaves were extracted with 75% ethanol, and the extract was pretreated to the rat liver cytosol fraction 10 min prior to addition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Transformed AhR was detected by electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay. Black tea extract suppressed AhR transformation in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 value against 1 nM TCDD-induced AhR transformation was 8.9 microg/ml. The result suggests that intake of black tea has a potential to suppress the AhR transformation, leading protection from dioxin toxicity. PMID:15630227

  8. Anti-ulcer effect of the hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Maity, S; Vedasiromoni, J R; Ganguly, D K

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, Theaceae) on ulceration induced by various ulcerogens and by cold restraint stress (CRS) was investigated in albino rats. While prior administration of tea extract for 7 days significantly reduced the incidence of ulcer, ulcer number and ulcer index produced by aspirin, indomethacin, ethanol, reserpine and CRS, it failed to inhibit the ulcers induced by serotonin and histamine. Tea extract also favourably altered the changes in acid and peptic activity of gastric secretion induced by aspirin, indomethacin, ethanol, reserpine and CRS. The observations suggest that the hot water extract of black tea possesses anti-ulcer activity, probably mediated through prostaglandins. PMID:7564415

  9. Labrador tea--the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin, processing and safety.

    PubMed

    Dampc, Anna; Luczkiewicz, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe for making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 min. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for controlling pests. PMID:25156477

  10. Tea Consumption and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study among Chinese Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ying, Xuhua; Li, Songtao; Zhai, Yujia; Shang, Xiaopeng; Li, Fudong; Wang, Xiyi; He, Fan; Lin, Junfen

    2015-01-01

    Background Laboratorial and epidemiological researches suggested that tea exhibited potential neuroprotective effect which may prevent cognitive impairment, but there were few data among the elderly aged 60 years and above in China. Objective The objective was to explore the relationship between characteristics of tea consumption and cognitive impairment. Design We analyzed the baseline data from Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance Program (ZPHS) which was conducted in 2014. Totally 9,375 residents aged 60 years and above were recruited in this study. Face-to-face interview based on a self-developed questionnaire was performed for each participant. Detailed tea consumption habits were included in the questionnaire. Cognitive impairment screening was performed by using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Education-specific cut-off points for Chinese were applied to determine the status of cognitive impairment. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of cognitive impairment associated with tea consumption. Results The means (SD) of MMSE scores for the subjects who did not consume tea and consumed <2 cups/d, 2–4 cups/d, ≥4 cups/d were 23.3 (SD = 5.61), 23.8 (SD = 5.60), 24.5 (SD = 5.63) and 25.0 (SD = 5.08), respectively. An inverse correlation was found between tea consumption (of all types) and prevalence of cognitive impairment. Volume of tea consumption was significantly associated with cognitive impairment: compared with non-consumption participants, those who consumed < 2 cups/d, 2–4 cups/d, and ≥4 cups/d were observed ORs of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.07), 0.62 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.81), and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.66), respectively. Compared with non-consumption, black tea presented a positive correlation with cognitive function after controlling for potential confounders (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.95), while green tea showed no significant difference (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.51). Participants who consumed weak tea

  11. Production of nanoparticles under benign conditions using vitamins, sugars, glutathione and polyphenols from tea and winery

    EPA Science Inventory

    In continuation of our developmental program for sustainable pathways to nanomaterials, an account of greener preparation of nanoparticles utilizing naturally occurring reagents such as vitamins, sugars, tea extracts, and biodegradable polymers will be presented which reduces or ...

  12. Rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of tea catechins and folates.

    PubMed

    Araya-Farias, Monica; Gaudreau, Alain; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-05-14

    An effective and rapid HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous separation of the eight most abundant tea catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine was developed. These compounds were rapidly separated within 9 min by a linear gradient elution using a Zorbax SB-C18 packed with sub 2 μm particles. This methodology did not require preparative and semipreparative HPLC steps. In fact, diluted tea samples can be easily analyzed using HPLC-MS as described in this study. The use of mass spectrometry detection for quantification of catechins ensured a higher specificity of the method. The percent relative standard deviation was generally lower than 4 and 7% for most of the compounds tested in tea drinks and tea extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the method provided excellent resolution for folate determination alone or in combination with catechins. To date, no HPLC method able to discriminate catechins and folates in a quick analysis has been reported in the literature. PMID:24734959

  13. Occupational exposure of Sri Lankan tea plantation workers to paraquat.

    PubMed

    Chester, G; Gurunathan, G; Jones, N; Woollen, B H

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of the herbicide paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) by mixer-loaders and spray operators on a Sri Lankan tea plantation was assessed over five consecutive days of spraying. Beginning on the day before spraying started and continuing for each of the five spraying days and for seven days after the last day of spraying, 24-hour urine samples were collected from each of the workers. Potential dermal exposure was assessed during further applications of paraquat on the day after the last day of urine collection. For this purpose two spraying replicates were conducted that involved the handling or spraying of an amount of paraquat equivalent to the maximum used per day in the assessment of absorption. The mixer-loaders and spray operators incurred, on average, approximately equivalent amounts of potential dermal exposure (66 mg and 74 mg paraquat ion, resp.); however, the distribution of the exposure differed. About 86% of the total exposure experienced by the mixer-loaders was to the hands, whereas about 90% of the exposure of the spray operators involved their hands, legs, and feet, in approximately equal proportions. In both cases, 90% or more of the total potential exposure involved parts of the body that were normally uncovered. Despite the evidence of dermal exposure, no paraquat was detected in the workers' urine. This probably was due to the very low concentration of paraquat in the solutions used for spot spraying on tea plantations (0.3-0.4 g paraquat ion per litre), the high standard of personal hygiene exercised by the workers, and the low permeability of human skin to paraquat. PMID:8261566

  14. Nitrate but not tea saponin feed additives decreased enteric methane emissions in nonlactating cows.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2015-11-01

    Tea saponin is considered a promising natural compound for reducing enteric methane emissions in ruminants. A trial was conducted to study the effect of this plant extract fed alone or in combination with nitrate on methane emissions, total tract digestive processes, and ruminal characteristics in cattle. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 ruminally cannulated nonlactating dairy cows. Feed offer was restricted to 90% of voluntary intake and diets consisted of (DM basis): 1) control (CON; 50% hay and 50% pelleted concentrates), 2) CON with 0.5% tea saponin (TEA), 3) CON with 2.3% nitrate (NIT), and 4) CON with 0.5% tea saponin and 2.3% nitrate (TEA+NIT). Tea saponin and nitrate were included in pelleted concentrates. Diets contained similar amounts of CP (12.2%), starch (26.0%), and NDF (40.1%). Experimental periods lasted 5 wk including 2 wk of measurement (wk 4 and 5), during which intake was measured daily. In wk 4, daily methane emissions were quantified for 4 d using open circuit respiratory chambers. In wk 5, total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were determined from total feces and urine collected separately for 6 d. Ruminal fermentation products and protozoa concentration were analyzed from samples taken after morning feeding for 2 nonconsecutive days in wk 5. Tea saponin and nitrate supplementation decreased feed intake ( < 0.05), with an additive effect when fed in combination. Compared with CON, tea saponin did not modify methane emissions (g/kg DMI; > 0.05), whereas nitrate-containing diets (NIT and TEA+NIT) decreased methanogenesis by 28%, on average ( < 0.001). Total tract digestibility, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were similar among diets. Ruminal fermentation products were not affected by tea saponin, whereas nitrate-containing diets increased acetate proportion and decreased butyrate proportion and ammonia concentration ( < 0.05). Under the

  15. A History of Catechin Chemistry with Special Reference to Tea Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoyasu, Saijo; Katoh, Miyuki

    This review describes the history of the discovery of catechins, i.e., flavan 3-ols in the flavonoid compounds, with a special reference to tea leaves. 1. Catechin was first separated from gambier catechu and acacia catechu, and its molecular weight and chemical structure were proposed in 1902. By 1948 the six catechins,(+)-catechin,(-)-epicatechin,(-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate,(-)-epigallocatechin,(+)-gallocatechin, and(-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, as shown in Table 1, had been found in a variety of plants, including tea. Table 1 summarizes each catechin, the plant associated with it, and the year and authorship of each first reporting.(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate was isolated from tea leaves in 1948 as the last compound of the six catechins, even though it accounted for the largest proportion of total catechin content. The compound was not isolated and purified by traditional separation methods, such as the ethyl acetate extraction and lead acetate precipitation methods; instead, silica gel column chromatography was the key technique used to succeed in the separation and purification of the compound, from which the determination of the chemical structure followed. 2. The six catechins in fresh tea leaves are easily epimerized by heat treatment to form the corresponding epimerized catechins, as shown in Table 2. Observation indicates that the six natural and six epimerized catechins can be present in heat-treated dried tea leaves or green teas. 3. The chemical structures of the ten catechins, which include the compounds in Table 1, are shown in Table 3. As the contents of the catechins in fresh tea leaves have been reported many times in the literature, it is certain that these compounds are naturally present in tea leaves. 4. Table 4 summarizes the chemical structures of eight minor catechin derivatives found in tea leaves and oolong teas, the first reporting authors, and the year reported. Because the presence of these catechin derivatives in fresh tea

  16. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems.

    PubMed

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B Esha; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with the following order of potency: BHT > "Natural" commercial green tea > "Black Label" commercial black tea > O. gratissimum > P. betle > O. tenuiflorum > M. koenigii. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay reflected a similar antioxidative order for BHT and "Natural" commercial green tea, with however P. betle, O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum exhibiting higher activities than "Black Label" commercial black tea and M. koenigii. Based on their potent antioxidant capacity, P. betle (0.2 % m/m) and O. tenuiflorum (0.2 % m/m) extracts, and green tea (0.1 % m/m) infusate were compared with BHT (0.02 % m/m) on their ability to retard lipid oxidation in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise during storage at 40 °C. P. betle and green tea were more effective than BHT in both food systems. Moreover, odour evaluation by a sensory panel showed that the plant extracts and green tea infusate effectively delayed the development of rancid odours in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise (p < 0.05). PMID:25694685

  17. Green tea supplementation increases glutathione and plasma antioxidant capacity in adults with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Mulugeta, Afework; Tong, Capella; Newman, Emily; Lyons, Timothy J

    2013-03-01

    Green tea, a popular polyphenol-containing beverage, has been shown to alleviate clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. However, its effects in endogenous antioxidant biomarkers are not clearly understood. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that green tea supplementation will upregulate antioxidant parameters (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five obese participants with the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive one of the following for 8 weeks: green tea (4 cups per day), control (4 cups water per day), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water per day). Blood samples and dietary information were collected at baseline (0 week) and 8 weeks of the study. Circulating carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and tocopherols (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol) and trace elements were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, respectively. Serum antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, catalase) and plasma antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Green tea beverage and green tea extract significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 to 2.3 μmol/L and 1.2 to 2.5 μmol/L, respectively; P < .05) and whole blood glutathione (1783 to 2395 μg/g hemoglobin and 1905 to 2751 μg/g hemoglobin, respectively; P < .05) vs controls at 8 weeks. No effects were noted in serum levels of carotenoids and tocopherols and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Green tea extract significantly reduced plasma iron vs baseline (128 to 92 μg/dL, P < .02), whereas copper, zinc, and selenium were not affected. These results support the hypothesis that green tea may provide antioxidant protection in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23507223

  18. Methylenebisnicotiflorin: a rare methylene-bridged bisflavonoid glycoside from ripe Pu-er tea.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mu-Ke; Xu, Min; Zhang, Han; Chen, Hui; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-04-01

    A new methylene-bridged dimeric flavonol glycoside, methylenebisnicotiflorin (1), was isolated from ripe Pu-er tea, along with 10 known flavonoids (2-11) and seven known phenolic compounds (12-18). The structure elucidation was based on spectroscopic analysis. Among them, 1,3-dihydroxyphenyl-2-O-sulfate (13), 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid (16) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl (18) are reported from tea plants for the first time. PMID:26273895

  19. Redox chemistry of green tea polyphenols: therapeutic benefits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Hügel, H M; Jackson, N

    2012-05-01

    Evidence for the medicinal and health benefits of polyphenols in green tea for the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, various types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases is advancing. Their in vivo effectiveness and molecular mechanisms are difficult to elucidate and remain a challenging task. We review the redox responsiveness and amyloid protein perturbation biophysical properties of the major green tea polyphenol constituent (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG]. PMID:22303970

  20. The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: An Old Undergraduate Experiment Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Scott D.; Hansen, Peter J.

    1995-09-01

    The extraction of caffeine from tea leaves is a common organic chemistry experiment. A water/1-propanol/sodium chloride ternary system was found to be a suitable replacement for the more traditional water/organochlorine solvent systems. Approximately 80% of the caffeine in the tea leaves can be recovered as crude caffeine. The ternary system employs chemicals which are not only less expensive, but also less toxic.

  1. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microgram quantities of copper in tea after solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Alrahman, A M

    1985-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method is described for determining trace amounts of copper in tea. The method is based on the solvent extraction of the metal as tetraiodocuprate (I), from 2 M HCl solutions of tea samples which contain 12% (w/v) KI, into methylisobutyl ketone. The organic extracts, containing the ion-association complex of copper are atomized into an air-acetylene flame. The limit of detection is 1.14 micrograms g-1 Cu. PMID:4077371

  2. Integration of geoinformatics and wireless sensors for smart agriculture in tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Niladri; Gupta, Prangya P.; Pramanik, Prabhat; Saikia, Angkur; Sengupta, Lahari; Bhagat, Rajib M.; Bhattacharya, Nabarun

    2014-08-01

    To develop an efficient system for tea production management, the first and foremost requirement is quick availability of accurate data. Manual decision making takes unusually long time even with the most sophisticated analytical techniques. Moreover, as geographical spread of tea gardens are huge and sometimes exceeds few hundred hectares, getting information about the entire garden through conventional methods would be time consuming. Quick decision making based on quality data at section (a garden unit varying in area) level in a tea garden can enhance tea production. Geoinformatics and spatial analysis algorithms provide a great opportunity to gather information of unknown locations in a tea plantation based on some known locations. The present work demonstrates the application of an integrated Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) system associated with GPS and GIS to achieve the goal of Smart Agriculture. In this study a portable WSN system has been developed for instant data generation on soil physico-chemical properties and provide decision support for tea plantation management. Soil pH, soil moisture and soil temperature were collected in selected locations in a tea garden and plotted on digital garden maps based on their GPS locations. Suitable interpolation algorithms were applied on the collected soil data to generate information about the soil properties in entire plantation. An empirical equation is being developed for each soil parameter to compensate the errors in their predicted values based on values in the sample locations. The present system is an attempt towards achieving the goal of implementation of precision agriculture in tea plantation management.

  3. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Green Tea Extract with Hydrochlorothiazide against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Myocardial Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Manodeep; Kamath, Jagadish Vasudev; Bhattacharjee, Ananya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of ischemic hypertensive patients with hydrochlorothiazide can precipitate cardiac arrhythmias. Green tea by virtue of its antioxidant potential is responsible for cardio-protective activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide against cyclophosphamide-induced myocardial toxicity. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with high (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and low (100 mg/kg, p.o.) dose of green tea extract in alone and interactive groups for 10 days. Standard, high, and low dose of interactive groups received hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for last 7 days. Apart from normal control, all other groups were subjected to cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity on day first and the effects of different treatments were evaluated by changes in electrocardiographic parameters, serum biomarkers, and tissue antioxidant levels. Apart from that, lipid profile and histological studies were also carried out. Results: Compared to cyclophosphamide control group, both high and low dose of green tea exhibited significant decrease in serum biomarkers and increase in tissue antioxidant levels. Green tea treatment was also responsible for significant improvement in echocardiography (ECG) parameter, lipid profile, and histological score. Incorporation of high and low dose of green tea with hydrochlorothiazide-exhibited significant protection compared to hydrochlorothiazide-alone-treated group. Conclusion: The present findings clearly suggested that green tea extract dose dependently reduces cyclophosphamide-induced myocardial toxicity. Green tea when combined with hydrochlorothiazide can reduce the associated side effects and exhibits myocardial protection. PMID:25253931

  4. Potential interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide against doxorubicin-induced myocardial damage

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Manodeep; Kamath, Jagadish V.; Bhattacharjee, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment of ischemic hypertensive patients with hydrochlorothiazide can precipitate cardiac arrhythmias. Green tea, by virtue of its antioxidant potential, is responsible for cardio-protective activity. Objective: The present study was under taken to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial toxicity. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with high (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and low (100 mg/kg, p.o.) dose of green tea extract in alone and interactive groups for 28 days. Standard, high and low dose of interactive groups received hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for the last 7 days. Apart from normal controls, all other groups were subjected to DOX (3 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity on Days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and the effect of different treatments was evaluated by changes in electrocardiographic parameters, serum biomarkers and tissue antioxidant levels. Apart from that, lipid profile and histological studies were also carried out. Results: Compared with the DOX control group, both high and low dose of green tea exhibited a significant decrease in serum biomarkers and increase in tissue antioxidant levels. Green tea treatment was also responsible for significant improvement in ECG parameter, lipid profile and histological score. Incorporation of high and low dose of green tea with HCTZ exhibited significant protection compared with the HCTZ alone treated group. Conclusion: The present findings clearly suggest that the green tea extract dose-dependently reduces DOX-induced myocardial toxicity. Green tea when combined with HCTZ can reduce the associated side-effects and exhibits myocardial protection. PMID:26604554

  5. Effects of different steeping methods and storage on caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in bag tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deng-Jye; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Lin, Jau-Tien

    2007-07-13

    Bag teas, packed 3g of ground black, green, oolong, paochoung and pu-erh tea leaves (the particle size used was 1-2mm), were steeped in 150 mL of 70, 85 or 100 degrees C hot water to study the effects of the number of steeping (the same bag tea was steeped repeatedly eight times, 30s each time, as done in China for making ceremonial tea) and varied steeping durations (0.5-4 min) on caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in tea infusions. The changes in tea infusions during storage at 4 or 25 degrees C for 0-48 h and the variations in these compounds of bag tea infused with 150 mL of 4 or 25 degrees C cold water for 0.5-16 h were also investigated. A HPLC method with a C18 column and a step gradient solvent system consisting of acetonitrile and 0.9% acetic acid in deionized water was used for analysis. Results for all kinds of tea samples showed that the second tea infusion contained the highest contents of caffeine, catechins and gallic acid when bag teas were steeped in 70 degrees C water. It was different from that steeped at 85 and 100 degrees C, the highest contents existed in the first infusion. These compounds decreased gradually in later infusions. Higher amounts of caffeine, catechins and gallic acid could be released from bag teas as hotter water was used. As steeping duration prolonged, these ingredients increased progressively, however, their levels were lower than that cumulated from the infusions with the identical bag tea prepared recurrently at the same temperature and time points. (-)-Gallocatechin gallate and (+)-catechin existed in these tea infusions rarely and could not be detected until a certain amount of them infusing. Except gallic acid that showed a significant increase and caffeine that exhibited no significant change, all kinds of catechins decreased appreciably after tea infusions were stored at 25 degrees C for 36 h; nevertheless, all of them showed no evident changes at 4 degrees C storage. The caffeine, catechins and gallic acid in tea

  6. Microbiological community analysis of vermicompost tea and its influence on the growth of vegetables and cereals.

    PubMed

    Fritz, J I; Franke-Whittle, I H; Haindl, S; Insam, H; Braun, R

    2012-07-01

    Vermicompost, the digestion product of organic material by earthworms, has been widely reported to have a more positive effect on plant growth and plant health than conventional compost. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different vermicompost elutriates (aerated compost teas) on soils and plant growth. The teas were analyzed by chemical, microbiological, and molecular methods accompanied by plant growth tests at laboratory and field scale. The number of microorganisms in the teas increased during the extraction process and was affected by substrate addition. The vermicompost tea found to increase plant growth best under laboratory tests was applied to cereals (wheat and barley) and vegetables (Raphanus sativus, Rucola selvatica, and Pisum sativum) in a field study. The results revealed no effects of tea application on plant yield; however, sensoric tests indicated an improvement in crop quality. The soils from laboratory and field studies were investigated to detect possible microbial or chemical changes. The results indicated that minor changes to the soil microbial community occurred following tea application by foliar spray in both the laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments. PMID:22712623

  7. Association mapping of caffeine content with TCS1 in tea plant and its related species.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ji-Qiang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Chen, Liang

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine is the most abundant purine alkaloid in majority of tea plant and its related species. This purine alkaloid contributes to the important flavor and health attributes of tea. Tea caffeine synthase 1 (TCS1, EC 2.1.1.159/2.1.1.160) gene plays a crucial role in caffeine biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between the TCS1 and caffeine content of tea plant and its related species using association mapping. We identified 87 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, π = 0.00447) by resequencing the TCS1 locus of 44 tea accessions. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r(2) < 0.1, within 1000 bp). Two cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) markers were developed from sequence variations (SNP4318 and SNP6252). By association mapping, we identified SNP4318 associated with caffeine content in four environments, explaining 4.0%-7.7% of the phenotypic variance. We also validated the significant marker-trait associations in site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Examination of allelic variation and linkage disequilibrium by a candidate-gene-based approach can help to decipher the genetic basis of caffeine biosynthesis. Moreover, the SNP marker identified in this study can potentially be applied for future marker-assisted selection to improve tea quality. PMID:27116373

  8. Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

  9. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Tea Field Soil Using Bioaugmentation with a Trichoderma viride Biofertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengjun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Shuanglong; Xiao, Runlin; Li, Yong; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Land-use conversion from woodlands to tea fields in subtropical areas of central China leads to increased nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, partly due to increased nitrogen fertilizer use. A field investigation of N2O using a static closed chamber-gas chromatography revealed that the average N2O fluxes in tea fields with 225 kg N ha−1 yr−1 fertilizer application were 9.4 ± 6.2 times higher than those of woodlands. Accordingly, it is urgent to develop practices for mitigating N2O emissions from tea fields. By liquid-state fermentation of sweet potato starch wastewater and solid-state fermentation of paddy straw with application of Trichoderma viride, we provided the tea plantation with biofertilizer containing 2.4 t C ha−1 and 58.7 kg N ha−1. Compared to use of synthetic N fertilizer, use of biofertilizer at 225 kg N ha−1 yr−1 significantly reduced N2O emissions by 33.3%–71.8% and increased the tea yield by 16.2%–62.2%. Therefore, the process of bioconversion/bioaugmentation tested in this study was found to be a cost-effective and feasible approach to reducing N2O emissions and can be considered the best management practice for tea fields. PMID:24955418

  10. Green tea extract impairs meat emulsion properties by disturbing protein disulfide cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Jongberg, Sisse; Terkelsen, Linda de S; Miklos, Rikke; Lund, Marianne N

    2015-02-01

    The dose-dependent effects of green tea extract (100, 500, or 1500ppm) on the textural and oxidative stability of meat emulsions were investigated, and compared to a control meat emulsion without extract. All levels of green tea extract inhibited formation of TBARS as a measure for lipid oxidation. Overall protein thiol oxidation and myosin heavy chain (MHC) cross-linking were inhibited by 100ppm green tea extract without jeopardizing the textural stability, while increasing concentrations of extract resulted in reduced thiol concentration and elevated levels of non-reducible protein modifications. Addition of 1500ppm green tea extract was found to modify MHC as evaluated by SDS-PAGE combining both protein staining and specific thiol staining, indicating that protein modifications generated through reactions of green tea phenolic compounds with protein thiols, disrupted the meat emulsion properties leading to reduced water holding capacity and textural stability. Hence, a low dose of green tea extract preserves both the textural and the oxidative stability of the meat proteins. PMID:25282040

  11. Monitoring of essential and heavy metals in green tea from different geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Grembecka, Małgorzata; Szefer, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The present study measured the concentrations of toxic metals (Cd, Pb) and other elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni) in tea leaves and their infusions. The total metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Phosphorus concentration was determined using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Assessment of the mineral composition enabled determination of the leaching percentage and the risk of exceeding provisional tolerable weekly intake for Cd through daily tea consumption. The concentrations of bioelements were analyzed based on the recommended daily intake values for each. According to recently established standards, green tea was found to be a rich source of Mn. The average Pb and Cd levels in a 200-mL beverage were 0.002 and 0.003 mg, respectively. Indian teas had the highest percentage of Cd leaching (43.8 %) and Chinese tea had the lowest (9.41 %). Multivariate analysis techniques such as factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to differentiate samples according to geographical origin (China, India, or Japan). Potassium, P, Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, and Cd were effective descriptors for the identification of tea samples from China, India, and Japan. PMID:26899031

  12. Effects of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) on pregnancy of rats.

    PubMed

    Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekera D; Fernando, Thimbiripalage S P

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential effects of black tea brew of Camellia sinensis using Sri Lankan high grown dust grade no. 1 tea on pregnancy outcome of rats when exposed during early (days 1-7), mid (days 8-14) and late (days 15-21) pregnancy of rats. Different doses of black tea brew (mg/ml/day) was orally administered daily during this period to separate groups of rats (n = 6/group): 84 (equivalent to 1.5 cups), 167 (3 cups), 501 (9 cups), and 1336 (24 cups). The results showed that black tea brew did not significantly (P > 0.05) change the pregnancy outcome (in terms of quantal pregnancy, number of uterine implants, number of viable implants, implantation index, pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss, gestation index, number of pups born, litter index, live birth index and viability index) and pre- (in terms of length of the implants/foetus, gestation length, cranial length, cranial diameter and tail length of pups) and postnatal (in terms of time taken to open eyes, eruption of incisors and appearance of fur) development. Furthermore, black tea brew did not induce gross morphological birth abnormalities. If the results are applicable to women, it is concluded that even heavy consumption of black tea brew during pregnancy may not be harmful for pregnancy outcome. PMID:19422356

  13. [Past, present and future of green tea: from pleasant beverage to drug in pills?].

    PubMed

    Gensini, Gian Franco; Lippi, Donatella; Conti, Andrea A

    2007-06-01

    During the 17th century, new drinks entered the European market: wine and beer, which were largely widespread among the different European countries, were joined by coffee and tea; their consumption at was first limited to the higher classes, but they soon became popular at all levels of society. Even if their therapeutic effects were strongly stressed from different points of view, at first they encountered a certain resistance. Tea, in particular, represented a sort of compromise between a pleasant habit, bound to economic and social reasons, and a therapeutic scope. Green tea is unfermented tea. In Japan the most frequently used method of production is steaming, that deactivates the oxidase in tea leaves, determining the retention of a brilliant green colour. Its use has been proposed in a number of clinical conditions and pathologies, even if its putative therapeutic properties must be further assessed in rigorously designed and conducted clinical trials. Aim of this paper is to call needed attention to the potential role of green tea extracts in prevention and in therapy in relation to the scientific methodology of clinical research. PMID:17580528

  14. Green Tea Consumption after Intense Taekwondo Training Enhances Salivary Defense Factors and Antibacterial Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

  15. South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp. and Athrixia phylicoides--a review.

    PubMed

    Joubert, E; Gelderblom, W C A; Louw, A; de Beer, D

    2008-10-28

    Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg.) and honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species) are popular indigenous South African herbal teas enjoyed for their taste and aroma. Traditional medicinal uses of rooibos in South Africa include alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma and dermatological problems, while a decoction of honeybush was used as a restorative and as an expectorant in chronic catarrh and pulmonary tuberculosis. Traditional medicinal uses of Athrixia phylicoides DC., or bush tea, another indigenous South African plant with very limited localised use as herbal tea, include treatment of boils, acne, infected wounds and infected throats. Currently rooibos and honeybush are produced for the herbal tea market, while bush tea has potential for commercialisation. A summary of the historical and modern uses, botany, distribution, industry and chemical composition of these herbal teas is presented. A comprehensive discussion of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo biological properties, required to expand their applications as nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products, is included, with the main emphasis on rooibos. Future research needs include more comprehensive chemical characterisation of extracts, identification of marker compounds for extract standardisation and quality control, bioavailability and identification of bio-markers of dietary exposure, investigation of possible herb-drug interactions and plant improvement with regards to composition and bioactivity. PMID:18621121

  16. Coffee or Tea, Hot or Cold, Are Not Associated With Risk of Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Krishna C; El-Serag, Hashem B; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiologic data regarding coffee and tea consumption and risk of esophageal inflammation, Barrett's esophagus (BE), and adenocarcinoma are sparse and inconclusive. This study examined the association between consumption of tea or coffee with risk of BE. We conducted a cross-sectional study among US veterans, comparing 310 patients with histologically confirmed BE with 1728 individuals with no endoscopic or histopathologic features of BE (controls). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. In univariate models, we found a statistically significant association between risk of BE and consumption of coffee (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.06-1.87) or tea (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05-1.71). However, in multivariate analysis, in which models were adjusted for confounders including sex and race, we found no association between risk of BE and consumption of coffee (adjusted OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.76-1.42) or tea (adjusted OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.85-1.44). These data do not support an association between consumption of coffee or tea and the risk of BE. It is unlikely that avoidance of coffee or tea will protect against BE. PMID:26681488

  17. Can Tea Consumption be a Safe and Effective Therapy Against Diabetes Mellitus-Induced Neurodegeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Ana R.; Alves, Marco G.; Moreira, Paula I.; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Silva, Branca M.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that is rapidly increasing and has become a major public health problem. Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the most common type, accounting for up to 90-95% of the new diagnosed DM cases. The brain is very susceptible to glucose fluctuations and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress (OS). It is well known that DM and the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases are associated. Tea, Camellia sinensis L., is one of the most consumed beverages. It contains several phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, methylxanthines (mainly caffeine) and L-theanine that are often reported to be responsible for tea’s health benefits, including in brain. Tea phytochemicals have been reported to be responsible for tea’s significant antidiabetic and neuroprotective properties and antioxidant potential. Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of tea has positive effects on DM-caused complications and protects the brain against oxidative damage, contributing to an improvement of the cognitive function. Among the several reported benefits of tea consumption, those related with neurodegenerative diseases are of great interest. Herein, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of tea consumption and tea phytochemicals on DM and how their action can counteract the severe brain damage induced by this disease. PMID:25977676

  18. Multiresidue determination of pesticides in tea by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saito-Shida, Shizuka; Nemoto, Satoru; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    An efficient and reliable GC-MS/MS method for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in tea was developed by modifying the Japanese official multiresidue method. Sample preparation was carefully optimized for the efficient removal of coextracted matrix components. The optimal sample preparation procedure involved swelling of the sample in water; extraction with acetonitrile; removal of water by salting-out; and sequential cleanup by ODS, graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) and silica gel cartridges prior to GC-MS/MS analysis. The recoveries of 162 pesticides from fortified (at 0.01 mg kg(-1)) green tea, oolong tea, black tea and matcha (powdered green tea) were mostly (95-98% of the tested pesticides) within the range of 70-120%, with relative standard deviations of <20%. Poor recovery of triazole pesticides was considered to be due to low recovery from the silica gel cartridges. The test solutions obtained by the modified method contained relatively small amounts of pigments, caffeine and other matrix components and were cleaner than those obtained by the original Japanese official multiresidue method. No interfering peaks were observed in the blank chromatograms, indicating the high selectivity of the modified method. The overall results suggest that the developed method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of GC-amenable pesticide residues in tea. PMID:26357887

  19. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Gang; Wu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá), made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn) of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation) causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research. PMID:24872929

  20. Headspace gas chromatographic determination of methylene chloride in decaffeinated tea and coffee, with electrolytic conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Page, B D; Charbonneau, C F

    1984-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatographic procedure is described for the determination of methylene chloride (MC) in decaffeinated tea and coffee. The tea or coffee sample, with added methylene bromide (MB) internal standard, is equilibrated for 1.5 h at 100 degrees C in aqueous sodium sulfate before manual headspace sampling. MC and MB are separated on a Porasil A column at 160 degrees C and detected by using a Coulson electrolytic conductivity detector. For coffee and tea samples spiked at 1.3 ppm MC, as well as commercially decaffeinated teas and coffees containing up to 8 ppm MC, coefficients of variation were 10% or less. For decaffeinated teas, problems involving sample homogeneity and loss of MC before sealing the headspace vial had to be overcome. Similar problems with decaffeinated instant and ground coffees were minimal. The headspace procedure was superior to a previously reported distillation technique. MC was readily detected at 0.05 ppm. Fourteen decaffeinated teas and 15 decaffeinated coffees were analyzed; MC was detected at levels that ranged up to 15.9 and 4.0 ppm, respectively. PMID:6469909