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Sample records for orb web sticky

  1. Optics of spider "sticky" orb webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Deb M.; Staib, Gregory R.; Naidoo, Nishen; Little, Douglas J.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2011-04-01

    Spider orb webs are known to produce colour displays in nature, both in reflection and transmission of sunlight, under certain illumination conditions. The cause of these colours has been the subject of speculation since the time of Newton. It has also been the topic of observational interpretation and some experiment which has proposed diffraction by the fine silks, scattering from rough/structured surfaces and thin film effects as the primary causes. We report systematic studies carried out using the silks of Australian orb web weaving spiders. Studies of both white light and laser light scattering/propagation by natural spider silks have definitively determined the primary cause of the colour displays is rainbows that can be understood by the application of geometric optics combined with new knowledge of the optical properties of the spider web strands, silks, and proteins as optical materials. Additionally, a range of microscopies (optical, AFM, optical surface profiling) show the silks to be optically flat. Overall, spider silks emerge as fascinating optical materials with high dispersion, high birefringence and the potential for future research to show they have high nonlinear optical coefficients. Their importance as a bioinspiration in optics is only just beginning to be realised. Their special optical properties have been achieved by ~136 million years of evolution driven by the need for the web to evade detection by insect prey.

  2. Changes in composition of spider orb web sticky droplets with starvation and web removal, and synthesis of sticky droplet compounds

    PubMed Central

    Townley, Mark A.; Tillinghast, Edward K.; Neefus, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The sticky spiral of araneoid spider orb webs consists of silk fibers coated with adhesive droplets. The droplets contain a variety of low-molecular-mass compounds (LMM). Within a species, a fairly consistent ratio of LMM is often observed, but substantial variability can exist. To gain insight into factors influencing LMM composition, spiders of three araneid species were starved and LMM from their webs were analyzed for changes in composition. To determine if these changes were consistent with the spider’s ability to synthesize the different organic LMM, synthetic capacities were estimated following the feeding of radiolabeled metabolites. Some changes in droplet composition were broadly consistent with differing synthetic capacities: molar percentages of less readily synthesized compounds (e.g., choline, isethionate, n-acetyltaurine) typically declined with starvation, at least during a portion of the imposed fast, while more readily synthesized compounds (e.g., GABamide, glycine) tended to increase. Most striking was the apparent partial substitution of n-acetylputrescine by the more readily synthesized GABamide in fasting Argiope trifasciata. However, departures from expected compositional shifts demonstrated that synthetic capacity alone does not adequately predict sticky droplet compositional shifts with starvation. Moreover, feeding controls exhibited some changes in composition similar to starving spiders. As the webs of both feeding and starving spiders were removed for chemical analysis and could not be recycled, the loss of LMM contained in these webs likely contributed to similarities between treatments. In addition, feeding spiders molted, oviposited, and/or built heavier webs. The added metabolic demands of these activities may have contributed to changes in composition similar to those resulting from starvation. PMID:16574806

  3. Small organic solutes in sticky droplets from orb webs of the spider Zygiella atrica (Araneae; Araneidae): β-alaninamide is a novel and abundant component.

    PubMed

    Townley, Mark A; Pu, Qinglin; Zercher, Charles K; Neefus, Christopher D; Tillinghast, Edward K

    2012-10-01

    In northeastern North America, Zygiella atrica often build their orb webs near the ocean. We analyzed individual field-built Z. atrica webs to determine if organic low-molecular-mass solutes (LMM) in their sticky droplets showed any unusual features not previously seen in orb webs of other species living in less salty environments. While two of the three most abundant organic LMM (putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine) and GABamide (4-aminobutanamide)) are already well-known from webs of inland spiders, the third major LMM, β-alaninamide (3-aminopropanamide), a homolog of GABamide, has not been detected in sticky droplets from any other araneoid spiders (27 species). It remains to be established, however, whether or not use of β-alaninamide is related to proximity to saltwater. We observed variability in organic LMM composition in Z. atrica webs that appeared to be influenced more by an undetermined factor associated with different collecting locations and/or collection dates than by different genders or instars. Shifts in composition when adult females were transferred from the field to the laboratory were also observed. Structural similarities and inverse correlations among β-alaninamide, GABamide, and N-acetylputrescine suggest that they may form a series of LMM fulfilling essentially the same, as yet unknown, role in the webs of those species in which they occur. PMID:23081916

  4. On the Colours of Spider Orb-Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2011-01-01

    A sticky capture thread from the spiral element of spider orb-webs is formed of almost regularly spaced droplets that surround a supporting axial fibre. From the perspective of physical optics it represents a periodic linear array of scattering elements that acts as a diffraction grating. This is a novel aspect, which is of vital importance for…

  5. Wind induces variations in spider web geometry and sticky spiral droplet volume.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao-Chia; Blamires, Sean J; Wu, Chung-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2013-09-01

    Trap building by animals is rare because it comes at a substantial cost. Using materials with properties that vary across environments maintains trap functionality. The sticky spiral silks of spider orb webs are used to catch flying prey. Web geometry, accompanied by compensatory changes in silk properties, may change across environments to sustain web functionality. We exposed the spider Cyclosa mulmeinensis to wind to test whether wind-induced changes in web geometry are accompanied by changes in aggregate silk droplet morphology, axial thread width or spiral stickiness. We compared: (i) web catching area, (ii) length of total silks, (iii) mesh height, (iv) number of radii, (v) aggregate droplet morphology and (vi) spiral thread stickiness, between webs made by spiders exposed to wind and those made by spiders not exposed to wind. We interpreted co-variation in droplet morphology or spiral stickiness with web capture area, mesh height or spiral length as the silk properties functionally compensating for changes in web geometry to reduce wind drag. Wind-exposed C. mulmeinensis built webs with smaller capture areas, shorter capture spiral lengths and more widely spaced capture spirals, resulting in the expenditure of less silk. Individuals that were exposed to wind also deposited larger droplets of sticky silk but the stickiness of the spiral threads remained unchanged. The larger droplets may be a product of a greater investment in water, or low molecular weight compounds facilitating atmospheric water uptake. Either way, droplet dehydration in wind is likely to be minimized. PMID:23737558

  6. Radius construction and structure in the orb-web of Zilla diodia (Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Zschokke, S

    2000-10-01

    In orb-webs, the tension of the sticky spiral produces a centripetal force on the radii, resulting in an increase in tension along each radius from the centre of the web to the periphery. Zilla diodia (Walckenaer, 1802) atypical of araneids, was found to adapt the structure of its radii to this tension gradient by building radii that are double stranded at the periphery of the web and single stranded near the centre. Furthermore, the proportion of each radius that is doubled was found to be larger in the upper part of the web - where the overall tensions in the radii are known to be higher than in the lower part of the web. suggesting that the spider adjusts the proportion of each radius that is doubled to the overall tension in the radius. PMID:11138801

  7. Does ontogenetic change in orb web asymmetry reflect biogenetic law?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Kensuke

    2010-11-01

    Most orb web spiders face downward on the web hub, and their webs are vertically asymmetrical, that is, the lower part of the web is larger than the upper part and the ratio of the lower part to the whole web area increases as the spider grows. This phenomenon may reflect biogenetic law such that young animals exhibit a general ancestral trait whereas adults exhibit specific and derived traits. An alternative explanation is that vertical asymmetry may arise from the difference in time required by spiders to move up or down the web to capture prey. The present study tested these two hypotheses for Eriophora sagana. Subadults of this species build their webs with reverse asymmetry in that the upper part of the web area is larger than the lower part. In both subadults and adults, the upper proportion decreased with spider weight, and adult spiders built more symmetric webs. These results support the capture time difference hypothesis.

  8. Food caching in orb-web spiders (Araneae: Araneoidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion de Crespigny, Fleur E.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Caching or storing surplus prey may reduce the risk of starvation during periods of food deprivation. While this behaviour occurs in a variety of birds and mammals, it is infrequent among invertebrates. However, golden orb-web spiders, Nephila edulis, incorporate a prey cache in their relatively permanent web, which they feed on during periods of food shortage. Heavier spiders significantly reduced weight loss if they were able to access a cache, but lost weight if the cache was removed. The presence or absence of stored prey had no effect on the weight loss of lighter spiders. Furthermore, N. edulis always attacked new prey, irrespective of the number of unprocessed prey in the web. In contrast, females of Argiope keyserlingi, who build a new web every day and do not cache prey, attacked fewer new prey items if some had already been caught. Thus, a necessary pre-adaptation to the evolution of prey caching in orb-web spiders may be a durable or permanent web, such as that constructed by Nephila.

  9. Adjustment of web-building initiation to high humidity: a constraint by humidity-dependent thread stickiness in the spider Cyrtarachne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yuki G.; Kusahara, Miki; Maezono, Yasunori; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    Cyrtarachne is an orb-weaving spider belonging to the subfamily Cyrtarachninae (Araneidae) which includes triangular-web-building Pasilobus and bolas spiders. The Cyrtarachninae is a group of spiders specialized in catching moths, which is thought to have evolved from ordinary orb-weaving araneids. Although the web-building time of nocturnal spiders is in general related to the time of sunset, anecdotal evidence has suggested variability of web-building time in Cyrtarachne and its closely related genera. This study has examined the effects of temperature, humidity, moonlight intensity, and prey (moths) availability on web-building time of Cyrtarachne bufo, Cyrtarachne akirai, and Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) have revealed that humidity, and not prey availability, was the essential variable that explained the daily variability of web-building time. Experiments measuring thread stickiness under different humidities showed that, although the thread of Cyrtarachne was found to have strong stickiness under high humidity, low humidity caused a marked decrease of thread stickiness. By contrast, no obvious change in stickiness was seen in an ordinary orb-weaving spider, Larinia argiopiformis. These findings suggest that Cyrtarachne adjusts its web-building time to favorable conditions of high humidity maintaining strong stickiness, which enables the threads to work efficiently for capturing prey.

  10. Biomaterial evolution parallels behavioral innovation in the origin of orb-like spider webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackledge, Todd A.; Kuntner, Matjaž; Marhabaie, Mohammad; Leeper, Thomas C.; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2012-11-01

    Correlated evolution of traits can act synergistically to facilitate organism function. But, what happens when constraints exist on the evolvability of some traits, but not others? The orb web was a key innovation in the origin of >12,000 species of spiders. Orb evolution hinged upon the origin of novel spinning behaviors and innovations in silk material properties. In particular, a new major ampullate spidroin protein (MaSp2) increased silk extensibility and toughness, playing a critical role in how orb webs stop flying insects. Here, we show convergence between pseudo-orb-weaving Fecenia and true orb spiders. As in the origin of true orbs, Fecenia dragline silk improved significantly compared to relatives. But, Fecenia silk lacks the high compliance and extensibility found in true orb spiders, likely due in part to the absence of MaSp2. Our results suggest how constraints limit convergent evolution and provide insight into the evolution of nature's toughest fibers.

  11. Biomaterial evolution parallels behavioral innovation in the origin of orb-like spider webs

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Todd A.; Kuntner, Matjaž; Marhabaie, Mohammad; Leeper, Thomas C.; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2012-01-01

    Correlated evolution of traits can act synergistically to facilitate organism function. But, what happens when constraints exist on the evolvability of some traits, but not others? The orb web was a key innovation in the origin of >12,000 species of spiders. Orb evolution hinged upon the origin of novel spinning behaviors and innovations in silk material properties. In particular, a new major ampullate spidroin protein (MaSp2) increased silk extensibility and toughness, playing a critical role in how orb webs stop flying insects. Here, we show convergence between pseudo-orb-weaving Fecenia and true orb spiders. As in the origin of true orbs, Fecenia dragline silk improved significantly compared to relatives. But, Fecenia silk lacks the high compliance and extensibility found in true orb spiders, likely due in part to the absence of MaSp2. Our results suggest how constraints limit convergent evolution and provide insight into the evolution of nature's toughest fibers. PMID:23150784

  12. Consequences of electrical conductivity in an orb spider's capture web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Edmonds, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The glue-coated and wet capture spiral of the orb web of the garden cross spider Araneus diadematus is suspended between the dry silk radial and web frame threads. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the capture spiral is electrically conductive because of necks of liquid connecting the droplets even if the thread is stretched. We examine how this conductivity of the capture spiral may lead to entrapment of charged airborne particles such as pollen, spray droplets and even insects. We further describe and model how the conducting spiral will also locally distort the Earth's ambient electric field. Finally, we examine the hypothesis that such distortion could be used by potential prey to detect the presence of a web but conclude that any effect would probably be too small to allow an insect to take evasive action.

  13. Sexual behavior, cannibalism, and mating plugs as sticky traps in the orb weaver spider Leucauge argyra (Tetragnathidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Barrantes, Gilbert

    2011-07-01

    Unpublished field observations in Leucauge argyra, a tropical orb weaver spider, suggest the occurrence of conspicuous mating plugs that could reduce or prevent remating attempts. Otherwise, the sexual behavior of this species remains unknown. The aims of this study were to describe the courtship behavior and copulation in L. argyra and investigate mating plug formation in this species. Fourteen virgin females and 12 plugged females were exposed to up to three males and checked for mating plug formation. Of the 12 virgins that copulated, nine produced plugs (five immediately after copulation), and the five plugged females that copulated produced another mating plug immediately after copulation. We did not detect the transfer of any male substance during copulation but observed a whitish liquid emerging from female genital ducts. Plug formation was positively associated with male twanging during courtship. One virgin and four plugged females cannibalized males. In seven trials with virgins and in three trials with plugged females, the male's palp adhered to a substance that emerged from female genital ducts and spread on her genital plate. The male had to struggle energetically to free his glued palp; two of these males were cannibalized while trying to release their palps. Females seem to determine copulation duration by altering the timing of mating plug formation and through sexual cannibalism. This is the first case reported of a mating plug as a sticky trap for males.

  14. Mechanical performance of spider orb webs is tuned for high-speed prey.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Kelly, Sean P; Lorentz, Kimberly A; Lesher, Brittany; Blackledge, Todd A

    2013-09-15

    Spiders in the Orbiculariae spin orb webs that dissipate the mechanical energy of their flying prey, bringing the insects to rest and retaining them long enough for the spider to attack and subdue their meals. Small prey are easily stopped by webs but provide little energetic gain. While larger prey offer substantial nourishment, they are also challenging to capture and can damage the web if they escape. We therefore hypothesized that spider orb webs exhibit properties that improve their probability of stopping larger insects while minimizing damage when the mechanical energy of those prey exceeds the web's capacity. Large insects are typically both heavier and faster flying than smaller prey, but speed plays a disproportionate role in determining total kinetic energy, so we predicted that orb webs may dissipate energy more effectively under faster impacts, independent of kinetic energy per se. We used high-speed video to visualize the impact of wooden pellets fired into orb webs to simulate prey strikes and tested how capture probability varied as a function of pellet size and speed. Capture probability was virtually nil above speeds of ~3 m s(-1). However, successful captures do not directly measure the maximum possible energy dissipation by orb webs because these events include lower-energy impacts that may not significantly challenge orb web performance. Therefore, we also compared the total kinetic energy removed from projectiles that escaped orb webs by breaking through the silk, asking whether more energy was removed at faster speeds. Over a range of speeds relevant to insect flight, the amount of energy absorbed by orb webs increases with the speed of prey (i.e. the rates at which webs are stretched). Orb webs therefore respond to faster - and hence higher kinetic energy - prey with better performance, suggesting adaptation to capture larger and faster flying insect prey. This speed-dependent toughness of a complex structure suggests the utility of the

  15. Prey interception drives web invasion and spider size determines successful web takeover in nocturnal orb-web spiders.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wenjin; Liu, Shengjie; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Daiqin; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-01-01

    A striking feature of web-building spiders is the use of silk to make webs, mainly for prey capture. However, building a web is energetically expensive and increases the risk of predation. To reduce such costs and still have access to abundant prey, some web-building spiders have evolved web invasion behaviour. In general, no consistent patterns of web invasion have emerged and the factors determining web invasion remain largely unexplored. Here we report web invasion among conspecifics in seven nocturnal species of orb-web spiders, and examined the factors determining the probability of webs that could be invaded and taken over by conspecifics. About 36% of webs were invaded by conspecifics, and 25% of invaded webs were taken over by the invaders. A web that was built higher and intercepted more prey was more likely to be invaded. Once a web was invaded, the smaller the size of the resident spider, the more likely its web would be taken over by the invader. This study suggests that web invasion, as a possible way of reducing costs, may be widespread in nocturnal orb-web spiders. PMID:26405048

  16. Prey interception drives web invasion and spider size determines successful web takeover in nocturnal orb-web spiders

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wenjin; Liu, Shengjie; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Daiqin; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A striking feature of web-building spiders is the use of silk to make webs, mainly for prey capture. However, building a web is energetically expensive and increases the risk of predation. To reduce such costs and still have access to abundant prey, some web-building spiders have evolved web invasion behaviour. In general, no consistent patterns of web invasion have emerged and the factors determining web invasion remain largely unexplored. Here we report web invasion among conspecifics in seven nocturnal species of orb-web spiders, and examined the factors determining the probability of webs that could be invaded and taken over by conspecifics. About 36% of webs were invaded by conspecifics, and 25% of invaded webs were taken over by the invaders. A web that was built higher and intercepted more prey was more likely to be invaded. Once a web was invaded, the smaller the size of the resident spider, the more likely its web would be taken over by the invader. This study suggests that web invasion, as a possible way of reducing costs, may be widespread in nocturnal orb-web spiders. PMID:26405048

  17. Spider orb webs rely on radial threads to absorb prey kinetic energy.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Lorentz, Kimberly A; Kelly, Sean P; Blackledge, Todd A

    2012-08-01

    The kinetic energy of flying insect prey is a formidable challenge for orb-weaving spiders. These spiders construct two-dimensional, round webs from a combination of stiff, strong radial silk and highly elastic, glue-coated capture spirals. Orb webs must first stop the flight of insect prey and then retain those insects long enough to be subdued by the spiders. Consequently, spider silks rank among the toughest known biomaterials. The large number of silk threads composing a web suggests that aerodynamic dissipation may also play an important role in stopping prey. Here, we quantify energy dissipation in orb webs spun by diverse species of spiders using data derived from high-speed videos of web deformation under prey impact. By integrating video data with material testing of silks, we compare the relative contributions of radial silk, the capture spiral and aerodynamic dissipation. Radial silk dominated energy absorption in all webs, with the potential to account for approximately 100 per cent of the work of stopping prey in larger webs. The most generous estimates for the roles of capture spirals and aerodynamic dissipation show that they rarely contribute more than 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the total work of stopping prey, respectively, and then only for smaller orb webs. The reliance of spider orb webs upon internal energy absorption by radial threads for prey capture suggests that the material properties of the capture spirals are largely unconstrained by the selective pressures of stopping prey and can instead evolve freely in response to alternative functional constraints such as adhering to prey. PMID:22431738

  18. Uncovering changes in spider orb-web topology owing to aerodynamic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zaera, Ramón; Soler, Alejandro; Teus, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    An orb-weaving spider's likelihood of survival is influenced by its ability to retain prey with minimum damage to its web and at the lowest manufacturing cost. This set of requirements has forced the spider silk to evolve towards extreme strength and ductility to a degree that is rare among materials. Previous studies reveal that the performance of the web upon impact may not be based on the mechanical properties of silk alone, aerodynamic drag could play a role in the dissipation of the prey's energy. Here, we present a thorough analysis of the effect of the aerodynamic drag on wind load and prey impact. The hypothesis considered by previous authors for the evaluation of the drag force per unit length of thread has been revisited according to well-established principles of fluid mechanics, highlighting the functional dependence on thread diameter that was formerly ignored. Theoretical analysis and finite-element simulations permitted us to identify air drag as a relevant factor in reducing deterioration of the orb web, and to reveal how the spider can take greater—and not negligible—advantage of drag dissipation. The study shows the beneficial air drag effects of building smaller and less dense webs under wind load, and larger and denser webs under prey impact loads. In essence, it points out why the aerodynamics need to be considered as an additional driving force in the evolution of silk threads and orb webs. PMID:24966235

  19. Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jason E; Garrison, Nicole L; Hamilton, Chris A; Godwin, Rebecca L; Hedin, Marshal; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2014-08-01

    Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider "backbone" phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis of spiders including taxa representing all major spider lineages. Our robust phylogenetic hypothesis recovers some fundamental and uncontroversial spider clades, but rejects the prevailing paradigm of a monophyletic Orbiculariae, the most diverse lineage, containing orb-weaving spiders. Based on our results, the orb web either evolved much earlier than previously hypothesized and is ancestral for a majority of spiders or else it has multiple independent origins, as hypothesized by precladistic authors. Cribellate deinopoid orb weavers that use mechanically adhesive silk are more closely related to a diverse clade of mostly webless spiders than to the araneoid orb-weaving spiders that use adhesive droplet silks. The fundamental shift in our understanding of spider phylogeny proposed here has broad implications for interpreting the evolution of spiders, their remarkable biomaterials, and a key extended phenotype--the spider web. PMID:25042592

  20. Large orb-webs adapted to maximise total biomass not rare, large prey

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Aaron M. T.; Clausen, Philip D.; Wroe, Stephen; Madin, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    Spider orb-webs are the ultimate anti-ballistic devices, capable of dissipating the relatively massive kinetic energy of flying prey. Increased web size and prey stopping capacity have co-evolved in a number orb-web taxa, but the selective forces driving web size and performance increases are under debate. The rare, large prey hypothesis maintains that the energetic benefits of rare, very large prey are so much greater than the gains from smaller, more common prey that smaller prey are irrelevant for reproduction. Here, we integrate biophysical and ecological data and models to test a major prediction of the rare, large prey hypothesis, that selection should favour webs with increased stopping capacity and that large prey should comprise a significant proportion of prey stopped by a web. We find that larger webs indeed have a greater capacity to stop large prey. However, based on prey ecology, we also find that these large prey make up a tiny fraction of the total biomass (=energy) potentially captured. We conclude that large webs are adapted to stop more total biomass, and that the capacity to stop rare, but very large, prey is an incidental consequence of the longer radial silks that scale with web size. PMID:26374379

  1. Wind speed affects prey-catching behaviour in an orb web spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Joe; Vollrath, Fritz; Hesselberg, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Wind has previously been shown to influence the location and orientation of spider web sites and also the geometry and material composition of constructed orb webs. We now show that wind also influences components of prey-catching behaviour within the web. A small wind tunnel was used to generate different wind speeds. Araneus diadematus ran more slowly towards entangled Drosophila melanogaster in windy conditions, which took less time to escape the web. This indicates a lower capture probability and a diminished overall predation efficiency for spiders at higher wind speeds. We conclude that spiders' behaviour of taking down their webs as wind speed increases may therefore not be a response only to possible web damage.

  2. Males of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi sacrifice themselves to unrelated females.

    PubMed

    Welke, Klaas W; Schneider, Jutta M

    2010-10-23

    Costs of inbreeding can lead to total reproductive failure and inbreeding avoidance is, therefore, common. In classical sex roles with no paternal care, the selective pressure to avoid inbreeding is mostly on the female, which carries the higher costs. In some orb-web spiders, this situation is very different because females are polyandrous and males are monogynous or at most bigynous. Additionally, females of many entelegyne orb weavers are thought to bias paternity post-copulatorily towards a desired mate. This increases the selective pressure on males to adjust their investment in a mating with regard to the compatibility to a female. Here, we examine whether genetic relatedness influences mating behaviour in the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We mated either a sibling or a non-sibling male to a female in single copulation trials and compared copulation duration, cannibalism rate and female fecundity. Our experiment revealed that males prolonged their copulation duration and were cannibalized more frequently when mating with a non-sibling female. Males mating with a sibling female were more likely to escape cannibalism by copulating briefly, thus presumably increasing their chances of re-mating with a more compatible female. This suggests that males can adaptively adjust their investment relating to the compatibility of a female. PMID:20410027

  3. Males of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi sacrifice themselves to unrelated females

    PubMed Central

    Welke, Klaas W.; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2010-01-01

    Costs of inbreeding can lead to total reproductive failure and inbreeding avoidance is, therefore, common. In classical sex roles with no paternal care, the selective pressure to avoid inbreeding is mostly on the female, which carries the higher costs. In some orb-web spiders, this situation is very different because females are polyandrous and males are monogynous or at most bigynous. Additionally, females of many entelegyne orb weavers are thought to bias paternity post-copulatorily towards a desired mate. This increases the selective pressure on males to adjust their investment in a mating with regard to the compatibility to a female. Here, we examine whether genetic relatedness influences mating behaviour in the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We mated either a sibling or a non-sibling male to a female in single copulation trials and compared copulation duration, cannibalism rate and female fecundity. Our experiment revealed that males prolonged their copulation duration and were cannibalized more frequently when mating with a non-sibling female. Males mating with a sibling female were more likely to escape cannibalism by copulating briefly, thus presumably increasing their chances of re-mating with a more compatible female. This suggests that males can adaptively adjust their investment relating to the compatibility of a female. PMID:20410027

  4. Tangled in a sparse spider web: single origin of orb weavers and their spinning work unravelled by denser taxonomic sampling.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Lopardo, Lara; Giribet, Gonzalo; Arnedo, Miquel A; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando; Hormiga, Gustavo

    2012-04-01

    In order to study the tempo and the mode of spider orb web evolution and diversification, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis using six genetic markers along with a comprehensive taxon sample. The present analyses are the first to recover the monophyly of orb-weaving spiders based solely on DNA sequence data and an extensive taxon sample. We present the first dated orb weaver phylogeny. Our results suggest that orb weavers appeared by the Middle Triassic and underwent a rapid diversification during the end of the Triassic and Early Jurassic. By the second half of the Jurassic, most of the extant orb-weaving families and web designs were already present. The processes that may have given origin to this diversification of lineages and web architectures are discussed. A combination of biotic factors, such as key innovations in web design and silk composition, as well as abiotic environmental changes, may have played important roles in the diversification of orb weavers. Our analyses also show that increased taxon sampling density in both ingroups and outgroups greatly improves phylogenetic accuracy even when extensive data are missing. This effect is particularly important when addition of character data improves gene overlap. PMID:22048955

  5. The secondary frame in spider orb webs: the detail that makes the difference

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Alejandro; Zaera, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Spider orb webs are multifunctional structures, the main function of which is to dissipate the kinetic energy of the impacting prey, while minimizing structural damage. There is no single explanation for their remarkable strength and ductility. However, it is clear that topology is decisive in the structural performance upon impact, and the arrangement of the different silk threads in the web must also exert an effect. The aim of this study is to show how a slight variation in the geometry markedly affects the prey-capture ability of spider orb webs. The study is focused on the secondary frame, a thread interposed between radial and primary frame strands, the importance of which has not been examined until now. The simulation of the impact performance of webs using different lengths of the secondary frame clarifies its structural role, which has proven to be decisive. Furthermore, the study explains why secondary frame threads of moderate length, as commonly encountered, enable the capture of prey with higher energy without a marked increase in the volume of silk used. PMID:27507613

  6. The secondary frame in spider orb webs: the detail that makes the difference.

    PubMed

    Soler, Alejandro; Zaera, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Spider orb webs are multifunctional structures, the main function of which is to dissipate the kinetic energy of the impacting prey, while minimizing structural damage. There is no single explanation for their remarkable strength and ductility. However, it is clear that topology is decisive in the structural performance upon impact, and the arrangement of the different silk threads in the web must also exert an effect. The aim of this study is to show how a slight variation in the geometry markedly affects the prey-capture ability of spider orb webs. The study is focused on the secondary frame, a thread interposed between radial and primary frame strands, the importance of which has not been examined until now. The simulation of the impact performance of webs using different lengths of the secondary frame clarifies its structural role, which has proven to be decisive. Furthermore, the study explains why secondary frame threads of moderate length, as commonly encountered, enable the capture of prey with higher energy without a marked increase in the volume of silk used. PMID:27507613

  7. Female genital mutilation and monandry in an orb-web spider.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kensuke

    2016-02-01

    Monandry, in which a female has only one mating partner during the reproductive period, is established when a female spontaneously refrains from re-mating, or when a partner male interferes with the attempts of a female to mate again. In the latter case, however, females often have countermeasures against males, which may explain why polyandry is ubiquitous. Here, I demonstrate that the genital appendage, or scape, of the female orb-web spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba) is injured after her first mating, possibly by her first male partner. This female genital mutilation (FGM) permanently precludes copulation, and females appear to have no countermeasures. FGM is considered to confer a strong advantage to males in sexual conflicts over the number of female matings, and it may widely occur in spiders. PMID:26911338

  8. The Role of Salts in the Evolution of Modern Orb-Webs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Vasav; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Chen, Kelley; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blamires, Sean J.; Blackledge, Todd A.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of modern viscid silk webs from ancient cribellate silk webs is associated with a 95% increase in diversity of orb-weaving spiders, and their dominance as predators of flying insects. Yet the transition's mechanistic basis is an evolutionary puzzle. Ancient cribellate silk is a dry adhesive that functions through van der Waals interactions. Viscid threads adhere more effectively than cribellate threads due to high extensibility of their axial silk fibers, and firm adhesion of the viscid glue droplets. The organic and inorganic salts present in viscid glue sequester atmospheric water that plasticizes the axial silk fibers and renders them extensible. Here, we provide direct molecular and macro-scale evidence to show that salts also generate adhesion by directly solvating the glycoproteins, regardless of water content, thus imparting viscoelasticity and enabling the glue droplets to establish good contact. This `dual role' of salts provides a crucial link to the evolutionary transition from cribellate silk to viscid silk. In addition, salts also provide a simple mechanism to adhere even at the extremes of relative humidity, a feat eluding most synthetic adhesives. The work was done when I was at University of Akron.

  9. Comparison of the spinning of selachian egg case ply sheets and orb web spider dragline filaments.

    PubMed

    Knight, D P; Vollrath, F

    2001-01-01

    Liquid crystal spinning appears to be widespread in the animal kingdom, utilizing protein dopes to give materials with a range of different secondary structures including beta-pleat, alpha-helix and collagen-fold. Here we seek to identify the essential design features used in natural liquid crystal spinning by comparing the spinning of two very different materials: the egg case wall of Selachians (dogfish, rays, and their allies) and the dragline silk of orb web spiders. The fish extrudes a "sea and island" composite in which the islands consist of flat ribbons of carefully orientated collagen and the sea, small quantities of an amorphous matrix. Dragline silk filaments are largely constructed from spidroin, a beta protein and have a skin and core structure together with two to three coats. The essential design features common to both systems appear to be the following: (i) intracellular co-storage of a hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline component and a peroxidase within the same secretory vesicles; (ii) luminal storage of a highly concentrated liquid crystalline dope; (iii) use of a dope containing immiscible droplets; (iv) hyperbolic extrusion dies; (v) control of pH and water content of the dope; (vi) preorientation of dope molecules before assembly into fibrils; (vii) combination of extrusion die, treatment/coating bath, and solvent recovery plant within a single microminiaturized device; (viii) slow natural spinning rates. The most important difference is that spiders produce a tough material by unfolding and hydrogen-bonding their silk dope molecules while Selachian fish do it by covalently cross-linking the molecules without unfolding them. PMID:11749189

  10. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider.

    PubMed

    Cory, Anna-Lena; Schneider, Jutta M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young) females with females close to oviposition (old). In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission. PMID:27114864

  11. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jutta M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young) females with females close to oviposition (old). In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission. PMID:27114864

  12. The Influence of Vibratory Courtship on Female Mating Behaviour in Orb-Web Spiders (Argiope keyserlingi, Karsch 1878)

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2013-01-01

    Web-building spiders are important models for sexual selection. While our understanding of post-copulatory mechanisms including sperm competition and cryptic female choice is considerable, our knowledge of courtship and how it influences male and female mating decisions is still extremely poor. Here, we provide the first comprehensive description of male courtship behaviour and vibrations generated in the web by the orb-web spider, Argiope keyserlingi – a recognised model species. We identified three main elements of male courtship: shudders, abdominal wags and mating thread dances (including both plucks and bounces). The vibrations generated by these behaviours are described in detail. Male shuddering behaviour appears to have a strong influence on female latency to mate acceptance, with males that shudder at high rates without compromising shudder duration being preferred. Shuddering behaviour may also mediate female aggressive behaviour, with males that generate long shudders less likely to be cannibalised after copulation. Male abdominal wagging behaviour, however, appears to have only limited influence on female mating decisions. This study provides avenues for future work that synthesises pre- and post-copulatory mechanisms in web-building spiders to generate an all-encompassing model of how sexual selection operates. PMID:23341922

  13. One size fits all? Determinants of sperm transfer in a highly dimorphic orb-web spider.

    PubMed

    Assis, B A; Foellmer, M W

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary significance of widespread hypo-allometric scaling of genital traits in combination with rapid interspecific genital trait divergence has been of key interest to evolutionary biologists for many years and remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a detailed assessment of quantitative genital trait variation in males and females of the sexually highly dimorphic and cannibalistic orb-weaving spider Argiope aurantia. We then test how this trait variation relates to sperm transfer success. In particular, we test specific predictions of the one-size-fits-all and lock-and-key hypotheses for the evolution of genital characters. We use video-taped staged matings in a controlled environment with subsequent morphological microdissections and sperm count analyses. We find little support for the prediction of the one-size-fits-all hypothesis for the evolution of hypo-allometric scaling of genital traits, namely that intermediate trait dimensions confer highest sperm transfer success. Likewise, our findings do not support the prediction of the lock-and-key hypothesis that a tight fit of male and female genital traits mediates highest sperm transfer success. We do, however, detect directional effects of a number of male and female genital characters on sperm transfer, suggesting that genital trait dimensions are commonly under selection in nature. Importantly, even though females are much larger than males, spermatheca size limits the number of sperm transferred, contradicting a previous hypothesis about the evolutionary consequences of genital size dimorphism in extremely size-dimorphic taxa. We also find strong positive effects of male body size and copulation duration on the probability of sperm transfer and the number of sperm transferred, with implications for the evolution of extreme sexual size dimorphism and sexual cannibalism in orb weavers. PMID:26881910

  14. The effect of colour polymorphism on thermoregulation in an orb web spider.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dinesh; Mendoza-Cuenca, Luis

    2016-08-01

    Spiders that build aerial webs in open areas face the risk of overheating due to incident solar radiation. These spiders can counteract overheating by either moving the web to another site or by adopting behavioural thermoregulation within the web. Since moving can be costly, studies have suggested that a passive but effective method of reducing heat load is by light reflectance through body colouration. We explored the interaction between colour and thermoregulation in a colour polymorphic species, under both field and laboratory conditions. We show that in natural conditions, the spiders maintain their body temperature below that of the ambient, but with no difference in surface temperature between colour morphs. In laboratory experiments with internal temperature measurements, white morphs bore the risk of overheating better than the yellow morphs since they heated up slower and cooled faster. We suggest that the thermoregulatory properties of colour polymorphism in Verrucosa arenata have physiological consequences and may play an important role in the maintenance of colour polymorphism in this species. PMID:27379401

  15. The effect of colour polymorphism on thermoregulation in an orb web spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Dinesh; Mendoza-Cuenca, Luis

    2016-08-01

    Spiders that build aerial webs in open areas face the risk of overheating due to incident solar radiation. These spiders can counteract overheating by either moving the web to another site or by adopting behavioural thermoregulation within the web. Since moving can be costly, studies have suggested that a passive but effective method of reducing heat load is by light reflectance through body colouration. We explored the interaction between colour and thermoregulation in a colour polymorphic species, under both field and laboratory conditions. We show that in natural conditions, the spiders maintain their body temperature below that of the ambient, but with no difference in surface temperature between colour morphs. In laboratory experiments with internal temperature measurements, white morphs bore the risk of overheating better than the yellow morphs since they heated up slower and cooled faster. We suggest that the thermoregulatory properties of colour polymorphism in Verrucosa arenata have physiological consequences and may play an important role in the maintenance of colour polymorphism in this species.

  16. Spiders avoid sticking to their webs: clever leg movements, branched drip-tip setae, and anti-adhesive surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, R. D.; Eberhard, W. G.

    2012-04-01

    Orb-weaving spiders construct webs with adhesive silk but are not trapped by it. Previous studies have attributed this defense to an oily coating on their legs that protects against adhesion or, more recently, to behavioral avoidance of sticky lines. The old evidence is very weak, however, and the behavioral avoidance explanation is inadequate because orb-weavers push with their hind legs against sticky lines hundreds or thousands of times during construction of each orb and are not trapped. Video analyses of behavior and experimental observations of isolated legs pulling away from contact with sticky lines showed that the spider uses three anti-adhesion traits: dense arrays of branched setae on the legs that reduce the area of contact with adhesive material; careful engagement and withdrawal movements of its legs that minimize contact with the adhesive and that avoid pulling against the line itself; and a chemical coating or surface layer that reduces adhesion.

  17. Spiders avoid sticking to their webs: clever leg movements, branched drip-tip setae, and anti-adhesive surfaces.

    PubMed

    Briceño, R D; Eberhard, W G

    2012-04-01

    Orb-weaving spiders construct webs with adhesive silk but are not trapped by it. Previous studies have attributed this defense to an oily coating on their legs that protects against adhesion or, more recently, to behavioral avoidance of sticky lines. The old evidence is very weak, however, and the behavioral avoidance explanation is inadequate because orb-weavers push with their hind legs against sticky lines hundreds or thousands of times during construction of each orb and are not trapped. Video analyses of behavior and experimental observations of isolated legs pulling away from contact with sticky lines showed that the spider uses three anti-adhesion traits: dense arrays of branched setae on the legs that reduce the area of contact with adhesive material; careful engagement and withdrawal movements of its legs that minimize contact with the adhesive and that avoid pulling against the line itself; and a chemical coating or surface layer that reduces adhesion. PMID:22382404

  18. Effect of 9. 6-GHz pulsed microwaves on the orb web spinning ability of the cross spider (Araneus diadematus)

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, C.G.; Putnam, J.P.; Lewter, O.L.; Lewis, J.Y.; Bell, B.

    1986-01-01

    Eight cross spiders (Araneus diadematus) were exposed overnight (16 h) during web-building activity to pulsed 9.6-GHz microwaves at average power densities of 10, 1, and 0.1 mW/sq. cm. (estimated SARs 40, 4, and 0.4 mW/g). Under these conditions, 9.6-GHz pulsed microwaves did not affect the web-spinning ability of the cross spider.

  19. EFFECT OF 9.6-GHZ PULSED MICROWAVES ON THE ORB WEB SPINNING ABILITY OF THE CROSS SPIDER (ARANEUS DIADEMATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight cross spiders (Araneus diadematus) were exposed overnight (16 h) during web-building activity to pulsed 9.6-GHz microwaves at average power densities of 10, 1, and 0.1 mW/sq. cm. (estimated SARs 40, 4, and 0.4 mW/g). Under these conditions, 9.6-GHz pulsed microwaves did not...

  20. The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jonas O.; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat. Spiders are closely associated with silk, a material, often seen to be responsible for their great ecological success and gaining high attention in life sciences. However, it is often overlooked that more than half of all Recent spider species have abandoned web building or never developed such an adaptation. These species must have found other, more economic solutions for prey capture and retention, compensating the higher energy costs of increased locomotion activity. Here we show that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa. Previous studies often highlighted the idea that scopulae have the primary function of assisting locomotion, neglecting the fact that only the distal most pads (claw tufts) are suitable for those purposes. The former observations, that scopulae are used in prey capture, are largely overlooked. Our results suggest the scopulae evolved as a substitute for silk in controlling prey and that the claw tufts are, in most cases, a secondary development. Evolutionary trends towards specialized claw tufts and their composition from a low number of enlarged setae to a dense array of slender ones, as well as the secondary loss of those pads are discussed further. Hypotheses about the origin of the adhesive setae and their diversification throughout evolution are provided. PMID:23650526

  1. Do parasitoids explain differential abundance of two syntopic orb-weaver spiders (Araneae: Araneidae)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, Marcelo O.; Cardoso, João C. F.; Vasconcellos-Neto, João

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we examined the relative abundance of two congeneric species of orb-weaver spiders, Cyclosa fililineata and Cyclosa morretes, in an area of Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil, and the relationship of this variable with fecundity and attacks by parasitoids. We also investigated responses to vibrational stimuli that simulated the approach of a wasp and described architectural changes in webs of parasitized individuals of C. fililineata. C.fililineata was more abundant throughout the year, although this species produced a lower number of egg sacs and a lower number of eggs per egg sac when compared with C. morretes. Both species showed similar types of behavioral responses to vibrational stimuli, but C. fililineata remained motionless more often. The frequency of parasitism by the wasp Polysphincta janzeni on adults and juveniles was low and similar for C. fililineata and C. morretes in both dry and wet seasons. The parasitoid caused alterations in the web design of C. fililineata similar of those observed in other orb-weavers attacked by ichneumonid wasps. Webs constructed by spiders parasitized by larvae in their last instar had a lower number of radii and sticky spirals were completely absent. An egg parasitoid, Baeus cyclosae, attacked C. morretes more often than C. fililineata, possibly as a consequence of its greater clutch size and/or larger eggs. These results indicate that egg mortality caused by B. cyclosae, but not subadult and adult mortality promoted by P. janzeni, may be an important factor determining the relative abundance of these two Cyclosa species.

  2. Phylogenomic analysis of spiders reveals nonmonophyly of orb weavers.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rosa; Hormiga, Gustavo; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2014-08-01

    Spiders constitute one of the most successful clades of terrestrial predators. Their extraordinary diversity, paralleled only by some insects and mites, is often attributed to the use of silk, and, in one of the largest lineages, to stereotyped behaviors for building foraging webs of remarkable biomechanical properties. However, our understanding of higher-level spider relationships is poor and is largely based on morphology. Prior molecular efforts have focused on a handful of genes but have provided little resolution to key questions such as the origin of the orb weavers. We apply a next-generation sequencing approach to resolve spider phylogeny, examining the relationships among its major lineages. We further explore possible pitfalls in phylogenomic reconstruction, including missing data, unequal rates of evolution, and others. Analyses of multiple data sets all agree on the basic structure of the spider tree and all reject the long-accepted monophyly of Orbiculariae, by placing the cribellate orb weavers (Deinopoidea) with other groups and not with the ecribellate orb weavers (Araneoidea). These results imply independent origins for the two types of orb webs (cribellate and ecribellate) or a much more ancestral origin of the orb web with subsequent loss in the so-called RTA clade. Either alternative demands a major reevaluation of our current understanding of the spider evolutionary chronicle. PMID:25042584

  3. A Sticky Installation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rama

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project--a school-wide sticky-note show. The show was inspired by Giant Robot's annual Post-It Show in Los Angeles. The gallery invites hundreds of artists to doodle, draw, paint, and collage onto sticky notes. The individual sticky notes can be silly, ambitious, conceptual, or beautiful, but the…

  4. Sticky-Note Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a sticky-note mural project that originated from his desire to incorporate contemporary materials into his assignments as well as to inspire collaboration between students. The process takes much more than sticking sticky notes to the wall. It takes critical thinking skills and teamwork to design and complete…

  5. Sequential origin in the high performance properties of orb spider dragline silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackledge, Todd A.; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Plaza, Gustavo R.; Perea, Belén; Navarro, Andrés; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Elices, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Major ampullate (MA) dragline silk supports spider orb webs, combining strength and extensibility in the toughest biomaterial. MA silk evolved ~376 MYA and identifying how evolutionary changes in proteins influenced silk mechanics is crucial for biomimetics, but is hindered by high spinning plasticity. We use supercontraction to remove that variation and characterize MA silk across the spider phylogeny. We show that mechanical performance is conserved within, but divergent among, major lineages, evolving in correlation with discrete changes in proteins. Early MA silk tensile strength improved rapidly with the origin of GGX amino acid motifs and increased repetitiveness. Tensile strength then maximized in basal entelegyne spiders, ~230 MYA. Toughness subsequently improved through increased extensibility within orb spiders, coupled with the origin of a novel protein (MaSp2). Key changes in MA silk proteins therefore correlate with the sequential evolution high performance orb spider silk and could aid design of biomimetic fibers.

  6. Sequential origin in the high performance properties of orb spider dragline silk

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Todd A.; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Plaza, Gustavo R.; Perea, Belén; Navarro, Andrés; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Elices, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Major ampullate (MA) dragline silk supports spider orb webs, combining strength and extensibility in the toughest biomaterial. MA silk evolved ~376 MYA and identifying how evolutionary changes in proteins influenced silk mechanics is crucial for biomimetics, but is hindered by high spinning plasticity. We use supercontraction to remove that variation and characterize MA silk across the spider phylogeny. We show that mechanical performance is conserved within, but divergent among, major lineages, evolving in correlation with discrete changes in proteins. Early MA silk tensile strength improved rapidly with the origin of GGX amino acid motifs and increased repetitiveness. Tensile strength then maximized in basal entelegyne spiders, ~230 MYA. Toughness subsequently improved through increased extensibility within orb spiders, coupled with the origin of a novel protein (MaSp2). Key changes in MA silk proteins therefore correlate with the sequential evolution high performance orb spider silk and could aid design of biomimetic fibers. PMID:23110251

  7. Nearshore Sticky Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan; Vankataramani, Shankar; Dawson, Clint

    2015-04-01

    Wind- and current-driven flotsam, oil spills, pollutants, and nutrients, approaching the nearshore will frequently appear to park just beyond the break zone, where waves break. Moreover, the portion of these tracers that beach will do so only after a long time. In this environment we refer to the parking phenomenon as nearshore sticky waters, for which we offer a model when buoyant tracers are not subject to inertial effects. The solution to an asymptotic approximation to the model yields an explanation for the phenomenon and the conditions whereby it is expected to occur.

  8. Spider webs: Damage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-04-01

    A study reveals that spider orb webs fail in a nonlinear fashion, owing to the hierarchical organization of the silk proteins. The discovery may serve as inspiration for engineers for the design of aerial, light-weight, robust architectures.

  9. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov. PMID:23074838

  10. Yellow sticky, PHP software for an electronic brainstorming experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2007-09-01

    A web-based brainstorm was conducted in the summer of 2007 within the Sandia Restricted Network. This brainstorming experiment was modeled around the 'yellow sticky' brainstorms that are used in many face-to-face meetings at Sandia National Laboratories. This document discusses the implementation and makes suggestions for future implementations.

  11. String and Sticky Tape Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Explains how to demonstrate the fundamentals of one dimensional kinematics such as Newton's third law of motion, and collision between bodies, using simple materials of marbles, strings, sticky tape, drinking straws, and rubber bands. (GA)

  12. Planets, Stars, and Orbs 2 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Edward

    2009-07-01

    Illustrations; Preface; Acknowledgements; Abbreviations; Introduction: scope, sources, and social context; 1. Pierre Duhem, Medieval cosmology and the scope of the present day; 2. The sources of cosmology in the late Middle Ages; 3. The social and institutional matrix of scholastic cosmology; Part I. The Cosmos as a Whole and What, if Anything, Lies Beyond: 4. Is the world eternal, without beginning or end?; 5. The creation of the world; 6. The finitude, shape, and place of the world; 7. The perfection of the world; 8. The possibility of other worlds; 9. Extracosmic void space; Part II. The Celestial Region: 10. The incorruptibility of the celestial region; 11. Celestial perfection; 12. On celestial matter: can it exist in a changeless state?; 13. The mobile celestial orbs: concentrics, eccentrics, and epicycles; 14. Are the heavens composed of hard orbs or a fluid substance?; 15. The immobile orb of the cosmos: the empyrean heaven; 16. Celestial light; 17. The properties and qualities of celestial bodies, and the dimensions of the world; 18. On celestial motions and their causes; 19. The influence of the celestial region on the terrestrial; 20. The earth and its cosmic relations: size, centrality, shape, and immobility; Conclusion: Five centuries of scholastic cosmology; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  13. Herbivory in spiders: the importance of pollen for orb-weavers.

    PubMed

    Eggs, Benjamin; Sanders, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Orb-weaving spiders (Araneidae) are commonly regarded as generalist insect predators but resources provided by plants such as pollen may be an important dietary supplementation. Their webs snare insect prey, but can also trap aerial plankton like pollen and fungal spores. When recycling their orb webs, the spiders may therefore also feed on adhering pollen grains or fungal spores via extraoral digestion. In this study we measured stable isotope ratios in the bodies of two araneid species (Aculepeira ceropegia and Araneus diadematus), their potential prey and pollen to determine the relative contribution of pollen to their diet. We found that about 25% of juvenile orb-weaving spiders' diet consisted of pollen, the other 75% of flying insects, mainly small dipterans and hymenopterans. The pollen grains in our study were too large to be taken up accidentally by the spiders and had first to be digested extraorally by enzymes in an active act of consumption. Therefore, pollen can be seen as a substantial component of the spiders' diet. This finding suggests that these spiders need to be classified as omnivores rather than pure carnivores. PMID:24312430

  14. Herbivory in Spiders: The Importance of Pollen for Orb-Weavers

    PubMed Central

    Eggs, Benjamin; Sanders, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Orb-weaving spiders (Araneidae) are commonly regarded as generalist insect predators but resources provided by plants such as pollen may be an important dietary supplementation. Their webs snare insect prey, but can also trap aerial plankton like pollen and fungal spores. When recycling their orb webs, the spiders may therefore also feed on adhering pollen grains or fungal spores via extraoral digestion. In this study we measured stable isotope ratios in the bodies of two araneid species (Aculepeira ceropegia and Araneus diadematus), their potential prey and pollen to determine the relative contribution of pollen to their diet. We found that about 25% of juvenile orb-weaving spiders’ diet consisted of pollen, the other 75% of flying insects, mainly small dipterans and hymenopterans. The pollen grains in our study were too large to be taken up accidentally by the spiders and had first to be digested extraorally by enzymes in an active act of consumption. Therefore, pollen can be seen as a substantial component of the spiders’ diet. This finding suggests that these spiders need to be classified as omnivores rather than pure carnivores. PMID:24312430

  15. COTTON STICKINESS MITIGATION BY BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars deposited on lint by late season sucking insects can make cotton difficult to spin and difficult to market. This study evaluated a lacto bacillus strain that metabolizes insect sugars under low moisture conditions. Lint with known levels of stickiness was sprayed with water containing Lasil...

  16. Translational Control of Autophagy by Orb in the Drosophila Germline.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Ríos, Patricia; Chartier, Aymeric; Pierson, Stéphanie; Séverac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Busseau, Isabelle; Simonelig, Martine

    2015-12-01

    Drosophila Orb, the homolog of vertebrate CPEB, is a key translational regulator involved in oocyte polarity and maturation through poly(A) tail elongation of specific mRNAs. orb also has an essential function during early oogenesis that has not been addressed at the molecular level. Here, we show that orb prevents cell death during early oogenesis, thus allowing oogenesis to progress. It does so through the repression of autophagy by directly repressing, together with the CCR4 deadenylase, the translation of Autophagy-specific gene 12 (Atg12) mRNA. Autophagy and cell death observed in orb mutant ovaries are reduced by decreasing Atg12 or other Atg mRNA levels. These results reveal a role of Orb in translational repression and identify autophagy as an essential pathway regulated by Orb during early oogenesis. Importantly, they also establish translational regulation as a major mode of control of autophagy, a key process in cell homeostasis in response to environmental cues. PMID:26625957

  17. The Effects of Alcohol on Spiders: What Happens to Web Construction after Spiders Consume Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    In the high school experiment reported in this paper, spiders were provided with 40% ethanol (ETOH) in order to determine the effects of alcohol on the web-spinning ability of orb weaver spiders. It was hypothesized that alcohol would have a deleterious effect on the number of radii, number of cells, and area of cells in the webs of orb weaving…

  18. Loss of legs: is it or not a handicap for an orb-weaving spider?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquet, Alain; Anotaux, Mylène; Leborgne, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Leg loss is a common phenomenon in spiders, and according to the species 5% to 40% of the adults can present at least one missing leg. There is no possibility of regeneration after adult moult and the animal must manage with its missing appendages until its death. With the loss of one or more legs, female orb-weaving spiders can be penalized twice: firstly, because the legs are necessary for web construction and secondly, the legs are essential for the control of the prey after its interception by the web. During development, spiders may be also penalized because regeneration has energetic costs that take away resources for survival, growth and reproduction. All these consequences should influence negatively the development of the spider and thus its fitness. We investigated the impact of leg loss in the orb-weaving spider, Zygiella x-notata by studying its frequency in a natural population and web building and prey capture behaviours in laboratory. In field populations, 9.5% to 13%, of the adult females presented the loss of one or more legs; the majority of individuals had lost only one leg (in 48% of cases, a first one). Leg loss seems to affect all the adult spiders, as there is no difference of mass between intact spiders and those with missing leg. Data obtained with laboratory-reared spiders, showed that the loss of legs due to the moult is rare (less than 1%). Considering changes in web design, spiders with missing legs decreased their silk investment, increased the distance between spiral turns but did not change the capture surface of the web. Under our laboratory experimental conditions, spiders with one or two lost legs did not present any difference in prey capture efficiency. In laboratory conditions, spiders with lost leg(s) did not show any difference in egg sac production or in longevity (adult lifespan) compared to intact spiders.

  19. OrbView-3 Initial On-Orbit Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kent; Blonski, Slawomir; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki; Carver, David; Fendley, Debbie; Smith, Charles

    2004-01-01

    NASA at Stennis Space Center (SSC) established a Space Act Agreement with Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and ORBIMAGE Inc. to collaborate on the characterization of the OrbView-3 system and its imagery products and to develop characterization techniques further. In accordance with the agreement, NASA performed an independent radiometric, spatial, and geopositional accuracy assessment of OrbView-3 imagery acquired before completion of the system's initial on-orbit checkout. OSC acquired OrbView-3 imagery over SSC from July 2003 through January 2004, and NASA collected ground reference information coincident with many of these acquisitions. After evaluating all acquisitions, NASA deemed two multispectral images and five panchromatic images useful for characterization. NASA then performed radiometric, spatial, and geopositional characterizations.

  20. Spider silk: Webs measure up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-03-01

    The complete elastic response of a spider's orb web has been quantified by non-invasive light scattering, revealing important insights into the architecture, natural material use and mechanical properties of the web. This knowledge advances our understanding of the prey-catching process and the role of supercontraction therein.

  1. Evolution of supercontraction in spider silk: structure-function relationship from tarantulas to orb-weavers.

    PubMed

    Boutry, Cecilia; Blackledge, Todd Alan

    2010-10-15

    Spider silk is a promising biomaterial with impressive performance. However, some spider silks also 'supercontract' when exposed to water, shrinking by up to ∼50% in length. Supercontraction may provide a critical mechanism to tailor silk properties, both for future synthetic silk production and by the spiders themselves. Several hypotheses are proposed for the mechanism and function of supercontraction, but they remain largely untested. In particular, supercontraction may result from a rearrangement of the GPGXX motif within the silk proteins, where G represents glycine, P proline and X is one of a small subset of amino acids. Supercontraction may prevent sagging in wet orb-webs or allow spiders to tailor silk properties for different ecological functions. Because both the molecular structures of silk proteins and how dragline is used in webs differ among species, we can test these hypotheses by comparing supercontraction of silk across diverse spider taxa. In this study we measured supercontraction in 28 spider taxa, ranging from tarantulas to orb-weaving spiders. We found that silk from all species supercontracted, except that of most tarantulas. This suggests that supercontraction evolved at least with the origin of the Araneomorphae, over 200 million years ago. We found differences in the pattern of evolution for two components of supercontraction. Stress generated during supercontraction of a restrained fiber is not associated with changes in silk structure and web architecture. By contrast, the shrink of unrestrained supercontracting fibers is higher for Orbiculariae spiders, whose silk contains high ratios of GPGXX motifs. These results support the hypothesis that supercontraction is caused by a rearrangement of GPGXX motifs in silk, and that it functions to tailor silk material properties. PMID:20889831

  2. The impact of UVB radiation on the glycoprotein glue of orb-weaving spider capture thread.

    PubMed

    Stellwagen, Sarah D; Opell, Brent D; Clouse, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Many spider orb-webs are exposed to sunlight and the potentially damaging effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We examined the effect of UVB on the viscoelastic glycoprotein core of glue droplets deposited on the prey capture threads of these webs, hypothesizing that webs built by species that occupy sunny habitats are less susceptible to UVB damage than are webs built by species that prefer shaded forest habitats or by nocturnal species. Threads were tested shortly after being collected in the early morning and after being exposed to UVB energy equivalent to a day of summer sun and three times this amount. Droplets kept in a dark chamber allowed us to evaluate post-production changes. Droplet volume was unaffected by treatments, indicating that UVB did not damage the hygroscopic compounds in the aqueous layer that covers droplets. UVB exposure did not affect energies of droplet extension for species from exposed and partially to mostly shaded habitats (Argiope aurantia, Leucauge venusta and Verrucosa arenata). However, UVB exposure reduced the energy of droplet extension in Micrathena gracilis from shaded forests and Neoscona crucifera, which forages at night. Only in L. venusta did the energy of droplet extension increase after the dark treatment, suggesting endogenous molecular alignment. This study adds UVB irradiation to the list of factors (humidity, temperature and strain rate) known to affect the performance of spider glycoprotein glue, factors that must be more fully understood if adhesives that mimic spider glycoprotein glue are to be produced. PMID:26333924

  3. Adsorption of surfactant-rich stickies onto mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Christopher M; Matthews, G Peter; Gantenbein, Daniel; Turner, Andrew; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Gane, Patrick A C

    2010-12-15

    "Stickies" are tacky species, present in recycled paper and coated broke, derived from coating formulations, adhesives etc. They impact negatively on paper quality and cause web runnability problems by deposit build-up. To sustain recycling, stickies are controlled by adsorbing them onto minerals added to the recycled stock. We report isotherms for a fatty acid ester defoamer and an acrylic acid ester copolymer adsorbing from colloidal suspension onto various talcs and modified calcium carbonates. We used commercial preparations of the fatty acid ester defoamer and acrylic acid ester copolymer to provide a simple analogue to the industrial process. The modified calcium carbonates are hydrophilic with anionic and cationic sites present. Adsorption isotherms for low surface area modified calcium carbonate conform to the Langmuir model, while those for high surface area modified calcium carbonate reflect a two stage process involving the formation of a monolayer over the mineral surface and subsequent partial aggregation. Talc platelets display hydrophilic edges and hydrophobic surfaces. Adsorption onto them appears to involve three stages; specifically, a hydrophilic interaction between hydrophilic groups on the molecules and the talc edges, followed by hydrophobic interactions between the molecules and the talc surfaces, and finally by formation of multilayers. PMID:20850132

  4. Coffee as an Antidote to Knowledge Stickiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Deborah; Phillips, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of space and its role in both knowledge creation and overcoming knowledge stickiness. Aristotelian concepts of "freedom to" and "freedom from" are used to reconceptualise space. Informal and formal spaces, concepts and places are discussed as both specific locations and as gaps providing space for knowledge…

  5. Planets, Stars, and Orbs, The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Edward

    Medieval cosmology was a fusion of pagan Greek ideas and biblical descriptions of the world, especially the creation account in Genesis. Planets, Stars, and Orbs describes medieval conceptions of the cosmos as understood by scholastic theologians and natural philosophers in the universities of western Europe from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Not only are the major ideas and arguments of medieval cosmology described and analysed, but much attention is paid to the responses of scholastic natural philosophers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to the challenges posed by the new science and astronomy as represented by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Galileo and Kepler.

  6. The allometry of CNS size and consequences of miniaturization in orb-weaving and cleptoparasitic spiders.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Rosannette; Triana, Emilia; Vargas, Gloria; Douglass, John K; Seid, Marc A; Niven, Jeremy E; Eberhard, William G; Wcislo, William T

    2011-11-01

    Allometric studies of the gross neuroanatomy of adults from nine species of spiders from six web-weaving families (Orbicularia), and nymphs from six of these species, show that very small spiders resemble other small animals in having disproportionately larger central nervous systems (CNSs) relative to body mass when compared with large-bodied forms. Small spiderlings and minute adult spiders have similar relative CNS volumes. The relatively large CNS of a very small spider occupies up to 78% of the cephalothorax volume. The CNSs of very small spiders extend into their coxae, occupying as much as 26% of the profile area of the coxae of an Anapisona simoni spiderling (body mass < 0.005 mg). Such modifications occur both in species with minute adults, and in tiny spiderlings of species with large-bodied adults. In at least one such species, Leucauge mariana, the CNS of the spiderling extends into a prominent ventral bulge of the sternum. Tiny spiders also have reduced neuronal cell body diameters. The adults of nearly all orbicularian spiders weave prey capture webs, as do the spiderlings, beginning with second instar nymphs. Comparable allometric relations occur in adults of both orb-weaving and cleptoparasitic species, indicating that this behavioral difference is not reflected in differences in gross CNS allometry. PMID:22036838

  7. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era

    PubMed Central

    Blackledge, Todd A.; Scharff, Nikolaj; Coddington, Jonathan A.; Szüts, Tamas; Wenzel, John W.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary diversification of spiders is attributed to spectacular innovations in silk. Spiders are unique in synthesizing many different kinds of silk, and using silk for a variety of ecological functions throughout their lives, particularly to make prey-catching webs. Here, we construct a broad higher-level phylogeny of spiders combining molecular data with traditional morphological and behavioral characters. We use this phylogeny to test the hypothesis that the spider orb web evolved only once. We then examine spider diversification in relation to different web architectures and silk use. We find strong support for a single origin of orb webs, implying a major shift in the spinning of capture silk and repeated loss or transformation of orb webs. We show that abandonment of costly cribellate capture silk correlates with the 2 major diversification events in spiders (1). Replacement of cribellate silk by aqueous silk glue may explain the greater diversity of modern orb-weaving spiders (Araneoidea) compared with cribellate orb-weaving spiders (Deinopoidea) (2). Within the “RTA clade,” which is the sister group to orb-weaving spiders and contains half of all spider diversity, >90% of species richness is associated with repeated loss of cribellate silk and abandonment of prey capture webs. Accompanying cribellum loss in both groups is a release from substrate-constrained webs, whether by aerially suspended webs, or by abandoning webs altogether. These behavioral shifts in silk and web production by spiders thus likely played a key role in the dramatic evolutionary success and ecological dominance of spiders as predators of insects. PMID:19289848

  8. Catapulting tentacles in a sticky carnivorous plant.

    PubMed

    Poppinga, Simon; Hartmeyer, Siegfried Richard Heinrich; Seidel, Robin; Masselter, Tom; Hartmeyer, Irmgard; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed 'active' have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin's early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory. PMID:23049849

  9. Catapulting Tentacles in a Sticky Carnivorous Plant

    PubMed Central

    Poppinga, Simon; Hartmeyer, Siegfried Richard Heinrich; Seidel, Robin; Masselter, Tom; Hartmeyer, Irmgard; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed ‘active’ have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin’s early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory. PMID:23049849

  10. Sticky foam technology for less-than-lethal force situations

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Sticky foam is an extremely tacky, tenacious material used to entangle and impair an individual. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the late 1970`s for usage in nuclear safeguards and security applications. In late 1992, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of sticky foam for law enforcement usage. The objectives of the project were to develop a dispenser capable of firing sticky foam, to conduct an extensive toxicology review of sticky foam (formulation SF-283), to test the developed dispenser and sticky foam effectiveness on SNL volunteers acting out prison and law enforcement scenarios, and to have the dispenser and sticky foam further evaluated by correctional representatives. This paper discusses the results of the project.

  11. Sticky foam as a less-than-lethal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Labs (SNL) in 1994 completed a project funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to determine the applicability of sticky foam for correctional applications. Sticky foam is an extremely tacky, tenacious material used to block, entangle, and impair individuals. The NIJ project developed a gun capable of firing multiple shots of sticky foam, tested the gun and sticky foam effectiveness on SNL volunteers acting out prison and law enforcement scenarios, and had the gun and sticky foam evaluated by correctional representatives. Based on the NIJ project work, SNL supported the Marine Corps Mission, Operation United Shield, with sticky foam guns and supporting equipment to assist in the withdrawal of UN Peacekeepers from Somalia. Prior to the loan of the equipment, the Marines were given training in sticky foam characterization, toxicology, safety issues, cleanup and waste disposal, use limitations, use protocol and precautions, emergency facial clean-up, skin cleanup, gun filling, targeting and firing, and gun cleaning. The Marine Corps successfully used the sticky foam guns as part of that operation. This paper describes these recent developments of sticky foam for non-lethal uses and some of the lessons learned from scenario and application testing.

  12. Effects of kaolin particle films on the life span of an orb-weaver spider.

    PubMed

    Benhadi-Marín, Jacinto; Pereira, José Alberto; Santos, Sónia A P

    2016-02-01

    Araniella cucurbitina (Araneae: Araneidae) is a widespread orb-weaver spider commonly found in agroecosystems. Mineral particle films such as kaolin, due to their protective or anti-feeding action, can represent an alternative to pesticides, especially in organic farming systems, but little is known about its effects on A. cucurbitina. Therefore, we tested the effect of kaolin sprays on the life span of A. cucurbitina under laboratory conditions. Four treatments were tested encompassing different exposure routes. Thus, kaolin sprays were applied on (i) the surface, (ii) the prey (fly), (iii) the spider and (iv) both spider & prey. A control group was tested with water in each treatment. Results showed that sprays of kaolin significantly affected the survival of A. curcubitina when applications were done on the surface and on both spider & prey registering a reduction of 48% and 56%, respectively. Spiders in control obtained higher probability of reaching alive at the end of the assay than those treated with kaolin. Differences observed can be explained by the feeding behavior of the species and may depend on the consumption of the web by the spider and the ratio spider/fly for body size. PMID:26432533

  13. ORBS: A reduction software for SITELLE and SpiOMM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    ORBS merges, corrects, transforms and calibrates interferometric data cubes and produces a spectral cube of the observed region for analysis. It is a fully automatic data reduction software for use with SITELLE (installed at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) and SpIOMM (a prototype attached to the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic); these imaging Fourier transform spectrometers obtain a hyperspectral data cube which samples a 12 arc-minutes field of view into 4 millions of visible spectra. ORBS is highly parallelized; its core classes (ORB) have been designed to be used in a suite of softwares for data analysis (ORCS and OACS), data simulation (ORUS) and data acquisition (IRIS).

  14. [Life and works of academician L.A. Orbeli (in honor of 130th year anniversary)].

    PubMed

    Astvatsaturov, A E

    2012-01-01

    This work is dedicated to academician L.A. Orbeli, collaborator of legendary Ivan Pavlov, his talented entourage. It provides background information about Orbeli family and the destiny of the three Orbeli brothers, leading scientists who have made significant contributions to science and practice. It reminds us about dramatic events which made great harm to research work of our biologists, medical workers and their use of genetics in their country. One can also find some facts of adherence to principles and dedication to science which are useful for young scientists who are facing salvation of anti-crisis problems of global scale. PMID:23530429

  15. Exploring the shock response of spider webs.

    PubMed

    Tietsch, V; Alencastre, J; Witte, H; Torres, F G

    2016-03-01

    Spider orb-webs are designed to allow for quick energy absorption as well as the constraint of drastic oscillations occurring upon prey impact. Studies on spider silk illustrate its impressive mechanical properties and its capacity to be used as technical fibers in composite materials. Models have previously been used to study the mechanical properties of different silk fibers, but not the behavior of the spider web as a whole. Full spider webs have been impacted by a projectile and the transverse displacement was measured by means of a laser interferometer. The damping and stiffness of the entire webs were quantified considering the orb-web as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system. The amplitude, the period duration, and the energy dissipation of the oscillations have also been reported from the experiments. The analysis of the energy dissipation confirmed that the webs of orb-web spiders are optimized for the capture of a single or few large prey, rather than several small prey. The experiments also confirmed that the overall stiffness of the web displayed a non-linear behavior. Such non-linearity was also observed in the damping characteristics of the webs studied. PMID:26651062

  16. Sticky foam as a less-than-lethal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Steven H.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in 1994 completed a project funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to determine the applicability of sticky foam for correctional applications. Sticky foam is an extremely tacky, tenacious material used to block, entangle, and impair individuals. The NIJ project developed a gun capable of firing multiple shots of sticky foam, tested the gun and sticky foam effectiveness on SNL volunteers acting out prison and law enforcement scenarios, and had the gun and sticky foam evaluated by correctional representatives. Based on the NIJ project work, SNL supported the Marine Corps Mission, Operation United Shield, with sticky foam guns and supporting equipment to assist in the withdrawal of UN Peacekeepers from Somalia. Prior to the loan of the waste disposal, use limitations, use protocol and precautions, emergency facial clean-up, skin clean-up, gun filling, targeting and firing, and gun cleaning. The Marine Corps successfully used the sticky foam guns as part of that operation. This paper describes these recent developments of sticky foam for non-lethal uses and some of the lessons learned from scenario and application testing.

  17. Alleviating cotton stickiness-experience and future research topics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though cotton stickiness is manifested only in a small percentage of the world cotton crop, its presence can adversely affect every aspect of the cotton textile industry from production to yarn manufacturing. Reductions in production efficiency due to the presence of stickiness at the mill may be v...

  18. OrbView-3 Technical Performance Evaluation 2005: Modulation Transfer Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    The Technical performance evaluation of OrbView-3 using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is presented. The contents include: 1) MTF Results and Methodology; 2) Radiometric Calibration Methodology; and 3) Relative Radiometric Assessment Results

  19. Geolocation Accuracy Evaluations of OrbView-3, EROS-A, and SPOT-5 Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresnahan, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation evaluates absolute geolocation accuracy of OrbView-3, EROS-A, and SPOT-5 by comparing test imagery-derived ground coordinates to Ground Control Points using SOCET set photogrammetric software.

  20. Radiometric Characterization of the IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3 Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara

    2007-01-01

    The NASA team of University of Arizona, South Dakota State University, and NASA SSC produce consistent results. The OrbView calibration coefficients do not appear to agree well with the NASA team estimate (approx. 20% difference). Discussions with GeoEye (TradeMark) (formerly ORBIMAGE(Registered TradeMark)) personnel are ongoing to update the calibration coefficients. The NASA team will continue to assess OrbView radiometric accuracy.

  1. Molecular Basis of Orb2 Amyloidogenesis and Blockade of Memory Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Rubén; Li, Liying; Majumdar, Amitabha; Fernández-Ramírez, María Del Carmen; Unruh, Jay R; Slaughter, Brian D; Galera-Prat, Albert; Santana, Elena; Suzuki, Mari; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Bruix, Marta; Casas-Tintó, Sergio; Menéndez, Margarita; Laurents, Douglas V; Si, Kausik; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are ordered protein aggregates that are typically associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. By contrast, the amyloid-like state of the neuronal RNA binding protein Orb2 in Drosophila was recently implicated in memory consolidation, but it remains unclear what features of this functional amyloid-like protein give rise to such diametrically opposed behaviour. Here, using an array of biophysical, cell biological and behavioural assays we have characterized the structural features of Orb2 from the monomer to the amyloid state. Surprisingly, we find that Orb2 shares many structural traits with pathological amyloids, including the intermediate toxic oligomeric species, which can be sequestered in vivo in hetero-oligomers by pathological amyloids. However, unlike pathological amyloids, Orb2 rapidly forms amyloids and its toxic intermediates are extremely transient, indicating that kinetic parameters differentiate this functional amyloid from pathological amyloids. We also observed that a well-known anti-amyloidogenic peptide interferes with long-term memory in Drosophila. These results provide structural insights into how the amyloid-like state of the Orb2 protein can stabilize memory and be nontoxic. They also provide insight into how amyloid-based diseases may affect memory processes. PMID:26812143

  2. Molecular Basis of Orb2 Amyloidogenesis and Blockade of Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Amitabha; Fernández-Ramírez, María del Carmen; Unruh, Jay R.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Galera-Prat, Albert; Santana, Elena; Suzuki, Mari; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Bruix, Marta; Casas-Tintó, Sergio; Menéndez, Margarita; Laurents, Douglas V.; Si, Kausik; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are ordered protein aggregates that are typically associated with neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. By contrast, the amyloid-like state of the neuronal RNA binding protein Orb2 in Drosophila was recently implicated in memory consolidation, but it remains unclear what features of this functional amyloid-like protein give rise to such diametrically opposed behaviour. Here, using an array of biophysical, cell biological and behavioural assays we have characterized the structural features of Orb2 from the monomer to the amyloid state. Surprisingly, we find that Orb2 shares many structural traits with pathological amyloids, including the intermediate toxic oligomeric species, which can be sequestered in vivo in hetero-oligomers by pathological amyloids. However, unlike pathological amyloids, Orb2 rapidly forms amyloids and its toxic intermediates are extremely transient, indicating that kinetic parameters differentiate this functional amyloid from pathological amyloids. We also observed that a well-known anti-amyloidogenic peptide interferes with long-term memory in Drosophila. These results provide structural insights into how the amyloid-like state of the Orb2 protein can stabilize memory and be nontoxic. They also provide insight into how amyloid-based diseases may affect memory processes. PMID:26812143

  3. The Aggregate Supply Curve: Keynes and Downwardly Sticky Money Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Keynes's explanation of both the rationale underlying downwardly sticky money wages and the consequences this phenomenon has for macroeconomic theory are reviewed. An aggregate supply curve appropriate to today's economy is then interpreted. (Author/RM)

  4. Sticky bomb detection with other implications for vehicle security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Vetrone, J.; Warner, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    A 'sticky bomb' is a type of improvised explosive device (IED) placed on a motor vehicle by (for example) a terrorist. The bomb is typically attached with adhesive ('duct') tape, or with magnets. This paper reports some preliminary results for a very rudimentary demonstration of two techniques for detecting the placement of a sticky bomb on a motor vehicle. The two techniques are tire pressure and magnetic measurements. There are other possible security applications for these techniques as well.

  5. Web-building time in a spider: preliminary applications of ultrasonic detection.

    PubMed

    Ramousse, R; Davis, F

    1976-12-01

    Data collection on time and length of building in orb-weaving spiders has suffered from absence of light during construction and inconvenient hours. A simple apparatus is described which permits recording of the spiders' movements as they disturb an ultrasonic field. By varying onset and length of dark periods for two animals at even temperature and by registering the building periods for 127 webs, a definite influence of the light-dark cycle can be identified: there is a strong preference for building webs in the dark; this is superimposed on the circadian rhythm of orb-web construction. One of the spiders always built earlier than the other. PMID:14677594

  6. OpenOrb: Open-source asteroid orbit computation software including statistical ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, M.; Virtanen, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Muinonen, K.

    2009-01-01

    We are making an open-source asteroid orbit computation software package called OpenOrb publicly available. OpenOrb is built on a well-established Bayesian inversion theory, which means that it is to a large part complementary to orbit-computation packages currently available. In particular, OpenOrb is the first package that contains tools for rigorously estimating the uncertainties resulting from the inverse problem of computing orbital elements using scarce astrometry. In addition to the well-known least-squares method, OpenOrb also contains both Monte-Carlo (MC) and Markov-Chain MC (MCMC; Oszkiewicz et al. [2009]) versions of the statistical ranging method. Ranging allows the user to obtain sampled, non-Gaussian orbital-element probability-density functions and is therefore optimized for cases where the amount of astrometry is scarce or spans a relatively short time interval. Ranging-based methods have successfully been applied to a variety of different problems such as rigorous ephemeris prediction, orbital element distribution studies for transneptunian objects, the computation of invariant collision probabilities between near-Earth objects and the Earth, detection of linkages between astrometric asteroid observations within an apparition as well as between apparitions, and in the rigorous analysis of the impact of orbital arc length and/or astrometric uncertainty on the uncertainty of the resulting orbits. Tools for making ephemeris predictions and for classifying objects based on their orbits are also available in OpenOrb. As an example, we use OpenOrb in the search for candidate retrograde and/or high-inclination objects similar to 2008 KV42 in the known population of transneptunian objects that have an observational time span shorter than 30 days.

  7. Sticky fingers: Adhesive properties of human fingertips.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Marlene; Wiechert, Anke B; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-02-29

    Fingertip friction is a rather well studied subject. Although the phenomenon of finger stickiness is known as well, the pull-off force and the adhesive strength of human finger tips have never been previously quantified. For the first time, we provided here characterization of adhesive properties of human fingers under natural conditions. Human fingers can generate a maximum adhesive force of 15mN on a smooth surface of epoxy resin. A weak correlation of the adhesive force and the normal force was found on all test surfaces. Up to 300mN load, an increase of the normal force leads to an increase of the adhesive force. On rough surfaces, the adhesive strength is significantly reduced. Our data collected from untreated hands give also an impression of an enormous scattering of digital adhesion depending on a large set of inter-subject variability and time-dependent individual factors (skin texture, moisture level, perspiration). The wide inter- and intra-individual range of digital adhesion should be considered in developing of technical and medical products. PMID:26892897

  8. An adulticidal sticky ovitrap for sampling container-breeding mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Long, Sharron; Hart, Alistair; Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2003-09-01

    The efficacy of a standard ovitrap and an ovitrap featuring an internal wall covered by a polybutylene adhesive was compared in field studies in Cairns, Australia. The sticky ovitrap was as effective as the standard ovitrap in detecting Aedes aegypti, with 67.5% and 64% of traps positive for Ae. aegypti, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of Ae. aegypti were collected by traps set outside rather than inside premises. Sticky ovitraps also readily collected Ochlerotatus notoscriptus and, especially, Culex quinquefasciatus. With a 10X hand lens, mosquitoes of these species could readily be identified in traps set for 3 and 7 days. The sticky ovitraps were comparable in cost and as time efficient as standard ovitraps. The greatest advantage of the sticky ovitrap is the collection of adult female mosquitoes, negating the need to rear larvae for identification and providing a faster, more direct measure of the effectiveness of ovipositional attractants than egg counts. Finally, we demonstrated that sticky ovitraps, being adulticidal, have potential as a supplementary control measure, especially for quarantine programs designed to prevent the import and export of container-breeding vector mosquitoes at sea- and airports. PMID:14524545

  9. Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Deza, Mariajosé; Andía, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described and illustrated; Alpaida losamigos n. sp. based on females from Madre de Dios, and Alpaida penca n. sp. based on females and males from Cajamarca. PMID:25081147

  10. In search of ice-stream sticky spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The form drag of large bedrock bumps sticking into the base of an ice stream can produce effective 'sticky spots' supporting large basal shear stress. Bedrock regions surrounded by lubricating till at the same topographic level can cause sticky spots, but tend to collect lubricating water and thus are unlikely to support a shear stress of more than a few tenths of a bar unless they contain abundant large bumps. Raised regions on the ice-air surface also can cause moderate increases in the shear stress supported on the bed beneath. Surveys of large-scale bedrock roughness, strain grids across the margins of ice-surface highs, and possibly, water-pressure measurements in regions of thin or zero till would help identify and characterize sticky spots.

  11. Spermatid Cyst Polarization in Drosophila Depends upon apkc and the CPEB Family Translational Regulator orb2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuwa; Tyagi, Sanjay; Schedl, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mature Drosophila sperm are highly polarized cells—on one side is a nearly 2 mm long flagellar tail that comprises most of the cell, while on the other is the sperm head, which carries the gamete's genetic information. The polarization of the sperm cells commences after meiosis is complete and the 64-cell spermatid cyst begins the process of differentiation. The spermatid nuclei cluster to one side of the cyst, while the flagellar axonemes grows from the other. The elongating spermatid bundles are also polarized with respect to the main axis of the testis; the sperm heads are always oriented basally, while the growing tails extend apically. This orientation within the testes is important for transferring the mature sperm into the seminal vesicles. We show here that orienting cyst polarization with respect to the main axis of the testis depends upon atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC), a factor implicated in polarity decisions in many different biological contexts. When apkc activity is compromised in the male germline, the direction of cyst polarization within this organ is randomized. Significantly, the mechanisms used to spatially restrict apkc activity to the apical side of the spermatid cyst are different from the canonical cross-regulatory interactions between this kinase and other cell polarity proteins that normally orchestrate polarization. We show that the asymmetric accumulation of aPKC protein in the cyst depends on an mRNA localization pathway that is regulated by the Drosophila CPEB protein Orb2. orb2 is required to properly localize and activate the translation of apkc mRNAs in polarizing spermatid cysts. We also show that orb2 functions not only in orienting cyst polarization with respect to the apical-basal axis of the testis, but also in the process of polarization itself. One of the orb2 targets in this process is its own mRNA. Moreover, the proper execution of this orb2 autoregulatory pathway depends upon apkc. PMID:24830287

  12. Determinants of natural mating success in the cannibalistic orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Stefanie M; Welke, Klaas W; Schneider, Jutta M

    2012-01-01

    Monogynous mating systems (low male mating rates) occur in various taxa and have evolved several times independently in spiders. Monogyny is associated with remarkable male mating strategies and predicted to evolve under a male-biased sex ratio. While male reproductive strategies are well documented and male mating rates are easy to quantify, especially in sexually cannibalistic species, female reproductive strategies, the optimal female mating rate, and the factors that affect the evolution of female mating rates are still unclear. In this study, we examined natural female mating rates and tested the assumption of a male-biased sex ratio and female polyandry in a natural population of Argiope bruennichi in which we controlled female mating status prior to observations. We predicted variation in female mating frequencies as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mature females and males. Females had a low average mating rate of 1.3 and the majority copulated only once. Polyandry did not entirely result from a male-biased sex-ratio but closely matched the rate of male bigamy. Male activity and the probability of polyandry correlated with factors affecting pheromone presence such as virgin females' density. We conclude that a strong sex ratio bias and high female mating rates are not necessary components of monogynous mating systems as long as males protect their paternity effectively and certain frequencies of bigyny stabilise the mating system. PMID:22319628

  13. Determinants of Natural Mating Success in the Cannibalistic Orb-Web Spider Argiope bruennichi

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Stefanie M.; Welke, Klaas W.; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2012-01-01

    Monogynous mating systems (low male mating rates) occur in various taxa and have evolved several times independently in spiders. Monogyny is associated with remarkable male mating strategies and predicted to evolve under a male-biased sex ratio. While male reproductive strategies are well documented and male mating rates are easy to quantify, especially in sexually cannibalistic species, female reproductive strategies, the optimal female mating rate, and the factors that affect the evolution of female mating rates are still unclear. In this study, we examined natural female mating rates and tested the assumption of a male-biased sex ratio and female polyandry in a natural population of Argiope bruennichi in which we controlled female mating status prior to observations. We predicted variation in female mating frequencies as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mature females and males. Females had a low average mating rate of 1.3 and the majority copulated only once. Polyandry did not entirely result from a male-biased sex-ratio but closely matched the rate of male bigamy. Male activity and the probability of polyandry correlated with factors affecting pheromone presence such as virgin females' density. We conclude that a strong sex ratio bias and high female mating rates are not necessary components of monogynous mating systems as long as males protect their paternity effectively and certain frequencies of bigyny stabilise the mating system. PMID:22319628

  14. Tools made of ice facilitate forming of soft, sticky materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.; Ramsey, J. G., Jr.; Schinbeckler, K. D.

    1969-01-01

    Tools made of ice facilitate the forming or shaping of materials that are soft and sticky in the uncured state. The low-temperature of the ice slows the curing of the material, extending the working time available before setup. Handling problems are eliminated because the material does not adhere to the tool, and the melting ice serves as a lubricant.

  15. Stability of sticky particle dynamics and related scalar conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutsinga, Octave

    2009-06-01

    We show the stability of the sticky particle forward flow (x, s, t) [↦]{phi} (x, s, Pt, ut) w.r.t. perturbations of the initial mass distribution P0 and velocity function u0. Then, we deduce the stability of related scalar conservation laws and pressureless gas system.

  16. Mechanism for stickiness suppression during extreme events in Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Taline Suellen; Galuzio, Paulo Paneque; Prado, Thiago de Lima; Viana, Ricardo Luiz; Szezech, José Danilo; Lopes, Sergio Roberto

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we study how hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic regions in the neighborhood of a resonant island perform an important role allowing or forbidding stickiness phenomenon around islands in conservative systems. The vicinity of the island is composed of nonhyperbolic areas that almost prevent the trajectory to visit the island edge. For some specific parameters tiny channels are embedded in the nonhyperbolic area that are associated to hyperbolic fixed points localized in the neighborhood of the islands. Such channels allow the trajectory to be injected in the inner portion of the vicinity. When the trajectory crosses the barrier imposed by the nonhyperbolic regions, it spends a long time abandoning the vicinity of the island, since the barrier also prevents the trajectory from escaping from the neighborhood of the island. In this scenario the nonhyperbolic structures are responsible for the stickiness phenomena and, more than that, the strength of the sticky effect. We show that those properties of the phase space allow us to manipulate the existence of extreme events (and the transport associated to it) responsible for the nonequilibrium fluctuation of the system. In fact we demonstrate that by monitoring very small portions of the phase space (namely, ≈1 ×10-5% of it) it is possible to generate a completely diffusive system eliminating long-time recurrences that result from the stickiness phenomenon.

  17. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China. PMID:26429578

  18. Mechanism for stickiness suppression during extreme events in Hamiltonian systems.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Taline Suellen; Galuzio, Paulo Paneque; Prado, Thiago de Lima; Viana, Ricardo Luiz; Szezech, José Danilo; Lopes, Sergio Roberto

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we study how hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic regions in the neighborhood of a resonant island perform an important role allowing or forbidding stickiness phenomenon around islands in conservative systems. The vicinity of the island is composed of nonhyperbolic areas that almost prevent the trajectory to visit the island edge. For some specific parameters tiny channels are embedded in the nonhyperbolic area that are associated to hyperbolic fixed points localized in the neighborhood of the islands. Such channels allow the trajectory to be injected in the inner portion of the vicinity. When the trajectory crosses the barrier imposed by the nonhyperbolic regions, it spends a long time abandoning the vicinity of the island, since the barrier also prevents the trajectory from escaping from the neighborhood of the island. In this scenario the nonhyperbolic structures are responsible for the stickiness phenomena and, more than that, the strength of the sticky effect. We show that those properties of the phase space allow us to manipulate the existence of extreme events (and the transport associated to it) responsible for the nonequilibrium fluctuation of the system. In fact we demonstrate that by monitoring very small portions of the phase space (namely, ≈1×10(-5)% of it) it is possible to generate a completely diffusive system eliminating long-time recurrences that result from the stickiness phenomenon. PMID:26172768

  19. ORBS: A data reduction software for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometers SpIOMM and SITELLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T.; Drissen, L.; Joncas, G.

    2012-09-01

    SpIOMM (Spectromètre-Imageur de l'Observatoire du Mont Mégantic) is still the only operational astronomical Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) capable of obtaining the visible spectrum of every source of light in a field of view of 12 arc-minutes. Even if it has been designed to work with both outputs of the Michelson interferometer, up to now only one output has been used. Here we present ORBS (Outils de Réduction Binoculaire pour SpIOMM/SITELLE), the reduction software we designed in order to take advantage of the two output data. ORBS will also be used to reduce the data of SITELLE (Spectromètre-Imageur pour l' Étude en Long et en Large des raies d' Émissions) { the direct successor of SpIOMM, which will be in operation at the Canada-France- Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) in early 2013. SITELLE will deliver larger data cubes than SpIOMM (up to 2 cubes of 34 Go each). We thus have made a strong effort in optimizing its performance efficiency in terms of speed and memory usage in order to ensure the best compliance with the quality characteristics discussed with the CFHT team. As a result ORBS is now capable of reducing 68 Go of data in less than 20 hours using only 5 Go of random-access memory (RAM).

  20. Simple Model for the Mechanics of Spider Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyanagi, Yuko; Okumura, Ko

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple model to describe spider orb webs. The model has a formal analytical solution when no thread elements are broken. When the radial threads are sufficiently strong compared to the spiral threads, the model is free of stress concentrations even when a few spiral threads are broken. This is in contrast with what occurs in common elastic materials. According to our model, spiders can increase the number of spiral threads to make a dense web (to catch small insects) or adjust the number of radial threads (to adapt to environmental conditions or reduce the cost of making the web) without reducing the damage tolerance of the web.

  1. Project O.R.B (Operation Reef Ball): Creating Artificial Reefs, Educating the Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Project O.R.B. (Operation Reef Ball) team at South Plantation High School's Everglades Restoration & Environmental Science Magnet Program is trying to help our ailing south Florida coral reefs by constructing, deploying, and monitoring designed artificial reefs. Students partnered with the Reef Ball Foundation, local concrete companies, state parks, Girl Scouts, Sea Scouts, local universities and environmental agencies to construct concrete reef balls, each weighing approximately 500 lbs (227 kg). Students then deployed two artificial reefs consisting of over 30 concrete reef balls in two sites previously permitted for artificial reef deployment. One artificial reef was placed approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) offshore of Golden Beach in Miami-Dade County with the assistance of Florida Atlantic University and their research vessel. A twin reef was deployed at the mouth of the river in Oleta River State Park in Miami. Monitoring and maintenance of the sites is ongoing with semi-annual reports due to the Reef Ball Foundation and DERM (Department of Environmental Resource Management) of Miami-Dade County. A second goal of Project O.R.B. is aligned with the Florida Local Action Strategy, the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, all of which point out the importance of awareness and education as key components to the health of our coral reefs. Project O.R.B. team members developed and published an activity book targeting elementary school students. Outreach events incorporate cascade learning where high school students teach elementary and middle school students about various aspects of coral reefs through interactive "edu-tainment" modules. Attendees learn about water sampling, salinity, beach erosion, surface runoff, water cycle, ocean zones, anatomy of coral, human impact on corals, and characteristics of a well-designed artificial reef. Middle school students snorkel on the artificial reef to witness first-hand the success

  2. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: AIR QUALITY AND RELATED IMPACTS. VOLUME I. DOCUMENTATION IN SUPPORT OF KEY ORBES AIR QUALITY FINDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The extensive air quality analysis undertaken for the ORBES included examination of pollutant emissions and resul...

  3. The Drosophila CPEB Protein Orb2 Has a Novel Expression Pattern and Is Important for Asymmetric Cell Division and Nervous System Function

    PubMed Central

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Xu, Shuwa; Bhat, Krishna Moorthi; Schedl, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB) proteins bind mRNAs to regulate their localization and translation. While the first CPEBs discovered were germline specific, subsequent studies indicate that CPEBs also function in many somatic tissues including the nervous system. Drosophila has two CPEB family members. One of these, orb, plays a key role in the establishment of polarity axes in the developing egg and early embryo, but has no known somatic functions or expression outside of the germline. Here we characterize the other Drosophila CPEB, orb2. Unlike orb, orb2 mRNA and protein are found throughout development in many different somatic tissues. While orb2 mRNA and protein of maternal origin are distributed uniformly in early embryos, this pattern changes as development proceeds and by midembryogenesis the highest levels are found in the CNS and PNS. In the embryonic CNS, Orb2 appears to be concentrated in cell bodies and mostly absent from the longitudinal and commissural axon tracts. In contrast, in the adult brain, the protein is seen in axonal and dendritic terminals. Lethal effects are observed for both RNAi knockdowns and orb2 mutant alleles while surviving adults display locomotion and behavioral defects. We also show that orb2 funtions in asymmetric division of stem cells and precursor cells during the development of the embryonic nervous system and mesoderm. PMID:21900268

  4. A sticky situation: the unexpected stability of malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Cohen, Justin M; Chiyaka, Christinah; Johnston, Geoffrey; Gething, Peter W; Gosling, Roly; Buckee, Caroline O; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Hay, Simon I; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Malaria eradication involves eliminating malaria from every country where transmission occurs. Current theory suggests that the post-elimination challenges of remaining malaria-free by stopping transmission from imported malaria will have onerous operational and financial requirements. Although resurgent malaria has occurred in a majority of countries that tried but failed to eliminate malaria, a review of resurgence in countries that successfully eliminated finds only four such failures out of 50 successful programmes. Data documenting malaria importation and onwards transmission in these countries suggests malaria transmission potential has declined by more than 50-fold (i.e. more than 98%) since before elimination. These outcomes suggest that elimination is a surprisingly stable state. Elimination's 'stickiness' must be explained either by eliminating countries starting off qualitatively different from non-eliminating countries or becoming different once elimination was achieved. Countries that successfully eliminated were wealthier and had lower baseline endemicity than those that were unsuccessful, but our analysis shows that those same variables were at best incomplete predictors of the patterns of resurgence. Stability is reinforced by the loss of immunity to disease and by the health system's increasing capacity to control malaria transmission after elimination through routine treatment of cases with antimalarial drugs supplemented by malaria outbreak control. Human travel patterns reinforce these patterns; as malaria recedes, fewer people carry malaria from remote endemic areas to remote areas where transmission potential remains high. Establishment of an international resource with backup capacity to control large outbreaks can make elimination stickier, increase the incentives for countries to eliminate, and ensure steady progress towards global eradication. Although available evidence supports malaria elimination's stickiness at moderate

  5. Temperature dependence of diffusion properties of soft sticky dipole water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2006-04-01

    The isobaric diffusivities for the soft sticky dipole water model between 230 and 330 K were studied in molecular dynamics simulations using Ewald summations for the long-range interactions. This simple single-point, angularly dependent model with parameters optimized at room temperature reproduces the experimental diffusion rates over a wide range of temperatures better than multi-point models. Its ability to reproduce the unusual temperature dependence of the diffusivities of supercooled water indicates the tetrahedral nature of water is important. Moreover, comparisons with other models indicate more tetrahedral potentials correlate with increasing the so-called Angell critical temperature and decreasing power of the temperature dependence.

  6. Synaptic Orb2A Bridges Memory Acquisition and Late Memory Consolidation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Krüttner, Sebastian; Traunmüller, Lisa; Dag, Ugur; Jandrasits, Katharina; Stepien, Barbara; Iyer, Nirmala; Fradkin, Lee G; Noordermeer, Jasprina N; Mensh, Brett D; Keleman, Krystyna

    2015-06-30

    To adapt to an ever-changing environment, animals consolidate some, but not all, learning experiences to long-term memory. In mammals, long-term memory consolidation often involves neural pathway reactivation hours after memory acquisition. It is not known whether this delayed-reactivation schema is common across the animal kingdom or how information is stored during the delay period. Here, we show that, during courtship suppression learning, Drosophila exhibits delayed long-term memory consolidation. We also show that the same class of dopaminergic neurons engaged earlier in memory acquisition is also both necessary and sufficient for delayed long-term memory consolidation. Furthermore, we present evidence that, during learning, the translational regulator Orb2A tags specific synapses of mushroom body neurons for later consolidation. Consolidation involves the subsequent recruitment of Orb2B and the activity-dependent synthesis of CaMKII. Thus, our results provide evidence for the role of a neuromodulated, synapse-restricted molecule bridging memory acquisition and long-term memory consolidation in a learning animal. PMID:26095367

  7. An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space

    PubMed Central

    Styrsky, John D

    2014-01-01

    Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, inhabits an ant-acacia for protection from predators. This spider is unique in the orb-weaver family in that it associates closely with both a specific host plant and ants. I tested the protective effect of acacia ants on E. oblonga by comparing spider abundance over time on acacias with ants and on acacias from which entire ant colonies were experimentally removed. Both juvenile and adult spider abundance significantly decreased over time on acacias without ants. Concomitantly, the combined abundance of potential spider predators increased over time on acacias without ants. These results suggest that ant protection of the ant-acacia Acacia melanocerus also protects the spiders, thus supporting the hypothesis that E. oblonga exploits the ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space. Although E. oblonga takes advantage of the protection services of ants, it likely exacts little to no cost and should not threaten the stability of the ant–acacia mutualism. Indeed, the potential threat of exploiter species to protection mutualisms in general may be limited to species that exploit the material rewards traded in such mutualisms rather than the protection services. PMID:24558583

  8. Basal characteristics of the main sticky spot on the ice plain of Whillans Ice Stream, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, Tarun; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Winberry, J. Paul; Alley, Richard B.; Holschuh, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the processes that affect streaming ice flow and the mass balance of glaciers and ice sheets requires sound knowledge of their subglacial environments. Previous studies have shown that an extensive deformable subglacial sediment layer favors fast ice-stream flow. However, areas of high basal drag, termed sticky spots, are of particular interest because they inhibit the fast flow of the overriding ice. The stick-slip behavior of Whillans Ice Stream (WIS) is perhaps the most conspicuous manifestation of a subglacial sticky spot. We present new ice-thickness and seismic-reflection measurements collected over the main sticky spot in the ice plain of WIS, allowing us to elucidate its role in the behavior of the ice stream. Ice-thickness and surface-elevation data show that the sticky spot occupies a subglacial topographic high. Water flow in response to the hydrological potential gradient will be routed around the sticky spot if effective pressures are similar on the sticky spot and elsewhere. The seismic experiment imaged a laterally continuous basal layer approximately 6 m thick, having compressional wave velocities of greater than 1800 m s-1 and density greater than 1800 kg m-3, indicative of a till layer that is stiffer than corresponding till beneath well-lubricated parts of the ice stream. This layer likely continues to deform under the higher shear stress of the sticky spot, and some water may be pumped up onto the sticky spot during motion events.

  9. Measurement of Sticky Point Temperature of Coffee Powder with a Rheometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sticky point temperature (Ts) measurement for hygroscopic food and biomaterial powders is traditionally performed with complex glass instruments. This property is used to characterize material stickiness, which substantially affects the flow and physical behavior of powders. In this research study w...

  10. Fecundity increase supports adaptive radiation hypothesis in spider web evolution

    PubMed Central

    Coddington, Jonathan A; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms driving adaptive radiations is key to explaining the diversity of life. The extreme reliance of spiders upon silk for survival provides an exceptional system in which to link patterns of diversification to adaptive changes in silk use. Most of the world’s 41,000 species of spiders belong to two apical lineages of spiders that exhibit quite different silk ecologies, distinct from their ancestors. Orb spiders spin highly stereotyped webs that are suspended in air and utilize a chemical glue to make them adhesive. RTA clade spiders mostly abandoned silk capture webs altogether. We recently proposed that these two clades present very different evolutionary routes of achieving the same key innovation—escape from the constraints imposed by spinning webs that contain a relatively costly type of physically adhesive cribellate silk. Here, we test the prediction that orb and RTA clade spiders are not only more diverse, but also have higher fecundity than other spiders. We show that RTA clade spiders average 23% higher fecundity and orb spiders average 123% higher fecundity than their ancestors. This supports a functional link between the adaptive escape from cribellate silk and increased resource allocation to reproduction in spiders. PMID:20195450

  11. Tuning the instrument: sonic properties in the spider's web.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, B; Soler, A; Siviour, C R; Zaera, R; Vollrath, F

    2016-09-01

    Spider orb webs are multifunctional, acting to absorb prey impact energy and transmit vibratory information to the spider. This paper explores the links between silk material properties, propagation of vibrations within webs and the ability of the spider to control and balance web function. Combining experimental and modelling approaches, we contrast transverse and longitudinal wave propagation in the web. It emerged that both transverse and longitudinal wave amplitude in the web can be adjusted through changes in web tension and dragline silk stiffness, i.e. properties that can be controlled by the spider. In particular, we propose that dragline silk supercontraction may have evolved as a control mechanism for these multifunctional fibres. The various degrees of active influence on web engineering reveals the extraordinary ability of spiders to shape the physical properties of their self-made materials and architectures to affect biological functionality, balancing trade-offs between structural and sensory functions. PMID:27605164

  12. Physical characterization of the liquid adhesive from orb-weaving spiders.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fernando G; Troncoso, Omar P; Cavalie, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Orb-weaving spiders produce bioadhesives that are used to capture their prey. In this paper, the physical properties of these adhesives are characterised. The liquid adhesive from Argiope argentata spiders has been studied and the morphological properties of the droplets, including size, shape and volume were determined. An estimation of viscosity and Young's modulus using atomic force microscopy has also been carried out. Morphological characterization confirmed that the liquid adhesive displayed a typical beads-on-a-string (BOAS) morphology on the silk fibres. The experimental data confirmed that the elastic modulus of the liquid adhesive from A. argentata was in the range 20-100kPa which is in agreement with the Dahlquist criterion for adhesives. PMID:24268267

  13. Spiders that decorate their webs at higher frequency intercept more prey and grow faster

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daiqin

    2005-01-01

    Many orb-weaving spiders decorate their webs with extra, bright white, ultraviolet light reflecting silk. Previous studies suggest that these decorations increase a spider's foraging efficiency by improving web attractiveness, which is known as the prey-attraction hypothesis. One assumption of this hypothesis is that individuals which decorate their webs at a higher frequency are expected to have a higher growth rate. Using a decoration-building orb-weaving spider, Argiope versicolor, I show a strong positive relationship between the growth rate in terms of weight gain and the frequency of decoration-building, as well as the rate of insect interception. This is the first study to reveal a fitness consequence of decorating behaviour in spiders. PMID:16096085

  14. Overexpression of a homopeptide repeat-containing bHLH protein gene (OrbHLH001) from Dongxiang Wild Rice confers freezing and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Guo, Siyi; Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Dazhou; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yunyuan

    2010-09-01

    Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon) is the northernmost wild rice in the world known to date and has extremely high cold tolerance and many other adversity-resistant properties. To identify the genes responsible for the high stress tolerance, we isolated and characterized a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein gene OrbHLH001 from Dongxiang Wild Rice. The gene encodes an ICE1-like protein containing multiple homopeptide repeats. Expression of OrbHLH001 is induced by salt stress and is predominant in the shoots of wild rice seedlings. Overexpression of OrbHLH001 enhanced the tolerance to freezing and salt stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis. Examination of the expression of cold-responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that the function of OrbHLH001 differs from that of ICE1 and is independent of a CBF/DREB1 cold-response pathway. PMID:20559833

  15. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor from wild rice (OrbHLH2) improves tolerance to salt- and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Li, Fei; Wang, Jin-Lan; Ma, Yun; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yun-yuan

    2009-08-15

    Salt stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Some plants reduce the damage of high-salt stress by expressing a series of salt-responsive genes. Studies of the molecular mechanism of the salt-stress response have focused on the characterization of components involved in signal perception and transduction. In the present work, we cloned and characterized a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) encoding gene, OrbHLH2, from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), which encodes a homologue protein of ICE1 in Arabidopsis. OrbHLH2 protein localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of OrbHLH2 in Arabidopsis conferred increased tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, and the stress-responsive genes DREB1A/CBF3, RD29A, COR15A and KIN1 were upregulated in transgenic plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a similar effect on the seed germination or transcriptional expression of stress-responsive genes in both wild type and OrbHLH2-overexpressed plants, which implies that OrbHLH2 does not depend on ABA in responding to salt stress. OrbHLH2 may function as a transcription factor and positively regulate salt-stress signals independent of ABA in Arabidopsis, which provides some useful data for improving salt tolerance in crops. PMID:19324458

  16. Removal of Wax and Stickies from OCC by Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    M. R. Doshi; J. Dyer

    2000-01-31

    Laboratory research indicates that wax is amenable to removal by froth flotation provided it is free or detached from the fiber. The only effective means, at this time, of maximizing detachment of wax is through the use of low consistency pulping at temperatures above the melting point of wax. Wax removal from WCC through washing, flotation, or a combination of both was approximately 90% in these laboratory studies, indicating that not all of the wax is detached from fibers. These results were summarized in Annual Report 1, December 1, 1997 to November 30, 1998. Pilot trials were conducted in which the authors simulated a conventional OCC repulping process with and without flotation. Additional aggressive washing and water clarification were also examined during the study. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots and extractable material from the furnish. Based on this study, the authors predict that a compact flotation system with 2 lb surfactant/ton of fiber would improve the OCC pulp quality with regard to wax spots by 60% and would not negatively affect strength properties. Flotation losses would be in the 2-5% range. Two mill trials were conducted during the last quarter of the project. One trial was carried out at Green Bay Packaging, Green Bay, WI, and a second trial was conducted at Menasha Corporation, Otsego, MI. A 250-liter Voith Sulzer Ecocell was used to evaluate the removal of wax and stickies from the OCC processing systems at these two mills. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots from the furnish. The data indicate that flotation was more effective in removing wax and stickies than reverse cleaners. The mill trials have demonstrated that flotation can be substituted for or replace existing reverse cleaning systems and, in some cases, can replace dispersion systems. In this manner, the use of flotation can

  17. A sticky situation: the unexpected stability of malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Cohen, Justin M.; Chiyaka, Christinah; Johnston, Geoffrey; Gething, Peter W.; Gosling, Roly; Buckee, Caroline O.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Hay, Simon I.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria eradication involves eliminating malaria from every country where transmission occurs. Current theory suggests that the post-elimination challenges of remaining malaria-free by stopping transmission from imported malaria will have onerous operational and financial requirements. Although resurgent malaria has occurred in a majority of countries that tried but failed to eliminate malaria, a review of resurgence in countries that successfully eliminated finds only four such failures out of 50 successful programmes. Data documenting malaria importation and onwards transmission in these countries suggests malaria transmission potential has declined by more than 50-fold (i.e. more than 98%) since before elimination. These outcomes suggest that elimination is a surprisingly stable state. Elimination's ‘stickiness’ must be explained either by eliminating countries starting off qualitatively different from non-eliminating countries or becoming different once elimination was achieved. Countries that successfully eliminated were wealthier and had lower baseline endemicity than those that were unsuccessful, but our analysis shows that those same variables were at best incomplete predictors of the patterns of resurgence. Stability is reinforced by the loss of immunity to disease and by the health system's increasing capacity to control malaria transmission after elimination through routine treatment of cases with antimalarial drugs supplemented by malaria outbreak control. Human travel patterns reinforce these patterns; as malaria recedes, fewer people carry malaria from remote endemic areas to remote areas where transmission potential remains high. Establishment of an international resource with backup capacity to control large outbreaks can make elimination stickier, increase the incentives for countries to eliminate, and ensure steady progress towards global eradication. Although available evidence supports malaria elimination's stickiness at moderate

  18. The Arabic original of (ps.) Māshā'allāh's Liber de orbe: its date and authorship.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Taro

    2015-06-01

    Liber de orbe, attributed to Māshā'allāh (d. c.815), a court astrologer of the Abbasid dynasty, was one of the earliest Latin sources of Aristotelian physics. Until recently, its Arabic original could not be identified among Arabic works. Through extensive examination of Arabic manuscripts on exact sciences, I found two manuscripts containing the Arabic text of this Latin work, although neither of them is ascribed to Māshā'allāh: Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Ms. or. oct. 273, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania University Library, MS LJS 439. In this paper, I describe these two manuscripts in great detail, so that I confirm their originality of the Liber de orbe, and then by analysing the contents of the Arabic text, I deny the attribution to Māshā'allāh, and identify the title and author as Book on the Configuration of the Orb by Dūnash ibn Tamīm, a disciple of Isaac Israeli (c.855-c.955). PMID:25921684

  19. ORBS, ORCS, OACS, a Software Suite for Data Reduction and Analysis of the Hyperspectral Imagers SITELLE and SpIOMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T.; Drissen, L.; Joncas, G.

    2015-09-01

    SITELLE (installed in 2015 at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) and SpIOMM (a prototype attached to the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic) are the first Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers (IFTS) capable of obtaining a hyperspectral data cube which samples a 12 arc minutes field of view into four millions of visible spectra. The result of each observation is made up of two interferometric data cubes which need to be merged, corrected, transformed and calibrated in order to get a spectral cube of the observed region ready to be analysed. ORBS is a fully automatic data reduction software that has been entirely designed for this purpose. The data size (up to 68 Gb for larger science cases) and the computational needs have been challenging and the highly parallelized object-oriented architecture of ORBS reflects the solutions adopted which made possible to process 68 Gb of raw data in less than 11 hours using 8 cores and 22.6 Gb of RAM. It is based on a core framework (ORB) that has been designed to support the whole software suite for data analysis (ORCS and OACS), data simulation (ORUS) and data acquisition (IRIS). They all aim to provide a strong basis for the creation and development of specialized analysis modules that could benefit the scientific community working with SITELLE and SpIOMM.

  20. A Simple ``Sticky Disc'' Model for Crystalline and Amorphous Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Adrian; Chubynsky, Nikita; Naumis, Gerardo; Thorpe, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the structural and thermodynamic behavior of a simple one component network forming model made up of ``sticky discs.'' Central and bond bending forces was included, modeling such interactions as a simple square well radial and angular three body term in the potential respectively. The main feature of this model is the ability to form crystalline and amorphous networks upon cooling, similar to that obtained using the so called WWW methodology to describe the network of some vitreous structures [1]. With the ``pebble game'' algorithm [2], we evaluate the number of degrees of freedom and the amount of stress in both the amorphous and crystalline structures. We discuss the connection between the configurational entropy (associated with the topology) and the degrees of freedom. Other effects such as elasticity of these structures are also discussed. 1. Wooten, F., Winer, K. and Weaire, D., Phys. Rev. Lett., 54 1392- 1395 (1985). 2. Jacobs, D.J. and Thorpe, M.F., Phys. Rev. Lett., 75 4051- 4054 (1995).

  1. Facebook Influence among Incoming College Freshmen: Sticky Cues and Alcohol.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Zhang, Chong; Eickhoff, Jens; Moreno, Megan

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol displays on Facebook are ever-present and can be socially desirable for college students. As problematic drinking is a concern for college students, this research sought to understand how different types of information on a Facebook page influence likelihood to drink. Telephone interviews were conducted with 338 incoming college freshmen from two large national universities. Data were obtained from a vignette prompt which presented a scenario in which a senior college student's Facebook profile displayed wall-posts, pictures, and status updates that were drinking-related or pro-social in nature. Participants were asked to report intention to drink alcohol with that student if together at a party. Findings supported the hypotheses: wall-posts were most influential (the stickiest), followed by pictures, followed by status updates. Findings provide additional empirical support for established online impression formation patterns, and additionally provide evidence that virtual cues are being ingrained as schema in interpersonal communication. These results are discussed in relation to the conception of "sticky cues" in impression formation. PMID:25328264

  2. The Stickiness of Micrometer-sized Water-ice Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of μm-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ~210 K), μm-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s-1, which is approximately 10 times higher than the sticking threshold of μm-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s-1. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  3. Facebook Influence among Incoming College Freshmen: Sticky Cues and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Jonathan; Zhang, Chong; Eickhoff, Jens; Moreno, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol displays on Facebook are ever-present and can be socially desirable for college students. As problematic drinking is a concern for college students, this research sought to understand how different types of information on a Facebook page influence likelihood to drink. Telephone interviews were conducted with 338 incoming college freshmen from two large national universities. Data were obtained from a vignette prompt which presented a scenario in which a senior college student’s Facebook profile displayed wall-posts, pictures, and status updates that were drinking-related or pro-social in nature. Participants were asked to report intention to drink alcohol with that student if together at a party. Findings supported the hypotheses: wall-posts were most influential (the stickiest), followed by pictures, followed by status updates. Findings provide additional empirical support for established online impression formation patterns, and additionally provide evidence that virtual cues are being ingrained as schema in interpersonal communication. These results are discussed in relation to the conception of “sticky cues” in impression formation. PMID:25328264

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of orb-weaving spider Araneus ventricosus (Araneae: Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of an orb-weaving spider Araneus ventricosus was determined. It is a circular molecule of 14,617 bp in length and contains a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of majority strand (J-strand) is 73.4% (T: 38.5%; C: 10.1%; A: 34.9%; G: 16.5%). Among protein-coding genes, one gene (COI) begins with TTA, two (ATP6 and ND4) start with ATA, three (COII, COIII and ND6) begin with ATT and other seven genes use ATT as initiation codon. COIII and ND3 end with an incomplete stop codon (T), and ND1, ND2 and Cytb are terminated with TAG, while all other genes end with TAA as stop codon. Two regions including tandem repeats were found in the control region (D-loop): a 106 bp sequence tandemly repeated twice and a 195 bp sequence tandemly repeated twice with a partial third (120 bp). PMID:25329288

  5. Potential of yellow sticky traps for lady beetle survey in cotton.

    PubMed

    Parajulee, M N; Slosser, J E

    2003-02-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to investigate the potential of using yellow sticky traps to survey lady beetles in cotton and to quantify seasonal activity patterns. The performance of sticky traps was compared with that of a 2-cycle vacuum sampler. The most common lady beetle species captured by sticky traps and vacuum sampler in cotton were Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville and Scymnus loewii Mulsant. Sticky traps captured significantly more of both species of lady beetles, had greater capture efficiency, and more effectively detected lady beetles compared with the vacuum sampler. These data indicate that the sticky trap can be a valuable tool in monitoring lady beetle populations in cotton. In the second part of this study, a year-round survey of lady beetle populations in the periphery of a cotton farm using sticky traps showed that lady beetles remained active throughout the year in the Texas Rolling Plains, but the activity was influenced by winter severity. Over a 2-yr period, H. convergens, S. loewii, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) comprised 89.6, 8.2, 1.9, and 0.3% of the specimens, respectively. Sticky trap captures were affected by year, trap height, and cropping season. Traps placed at 0.75 m above ground captured significantly more (80%) lady beetles than traps placed at 1.50 m (20%) above ground; traps at 0.75 m above ground also detected the rarer species while the traps at 1.50 m above ground detected only the abundant species. Trap captures were higher during the noncotton season (November to April) compared with the cotton season (May to October). A significant positive correlation between cotton aphid abundance during the growing season and H. convergens abundance during the following noncotton season was also detected, indicating a significant movement of H. convergens from cotton to the periphery of the farm to seek refuge after cotton termination. PMID:12650368

  6. THE STICKINESS OF MICROMETER-SIZED WATER-ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of μm-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ∼210 K), μm-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s{sup –1}, which is approximately 10 times higher than the sticking threshold of μm-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s{sup –1}. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  7. Sticky Particles: Modeling Rigid Aggregates in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrine, Randall P.; Richardson, D. C.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2008-09-01

    We present progress on our study of planetary ring dynamics. We use local N-body simulations to examine small patches of dense rings in which self-gravity and mutual collisions dominate the dynamics of the ring material. We use the numerical code pkdgrav to model the motions of 105-7 ring particles, using a sliding patch model with modified periodic boundary conditions. The exact nature of planetary ring particles is not well understood. If covered in a frost-like layer, such irregular surfaces may allow for weak cohesion between colliding particles. Thus we have recently added new functionality to our model, allowing "sticky particles” to lock into rigid aggregates while in a rotating reference frame. This capability allows particles to adhere to one another, forming irregularly shaped aggregates that move as rigid bodies. (The bonds between particles can subsequently break, given sufficient stress.) These aggregates have greater strength than gravitationally bound "rubble piles,” and are thus able to grow larger and survive longer under similar stresses. This new functionality allows us to explore planetary ring properties and dynamics in a new way, by self-consistently forming (and destroying) non-spherical aggregates and moonlets via cohesive forces, while in a rotating frame, subjected to planetary tides. (We are not aware of any similar implementations in other existing models.) These improvements allow us to study the many effects that particle aggregation may have on the rings, such as overall ring structure; wake formation; equilibrium properties of non-spherical particles, like pitch angle, orientation, shape, size distribution, and spin; and the surface properties of the ring material. We present test cases and the latest results from this new model. This work is supported by a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  8. Formaldehyde-induced acentric chromosome fragments and chromosome stickiness in Chortophaga neuroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, M.A.; Gaulden, M.E.; Proctor, B.L.; Seibert, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    Embryos of the grasshopper Chortophaga viridifasciata were exposed in vitro to formaldehyde (FA), as formalin, at concentrations ranging from 10/sup -8/ M (0.0003 ppm) to 10/sup -3/ M (30 ppm) at 38/sup 0/C. A low frequency of distinct acentric chromosome fragments was observed in the neuroblasts after 1 hr exposure to 7.5 x 10/sup -4/ or 10/sup -3/ M FA plus 3 hr recovery, but not at lower concentrations, even with 4 hr exposure. Neuroblasts with sticky chromosomes were observed at 10/sup -4/, 7.5 x 10/sup -4/, and 10/sup -3/ M FA, the percent of cells with slight, moderate, or severe stickiness varying with FA concentrations. Fragments were associated with the sticky chromosomes. It is concluded that the distinct acentric fragments induced by FA result from breakage at a single sticky point (slight stickiness) between separating sister chromatids. The chromosome effects observed probably result from the action of daughter products that are formed by the interaction of FA with culture medium components, especially the fetal calf serum.

  9. Short unligated sticky ends enable the observation of circularised DNA by atomic force and electron microscopies.

    PubMed

    Révet, B; Fourcade, A

    1998-05-01

    A comparative study of the stabilisation of DNA sticky ends by divalent cations was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. At room temperature, molecules bearing such extremities are immediately oligomerised or circularised by addition of Mg2+or Ca2+. This phenomenon, more clearly detected by AFM, requires the presence of uranyl salt, which stabilises the structures induced by Mg2+or Ca2+. DNA fragments were obtained by restriction enzymes producing sticky ends of 2 or 4 nucleotides (nt) in length with different guanine plus cytosine (GC) contents. The stability of the pairing is high when ends of 4 nt display a 100% GC-content. In that case, 95% of DNA fragments are maintained circular by the divalent cations, although 2 nt GC-sticky ends are sufficient for a stable pairing. DNA fragments with one blunt end and the other sticky appear as dimers in the presence of Mg2+. Dimerisation was analysed by varying the lengths and concentrations of DNA fragments, the base composition of the sticky ends, and also the temperature. Our observation provides a new powerful tool for construction of inverted dimers, and circularisation, ligation analysis or short bases sequence interaction studies. PMID:9547265

  10. Mirid (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) specialists of sticky plants: adaptations, interactions, and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Alfred G; Krimmel, Billy A

    2015-01-01

    Sticky plants-those having glandular trichomes (hairs) that produce adhesive, viscous exudates-can impede the movement of, and entrap, generalist insects. Disparate arthropod groups have adapted to these widespread and taxonomically diverse plants, yet their interactions with glandular hosts rarely are incorporated into broad ecological theory. Ecologists and entomologists might be unaware of even well-documented examples of insects that are sticky-plant specialists. The hemipteran family Miridae (more specifically, the omnivorous Dicyphini: Dicyphina) is the best-known group of arthropods that specializes on sticky plants. In the first synthesis of relationships with glandular plants for any insect family, we review mirid interactions with sticky hosts, including their adaptations (behavioral, morphological, and physiological) and mutualisms with carnivorous plants, and the ecological and agricultural implications of mirid-sticky plant systems. We propose that mirid research applies generally to tritrophic interactions on trichome-defended plants, enhances an understanding of insect-plant interactions, and provides information useful in managing crop pests. PMID:25564742

  11. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis. PMID:27474797

  12. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14216.001 PMID:27474797

  13. A New Stratified Sampling Procedure which Decreases Error Estimation of Varroa Mite Number on Sticky Boards.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, A; Durand, E; Maisonnasse, A; Vallon, J; Le Conte, Y

    2015-06-01

    A new procedure of stratified sampling is proposed in order to establish an accurate estimation of Varroa destructor populations on sticky bottom boards of the hive. It is based on the spatial sampling theory that recommends using regular grid stratification in the case of spatially structured process. The distribution of varroa mites on sticky board being observed as spatially structured, we designed a sampling scheme based on a regular grid with circles centered on each grid element. This new procedure is then compared with a former method using partially random sampling. Relative error improvements are exposed on the basis of a large sample of simulated sticky boards (n=20,000) which provides a complete range of spatial structures, from a random structure to a highly frame driven structure. The improvement of varroa mite number estimation is then measured by the percentage of counts with an error greater than a given level. PMID:26470273

  14. Roles of water and solids composition in the control of glass transition and stickiness of milk powders.

    PubMed

    Silalai, Nattiga; Roos, Yrjö H

    2010-06-01

    Plasticization and glass transition of amorphous components in food powders often result in stickiness and caking. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of milk powders was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a viscometer method was used to determine sticky-point temperatures. Water sorption isotherms were established for varying solids compositions. Lactose contents were analyzed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and proteins were identified using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Solids composition and water affected both the T(g) and stickiness behavior. Stickiness was governed by carbohydrates and water plasticization. At low protein contents, precrystallization of lactose decreased the sticky point temperature, but increasing protein content in all milk powders decreased stickiness at all water activities. The results showed that glass transition can be used to describe time-dependent stickiness and crystallization phenomena, and it can be used as a parameter to control and reduce stickiness of dairy solids with various compositions. PMID:20629875

  15. Comparisons of minicard ratings to ion chromatography sugar profiles in cotton fiber water extract and minicard sticky spot material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific levels and ratios of the carbohydrates melezitose and trehalulose deposited on the surface of cotton fibers are indicators of whitefly or aphid contamination. These deposits could cause stickiness problems during cotton ginning and textile processing. The concept of cotton stickiness is hi...

  16. Web Formation - Skylab Student Experiment ED-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Judith S. Miles of Lexington High School, Lexington, Massachusetts, proposed skylab student experiment ED-52, Web Formation. This experiment was a study of a spider's behavior in a weightless environment. The geometrical structure of the web of the orb-weaving spider provides a good measure of the condition of its central nervous system. Since the spider senses its own weight to determine the required thickness of web material and uses both the wind and gravity to initiate construction of its web, the lack of gravitational force in Skylab provided a new and different stimulus to the spider's behavioral response. Two common cross spiders, Arabella and Anita, were used for the experiment aboard the Skylab-3 mission. After initial disoriented attempts, both spiders produced almost Earth-like webs once they had adapted to weightlessness. This photograph is of Arabella, a cross spider, in her initial attempt at spirning a web. This picture was taken by the crew of the Skylab 3 mission before Arabella adapted to her new environment.

  17. Electrical resistivity tomography to characterize a karstic Vauclusian spring: Fontaine d'Orbe (Pyrénées, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirieix, C.; Riss, J.; Rey, F.; Prétou, F.; Lastennet, R.

    2014-06-01

    The study site lies on a karst system in the Pyrénées (France) that crosses the Urgonian limestones. Organic matter was dumped on the west bank of the River Vert d'Arette, which polluted a spring (the Fontaine d'Orbe) situated on the east bank. Electrical resistivity tomography was utilised in order to understand the geometry of this karst outlet. After tests with the pole-pole array, the ideal electrode spacing was found to be less than 3 m. A conduit, a little less than 10 m wide, was discovered, which proved to be the terminal conduit of the karst system. It was established that the conduit traverses both banks of the River Vert d'Arette, thus presenting a hydraulic link between the two sides. Moreover, this conduit, which is totally submerged, passes under the riverbed and goes upwards to the spring. In addition to the geophysical measurements, hydrogeological measurements and observations were made. Based on the characterisation of the geometry of the karst network's terminal conduit, and the fact that is completely full of water and inclined, it is concluded that the Fontaine d'Orbe spring is of the Vauclusian variety.

  18. Science 101: Why Don't Spiders Stick to Their Own Webs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article explains why spiders don't stick to their webs. Spiders don't get stuck in their own webs (and they aren't immune to their own glue) because they use a combination of sticky and nonsticky threads (different glands for producing those), and the glue is in droplets that the spider can avoid but the prey can't. The spider's nervous…

  19. Sticky trap and stem-tap sampling protocols for the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling statistics were obtained to develop a sampling protocol for estimating numbers of adult Diaphorina citri in citrus using two different sampling methods: yellow sticky traps and stem–tap samples. A 4.0 ha block of mature orange trees was stratified into ten 0.4 ha strata and sampled using...

  20. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  1. A comparison of sticky traps for monitoring Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six types of sticky card traps differing in color and trapping adhesive were evaluated for monitoring Asian citrus psyllid in citrus in the United States (Florida and Texas). Spectral reflectance measurements were taken to categorize the color (wavelength) spectrum of each trap. Three of the traps (...

  2. A Sticky Stick? The Locus of Morphological Representation in the Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus; Nguyen-Hoan, Minh

    2010-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the meaning given to an ambiguous word (e.g., "stick") can be biased by the masked presentation of a polymorphemic word derived from that meaning (e.g., "sticky"). No bias in interpretation is observed when the masked prime is a word that is semantically related to the target with no morphological relationship (e.g.,…

  3. Web Formation - Skylab Student Experiment ED-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment Web Formation. Judith S. Miles of Lexington High School, Lexington, Massachusetts, proposed a study of the spider's behavior in a weightless environment. The geometrical structure of the web of the orb-weaving spider provides a good measure of the condition of its central nervous system. Since the spider senses its own weight to determine the required thickness of web material and uses both the wind and gravity to initiate construction of its web, the lack of gravitational force in Skylab provided a new and different stimulus to the spider's behavioral response. Two common cross spiders, Arabella and Anita, were used for the experiment aboard the Skylab-3 mission. After initial disoriented attempts, both spiders produced almost Earth-like webs once they had adapted to weightlessness. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  4. Composition and Function of Spider Glues Maintained During the Evolution of Cobwebs.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dharamdeep; Zhang, Ci; Cool, Lydia Rose; Blackledge, Todd A; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-10-12

    Capture silks are an interesting class of biological glues that help spiders subdue their prey. Viscid capture silk produced by the orb web spiders is a combination of hygroscopic salts that aid in water uptake and interact with adhesive glycoproteins to make them soft and sticky. The orb was a stepping stone to the evolution of new web types, but little is known about the adhesives in these webs. For instance, cobweb spiders evolved from orb-weaving ancestors and utilize glue in specialized sticky gumfoot threads rather than an elastic spiral. Early investigation suggests that gumfoot adhesives are quite different viscid glues because they lack a visible glycoprotein core, act as viscoelastic fluids rather than solids, and are largely invariant to humidity. Here, we use spectroscopic and staining methods to show that the gumfoot silk produced by Latrodectus hesperus (western black widow) is composed of hygroscopic organic salts and water insoluble glycoproteins, similar to viscid silk, in addition to a low concentration of spider coating peptides reported before. Our adhesion studies reveal that the organic salts play an important role in adhesion, similar to that seen in orb web spiders, but modulating function at much lower humidity. Our work shows more similarities in the viscid silk produced by orb web and cobweb spiders than previously anticipated and provide guidelines for developing synthetic adhesives that can work in dry to humid environments. PMID:26322742

  5. The orb-weaving spider genus Chrysometa in Uruguay: distribution and description of a new species (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    PubMed

    Simó, Miguel; Álvarez, Luis; Laborda, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Chrysometa Simon, 1895 comprises 138 species of small (3-5 mm) Neotropical orb-weavers spiders (Nogueira et al. 2011; World Spider Catalogue 2015) mainly associated with arboreal vegetation from intermediate to low altitude forests (Levi 1986). Males of Chrysometa differ from other tetragnathids by having the palpal tibial length approximately as long as its widest point; paracymbium articulated and with several apophyses located at both ends; male cephalic region narrower than in the female and having cymbial ectobasal and ectomedian processes. Females are diagnosed by having femora without trichobothria; abdomen covered with silver guanine patches; a flat epigynum and also by their fertilization ducts originating anteriorly and crossing over the spermathecae (Levi 1986; Alvarez-Padilla & Hormiga 2011). PMID:27395900

  6. Spider web and silk performance landscapes across nutrient space

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Tseng, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Chung-Lin; Toft, Søren; Raubenheimer, David; Tso, I.-Min

    2016-01-01

    Predators have been shown to alter their foraging as a regulatory response to recent feeding history, but it remains unknown whether trap building predators modulate their traps similarly as a regulatory strategy. Here we fed the orb web spider Nephila pilipes either live crickets, dead crickets with webs stimulated by flies, or dead crickets without web stimulation, over 21 days to enforce spiders to differentially extract nutrients from a single prey source. In addition to the nutrients extracted we measured web architectures, silk tensile properties, silk amino acid compositions, and web tension after each feeding round. We then plotted web and silk “performance landscapes” across nutrient space. The landscapes had multiple peaks and troughs for each web and silk performance parameter. The findings suggest that N. pilipes plastically adjusts the chemical and physical properties of their web and silk in accordance with its nutritional history. Our study expands the application of the geometric framework foraging model to include a type of predatory trap. Whether it can be applied to other predatory traps requires further testing. PMID:27216252

  7. Spider web and silk performance landscapes across nutrient space.

    PubMed

    Blamires, Sean J; Tseng, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Chung-Lin; Toft, Søren; Raubenheimer, David; Tso, I-Min

    2016-01-01

    Predators have been shown to alter their foraging as a regulatory response to recent feeding history, but it remains unknown whether trap building predators modulate their traps similarly as a regulatory strategy. Here we fed the orb web spider Nephila pilipes either live crickets, dead crickets with webs stimulated by flies, or dead crickets without web stimulation, over 21 days to enforce spiders to differentially extract nutrients from a single prey source. In addition to the nutrients extracted we measured web architectures, silk tensile properties, silk amino acid compositions, and web tension after each feeding round. We then plotted web and silk "performance landscapes" across nutrient space. The landscapes had multiple peaks and troughs for each web and silk performance parameter. The findings suggest that N. pilipes plastically adjusts the chemical and physical properties of their web and silk in accordance with its nutritional history. Our study expands the application of the geometric framework foraging model to include a type of predatory trap. Whether it can be applied to other predatory traps requires further testing. PMID:27216252

  8. The removal of stickies with modified starch and chitosan--highly cationic and hydrophobic types compared with unmodified ones.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Gudrun; Petzold-Welcke, Katrin; Qi, Haisong; Stengel, Knut; Schwarz, Simona; Heinze, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The removal of dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS) in paper cycling water, so called stickies, with tailored natural polymers, having cationic as well as hydrophobic groups, was investigated using model suspensions made by the recycling of paper. The sticky content, characterized by the turbidity, the anionic charge, and the total organic carbon content (TOC) was increased by the addition of latex. The dynamic surface tension was established as useful tool for the characterization of the sticky content. The sticky removal using the starch derivatives (with benzyl- as well as ethyl-substituents), from very low up to high cationic charge and N-(benzyl)chitosan was compared. Depending on the properties of the derivatives two possible mechanisms can be found: "charge dominated removal" or "removal dominated by hydrophobicity." It seems that turbidity and TOC are lowered especially due to charge interaction whereas the increase of the surface tension is mainly caused by the hydrophobic character of the modified natural polymers. PMID:22944437

  9. Equation of state of sticky-hard-sphere fluids in the chemical-potential route.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, René D; Santos, Andrés

    2014-04-01

    The coupling-parameter method, whereby an extra particle is progressively coupled to the rest of the particles, is applied to the sticky-hard-sphere fluid to obtain its equation of state in the so-called chemical-potential route (μ route). As a consistency test, the results for one-dimensional sticky particles are shown to be exact. Results corresponding to the three-dimensional case (Baxter's model) are derived within the Percus-Yevick approximation by using different prescriptions for the dependence of the interaction potential of the extra particle on the coupling parameter. The critical point and the coexistence curve of the gas-liquid phase transition are obtained in the μ route and compared with predictions from other thermodynamics routes and from computer simulations. The results show that the μ route yields a general better description than the virial, energy, compressibility, and zero-separation routes. PMID:24827207

  10. The role of perceived interactivity in virtual communities: building trust and increasing stickiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongwei; Meng, Yuan; Wang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Although previous research has explored factors affecting trust building in websites, little research has been analysed from the perceived interactivity perspective in virtual communities (VCs). A research model for verifying interactivity antecedents to trust and its impact on member stickiness behaviour is presented. Two social interactivity components and two system interactivity components are, respectively, theorised as process-based antecedents and institution-based antecedents to trust in the model. Data were collected from 310 members of VCs to test the model. The results show that connectedness and reciprocity are important antecedents to trust in members, while responsiveness and active control are important antecedents to trust in systems. The results also indicate that trust has significant influence on the members' duration and retention, which are two dimensions of member stickiness measured in this research. These findings have theoretical implications for online interaction-related literature and critical business implications for practitioners of VCs.

  11. The drag of the tails: Diffusion of sticky nanoparticles in dilute polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldová, Jitka; Uhlík, Filip; Košovan, Peter

    2015-12-01

    We devise a simple coarse-grained model of a nanoparticle exhibiting attractive interactions with a polymer in good solvent and use Monte Carlo simulations to study how adsorption of the polymer affects the hydrodynamic properties of the nanoparticle. We show that the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer-decorated nanoparticle increases with increasing polymer chain length or concentration. The slowdown of diffusion of the sticky nanoparticles is predicted to occur at polymer concentrations many orders of magnitude below the overlap concentration, in contrast with the case of non-sticky nanoparticles. To rationalize our findings, we employ the concept of trains, loops, and tails, which has been used in earlier theoretical studies of polymer adsorption at interfaces. We show that dominant contribution to the increase of the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer-decorated nanoparticles comes from the tails, which stretch far from the surface. On the contrary, the much more numerous but shorter loops and tails play only a minor role.

  12. Sticky Patches on Lipid Nanoparticles Enable the Selective Targeting and Killing of Untargetable Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sempkowski, Michelle; Zhu, Charles; Menzenski, Monica Zofia; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sofou, Stavroula

    2016-08-23

    Effective targeting by uniformly functionalized nanoparticles is limited to cancer cells expressing at least two copies of targeted receptors per nanoparticle footprint (approximately ≥2 × 10(5) receptor copies per cell); such a receptor density supports the required multivalent interaction between the neighboring receptors and the ligands from a single nanoparticle. To enable selective targeting below this receptor density, ligands on the surface of lipid vesicles were displayed in clusters that were designed to form at the acidic pH of the tumor interstitium. Vesicles with clustered HER2-targeting peptides within such sticky patches (sticky vesicles) were compared to uniformly functionalized vesicles. On HER2-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 {expressing (8.3 ± 0.8) × 10(4) and (5.4 ± 0.9) × 10(4) HER2 copies per cell, respectively}, only the sticky vesicles exhibited detectable specific targeting (KD ≈ 49-69 nM); dissociation (0.005-0.009 min(-1)) and endocytosis rates (0.024-0.026 min(-1)) were independent of HER2 expression for these cells. MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 were killed only by sticky vesicles encapsulating doxorubicin (32-40% viability) or α-particle emitter (225)Ac (39-58% viability) and were not affected by uniformly functionalized vesicles (>80% viability). Toxicities on cardiomyocytes and normal breast cells (expressing HER2 at considerably lower but not insignificant levels) were not observed, suggesting the potential of tunable clustered ligand display for the selective killing of cancer cells with low receptor densities. PMID:27468779

  13. Single-Molecule Imaging of DNAs with Sticky Ends at Water/Fused Silica Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Slavica Isailovic

    2005-12-17

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) was used to study intermolecular interactions of DNAs with unpaired (sticky) ends of different lengths at water/fused silica interface at the single-molecule level. Evanescent field residence time, linear velocity and adsorption/desorption frequency were measured in a microchannel for individual DNA molecules from T7, Lambda, and PSP3 phages at various pH values. The longest residence times and the highest adsorption/desorption frequencies at the constant flow at pH 5.5 were found for PSP3 DNA, followed by lower values for Lambda DNA, and the lowest values for T7 DNA. Since T7, Lambda, and PSP3 DNA molecules contain none, twelve and nineteen unpaired bases, respectively, it was concluded that the affinity of DNAs for the surface increases with the length of the sticky ends. This confirms that hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions between sticky ends and fused-silica surface are driving forces for DNA adsorption at the fused-silica surface. Described single-molecule methodology and results therein can be valuable for investigation of interactions in liquid chromatography, as well as for design of DNA hybridization sensors and drug delivery systems.

  14. Self-Reported Stickiness of Mind-Wandering Affects Task Performance.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Marieke K; Broers, Nico

    2016-01-01

    When asked to perform a certain task, we typically spend a decent amount of time thinking thoughts unrelated to that task-a phenomenon referred to as "mind-wandering." It is thought that this mind-wandering is driven at least in part by our unfinished goals and concerns. Previous studies have shown that just after presenting a participant with their own concerns, their reports of task-unrelated thinking increased somewhat. However, effects of these concerns on task performance were somewhat inconsistent. In this study we take the opposite approach, and examine whether task performance depends on the self-reported thought content. Specifically, a particularly intriguing aspect of mind-wandering that has hitherto received little attention is the difficulty of disengaging from it, in other words, the "stickiness" of the thoughts. While presenting participants with their own concerns was not associated with clear effects on task performance, we showed that the reports of off-task thinking and variability of response times increased with the amount of self-reported stickiness of thoughts. This suggests that the stickiness of mind-wandering is a relevant variable, and participants are able to meaningfully report on it. PMID:27242636

  15. Improved procedures for in vitro skin irritation testing of sticky and greasy natural botanicals.

    PubMed

    Molinari, J; Eskes, C; Andres, E; Remoué, N; Sá-Rocha, V M; Hurtado, S P; Barrichello, C

    2013-02-01

    Skin irritation evaluation is an important endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients required by various regulatory authorities for notification and/or import of test substances. The present study was undertaken to investigate possible protocol adaptations of the currently validated in vitro skin irritation test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) for the testing of plant extracts and natural botanicals. Due to their specific physico-chemical properties, such as lipophilicity, sticky/buttery-like texture, waxy/creamy foam characteristics, normal washing procedures can lead to an incomplete removal of these materials and/or to mechanical damage to the tissues, resulting in an impaired prediction of the true skin irritation potential of the materials. For this reason different refined washing procedures were evaluated for their ability to ensure appropriate removal of greasy and sticky substances while not altering the normal responses of the validated RhE test method. Amongst the different procedures evaluated, the use of a SDS 0.1% PBS solution to remove the sticky and greasy test material prior to the normal washing procedures was found to be the most suitable adaptation to ensure efficient removal of greasy and sticky in-house controls without affecting the results of the negative control. The predictive capacity of the refined SDS 0.1% washing procedure, was investigated by using twelve oily and viscous compounds having known skin irritation effects supported by raw and/or peer reviewed in vivo data. The normal washing procedure resulted in 8 out of 10 correctly predicted compounds as compared to 9 out of 10 with the refined washing procedures, showing an increase in the predictive ability of the assay. The refined washing procedure allowed to correctly identify all in vivo skin irritant materials showing the same sensitivity as the normal washing procedures, and further increased the specificity of the assay from 5 to 6 correct

  16. Study of sticky rice-lime mortar technology for the restoration of historical masonry construction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuwei; Zhang, Bingjian; Ma, Qinglin

    2010-06-15

    Replacing or repairing masonry mortar is usually necessary in the restoration of historical constructions, but the selection of a proper mortar is often problematic. An inappropriate choice can lead to failure of the restoration work, and perhaps even further damage. Thus, a thorough understanding of the original mortar technology and the fabrication of appropriate replacement materials are important research goals. Many kinds of materials have been used over the years in masonry mortars, and the technology has gradually evolved from the single-component mortar of ancient times to hybrid versions containing several ingredients. Beginning in 2450 BCE, lime was used as masonry mortar in Europe. In the Roman era, ground volcanic ash, brick powder, and ceramic chip were added to lime mortar, greatly improving performance. Because of its superior properties, the use of this hydraulic (that is, capable of setting underwater) mortar spread, and it was adopted throughout Europe and western Asia. Perhaps because of the absence of natural materials such as volcanic ash, hydraulic mortar technology was not developed in ancient China. However, a special inorganic-organic composite building material, sticky rice-lime mortar, was developed. This technology was extensively used in important buildings, such as tombs, in urban constructions, and even in water conservancy facilities. It may be the first widespread inorganic-organic composite mortar technology in China, or even in the world. In this Account, we discuss the origins, analysis, performance, and utility in historic preservation of sticky rice-lime mortar. Mortar samples from ancient constructions were analyzed by both chemical methods (including the iodine starch test and the acid attack experiment) and instrumental methods (including thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy). These analytical results show that the ancient masonry

  17. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. Results An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.53, p < 0.001). Three sticky boards (transparent film, glue coated black fly-screen and yellow film) were evaluated as catching devices under electric nets and the transparent and shiny black surfaces were found highly attractive (OR 41.6, 95% CI 19.8 – 87.3, p < 0.001 and OR 28.8, 95% CI 14.5 – 56.8, p < 0.001, respectively) for gravid mosquitoes to land on compared to a

  18. Localized Translation of gurken/TGF-α mRNA during Axis Specification Is Controlled by Access to Orb/CPEB on Processing Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alexander; Parton, Richard M.; Rabouille, Catherine; Weil, Timothy T.; Davis, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Summary In Drosophila oocytes, gurken/TGF-α mRNA is essential for establishing the future embryonic axes. gurken remains translationally silent during transport from its point of synthesis in nurse cells to its final destination in the oocyte, where it associates with the edge of processing bodies. Here we show that, in nurse cells, gurken is kept translationally silent by the lack of sufficient Orb/CPEB, its translational activator. Processing bodies in nurse cells have a similar protein complement and ultrastructure to those in the oocyte, but they markedly less Orb and do not associate with gurken mRNA. Ectopic expression of Orb in nurse cells at levels similar to the wild-type oocyte dorso-anterior corner at mid-oogenesis is sufficient to cause gurken mRNA to associate with processing bodies and translate prematurely. We propose that controlling the spatial distribution of translational activators is a fundamental mechanism for regulating localized translation. PMID:26947065

  19. SeaStar (OrbView-2), real-time global color images from space: A status report from orbital imaging corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.; Pastrone, M.

    1997-06-01

    Orbital Imaging Corporation (ORBIMAGE), a wholly owned subsidiary of Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital), is the exclusive provider of SeaStar (OrbView-2) data to commercial and operational users. This paper will focus on the remote sensing specifications of the SeaStar satellite and the means of distributing the data to commercial and non-commercial users. The SeaStar satellite will be launched in 1997 by Orbital`s Pegasus XL launch vehicle. SeaStar`s Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) sensor is a 1.1 km multispectral sensor designed to distinguish between subtle color variations on the Earth`s surface. The SeaWiFS sensor uses six visible and two near infrared channels for broad area applications such as fishing operations, harmful algae bloom monitoring, sediment monitoring, and agriculture and forestry management. Originally designed to image only open ocean regions, SeaWiFS` imaging capability has evolved to also image land and coastal zone regions. SeaStar image products will be available in near real-time through ORBIMAGE`s digital archive service, OrbNet{sup sm}. The OrbNet Digital Archive will network SeaStar ground receiving stations worldwide to provide fast reliable local, regional and global image-sets via an Internet-based on-line catalog (http://www.orbimage.com).

  20. Overturned folds in ice sheets: Insights from a kinematic model of traveling sticky patches and comparisons with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, Michael J.; Creyts, Timothy T.

    2016-05-01

    Overturned folds are observed in regions of the Greenland ice sheet where driving stress is highly variable. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain these folds: freezing subglacial water, traveling basal slippery patches, and englacial rheological contrasts. Here we explore how traveling basal sticky patches can produce overturned folds. Transitions from low to high stress cause a tradeoff in ice flow between basal slip and internal deformation that deflects ice stratigraphy vertically. If these transitions move, the slip-deformation tradeoff can produce large folds. Those folds record the integrated effects of time-varying basal slip. To understand how dynamic changes in basal slip influence ice sheet stratigraphy, we develop a kinematic model of ice flow in a moving reference frame that follows a single traveling sticky patch. The ice flow field forms a vortex when viewed in the moving reference frame, and this vortex traps ice above the traveling patch and produces overturned folds. Sticky patches that travel downstream faster produce larger overturned folds. We use the model as an interpretive tool to infer properties of basal slip from three example folds. Our model suggests that the sticky patches underneath these folds propagated downstream at rates between one half and the full ice velocity. The regional flow regime for the smaller two folds requires substantial internal deformation whereas the regime for the largest fold requires substantially more basal slip. The distribution and character of stratigraphic folds reflect the evolution and propagation of individual sticky patches and their effects on ice sheet flow.

  1. The influence of varied gravito-inertial fields on the cardiac response of orb-weaving spiders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finck, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Gz transfer function was described for the orb weaving spider A. sericatus. The functional relationship between the heartrate and the intensity of G is linear in the form of: Y = a Log Gz-1 +k. The heartrate in unrestrained animals was recorded by a laser plethysmograph developed specifically for this purpose. Following a control, sample heartrate were taken postrotation between 1.001 and 1.5 Gz in 6 steps. The underlying distribution of heartrates does not appear significantly different from a Gaussian distribution. A method of varnishing the legs of the spider was developed. This was done in order to compromise the lyriform organs, especially those located on the patellae. The lyriform organ is hypothesized to serve the receptor role in the transduction of gravity related stimuli. In preliminary animals the Gz function, post varnishing of the patellae, appears to be changed in the direction of poorer discrimination. We also observed that the resting heartrate following the varnish procedure is substantially increased.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the orb-weaver spider Cyclosa argenteoalba Boes. et Str. (Araneae: Araneidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of an orb-weaver spider Cyclosa argenteoalba is determined in this article. The genome encodes the same 37 genes with a length of 14,575 bp as all other metazoan mitogenomes. The A + T content of the majority strand is 73.1%. Among the protein-coding genes, one gene (COI) begins with TTA, three (COII, COIII and ND6) start with ATT, three (ATP6, ND3 and ND4) begin with ATA and other six genes use ATT as initiation codon. All the protein-coding genes end with the canonical termination codons (TAA or TAG), except for ND3 and ND4L, which use an incomplete stop codon (T). Thirteen transfer RNAs genes lack the potential to form the cloverleaf-shaped secondary structure. The A + T-rich region is 1052 bp in length with an A + T content of 68.9%. In the phylogenetic analyses, C. argenteoalba was nested within Araneidae and the species from the superfamily Araneoidea form a momophyletic group. PMID:26017043

  3. Urbanisation at Multiple Scales Is Associated with Larger Size and Higher Fecundity of an Orb-Weaving Spider

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Elizabeth C.; Wilder, Shawn M.; Hochuli, Dieter F.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanisation modifies landscapes at multiple scales, impacting the local climate and changing the extent and quality of natural habitats. These habitat modifications significantly alter species distributions and can result in increased abundance of select species which are able to exploit novel ecosystems. We examined the effect of urbanisation at local and landscape scales on the body size, lipid reserves and ovary weight of Nephila plumipes, an orb weaving spider commonly found in both urban and natural landscapes. Habitat variables at landscape, local and microhabitat scales were integrated to create a series of indexes that quantified the degree of urbanisation at each site. Spider size was negatively associated with vegetation cover at a landscape scale, and positively associated with hard surfaces and anthropogenic disturbance on a local and microhabitat scale. Ovary weight increased in higher socioeconomic areas and was positively associated with hard surfaces and leaf litter at a local scale. The larger size and increased reproductive capacity of N.plumipes in urban areas show that some species benefit from the habitat changes associated with urbanisation. Our results also highlight the importance of incorporating environmental variables from multiple scales when quantifying species responses to landscape modification. PMID:25140809

  4. Web Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  5. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. PMID:26453725

  6. Radar Studies of the Trunk and `Sticky Spot' of Kamb Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Pettersson, R.; Osterhouse, D.; Tulaczyk, S.; Howat, I.

    2005-12-01

    During the 2004-05 Antarctic field season we acquired approximately 275 km of ground-based ice-penetrating radar data on the trunk of Kamb Ice Stream (KIS) as a part of a two-year program of radar and GPS studies examining the possibility of ice stream reactivation. Many of the profiles explore a region of near-stagnant ice, the `sticky spot', in the vicinity of camps occupied by a number of groups from 1986-2000 and which was the focus of extensive borehole studies by Cal Tech in 1996 and 2000. We also investigated an area of the trunk approximately 80 km upstream where repeat laser altimeter profiling revealed an anomalous 4m surface uplift of between 1998-2000 (Spikes, et al., 2003). The radar data image bedrock and internal layer stratigraphy in detail; in many cases the layers are present nearly to the bottom. We have identified a bright layer at about two-thirds to three-fourths of the ice thickness in all profiles. This is likely is the same bright layer that we have detected throughout West Antarctica in ITASE traverses and dated to 17.5 KY (Jacobel and Welch, 2004). We have also produced maps of variations in bed reflectivity that correspond closely (but not identically) with the surface expression of the sticky spot in satellite imagery. Bright areas of the bed are found in the trunk of the ice stream on both sides of the sticky spot and also along the south margin where a layer of liquid water was identified in Cal Tech bore hole 00-01 (Englehart et al., in press). However, the brightest bed reflections are found in the area of anomalous surface uplift. Echoes from near the bed at this location indicate the possible presence of a highly reflective surface off to one side of our profiles. Our bed amplitude studies are augmented by two densely-spaced constant midpoint profiles that enable us to characterize attenuation and e/m wave speed within the ice at locations that are both stagnant and fast-moving. In addition, we have re-imaged fold features in the

  7. A RIAM/lamellipodin–talin–integrin complex forms the tip of sticky fingers that guide cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Lagarrigue, Frederic; Vikas Anekal, Praju; Lee, Ho-Sup; Bachir, Alexia I.; Ablack, Jailal N.; Horwitz, Alan F.; Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The leading edge of migrating cells contains rapidly translocating activated integrins associated with growing actin filaments that form ‘sticky fingers' to sense extracellular matrix and guide cell migration. Here we utilized indirect bimolecular fluorescence complementation to visualize a molecular complex containing a Mig-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) protein (Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) or lamellipodin), talin and activated integrins in living cells. This complex localizes at the tips of growing actin filaments in lamellipodial and filopodial protrusions, thus corresponding to the tips of the ‘sticky fingers.' Formation of the complex requires talin to form a bridge between the MRL protein and the integrins. Moreover, disruption of the MRL protein–integrin–talin (MIT) complex markedly impairs cell protrusion. These data reveal the molecular basis of the formation of ‘sticky fingers' at the leading edge of migrating cells and show that an MIT complex drives these protrusions. PMID:26419705

  8. New antiinflammatory sucrose esters in the natural sticky coating of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), an important culinary fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Khan, Wajid; Bakht, Jehan; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2016-04-01

    Tomatillo is a popular culinary fruit. The sticky material on its surface, consumed as part of the fruit, has never been investigated. Chemical characterization of sticky material on tomatillo fruits yielded five new sucrose esters, as confirmed by spectroscopic methods. The solvent extract of the sticky material from the whole fresh fruit and pure isolates showed antiinflammatory activity as confirmed by in vitro cyclooxygenase enzymes inhibitory assays. Five sucrose esters isolated at 100 μg/mL (153.8, 138.8, 136.2, 141.6 and 138.8 μM, respectively) inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 enzymes by 50%. The cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activity of extract and isolates at 100 μg/mL was similar to non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen, used as positive controls in the assay at 108, 12 and 15 μg/mL (600, 60 and 60 μM), respectively. PMID:26593547

  9. Structural and optical studies on selected web spinning spider silks.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyani, R; Divya, A; Mathavan, T; Asath, R Mohamed; Benial, A Milton Franklin; Muthuchelian, K

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the structural and optical properties in the cribellate silk of the sheet web spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsch (Eresidae) and the combined dragline, viscid silk of the orb-web spiders Argiope pulchella Thorell (Araneidae) and Nephila pilipes Fabricius (Nephilidae). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques were used to study these three spider silk species. X-ray diffraction data are consistent with the amorphous polymer network which is arising from the interaction of larger side chain amino acid contributions due to the poly-glycine rich sequences known to be present in the proteins of cribellate silk. The same amorphous polymer networks have been determined from the combined dragline and viscid silk of orb-web spiders. From FTIR spectra the results demonstrate that, cribellate silk of Stegodyphus sarasinorum, combined dragline viscid silk of Argiope pulchella and Nephila pilipes spider silks are showing protein peaks in the amide I, II and III regions. Further they proved that the functional groups present in the protein moieties are attributed to α-helical and side chain amino acid contributions. The optical properties of the obtained spider silks such as extinction coefficients, refractive index, real and imaginary dielectric constants and optical conductance were studied extensively from UV-Vis analysis. The important fluorescent amino acid tyrosine is present in the protein folding was investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy. This research would explore the protein moieties present in the spider silks which were found to be associated with α-helix and side chain amino acid contributions than with β-sheet secondary structure and also the optical relationship between the three different spider silks are investigated. Successful spectroscopic knowledge of the internal protein structure and optical properties of the spider silks could

  10. Trap height and orientation of yellow sticky traps affect capture of Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Esker, P D; Obrycki, J; Nutter, F W

    2004-02-01

    Field studies were conducted in Iowa during 2001 and 2002 to determine the optimal sampling height and orientation for using yellow sticky cards to monitor populations of Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer, the vector of the bacterial pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp, stewartii, the causal organism of Stewart's disease of corn, Zea mays L.. Sticky cards were placed at five different heights (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.90 m) and three orientations (horizontal, vertical, and 30 degree angle) at three locations (Ames, Crawfordsville, and Sutherland) in 2001 and two locations (Crawfordsville and Johnston) in 2002. No statistical differences were observed among the placement combinations for individual sampling periods or for the total number of C. pulicaria captured in 2001. In 2002, the 0.30 m and vertical cards captured significantly (1.1-35 times) more C. pulicaria than any other placement combination during sampling throughout August at both Crawfordsville and Johnston. Also, the cumulative number of C. pulicaria captured by the 0.30 m and vertical cards was significantly higher than all other placement combinations. This information is important in the development of sampling protocols to aid growers in making management decisions. These management decisions include where and when to apply foliar insecticides during the corn growing season to control C. pulicaria populations, thereby reducing the risk for Stewart's disease of corn. PMID:14998138

  11. Preparation of Sticky Escherichia coli through Surface Display of an Adhesive Catecholamine Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joseph P.; Choi, Min-Jung; Kim, Se Hun

    2014-01-01

    Mussels attach to virtually all types of inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments, and catecholamines composed of 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), lysine, and histidine in mussel adhesive proteins play a key role in the robust adhesion. DOPA is an unusual catecholic amino acid, and its side chain is called catechol. In this study, we displayed the adhesive moiety of DOPA-histidine on Escherichia coli surfaces using outer membrane protein W as an anchoring motif for the first time. Localization of catecholamines on the cell surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, cell-to-cell cohesion (i.e., cellular aggregation) induced by the displayed catecholamine and synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the cell surface support functional display of adhesive catecholamines. The engineered E. coli exhibited significant adhesion onto various material surfaces, including silica and glass microparticles, gold, titanium, silicon, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(urethane), and poly(dimethylsiloxane). The uniqueness of this approach utilizing the engineered sticky E. coli is that no chemistry for cell attachment are necessary, and the ability of spontaneous E. coli attachment allows one to immobilize the cells on challenging material surfaces such as synthetic polymers. Therefore, we envision that mussel-inspired catecholamine yielded sticky E. coli that can be used as a new type of engineered microbe for various emerging fields, such as whole living cell attachment on versatile material surfaces, cell-to-cell communication systems, and many others. PMID:24123747

  12. Self-Reported Stickiness of Mind-Wandering Affects Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; Broers, Nico

    2016-01-01

    When asked to perform a certain task, we typically spend a decent amount of time thinking thoughts unrelated to that task–a phenomenon referred to as “mind-wandering.” It is thought that this mind-wandering is driven at least in part by our unfinished goals and concerns. Previous studies have shown that just after presenting a participant with their own concerns, their reports of task-unrelated thinking increased somewhat. However, effects of these concerns on task performance were somewhat inconsistent. In this study we take the opposite approach, and examine whether task performance depends on the self-reported thought content. Specifically, a particularly intriguing aspect of mind-wandering that has hitherto received little attention is the difficulty of disengaging from it, in other words, the “stickiness” of the thoughts. While presenting participants with their own concerns was not associated with clear effects on task performance, we showed that the reports of off-task thinking and variability of response times increased with the amount of self-reported stickiness of thoughts. This suggests that the stickiness of mind-wandering is a relevant variable, and participants are able to meaningfully report on it. PMID:27242636

  13. Analytic solution of two-density integral equations for sticky Janus dumbbells with arbitrary monomer diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzillo, Domenico; Munaò, Gianmarco; Prestipino, Santi

    2016-06-01

    We study a pure fluid of heteronuclear sticky Janus dumbbells, considered to be the result of complete chemical association between unlike species in an initially equimolar mixture of hard spheres (species A) and sticky hard spheres (species B) with different diameters. The B spheres are particles whose attractive surface layer is infinitely thin. Wertheim's two-density integral equations are employed to describe the mixture of AB dumbbells together with unbound A and B monomers. After Baxter factorization, these equations are solved analytically within the associative Percus-Yevick approximation. The limit of complete association is taken at the end. The present paper extends to the more general, heteronuclear case of A and B species with size asymmetry a previous study by Wu and Chiew [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6641 (2001)], which was restricted to dumbbells with equal monomer diameters. Furthermore, the solution for the Baxter factor correlation functions qi j α β ( r ) is determined here in a fully analytic way, since we have been able to find explicit analytic expressions for all the intervening parameters.

  14. Preparation of sticky Escherichia coli through surface display of an adhesive catecholamine moiety.

    PubMed

    Park, Joseph P; Choi, Min-Jung; Kim, Se Hun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Haeshin

    2014-01-01

    Mussels attach to virtually all types of inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments, and catecholamines composed of 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), lysine, and histidine in mussel adhesive proteins play a key role in the robust adhesion. DOPA is an unusual catecholic amino acid, and its side chain is called catechol. In this study, we displayed the adhesive moiety of DOPA-histidine on Escherichia coli surfaces using outer membrane protein W as an anchoring motif for the first time. Localization of catecholamines on the cell surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, cell-to-cell cohesion (i.e., cellular aggregation) induced by the displayed catecholamine and synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the cell surface support functional display of adhesive catecholamines. The engineered E. coli exhibited significant adhesion onto various material surfaces, including silica and glass microparticles, gold, titanium, silicon, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(urethane), and poly(dimethylsiloxane). The uniqueness of this approach utilizing the engineered sticky E. coli is that no chemistry for cell attachment are necessary, and the ability of spontaneous E. coli attachment allows one to immobilize the cells on challenging material surfaces such as synthetic polymers. Therefore, we envision that mussel-inspired catecholamine yielded sticky E. coli that can be used as a new type of engineered microbe for various emerging fields, such as whole living cell attachment on versatile material surfaces, cell-to-cell communication systems, and many others. PMID:24123747

  15. Evaluating potential sources of variation in Chironomidae catch rates on sticky traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua T.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Kennedy, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Sticky traps are a convenient tool for assessing adult aquatic insect population dynamics, but there are many practical questions about how trap sampling artefacts may affect observed results. Utilising study sites on the Colorado River and two smaller streams in northern Arizona, USA, we evaluated whether catch rates and sex ratios of Chironomidae, a ubiquitous aquatic insect, were affected by spraying traps with insecticide, placing traps at different heights above ground, and placing traps at different locations within a terrestrial habitat patch. We also evaluated temporal variation in Chironomidae counts monthly over a 9-month growing season. We found no significant variation in catch rates or sex ratios between traps treated versus untreated with insecticide, nor between traps placed at the upstream or downstream end of a terrestrial habitat patch. Traps placed near ground level did have significantly higher catch rates than traps placed at 1.5 m, although sex ratios were similar across heights. Chironomidae abundance and sex ratios also varied from month-to-month and seemed to be related to climatic conditions. Our results inform future sticky trap studies by demonstrating that trap height, but not insecticide treatment or precise trap placement within a habitat patch, is an important source of variation influencing catch rates.

  16. Polydopamine-Decorated Sticky, Water-Friendly, Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Cell Carriers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Jung-Suk; Lee, Haeshin; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-05-01

    A bioinspired adhesive material, polydopamine (pDA), was employed as an interfacial glue to stably immobilize human neural stem cells (hNSCs) on the external surface of biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres, thereby serving as versatile key systems that can be used for cell carriers. The pDA decoration on the PCL microspheres has been resulted in robust hNSC immobilization as well as proliferation on their curved surfaces. The pDA coating has transformed the hydrophobic PCL systems toward water-friendly and sticky characteristics, thereby resulting in full dispersion in aqueous solution and stable adherence onto a wet biological surface. Adeno-associated virus, a safe gene vector capable of effectively regulating cell behaviors, can be decorated on the PCL surfaces and delivered efficiently to hNSCs adhered to the microsphere exteriors. These distinctive multiple benefits of the sticky pDA microspheres can provide core technologies that can boost the therapeutic effects of cell therapy approaches. PMID:26799057

  17. Anomalous self-diffusion and sticky Rouse dynamics in associative protein hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shengchang; Wang, Muzhou; Olsen, Bradley D

    2015-03-25

    Natural and synthetic materials based on associating polymers possess diverse mechanical behavior, transport properties and responsiveness to external stimuli. Although much is known about their dynamics on the molecular and macroscopic level, knowledge of self-diffusive dynamics of the network-forming constituents remains limited. Using forced Rayleigh scattering, anomalous self-diffusion is observed in model associating protein hydrogels originating from the interconversion between species that diffuse in both the molecular and associated state. The diffusion can be quantitatively modeled using a two-state model for polymers in the gel, where diffusivity in the associated state is critical to the super diffusive behavior. The dissociation time from bulk rheology measurements was 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than the one measured by diffusion, because the former characterizes submolecular dissociation dynamics, whereas the latter depicts single protein molecules completely disengaging from the network. Rheological data also show a sticky Rouse-like relaxation at long times due to collective relaxation of large groups of proteins, suggesting mobility of associated molecules. This study experimentally demonstrates a hierarchy of relaxation processes in associating polymer networks, and it is anticipated that the results can be generalized to other associative systems to better understand the relationship of dynamics among sticky bonds, single molecules, and the entire network. PMID:25764061

  18. Analytic solution of two-density integral equations for sticky Janus dumbbells with arbitrary monomer diameters.

    PubMed

    Gazzillo, Domenico; Munaò, Gianmarco; Prestipino, Santi

    2016-06-21

    We study a pure fluid of heteronuclear sticky Janus dumbbells, considered to be the result of complete chemical association between unlike species in an initially equimolar mixture of hard spheres (species A) and sticky hard spheres (species B) with different diameters. The B spheres are particles whose attractive surface layer is infinitely thin. Wertheim's two-density integral equations are employed to describe the mixture of AB dumbbells together with unbound A and B monomers. After Baxter factorization, these equations are solved analytically within the associative Percus-Yevick approximation. The limit of complete association is taken at the end. The present paper extends to the more general, heteronuclear case of A and B species with size asymmetry a previous study by Wu and Chiew [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6641 (2001)], which was restricted to dumbbells with equal monomer diameters. Furthermore, the solution for the Baxter factor correlation functions qij (αβ)(r) is determined here in a fully analytic way, since we have been able to find explicit analytic expressions for all the intervening parameters. PMID:27334176

  19. Opposing actions of septins and Sticky on Anillin promote the transition from contractile to midbody ring

    PubMed Central

    El Amine, Nour; Kechad, Amel; Jananji, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    During cytokinesis, closure of the actomyosin contractile ring (CR) is coupled to the formation of a midbody ring (MR), through poorly understood mechanisms. Using time-lapse microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we show that the transition from the CR to the MR proceeds via a previously uncharacterized maturation process that requires opposing mechanisms of removal and retention of the scaffold protein Anillin. The septin cytoskeleton acts on the C terminus of Anillin to locally trim away excess membrane from the late CR/nascent MR via internalization, extrusion, and shedding, whereas the citron kinase Sticky acts on the N terminus of Anillin to retain it at the mature MR. Simultaneous depletion of septins and Sticky not only disrupted MR formation but also caused earlier CR oscillations, uncovering redundant mechanisms of CR stability that can partly explain the essential role of Anillin in this process. Our findings highlight the relatedness of the CR and MR and suggest that membrane removal is coordinated with CR disassembly. PMID:24217622

  20. High-performance spider webs: integrating biomechanics, ecology and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Aaron M. T.; Blackledge, Todd A.; Madin, Joshua S.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2011-01-01

    Spider silks exhibit remarkable properties, surpassing most natural and synthetic materials in both strength and toughness. Orb-web spider dragline silk is the focus of intense research by material scientists attempting to mimic these naturally produced fibres. However, biomechanical research on spider silks is often removed from the context of web ecology and spider foraging behaviour. Similarly, evolutionary and ecological research on spiders rarely considers the significance of silk properties. Here, we highlight the critical need to integrate biomechanical and ecological perspectives on spider silks to generate a better understanding of (i) how silk biomechanics and web architectures interacted to influence spider web evolution along different structural pathways, and (ii) how silks function in an ecological context, which may identify novel silk applications. An integrative, mechanistic approach to understanding silk and web function, as well as the selective pressures driving their evolution, will help uncover the potential impacts of environmental change and species invasions (of both spiders and prey) on spider success. Integrating these fields will also allow us to take advantage of the remarkable properties of spider silks, expanding the range of possible silk applications from single threads to two- and three-dimensional thread networks. PMID:21036911

  1. Evaluation of yellow rectangle traps coated with hot melt pressure sensitive adhesive and sticky gel against Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the possible influence of yellow colors on captures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sticky yellow rectangle traps have been used for many years to capture Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Traditional yellow sticky traps are coated with a sticky gel (SG) that can leave residues on the hands of users. An alternative to SG on traps are hot melt pressure sensitive adhes...

  2. Efficacies of commercial sticky yellow rectangles against eight Rhagoletis fly species (Dipt., Tephritidae) in Washington state, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps are used against Rhagoletis flies (Dipt., Tephritidae) for detection in fly management and ecological studies. Here, the main objective was to identify the most efficacious of five commercial sticky yellow rectangles baited with ammonium carbonate against R. indifferens Curran, R. pomonella (...

  3. Abundance of Asian citrus psyllid on yellow sticky traps in Florida, Puerto Rico, and Texas citrus groves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to obtain information on population dynamics of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in some managed citrus groves in Florida, Texas and Puerto Rico using yellow sticky traps deployed directly in trees. Four groves were studied in Florida (th...

  4. A wind-oriented sticky trap for evaluating the behavioural response of diabrotica speciosa (germar) to bitter cucurbit extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbitacins attract many species of Luperini leaf beetles, for which they have been studied and applied in traps and toxic baits. Males and females feed avidly on these compounds, but field trials reveal that males are far more attracted to them than females. A wind oriented baited sticky trap was...

  5. An assessment of yellow sticky card traps as indicators of the relative abundance of adult Diaphorina citri in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow sticky card traps were assessed as a tool for estimating infestation levels of adult Diaphorina citri, an important pest of citrus. Weekly trapping was conducted in young and mature trees with traps deployed directly in trees, one trap per tree. In addition, a comparison was made between one ...

  6. Improved removal of sticky and light contaminants from wastepaper. Final report, April 1, 1995--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, P.; Kelly, A.

    1998-03-01

    Work under this two-year cooperative agreement addresses improved removal of light and sticky contaminants from waste paper. Such contaminants occur in ever-increasing amounts, resulting from glues, labels, book bindings, packaging tapes, etc., all associated with the waste paper stream. Despite various cleaning steps in the paper mill recycling systems, residual contamination remains, causing big problems with the product quality and with paper machine and converting operations. Some grades cannot be recycled at all. Stickies are truly a barrier against increased paper recycling. The stickies problem was attacked in four project segments--three of those have yielded tangible results. One segment has been outstanding in its success; namely, the development of a centrifugal reverse cleaning system consisting of primary and secondary stages, which have unparalleled high efficiency in the removal of light and sticky contaminants. This cleaning system, consists of primary XTREME and secondary XX-Clone units. Another segment of this work, washing wax contaminated old corrugated wastepaper (OCC), also has resulted in the new Xtrax process which was released for sale.

  7. Populations of sharpshooters in two citrus groves in east-central Florida as indicated by yellow sticky card traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sharpshooter species were captured on yellow sticky card traps in two citrus groves in east-central Florida: Homalodisca insolita, H. vitripennis and Oncometopia nigricans. H. vitripennis and O. nigricans were relatively common and H. vitripennis relatively abundant over a three year period ...

  8. Monitoring insects in sweetpotatoes with sweep net and sticky traps across the Mississippi Delta: a omparative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect populations in sweetpotato fields in the Mississippi Delta were monitored in 2007 by comparing traditional sweep net sampling with purple and yellow sticky traps. Four sweep net samples each consisting of 25 sweeps were taken weekly from each of four different locations from 2 July to 3 Sept...

  9. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J. Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G.; Souza, Flávia O.; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or “meleira”, is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  10. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    PubMed

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  11. Gravitational waves, energy and Feynman’s “sticky bead”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstock, F. I.

    2015-07-01

    It is noted that in the broader sense, gravitational waves viewed as spacetime curvature which necessarily accompanies electromagnetic waves at the speed of light, are the routine perception of our everyday experience. We focus on the energy issue and Feynman’s “sticky bead” argument which has been regarded as central in supporting the conclusion that gravitational waves carry energy through the vacuum in general relativity. We discuss the essential neglected aspects of his approach which leads to the conclusion that gravitational waves would not cause Feynman’s bead to heat the stick on which it would supposedly rub. This opens the way to an examination of the entire issue of energy in general relativity. We briefly discuss our naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. When the cosmological term is included in the field equations, our energy expression includes the vacuum energy as required.

  12. Web Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  13. Web Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/webservices.html MedlinePlus Web Service To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus offers a search-based Web service that provides access to MedlinePlus health topic ...

  14. The Sticky Resting Box, a new tool for studying resting behaviour of Afrotropical malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring densities of adult mosquito populations is a major challenge in efforts to evaluate the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases, and their response to vector control interventions. In the case of malaria, collection of outdoor-resting Anophelines is rarely incorporated into surveillance and control, partially due to the lack of standardized collection tools. Such an approach, however, is increasingly important to investigate possible changes in mosquito behaviour in response to the scale up of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying. In this study we evaluated the Sticky Resting Box (SRB) - i.e. a sticky variant of previously investigated mosquito Resting Box, which allows passive collection of mosquitoes entering the box – and compared its performance against traditional methods for indoor and outdoor resting mosquito sampling. Methods Daily collections were carried out in two neighbouring villages of Burkina Faso during rainy season 2011 and dry season 2012 by SRB located indoors and outdoors, and by Back-Pack aspiration inside houses (BP) and in ad hoc built outdoor pit-shelters (PIT). Results Overall, almost 20,000 Culicidae specimens belonging to 16 species were collected and morphologically identified. Malaria vectors included Anopheles coluzzii (53%), An. arabiensis (12%), An. gambiae s.s. (2.0%) and An. funestus (4.5%). The diversity of species collected in the two villages was similar for SRB and PIT collections outdoors, and significantly higher for SRB than for BP indoors. The population dynamics of An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes, as obtained by SRB-collections was significantly correlated with those obtained by the traditional methods. The predicted mean estimates of An. gambiae s.l. specimens/sampling-unit/night-of-collections was 6- and 5-times lower for SRB than for BP indoors and PIT outdoors, respectively. Conclusions Overall, the daily performance of SRB in terms of number of malaria vectors/trap was lower than

  15. Influence of sticky trap color and height above ground on capture of alate Elatobium abietinum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Sitka spruce plantations.

    PubMed

    Straw, Nigel A; Williams, David T; Green, Gillian

    2011-02-01

    A series of field trials were used to assess the practicality of using sticky traps to monitor populations of green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum (Walker), in plantations of Sitka spruce. The highest numbers of alate E. abietinum were caught on sticky traps placed in the upper third of the live canopy at 9-17 m above the ground, whereas low numbers of aphids were caught just below the live canopy or at 2 m above the ground. Trials in 2005 with sticky traps of different colors showed that significantly more alate E. abietinum were caught on yellow, red, and green sticky traps than on white, blue, and black traps. A repeat trial in 2007 resulted in significantly more alate aphids being caught on red sticky traps than on traps of any other color except for green. Attraction to red is unusual among aphids, as aphids are thought not to possess a red-sensitive photoreceptor. The attraction of E. abietinum to red-colored sticky traps suggests that conifer-feeding aphids might have a fundamentally different color response compared with aphids that live on cereals, grasses, or herbaceous plants. Alternatively, the attraction to red might be a physiological artifact related to the presence of red-screening pigments in the aphid's compound eye. PMID:22182620

  16. Entomological investigations in a focus of dengue transmission in Cairns, Queensland, Australia, by using the sticky ovitraps.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Long, Sharron; Smith, Greg; Pyke, Alyssa; Knox, Tessa B

    2004-01-01

    Sticky ovitraps (patent pending) were used to sample female Aedes aegypti (L.) weekly in a focus of dengue activity in Cairns, Queensland, Australia. In February 2003, transmission of dengue virus serotype 2 began in the suburb of Parramatta Park, peaking in mid-March 2003. This suburb features many older, unscreened houses with high populations of Ae. aegypti. Highest densities (2-3.5 females per trap per week) were obtained during peak dengue transmission (January and February) before mosquito control was initiated. Beginning in late March, female Ae. aegypti collected in sticky ovitraps were tested for dengue viral RNA by using a TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Dengue viral RNA was detected in six pools of Ae. aegypti collected in late March. The highest minimum infection rate was 116/1000 mosquitoes. After the initiation of larval control (containers treated with S-methoprene or lambda-cyhalothrin) and adult control (interior harborage sites sprayed with lambda-cyhalothrin) in early March, trap collections dropped to <0.5 per trap per week, and no virus was detected in trapped mosquitoes. Human cases subsequently dropped from a high of seven cases per day in mid-March to only sporadic cases in late April, with the final reported onset of 7 May. Sticky ovitraps have potential as a monitoring device for gravid Ae. aegypti and can be used to assess control efficacy and dengue virus activity. A sticky ovitrap index (mean number of female Ae. Aegypti per trap per week) could be useful in gauging the risk of dengue transmission. PMID:14989339

  17. Sensor web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  18. The siren song of a sticky plant: Columbines provision mutualist arthropods by attracting and killing passerby insects.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, E F; Pearse, I S; Charles, G K

    2015-11-01

    Many plants provide predatory arthropods with food or shelter. Glandular trichomes entrap insects and may provision predators with insect carrion, though it has not been clear whether this putative benefit functions with natural amounts of carrion, whether plants actively attract insect "tourists," and how common this provisioning system is. We tested the hypothesis that a sticky columbine (Aquilegia eximia: Ranunculaceae) attracts passerby arthropods (a siren song leading them to their demise); that these entrapped arthropods increased predators on the plant; and that these predators reduced damage to the plant. Sticky traps baited with columbine peduncles entrapped more arthropod carrion than unbaited control traps. Predator abundance correlated positively with carrion abundance observationally, and experimental removal of carrion reduced predator numbers. Experimental removal of carrion also increased damage to reproductive structures, likely due to reductions in predator numbers. This indirect defense may be common; we compiled a list of insect-trapping sticky plants that includes over 110 genera in 49 families, suggesting a widespread convergence of this trait, even in non-carnivorous plants. The ubiquity of this trait combined with these experiments suggest that carrion entrapment should be viewed as a common and active process mediated by the plant for indirect defense. PMID:27070006

  19. Diurnal variation in invertebrate catch rates by sticky traps: Potential for biased indices of piping plover forage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Sherfy, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Measuring abundance of invertebrate forage for piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers), a federally listed species in the USA, is an important component of research and monitoring targeted toward species recovery. Sticky traps are commonly used to passively sample invertebrates, but catch rates may vary diurnally or in response to weather. We examined diurnal variation in catch rates of invertebrates using an experiment on reservoir shoreline and riverine sandbar habitats of the Upper Missouri River in 2006 and 2008. Highest catch rates of large invertebrates (>3 mm) on dry sand habitats occurred during 08:00-11:00 Central Daylight Time (CDT) on the reservoir and 08:00-14:00 CDT on the river. On wet sand habitats, catch rates were lowest during 17:00-20:00 on both the reservoir and the river. Catch rates decreased 24% for every 10 kph increase in wind. Sticky traps deployed continuously for 12 h or more had lower catch rates than four consecutive-composited 3-hour deployments, suggesting that trap effectiveness declined for >3-hour deployments. Thus, if sticky traps are used to index plover forage abundance without controlling for time of day and wind speed, data may be highly variable or estimates could be biased. ?? 2010 Society of Wetland Scientists.

  20. Polydopamine Inter-Fiber Networks: New Strategy for Producing Rigid, Sticky, 3D Fluffy Electrospun Fibrous Polycaprolactone Sponges.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wuyong; Lee, Slgirim; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-06-01

    Designing versatile 3D interfaces that can precisely represent a biological environment is a prerequisite for the creation of artificial tissue structures. To this end, electrospun fibrous sponges, precisely mimicking an extracellular matrix and providing highly porous interfaces, have capabilities that can function as versatile physical cues to regenerate various tissues. However, their intrinsic features, such as sheet-like, thin, and weak structures, limit the design of a number of uses in tissue engineering applications. Herein, a highly facile methodology capable of fabricating rigid, sticky, spatially expanded fluffy electrospun fibrous sponges is proposed. A bio-inspired adhesive material, poly(dopamine) (pDA), is employed as a key mediator to provide rigidity and stickiness to the 3D poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibrous sponges, which are fabricated using a coaxial electrospinning with polystyrene followed by a selective leaching process. The iron ion induced oxidation of dopamine into pDA networks interwoven with PCL fibers results in significant increases in the rigidity of 3D fibrous sponges. Furthermore, the exposure of catecholamine groups on the fiber surfaces promotes the stable attachment of the sponges on wet organ surfaces and triggers the robust immobilization of biomolecules (e.g., proteins and gene vectors), demonstrating their potential for 3D scaffolds as well as drug delivery vehicles. Because fibrous structures are ubiquitous in the human body, these rigid, sticky, 3D fibrous sponges are good candidates for powerful biomaterial systems that functionally mimic a variety of tissue structures. PMID:26855375

  1. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. PMID:21630455

  2. Designing robust alumina nanowires-on-nanopores structures: superhydrophobic surfaces with slippery or sticky water adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Miao, Xinrui; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical alumina surfaces with different morphologies were fabricated by a simple one-step anodization method. These alumina films were fabricated by a new raw material: silica gel plate (aluminum foil with a low purity of 97.17%). The modulation of anodizing time enabled the formation of nanowires-on-nanopores hybrid nanostructures having controllable nanowires topographies through a self-assembly process. The resultant structures were demonstrated to be able to achieve superhydrophobicity without any hydrophobic coating layer. More interestingly, it is found that the as-prepared superhydrophobic alumina surfaces exhibited high contrast water adhesion. Hierarchical alumina film with nanowire bunches-on-nanopores (WBOP) morphology presents extremely slippery property which can obtain a sliding angle (SA) as low as 1°, nanowire pyramids-on-nanopores (WPOP) structure shows strongly sticky water adhesion with the adhesive ability to support 15 μL inverted water droplet at most. The obtained superhydrophobic alumina surfaces show remarkable mechanical durability even treated by crimping or pressing without impact on the water-repellent performance. Moreover, the created surfaces also show excellent resistivity to ice water, boiling water, high temperature, organic solvent and oil contamination, which could expand their usefulness and efficacy in harsh conditions. PMID:23981676

  3. New Approaches to Measuring Sticky Molecules: Improvement of Instrumental Response Times Using Active Passivation.

    PubMed

    Roscioli, J R; Zahniser, M S; Nelson, D D; Herndon, S C; Kolb, C E

    2016-03-10

    A novel method has been developed to improve sampling system response times for nominally "sticky" molecules such as HNO3 and NH3. The method reported here makes use of active, continuous passivation, where the instrument interfaces are continuously exposed to 0.01-1 ppm of fluorinated acidic or basic surfactants. To reduce HNO3 response times, perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid vapors are evaluated as passivation species. 1H,1H-perfluorooctylamine is used to improve NH3 response times. The resulting time responses using the perfluoroalkanoic acids are on the order of 0.4-0.7 s for a 75% quantitative recovery of HNO3, and 1-5 s for 90% recovery. Similar response time improvements are seen in detection of NH3 using perfluorooctylamine (<1 s for a 75% recovery, ∼2 s for 90% recovery). This generally applicable methodology significantly improves the capability of eddy covariance flux and real-time plume-based measurements of highly polar molecules that have historically been hampered by slow response times due to adsorption on sampling system surfaces. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by field measurements of HNO3 eddy covariance fluxes in a central U.S. prairie. PMID:26106902

  4. Reducing the porosity and reflection loss of silicon nanowires by a sticky tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjun; Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-05-01

    Engineering the porosity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is of fundamental importance, and this work introduces a new method for doing so. Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of heavily doped Si(100) creates mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). mp-SiNWs are transferred from the MACE-treated wafer to a sticky tape, leaving residues composed of broken mp-SiNWs and a mesoporous Si layer on the wafer. Then the taped wafer is re-treated by MACE, without changing the etching conditions. The second MACE treatment generates mp-SiNWs that are less porous and longer than those generated by the first MACE treatment, which can be attributed to the difference in the surface topography at the beginning of the etching process. Less porous mp-SiNWs reduce optical scattering from the porous Si skeletons, and vertically protrude on the wafer without aggregation to facilitate optical trapping. Consequently, less porous mp-SiNWs effectively reduce ultraviolet-visible reflection loss.

  5. Sticky superhydrophobic filter paper developed by dip-coating of fluorinated waterborne epoxy emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiangxuan; Wen, Xiufang; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2012-09-01

    A superhydrophobic and superoleophilic coating for oil filter paper was synthesized based on waterborne bisphenol-A novolac epoxy emulsion. The benzoic acid (BA) and maleic anhydride (MA) were used as modification agents to give the epoxy resin hydrophilic groups (carboxyl) and Cdbnd C double bonds. And the fluorinated waterborne epoxy emulsion was prepared by free radical solution polymerization of dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) monomer. The covalent bound low free energy fluorinated chains in the monomer reduce the surface energy of solidification polymers sufficiently to give rise to superhydrophobic behavior while conserving superoleophilicity. Surfaces prepared show a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 152° for a 5 μL droplet that does not slid off even when the sample is held upside down. This synthetic emulsion is simple and convenient as impregnating agent for filter paper, which can be considered as a suitable candidate for various substrates such as cotton textiles, E-glass and artificial fiber, and so on.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of protein micropatterning in biomembranes: effects of immobile sticky obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Andreas M.; Sevcsik, Eva; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2016-09-01

    Single molecule trajectories of lipids and proteins can yield valuable information about the nanoscopic organization of the plasma membrane itself. The interpretation of such trajectories, however, is complicated, as the mobility of molecules can be affected by the presence of immobile obstacles, and the transient binding of the tracers to these obstacles. We have previously developed a micropatterning approach that allows for immobilizing a plasma membrane protein and probing the diffusional behavior of a putative interaction partner in living cells. Here, we provide guidelines on how this micropatterning approach can be extended to quantify interaction parameters between plasma membrane constituents in their natural environment. We simulated a patterned membrane system and evaluated the effect of different surface densities of patterned immobile obstacles on the relative mobility as well as the surface density of diffusing tracers. In the case of inert obstacles, the size of the obstacle can be assessed from its surface density at the percolation threshold, which in turn can be extracted from the diffusion behavior of the tracer. For sticky obstacles, 2D dissociation constants can be determined from the tracer diffusion or surface density.

  7. Polymer/graphene hybrid aerogel with high compressibility, conductivity, and "sticky" superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Han; Zhao, Zongbin; Wan, Wubo; Gogotsi, Yury; Qiu, Jieshan

    2014-03-12

    The idea of extending functions of graphene aerogels and achieving specific applications has aroused wide attention recently. A solution to this challenge is the formation of a hybrid structure where the graphene aerogels are decorated with other functional nanostructures. An infiltration-evaporation-curing strategy has been proposed by the formation of hybrid structure containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and compressible graphene aerogel (CGA), where the cellular walls of the CGA are coated uniformly with an integrated polymer layer. The resulting composite shows enhanced compressive strength and a stable Young's modulus that are superior to those of pure CGAs. This unique structure combines the advantages of both components, giving rise to an excellent electromechanical performance, where the bulk resistance repeatedly shows a synchronous and linear response to variation of the volume during compression at a wide range of compressed rates. Furthermore, the foamlike structure delivers a water droplet with "sticky" superhydrophobicity and a size as large as 32 μL that remains tightly pinned to the composite, even when it is turned upside-down. This is the first demonstration of superhydrophobicity with strong adhesion on a foamlike structure. These outstanding properties qualify the PDMS/CGA composites developed here as promising candidates for a wide range of applications such as in sensors, actuators, and materials used for biochemical separation and tissue engineering. PMID:24524309

  8. Micro-optical elements and optical materials of certain spider webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, D. M.; Naidoo, N.; Little, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    Certain spider webs are composed of several types of micro-optical elements made from transparent optical materials. The silks (radial and capture) are almost exclusively protein. The nearly cylindrical silks have diameters in the range 0.1 to several microns and cross-sectional morphology that is cylindrical-multi-layered,.as studied by transmission electron microscopy, The capture threads are coated with aqueous adhesive that also forms into nearly elliptical micro-lenses (adhesive droplets) mounted on the near cylindrical silks. The remaining elements of the web are the cement junctions tying the radial and the capture threads of the web together. These are irregularly shaped platelets. Progress to date on our research characterizing the optical properties and function of these transparent orb webs has been to interpret the reflection and transmission properties of the elements of the web, and the web as a whole, in natural lighting; to evaluate the optical finish of the surface of the silks and capture droplets; and to measure the principal refractive indices of radial silks using new immersion based methods developed for application to micron-sized, curved optical elements. Here we report the principal refractive indices, birefringence, dispersion and morphology of transparent spider silk subject to various chemical treatments. The morphology is measured using TEM. Insight into the physical origin of the refractive index properties will be discussed.

  9. "Sticky"-Ends-Guided Creation of Functional Hollow Nanopores for Guest Encapsulation and Water Transport.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yanping; Zeng, Huaqiang

    2016-05-17

    characterized, by an experimental-theoretical synergy, a new class of modular, H-bonded, and crescent-shaped oligopyridine amide foldamers, enclosing a sizable cavity of about 2.8 Å in diameter. Matching well with the diameter of water molecules and decorated by interior-pointing H-bond donors (amide H atoms) and acceptors (pyridine N atoms) for water binding, this sizable cavity experimentally proves to be suitable for water recognition. In particular, helically folded oligomers are found to be capable of binding two water molecules that are vertically aligned in parallel with helical axis. However, the existence of two repulsive groups at the two helical ends prevents the formation of 1D hollow tubular cavity, via self-assembly, for encapsulating 1D water chains. Subsequently, we introduced two electrostatically complementary functional groups that act as "sticky" ends at helical ends. These feeble "sticky" ends faithfully and seamlessly align short cavity-containing helices one-dimensionally to create hollow tubular aquapores. To our delight, these aquapores demonstrate their excellent ability of highly selectively hosting a chain of single file H-bonded water molecules and allow for selective transport of both protons and water molecules with exclusion of metal ions including Na(+) and K(+) ions across the lipid membranes. PMID:27074642

  10. Webbing It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandsberg, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Provides a quick look at some World Wide Web sites that contain current election year information. Recommends Project Vote Smart, a site with links to online news organizations, the home pages of all presidential candidates, and other political sites. Briefly notes several interactive CD-ROM resources. (MJP)

  11. Thermo-mechanically coupled subduction using AMR together with a true free surface and sticky air in ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraters, Menno; Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cedric; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    ASPECT (Kronbichler et al., 2012), short for Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion, is a new Finite Element code which was originally designed for thermally driven (mantle) convection and is built on state of the art numerical methods (adaptive mesh refinement, linear and non-linear solver, stabilization of transport dominated processes and a high scalability on multiple processors). Here we present an application of ASPECT to the modelling of fully thermo-mechanically coupled subduction. Our model contains in the case of a true free surface three different compositions: two different crustal compositions, one on top of the subducting plate and one on top of the overriding plate, and a mantle composition. In the case of a free surface through a sticky air layer, a fourth composition representing this sticky air is added. We implemented a viscoplastic rheology using frictional plasticity and a composite viscosity defined by diffusion and dislocation creep. The lithospheric part of the mantle has the same composition as the rest of the mantle but has a higher viscosity because of a lower temperature. The temperature field is implemented in ASPECT as follows: a linear temperature gradient for the lithosphere and an adiabatic geotherm for the sublithospheric mantle. The Initial slab temperature is defined using the analytical solution of McKenzie (1970). The plates can be pushed from the sides of the model, and correspondingly it is possible to define an additional independent mantle in/out flow through the boundaries. We will show a preliminary set of models, highlighting the current codes capabilities, such as the fine tuned use of Adaptive Mesh Refinement in combination with topography development both through a true free surface and sticky air and solving for strongly non-linear rheologies.

  12. Differential accumulation of heavy metals by web spiders and ground spiders in an old-field

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, K.J.; Brewer, S.R.; Taylor, D.H. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1994-03-01

    Accumulation of the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn by web spiders (orb weavers: Araneidae) and ground spiders was examined in an old-field that had been subjected to 11 years of nutrient enrichment. The study area consistent of six 0.1-ha plots treated from 1978 to 1988 with municipal sewage sludge containing heavy-metal contaminants, urea-phosphate fertilizer, or left as untreated controls. In 1991 and 1992, heavy-metal concentrations in the soil, ground spiders, and web spiders were measured with a flame AA spectrophotometer. Spiders accumulated Cd, Cu, and Zn to concentrations greater than those present in the soil but did not accumulate Pb. Ground spiders contained significantly higher levels of Cd and Cu than web spiders, whereas web spiders contained slightly greater levels of Pb than ground spiders. No trend between spider guilds was apparent for Zn accumulation. To understand the impact of the application of metal-contaminated municipal sludge on ecosystem, the toxicological effects on the biology and behavior of major biotic components in terrestrial food webs must be known.

  13. A facile prestrain-stick-release assembly of stretchable supercapacitors based on highly stretchable and sticky hydrogel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Chen, Mingming; Wang, Gengchao; Bao, Hua; Saha, Petr

    2015-06-01

    A facile prestrain-stick-release assembly strategy for the stretchable supercapacitor device is developed based on a novel Na2SO4-aPUA/PAAM hydrogel electrolyte, saving the stretchable rubber base conventionally used. The Na2SO4-aPUA/PAAM hydrogel electrolyte exhibits high stretchability (>1000%), electrical conductivity (0.036 S cm-1) and stickiness. Due to the unique features of the hydrogel electrolyte, the carbon nanotube@MnO2 film electrodes can be firmly stuck to two sides of the prestrained hydrogel electrolyte. Then, by releasing the hydrogel electrolyte, homogenous buckles are formed for the film electrodes to get a full stretchable supercapacitor device. Besides, the high stickiness of the hydrogel electrolyte ensures its strong adhesion with the film electrodes, facilitating ion and electronic transfer of the supercapacitor. As a result, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved with the specific capacitance of 478.6 mF cm-2 at 0.5 mA cm-2 (corresponding to 201.1 F g-1) and capacitance retention of 91.5% after 3000 charging-discharging cycles under 150% strain, which is the best for the stretchable supercapacitors.

  14. Message spreading in networks with stickiness and persistence: Large clustering does not always facilitate large-scale diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Pengbi; Tang, Ming; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-09-01

    Recent empirical studies have confirmed the key roles of complex contagion mechanisms such as memory, social reinforcement, and decay effects in information diffusion and behavior spreading. Inspired by this fact, we here propose a new agent-based model to capture the whole picture of the joint action of the three mechanisms in information spreading, by quantifying the complex contagion mechanisms as stickiness and persistence, and carry out extensive simulations of the model on various networks. By numerical simulations as well as theoretical analysis, we find that the stickiness of the message determines the critical dynamics of message diffusion on tree-like networks, whereas the persistence plays a decisive role on dense regular lattices. In either network, the greater persistence can effectively make the message more invasive. Of particular interest is that our research results renew our previous knowledge that messages can spread broader in networks with large clustering, which turns out to be only true when they can inform a non-zero fraction of the population in the limit of large system size.

  15. Properties, characterization, and decay of sticky rice–lime mortars from the Wugang Ming dynasty city wall (China)

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Ya; Fu, Xuan; Gu, Haibing; Gao, Feng; Liu, Shaojun

    2014-04-01

    Urgent restoration of the Wugang Ming dynasty city wall brings about the need for a study of the formulation and properties of mortars. In the present paper, mortar samples from the Wugang Ming dynasty city wall were characterized in a combination of sheet polarized light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer, thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Results show that mortars are mainly built up from inorganic calcium carbonate based organic–inorganic hybrid material with a small amount of sticky rice, which plays a crucial role in forming dense and compact microstructure of mortars and effectively hindering penetration of water and air into mortars. Analysis of decayed products shows that the detrimental soluble salts originates from ambient environment. - Highlights: • Mortars used in the Wugang city wall are a calcium carbonate-sticky rice hybrid bonding material. • Carbonation processing is extremely slow due to dense and compact microstructure of mortars. • Decying of mortars results from the appearance of soluble salt from ambient environment.

  16. Evaluation of some adhesives for collecting Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Yunus, H; Sohadi, R

    1987-07-01

    1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat. PMID:2979541

  17. Why are dunkels sticky? Preschoolers infer functionality and intentional creation for artifact properties learned from generic language.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Cadena, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Artifacts pose a potential learning problem for children because the mapping between their features and their functions is often not transparent. In solving this problem, children are likely to rely on a number of information sources (e.g., others' actions, affordances). We argue that children's sensitivity to nuances in the language used to describe artifacts is an important, but so far unacknowledged, piece of this puzzle. Specifically, we hypothesize that children are sensitive to whether an unfamiliar artifact's features are highlighted using generic (e.g., "Dunkels are sticky") or non-generic (e.g., "This dunkel is sticky") language. Across two studies, older-but not younger-preschoolers who heard such features introduced via generic statements inferred that they are a functional part of the artifact's design more often than children who heard the same features introduced via non-generic statements. The ability to pick up on this linguistic cue may expand considerably the amount of conceptual information about artifacts that children derive from conversations with adults. PMID:20656283

  18. Trend Analysis of global AOT based on various Polar Orbiting Satellite Observations: MODIS (Terra), MISR (Terra), SeaWiFS (OrbView-2), and MODIS (Aqua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Vountas, M.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Chang, D. Y.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have investigated temporal trends of cloud-free AOTs derived from polar orbiting satellite observations since aerosol retrieval accuracy has been improved substantially. However, only few studies have discussed the fundamental limitation of incomplete sampling originated from frequent cloud disturbance and restricted temporal coverage. Furthermore, the AOT trends derived from various polar orbiting satellite observations are hardly comparable due to different sensor calibration, retrieval accuracy, and cloud screening. Therefore, the present paper integrates various analyses of AOT trends derived from multiple observations (i.e. MODIS-Terra (MOD) from 2000/03 to 2009/12, MISR-Terra (MIS) from 2000/03 to 2010/12, SeaWiFS-OrbView-2 (SEA) from 1998/01 to 2007/12, and MODIS-Aqua (MYD) from 2003/01 to 2008/12) using a weighted least squares regression in order to minimize the above mentioned issues. With high statistical confidence, the weighted trends of MOD AOT (550 nm), MIS AOT (558 nm), SEA AOT (510 nm), and MYD AOT (550 nm) over OECD Europe showed a significant decrease (-0.00274±0.00126, -0.00303±0.00169, -0.00077±0.00044, and -0.00530±0.00304 per year respectively) while increasing over East Asia (+0.00727±0.00385, +0.00673±0.00401, +0.00342±0.00171, and +0.01939±0.00986 per year respectively).

  19. Evaluation and control of the risk of food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria present in “Awa-Uirou”, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for growth of food poisoning or spoilage bacteria in “Awa-Uirou”, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste was evaluated. The water activity (aw 0.92) was in the range suitable for the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. The viable cell cou...

  20. Yellow Sticky Trap Catches of Parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Vegetable Crops and Their Relationship to In-field Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the relationship of yellow sticky trap captures of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype ‘B’ parasitoids to the local population of parasitoids as measured by leaf samples of parasitized whiteflies and mass-release of parasitoids. Traps were placed in experimental collard and cowpea field ...

  1. Deep Web video

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2009-06-01

    To make the web work better for science, OSTI has developed state-of-the-art technologies and services including a deep web search capability. The deep web includes content in searchable databases available to web users but not accessible by popular search engines, such as Google. This video provides an introduction to the deep web search engine.

  2. Deep Web video

    ScienceCinema

    None Available

    2012-03-28

    To make the web work better for science, OSTI has developed state-of-the-art technologies and services including a deep web search capability. The deep web includes content in searchable databases available to web users but not accessible by popular search engines, such as Google. This video provides an introduction to the deep web search engine.

  3. Scaling the fractional advective-dispersive equation for numerical evaluation of microbial dynamics in confined geometries with sticky boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, R.; Cushman, J.H.

    2008-06-20

    Microbial motility is often characterized by 'run and tumble' behavior which consists of bacteria making sequences of runs followed by tumbles (random changes in direction). As a superset of Brownian motion, Levy motion seems to describe such a motility pattern. The Eulerian (Fokker-Planck) equation describing these motions is similar to the classical advection-diffusion equation except that the order of highest derivative is fractional, {alpha} element of (0, 2]. The Lagrangian equation, driven by a Levy measure with drift, is stochastic and employed to numerically explore the dynamics of microbes in a flow cell with sticky boundaries. The Eulerian equation is used to non-dimensionalize parameters. The amount of sorbed time on the boundaries is modeled as a random variable that can vary over a wide range of values. Salient features of first passage time are studied with respect to scaled parameters.

  4. Dynamics of associating polymers and the sticky Rouse model: a study by combined dielectric and dynamic mechanical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yangyang; Cosby, Tyler; Sangoro, Joshua

    Reversible association through non-covalent bonding is ubiquitous in the soft matter world. Despite decades of studies, the dynamics of associating polymers have not been well understood. Here we examine the dynamics of butadiene- and isoprene-based model polymeric systems with pairwise association through hydrogen bonding. Compared to ionomers, where reversible crosslinks are typically not well defined, these hydrogen bonding polymers are associated through strictly binary contacts and thus provide a better opportunity to test theoretical ideas. By combining dielectric spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical measurement, we are able to identify both chain and junction dynamics and analyze their motional coupling mechanism. The results are discussed in the context of the sticky Rouse model.

  5. Embodied Agents, E-SQ and Stickiness: Improving Existing Cognitive and Affective Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Diesbach, Pablo Brice

    This paper synthesizes results from two previous studies of embodied virtual agents on commercial websites. We analyze and criticize the proposed models and discuss the limits of the experimental findings. Results from other important research in the literature are integrated. We also integrate concepts from profound, more business-related, analysis that deepens on the mechanisms of rhetoric in marketing and communication, and the possible role of E-SQ in man-agent interaction. We finally suggest a refined model for the impacts of these agents on web site users, and limits of the improved model are commented.

  6. Integrating Land Conservation and Renewable Energy Goals in California: Assessing Land Use and Economic Cost Impacts Using the Optimal Renewable Energy Build-Out (ORB) Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. C.; Schlag, N. H.; Cameron, D. R.; Brand, E.; Crane, L.; Williams, J.; Price, S.; Hernandez, R. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and economic costs of potential renewable energy (RE) siting decisions that achieve ambitious RE targets. Such analyses are needed to inform policy recommendations that minimize potential conflicts between conservation and RE development. We use the state of California's rapid development of utility-scale RE as a case study to examine how possible land use constraints impact the total electricity land area, areas with conservation value, water use, and electricity cost of ambitious RE portfolios. We developed the Optimal Renewable energy Build-out (ORB) model, and used it in conjunction with the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Calculator, a RE procurement and transmission planning tool used by utilities within California, to generate environmentally constrained renewable energy potential and assess the cost and siting-associated impacts of wind, solar photovoltaic, concentrating solar power (CSP), and geothermal technologies. We find that imposing environmental constraints on RE development achieves lower conservation impacts and results in development of more fragmented land areas. With increased RE and environmental exclusions, generation becomes more widely distributed across the state, which results in more development on herbaceous agricultural vegetation, grasslands, and developed & urban land cover types. We find land use efficiencies of RE technologies are relatively inelastic to changes in environmental constraints, suggesting that cost-effective substitutions that reduce environmental impact and achieve RE goals is possible under most scenarios and exclusion categories. At very high RE penetration that is limited to in-state development, cost effectiveness decreases substantially under the highest level of environmental constraint due to the over-reliance on solar technologies. This additional cost is removed once the in-state constraint is lifted, suggesting that minimizing both negative

  7. Web Mining for Web Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Feng; Li, Mingjing; Zhang, Hongjiang

    2001-01-01

    Presents a prototype system for image retrieval from the Internet using Web mining. Discusses the architecture of the Web image retrieval prototype; document space modeling; user log mining; and image retrieval experiments to evaluate the proposed system. (AEF)

  8. Web Mining: Machine Learning for Web Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Chau, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Presents an overview of machine learning research and reviews methods used for evaluating machine learning systems. Ways that machine-learning algorithms were used in traditional information retrieval systems in the "pre-Web" era are described, and the field of Web mining and how machine learning has been used in different Web mining applications…

  9. Automatic building of a web-like structure based on thermoplastic adhesive.

    PubMed

    Leach, Derek; Wang, Liyu; Reusser, Dorothea; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-09-01

    Animals build structures to extend their control over certain aspects of the environment; e.g., orb-weaver spiders build webs to capture prey, etc. Inspired by this behaviour of animals, we attempt to develop robotics technology that allows a robot to automatically builds structures to help it accomplish certain tasks. In this paper we show automatic building of a web-like structure with a robot arm based on thermoplastic adhesive (TPA) material. The material properties of TPA, such as elasticity, adhesiveness, and low melting temperature, make it possible for a robot to form threads across an open space by an extrusion-drawing process and then combine several of these threads into a web-like structure. The problems addressed here are discovering which parameters determine the thickness of a thread and determining how web-like structures may be used for certain tasks. We first present a model for the extrusion and the drawing of TPA threads which also includes the temperature-dependent material properties. The model verification result shows that the increasing relative surface area of the TPA thread as it is drawn thinner increases the heat loss of the thread, and that by controlling how quickly the thread is drawn, a range of diameters can be achieved from 0.2-0.75 mm. We then present a method based on a generalized nonlinear finite element truss model. The model was validated and could predict the deformation of various web-like structures when payloads are added. At the end, we demonstrate automatic building of a web-like structure for payload bearing. PMID:24960453

  10. Are You Web Literate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Defines Web literacy, a subset of information literacy, as the ability to access, search, utilize, communicate, and create information on the World Wide Web. Offers 10 stages toward Web literacy, including using hyperlinks and bookmarks, an information resource for research, creating classroom lessons, guiding student use, and creating Web pages.…

  11. Untangling Your Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of universal Web design and discusses guidelines developed by the Web access initiative (WAI) that focus on the access needs of Web users with disabilities. Highlights include barriers for people with print disabilities or motor impairments; the role of libraries; and resources to assist Web designers. (LRW)

  12. Web data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibonele, Kasanda J.; Zhang, Yanqing

    2002-03-01

    A web data mining system using granular computing and ASP programming is proposed. This is a web based application, which allows web users to submit survey data for many different companies. This survey is a collection of questions that will help these companies develop and improve their business and customer service with their clients by analyzing survey data. This web application allows users to submit data anywhere. All the survey data is collected into a database for further analysis. An administrator of this web application can login to the system and view all the data submitted. This web application resides on a web server, and the database resides on the MS SQL server.

  13. The Inter-Mammary Sticky Roll: A Novel Technique for Securing a Doppler Ultrasonic Probe to the Precordium for Venous Air Embolism Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon C; Khalessi, Alexander A; Sang U, Hoi; Drummond, John C

    2016-01-01

    Venous air embolism is a devastating and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur during neurosurgical procedures. We report the development and use of the “inter-mammary sticky roll,” a technique to reliably secure a precordial Doppler ultrasonic probe to the chest wall during neurosurgical cases that require lateral decubitus positioning. We have found that this noninvasive technique is safe, and effectively facilitates a constant Doppler signal with no additional risk to the patient. PMID:27625905

  14. Web-based tools for real-time assessment of Earthscope's Transportable Array state-of- health: integration of the Antelope Real Time System, RRDtool, AJAX and PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Vernon, F. L.; Davis, G. A.; Eakins, J.; Astiz, L.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past three years the Array Network Facility (ANF) has developed a robust, extensible web-based toolkit for monitoring the state-of-health of Earthscope's Transportable Array. The tools are constructed within a framework of the Antelope Real Time System (ARTS) and the Antelope interface to the PHP Hypertext Processor (PHP), an inline scripting language. Exporting data from Datascope databases and Object Ring Buffer (ORB) packets into XML allows comprehensive client-side interaction via Asynchronous Javascript And XML (AJAX) calls. Navigating and displaying the resultant XML Document Object Model (DOM) trees are done using eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) and PHP's built-in DOM classes. Tools include regional and individual station and event maps, state-of-health statistics, waveform plots, and datalogger monitoring. Combined with real-time graphing of state-of-health parameters from status ORB packets using Round Robin Database Tool (RRDtool), this toolkit allows analysts, station engineers, scientists, and the general public to view, assess, interact with, and download data collected from the 250+ stations in the Transportable Array seismic network. Tools are available at the Array Network Facility website, http:anf.ucsd.edu.

  15. Unusual sequence length-dependent gold nanoparticles aggregation of the ssDNA sticky end and its application for enzyme-free and signal amplified colorimetric DNA detection

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongfei; Dai, Jianyuan; Duan, Zhijuan; Zheng, Baozhan; Meng, Yan; Guo, Yong; Dan Xiao

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the adsorption of short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) on unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is much faster than that for long ssDNA, and thus leads to length-dependent AuNPs aggregation after addition of salt, the color of the solutions sequentially changed from red to blue in accordance with the increase of ssDNA length. However, we found herein that the ssDNA sticky end of hairpin DNA exhibited a completely different adsorption behavior compared to ssDNA, an inverse blue-to-red color variation was observed in the colloid solution with the increase of sticky end length when the length is within a certain range. This unusual sequence length-dependent AuNPs aggregation might be ascribed to the effect of the stem of hairpin DNA. On the basis of this unique phenomenon and catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) based signal amplification, a novel AuNPs-based colorimetric DNA assay with picomolar sensitivity and specificity was developed. This unusual sequence length-dependent AuNPs aggregation of the ssDNA sticky end introduces a new direction for the AuNPs-based colorimetric assays. PMID:27477392

  16. A new tabanid trap applying a modified concept of the old flypaper: linearly polarising sticky black surfaces as an effective tool to catch polarotactic horseflies.

    PubMed

    Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Száz, Dénes; Barta, András; Kriska, György; Antoni, Györgyi; Horváth, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    Trapping flies with sticky paper sheets is an ancient method. The classic flypaper has four typical characteristics: (i) its sticky paper is bright (chamois, light yellow or white), (ii) it is strip-shaped, (iii) it hangs vertically, and (iv) it is positioned high (several metres) above ground level. Such flypapers, however, do not trap horseflies (tabanids). There is a great need to kill horseflies with efficient traps because they are vectors of dangerous diseases, and due to their continuous annoyance livestock cannot graze, horses cannot be ridden, and meat and milk production from cattle is drastically reduced. Based on earlier findings on the positive polarotaxis (attraction to linearly polarised light) in tabanid flies and modifying the concept of the old flypaper, we constructed a new horsefly trap called "horseflypaper". In four field experiments we showed that the ideal horseflypaper (i) is shiny black, (ii) has an appropriately large (75×75 cm(2)) surface area, (iii) has sticky black vertical and horizontal surfaces in an L-shaped arrangement, and (iv) its horizontal surface should be at ground level for maximum effectiveness. Using imaging polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarisation characteristics of this new polarisation tabanid trap. The ideal optical and geometrical characteristics of this trap revealed in field experiments are also explained. The horizontal part of the trap captures water-seeking male and female tabanids, while the vertical part catches host-seeking female tabanids. PMID:23500071

  17. An insect trap as habitat: cohesion-failure mechanism prevents adhesion of Pameridea roridulae bugs to the sticky surface of the plant Roridula gorgonias.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2008-08-01

    The glandular trichomes of the plant Roridula gorgonias release an extremely adhesive, visco-elastic, resinous secretion that traps a variety of insects, including those having a considerable body size. However, the specialized mutualistic mirid bug Pameridea roridulae lives and walks on this sticky plant surface without being trapped. We have sought to reveal the mechanism underlying the apparent non-sticky nature of the cuticle of this bug. In this study, we have visualized intact plant and insect surfaces using cryo-scanning electron microscopy and measured the adhesive properties of the plant secretion on different surfaces. We present a combination of structural and experimental results that suggest that a thick and cohesively weak film of an outermost, epicuticular greasy secretion acts as a ;sloughing-off' layer, preventing the formation of contacts between the sticky plant secretion and the solid insect cuticle. In a comparative study of fresh cuticle fractures of flies representing a typical prey of R. gorgonias, a thin, fragmentary layer of epicuticular grease was revealed. These results indicate that, when trapping prey, the plant adhesive might form proper contact with solid islands of the insect cuticle that are free of epicuticular grease. PMID:18689418

  18. Unusual sequence length-dependent gold nanoparticles aggregation of the ssDNA sticky end and its application for enzyme-free and signal amplified colorimetric DNA detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongfei; Dai, Jianyuan; Duan, Zhijuan; Zheng, Baozhan; Meng, Yan; Guo, Yong; Dan Xiao

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the adsorption of short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) on unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is much faster than that for long ssDNA, and thus leads to length-dependent AuNPs aggregation after addition of salt, the color of the solutions sequentially changed from red to blue in accordance with the increase of ssDNA length. However, we found herein that the ssDNA sticky end of hairpin DNA exhibited a completely different adsorption behavior compared to ssDNA, an inverse blue-to-red color variation was observed in the colloid solution with the increase of sticky end length when the length is within a certain range. This unusual sequence length-dependent AuNPs aggregation might be ascribed to the effect of the stem of hairpin DNA. On the basis of this unique phenomenon and catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) based signal amplification, a novel AuNPs-based colorimetric DNA assay with picomolar sensitivity and specificity was developed. This unusual sequence length-dependent AuNPs aggregation of the ssDNA sticky end introduces a new direction for the AuNPs-based colorimetric assays.

  19. Influence of Sticky Rice and Anionic Polyacrylamide on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate in Chinese Organic Sanhetu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Peng, Changsheng; Dai, Min; Gu, Qingbao; Song, Shaoxian

    2015-09-01

    The crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soil controlled by natural organic material was considered a very important reason to enhance the property of ancient Chinese organic Sanhetu (COS), but how the organic material affected the crystallization of CaCO3 in COS is still unclear. In this paper, a natural organic material (sticky rice, SR) and a synthetic organic material (anionic polyacrylamide, APAM) were selected as additives to investigate their effect on the crystallization of CaCO3. The experimental results showed that the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of additives and reaction time, while only the size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of reactant. Although the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals varied greatly with the variation of additive concentration, reactant concentration and reaction time, the polymorph of CaCO3 crystals were always calcite, according to SEM/EDX, XRD and FTIR analyses. This study may help us to better understand the mechanism of the influence of organic materials on CaCO3 crystallization and properties of COS.

  20. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  1. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  2. Synthesis of flat sticky hydrophobic carbon diamond-like films using atmospheric pressure Ar/CH4 dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, R.; Hendaoui, A.; de Matos, J.; Chaker, M.

    2016-06-01

    An Ar/CH4 atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) was used to synthesize sticky hydrophobic diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on glass surface. The film is formed with plasma treatment duration shorter than 30 s, and water contact angles larger than 90° together with contact angle hysteresis larger than 10° can be achieved. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, hydrocarbon functional groups are created on the glass substrate, producing coatings with low surface energy (˜35 mJ m-2) with no modification of the surface roughness. To infer the plasma processes leading to the formation of low energy DLC surfaces, optical emission spectroscopy was used. From the results, a direct relationship between the CH species present in the plasma and the carbon concentration in the hydrophobic layer was found, which suggests that the CH species are the precursors of DLC film growth. Additionally, the plasma gas temperature was measured to be below 350 K which highlights the suitability of using AP-DBD to treat thermo-sensitive surfaces.

  3. An Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter adhesin reaped from cells exhibits its nonspecific stickiness via a highly stable 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Shogo; Nakatani, Hajime; Iwasaki, Keita; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), cell surface proteins of Gram-negative bacteria, mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific, high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. AtaA is a homotrimer of polypeptides comprising 3,630 amino acids and forms long nanofibers; therefore, it is too large and structurally complex to be produced as a recombinant protein. In this study, we isolated AtaA's passenger domain (AtaA PSD), which is translocated to the cell surface through the C-terminal transmembrane domain and exhibits biological functions, using a new method. We introduced a protease recognition site and reaped AtaA nanofibers 225 nm in length from the cell surface through proteolytic cleavage with a specific protease. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of the purified native AtaA PSD revealed that it has a stable structure under alkaline and acidic conditions. Temperatures above 80 °C, which disrupted AtaA's higher-order structure but maintained the full-length AtaA polypeptide, inactivated AtaA's nonspecific adhesiveness, suggesting that the stickiness of AtaA requires its 3D structure. This finding refutes the widespread but vague speculation that large unfolded polypeptides readily stick to various surfaces. PMID:27305955

  4. An Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter adhesin reaped from cells exhibits its nonspecific stickiness via a highly stable 3D structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Shogo; Nakatani, Hajime; Iwasaki, Keita; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), cell surface proteins of Gram-negative bacteria, mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific, high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. AtaA is a homotrimer of polypeptides comprising 3,630 amino acids and forms long nanofibers; therefore, it is too large and structurally complex to be produced as a recombinant protein. In this study, we isolated AtaA’s passenger domain (AtaA PSD), which is translocated to the cell surface through the C-terminal transmembrane domain and exhibits biological functions, using a new method. We introduced a protease recognition site and reaped AtaA nanofibers 225 nm in length from the cell surface through proteolytic cleavage with a specific protease. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of the purified native AtaA PSD revealed that it has a stable structure under alkaline and acidic conditions. Temperatures above 80 °C, which disrupted AtaA’s higher-order structure but maintained the full-length AtaA polypeptide, inactivated AtaA’s nonspecific adhesiveness, suggesting that the stickiness of AtaA requires its 3D structure. This finding refutes the widespread but vague speculation that large unfolded polypeptides readily stick to various surfaces. PMID:27305955

  5. CERES Web Links

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-21

    ...   Web Links to Relevant CERES Information Relevant information about CERES, CERES references, ... Instrument Working Group Home Page Aerosol Retrieval Web Page  (Center for Satellite Applications and Research) ...

  6. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  7. Chemistry on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    Gives an overview of the World Wide Web, describes what is required to access it, and highlights some of the features of interest to chemists such as Web-based chemical databases that feature user-interactive molecular structures and chemical movies. Lists Internet chemistry resources designed for Web browsers and locations for obtaining Web…

  8. Evaluating Web Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Jean; Martin, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Web usability focuses on design elements and processes that make web pages easy to use. A website for college students was evaluated for underutilization. One-on-one testing, focus groups, web analytics, peer university review and marketing focus group and demographic data were utilized to conduct usability evaluation. The results indicated that…

  9. Architecture and the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, William H.

    Instructors should be concerned with how to incorporate the World Wide Web into an information systems (IS) curriculum organized across three areas of knowledge: information technology, organizational and management concepts, and theory and development of systems. The Web fits broadly into the information technology component. For the Web to be…

  10. WWW: Neuroscience Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The human brain contains an estimated 100 billion neurons, and browsing the Web, one might be led to believe that there's a Web site for every one of those cells. It's no surprise that there are lots of Web sites concerning the nervous system. After all, the human brain is toward the top of nearly everyone's list of favorite organs and of…

  11. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  12. Drying of fiber webs

    DOEpatents

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  13. Drying of fiber webs

    DOEpatents

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  14. Isolation and purification of Flavobacterium alpha-1,3-glucanase-hydrolyzing, insoluble, sticky glucan of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, S; Kato, K; Kotani, S; Misaki, A

    1975-01-01

    Studies were made on the physical and chemical properties of polysaccharides synthesized by cell-free extracts of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus sp. and their susceptibilities to dextranases. Among the polysaccharides examined, insoluble glucans were rather resistant to available dextranase preparations, and the insoluble, sticky glucan produced by S. mutans OMZ 176, which could be important in formation of dental plaques, was the most resistant. By enrichment culture of soil specimens, using OMZ 176 glucans as the sole carbon source, an organism was isolated that produced colonies surrounded by a clear lytic zone on opaque agar plates containing the OMZ 176 glucan. The organism was identified as a strain of Flavobacterium and named the Ek-14 bacterium. EK-14 bacterium was grown in Trypticase soy broth, and an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the OMZ 176 glucan was concentrated from the culture supernatant and purified by negative adsorption on a diethylaminoethyl-cellulose (DE-32) column and gradient elution chromatography with a carboxymethyl-cellulose (CM-32) column. The enzyme was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of pH 8.5 and molecular weight of 65,000. Its optimum pH was 6.3 and its optimal temperature was 42 C. The purified enzyme released 11% of the total glucose residues of the OMZ 176 glucan as reducing sugars and solubilized about half of the substrate glucan. The products were found to be isomaltose, nigerose, and nigerotriose, with some oligosaccharides. The purified enzyme split the alpha-1,3-glucan endolytically and was inactive toward glucans containing alpha-1,6, alpha-1,4, beta-1,3, beta-1,4, and/or beta-1,6 bonds as the main linkages. Images PMID:370

  15. Creating Web Sites for Web Surfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    If you build it, will they come? This is one of the fundamental questions anybody creating a Web site has to confront, whether you're a business person, a Web professional or a home user. One of the fundamental ways to ensure people do come, and return, is to make the content of your site as appealing and as accessible as possible. A new study by…

  16. Self-assembly and glass-formation in a lattice model of telechelic polymer melts: Influence of stiffness of the sticky bonds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Sheng; Freed, Karl F

    2016-06-01

    Telechelic polymers are chain macromolecules that may self-assemble through the association of their two mono-functional end groups (called "stickers"). A deep understanding of the relation between microscopic molecular details and the macroscopic physical properties of telechelic polymers is important in guiding the rational design of telechelic polymer materials with desired properties. The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for strongly interacting, self-assembling telechelic polymers provides a theoretical tool that enables establishing the connections between important microscopic molecular details of self-assembling polymers and their bulk thermodynamics. The original LCT for self-assembly of telechelic polymers considers a model of fully flexible linear chains [J. Dudowicz and K. F. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064902 (2012)], while our recent work introduces a significant improvement to the LCT by including a description of chain semiflexibility for the bonds within each individual telechelic chain [W.-S. Xu and K. F. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 024901 (2015)], but the physically associative (or called "sticky") bonds between the ends of the telechelics are left as fully flexible. Motivated by the ubiquitous presence of steric constraints on the association of real telechelic polymers that impart an additional degree of bond stiffness (or rigidity), the present paper further extends the LCT to permit the sticky bonds to be semiflexible but to have a stiffness differing from that within each telechelic chain. An analytical expression for the Helmholtz free energy is provided for this model of linear telechelic polymer melts, and illustrative calculations demonstrate the significant influence of the stiffness of the sticky bonds on the self-assembly and thermodynamics of telechelic polymers. A brief discussion is also provided for the impact of self-assembly on glass-formation by combining the LCT description for this extended model of telechelic polymers with the

  17. Detection of dengue viral RNA in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to sticky lures using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Bangs, M J; Tan, R; Listiyaningsih, E; Kay, B H; Porter, K R

    2001-09-01

    Active surveillance for dengue (DEN) virus infected mosquitoes can be an effective way to predict the risk of dengue infection in a given area. However, doing so may pose logistical problems if mosquitoes must be kept alive or frozen fresh to detect DEN virus. In an attempt to simplify mosquito processing, we evaluated the usefulness of a sticky lure and a seminested reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) for detecting DEN virus RNA under laboratory conditions using experimentally infected Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. In the first experiment, 40 male mosquitoes were inoculated with 0.13 microl of a 10(4) pfu/ml DEN-2 stock solution. After a 7-d incubation period, the mosquitoes were applied to the sticky lure and kept at room temperatures of 23-30 degrees C. Following 7, 10, 14, and 28 d application, 10 mosquitoes each were removed from the lure, pooled, and assayed for virus. DEN virus nucleic acid was clearly detectable in all pools up to 28 d after death. A second study evaluated sensitivity and specificity using one, two, and five DEN-infected mosquitoes removed after 7,10, 14, 21, and 30 d application and tested by RT-PCR. All four DEN serotypes were individually inoculated in mosquitoes and evaluated using the same procedures as experiment 1. The four serotypes were detectable in as few as one mosquito 30 d after applications to the lure with no evidence of cross-reactivity. The combination of sticky lures and RT-PCR show promise for mosquito and dengue virus surveillance and warrant further evaluation. PMID:11580045

  18. Architecture based on the integration of intermolecular G-quadruplex structure with sticky-end pairing and colorimetric detection of DNA hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Shen, Zhifa; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2014-01-01

    An interesting discovery is reported in that G-rich hairpin-based recognition probes can self-assemble into a nano-architecture based on the integration of an intermolecular G-quadruplex structure with the sticky-end pairing effect in the presence of target DNAs. Moreover, GNPs modified with partly complementary DNAs can intensively aggregate by hybridization-based intercalation between intermolecular G-quadruplexes, indicating an inspiring assembly mechanism and a powerful colorimetric DNA detection. The proposed intermolecular G-quadruplex-integrated sticky-end pairing assembly (called GISA)-based colorimetric system allows a specific and quantitative assay of p53 DNA with a linear range of more than two orders of magnitude and a detection limit of 0.2 nM, suggesting a considerably improved analytical performance. And more to the point, the discrimination of single-base mismatched target DNAs can be easily conducted via visual observation. The successful development of the present colorimetric system, especially the GISA-based aggregation mechanism of GNPs is different from traditional approaches, and offers a critical insight into the dependence of the GNP aggregation on the structural properties of oligonucleotides, opening a good way to design colorimetric sensing probes and DNA nanostructure. An interesting discovery is reported in that G-rich hairpin-based recognition probes can self-assemble into a nano-architecture based on the integration of an intermolecular G-quadruplex structure with the sticky-end pairing effect in the presence of target DNAs. Moreover, GNPs modified with partly complementary DNAs can intensively aggregate by hybridization-based intercalation between intermolecular G-quadruplexes, indicating an inspiring assembly mechanism and a powerful colorimetric DNA detection. The proposed intermolecular G-quadruplex-integrated sticky-end pairing assembly (called GISA)-based colorimetric system allows a specific and quantitative assay of p53 DNA

  19. Web Information Monitoring: An Analysis of Web Page Updates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Bing; Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for Web information mentoring systems that help users track and monitor Web information based on users' interests. Describes a study that analyzed Web pages, Web site domains and change frequency for a Web monitoring system developed at Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). (Author/LRW)

  20. Using Open Web APIs in Teaching Web Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Li, Xin; Chau, M.; Ho, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Chunju

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, many business applications that utilize data mining and text mining techniques to extract useful business information on the Web have evolved from Web searching to Web mining. It is important for students to acquire knowledge and hands-on experience in Web mining during their education in information systems…

  1. Community food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Community food webs describe the feeding relationships, or trophic interactions, between the species of an ecological community. Both the structure and dynamics of such webs are the focus of food web research. The topological structures of empirical food webs from many ecosystems have been published on the basis of field studies and they form the foundation for theory concerning the mean number of trophic levels, the mean number of trophic connections versus number of species, and other food web measures, which show consistency across different ecosystems. The dynamics of food webs are influenced by indirect interactions, in which changes in the level of a population in one part of the food web may have indirect effects throughout the web. The mechanisms of these interactions are typically studied microcosm experiments, or sometimes in-field experiments. The use of mathematical models is also a major approach to understanding the effects of indirect interactions. Both empirical and mathematical studies have revealed important properties of food webs, such as keystone predators and trophic cascades.

  2. Silicon Web Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

  3. An introduction to webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. D.

    2016-04-01

    Webs are sets of Feynman diagrams that contribute to the exponents of scattering amplitudes, in the kinematic limit in which emitted radiation is soft. As such, they have a number of phenomenological and formal applications, and offer tantalizing glimpses into the all-order structure of perturbative quantum field theory. This article is based on a series of lectures given to graduate students, and aims to provide a pedagogical introduction to webs. Topics covered include exponentiation in (non-)abelian gauge theories, the web mixing matrix formalism for non-abelian gauge theories, and recent progress on the calculation of web diagrams. Problems are included throughout the text, to aid understanding.

  4. Properties of food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Pimm, S.L.

    1980-04-01

    On the assumption that systems of interacting species, when perturbed from equilibrium, should return to equilibrium quickly, one can predict four properties of food webs: (1) food chains should be short, (2) species feeding on more than one trophic level (omnivores) should be rare, (3) those species that do feed on more than one trophic level should do so by feeding on species in adjacent trophic levels, and (4) host-parasitoid systems are likely to be exceptions to (1)-(3) when interaction coefficients permit greater trophic complexity. By generating random, model food webs (with many features identical to webs described from a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems), it is possible to generate expected values for the number of trophic levels and the degree of omnivory within webs. When compared with these random webs, real world webs are shown to have fewer trophic levels, less omnivory, and very few omnivores feeding on nonadjacent trophic levels. Insect webs are shown to have a greater degree of omnivory than other webs. The confirmation of all these predictions from stability analyses suggests that system stability places necessary, though not sufficient, limitations on the possible shapes of food webs.

  5. Motivation Mining: Prospecting the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.; Arnone, Marilyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes WebMAC instruments, which differ from other Web-evaluation instruments because they have a theoretical base, are user-centered, are designed for students in grades 7 through 12, and assess the motivational quality of Web sites. Examples are given of uses of WebMAC Middle and WebMAC Senior in activities to promote evaluation and…

  6. Inhibitory effect of target binding on hairpin aptamer sticky-end pairing-induced gold nanoparticle assembly for light-up colorimetric protein assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zai-Sheng; Lu, Haixia; Liu, Xueping; Hu, Rong; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2010-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) possessing strong distance-dependent optical properties and high extinction coefficients have emerged as important colorimetric materials. Almost all colorimetric studies are based on two working mechanisms: sandwich cross-linking and non-cross-linking systems. In the present study, a new working mechanism, hairpin sticky-end pairing-induced GNP assembly, is introduced based on the discovery of unique aggregation behavior of aptamer-functionalized GNPs. The salt-induced aggregation of oligonucleotide probe-modified GNPs can readily occur due to the sticky-end pairing effect while addition of target molecules favors the formation of the hairpin structure of probe sequences and substantially inhibits the nanoparticle assembly. Along this line, we developed a proof-of-concept colorimetric homogeneous assay using immunoglobulin E (IgE) as an analyte model via transforming a commonly designed "light-down" colorimetric biosensor into a "light-up" one. From the point of view of both conformational transition of aptamer and steric bulk, oligonucleotide-GNPs display an additional stability upon binding to target molecules. The assay showed an extremely high sensitivity from both naked eye observations and absorbance measurements. Compared with almost all existing IgE sensing strategies, the proposed colorimetric system possesses a substantially improved analytical performance. Investigating the assembly behavior of hairpin aptamer-modified GNPs could offer new insight into the dependence of the GNP properties on the structure switching and open a new way to design signaling probes and develop colorimetric assay schemes. PMID:20394414

  7. Sticky-sphere model for phase separation of mixtures of the eye lens proteins gamma-B and alpha crystallin: non-monotonic dependence on mutual attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, George; Bautista, Maurino; Ross, David; Lindberg, Vern; Shahmohamad, Hossein

    2008-03-01

    We apply a multi-component extension of the Baxter sticky-sphere model to aqueous solutions of the eye lens proteins gamma-B crystallin and alpha crystallin. These mixtures show liquid-liquid phase separation influenced by gamma-B/gamma-B attraction, gamma-B/alpha size disparity and gamma-B/alpha attraction. We examine the dependence of the upper-consolute spinodal temperature surface on gamma-B/alpha attraction, previously found to influence stability. Gamma-B crystallin is modeled with a temperature-dependent stickiness parameter that reproduces both static light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering near its critical point. Alpha crystallin is modeled as a hard sphere. We find that the Barboy-Tenne model shows a non-monotonic dependence of the spinodal temperature surface on gamma-B/alpha attraction that is qualitatively consistent with recent molecular dynamics simulation results. Hard-sphere or very attractive gamma-B/alpha interactions lead to instability, and the spinodal surface shows a minimum in an intermediate range of gamma-B/alpha attraction strength. We examine the nature of the two types of instability.

  8. Web Page Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Lorin

    Designing a web home page involves many decisions that affect how the page will look, the kind of technology required to use the page, the links the page will provide, and kinds of patrons who can use the page. The theme of information literacy needs to be built into every web page; users need to be taught the skills of sorting and applying…

  9. Making WEB Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Jamie

    1996-01-01

    Poorly organized and dominated by amateurs, hucksters, and marketeers, the net requires efficient navigating devices. Students at Bellingham (Washington) Public Schools tackle information overload by contributing to virtual museums on school Web sites, using annotated Web curriculum lists, and conducting research in cooperative teams stressing…

  10. Web Design Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The web site is a library's most important feature. Patrons use the web site for numerous functions, such as renewing materials, placing holds, requesting information, and accessing databases. The homepage is the place they turn to look up the hours, branch locations, policies, and events. Whether users are at work, at home, in a building, or on…

  11. Appreciating "Charlotte's Web."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Presents an appreciation of "Charlotte's Web," a children's literary classic which portrays clearly and simply the themes of love, death, friendship, and salvation. Discusses E.B. White's life and background, his attention to writing style, and the beginnings of "Charlotte's Web." Provides a capsule of classic elements in the book; gives questions…

  12. Rhizoctonia web blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by several Rhizoctonia spp., is an important disease of evergreen azaleas and other ornamental plants in nurseries. The primary pathogens causing web blight are binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AG) (= Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers, teleomorph). In southern AL an...

  13. Web 2 Nowhere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Web 2.0 seems to be all the rage these days. One cannot go to a library conference and attend presentations or stroll down the halls without hearing some mention of it in magical tones reserved for some great discovery. The excitement surrounding Web 2.0 reminds the author of the frenzy that gripped the country between 1848 and 1855, when…

  14. SAWAN Web System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-21

    A web site designed to collect and distribute environmental data from various South Asia participants regarding the quality of water in the region. The web site provides transparency to water quality analysis parameters based on locations along South Asia rivers. It facilitates open communication among players in the region.

  15. The Learning Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents The Learning Web, a web site dedicated to K-12 earth science education that is maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. Includes earth science activities and information presented in three categories: (1) Global Change; (2) Working With Maps; and (3) Earth Science. Also features other educational sections such as Ask-A-Geologist, Dynamic…

  16. The Social Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at tech guru Will Richardson's new book, "Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms." Whether it's blogs or wikis or RSS, all roads now point to a Web where little is done in isolation. The biggest, most sweeping change in the people's relationship with the Internet may not be as much the ability…

  17. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  18. Web Team Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jennifer; Felker, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic world of the Web has provided libraries with a wealth of opportunities, including new approaches to the provision of information and varied internal staffing structures. The development of self-managed Web teams, endowed with authority and resources, can create an adaptable and responsive culture within libraries. This new working team…

  19. The Creative Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudess, Jo

    2003-01-01

    This article lists the Web sites of 12 international not-for-profit creativity associations designed to trigger more creative thought and research possibilities. Along with Web addresses, the entries include telephone contact information and a brief description of the organization. (CR)

  20. Improving Web Site Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the Internet has become an essential part of the way companies do business. These days, it is as important to have a Web site as it is to have a phone book listing. Unfortunately, many Web sites are riddled with perplexing navigation and unclear priorities that leave many users confused and frustrated. This article presents…

  1. Taming the Tangled Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI) and its use as a resource for higher education institutions interested in developing web-based learning capabilities. Highlights the OKI collaborative effort and its goal to ensure that the web tools it designs are installable and supportable on smaller campuses and by smaller institutions. (GR)

  2. Wetlands and Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisone-Bartels, Dede

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the preservation of areas like the Shoreline Park (California) wetlands depends on educating students about the value of natural resources. Describes the creation of a Web page on the wetlands for third-grade students by seventh-grade art and ecology students. Outlines the technical process of developing a Web page. (DSK)

  3. Literature on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    A teacher in the English education program at Buffalo State College describes her development of Web-based literature guides for preservice teachers to use in preparation and student teaching and for secondary-level English/language arts teachers to use in their classrooms. Discusses assembling materials for the web guide; an overview of site…

  4. Advancement's Sticky Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The author did not expect to be surprised or disturbed by the data from the latest Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) salary survey; however, she was. CASE has been conducting the survey since 1982, so she assumed the findings would mirror her own salary history and those of her peers. While she suspected that older women…

  5. Creating a Sticky MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Barbara; Poole, Debra; Nestor, MaryAnne

    2016-01-01

    "Learning How to Learn," a MOOC from UC San Diego, is one of Coursera's most successful offerings; in its first year, nearly one million learners enrolled in the course. As a result of its high student satisfaction levels (4.55 on a 5-point Likert scale) and the persistence of strong student interest in the course, it is worth examining…

  6. Bloch points are sticky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Kim, Se Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Bloch points are zero-dimensional topological defects in three-dimensional ferromagnets. A representative magnetic configuration is a hedgehog with magnetization pointing away from a center. The singular nature of a Bloch point's core leads to interesting and observable consequences. A simple argument based on dimensional analysis shows that a magnetic lattice creates a periodic potential that can pin a Bloch point even if the lattice has no defects. The pinning force is of the order of the micromagnetic exchange constant, a few piconewtons in a typical ferromagnet. A domain wall in a cylindrical ferromagnetic wire with the diameter of a few tens of nanometers may contain a Bloch point. Such a domain wall will have a sizable depinning field, tens of oersteds. A Bloch point moving through an atomic lattice should emit electromagnetic waves at the frequency of a few hundred gigahertz. Research supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grants No. DMR-0520491 and No. DMR-1104753.

  7. Vibration Propagation in Spider Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, Ross; Otto, Andrew; Elias, Damian

    Due to their poor eyesight, spiders rely on web vibrations for situational awareness. Web-borne vibrations are used to determine the location of prey, predators, and potential mates. The influence of web geometry and composition on web vibrations is important for understanding spider's behavior and ecology. Past studies on web vibrations have experimentally measured the frequency response of web geometries by removing threads from existing webs. The full influence of web structure and tension distribution on vibration transmission; however, has not been addressed in prior work. We have constructed physical artificial webs and computer models to better understand the effect of web structure on vibration transmission. These models provide insight into the propagation of vibrations through the webs, the frequency response of the bare web, and the influence of the spider's mass and stiffness on the vibration transmission patterns. Funded by NSF-1504428.

  8. Funnel-web spider bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on ... the effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous ...

  9. Chemistry WebBook

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  10. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  11. Web-CS: Infrastructure for Web-Based Competitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aerts, A. T. M.; Bierhoff, P. F. M.; De Bra, P. M. E.

    This paper presents a World Wide Web-based infrastructure for cooperation between many different parties. The infrastructure is designed for Web-based competitions involving an editorial board, designers of assignments or events, evaluators, different organizational layers, and contestants. Web-CS is entirely Web-based: all the communication…

  12. WebQuests, an Interactive Approach to the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanfelner, Deborah L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the experience of a New York community college librarian in collaborating with an English professor on a WebQuest (inquiry-oriented activity where information is obtained from the Web) assignment in a literature class. Discusses the advantages of using WebQuest to teach students how to locate literary sources on the web. (CW)

  13. Web service performance script

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-08-01

    This python script, available from ESRI and modified here, checks a server at specified intervals to ensure that web services remain up and running. If any are found to be off, they are automatically turned back on.

  14. A zooming Web browser

    SciTech Connect

    Bederson, B.B.; Hollan, J.D.; Stewart, J.; Rogers, D.; Vick, D.; Ring, L.; Grose, E.; Forsythe, C.

    1996-12-31

    We are developing a prototype zooming World-Wide Web browser within Pad++, a multiscale graphical environment. Instead of having a single page visible at a time, multiple pages and the links between them are depicted on a large zoomable information surface. Pages are scaled so that the page in focus is clearly readable with connected pages shown at smaller scales to provide context. We quantitatively compared performance with the Pad++ Web browser and Netscape in several different scenarios. We examined how quickly users could answer questions about a specific Web site designed for this test. Initially we found that subjects answered questions slightly slower with Pad++ than with Netscape. After analyzing the results of this study, we implemented several changes to the Pad++ Web browser, and repeated one Pad++ condition. After improvements were made to the Pad++ browser, subjects using Pad++ answered questions 23% faster than those using Netscape.

  15. Fun With Food Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl D.

    1977-01-01

    Explains an upper elementary game of tag that illustrates energy flow in food webs using candy bars as food sources. A follow-up field trip to a river and five language arts projects are also suggested. (CS)

  16. A Web Graphics Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the basic technical concepts of using graphics in World Wide Web pages, including: color depth and dithering, dots-per-inch, image size, file types, Graphics Interchange Formats (GIFs), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), format, and software recommendations. (AEF)

  17. WebGasEOS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-10-01

    WebGasEOS provides quick, user-friendly access to real gas physical properties. Using the real gas properties modules of the TOUGH-Fx project, WebGasEOS allows any user, though a web- based application, to define a multicornponent system, specify temperature and pressure, select an equation of state, and compute volumetric, thermodynamic, and fluid properties. Additional functions allow the inclusion of gaseous or liquid water, with or without added salts. The user may choose the format of the results, performmore » repeat calculations or calculations over a range of temperature and pressure, or vary compositions by simply changing form parameters, The application is publicly available on the internet and can be used at any time by anyone with a standards-compliant web browser.« less

  18. Web document engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1996-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

  19. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

  20. Web Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Candy

    1998-01-01

    Looks briefly at the history of World Wide Web search engine development and considers the current state of affairs. Reflects on future directions in terms of personalization, summarization, query expansion, coverage, and metadata. (Author/AEF)

  1. Web Operational Status Boards

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-16

    Web Operational Status Boards (WebOSB)is a web-based application designed to acquire, display, and update highly dynamic status information between multiple users and jurisdictions. WebOSB is able to disseminate real-time status information—support the timely sharing of information—with constant, dynamic updates via personal computers and the Internet between emergency operations centers (EOCs), incident command centers, and to users outside the EOC who need to know the information (hospitals, shelters, schools). The WebOSB application far exceeds outdated information-sharingmore » methods used by emergency workers: whiteboards, Word and Excel documents, or even locality-specific Web sites. WebOSB’s capabilities include the following elements: - Secure access. Multiple users can access information on WebOSB from any personal computer with Internet access and a secure ID. Privileges are use to control access and distribution of status information and to identify users who are authorized to add or edit information. - Simultaneous update. WebOSB provides options for users to add, display, and update dynamic information simultaneously at all locations involved in the emergency management effort, A single status board can be updated from multiple locations enabling shelters and hospitals to post bed availability or list decontamination capability. - On-the-fly modification. Allowing the definition of an existing status board to be modified on-the-fly can be an asset during an emergency, where information requirements can change quickly. The status board designer feature allows an administrator to quickly define, modi,, add to, and implement new status boards in minutes without needing the help of Web designers and computer programmers. - Publisher/subscriber notification. As a subscriber, each user automatically receives notification of any new information relating to specific status boards. The publisher/subscriber feature automatically notified each user of any

  2. Web Awards: Are They Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Nancy; McKnight, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    School library media specialists recommend quality Web sites to children based on evaluations and Web awards. This article examines three types of Web awards and who grants them, suggests ways to determine their reliability, and discusses specific award sites. Includes a bibliography of Web sites. (PEN)

  3. The W's of Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, John; Griffin, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the pre-design questions that a Web site designer and client need to address. Discusses the why, who, what, where, and when phases of the Web site design process. Includes a Web Site Development Form to guide site designs through the first two stages of Web site development: specification and design. (AEF)

  4. Learning from WebQuests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Martonia; McNulty, Anastasia; Brooks, David W.

    2006-01-01

    WebQuests are activities in which students use Web resources to learn about school topics. WebQuests are advocated as constructivist activities and ones generally well regarded by students. Two experiments were conducted in school settings to compare learning using WebQuests versus conventional instruction. Students and teachers both enjoyed…

  5. Semantic Web for Manufacturing Web Services

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad

    2002-06-01

    As markets become unexpectedly turbulent with a shortened product life cycle and a power shift towards buyers, the need for methods to rapidly and cost-effectively develop products, production facilities and supporting software is becoming urgent. The use of a virtual enterprise plays a vital role in surviving turbulent markets. However, its success requires reliable and large-scale interoperation among trading partners via a semantic web of trading partners' services whose properties, capabilities, and interfaces are encoded in an unambiguous as well as computer-understandable form. This paper demonstrates a promising approach to integration and interoperation between a design house and a manufacturer by developing semantic web services for business and engineering transactions. To this end, detailed activity and information flow diagrams are developed, in which the two trading partners exchange messages and documents. The properties and capabilities of the manufacturer sites are defined using DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) ontology definition language. The prototype development of semantic webs shows that enterprises can widely interoperate in an unambiguous and autonomous manner; hence, virtual enterprise is realizable at a low cost.

  6. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps. PMID:27065593

  7. Geology and biology of the "Sticky Grounds", shelf-margin carbonate mounds, and mesophotic ecosystem in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Reed, John K.; Farrington, Stephanie; Harter, Stacey; Hine, Albert C.; Dunn, Shane

    2016-08-01

    Shelf-margin carbonate mounds in water depths of 116-135 m in the eastern Gulf of Mexico along the central west Florida shelf were investigated using swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar, sub-bottom imaging, rock dredging, and submersible dives. These enigmatic structures, known to fisherman as the "Sticky Grounds", trend along slope, are 5-15 m in relief with base diameters of 5-30 m, and suggest widespread potential for mesophotic reef habitat along the west Florida outer continental shelf. Possible origins are sea-level lowstand coral patch reefs, oyster reefs, or perhaps more recent post-lowstand biohermal development. Rock dredging recovered bioeroded carbonate-rock facies comprised of bored and cemented bioclastics. Rock sample components included calcified worm tubes, pelagic sediment, and oysters normally restricted to brackish nearshore areas. Several reef sites were surveyed at the Sticky Grounds during a cruise in August 2010 with the R/V Seward Johnson using the Johnson-Sea-Link II submersible to ground truth the swath-sonar maps and to quantify and characterize the benthic habitats, benthic macrofauna, fish populations, and coral/sponge cover. This study characterizes for the first time this mesophotic reef ecosystem and associated fish populations, and analyzes the interrelationships of the fish assemblages, benthic habitats and invertebrate biota. These highly eroded rock mounds provide extensive hard-bottom habitat for reef invertebrate species as well as essential fish habitat for reef fish and commercially/recreationally important fish species. The extent and significance of associated living resources with these bottom types is particularly important in light of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northeastern Gulf and the proximity of the Loop Current. Mapping the distribution of these mesophotic-depth ecosystems is important for quantifying essential fish habitat and describing benthic resources. These activities can improve ecosystem

  8. Evaluation and control of the risk of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria present in Awa-Uirou, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste.

    PubMed

    Okahisa, Naoki; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Juneja, Vijay K; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2008-06-01

    The risk of food poisoning and growth of spoilage bacteria in Awa-Uirou, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste, was evaluated. Toxin-producing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus are the main causes of food poisoning linked to this kind of food. The water activity in this product is in the range suitable for growth of S. aureus, B. cereus, and B. subtilis. The viable count of S. aureus or B. cereus spore cocktail was significantly reduced to 2.3 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g after 70 minutes steaming treatment at 100 degrees C. However, the heat-resistant endospores of B. subtilis germinated during storage at 30 degrees C to cause appreciable syneresis of the starch gel matrix in 4 days. The addition of 0.5% glycine before steaming treatment was found to effectively suppress the growth of B. cereus but was not effective in controlling S. aureus throughout the 7 days incubation period at 30 degrees C. On the other hand, S. aureus and B. cereus could grow > 5.0 log CFU/g in an inoculated sample without glycine within 3 days when stored at 30 degrees C. Moreover, addition of 0.5% glycine before the steaming process did not have any significant effect on color, texture, or taste of sticky rice cake. Therefore, results of this study demonstrated that the addition of 0.5% glycine before the steaming process could inhibit B. cereus and B. subtilis multiplication in the steamed rice confection which in turn may help reduce the risk of food poisoning or quality loss. PMID:18564913

  9. Building a better sticky trap: description of an easy-to-use trap and pole mount for quantifying the abundance of adult aquatic insects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua T.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Insect emergence is a fundamental process in freshwaters. It is a critical life-history stage for aquatic insects and provides an important prey resource for terrestrial and aquatic consumers. Sticky traps are increasingly being used to sample these insects. The most common design consists of an acetate sheet coated with a nondrying adhesive that is attached to a wire frame or cylinder. These traps must be prepared at the deployment site, a process that can be time consuming and difficult given the vagaries of field conditions. Our goals were to develop a sturdy, low-cost sticky trap that could be prepared in advance, rapidly deployed and recovered in the field, and used to estimate the flight direction of insects. We used 150-mm Petri dishes with lids. The dishes can be coated cleanly and consistently with Tangle-Trap® adhesive. Deploying traps is simple and requires only a pole set near the body of water being sampled. Four dishes can be attached to the pole using Velcro and aligned in 4 different directions to enable quantification of insect flight direction. After sampling, Petri dishes can be taped closed, packed in boxes, and stored indefinitely. Petri traps are comparable in price to standard acetate sheet traps at ∼US$0.50/directional deployment, but they require more space for storage than acetate sheet traps. However, a major benefit of Petri traps is that field deployment times are ⅓ those of acetate traps. Our study demonstrated that large Petri dishes are an ideal platform for sampling postemergent adult aquatic insects, particularly when the study design involves estimating flight direction and when rapid deployment and recovery of traps is critical.

  10. Primitive models of chemical association. III. Totally flexible sticky two-point model for multicomponent heteronuclear fixed-chain-length polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.; Kalyuzhnyi, Y.V. |; Stell, G.

    1998-04-01

    A multidensity integral-equation theory for polymerization into freely jointed hard-sphere homonuclear chain fluids proposed earlier [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 106}, 1940 (1997)] is extended to the case of multicomponent heteronuclear chain polymerization. The theory is based on the analytical solution of the polymer Percus{endash}Yevick (PPY) approximation for the totally flexible sticky two-point (S2P) model of associating fluids. The model consists of an n-component mixture of hard spheres of different sizes with species 2,{hor_ellipsis},n{minus}1 bearing two sticky sites A and B, randomly distributed on its surface, and species 1 and n with only one B and A site per particle, respectively. Due to some specific restrictions imposed on the possibility of forming bonds between particles of various species, the present version of the S2P model represents an associating fluid that is able to polymerize into a mixture of heteronuclear chain macromolecules. The structural properties of such a model are studied in the complete-association limit and compared with computer-simulation results for homonuclear hard-sphere chain mixtures, symmetrical diblock copolymers, alternating copolymers, and homonuclear hard-sphere chains in a hard-sphere solvent. Some results for the case of partial association are also presented. The PPY theory represents a quantitatively successful theory for the mixtures of short homonuclear chains and the short copolymer systems studied here. We also expect that the theory will prove to be of the same order of accuracy in investigating the case of partial association. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Evaluation and improvement of sticky traps as monitoring tools for Glossina austeni and G. brevipalpis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Green, K Kappmeier; Venter, G J

    2007-12-01

    The attractiveness of various colours, colour combinations and sizes of sticky traps of the 3-dimensional trap (3DT), cross-shaped target (XT), rectangular screen (RT) and monopanels were evaluated for their efficacy to capture Glossina austeni Newstead and G. brevipalpis Newstead in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The 3-dimensional shapes of the XT and 3DT in light blue (l.blue) and white were significantly (ca. 3.1-6.9 times) better than the RT for G. austeni. On bicoloured XTs, G. austeni landed preferentially on electric blue (e.blue) (58%) and black (63%) surfaces when used with white; while for G. brevipalpis, significantly more landed on e.blue (60-66%) surfaces when used with l.blue, black or white surfaces. Increased trap size increased the catches of G. brevipalpis females and both sexes of G. austeni significantly. Temoocid and polybutene sticky materials were equally effective and remained durable for 2-3 weeks. The glossy shine of trap surfaces did not have any significant effect on the attraction and landing responses of the two species. The overall trap efficiency of the e.blue/l.blue XT was 23% for G. brevipalpis and 28% for G. austeni, and that of the e.blue/black XT was 16% for G. brevipalpis and 51% for G. austeni. Larger monopanels, painted e.blue/black on both sides, increased the catches of G. austeni females significantly by up to four times compared to the standard e.blue/black XT. This monopanel would be recommended for use as a simple and cost effective survey tool for both species in South Africa. PMID:17997867

  12. Borderless Geospatial Web (bolegweb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetl, V.; Kliment, T.; Kliment, M.

    2016-06-01

    The effective access and use of geospatial information (GI) resources acquires a critical value of importance in modern knowledge based society. Standard web services defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) are frequently used within the implementations of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) to facilitate discovery and use of geospatial data. This data is stored in databases located in a layer, called the invisible web, thus are ignored by search engines. SDI uses a catalogue (discovery) service for the web as a gateway to the GI world through the metadata defined by ISO standards, which are structurally diverse to OGC metadata. Therefore, a crosswalk needs to be implemented to bridge the OGC resources discovered on mainstream web with those documented by metadata in an SDI to enrich its information extent. A public global wide and user friendly portal of OGC resources available on the web ensures and enhances the use of GI within a multidisciplinary context and bridges the geospatial web from the end-user perspective, thus opens its borders to everybody. Project "Crosswalking the layers of geospatial information resources to enable a borderless geospatial web" with the acronym BOLEGWEB is ongoing as a postdoctoral research project at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb in Croatia (http://bolegweb.geof.unizg.hr/). The research leading to the results of the project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 2007-2013) under Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2011-COFUND. The project started in the November 2014 and is planned to be finished by the end of 2016. This paper provides an overview of the project, research questions and methodology, so far achieved results and future steps.

  13. Factsheets Web Application

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,FRANK; REEDER,ROXANA G.

    2000-10-30

    The Factsheets web application was conceived out of the requirement to create, update, publish, and maintain a web site with dynamic research and development (R and D) content. Before creating the site, a requirements discovery process was done in order to accurately capture the purpose and functionality of the site. One of the high priority requirements for the site would be that no specialized training in web page authoring would be necessary. All functions of uploading, creation, and editing of factsheets needed to be accomplished by entering data directly into web form screens generated by the application. Another important requirement of the site was to allow for access to the factsheet web pages and data via the internal Sandia Restricted Network and Sandia Open Network based on the status of the input data. Important to the owners of the web site would be to allow the published factsheets to be accessible to all personnel within the department whether or not the sheets had completed the formal Review and Approval (R and A) process. Once the factsheets had gone through the formal review and approval process, they could then be published both internally and externally based on their individual publication status. An extended requirement and feature of the site would be to provide a keyword search capability to search through the factsheets. Also, since the site currently resides on both the internal and external networks, it would need to be registered with the Sandia search engines in order to allow access to the content of the site by the search engines. To date, all of the above requirements and features have been created and implemented in the Factsheet web application. These have been accomplished by the use of flat text databases, which are discussed in greater detail later in this paper.

  14. Learning from WebQuests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskill, Martonia; McNulty, Anastasia; Brooks, David W.

    2006-04-01

    WebQuests are activities in which students use Web resources to learn about school topics. WebQuests are advocated as constructivist activities and ones generally well regarded by students. Two experiments were conducted in school settings to compare learning using WebQuests versus conventional instruction. Students and teachers both enjoyed WebQuest instruction and spoke highly of it. In one experiment, however, conventional instruction led to significantly greater student learning. In the other, there were no significant differences in the learning outcomes between conventional versus WebQuest-based instruction.

  15. Development of Kevlar parachute webbings

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Kevlar webbings for parachute applications. Evaluation of existing webbings and a study of the effects of filling yarn denier and pick count on tensile and joint strength provided data for fabric design. Measurements of warp crimp as a function of filling denier and pick count demonstrated the relationship between warp crimp and strength. One newly developed webbing had higher strength efficiency and another had higher joint efficiency than comparable existing webbings. Both new webbings had overall efficiencies over 5% higher than values for existing webbings. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Semantic Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  17. Renaissance of the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, M.

    2009-09-01

    The renaissance of the web has driven development of many new technologies that have forever changed the way we write software. The resulting tools have been applied to both solve problems and creat new ones in a wide range of domains ranging from monitor and control user interfaces to information distribution. This discussion covers which of and how these technologies are being used in the astronomical computing community. Topics include JavaScript, Cascading Style Sheets, HTML, XML, JSON, RSS, iCalendar, Java, PHP, Python, Ruby on Rails, database technologies, and web frameworks/design patterns.

  18. WebTheme: Understanding Web Information through Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2002-06-09

    WebTheme combines the power of software agent-based information retrieval with visual analytics to provide users with a new tool for understanding web information. WebTheme allows users to both quickly comprehend large collections of information from the Web and drill down into interesting portions of a collection. Software agents work for users to perform controlled harvesting of web material of interest. Visualization and analysis tools allow exploration of the resulting document space. Information spaces are organized and presented according to their topical context. Tools that display how documents were collected by the agents, where they were gathered, and how they are linked further enhance users? understanding of information and its context. WebTheme is a significant tool in the pursuit of the Semantic Web. In particular, it supports enhanced user insight into semantics of large, pre-structured or ad-hoc, web information collections.

  19. 12. NORTH WEB DETAIL, SHOWING LOWER CHORD CONNECTION OF WEBBED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTH WEB DETAIL, SHOWING LOWER CHORD CONNECTION OF WEBBED VERTICAL (PANEL POINT C). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Lower Plymouth Rock Bridge, Spanning Upper Iowa River, Kendallville, Winneshiek County, IA

  20. Designing Effective Web Forms for Older Web Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Fujimura, Kaori; Gao, Qin; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to provide insight for web form design for older users. The effects of task complexity and information structure of web forms on older users' performance were examined. Forty-eight older participants with abundant computer and web experience were recruited. The results showed significant differences in task time and error rate…

  1. APPRIS WebServer and WebServices

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Carro, Angel; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the APPRIS WebServer (http://appris.bioinfo.cnio.es) and WebServices (http://apprisws.bioinfo.cnio.es). Both the web servers and the web services are based around the APPRIS Database, a database that presently houses annotations of splice isoforms for five different vertebrate genomes. The APPRIS WebServer and WebServices provide access to the computational methods implemented in the APPRIS Database, while the APPRIS WebServices also allows retrieval of the annotations. The APPRIS WebServer and WebServices annotate splice isoforms with protein structural and functional features, and with data from cross-species alignments. In addition they can use the annotations of structure, function and conservation to select a single reference isoform for each protein-coding gene (the principal protein isoform). APPRIS principal isoforms have been shown to agree overwhelmingly with the main protein isoform detected in proteomics experiments. The APPRIS WebServer allows for the annotation of splice isoforms for individual genes, and provides a range of visual representations and tools to allow researchers to identify the likely effect of splicing events. The APPRIS WebServices permit users to generate annotations automatically in high throughput mode and to interrogate the annotations in the APPRIS Database. The APPRIS WebServices have been implemented using REST architecture to be flexible, modular and automatic. PMID:25990727

  2. Dynamic Web Pages: Performance Impact on Web Servers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Bhupesh; Claypool, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of Web servers and requests for dynamic pages focuses on experimentally measuring and analyzing the performance of the three dynamic Web page generation technologies: CGI, FastCGI, and Servlets. Develops a multivariate linear regression model and predicts Web server performance under some typical dynamic requests. (Author/LRW)

  3. APPRIS WebServer and WebServices.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Carro, Angel; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces the APPRIS WebServer (http://appris.bioinfo.cnio.es) and WebServices (http://apprisws.bioinfo.cnio.es). Both the web servers and the web services are based around the APPRIS Database, a database that presently houses annotations of splice isoforms for five different vertebrate genomes. The APPRIS WebServer and WebServices provide access to the computational methods implemented in the APPRIS Database, while the APPRIS WebServices also allows retrieval of the annotations. The APPRIS WebServer and WebServices annotate splice isoforms with protein structural and functional features, and with data from cross-species alignments. In addition they can use the annotations of structure, function and conservation to select a single reference isoform for each protein-coding gene (the principal protein isoform). APPRIS principal isoforms have been shown to agree overwhelmingly with the main protein isoform detected in proteomics experiments. The APPRIS WebServer allows for the annotation of splice isoforms for individual genes, and provides a range of visual representations and tools to allow researchers to identify the likely effect of splicing events. The APPRIS WebServices permit users to generate annotations automatically in high throughput mode and to interrogate the annotations in the APPRIS Database. The APPRIS WebServices have been implemented using REST architecture to be flexible, modular and automatic. PMID:25990727

  4. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  5. Funnel-web spider bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous than females. This article is ... or manage a bite from this type of spider. If you or someone you are with has ...

  6. Guide to Healthy Web Surfing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/healthywebsurfing.html MedlinePlus Guide to Healthy Web Surfing To use the sharing features on this ... the site, use caution. Focus on quality--All Web sites are not created equal Does the site ...

  7. Web-dendritic ribbon growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilborn, R. B., Jr.; Faust, J. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A web furnace was constructed for pulling dendritic-web samples. The effect of changes in the furnace thermal geometry on the growth of dendritic-web was studied. Several attempts were made to grow primitive dendrites for use as the dendritic seed crystals for web growth and to determine the optimum twin spacing in the dendritic seed crystal for web growth. Mathematical models and computer programs were used to determine the thermal geometries in the susceptor, crucible melt, meniscus, and web. Several geometries were determined for particular furnace geometries and growth conditions. The information obtained was used in conjunction with results from the experimental growth investigations in order to achieve proper conditions for sustained pulling of two dendrite web ribbons. In addition, the facilities for obtaining the following data were constructed: twin spacing, dislocation density, web geometry, resistivity, majority charge carrier type, and minority carrier lifetime.

  8. Yahoo! Cataloging the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callery, Anne

    The Internet has the potential to be the ultimate information resource, but it needs to be organized in order to be useful. This paper discusses how the subject guide, "Yahoo!" is different from most web search engines, and how best to search for information on Yahoo! The strength in Yahoo! lies in the subject hierarchy. Advantages to searching a…

  9. WebWatch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Reviews ten Web sites that are designed to answer basic legal questions for the layperson. They provide resources on a broad range of legal topics, such as divorce, real estate, and criminal justice, as well as legal forms and information on finding a lawyer. (LRW)

  10. WebWatch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aycock, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Describes 13 Web sites that relate to archives, including how to operate them, how to find them, and the ethical and professional questions archivists confront. Special focus is given to the Society of American Archivists, the National Archives and Records Administration, and Using Archives: A Practical Guide for Researchers. (LRW)

  11. Forensic web watch 4.

    PubMed

    Lumb, P; Rutty, G N

    2000-06-01

    Finding dedicated sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) touching upon issues related to the autopsy which could be of use to forensic practitioners is, as with other areas of forensic medicine and science, a time-consuming task. Unfortunately, one has to wade through lists related to 'Alien autopsy' sites and even 'Furby autopsy' sites that are generated by the most commonly used web search engines, which have been featured in earlier web reviews. Numerous sites containing large archives of autopsy photographs are available on the web. However, many of these sites represent the darker side of the WWW as they are often presented purely for titillation. Unfortunately, one can equate these sites to the modern-day version of the Victorian 'freak show'--Typically, these sites ask for your Visa card number to view their contents, and several have links to pornography sites; one even links to a Satanist site. Luckily a few of these sites do now require age confirmation codes. As many of these sites show autopsy photographs from real cases one has to ask how these were obtained and who is placing them on the WWW. This review does not list any of these sites for obvious reasons, but it does draw the reader's attention to sites touching upon issues related to autopsies which forensic practitioners may wish to visit or use. PMID:15274989

  12. Spelling and the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; McFall, G. Peggy; Figueredo, Lauren; Takach, Bonnie Sadler; Daniels, Jason; Cuthbertson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Correct spelling is increasingly important in our technological world. We examined children's and adults' Web search behavior for easy and more difficult to spell target keywords. Grade 4 children and university students searched for the life cycle of the lemming (easy to spell target keyword) or the ptarmigan (difficult to spell target keyword).…

  13. Spider Web Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A delicate pattern, like that of a spider web, appears on top of the Mars residual polar cap, after the seasonal carbon-dioxide ice slab has disappeared. Next spring, these will likely mark the sites of vents when the carbon-dioxide ice cap returns. This Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  14. Spider Webs and Silks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollrath, Fritz

    1992-01-01

    Compares the attributes of the silk from spiders with those of the commercially harvested silk from silkworms. Discusses the evolution, design, and effectiveness of spider webs; the functional mechanics of the varieties of silk that can be produced by the same spider; and the composite, as well as molecular, structure of spider silk thread. (JJK)

  15. Underwater Web Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers search for ways to enhance oceanography units in the classroom. There are many online resources available to help one explore the mysteries of the deep. This article describes a collection of Web sites on this topic appropriate for middle level classrooms.

  16. Warbling on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of Web technology to create a repository for American bird songs at Northeastern Sate University (Oklahoma). Explains the use of software to translated bird songs into a sonogram, or picture, of what the sounds look like for ornithology students to better learn bird vocalizations. (LRW)

  17. Caught on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isakson, Carol

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents Web sites about teen use of online social networks and age-appropriate resources. These resources can be used for teaching students ways in which to use these networks safely and ethically. Among other things, "Social Network Service" entry in Wikipedia, offers a description and a "List of Social Networking…

  18. Web of Deceit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkel, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the increase in online plagiarism and what school librarians can do to help. Topics include the need for school district policies on plagiarism; teaching students what plagiarism is; pertinent Web sites; teaching students proper research skills; motivation for cheating; and requiring traditional sources of information for student…

  19. Library Web Site Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Reports on some of the new ways public library sites are presenting themselves to their patrons and to the broader World Wide Web audience. Discusses library virtual tours; calendar display; audio-visual materials; resource listings; book clubs; money-raising activities; fugitive fact files; hot item advisors; periodicals; FAQs (frequently asked…

  20. Elementary Classroom Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children's literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support…

  1. Web Development Simplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bernd W.

    2010-01-01

    The author has discussed the Multimedia Educational Resource for Teaching and Online Learning site, MERLOT, in a recent Electronic Roundup column. In this article, he discusses an entirely new Web page development tool that MERLOT has added for its members. The new tool is called the MERLOT Content Builder and is directly integrated into the…

  2. Caught on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isakson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents several Web sites supporting electronic presentation skills. The sites featured here will help fine-tune one's skills in modeling effective presentations and provide suggestions for managing student presentations meeting National Educational Technology Standards (NETS). Most use PowerPoint, the current industry…

  3. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

  4. Caught on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isakson, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Isakson presents several Web sites to increase students' awareness of career possibilities and the education choices required to reach them. Among other things, Occupational Information Network (O*NET) Online, which can be viewed at http://online.onetcenter.org/, offers a straightforward interface that lets the user search the database by using…

  5. Spinning a Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lager, Mark A.

    This paper focuses on techniques for retrieval used in information sciences and in World Wide Web search engines. The purpose of reference service and information science is to provide useful information in response to a query. The two metrics of recall and precision serve to express information retrieval performance. There are two major…

  6. Experiments in Web Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Recognized as one of our oldest yet still vital forms of communication, storytelling offers new opportunity when it takes place on the web. Even our every day activities of writing email, creating presentations, or participating in social media can become more dynamic when considered stories. A digital storyteller from outside the museum field…

  7. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  8. WebWatch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbeitt, Sarah

    1997-01-01

    Numerous Web-based phone and address directories provide advantages over the white and yellow pages. Although many share a common database, each has features that set it apart: maps, suggested driving directions, and phone dialing. This article examines eight (Bigfoot, BigBook, BigYellow, Switchboard, Infospace, Contractjobs, InterNIC)…

  9. Running Rings Around the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Irene E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and current status of WebRing, a service that links related Web sites into a central hub. Discusses it as a viable alternative to other search engines and examines issues of free speech, use by the business sector, and implications for WebRing after its purchase by Yahoo! (LRW)

  10. XML and Better Web Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Joe; Gilstrap, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the implications of the new Web metalanguage XML for searching on the World Wide Web and considers the future of XML on the Web. Compared to HTML, XML is more concerned with structure of data than documents, and these data structures should prove conducive to precise, context rich searching. (Author/LRW)

  11. Interactive Web Sites for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-three percent of teenagers are online. The average teen spends 5 to 10 hours a week on the Web. When using Web sites, teenagers are easily bored. Teenagers are also not nearly as skilled as adults at navigating the Web and do not really care for glitzy graphics. Insufficient reading skills, immature research strategies, and unwillingness to…

  12. Sensor system for web inspection

    DOEpatents

    Sleefe, Gerard E.; Rudnick, Thomas J.; Novak, James L.

    2002-01-01

    A system for electrically measuring variations over a flexible web has a capacitive sensor including spaced electrically conductive, transmit and receive electrodes mounted on a flexible substrate. The sensor is held against a flexible web with sufficient force to deflect the path of the web, which moves relative to the sensor.

  13. The Semantic Web in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  14. Homeschool Pioneers on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses homeschool Web sites, and notes the importance of connecting with others. Describes three such sites, and lists other Web sites which are useful resources for homeschoolers. Presents an evaluation methodology for school-produced Web sites, consisting of the following criteria: vision, originality, integrity, community, empowerment, and…

  15. Semantic Webs and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John J.; Rabideau, Debra K.

    1995-01-01

    Principles for ensuring effective use of semantic webbing in meeting study skill needs of students with learning problems are noted. Important study skills are listed, along with suggested semantic web topics for which subordinate ideas may be developed. Two semantic webs are presented, illustrating the study skills of multiple choice test-taking…

  16. Information Diversity in Web Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiahui

    2009-01-01

    The web is a rich and diverse information source with incredible amounts of information about all kinds of subjects in various forms. This information source affords great opportunity to build systems that support users in their work and everyday lives. To help users explore information on the web, web search systems should find information that…

  17. The Art of Web Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longe, Heather

    2008-01-01

    The essential components to building a successful Web site are many times overlooked. There is a misconception that if an individual knows HTML or is a Web developer, an effective Web site can easily be created. In reality, a variety of other factors are needed before technical skills ever come into play. When instructing students in the art of…

  18. Designing a WebQuest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salsovic, Annette R.

    2009-01-01

    A WebQuest is an inquiry-based lesson plan that uses the Internet. This article explains what a WebQuest is, shows how to create one, and provides an example. When engaged in a WebQuest, students use technology to experience cooperative learning and discovery learning while honing their research, writing, and presentation skills. It has been found…

  19. Geology and biology of the "Sticky Grounds," shelf-margin carbonate mounds, and mesophotic ecosystem in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locker, Stanley D.; Reed, John K.; Farrington, Stephanie; Harter, Stacey; Hine, Albert C.; Dunn, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Shelf-margin carbonate mounds in water depths of 116–135 m in the eastern Gulf of Mexico along the central west Florida shelf were investigated using swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar, sub-bottom imaging, rock dredging, and submersible dives. These enigmatic structures, known to fisherman as the “Sticky Grounds”, trend along slope, are 5–15 m in relief with base diameters of 5–30 m, and suggest widespread potential for mesophotic reef habitat along the west Florida outer continental shelf. Possible origins are sea-level lowstand coral patch reefs, oyster reefs, or perhaps more recent post-lowstand biohermal development. Rock dredging recovered bioeroded carbonate-rock facies comprised of bored and cemented bioclastics. Rock sample components included calcified worm tubes, pelagic sediment, and oysters normally restricted to brackish nearshore areas. Several reef sites were surveyed at the Sticky Grounds during a cruise in August 2010 with the R/V Seward Johnson using the Johnson-Sea-Link II submersible to ground truth the swath-sonar maps and to quantify and characterize the benthic habitats, benthic macrofauna, fish populations, and coral/sponge cover. This study characterizes for the first time this mesophotic reef ecosystem and associated fish populations, and analyzes the interrelationships of the fish assemblages, benthic habitats and invertebrate biota. These highly eroded rock mounds provide extensive hard-bottom habitat for reef invertebrate species as well as essential fish habitat for reef fish and commercially/recreationally important fish species. The extent and significance of associated living resources with these bottom types is particularly important in light of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northeastern Gulf and the proximity of the Loop Current. Mapping the distribution of these mesophotic-depth ecosystems is important for quantifying essential fish habitat and describing benthic resources. These activities can improve

  20. Web Usage, Advertising, and Shopping: Relationship Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korgaonkar, Pradeep; Wolin, Lori D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Web sales and explores the differences between heavy, medium, and light Web users in terms of their beliefs about Web advertising, attitudes toward Web advertising, purchasing patterns, and demographics. Suggests marketers need to target Web advertising to particular Web users. (Author/LRW)

  1. Monitoring/characterization of stickies contaminants coming from a papermaking plant--Toward an innovative exploitation of the screen rejects to levulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Licursi, Domenico; Antonetti, Claudia; Martinelli, Marco; Ribechini, Erika; Zanaboni, Marco; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria

    2016-03-01

    Recycled paper needs a lot of mechanical/chemical treatments for its re-use in the papermaking process. Some of these ones produce considerable rejected waste fractions, such as "screen rejects", which include both cellulose fibers and non-fibrous organic contaminants, or "stickies", these last representing a shortcoming both for the papermaking process and for the quality of the final product. Instead, the accepted fractions coming from these unit operations become progressively poorer in contaminants and richer in cellulose. Here, input and output streams coming from mechanical screening systems of a papermaking plant using recycled paper for cardboard production were sampled and analyzed directly and after solvent extraction, thus confirming the abundant presence of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers in the output rejected stream and cellulose in the output accepted one. Despite some significant drawbacks, the "screen reject" fraction could be traditionally used as fuel for energy recovery within the paper mill, in agreement with the integrated recycled paper mill approach. The waste, which still contains a cellulose fraction, can be also exploited by means of the hydrothermal route to give levulinic acid, a platform chemical of very high value added. PMID:26838609

  2. Detection of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus from Bemisia tabaci captured on sticky traps using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and simple template preparation.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Mitsuru; Okuda, Shiori; Iwai, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) of the genus Crinivirus within the family Closteroviridae is an emerging infectious agent of cucurbits leading to severe disease and significant economic losses. Effective detection and identification methods for this virus are urgently required. In this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect CCYV from its vector Bemisia tabaci. LAMP primer sets to detect CCYV were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity, and a primer set designed from the HSP70h gene with corresponding loop primers were selected. The RT-LAMP assay was applied to detect CCYV from viruliferous B. tabaci trapped on sticky traps. A simple extraction procedure using RNAsecure™ was developed for template preparation. CCYV was detected in all of the B. tabaci 0, 1, 7 and 14 days after they were trapped. Although the rise of turbidity was delayed in reactions using RNA from B. tabaci trapped for 7 and 14 days compared with those from 0 and 1 day, the DNA amplification was sufficient to detect CCYV in all of the samples. These findings therefore present a simple template preparation method and an effective RT-LAMP assay, which can be easily and rapidly performed to monitor CCYV-viruliferous B. tabaci in the field. PMID:25912723

  3. WebLogo

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2003-01-08

    WebLogo is a web based application designed to make the generation of sequence logos as easy and painless as possible. Sequesnce logos are a graphical representation of an amino acid or nucleic acid multiple sequence alignment developed by Tom Schneider and Mike Stephens. Each logo consists of stacks of symbols, one stack for each position in the sequence. The overall height of the stack indicates the sequence conservation at that position, while the height of symbols within the stack indicates the relative frequency of each amino or nucleic acid at that position. In general, a sequence logo provides a richer and more precise description of, for example, a binding site, than would a consensus sequence.

  4. Vote using the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoltner, Anne-Marie

    In an effort to increase the strength of AGU by increasing participation in voting, you will be able to cast your ballot for AGU officers on the Web this year. The Tellers Committee is working with an experienced firm, election.com, to develop procedures for conducting AGU's first electronic election in November and December 2001. You will be able to cast your votes for the officers of your choice, among the 62 candidates, by going to a secure Web site, or by requesting a paper ballot.An amendment to the District of Columbia law now permits non-profit organizations incorporated in Washington, D.C. to conduct elections using electronic voting. AGU was instrumental in getting the amendment adopted by the Council of the District of Columbia in spring 2001.

  5. Silicon dendritic web material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.; Campbell, R. B.; Sienkiewicz, L. J.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a low cost and reliable contact system for solar cells and the fabrication of several solar cell modules using ultrasonic bonding for the interconnection of cells and ethylene vinyl acetate as the potting material for module encapsulation are examined. The cells in the modules were made from dendritic web silicon. To reduce cost, the electroplated layer of silver was replaced with an electroplated layer of copper. The modules that were fabricated used the evaporated Ti, Pd, Ag and electroplated Cu (TiPdAg/Cu) system. Adherence of Ni to Si is improved if a nickel silicide can be formed by heat treatment. The effectiveness of Ni as a diffusion barrier to Cu and the ease with which nickel silicide is formed is discussed. The fabrication of three modules using dendritic web silicon and employing ultrasonic bonding for interconnecting calls and ethylene vinyl acetate as the potting material is examined.

  6. WebLogo

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-01-08

    WebLogo is a web based application designed to make the generation of sequence logos as easy and painless as possible. Sequesnce logos are a graphical representation of an amino acid or nucleic acid multiple sequence alignment developed by Tom Schneider and Mike Stephens. Each logo consists of stacks of symbols, one stack for each position in the sequence. The overall height of the stack indicates the sequence conservation at that position, while the height ofmore » symbols within the stack indicates the relative frequency of each amino or nucleic acid at that position. In general, a sequence logo provides a richer and more precise description of, for example, a binding site, than would a consensus sequence.« less

  7. From webs to polylogarithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardi, Einan

    2014-04-01

    We compute a class of diagrams contributing to the multi-leg soft anomalous dimension through three loops, by renormalizing a product of semi-infinite non-lightlike Wilson lines in dimensional regularization. Using non-Abelian exponentiation we directly compute contributions to the exponent in terms of webs. We develop a general strategy to compute webs with multiple gluon exchanges between Wilson lines in configuration space, and explore their analytic structure in terms of α ij , the exponential of the Minkowski cusp angle formed between the lines i and j. We show that beyond the obvious inversion symmetry α ij → 1 /α ij , at the level of the symbol the result also admits a crossing symmetry α ij → - α ij , relating spacelike and timelike kinematics, and hence argue that in this class of webs the symbol alphabet is restricted to α ij and . We carry out the calculation up to three gluons connecting four Wilson lines, finding that the contributions to the soft anomalous dimension are remarkably simple: they involve pure functions of uniform weight, which are written as a sum of products of polylogarithms, each depending on a single cusp angle. We conjecture that this type of factorization extends to all multiple-gluon-exchange contributions to the anomalous dimension.

  8. Promoting Teachers' Positive Attitude towards Web Use: A Study in Web Site Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Yavuz; Bayramoglu, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine effects of a compact training for developing web sites on teachers' web attitude, as composed of: web self efficacy, perceived web enjoyment, perceived web usefulness and behavioral intention to use the web. To measure the related constructs, the Web Attitude Scale was adapted into Turkish and tested with a…

  9. Google's Web Page Ranking Applied to Different Topological Web Graph Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meghabghab, George

    2001-01-01

    This research, part of the ongoing study to better understand Web page ranking on the Web, looks at a Web page as a graph structure or Web graph, and classifies different Web graphs in the new coordinate space (out-degree, in-degree). Google's Web ranking algorithm (Brin & Page, 1998) on ranking Web pages is applied in this new coordinate space.…

  10. An Efficient Web Page Ranking for Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahal, P.; Singh, M.; Kumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    With the enormous amount of information presented on the web, the retrieval of relevant information has become a serious problem and is also the topic of research for last few years. The most common tools to retrieve information from web are search engines like Google. The Search engines are usually based on keyword searching and indexing of web pages. This approach is not very efficient as the result-set of web pages obtained include large irrelevant pages. Sometimes even the entire result-set may contain lot of irrelevant pages for the user. The next generation of search engines must address this problem. Recently, many semantic web search engines have been developed like Ontolook, Swoogle, which help in searching meaningful documents presented on semantic web. In this process the ranking of the retrieved web pages is very crucial. Some attempts have been made in ranking of semantic web pages but still the ranking of these semantic web documents is neither satisfactory and nor up to the user's expectations. In this paper we have proposed a semantic web based document ranking scheme that relies not only on the keywords but also on the conceptual instances present between the keywords. As a result only the relevant page will be on the top of the result-set of searched web pages. We explore all relevant relations between the keywords exploring the user's intention and then calculate the fraction of these relations on each web page to determine their relevance. We have found that this ranking technique gives better results than those by the prevailing methods.

  11. Use of Semantic Web technologies on the BBC Web Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimond, Yves; Scott, Tom; Oliver, Silver; Sinclair, Patrick; Smethurst, Michael

    The BBC publishes large amounts of content online, as text, audio and video. As the amount of content grows, we need to make it easy for users to locate items of interest and to draw coherent journeys across them. In this chapter, we describe our use of Semantic Web technologies for achieving this goal. We focus in particular on three BBC Web sites: BBC Programmes, BBC Music and BBC Wildlife Finder, and how those Web sites effectively use the wider Web as their Content Management System.

  12. Hera: Engineering Web Applications Using Semantic Web-based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sluijs, Kees; Houben, Geert-Jan; Leonardi, Erwin; Hidders, Jan

    In this chapter, we consider the contribution of models and model-driven approaches based on Semantic Web for the development of Web applications. The model-driven web engineering approach, that separates concerns on different abstraction level in the application design process, allows for more robust and structural design of web applications. This is illustrated by the use of Hera, an approach from the class of Web engineering methods that relies on models expressed using RDF(S) and an RDF(S) query language. It illustrates how models and in particular models that fit with the ideas and concepts from the Semantic Web allow to approach the design and engineering of modern, open and heterogeneous Web based systems. In the presented approach, adaptation and personalization are a main aspect and it is illustrated how they are expressed using semantic data models and languages. Also specific features of Hera are discussed, like interoperability between applications in user modeling, aspect orientation in Web design and graphical tool support for Web application design.

  13. Web 3.0 Emerging

    SciTech Connect

    Hendler, James

    2012-02-22

    As more and more data and information becomes available on the Web, new technologies that use explicit semantics for information organization are becoming desirable. New terms such as Linked Data, Semantic Web and Web 3.0 are used more and more, although there is increasing confusion as to what each means. In this talk, I will describe how different sorts of models can be used to link data in different ways. I will particularly explore different kinds of Web applications, from Enterprise Data Integration to Web 3.0 startups, government data release, the different needs of Web 2.0 and 3.0, the growing interest in “semantic search”, and the underlying technologies that power these new approaches.

  14. SVG-Based Web Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jerry Z.; Zhu, Eugene; Shim, Simon

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing applications of the Web in e-commerce, advertising, and publication, new technologies are needed to improve Web graphics technology due to the current limitation of technology. The SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) technology is a new revolutionary solution to overcome the existing problems in the current web technology. It provides precise and high-resolution web graphics using plain text format commands. It sets a new standard for web graphic format to allow us to present complicated graphics with rich test fonts and colors, high printing quality, and dynamic layout capabilities. This paper provides a tutorial overview about SVG technology and its essential features, capability, and advantages. The reports a comparison studies between SVG and other web graphics technologies.

  15. Location-based Web Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Dirk; Boll, Susanne

    In recent years, the relation of Web information to a physical location has gained much attention. However, Web content today often carries only an implicit relation to a location. In this chapter, we present a novel location-based search engine that automatically derives spatial context from unstructured Web resources and allows for location-based search: our focused crawler applies heuristics to crawl and analyze Web pages that have a high probability of carrying a spatial relation to a certain region or place; the location extractor identifies the actual location information from the pages; our indexer assigns a geo-context to the pages and makes them available for a later spatial Web search. We illustrate the usage of our spatial Web search for location-based applications that provide information not only right-in-time but also right-on-the-spot.

  16. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  17. Brane webs and random processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Amer; Qureshi, Babar A.; Shabbir, Khurram; Shehper, Muhammad A.

    2015-11-01

    We study (p, q) 5-brane webs dual to certain N M5-brane configurations and show that the partition function of these brane webs gives rise to cylindric Schur process with period N. This generalizes the previously studied case of period 1. We also show that open string amplitudes corresponding to these brane webs are captured by the generating function of cylindric plane partitions with profile determined by the boundary conditions imposed on the open string amplitudes.

  18. Inflation in a web

    SciTech Connect

    Li Sheng; Piao Yunsong; Liu Yang

    2009-12-15

    In a given path with multiple branches, in principle, it can be expected that there are some fork points, where one branch is bifurcated into different branches, or various branches converge into one or several branches. In this paper, it is shown that if there is a web formed by such branches in a given field space, in which each branch can be responsible for a period of slow roll inflation, a multiverse separated by a domain wall network will come into being, some of which might correspond to our observable universe. We discuss this scenario and show possible observations of a given observer at late time.

  19. IDL Grid Web Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Costa, A.

    2008-08-01

    Image Data Language is a software for data analysis, visualization and cross-platform application development. The potentiality of IDL is well-known in the academic scientific world, especially in the astronomical environment where thousands of procedures are developed by using IDL. The typical use of IDL is the interactive mode but it is also possible to run IDL programs that do not require any interaction with the user, submitting them in batch or background modality. Through the interactive mode the user immediately receives images or other data produced in the running phase of the program; in batch or background mode, the user will have to wait for the end of the program, sometime for many hours or days to obtain images or data that IDL produced as output: in fact in Grid environment it is possible to access to or retrieve data only after completion of the program. The work that we present gives flexibility to IDL procedures submitted to the Grid computer infrastructure. For this purpose we have developed an IDL Grid Web Portal to allow the user to access the Grid and to submit IDL programs granting a full job control and the access to images and data generated during the running phase, without waiting for their completion. We have used the PHP technology and we have given the same level of security that Grid normally offers to its users. In this way, when the user notices that the intermediate program results are not those expected, he can stop the job, change the parameters to better satisfy the computational algorithm and resubmit the program, without consuming the CPU time and other Grid resources. The IDL Grid Web Portal allows you to obtain IDL generated images, graphics and data tables by using a normal browser. All conversations from the user and the Grid resources occur via Web, as well as authentication phases. The IDL user has not to change the program source much because the Portal will automatically introduce the appropriate modification before

  20. Sticky or Slippery Wetting: Network Formation Conditions Can Provide a One-Way Street for Water Flow on Platinum-cured Silicone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyu; Nair, Sithara S; Veeravalli, Sharon; Moseh, Patricia; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    -temperature end (slippery surface) but became pinned at the low-temperature end (sticky surface) and did not move when the slide was rotated 180°. The surface was therefore a "one-way street" for water droplet flow. Theory provides fundamental understanding for slippery/sticky behavior for gradient S-PDMS and Pt-PDMS coatings. A model for network formation is based on hydrosilylation at high temperature and condensation curing of Si-OH from autoxidation of Si-H at low temperatures. In summary, network formation conditions strongly affect receding contact angles and water adhesion for Sylgard 184 and the filler-free mimic Pt-PDMS. These findings suggest careful control of curing conditions is important to silicones used in microfluidic devices or as biomedical materials. Network-forming conditions also impact bulk mechanical properties for Sylgard 184, but the range that can be obtained has not been critically examined for specific applications. PMID:27175918

  1. Gauging the Success of Your Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2005-01-01

    Web analytics is a way to measure and optimize Web site performance, says Jason Burby, director of Web analytics for ZAAZ Inc., a Web design and development firm in Seattle with a countrywide client base. He compares it to using Evite, which is a useful, free web service that makes it easy to send out party and other invitations and,…

  2. Methodologies for Crawler Based Web Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Describes Web survey methodologies used to study the content of the Web, and discusses search engines and the concept of crawling the Web. Highlights include Web page selection methodologies; obstacles to reliable automatic indexing of Web sites; publicly indexable pages; crawling parameters; and tests for file duplication. (Contains 62…

  3. Tele diagnostic by web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2006-03-01

    Because of the development of multimedia technologies like Web and Internet, it now becomes possible to think about Tele Medicine and Tele Diagnostic for a distant place where no doctors and no nurses are situated at or are available. And also some kind of intelligence can be added onto them, which makes possible to give certain kind of medical treatment assistance or suggestions for a patient from a computer diagnostic base through the Internetworking. For doing this, here considers about a basic system of "Tele Diagnostic for a remote place" where it dose not have a doctor and a medical assistance. In order to implement the system, JAVA, VRML, HTML, and CORTONA are used as a basic language and a viewer. And also in order to add a kind of intelligence, Augmented Knowledge In Agent (AKIA) by using Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) is used. And by this study, here can introduce the system that has the following basic mechanisms; By inputting physical data like temperature or blood pressure, the system would show a diagnostic assistance by TEXT. And also the bad place of body would be shown graphically if there were any. The system can be put onto Web, so that anybody could have this assistance at any place ubiquitously only if a person has Internetworking access.

  4. FPA Depot - Web Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Edwin M. Martinez; Muniz, Ricardo; Szafran, Jamie; Dalton, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Lines of code (LOC) analysis is one of the methods used to measure programmer productivity and estimate schedules of programming projects. The Launch Control System (LCS) had previously used this method to estimate the amount of work and to plan development efforts. The disadvantage of using LOC as a measure of effort is that one can only measure 30% to 35% of the total effort of software projects involves coding [8]. In the application, instead of using the LOC we are using function point for a better estimation of hours in each software to develop. Because of these disadvantages, Jamie Szafran of the System Software Branch of Control And Data Systems (NE-C3) at Kennedy Space Canter developed a web application called Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot. The objective of this web application is that the LCS software architecture team can use the data to more accurately estimate the effort required to implement customer requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the domain model used for function point analysis as project managers continually strive to generate more accurate estimates.

  5. Forensic web watch 3.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    2000-03-01

    Since the publication of the first 'Forensic Web Watch' article a new search engine has become available, free of charge at the time of writing, to surfers of the Internet (Net). Fast Search claims to seek out sites of interest for the user from 'all the Web, all the time trade mark ' as opposed to parts of the Net as is more common with other search machines. It is easy to use, extremely fast but as it searches so much more of the Net, the end result is considerably larger. This, in turn, may lead to a longer time to seek out useful information as opposed to the obscure. Having said this, it is recommended to add to your search engine bookmarks. A search for sites on issues related to 'Police Surgeons' will yield limited information, as each country will have a different person filling this role, all referred to by different terms. The one common feature, however, to all such groups as well as forensic pathologists and scientists, is that they will work with, or in some cases for, the police services of their respective country. Thus, in this article we will look at sites related to the police which may have useful information related to their work, specific cases of interest and research and development which may effect our practice. PMID:15274993

  6. Improving query services of web map by web mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Maojun

    2007-11-01

    Web map is the hybrid of map and the World Wide Web (known as Web). It is usually created with WebGIS techniques. With the rapid social development, web maps oriented the public are facing pressure that dissatisfy the increased demanding. The geocoding database plays a key role in supporting query services effectively. The traditional geocoding method is laborious and time-consuming. And there is much online spatial information, which would be the supplementary information source for geocoding. Therefore, this paper discusses how to improve query services by web mining. The improvement can be described from three facets: first, improving location query by discovering and extracting address information from the Web to extend geocoding database. Second, enhancing the ability of optimum path query of public traffic and buffer query by spatial analyzing and reasoning on the extended geocoding database. Third, adjusting strategies of collecting data according to patterns discovered by web map query mining. Finally, this paper presents the designing of the application system and experimental results.

  7. Science on the Web: Web Activities Using Scientific Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Barbara; McAlister, Deborah; Richardson, Lisa

    This guide is intended to help teachers learn about using special software tools for the World Wide Web. It makes use of the scientific data produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and other government agencies. Activities in this booklet include: (1) "Finding People in Cyberspace"; (2) "Finding Science on the Web";…

  8. Bringing Web 2.0 to Web Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterl, Markus; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: At many universities, web lectures have become an integral part of the e-learning portfolio over the last few years. While many aspects of the technology involved, like automatic recording techniques or innovative interfaces for replay, have evolved at a rapid pace, web lecturing has remained independent of other important developments…

  9. Work of the Web Weavers: Web Development in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundza, Maira; Vander Meer, Patricia Fravel; Perez-Stable, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    Although the library's Web site has become a standard tool for seeking information and conducting research in academic institutions, there are a variety of ways libraries approach the often challenging--and sometimes daunting--process of Web site development and maintenance. Three librarians at Western Michigan University explored issues related…

  10. Web-Based Course Management and Web Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Chittaranjan; Sinha, Vijay Luxmi; Reade, Christopher M. P.

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of a web-based course management tool that has been developed at IIT [Indian Institute of Technology], Kharagpur and which manages the submission of assignments is discussed. Both the distributed architecture used for data storage and the client-server architecture supporting the web interface are described. Further developments…

  11. Restructuring Web Site Design: An Alternative to WebTeams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marc; Boyer, Janice

    In July 1997, the University Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha adopted a new structural model for Web site development--the publishing metaphor. Rather than relying on an individual expert (the Webmaster) or a WebTeam comprised of a few individuals, the model permits everyone in the organization, regardless of position or Web…

  12. Collaborative Authoring on the Web: Introducing WebDAV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, E. James, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the WebDAV Distributed Authoring Protocol which provides standards that allow easier collaborative authoring over the World Wide Web. Topics include Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), overwrite prevention, access control, searching, metadata, XML (Extensible Markup Language), and Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). (LRW)

  13. Web Search Studies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Web Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Michael

    Perhaps the most significant tool of our internet age is the web search engine, providing a powerful interface for accessing the vast amount of information available on the world wide web and beyond. While still in its infancy compared to the knowledge tools that precede it - such as the dictionary or encyclopedia - the impact of web search engines on society and culture has already received considerable attention from a variety of academic disciplines and perspectives. This article aims to organize a meta-discipline of “web search studies,” centered around a nucleus of major research on web search engines from five key perspectives: technical foundations and evaluations; transaction log analyses; user studies; political, ethical, and cultural critiques; and legal and policy analyses.

  14. Web2Quests: Updating a Popular Web-Based Inquiry-Oriented Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Serhat

    2009-01-01

    WebQuest is a popular inquiry-oriented activity in which learners use Web resources. Since the creation of the innovation, almost 15 years ago, the Web has changed significantly, while the WebQuest technique has changed little. This article examines possible applications of new Web trends on WebQuest instructional strategy. Some possible…

  15. Working with WebQuests: Making the Web Accessible to Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    This article describes how students with disabilities in regular classes are using the WebQuest lesson format to access the Internet. It explains essential WebQuest principles, creating a draft Web page, and WebQuest components. It offers an example of a WebQuest about salvaging the sunken ships, Titanic and Lusitania. A WebQuest planning form is…

  16. "WebQuests 101": Tips on Choosing and Assessing WebQuests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Defines WebQuests as a specific kind of Web-based learning activity and discusses how to choose and assess WebQuests. Explains a rubric to assess the strengths and weaknesses of WebQuests and includes Web sites to view examples of WebQuests. (LRW)

  17. A Web of Symbolic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitalong, Karla Saari

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how a new technological-writing practice, World Wide Web publishing, meshes and clashes with what academics have meant by plagiarism. Applies psychologist Pierre Bourdieu's theories of capital and symbolic violence to examine some ways Web publishing challenges and complicates scholars' taken-for-granted ways of controlling and…

  18. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  19. Reference Resources on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Compares three Web-based online reference services that are described as a cross between a traditional database service and a Web search engine: Ask Jeeves (http://www.ask.com), The Electric Library (http://www.elibrary.com), and Information Please (http://www.infoplease.com). Concludes that each has strengths and weaknesses and aren't directly…

  20. Critical Reading of the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Teresa; Cohen, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity and familiarity of the world wide web means that students regularly turn to it as a source of information. In doing so, they "are said to rely heavily on simple search engines, such as Google to find what they want." Researchers have also investigated how students use search engines, concluding that "the young web users tended to…

  1. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  2. Interacting Science through Web Quests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Ahmet; Karakus, Melek Altiparmak

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of WebQuests on elementary students' science achievement, attitude towards science and attitude towards web supported education in teaching 7th grade subjects (Ecosystems, Solar System). With regard to this research, "Science Achievement Test," "Attitude towards Science Scale"…

  3. Acerca de este sitio web

    Cancer.gov

    Página de guía que permite al lector entender la forma en que está organizado el sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), las categorías de información disponibles y las políticas que rigen este sitio web.

  4. Web Service: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/webservices.html MedlinePlus Web Service To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus offers a search-based Web service that provides access to MedlinePlus health topic ...

  5. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  6. Adapting Web Browsers for Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Paul; Birkmire, Mike

    This paper examines ways to make World Wide Web browsers accessible for individuals with disabilities, and through them, gain access to the information on the Web. It discusses which browsers can be made more accessible and evaluates different types of input. Mouse access, keyboard access, and voice input are reviewed. Processing aids, such as…

  7. NASA: Data on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galica, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of selected NASA Web sites for K-12 math and science teachers: the NASA Lewis Research Center Learning Technologies K-12 Home Page, Spacelink, NASA Quest, Basic Aircraft Design Page, International Space Station, NASA Shuttle Web Site, LIFTOFF to Space Education, Telescopes in Education, and Space Educator's…

  8. Web Tools: The Second Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools and technologies, or second generation tools, help districts to save time and money, and eliminate the need to transfer or move files back and forth across computers. Many Web 2.0 tools help students think critically and solve problems, which falls under the 21st-century skills. The second-generation tools are growing in popularity…

  9. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.

  10. Retrieval Effectiveness on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques; Picard, Justin

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of search engines in Web usability and analyzes and evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of various indexing and searching strategies on a new Web text collection. Highlights include preprocessing techniques that might improve retrieval effectiveness; and hyperlinks as useful sources of evidence in improving retrieval…

  11. Digging Deeper: The Deep Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the Deep Web, defined as Web content in searchable databases of the type that can be found only by direct query. Discusses the problems of indexing; inability to find information not indexed in the search engine's database; and metasearch engines. Describes 10 sites created to access online databases or directly search them. Lists ways…

  12. Working with WebQuests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raulston, Cassie; Moellinger, Donna

    2007-01-01

    With the evolution of technology, students can now take online classes that may not be offered in their home schools. While online courses are commonly found in many high schools, WebQuests are used more commonly in elementary schools. Through the exploration of WebQuests, students are able to integrate the Internet into classroom activities. The…

  13. Web conferencing in online classrooms.

    PubMed

    Hart, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Web conferencing is a promising tool for online education. A well-developed teaching strategy can lead to effective use of this technology to create a sense of community, engage students, and promote academic integrity in online courses. This article presents strategies for integrating Web conferencing into online nursing courses. PMID:24937291

  14. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/connect/service.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service To use the sharing features on this ... if you implement MedlinePlus Connect by contacting us . Web Service Overview The parameters for the Web service ...

  15. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/connect/application.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application To use the sharing features on this ... please see our guidelines and instructions on linking. Web Application Overview The API for the Web application ...

  16. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/connect/service.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service To use the sharing features on this ... if you implement MedlinePlus Connect by contacting us . Web Service Overview The parameters for the Web service ...

  17. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/connect/application.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application To use the sharing features on this ... please see our guidelines and instructions on linking. Web Application Overview The API for the Web application ...

  18. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  19. The EMBRACE web service collection

    PubMed Central

    Pettifer, Steve; Ison, Jon; Kalaš, Matúš; Thorne, Dave; McDermott, Philip; Jonassen, Inge; Liaquat, Ali; Fernández, José M.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Partners, INB-; Pisano, David G.; Blanchet, Christophe; Uludag, Mahmut; Rice, Peter; Bartaseviciute, Edita; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Hekkelman, Maarten; Sand, Olivier; Stockinger, Heinz; Clegg, Andrew B.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Salzemann, Jean; Breton, Vincent; Attwood, Teresa K.; Cameron, Graham; Vriend, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order for web services to achieve widespread adoption, standards must be defined for the choice of web service technology, for semantically annotating both service function and the data exchanged, and a mechanism for discovering services must be provided. Building on this, the project developed: EDAM, an ontology for describing life science web services; BioXSD, a schema for exchanging data between services; and a centralized registry (http://www.embraceregistry.net) that collects together around 1000 services developed by the consortium partners. This article presents the current status of the collection and its associated recommendations and standards definitions. PMID:20462862

  20. Web Site Development Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul, Hameed

    2016-01-01

    This summer I assisted the RPT Program Office in developing a design plan to update their existing website to current NASA web standards. The finished website is intended for the general public, specifically potential customers interested in learning about NASA's chemical rocket test facility capabilities and test assignment process. The goal of the website is to give the public insight about the purpose and function of the RPT Program. Working on this project gave me the opportunity to learn skills necessary for effective project management. The RPT Program Office manages numerous facilities so they are required to travel often to other sites for meetings throughout the year. Maneuvering around the travel schedule of the office and the workload priority of the IT Department proved to be quite the challenge. I overcame the travel schedule of the office by frequently communicating and checking in with my mentor via email and telephone.

  1. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content

  2. Critical Path Web Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its

  3. Hydro-economic optimization model for selecting least cost programs of measures at the river basin scale. Application to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive on the Orb river basin (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, C.; Rinaudo, J. D.; Caballero, Y.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a case study which illustrates how an integrated hydro-economic model can be applied to optimize a program of measures (PoM) at the river basin level. By allowing the integration of hydrological, environmental and economic aspects at a local scale, this model is indeed useful to assist water policy decision making processes. The model identifies the least cost PoM to satisfy the predicted 2030 urban and agricultural water demands while meeting the in-stream flow constraints. The PoM mainly consists of water saving and conservation measures at the different demands. It includes as well some measures mobilizing additional water resources coming from groundwater, inter-basin transfers and improvement in reservoir operating rules. The flow constraints are defined to ensure a good status of the surface water bodies, as defined by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The case study is conducted in the Orb river basin, a coastal basin in Southern France. It faces a significant population growth, changes in agricultural patterns and limited water resources. It is classified at risk of not meeting the good status by 2015. Urban demand is calculated by type of water users at municipality level in 2006 and projected to 2030 with user specific scenarios. Agricultural water demand is estimated at irrigation district (canton) level in 2000 and projected to 2030 under three agricultural development scenarios. The total annual cost of each measure has been calculated taken into account operation and maintenance costs as well as investment cost. A first optimization model was developed using GAMS, General Algebraic Modeling System, applying Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The optimization is run to select the set of measures that minimizes the objective function, defined as the total cost of the applied measures, while meeting the demands and environmental constraints (minimum in-stream flows) for the 2030 time horizon. The first result is an optimized Po

  4. Web Apollo: a web-based genomic annotation editing platform

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Web Apollo is the first instantaneous, collaborative genomic annotation editor available on the web. One of the natural consequences following from current advances in sequencing technology is that there are more and more researchers sequencing new genomes. These researchers require tools to describe the functional features of their newly sequenced genomes. With Web Apollo researchers can use any of the common browsers (for example, Chrome or Firefox) to jointly analyze and precisely describe the features of a genome in real time, whether they are in the same room or working from opposite sides of the world. PMID:24000942

  5. Web 2.0 Applications in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Dongsheng; Liu, Chen

    Since 2005, the term Web 2.0 has gradually become a hot topic on the Internet. Web 2.0 lets users create web contents as distinct from webmasters or web coders. Web 2.0 has come to our work, our life and even has become an indispensable part of our web-life. Its applications have already been widespread in many fields on the Internet. So far, China has about 137 million netizens [1], therefore its Web 2.0 market is so attractive that many sources of venture capital flow into the Chinese Web 2.0 market and there are also a lot of new Web 2.0 companies in China. However, the development of Web 2.0 in China is accompanied by some problems and obstacles. In this paper, we will mainly discuss Web 2.0 applications in China, with their current problems and future development trends.

  6. Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Alkesh

    1999-01-01

    This summer at NASA/MSFC, I have contributed to two projects: Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design and Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstration. In the Web Design Project, I worked on an Outline. The Web Design Outline was developed to provide a foundation for a Hierarchy Tree Structure. The Outline would help design a Website information base for future and near-term missions. The Website would give in-depth information on Propulsion Systems and Interstellar Travel. The Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstrator is discussed in this volume by Russell Lee.

  7. Spider webs as environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Hose, G C; James, J M; Gray, M R

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of spider webs from limestone arches in New South Wales, Australia showed levels of lead and zinc to be several times higher at Jenolan Caves than reference sites at Abercrombie and Wombeyan Caves. The high concentrations at Jenolan were attributed to emissions from motor vehicles that travel through the arch. Analysis of water-soluble ions in webs from Jenolan and Abercrombie Caves showed large differences between the sites, which could be explained by differences in the geology and biology of the cave environments. Spider webs proved useful indicators of environmental chemistry and undoubtedly have applications beyond the cave environments studied here. PMID:12442796

  8. The Web as an API.

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    As programmers we have worked with many Application Development Interface API development kits. They are well suited for interaction with a particular system. A vast source of information can be made accessible by using the http protocol through the web as an API. This setup has many advantages including the vast knowledge available on setting web servers and services. Also, these tools are available on most hardware and operating system combinations. In this paper I will cover the various types of systems that can be developed this way, their advantages and some drawbacks of this approach. Index Terms--Application Programmer Interface, Distributed applications, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, Web.

  9. RESTful Web Services at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, R.

    2011-06-14

    RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web services are an alternative implementation to SOAP/RPC web services in a client/server model. BNLs IT Division has started deploying RESTful Web Services for enterprise data retrieval and manipulation. Data is currently used by system administrators for tracking configuration information and as it is expanded will be used by Cyber Security for vulnerability management and as an aid to cyber investigations. This talk will describe the implementation and outstanding issues as well as some of the reasons for choosing RESTful over SOAP/RPC and future directions.

  10. Forensic web watch.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    1999-12-01

    Now that one has logged onto the world wide web (WWW) and utilized one or more of the home pages listed previously (or used another equally good home page) to seek out basic information available to forensic practitioners, the question now arises of how to go about making the most of the information available. One feature consistent to most home pages is links to the home pages of Associations and Societies, one or more of which most practitioners will be members of. With access to the WWW not only have you access to your own association/society, but you can also keep up to date with all the others to which you have not paid subscriptions. Although an internet search using a WWW search engine or the 'top 6' home pages may assist in identifying a large number of association and society sites, one of the most useful places to start is the home page of the Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine (IAFM). This, to date, lists a total of 139 such sites. To access all the home pages listed may take in excess of 6 h so the following review looks at the range of sites available and recommends some places the author considers many people may wish to know and visit. Again, this is inevitably a personal choice and it is recognized that those sites not listed may, in fact, be the preferred choice for other users of the forensic WWW. PMID:15335474

  11. Repair of webbed fingers - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/presentations/100096.htm Repair of webbed fingers - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Finger Injuries and Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  12. New web technologies for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprimont, P.-G.; Ricci, D.; Nicastro, L.

    2014-12-01

    Thanks to the new HTML5 capabilities and the huge improvements of the JavaScript language, it is now possible to design very complex and interactive web user interfaces. On top of that, the once monolithic and file-server oriented web servers are evolving into easily programmable server applications capable to cope with the complex interactions made possible by the new generation of browsers. We believe that the whole community of amateur and professionals astronomers can benefit from the potential of these new technologies. New web interfaces can be designed to provide the user with a large deal of much more intuitive and interactive tools. Accessing astronomical data archives, schedule, control and monitor observatories, and in particular robotic telescopes, supervising data reduction pipelines, all are capabilities that can now be implemented in a JavaScript web application. In this paper we describe the Sadira package we are implementing exactly to this aim.

  13. Publishing Daily on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George

    1997-01-01

    Relates how a 16,000 circulation daily newspaper publishes on the Web. Discusses lessons learned about audience, content, design, interactivity, and making money. Muses about the effect new media will have on print. (PA)

  14. Social Web and Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolog, Peter; Krötzsch, Markus; Schaffert, Sebastian; Vrandečić, Denny

    Knowledge Management is the study and practice of representing, communicating, organizing, and applying knowledge in organizations. Moreover, being used by organizations, it is inherently social. The Web, as a medium, enables new forms of communications and interactions and requires new ways to represent knowledge assets. It is therefore obvious that the Web will influence and change Knowledge Management, but it is very unclear what the impact of these changes will be. This chapter raises questions and discusses visions in the area that connects the Social Web and Knowledge Management - an area of research that is only just emerging. The World Wide Web conference 2008 in Beijing hosted a workshop on that question, bringing together researchers and practitioners to gain first insights toward answering questions of that area.

  15. Database Driven Web Systems for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve; Fenton, Ray

    1999-01-01

    Provides technical information on publishing to the Web. Demonstrates some new applications in database publishing. Discusses the difference between static and database-drive Web pages. Reviews failures and successes of a Web database system. Addresses the question of how to build a database-drive Web site, discussing connectivity software, Web…

  16. Student Use of Instructors' Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Beth; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    This descriptive research investigated issues relating to college students' use of instructor-created World Wide Web sites at the University of Nevada, Reno. Points of interest included student use of instructor Web pages and features found on a Web page perceived by students as most useful. Student use of instructor Web pages was identified by…

  17. Improving Web Accessibility in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Improving Web accessibility for disabled users visiting a university's Web site is explored following the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) guidelines and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act rules for Web page designers to ensure accessibility. The literature supports the view that accessibility is sorely lacking, not only in the USA, but also…

  18. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  19. Corporate Web Sites in Traditional Print Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardun, Carol J.; Lamb, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Web presence in print advertisements to determine how marketers are creating bridges between traditional advertising and the Internet. Content analysis showed Web addresses in print ads; categories of advertisers most likely to link print ads with Web sites; and whether the Web site attempts to develop a database of potential…

  20. Results from a Web Impact Factor Crawler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Web impact factors (WIFs), Web versions of the impact factors for journals, and how they can be calculated by using search engines. Highlights include HTML and document indexing; Web page links; a Web crawler designed for calculating WIFs; and WIFs for United Kingdom universities that measured research profiles or capability. (Author/LRW)

  1. Meeting Reference Responsibilities through Library Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses library Web sites and explains some of the benefits when libraries make their sites into reference portals, linking them to other useful Web sites. Topics include print versus Web information sources; limitations of search engines; what Web sites to include, including criteria for inclusions; and organizing the sites. (LRW)

  2. Technical Services and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheschy, Virginia M.

    The World Wide Web and browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic have simplified access to electronic resources. Today, technical services librarians can share in the wealth of information available on the Web. One of the premier Web sites for acquisitions librarians is AcqWeb, a cousin of the AcqNet listserv. In addition to interesting news items,…

  3. Extracting Macroscopic Information from Web Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based link analysis focuses on an evaluation of Ingversen's proposed external Web Impact Factor for the original use of the Web, namely the interlinking of academic research. Studies relationships between academic hyperlinks and research activities for British universities and discusses the use of search engines for Web link…

  4. NASA and The Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  5. Mashups over the Deep Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornung, Thomas; Simon, Kai; Lausen, Georg

    Combining information from different Web sources often results in a tedious and repetitive process, e.g. even simple information requests might require to iterate over a result list of one Web query and use each single result as input for a subsequent query. One approach for this chained queries are data-centric mashups, which allow to visually model the data flow as a graph, where the nodes represent the data source and the edges the data flow.

  6. Sticky ions in biological systems.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, K D

    1995-01-01

    Aqueous gel sieving chromatography on Sephadex G-10 of the Group IA cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) plus NH4+ as the Cl- salts, in combination with previous results for the halide anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, I-) as the Na+ salts [Washabaugh, M.W. & Collins, K.D. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12477-12485], leads to the following conclusions. (i) The small monovalent ions (Li+, Na+, F-) flow through the gel with water molecules attached, whereas the large monovalent ions (K+, Rb+, Cs+, Cl-, Br-, I-) adsorb to the nonpolar surface of the gel, a process requiring partial dehydration of the ion and implying that these ions bind the immediately adjacent water molecules weakly. (ii) The transition from strong to weak hydration occurs at a radius of about 1.78 A for the monovalent anions, compared with a radius of about 1.06 A for the monovalent cations (using ionic radii), indicating that the anions are more strongly hydrated than the cations for a given charge density. (iii) The anions show larger deviations from ideal behavior (an elution position corresponding to the anhydrous molecular weight) than do the cations and dominate the chromatographic behavior of the neutral salts. These results are interpreted to mean that weakly hydrated ions (chaotropes) are "pushed" onto weakly hydrated surfaces by strong water-water interactions and that the transition from strong ionic hydration to weak ionic hydration occurs where the strength of ion-water interactions approximately equals the strength of water-water interactions in bulk solution. PMID:7539920

  7. Glued lungs: Sticky and tricky

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Deepak; Nair, Vidya; Khanna, Arjun; Dogra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    We report a male patient who underwent bronchoscopic instillation of glue to control moderate hemoptysis which later led to the development of postobstructive pneumonia and extensive foreign body reaction in the bronchial wall and the lung distal to the glue application. He continued to have intermittent hemoptysis and underwent bronchial artery embolization. However, recurrent moderate hemoptysis eventually led to pneumonectomy, which showed severe foreign body reaction in bronchi- and post-obstructive changes in the lung parenchyma and the draining lymph nodes. This case highlights a serious complication of intrabronchial cyanoacrylate gluing to control bleeding in hemoptysis, which might warrant its very cautious use in moderate hemoptysis although surgical modality is considered the definitive treatment in life-threatening hemoptysis. PMID:27625448

  8. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the <101> direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  9. String and Sticky Tape Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments which illustrate the effect of humidity on human hair and on paper are described. Also described are two ways to make a hygrometer. These methods were found in a series of British television programs (also available in the United States). Comments on the programs are included. (JN)

  10. Stem cell isolation: Differential stickiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abilez, Oscar J.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-06-01

    Technologies to isolate colonies of human pluripotent stem cells from other cell types in a high-throughput manner are lacking. A microfluidic-based approach that exploits differences in the adhesion strength between these cells and a substrate may soon fill the gap.

  11. Knowledge Enhanced Searching on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffri, Afraz

    The move towards a semantic web has been in progress for many years and more recently there have been applications that make use of semantic web technology. One of the features that made the Web so easy to use is the ability to search web pages in a matter of seconds through the use of search engines. Now that the use of OWL and RDF as a knowledge representation format is increasing, the possibility appears to improve the quality of searching by using the semantic web to enhance the 'ordinary' Web. This paper outlines an architecture for using distributed knowledge bases to assist and improve searching on the web.

  12. Evaluation and Criteria of the World Wide Web: Reference Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csir, Floyd J.

    This paper applies an evaluation method for World Wide Web sites that provide access to online reference materials at academic and public libraries. The evaluation of Web sites was performed with a questionnaire form focusing on Web site currency, accuracy and relevancy; Web site organization/structure; Web site presentation; URL maintenance; and…

  13. Concept Mapping Your Web Searches: A Design Rationale and Web-Enabled Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Y.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Although it has become very common to use World Wide Web-based information in many educational settings, there has been little research on how to better search and organize Web-based information. This paper discusses the shortcomings of Web search engines and Web browsers as learning environments and describes an alternative Web search environment…

  14. 75 FR 27986 - Electronic Filing System-Web (EFS-Web) Contingency Option

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... for Electronic Filing System--Web (EFS-Web), 74 FR 55200, 55204 (October 27, 2009) (notice), and... the same level of security as EFS-Web for unregistered e-filers by using Transport Layer Security (TLS... United States Patent and Trademark Office Electronic Filing System--Web (EFS-Web) Contingency...

  15. Applying Web Usability Techniques to Assess Student Awareness of Library Web Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Janice; Ray, Ron L.; Knight, Lorrie

    2004-01-01

    The authors adapted Web usability techniques to assess student awareness of their library's Web site. Students performed search tasks using a Web browser. Approaches were categorized according to a student's preference for, and success with, the library's Web resources. Forty-five percent of the students utilized the library's Web site as first…

  16. WebAlchemist: a Web transcoding system for mobile Web access in handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Yonghyun; Jung, Changwoo; Kim, Jihong; Chung, Sungkwon

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of WebAlchemist, a prototype web transcoding system, which automatically converts a given HTML page into a sequence of equivalent HTML pages that can be properly displayed on a hand-held device. The Web/Alchemist system is based on a set of HTML transcoding heuristics managed by the Transcoding Manager (TM) module. In order to tackle difficult-to-transcode pages such as ones with large or complex table structures, we have developed several new transcoding heuristics that extract partial semantics from syntactic information such as the table width, font size and cascading style sheet. Subjective evaluation results using popular HTML pages (such as the CNN home page) show that WebAlchemist generates readable, structure-preserving transcoded pages, which can be properly displayed on hand-held devices.

  17. Lost in Web 2.0 Cyberspace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Web 1.0 never left. It's just a term that refers to cyberspace before 2002. People mark the shift from Web 1.0 to 2.0 with the dramatic collapse of Web-based companies whose phenomenal growth was based on the profit potential of a new customer: the Internet user. Generally, Web 1.0 sites have a commercial focus. On the other hand, Web 2.0 reverses…

  18. IsoWeb: A Bayesian Isotope Mixing Model for Diet Analysis of the Whole Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Taku; Osada, Yutaka; Takimoto, Gaku

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative description of food webs provides fundamental information for the understanding of population, community, and ecosystem dynamics. Recently, stable isotope mixing models have been widely used to quantify dietary proportions of different food resources to a focal consumer. Here we propose a novel mixing model (IsoWeb) that estimates diet proportions of all consumers in a food web based on stable isotope information. IsoWeb requires a topological description of a food web, and stable isotope signatures of all consumers and resources in the web. A merit of IsoWeb is that it takes into account variation in trophic enrichment factors among different consumer-resource links. Sensitivity analysis using realistic hypothetical food webs suggests that IsoWeb is applicable to a wide variety of food webs differing in the number of species, connectance, sample size, and data variability. Sensitivity analysis based on real topological webs showed that IsoWeb can allow for a certain level of topological uncertainty in target food webs, including erroneously assuming false links, omission of existent links and species, and trophic aggregation into trophospecies. Moreover, using an illustrative application to a real food web, we demonstrated that IsoWeb can compare the plausibility of different candidate topologies for a focal web. These results suggest that IsoWeb provides a powerful tool to analyze food-web structure from stable isotope data. We provide R and BUGS codes to aid efficient applications of IsoWeb. PMID:22848427

  19. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casajus Ramo, A.; Sapunov, M.

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  20. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  1. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  2. Webbed penis: A new classification

    PubMed Central

    El-Koutby, Montasser; Mohamed Amin, El Gohary

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To introduce a new classification for the congenital anomaly of webbed penis and suggest an operative technique that can be planned according to the severity of webbing. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in two pediatric surgical units in Egypt and UAE on babies who were referred for circumcision. A preplanned written protocol was designed before commencing the study. Results: A total of 5,881 babies aged from 1 day to 6 months were seen in two pediatric surgical units. The webbed penis is broadly classified into primary and secondary types. The primary is further subdivided into simple and compound. Conclusions: We believe that the new classification will serve as a baseline for the anatomical variants and help to streamline the operative procedure accordingly. PMID:20975781

  3. Web platform for functional design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijmarescu, M. R.; Dijmarescu, M. C.

    2015-11-01

    Today's global competitive trends, especially those related to industries, determine a much higher degree of pressure and demands for substantial innovation driven improvements, flexible and time sensitive solutions. Improving and optimizing the design activity by shortening its timeline and maintaining a high quality level for its output have become the main success factors. The evolution of design activity is strongly related to the evolution of education and research made in the design field. Thus, the development of web tools which can contain knowledge about mechanical products functionality and structure may be an important achievement for the education and industry. This paper presents a web platform which contains functional-constructive knowledge in the area of mechanical design field and was developed to support design activity. The proposed web tool can provide any user, even one without background in design theory, information about the functionality of products and the way it is related to the product structure.

  4. Patient-Physician Web Messaging

    PubMed Central

    Liederman, Eric M; Lee, Jerry C; Baquero, Victor H; Seites, Paul G

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients want electronic access to providers. Providers fear being overwhelmed by unreimbursed messages. OBJECTIVE Measure the effects of patient-physician web messaging on primary care practices. DESIGN/SETTING Retrospective analysis of 6 case and 9 control internal medicine (IM) and family practice (FP) physicians' message volume, and a survey of 5,971 patients' web messaging with 267 providers and staff in 16 community primary care clinics in the Sacramento, CA region. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Case telephone volume was 18.2% lower (P =.002) and fell 6.50 times faster than control. Case total telephone plus web message volume was 13.7% lower (P =.025) and fell 5.84 times faster than control. Surveys were responded to by 40.3% (1,743/4,320) of patients and 61.4% (164/267) of providers and staff. Patients were overwhelmingly satisfied and providers and staff were generally satisfied; both found the system easy to use. Patient satisfaction correlated strongly with provider response time (Γ=0.557), and provider/staff satisfaction with computer skills (Γ=0.626) (Goodman-Kruskal Gamma [Γ] measure of ordinal association). CONCLUSIONS Secure web messaging improves on e-mail with encryption, access controls, message templates, customized message and prescription routing, knowledge content, and reimbursement. Further study is needed to determine whether reducing telephone traffic through the use of web messaging decreases provider interruptions and increases clinical efficiency during the workday. Satisfaction with web messaging may increase patient retention. PMID:15693928

  5. Project Assessment Skills Web Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goff, Samuel J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to utilize Ruby on Rails to create a web application that will replace a spreadsheet keeping track of training courses and tasks. The goal is to create a fast and easy to use web application that will allow users to track progress on training courses. This application will allow users to update and keep track of all of the training required of them. The training courses will be organized by group and by user, making readability easier. This will also allow group leads and administrators to get a sense of how everyone is progressing in training. Currently, updating and finding information from this spreadsheet is a long and tedious task. By upgrading to a web application, finding and updating information will be easier than ever as well as adding new training courses and tasks. Accessing this data will be much easier in that users just have to go to a website and log in with NDC credentials rather than request the relevant spreadsheet from the holder. In addition to Ruby on Rails, I will be using JavaScript, CSS, and jQuery to help add functionality and ease of use to my web application. This web application will include a number of features that will help update and track progress on training. For example, one feature will be to track progress of a whole group of users to be able to see how the group as a whole is progressing. Another feature will be to assign tasks to either a user or a group of users. All of these together will create a user friendly and functional web application.

  6. Advancements in silicon web technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Easoz, J.; Mchugh, J. P.; Piotrowski, P.; Hundal, R.

    1987-01-01

    Low defect density silicon web crystals up to 7 cm wide are produced from systems whose thermal environments are designed for low stress conditions using computer techniques. During growth, the average silicon melt temperature, the lateral melt temperature distribution, and the melt level are each controlled by digital closed loop systems to maintain thermal steady state and to minimize the labor content of the process. Web solar cell efficiencies of 17.2 pct AM1 have been obtained in the laboratory while 15 pct efficiencies are common in pilot production.

  7. SALT: Weaving the Claim Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, Tudor; Möller, Knud; Handschuh, Siegfried; Trif, Diana; Decker, Stefan

    In this paper we present a solution for "weaving the claim web", i.e. the creation of knowledge networks via so-called claims stated in scientific publications created with the SALT (Semantically Annotated {mboxLaTeX}) framework. To attain this objective, we provide support for claim identification, evolved the appropriate ontologies and defined a claim citation and reference mechanism. We also describe a prototypical claim search engine, which allows to reference to existing claims and hence, weave the web. Finally, we performed a small-scale evaluation of the authoring framework with a quite promising outcome.

  8. Multifaceted web resources for stroke.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Kashif; Raghubir, Ram

    2008-01-01

    The Internet is an increasingly important tool for stroke survivors, their family members, and health care providers and researchers. An immense amount of information on stroke, ranging from pathophysiology and treatment to poststroke management, is available on the World Wide Web. This article presents lists of Internet search engines related to life science research, web pages of societies working in the field of stroke, and links to websites providing information on treatment, support, and poststroke survival and rehabilitation programs. Policies should be made to promote use of the Internet by patients, caregivers, and researchers working in the field of stroke to encourage improved patient care, communication, and research. PMID:18589343

  9. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  10. WebTag: Web browsing into sensor tags over NFC.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Juan Jose; Ruiz-de-Garibay, Jonathan; Legarda, Jon; Alvarez, Maite; Ayerbe, Ana; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm. PMID:23012511

  11. WebTag: Web Browsing into Sensor Tags over NFC

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Juan Jose; Ruiz-de-Garibay, Jonathan; Legarda, Jon; Álvarez, Maite; Ayerbe, Ana; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm. PMID:23012511

  12. The Optics Project on the Web (WebTOP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, John

    2004-11-01

    WebTOP is a three-dimensional, interactive computer graphics system developed to help students learn about waves and optics. It is used to help teach undergraduate introductory physics and upper-level optics classes. Currently, it is comprised of sixteen modules spanning eight different subject areas: waves, geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, polarization, interference, diffraction, lasers, and scattering. WebTOP modules are three-dimensional; they have navigation controls that allow the user to view the scene from any desired orientation. They are also interactive. The user can change the parameters of the simulation either by typing in the desired values into the appropriate box, or by using the mouse cursor to move the appropriate widget in the scene. Thirdly, the simulations are animated, for those phenomena for which animation is appropriate. The modules have VCR-type controls that allow users to record their interaction with the simulation for later retrieval, viewing, and editing. The modules run inside a web browser. They can be run from our website, http://webtop.msstate.edu, or can be downloaded and run on the user's local machine. In this presentation, an overview of WebTOP will be given and several of the modules will be demonstrated.

  13. The Optics Project on the Web: WebTOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, John T.; Mzoughi, Taha; Herring, S. D.; Morris, Matt; Gilbert, Peter J.; Moore, David T.

    2003-10-01

    WebTOP is a three-dimensional, interactive computer graphics system developed at Mississippi State University to help students learn about waves and optics. It has been used to help teach undergraduate introductory physics and upper-level optics classes. Currently, it is comprised of sixteen modules spanning eight different subject areas. The subject areas are waves, geometrical optics, reflection and refraction, polarization, interference, diffraction, lasers, and scattering. WebTOP simulations have the following characteristics. First, they are three dimensional, i.e., they have navigation controls that allow the user to rotate the scene, pan, or zoom, in order to view it from any desired orientation. Secondly, they are interactive. The user can change the parameters either by typing in the desired values into the appropriate text entry box, or by using the mouse cursor to move the appropriate widget in the scene. Thirdly, the simulations are animated, for those phenomena for which animation is appropriate. Furthermore, the simulations include VCR-type controls that allow the user to record his/her interactions with the simulation for later retrieval, viewing, and editing. Finally, these modules run inside a web browser. They can be run from our website, http://webtop.msstate.edu, or they can be downloaded from this website and run on the user's local machine. This paper provides an overview of WebTOP and a description of each of the modules.

  14. WebMIRS: web-based medical information retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Pillemer, Stanley R.; Lawrence, Reva C.; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-12-01

    At the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, a research and development division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), we are developing a prototype multimedia database system to provide World Wide Web access to biomedical databases. WebMIRS (Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System) will allow access to databases containing text and images and will allow database query by standard SQL, by image content, or by a combination of the two. The system is being developed in the form of Java applets, which will communicate with the Informix DBMS on an NLM Sun workstation running the Solaris operating system. The system architecture will allow access from any hardware platform, which supports a Java-enabled Web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. Initial databases will include data from two national health surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and will include x-ray images from those surveys. In addition to describing in- house research in database access systems, this paper describes ongoing work toward querying by image content. Image content search capability will include capability to search for x-ray images similar to an input image with respect to vertebral morphometry used to characterize features such as fractures and disc space narrowing.

  15. Realising the Full Potential of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berners-Lee, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the first phase of the Web is communication through shared knowledge. Predicts that the second side to the Web, yet to emerge, is that of machine-understandable information, with humans providing the inspiration and the intuition. (CR)

  16. Climate change: A rewired food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Julia L.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is causing large fish species to move into arctic marine environments. A network analysis finds that these fishes, with their generalist diets, add links to the existing food web that may alter biodiversity and web stability.

  17. Thematic World Wide Web Visualization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-10-10

    WebTheme is a system designed to facilitate world wide web information access and retrieval through visualization. It consists of two principal pieces, a WebTheme Server which allows users to enter in a query and automatocally harvest and process information of interest, and a WebTheme browser, which allows users to work with both Galaxies and Themescape visualizations of their data within a JAVA capable world wide web browser. WebTheme is an Internet solution, meaning that accessmore » to the server and the resulting visualizations can all be performed through the use of a WWW browser. This allows users to access and interact with SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) based visualizations through a web browser regardless of what computer platforms they are running on. WebTheme is specifically designed to create databases by harvesting and processing WWW home pages available on the Internet.« less

  18. The Web site your doctor prescribes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Web site your doctor prescribes Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... gov® is a free, comprehensive, up-to-date Web site with health information from the world's largest ...

  19. The Web site your doctor prescribes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Web site your doctor prescribes Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... gov ® is a free, comprehensive, up-to-date Web site with health information from the world's largest ...

  20. Narcissism and social networking Web sites.

    PubMed

    Buffardi, Laura E; Campbell, W Keith

    2008-10-01

    The present research examined how narcissism is manifested on a social networking Web site (i.e., Facebook.com). Narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from social networking Web page owners. Then their Web pages were coded for both objective and subjective content features. Finally, strangers viewed the Web pages and rated their impression of the owner on agentic traits, communal traits, and narcissism. Narcissism predicted (a) higher levels of social activity in the online community and (b) more self-promoting content in several aspects of the social networking Web pages. Strangers who viewed the Web pages judged more narcissistic Web page owners to be more narcissistic. Finally, mediational analyses revealed several Web page content features that were influential in raters' narcissistic impressions of the owners, including quantity of social interaction, main photo self-promotion, and main photo attractiveness. Implications of the expression of narcissism in social networking communities are discussed. PMID:18599659

  1. Web Portal for Multicast Delivery Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannaert, H.; De Gruyter, B.; Adriaenssens, P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a Web portal for multicast communication management, which provides fully automatic service management with integrated provisioning of hardware equipment. Describes the software architecture, the implementation, and the application usage of the Web portal for multicast delivery. (Author/AEF)

  2. Higher Education on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John

    2001-01-01

    The investment in information technology has doubled for colleges over the last 10 years, and the next big evolution, the development of Web-based learning, is well underway. Most colleges and universities have a strategic plan for distance education or are developing one. The effort is led by community colleges and private universities, both of…

  3. School Planning on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Radley

    2002-01-01

    As demands for more education facilities rise, Web-based program management tools can help reduce costs. Online program management systems such as e-builder (which improves communication between project participants, increases accountability, and streamlines the development process) can help control costs, minimize claims, and handle schedules.…

  4. Rhizoctonia web blight on azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, fungicides are the only useful control for azalea web blight, but fungicides do not eliminate the pathogen. We have discovered that Rhizoctonia colonizes the entire azalea plant 12 months of the year in the Gulf Coast climate. This results in healthy appearing stems collected for propagat...

  5. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  6. Web Resources for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide brief descriptions and links to a number of reputed websites on various topics and issues of special education. The web sites are organized in the following categories: (1) Teaching in Inclusive Classroom, (2) Policies, Procedures, & Process of Special education, (3) Students with High Incidence…

  7. IT Security: Target: The Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    In December, Microsoft announced a major security flaw affecting its Internet Explorer web browser. The flaw allowed hackers to use hidden computer code they had already injected into legitimate websites to steal the passwords of visitors to those sites. Reportedly, more than 10,000 websites were infected with the destructive code by the time…

  8. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  9. The Web for Documents Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze, Jerry; Cramer, Jane; Hellman, David

    The World Wide Web is a powerful and versatile resource for documents librarians. It can serve as a source of information for patrons looking for government information, as a means of publicizing and distributing local information and services beyond the walls of the depository library, as a tool for more effective administration of a documents…

  10. CDC WONDER on the Web.

    PubMed Central

    Friede, A.; O'Carroll, P. W.; Thralls, R. B.; Reid, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    CDC WONDER, an information system developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides access to 26 text and numeric databases, and special facilities for surveillance, through an architecture developed for public health. We report extensions of the original architecture that allowed us to create a Web version (http:@wonder.cdc.gov). PMID:8947698

  11. Moving Reference to the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlamery, Susan; Coffman, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explores the possibility of using Web contact center software to offer reference assistance to remote users. Discusses a project by the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System/Santiago Library System consortium to test contact center software and to develop a virtual reference network. (Author/LRW)

  12. Estimation of Web video multiplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, SenChing S.; Zakhor, Avideh

    1999-12-01

    With ever more popularity of video web-publishing, many popular contents are being mirrored, reformatted, modified and republished, resulting in excessive content duplication. While such redundancy provides fault tolerance for continuous availability of information, it could potentially create problems for multimedia search engines in that the search results for a given query might become repetitious, and cluttered with a large number of duplicates. As such, developing techniques for detecting similarity and duplication is important to multimedia search engines. In addition, content providers might be interested in identifying duplicates of their content for legal, contractual or other business related reasons. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm called video signature to detect similar video sequences for large databases such as the web. The idea is to first form a 'signature' for each video sequence by selection a small number of its frames that are most similar to a number of randomly chosen seed images. Then the similarity between any tow video sequences can be reliably estimated by comparing their respective signatures. Using this method, we achieve 85 percent recall and precision ratios on a test database of 377 video sequences. As a proof of concept, we have applied our proposed algorithm to a collection of 1800 hours of video corresponding to around 45000 clips from the web. Our results indicate that, on average, every video in our collection from the web has around five similar copies.

  13. FAFSA on the Web Toolkit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    The online version of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) allows students to apply for federal financial aid using the Internet. In many cases, FAFSA on the Web may be used to apply for financial aid from other sources, such as states or schools. Data are secured, so sending an application through the Internet is as safe as…

  14. Exemplary Web-Based Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milone, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Exemplary Web-based schools are as different as they are similar. The schools featured in this section have applied technology in unique ways to meet the needs of their students. Five examples are cited across the U.S.: Lemon Grove School District, Lemon Grove, California; Virginia Beach City Public Schools, Virginia Beach, Virginia; Carlsbad…

  15. Web-based hydrodynamics computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoide, Alan; Lin, Luping; Hong, Tracie-Lynne; Yoon, Ilmi; Aragon, Sergio R.

    2005-01-01

    Proteins are long chains of amino acids that have a definite 3-d conformation and the shape of each protein is vital to its function. Since proteins are normally in solution, hydrodynamics (describes the movement of solvent around a protein as a function of shape and size of the molecule) can be used to probe the size and shape of proteins compared to those derived from X-ray crystallography. The computation chain needed for these hydrodynamics calculations consists of several separate programs by different authors on various platforms and often requires 3D visualizations of intermediate results. Due to the complexity, tools developed by a particular research group are not readily available for use by other groups, nor even by the non-experts within the same research group. To alleviate this situation, and to foment the easy and wide distribution of computational tools worldwide, we developed a web based interactive computational environment (WICE) including interactive 3D visualization that can be used with any web browser. Java based technologies were used to provide a platform neutral, user-friendly solution. Java Server Pages (JSP), Java Servlets, Java Beans, JOGL (Java bindings for OpenGL), and Java Web Start were used to create a solution that simplifies the computing chain for the user allowing the user to focus on their scientific research. WICE hides complexity from the user and provides robust and sophisticated visualization through a web browser.

  16. Web-based hydrodynamics computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoide, Alan; Lin, Luping; Hong, Tracie-Lynne; Yoon, Ilmi; Aragon, Sergio R.

    2004-12-01

    Proteins are long chains of amino acids that have a definite 3-d conformation and the shape of each protein is vital to its function. Since proteins are normally in solution, hydrodynamics (describes the movement of solvent around a protein as a function of shape and size of the molecule) can be used to probe the size and shape of proteins compared to those derived from X-ray crystallography. The computation chain needed for these hydrodynamics calculations consists of several separate programs by different authors on various platforms and often requires 3D visualizations of intermediate results. Due to the complexity, tools developed by a particular research group are not readily available for use by other groups, nor even by the non-experts within the same research group. To alleviate this situation, and to foment the easy and wide distribution of computational tools worldwide, we developed a web based interactive computational environment (WICE) including interactive 3D visualization that can be used with any web browser. Java based technologies were used to provide a platform neutral, user-friendly solution. Java Server Pages (JSP), Java Servlets, Java Beans, JOGL (Java bindings for OpenGL), and Java Web Start were used to create a solution that simplifies the computing chain for the user allowing the user to focus on their scientific research. WICE hides complexity from the user and provides robust and sophisticated visualization through a web browser.

  17. The Web and Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Marguerite; Moore, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The Web as an appropriate vehicle for educating young children in formal and informal school settings is the subject of widespread, international debate (Anderson, 2000; Attewell, Suazo-Garcia, & Battle, 2003; Davis & Shade, 1994; Dolowy, 2000; Filipenko & Rolfsen, 1999; Pendleton, 2001; Vail, 2001; Wardle, 1999). Regardless of these debates,…

  18. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  19. Watershed management and the web

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A.; Costanza, R.

    1999-08-01

    Watershed analysis and watershed management are developing as tools of integrated ecological and economic study. They also assist decision-making at the regional scale. The new technology and thinking offered by the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web is highly complementary to some of the goals of watershed analysis. Services delivered by the Web are open, interactive, gas, spatially distributed, hierarchical and flexible. The Web offers the ability to display information creatively, to interact with that information and to change and modify it remotely. In this way the Internet provides a much-needed opportunity to deliver scientific findings and information to stakeholders and to link stakeholders together providing for collective decision=making. The benefits fall into two major categories: methological and educational. Methodologically the approach furthers the watershed management concept, offering an avenue for practical implementation of watershed management principles. For educational purposes the Web is a source of data and insight serving a variety of needs at all levels.

  20. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WEB SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy Press is the publisher for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. Through this web site, you have access to a virtual treasure trove of books, reports and publicatio...