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Sample records for orbital soft tissues

  1. Age- and sex-related changes in the soft tissues of the orbital region.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Catti, Francesca; Tommasi, Davide G; Ugolini, Alessandro; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-03-10

    The orbital region plays a predominant role in the evaluation of the craniofacial complex. In the current study information about normal sex-related dimensions of the orbital region, and growth, development and aging, were provided. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the orbits and face were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer in 531 male and 357 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. From the landmarks, biocular and intercanthal widths, paired height and inclination of the orbit relative to both the true horizontal (head in natural head position) and Frankfurt plane, length and inclination of the eye fissure, the relevant ratios, soft-tissue orbital area, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. Biocular and intercanthal widths, length of the eye fissure, soft-tissue orbital area, and the inclination of the orbit relative to the true horizontal, were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.01), with a significant effect of age (p<0.001), and significant agexsex interactions (p<0.001). Orbital height, and the height-to-width ratio increased as a function of age (p<0.001), but without gender-related differences. The inclination of the orbit relative to Frankfurt plane, and the inclination of the eye fissure did not differ between men and women, but modified as a function of age (p<0.001), with different sex-related patterns (sexxage interaction, p<0.001). On average, the paired measurements were symmetric, with similar values within each sex and age group. Overall, when compared to literature data, some differences were found due to both ethnicity, and different instruments. Nevertheless, during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, the age-related trends for linear dimensions were similar to those found in previous studies, while no previous data exist for older adults. During aging an increment in soft-tissue orbital

  2. Morphometry of the soft tissues of the orbital region in Northern Sudanese persons.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Elamin, Fadil; Tommasi, Davide G; Dolci, Claudia; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2013-05-10

    The orbital region plays a predominant role in the evaluation of the craniofacial complex. No current normative data exist for Northern Sudanese subjects. In the current study information about normal sex- and age-related dimensions of the orbital region was provided. The three-dimensional coordinates of ten landmarks on the orbital soft tissues were obtained using a hand-held laser scanner in 654 healthy Northern Sudanese subjects aged 4-30 years. From the landmarks, biocular and intercanthal widths, paired height and inclination of the orbit relative to both the true horizontal (head in natural head position) and Frankfurt plane, length and inclination of the eye fissure, the relevant ratios, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All analysed linear soft-tissue orbital dimensions, except intercanthal width and left orbital height, were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.01). A significant sexual dimorphism was found also for the height-to-width ratios (larger in women in most age groups), the orbital inclinations vs. the true horizontal and Frankfurt plane (both measurements were almost always larger in men than in women), and the right side inclination of the eye fissure vs. the true horizontal (larger in women than in men), while no sex-related differences were observed for the left side inclination of the eye fissure vs. the true horizontal. All measurements but the right side inclination of the eye fissure vs. the true horizontal underwent significant modifications as a function of age, with several significant age×sex interactions. Biocular and intercanthal widths, orbital height, length of the eye fissure, all increased from childhood to young adulthood; in the second decade of life all age-related increments were larger in men than in women. Overall, when compared to literature data for African and Caucasoid subjects, several differences were found, pointing to the

  3. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  4. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes , which is sometimes called "flesh-eating bacteria." Necrotizing soft tissue infection develops when ...

  5. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed. PMID:26611927

  6. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

  7. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... free at 5 years. Most people who survive 5 years can expect to be cancer-free at 10 years. ... most soft tissue sarcomas, and there is no way to prevent it. ... them can increase your chance of surviving this type of cancer.

  8. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  9. Soft tissue angiosarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, P.H.; Lindberg, R.D.; Barkley, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    From 1949 to 1979, 12 patients with soft tissue angiosarcoma received radiotherapy (alone or in combination with other modalities of treatment) with curative intent at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The primary site was the head and neck in six patients (scalp, four; maxillary antrum, one; and oral tongue, one), the breast in four patients, and the thigh in two patients. All four patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp had advanced multifocal tumors, and two of them had clinically positive neck nodes. None of these tumors were controlled locally, and local recurrences occurred within and/or at a distance from the generous fields of irradiation. The remaining two patients with head and neck lesions had their disease controlled by surgery and postoperative irradiation. Three of the four angiosarcomas of the breast were primary cases which were treated by a combination of surgery (excisional biopsy, simple mastectomy, radical mastectomy) and postoperative irradiation. One patient also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The fourth patient was treated for scar recurrence after radical mastectomy. All four patients had their disease locally controlled, and two of them have survived over 5 years. The two patients with angiosarcoma of the thigh were treated by conservative surgical excision and postoperative irradiation. One patient had her disease controlled; the other had a local recurrence requiring hip disarticulation and subsequent hemipelvectomy for salvage.

  10. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma This page lists ... soft tissue sarcoma that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cosmegen (Dactinomycin) Dactinomycin ...

  11. Cytodiagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Oland, J; Rosen, A; Reif, R; Sayfan, J; Orda, R

    1988-03-01

    The only acceptable definitive diagnosis of a soft tissue mass is histologic or cytologic examination. In recent years, fine-needle aspiration cytology is used in more and more centers for diagnosis of soft tissue masses. We studied 196 aspiration cytologies performed on soft tissue lesions. Out of these, in 48 cases a definitive surgical procedure or open biopsy for histology and further evaluation were performed. There were 25 sarcomas and 23 benign tumors. There was one false negative cytologic result in this group; no false positive cytologies were detected. It seems that cytodiagnosis of soft tissue masses performed by an experienced pathologist is the method of choice, permitting a good diagnostic evaluation, with almost none of the traumatic and oncologic disadvantages of the other methods of biopsy. PMID:3352270

  12. [Skin and soft tissue infections].

    PubMed

    Piso, R J; Bassetti, S

    2012-03-14

    Skin- and Soft tissue infections are a frequent problem in hospital as well as in ambulatory care. Diagnostic procedures and treatment principles have to include the most frequent pathogens. While the acute forms of skin and soft tissue infections, with, necrotising fasciitis as important exception, rarely cause diagnostic or therapeutic problem, the treatment of patients with recurrent furunculosis, chronic wounds and diabetic feet is often difficult and frustration for patients and physicians. This article gives an overview of the most important problems and treatment strategies. PMID:22419138

  13. Soft tissue laser in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Gracco, Antonio; Tracey, Stephen; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Today a lot of minor cosmetic surgery operations on the gingiva can easily be carried out directly by the orthodontist with a small quantity of topical anaesthetic and the use of a soft tissue laser. The Diode laser is the most commonly used laser in dentistry for minor surgery to the soft tissues. This kind of laser offers numerous advantages with respect to traditional or electric scalpels. In this article the authors will analyse several typical uses of the diode laser in daily orthodontic practice. PMID:21515234

  14. Pediatric soft tissue oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andres; Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of common color changes and soft tissue oral nodular abnormalities in children and adolescents. The clinical presentation and treatment options to address these conditions are presented in a concise approach, highlighting key features relevant to the oral health care professional. PMID:24655531

  15. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  16. General Information about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  17. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  18. Survival by Stage of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic How are soft tissue sarcomas treated? Survival by stage of soft tissue sarcoma Survival rates ... observed, not relative survival): Stage 5-year observed survival rate I 90% II 81% III 56% IV ...

  19. [Radiotherapy of adult soft tissue sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Le Péchoux, C; Moureau-Zabotto, L; Llacer, C; Ducassou, A; Sargos, P; Sunyach, M P; Thariat, J

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of soft tissue sarcoma is low and requires multidisciplinary treatment in specialized centers. The objective of this paper is to report the state of the art regarding indications and treatment techniques of main soft tissue sarcoma localisations. PMID:27523415

  20. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Stavas, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft tissues, there are few large clinical series that show longitudinal benefit and cost-effectiveness compared with conventional methods, namely, surgery, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas has been evaluated the most and is considered a first-line treatment choice for many lesions. Palliation of painful metastatic bone disease with thermal ablation is considered safe and has been shown to reduce pain and analgesic use while improving quality of life for cancer patients. Procedure-related complications are rare and are typically easily managed. Similar to all interventional procedures, bone and soft tissue lesions require an integrated approach to disease management to determine the optimum type of and timing for ablation techniques within the context of the patient care plan. PMID:25053865

  1. Bone and soft tissue ablation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Ryan C B; Stavas, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft tissues, there are few large clinical series that show longitudinal benefit and cost-effectiveness compared with conventional methods, namely, surgery, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas has been evaluated the most and is considered a first-line treatment choice for many lesions. Palliation of painful metastatic bone disease with thermal ablation is considered safe and has been shown to reduce pain and analgesic use while improving quality of life for cancer patients. Procedure-related complications are rare and are typically easily managed. Similar to all interventional procedures, bone and soft tissue lesions require an integrated approach to disease management to determine the optimum type of and timing for ablation techniques within the context of the patient care plan. PMID:25053865

  2. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms. PMID:26371732

  3. Injectable fillers for facial soft tissue enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A P; Romo, T

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue augmentation materials have been advocated for correction of post-surgical or post-traumatic facial defects, as well as for age-related folds and wrinkles. While autogenous tissues may be the safest option, they require a second operative site. Animal-derived or synthetic materials have been advocated since the late 19th century, and have waxed and waned in popularity. In recent years, we have gained a better understanding of the physical events that occur when material is placed within or below the skin. With this knowledge, we stand at the threshold of a new era, where soft tissue fillers can be designed and customized to suit the individual patient. This article will review the major materials that have been or are now advocated for use as soft tissue fillers, and will detail their relative strengths and weaknesses in order to give the clinician a better perspective when considering a material for soft tissue augmentation. PMID:11802343

  4. Malignant soft tissue tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Mihir M

    2013-10-01

    Soft tissue masses are frequently seen in children. Although most are benign or reactive, soft tissue sarcomas (STS)-both rhabdomyosarcoma (most common) and non-rhabdo STS, do occur in the extremities. Appropriate evaluation of extremity soft tissue tumors often includes a biopsy as the clinical and imaging features may not be enough to establish a definitive diagnosis. Much needs to be done for improving the treatment of these rare but often devastating sarcomas. Given the small numbers of these cases seen at various centers, collaborative efforts should be made to further our understanding and improve the management of these challenging cases. PMID:24095080

  5. New Soft Tissue Implants Using Organic Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Typical biomaterials are stiff, difficult to manufacture, and not initially developed for medical implants. A new biomaterial is proposed that is similar to human soft tissue. The biomaterial provides mechanical properties similar to soft tissue in its mechanical and physical properties. Characterization is performed for modulus of elasticity, ultimate strength and wear resistance. The material further exhibits excellent biocompatibility with little toxicity and low inflammation. The material can be molded into a variety of anatomic shapes for use as a cartilage replacement, heart valve, and reconstructive implant for trauma victims. The biomaterial may be suitable for several biodevices of the future aimed at soft-tissue replacements.

  6. Chondro-Osseous Lesions of Soft Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Jin; Horvai, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Soft tissue lesions can contain bone or cartilage matrix as an incidental, often metaplastic, phenomenon or as a diagnostic feature. The latter category includes a diverse group ranging from self-limited proliferations to benign neoplasms to aggressive malignancies. Correlating imaging findings with pathology is mandatory to confirm that a tumor producing bone or cartilage, in fact, originates from soft tissue rather than from the skeleton. The distinction can have dramatic diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This content focuses on the gross, histologic, radiographic, and clinical features of bone or cartilage-producing soft tissue lesions. Recent discoveries regarding tumor-specific genetics are discussed. PMID:26297064

  7. Soft tissue balancing in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MELONI, MARIA CHIARA; HOEDEMAEKER, RUSSALKA W.; VIOLANTE, BRUNO; MAZZOLA, CLAUDIO

    2014-01-01

    A good outcome in total knee arthroplasty depends on many factors: joint alignment, range of motion, patellar tracking and ligament stability. A correct soft tissue balance keeps the joint aligned in flexion and extension, and therefore constitutes the most important factor for durability of the implant. Indeed, incorrect soft tissue balancing is the primary cause of early implant failure necessitating revision surgery. Soft tissue releases, serving to correct imbalances, are performed until the flexion and extension gaps appear symmetrical and balanced. A knee is considered perfectly balanced when the flexion and extension gaps are perfectly rectangular and all the measurements are absolutely equal. PMID:25606540

  8. Raman Spectroscopy of Soft Musculoskeletal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Esmonde-White, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Tendon, ligament, and joint tissues are important in maintaining daily function. They can be affected by disease, age, and injury. Slow tissue turnover, hierarchical structure and function, and nonlinear mechanical properties present challenges to diagnosing and treating soft musculoskeletal tissues. Understanding these tissues in health, disease, and injury is important to improving pharmacologic and surgical repair outcomes. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool in the examination of soft musculoskeletal tissues. This article highlights exciting basic science and clinical/translational Raman studies of cartilage, tendon, and ligament. PMID:25286106

  9. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on soft tissue sarcoma and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... report " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " and other updates that there ...

  10. Local Recurrence of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Whitney M; Deneve, Jeremiah L

    2016-10-01

    The management of recurrent soft tissue sarcoma is a challenging problem for clinicians and has a significant physical, mental, emotional, and oncologic impact for the patient. Despite excellent limb-preservation therapies, approximately one-quarter of patients may eventually develop recurrence of disease. How to most appropriately manage these patients is a matter of debate. Several treatment options exist, including surgical resection, irradiation, systemic chemotherapy, amputation, and regional therapies. This article highlights the management of recurrent extremity soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:27542648

  11. Injectable Silk Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, E.; Lo, T.J.; Fournier, E.P.; Brown, J.E.; Abbott, R.D.; Gil, E.S.; Marra, K.G.; Rubin, J.P.; Leisk, G.G.; Kaplan, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow for the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration. Adipose derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10 day period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3 month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure was applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate. PMID:25323438

  12. Heterogeneous genetic profiles in soft tissue myoepitheliomas.

    PubMed

    Hallor, Karolin H; Teixeira, Manuel R; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Bizarro, Susana; Staaf, Johan; Domanski, Henryk A; von Steyern, Fredrik Vult; Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Mandahl, Nils; Mertens, Fredrik

    2008-11-01

    Myoepithelioma, mixed tumor and parachordoma are uncommon soft tissue tumors thought to represent morphological variants of a single tumor type. The genetic basis of these neoplasms is poorly understood. However, they morphologically resemble mixed tumor of the salivary glands (also known as pleomorphic adenoma), a tumor characterized by deregulated expression of PLAG1 or HMGA2. To evaluate a possible genetic relationship between these soft tissue and salivary gland tumors, PLAG1 expression levels and the genomic status of PLAG1 and HMGA2 were investigated in five soft tissue myoepitheliomas and one pleomorphic adenoma. In addition, all tumors were cytogenetically investigated and whole genome DNA copy number imbalances were studied in five of them. The genetic profiles were heterogeneous and the only aberration common to all soft tissue myoepitheliomas was a minimally deleted region of 3.55 Mb in chromosome band 19p13. Recurrent deletion of CDKN2A suggests that inactivation of this tumor suppressor gene is pathogenetically important in a subset. Furthermore, PLAG1 rearrangement was found in a soft tissue tumor from a patient previously treated for a salivary pleomorphic adenoma, indicating either metastasis of the salivary gland lesion or that some soft tissue tumors develop through the same mechanisms as their salivary gland counterparts. PMID:18604193

  13. Application of Proteomics to Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Tadashi; Kubota, Daisuke; Kawai, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignant cancers. Other than development of intensive therapies, the clinical outcome of patients with soft tissue sarcoma remains very poor, particularly when diagnosed at a late stage. Unique mutations have been associated with certain soft tissue sarcomas, but their etiologies remain unknown. The proteome is a functional translation of a genome, which directly regulates the malignant features of tumors. Thus, proteomics is a promising approach for investigating soft tissue sarcomas. Various proteomic approaches and clinical materials have been used to address clinical and biological issues, including biomarker development, molecular target identification, and study of disease mechanisms. Several cancer-associated proteins have been identified using conventional technologies such as 2D-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and array technology. The functional backgrounds of proteins identified were assessed extensively using in vitro experiments, thus supporting expression analysis. These observations demonstrate the applicability of proteomics to soft tissue sarcoma studies. However, the sample size in each study was insufficient to allow conclusive results. Given the low frequency of soft tissue sarcomas, multi-institutional collaborations are required to validate the results of proteomic approaches. PMID:22778956

  14. Soft tissue engineering in craniomaxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Roderick Y; Fasi, Anthony C; Feinberg, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial soft tissue reconstruction may be required following trauma, tumor resection, and to repair congenital deformities. Recent advances in the field of tissue engineering have significantly widened the reconstructive armamentarium of the surgeon. The successful identification and combination of tissue engineering, scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules has enabled the surgeon to design, recreate the missing tissue in its near natural form. This has resolved the issues like graft rejection, wound dehiscence, or poor vascularity. Successfully reconstructed tissue through soft tissue engineering protocols would help surgeon to restore the form and function of the lost tissue in its originality. This manuscript intends to provide a glimpse of the basic principle of tissue engineering, contemporary, and future direction of this field as applied to craniofacial surgery. PMID:24987591

  15. [Soft tissue sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors].

    PubMed

    Reichardt, P

    2016-03-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare tumors that represent a major challenge due to varying clinical presentations and often interdisciplinary treatment concepts. Gold standard for the treatment of localized resectable soft tissue sarcomas is complete surgical removal. In metastatic soft tissue sarcoma, systemic therapy is the treatment of choice. The most active drugs are anthracyclines and ifosfamide. Combination chemotherapy has improved both response rate and progression-free survival at the cost of increased toxicity. Imatinib at a dose of 400 mg/day is the gold standard for patients with advanced or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In patients with a mutation in KIT exon 9, 800 mg/day is the recommended dose. In imatinib refractory or intolerant patients, sunitinib is recommended. Regorafenib has been approved for third-line therapy. PMID:26907871

  16. Adjuvant radiation for soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Colleen I; Haas, Rick; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Over recent decades, limb-preservation surgery in combination with radiotherapy achieves local control rates exceeding 90% for extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Local control is not as successful for retroperitoneal sarcoma (approximately 60%) despite aggressive surgical approaches including en bloc resection of uninvolved adjacent organs combined with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). This review will discuss the indications for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for primary presentation of soft tissue sarcoma: "What," referring to the type and manner of planning and delivery of RT; "When," referring to the timing and scheduling of RT; and "Why," referring to the rationale for the use of RT will be addressed. From a practical stand point, this Educational Chapter on "adjuvant RT" will focus on pre- and postoperative RT in the context of gross total resection for extremity and retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma, the two most frequent paradigms for the use of adjuvant RT. PMID:25993234

  17. Phase contrast imaging of cochlear soft tissue.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.; Hwang, M.; Rau, C.; Fishman, A.; Lee, W.; Richter, C.

    2011-01-01

    A noninvasive technique to image soft tissue could expedite diagnosis and disease management in the auditory system. We propose inline phase contrast imaging with hard X-rays as a novel method that overcomes the limitations of conventional absorption radiography for imaging soft tissue. In this study, phase contrast imaging of mouse cochleae was performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source. The phase contrast tomographic reconstructions show soft tissue structures of the cochlea, including the inner pillar cells, the inner spiral sulcus, the tectorial membrane, the basilar membrane, and the Reissner's membrane. The results suggest that phase contrast X-ray imaging and tomographic techniques hold promise to noninvasively image cochlear structures at an unprecedented cellular level.

  18. [Adjuvant chemotherapy of adults soft tissue sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Bui-Nguyen, B; Italiano, A; Delva, F; Toulmond, M

    2010-06-01

    The main progress in the management of soft tissue sarcomas have been obtained in the field of local control. Although the main evolutive, vital, risk of these diseases is metastatic dissemination, efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy remains a controversial issue. Thus, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be considered as a standard for any situation. The last results of clinical trials, meta-analysis and population studies are presented and discussed in this article. New therapeutic strategies are to be developed to prevent metastases in soft tissue sarcomas. This needs a better understanding of the biology of those tumors, of metastases risk factors and of the determinants of systemic therapies efficacy in these tumors. PMID:20547481

  19. Systemic Therapy for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jennifer Y; Movva, Sujana

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare tumors that present with distant metastasis in up to 10% of patients. Survival has improved significantly because of advancements in histologic classification and improved management approaches. Older agents such as doxorubicin, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel continue to demonstrate objective response rates from 18% to 25%. Newer agents such as trabectedin, eribulin, aldoxorubicin, and olaratumab have demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival, overall survival, or toxicity profiles. Future studies on treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma will continue to concentrate on reducing toxicity, personalization of therapy, and targeting novel pathways. PMID:27542647

  20. Soft tissue tumors of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Johncilla, Melanie; Jo, Vickie Y

    2016-03-01

    Primary soft tissue tumors arising in the sinonasal tract are rare. While many mesenchymal neoplasms have been reported in the nasal cavity, sinuses, and nasopharynx, few are distinctive to this anatomic region. Some tumor types are relatively more common in this area, such as schwannoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and sinonasal hemangiopericytoma are unique entities of the sinonasal tract, as well as the recently characterized biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma. This review discusses the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features and currently known molecular data of the more frequently encountered soft tissue tumors of the sinonasal tract. PMID:26472693

  1. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections: Surgeon's Prospective

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are fulminant infections of any layer of the soft tissue compartment associated with widespread necrosis and systemic toxicity. Delay in diagnosing and treating these infections increases the risk of mortality. Early and aggressive surgical debridement with support for the failing organs significantly improves the survival. Although there are different forms of NSTIs like Fournier's gangrene or clostridial myonecrosis, the most important fact is that they share common pathophysiology and principles of treatment. The current paper summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical features, the diagnostic workup required and the treatment principles to manage these cases. PMID:24455410

  2. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma or Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  3. Soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Nkenke, Emeka; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Schmidt, Michael; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre

    2009-07-01

    Laser surgery gives the possibility to work remotely which leads to high precision, little trauma and high level sterility. However these advantages are coming with the lack of haptic feedback during the laser ablation of tissue. Therefore additional means are required to control tissue-specific ablation during laser surgery supporting the surgeon regardless of experience and skills. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy provides a straightforward and simple approach for optical tissue differentiation. We measured diffuse reflectance from four various tissue types ex vivo. We applied Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to differentiate the four tissue types and computed the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Special emphasis was taken on the identification of nerve as the most crucial tissue for maxillofacial surgery. The results show a promise for differentiating soft tissues as guidance for tissue-specific laser surgery by means of the diffuse reflectance.

  4. Biomimetic 3D tissue printing for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Ha, Dong-Heon; Jang, Jinah; Han, Hyun Ho; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Engineered adipose tissue constructs that are capable of reconstructing soft tissue with adequate volume would be worthwhile in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Tissue printing offers the possibility of fabricating anatomically relevant tissue constructs by delivering suitable matrix materials and living cells. Here, we devise a biomimetic approach for printing adipose tissue constructs employing decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) matrix bioink encapsulating human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). We designed and printed precisely-defined and flexible dome-shaped structures with engineered porosity using DAT bioink that facilitated high cell viability over 2 weeks and induced expression of standard adipogenic genes without any supplemented adipogenic factors. The printed DAT constructs expressed adipogenic genes more intensely than did non-printed DAT gel. To evaluate the efficacy of our printed tissue constructs for adipose tissue regeneration, we implanted them subcutaneously in mice. The constructs did not induce chronic inflammation or cytotoxicity postimplantation, but supported positive tissue infiltration, constructive tissue remodeling, and adipose tissue formation. This study demonstrates that direct printing of spatially on-demand customized tissue analogs is a promising approach to soft tissue regeneration. PMID:26056727

  5. Equine Model for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J.E.; Lo, T.; Quinn, K.P.; Fourligas, N.; Georgakoudi, I.; Leisk, G.G.; Mazan, M.; Thane, K.E.; Taeymans, O.; Hoffman, A.M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kirker-Head, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over six months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation. PMID:25350377

  6. Molecular Genetics of Pediatric Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Che; Shidham, Vinod B.

    2003-01-01

    The application of molecular genetics to pediatric soft tissue tumors has grown tremendously over the last decade. It has resulted in the identification of novel genes that have provided us with an increased understanding of oncogenesis. Furthermore, these findings have identified diagnostic and potentially prognostic factors for patient management. Molecular diagnostic techniques, such as reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have become important tools for evaluating pediatric soft tissue tumors. By detecting characteristic fusion genes, these techniques have greatly increased the diagnostic accuracy of histopathological classification. One of the exciting promises of the development of these molecular techniques is their ability to detect micrometastasis and minimal residual disease. Monitoring of minimal residual disease in pediatric soft tissue tumors by quantitative RT-PCR may provide important prognostic information. Furthermore, the potential development of targeted therapy based on the understanding of the molecular pathology of a specific soft tissue tumor may complement existing treatments and improve disease outcome. PMID:12876204

  7. Soft tissue calcification in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzela, D. C.; Huffer, W. E.; Conger, J. D.; Winter, S. D.; Hammond, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Autopsy protocols and microscopic slides of 56 dialyzed and 18 nondialyzed chronically uremic patients were reviewed to assess the presence, extent, and severity of extraosseous soft tissue calcification. Calcification was identified in 79% of the dialysis patients and 44% of the nondialysis patients (P iss less than .025). Soft tissue calcification most frequently involved the heart, lungs, stomach, and kidneys. Lesions were severe in 36% of the dialysis patients and, when strategically located within the myocardium, were life-threatening. The deaths of 6 dialysis patients were attributed to severe calcification of the cardiac conduction system and/or myocardium. The presence and severity of soft tissue calcification was not related to duration of dialysis, patients' age, degree of parathyroid gland hyperplasia, radiographic evidence of soft tissue calcification, serum calcium and phosphate levels, Ca X P products, or type or severity of metabolic bone disease. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:836675

  8. Lasers in soft tissue dental surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pick, Robert M.

    1990-06-01

    In the field of periodontics and oral surgery, the laser is a relatively new, but rapidly emerging, surgical tool. In the new area of soft tissue surgery, i.e., benign lesion and growths, the laser can completely replace the scalpel and offer the periodontist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon a new and exciting alternative.

  9. Multiscale mechanical modeling of soft biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2008-10-01

    Soft biological tissues include both native and artificial tissues. In the human body, tissues like the articular cartilage, arterial wall, and heart valve leaflets are examples of structures composed of an underlying network of collagen fibers, cells, proteins and molecules. Artificial tissues are less complex than native tissues and mainly consist of a fiber polymer network with the intent of replacing lost or damaged tissue. Understanding of the mechanical function of these materials is essential for many clinical treatments (e.g. arterial clamping, angioplasty), diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis) and tissue engineering applications (e.g. engineered blood vessels or heart valves). This thesis presents the derivation and application of a multiscale methodology to describe the macroscopic mechanical function of soft biological tissues incorporating directly their structural architecture. The model, which is based on volume averaging theory, accounts for structural parameters such as the network volume fraction and orientation, the realignment of the fibers in response to strain, the interactions among the fibers and the interactions between the fibers and the interstitial fluid in order to predict the overall tissue behavior. Therefore, instead of using a constitutive equation to relate strain to stress, the tissue microstructure is modeled within a representative volume element (RVE) and the macroscopic response at any point in the tissue is determined by solving a micromechanics problem in the RVE. The model was applied successfully to acellular collagen gels, native blood vessels, and electrospun polyurethane scaffolds and provided accurate predictions for permeability calculations in isotropic and oriented fiber networks. The agreement of model predictions with experimentally determined mechanical properties provided insights into the mechanics of tissues and tissue constructs, while discrepancies revealed limitations of the model framework.

  10. Soft Tissue Tumours of the Retroperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Van Roggen, J. Frans Graadt

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. This review summarizes the more prevalent soft tissue tumours arising in the retroperitoneum and highlights some recent fundamental and diagnostic developments relevant to mesenchymal tumours. Discussion. The retroperitoneum is an underestimated site for benign and malignant neoplastic disease, and represents the second most common site of origin of primary malignant soft tissue tumours (sarcomas) after the deep tissues of the lower extremity. In contrast to the predominance of benign soft tissue lesions over malignant sarcomas elsewhere, retroperitoneal mesenchymal lesions are far more likely to be malignant. The differential diagnosis is primarily with the more common lymphoproliferative and parenchymatous epithelial lesions arising in this area, and with metastatic disease from known or unknown primary sites elsewhere.The most prevalent mesenchymal tumours at this site are of a lipomatous, myogenic or neural nature.Their generally late clinical presentation and poorly accessible location provides numerous clinical challenges; optimal radiological imaging and a properly performed biopsy are essential cogs in the management route. Histopathological diagnosis may be complicated, but has been aided by developments in the fields of immunohistochemistry and tumour (cyto)genetics. Despite significant advances in oncological management protocols, the prognosis remains generally less favourable than for similar tumours at more accessible sites. PMID:18521430

  11. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-01

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques. PMID:27147588

  12. What Are the Key Statistics about Soft Tissue Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for soft tissue sarcomas? What are the key statistics about soft tissue sarcomas? The American Cancer Society's ... in the United States for 2016 are (these statistics include both adults and children): About 12,310 ...

  13. Radiation May Help After Surgery for 'Soft-Tissue' Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158322.html Radiation May Help After Surgery for 'Soft-Tissue' Cancers ... called soft-tissue sarcomas may benefit more from radiation therapy after surgery than younger patients do, a ...

  14. What's New in Soft Tissue Sarcomas Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for soft tissue sarcoma What`s new in soft tissue sarcoma research and treatment? Research ... develop. This information is already being applied to new tests to diagnose and classify sarcomas. This is ...

  15. Fetal soft tissue examinations by microdissection.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Mariline; Jocteur-Monrozier, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes methods for the examination of fetal abdominal and thoracic soft tissues by microdissection on either fresh (non-rodent) or fixed (rodent) specimens in order to detect structural abnormalities. With hundreds of fetuses examined for each species (rodent and non-rodent) in regulatory reproductive toxicity assessments (ICH, http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public_Web_Site/ICH_Products/Guidelines/Multidisciplinary/M3_R2/Step4/M3_R2__Guideline.pdf, 2009; ICH, http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public_Web_Site/ICH_Products/Guidelines/Safety/S5_R2/Step4/S5_R2__Guideline.pdf, 2005), microdissection techniques allow a thorough and relatively rapid examination of fetuses for soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:23138910

  16. Soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, T. M.; Sheehan, M.; Collins, D.; O'Connor, T. P.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective review of 33 cases of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity presenting over a 10 year period was undertaken. The history, patterns of referral, diagnostic investigations, procedures undertaken and outcomes were studied. We found there was a frequent delay in diagnosis and sometimes misinterpretation of biopsy specimens. Patients were seen by a variety of specialists from disciplines such as general surgery, plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery and rheumatology. Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, often allowing local control of the tumour without amputation. We believe there should be early referral of patients having these tumours to a centre where a combined multidisciplinary approach can be undertaken. PMID:8881731

  17. Physical Agents for Soft Tissue Injury.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The clinical management of soft tissue injuries of the lower limb commonly includes physical agents such as electrotherapy or ultrasound. However, the evidence about the effectiveness of physical agents varies, and their use remains controversial. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), published in the July 2016 issue of JOSPT, examined the benefits and safety risks of various physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Importantly, the review looked closely at the quality of the RCTs and focused on studies with low risk of bias. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating patients with such musculoskeletal conditions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):555. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0503. PMID:27363571

  18. Fibre-Matrix Interaction in Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zaoyang

    2010-05-21

    Although the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models of soft tissue. In this paper, the human annulus fibrosus is used as an example and the potential fibre-matrix interaction is identified by careful investigation of the experimental results of biaxial and uniaxial testing of the human annulus fibrosus. First, the uniaxial testing result of the HAF along the axial direction is analysed and it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the ground matrix can be well simulated by the incompressible neo-Hookean model when the collagen fibres are all under contraction. If the collagen fibres are stretched, the response of the ground matrix can still be described by the incompressible neo-Hookean model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on the fibre stretch ratio. This stiffness can be more than 10 times larger than the one obtained with collagen fibres under contraction. This phenomenon can only be explained by the fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that the physical interpretation of this interaction includes the inhomogeneity of the soft tissue and the fibre orientation dispersion. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by the fibre orientation dispersion. The significant effect of the fibre-matrix interaction strain energy on mechanical behaviour of the soft tissue is also illustrated by comparing some simulation results.

  19. Imaging in Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Current Updates.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are heterogeneous malignant tumors that have nonspecific imaging features. A combination of clinical, demographic, and imaging characteristics can aid in the diagnosis. Imaging provides important information regarding the tumor extent, pretreatment planning, and surveillance of patients with STS. In this article, we illustrate the pertinent imaging characteristics of the commonly occurring STS and some uncommon sarcomas with unique imaging characteristics. PMID:27591491

  20. Biopsy of soft-tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Shives, T C

    1993-04-01

    Biopsy is an integral part of the overall management of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. The types of biopsy are fine needle, trocar, open incision or en bloc excision. There are advantages and disadvantages of each. Open biopsy requires strict adherence to a number of surgical principles. Proper execution requires determination of appropriate biopsy site, meticulous technique, and close collaboration with an experienced pathologist. Failure to adhere to these principles may result in untoward consequences for patients. PMID:8472430

  1. Pulsed Laser Ablation of Soft Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Alfred; Venugopalan, Vasan

    In this chapter we focus on the key elements that form our current understanding of the mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of soft biological tissues. We present a conceptual framework providing mechanistic links between various ablation applications and the underlying thermodynamic and phase change processes [1]. We define pulsed laser ablation as the use of laser pulses with duration of ~1 ms or less for the incision or removal of tissue regardless of the photophysical or photochemical processes involved. However, we will confine this presentation to pulsed ablation performed on a tissue level that does not involve laser-induced plasma formation. Ablation processes within transparent tissues or cells resulting from non-linear absorption have been considered in reviews by Vogel and Venugopalan [1] and by Vogel and co-workers [2].

  2. The Genetics of Soft Connective Tissue Disorders.

    PubMed

    Vanakker, Olivier; Callewaert, Bert; Malfait, Fransiska; Coucke, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the field of hereditary connective tissue disorders has changed tremendously. This review highlights exciting insights into three prototypic disorders affecting the soft connective tissue: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, and cutis laxa. For each of these disorders, the identification and characterization of several novel but related conditions or subtypes have widened the phenotypic spectrum. In parallel, the vast underlying molecular network connecting these phenotypes is progressively being uncovered. Identification and characterization (both clinical and molecular) of new phenotypes within the connective tissue disorder spectrum are often key to further unraveling the pathways involved in connective tissue biology and delineating the clinical spectrum and pathophysiology of the disorders. Although difficult challenges remain, recent findings have expanded our pathophysiological understanding and may lead to targeted therapies in the near future. PMID:26002060

  3. Soft tissue cutting with ultrasonic mechanical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Mark. P.; McGuinness, Garrett; Gavin, Graham P.

    2012-05-01

    The use of ultrasonic vibrations transmitted via small diameter wire waveguides represents a technology that has potential for minimally invasive procedures in surgery. This form of energy delivery results in distal tip mechanical vibrations with amplitudes of vibration of up to 50 μm and at frequencies between 20-50 kHz commonly reported. This energy can then be used by micro-cutting surgical tools and end effectors for a range of applications such as bone cutting, cement removal in joint revision surgery and soft tissue cutting. One particular application which has gained regulatory approval in recent years is in the area of cardiovascular surgery in the removal of calcified atherosclerotic plaques and chronic total occlusions. This paper builds on previous work that was focused on the ultrasonic perforation of soft vascular tissue using ultrasonically activated mechanical waveguides and the applied force required to initiate failure in soft tissue when compared with non-ultrasonic waveguides. An ultrasonic device and experimental rig was developed that can deliver ultrasonic vibrations to the distal tip of 1.0 mm diameter nickel-titanium waveguides. The operation of the ultrasonic device has been characterized at 22.5 kHz with achievable amplitudes of vibration in the range of 16 - 40μm. The experimental rig allows the ultrasonically activated waveguide to be advanced through a tissue sample over a range of feedrates and the waveguide-tissue interaction force can be measured during perforation into the tissue. Preliminary studies into the effects of feedrate on porcine aortic arterial tissue perforation forces are presented as part of this work. A range of amplitudes of vibration at the wire waveguide distal tip were examined. The resulting temperature increase when perforating artery wall when using the energized wire waveguides is also examined. Results show a clear multistage failure of the tissue. The first stage involves a rise in force up to some

  4. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-18

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  5. The fracture toughness of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David; O'Mara, Niamh; Ryan, Eoin; Takaza, Michael; Simms, Ciaran

    2012-02-01

    Fracture toughness is important for any material, but to date there have been few investigations of this mechanical property in soft mammalian tissues. This paper presents new data on porcine muscle tissue and a detailed analysis of all previous work. The conclusion is that, in most cases, fracture toughness has not in fact been measured for these tissues. Reanalysis of the previous work shows that failure of the test specimens generally occurred at the material's ultimate strength, implying that no information about toughness can be obtained from the results. This finding applied to work on cartilage, artificial neocartilage, muscle and the TMJ disc. Our own data, which was also found to be invalid, gave measured fracture toughness values which were highly variable and showed a strong dependence on the crack growth increment. The net-section failure stress and failure energy were relatively constant in large specimens, independent of crack length, whilst for smaller specimens they showed a strong size effect. These findings are explained by the fact that the process zone size, estimated here using the critical distance parameter L, was similar to, or larger than, critical specimen dimensions (crack length and specimen width). Whilst this analysis casts doubt on much of the published literature, a useful finding is that soft tissues are highly tolerant of defects, able to withstand the presence of cracks several millimetres in length without significant loss of strength. PMID:22301183

  6. Studying Genes in Tissue Samples From Younger and Adolescent Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  7. Nasal soft tissue trauma and management.

    PubMed

    Immerman, Sara; Constantinides, Minas; Pribitkin, Edmund A; White, W Matthew

    2010-12-01

    The nose is the most prominent of all facial structures and is susceptible to many types of trauma. All soft tissue injuries of the nose have the potential to distort its appearance and adversely affect the patient's self-image and self-esteem. Once life-threatening injuries are stabilized, a careful history and physical exam should be completed and treatment individualized. The ultimate objective of treatment is to achieve both functional and cosmetic restoration with timely diagnosis and repair. Immediate nasal reconstruction is ideal when medically possible because this decreases long-term sequelae. PMID:21086240

  8. Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology: Diagnostic and Prognostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Julie; Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Bui, Marilyn M

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue and bone tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors most often classified according to the type of tissue they most closely histologically resemble. Although sarcomas are rare, greater than 100 histologic subtypes of benign and malignant soft tissue and bone tumors are currently recognized. In this article, the authors review the current pathologic definitions, the classification and grading systems, supportive ancillary techniques, and the prognostic implications for some of the more common soft tissue and bone tumors. PMID:27542635

  9. Nonlinear noise waves in soft biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Gurbatov, S. N.; Demin, I. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    The study of intense waves in soft biological tissues is necessary both for diagnostics and therapeutic aims. Tissue represents an inherited medium with frequency-dependent dissipative properties, in which waves are described by nonlinear integro-differential equations. The equations for such waves are well known. Their group analysis has been performed, and a number of exact solutions have been found. However, statistical problems for nonlinear waves in tissues have hardly been studied. As well, for medical applications, both intense noise waves and waves with fluctuating parameters can be used. In addition, statistical solutions are simpler in structure than regular solutions; they are useful for understanding the physics of processes. Below a general approach is described for solving nonlinear statistical problems applied to the considered mathematical models of biological tissues. We have calculated the dependences of the intensities of the narrowband noise harmonics on distance. For wideband noise, we have calculated the dependence of the spectral integral intensity on distance. In all cases, wave attenuation is determined both by the specific dissipative properties of the tissue and the nonlinearity of the medium.

  10. Longitudinal nonlinear wave propagation through soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Valdez, M; Balachandran, B

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, wave propagation through soft tissue is investigated. A primary aim of this investigation is to gain a fundamental understanding of the influence of soft tissue nonlinear material properties on the propagation characteristics of stress waves generated by transient loadings. Here, for computational modeling purposes, the soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear visco-hyperelastic material, the geometry is assumed to be one-dimensional rod geometry, and uniaxial propagation of longitudinal waves is considered. By using the linearized model, a basic understanding of the characteristics of wave propagation is developed through the dispersion relation and in terms of the propagation speed and attenuation. In addition, it is illustrated as to how the linear system can be used to predict brain tissue material parameters through the use of available experimental ultrasonic attenuation curves. Furthermore, frequency thresholds for wave propagation along internal structures, such as axons in the white matter of the brain, are obtained through the linear analysis. With the nonlinear material model, the authors analyze cases in which one of the ends of the rods is fixed and the other end is subjected to a loading. Two variants of the nonlinear model are analyzed and the associated predictions are compared with the predictions of the corresponding linear model. The numerical results illustrate that one of the imprints of the nonlinearity on the wave propagation phenomenon is the steepening of the wave front, leading to jump-like variations in the stress wave profiles. This phenomenon is a consequence of the dependence of the local wave speed on the local deformation of the material. As per the predictions of the nonlinear material model, compressive waves in the structure travel faster than tensile waves. Furthermore, it is found that wave pulses with large amplitudes and small elapsed times are attenuated over shorter spans. This feature is due to the elevated

  11. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar αSMA + CD146 + PDGFRβ+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFRβ immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  12. Vascular Compromise from Soft Tissue Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Shannon; Carruthers, Jean D.A.; Carruthers, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of soft tissue fillers is, in part, due to their favorable side-effect profile. However, serious complications can occur. The authors describe their extensive clinical experience with soft-tissue augmentation and the rare complication of vascular compromise, which can lead to necrosis and scarring. Over a 10-year period between January 2003 and January 2013, the authors observed a total of 12 cases of vascular compromise. Eight patients in their clinical practice showed evidence of vascular compromise out of a total of 14,355 filler injections (0.05%). In addition, four patients treated with an experimental particulate filler had vascular complications. All cases were examined for filler type, location of complication, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes. Although treatment plans differed for each patient in their series, all cases of vascular compromise resolved fully. The authors believe that an office-based protocol for both immediate and ongoing care—including a thorough individualized assessment and treatment plan for each patient—is critical to timely and effective resolution of side effects. They propose key recommendations for the prevention and management of vascular compromise to improve patient outcomes and reduce the risk of permanent complications. PMID:25276276

  13. Multidisciplinary Management of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nystrom, Lukas M.; Reimer, Nickolas B.; Reith, John D.; Dang, Long; Zlotecki, Robert A.; Scarborough, Mark T.; Gibbs, C. Parker

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare malignancy, with approximately 11,000 cases per year encountered in the United States. It is primarily encountered in adults but can affect patients of any age. There are many histologic subtypes and the malignancy can be low or high grade. Appropriate staging work up includes a physical exam, advanced imaging, and a carefully planned biopsy. This information is then used to guide the discussion of definitive treatment of the tumor which typically involves surgical resection with a negative margin in addition to neoadjuvant or adjuvant external beam radiation. Advances in imaging and radiation therapy have made limb salvage surgery the standard of care, with local control rates greater than 90% in most modern series. Currently, the role of chemotherapy is not well defined and this treatment is typically reserved for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease and for certain histologic subtypes. The goal of this paper is to review the current state of the art in multidisciplinary management of soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:23983648

  14. Soft Tissue Injections in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Nepple, Jeffrey J.; Matava, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injections into or adjacent to soft tissue structures, including muscle, tendon, bursa, and fascia, for pain relief and an earlier return to play have become common in the field of sports medicine. Study Design: Clinical review. Results: Corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) are the most commonly used injectable agents in athletes. The use of these injectable agents have proven efficacy in some disorders, whereas the clinical benefit for others remain questionable. All soft tissue injections performed for pain control and/or an anti-inflammatory effect have potentially serious side effects, which must be considered, especially in the pregame setting. Conclusions: The primary concern regarding corticosteroid and local anesthetic injections is an increased risk of tendon rupture associated with the direct injection into the tendon. Intramuscular Toradol injections provide significant analgesia, as well as an anti-inflammatory effect via its inhibitory effect on the cyclooxygenase pathway. The risk of bleeding associated with Toradol use is recognized but not accurately quantified. PMID:23015899

  15. Metachronous Bilateral Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Nowrasteh, Ghodratollah; Aziz, Tanim; Assas, Mohammed Al; Nuaimi, Lateefa Al; Marzouqi, Saeeda; Quadri, Asif A.M.; Alrawi, Sadir

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 44 • Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Soft tissue sarcomas Symptoms: Discomfort • swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Image guided biopsy • metastatic work up • neoadjuvant radiotherapy • radical resection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) account for approximately 1% of adult malignancies, with 50 to 60% occurring in the extremities. Liposarcoma is the most common type of STS and represent about 20% of total adult sarcomas. There are rare syndromes associated with increased risk of developing STS. Further, chemical compounds such as chlorinated phenols and a few chemotherapeutic drugs have been linked to STS, along with ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, the etiology is uncertain for most of these lesions. Case Report: This report details 2 cases of metachronous bilateral STS of the lower extremities. The first of these presented as a local recurrence of a previously resected right thigh liposarcoma and a new liposarcoma in the left thigh. As mentioned above, among the different subtypes of STS, liposarcoma has the highest tendency for multifocality. The second patient had multifocal metachronous leiomyosarcoma with lung metastases occurring simultaneously with the second presentation. Leiomyosarcoma is another subtype reported to present with multi-focal disease. Conclusions: Despite the rarity of bilateral lesions, their occurrence should not be overlooked in the initial diagnosis and follow-up of the initially detected tumor. Early detection can affect patient survival because their presence predicts unfavorable outcomes. PMID:26744032

  16. Current management of pediatric soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric soft tissue sarcomas are a group of malignant neoplasms arising within embryonic mesenchymal tissues during the process of differentiation into muscle, fascia and fat. The tumors have a biphasic peak for age of incidence. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is diagnosed more frequently in younger children, whereas adult-type non-RMS soft tissue sarcoma is predominately observed in adolescents. The latter group comprises a variety of rare tumors for which diagnosis can be difficult and typically requires special studies, including immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic analysis. Current management for the majority of pediatric sarcomas is based on the data from large multi-institutional trials, which has led to great improvements in outcomes over recent decades. Although surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, the curative aim cannot be achieved without adjuvant treatment. Pre-treatment staging and risk classification are of prime importance in selecting an effective treatment protocol. Tumor resectability, the response to induction chemotherapy, and radiation generally determine the risk-group, and these factors are functions of tumor site, size and biology. Surgery provides the best choice of local control of small resectable tumors in a favorable site. Radiation therapy is added when surgery leaves residual disease or there is evidence of regional spread. Chemotherapy aims to reduce the risk of relapse and improve overall survival. In addition, upfront chemotherapy reduces the aggressiveness of the required surgery and helps preserve organ function in a number of cases. Long-term survival in low-risk sarcomas is feasible, and the intensity of treatment can be reduced. In high-risk sarcoma, current research is allowing more effective disease control. PMID:26566481

  17. Current management of pediatric soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric soft tissue sarcomas are a group of malignant neoplasms arising within embryonic mesenchymal tissues during the process of differentiation into muscle, fascia and fat. The tumors have a biphasic peak for age of incidence. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is diagnosed more frequently in younger children, whereas adult-type non-RMS soft tissue sarcoma is predominately observed in adolescents. The latter group comprises a variety of rare tumors for which diagnosis can be difficult and typically requires special studies, including immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic analysis. Current management for the majority of pediatric sarcomas is based on the data from large multi-institutional trials, which has led to great improvements in outcomes over recent decades. Although surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, the curative aim cannot be achieved without adjuvant treatment. Pre-treatment staging and risk classification are of prime importance in selecting an effective treatment protocol. Tumor resectability, the response to induction chemotherapy, and radiation generally determine the risk-group, and these factors are functions of tumor site, size and biology. Surgery provides the best choice of local control of small resectable tumors in a favorable site. Radiation therapy is added when surgery leaves residual disease or there is evidence of regional spread. Chemotherapy aims to reduce the risk of relapse and improve overall survival. In addition, upfront chemotherapy reduces the aggressiveness of the required surgery and helps preserve organ function in a number of cases. Long-term survival in low-risk sarcomas is feasible, and the intensity of treatment can be reduced. In high-risk sarcoma, current research is allowing more effective disease control. PMID:26566481

  18. Soft tissue modelling through autowaves for surgery simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Alici, Gursel; Smith, Julian

    2006-09-01

    Modelling of soft tissue deformation is of great importance to virtual reality based surgery simulation. This paper presents a new methodology for simulation of soft tissue deformation by drawing an analogy between autowaves and soft tissue deformation. The potential energy stored in a soft tissue as a result of a deformation caused by an external force is propagated among mass points of the soft tissue by non-linear autowaves. The novelty of the methodology is that (i) autowave techniques are established to describe the potential energy distribution of a deformation for extrapolating internal forces, and (ii) non-linear materials are modelled with non-linear autowaves other than geometric non-linearity. Integration with a haptic device has been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with force feedback. The proposed methodology not only deals with large-range deformations, but also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials by simply changing diffusion coefficients. PMID:16960747

  19. Peri-implant soft tissue management: Where are we?

    PubMed

    Bhatavadekar, Neel

    2012-10-01

    Dental implants have evolved dramatically over the last decade, and so have our expectations from them in terms of functional and esthetic criteria. The maintenance and augmentation of the soft tissue has emerged as an area of concern and focus. The triad of anatomical peri-implant characteristics, soft tissue response to the implant material, and clinical skill form the fundamental principles in augmenting soft tissue. However, as clinicians, where are we with regards to the ability to augment and maintain soft tissue around dental implants, about 40 years after the first implants were placed? We now understand that peri-implant soft tissue management begins with extraction management. Our treatment modalities have evolved from socket compression post-extraction, to socket preservation with an aim to enhance the eventual peri-implant soft tissue. This short communication will assess the evolution of our thought regarding peri-implant soft tissue management, augmentation of keratinized mucosa around implants, and also look at some recent techniques including the rotated pedicle connective tissue graft for enhancing inter-implant papilla architecture. With newer research modalities, such as cyto-detachment technology, and cutting-edge bioengineering solutions (possibly a soft-tissue-implant construct) which might be available in the near future for enhancing soft tissue, we are certainly in an exciting era in dentistry. PMID:23493178

  20. Role of soft tissues in metacarpal fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Elizabeth Anne; Dennis, Jay J; Milne, Edward L; Latta, Loren L; Makowski, Anna-Lena

    2003-07-01

    The contribution of soft tissues in stabilizing fracture fixation in metacarpals is appreciated clinically, but no quantitative biomechanical study of their role has been done. All previous studies of fracture fixation in vitro have been done on metacarpals denuded of soft tissues. To quantify the role of soft tissues in metacarpal fracture fixation, the biomechanical effectiveness of four fixation devices was examined in human cadaver metacarpals with and without soft tissues. Values were compared for three nonrigid methods (expandable intramedullary fixation devices, crossed Kirschner wires, and single half-pin frames) and one rigid method (dorsal plates) in 45 disarticulated metacarpals stripped of soft tissues (denuded) and in 46 metacarpals in whole hands with all soft tissues remaining (intact). Mechanical testing to complete failure in three-point apex dorsal bending was done in all specimens. Ultimate moment (strength) of each of the four fixation methods was significantly greater in intact specimens than in denuded specimens. Crossed Kirschner wires were most stable in intact specimens, and dorsal plates were more stable in denuded specimens. The results show that soft tissues contribute to the strength of fracture fixation. Clinically, surgeons may be able to use a less invasive fixation method than plating without compromising the strength of metacarpal fixation in patients whose soft tissues are not severely disrupted and the fracture configuration allows. Plating may offer optimum stability in patients whose soft tissues are damaged severely and provide less strengthening of the fracture construct. PMID:12838068

  1. Completely extruded talus without soft tissue attachments.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Rak; Jeong, Jae Jung; Lee, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Woo; Suh, Jin-Soo

    2011-03-29

    A completely extruded talus without any remaining soft tissue attachments is extremely rare. The present report describes treatment of a 45-year-old man who sustained a completely extruded talus injury following a rock-climbing fall. Upon admission, the extruded talus was deep-frozen in our bone bank. The open ankle joint underwent massive wound debridement and irrigation for 3 days. Four days later we performed a primary subtalar fusion between the extruded talus and the calcaneus, anticipating revascularization from the calcaneus. However, aseptic loosening and osteolysis developed around the screw and talus. At 12 months post-trauma we performed a tibiocalcaneal ankle fusion with a femoral head allograft to fill the talar defect. Follow-up at 24 months post-trauma showed the patient had midfoot motion, tibio-talar-calcaneal fusion, and was able partake in 4-hour physical activity twice per week. PMID:24765266

  2. [Grading of soft tissue and bone sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Petersen, I; Wardelmann, E

    2016-07-01

    Malignancy grading is an essential element in the classification of sarcomas. It correlates with the prognosis of the disease and the risk of metastasis. This article presents the grading schemes for soft tissue, bone and pediatric sarcomas. It summarizes the histological criteria of the Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) system and the Pediatric Oncology Group as well as the grading of bone tumors by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Furthermore, the potential relevance of gene expression signatures, the complexity index in sarcoma (CINSARC) and single genetic alterations (p53, MDM2, p16, SWI/SNF, EWSR1 fusions and PAX3/PAX7-FOXO1 fusions) for the prognosis of sarcomas are discussed. PMID:27384333

  3. CT of soft-tissue neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, R.G.; McLeod, R.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    The computed tomographic scans (CT) of 84 patients with untreated soft-tissue neoplasms were studied, 75 with primary and nine with secondary lesions. Each scan was evaluated using several criteria: homogeneity and density, presence and type of calcification, presence of bony destruction, involvement of multiple muscle groups, definition of adjacent fat, border definition, and vessel or nerve involvement. CT demonstrated the lesion in all 84 patients and showed excellent anatomic detail in 64 of the 75 patients with primary neoplasms. The CT findings were characteristic enough to suggest the histology of the neoplasm in only 13 lesions (nine lipomas, three hemangiomas, one neurofibroma). No malignant neoplasm had CT characteristics specific enough to differentiate it from any other malignant tumor. However, malignant neoplasms could be differentiated from benign neoplasms in 88% of the cases.

  4. Sarcomas of Soft Tissue and Bone.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Andrea; Dirksen, Uta; Bielack, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The definition of soft tissue and bone sarcomas include a large group of several heterogeneous subtypes of mesenchymal origin that may occur at any age. Among the different sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma are aggressive high-grade malignancies that often arise in adolescents and young adults. Managing these malignancies in patients in this age bracket poses various clinical problems, also because different therapeutic approaches are sometimes adopted by pediatric and adult oncologists, even though they are dealing with the same condition. Cooperation between pediatric oncologists and adult medical oncologists is a key step in order to assure the best treatment to these patients, preferably through their inclusion into international clinical trials. PMID:27595362

  5. Reconstruction of periorbital soft tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Berli, Jens U; Merbs, Shannath L; Grant, Michael P

    2014-10-01

    Because of the complex anatomy and fine mechanics of the periorbital soft tissues, the reconstruction of this region can be particularly daunting. Through a structured assessment of the defect, based on subunit analysis and thorough understanding of the surgical layers, we believe to allow the reconstructive surgeon to develop an algorithmic approach to these complex problems. The sequela of a suboptimal reconstruction do not only result in an inferior aesthetic result, but also have the potential for long-term functional problems such as epiphora, dry eye, ptosis, eyelid retraction, and thus requiring secondary surgery. There is no better time to aim for a perfect reconstruction than at the time of the initial surgery. In this chapter, we hope to encourage the reader to strengthen and recapitulate these analytical skills and present the most commonly used and studied techniques to help achieve a reproducible functional and aesthetically appealing result. PMID:25397712

  6. Fibroblast involvement in soft connective tissue calcification

    PubMed Central

    Ronchetti, Ivonne; Boraldi, Federica; Annovi, Giulia; Cianciulli, Paolo; Quaglino, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Soft connective tissue calcification is not a passive process, but the consequence of metabolic changes of local mesenchymal cells that, depending on both genetic and environmental factors, alter the balance between pro- and anti-calcifying pathways. While the role of smooth muscle cells and pericytes in ectopic calcifications has been widely investigated, the involvement of fibroblasts is still elusive. Fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) patients and of patients exhibiting PXE-like clinical and histopathological findings offer an attractive model to investigate the mechanisms leading to the precipitation of mineral deposits within elastic fibers and to explore the influence of the genetic background and of the extracellular environment on fibroblast-associated calcifications, thus improving the knowledge on the role of mesenchymal cells on pathologic mineralization. PMID:23467434

  7. Contemporary Management of Retroperitoneal Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Olimpiadi, Yuliya; Song, Suisui; Hu, James S; Matcuk, George R; Chopra, Shefali; Eisenberg, Burton L; Sener, Stephen F; Tseng, William W

    2015-08-01

    Management of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas (RP STS) can be very challenging. In contrast to the more common extremity STS, the two predominant histologic subtypes encountered in the retroperitoneum are well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for RP STS. Preoperative planning and anticipation of the need for resection of adjacent organs/structures are critical. The extent of surgery, including the role of compartmental resection, is still controversial. Radiation therapy may be an important adjunct to surgery to provide locoregional disease control; this is currently being evaluated in the preoperative setting in the EORTC STRASS trial. Systemic therapy, tailored to the specific histologic subtype, may also be of benefit for the management of RP STS. Further investigation of novel therapies (e.g., targeted therapies, immunotherapy) is needed. Overall, multi-institutional collaboration is important moving forward, to continue to better understand and optimize management of this disease. PMID:26092408

  8. Retroperitoneal Castleman's disease mimicking soft tissue tumour.

    PubMed

    Pandya, B; Ghosh, S K; Chude, G; Rajmohan, M V; Narang, R

    2007-08-01

    Castleman's disease is a type of non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disease having lymph nodal hyperplasia. It has two distinct microscopic types: hyaline-vascular type and plasma cell type. Clinically, it may present either as a solitary mass, most commonly in the mediastinum, or as a multicentric form whose features are generalized lymph-adenopathy, splenomegaly and involvement of other organs like the lungs and kidneys. Here we report a case of isolated retroperitoneal Castleman's disease, which presented as a lump in the iliac fossa in a young female. A clinico-radio-logical diagnosis of retroperitoneal soft tissue tumour was made and the patient underwent complete surgical excision. The exact diagnosis was only obtained at histopathology and there is no evidence of recurrence at six months follow-up. PMID:23132970

  9. Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. )

    1990-08-15

    The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

  10. Soft Tissue Augmentation with Silk Composite Graft

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Tae; Kweon, Hae Yong; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) and antibody as that affects the performance of a silk-4HR combination graft for soft tissue augmentation in an animal model. Methods: The silk graft materials consisted of four types: silk+10% tricalcium phosphate (TCP) (ST0), silk+10% TCP+1% 4HR (ST1), silk+10% TCP+3% 4HR (ST3), and silk+10% TCP+6% 4-HR (ST6). The antibody binding assay tested the 4HR effect and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) exam was done for silk grafts. The animal experiment used a subcutaneous pocket mouse model. The graft – SH0 or SH1 or SH3 or SH6 – was placed in a subcutaneous pocket. The animals were killed at one, two, and four weeks, postoperatively. The specimens were subjected to histological analysis and lysozyme assay. Results: Groups with 4HR applied showed lower antibody binding affinity to antigen compared to groups without 4HR. In the SEM examination, there was no significant difference among groups. Histological examinations revealed many foreign body giant cells in ST0 and ST1 group at four weeks postoperatively. Both ST3 and ST6 groups developed significantly lower levels of giant cell values compared to ST0 and ST1 groups (P <0.001) at four weeks postoperatively. In the lysozyme assay, the ST1 and ST3 groups showed denser signals than the other groups. Conclusion: 4HR combined silk implants resulted in high levels of vascular and connective tissue regeneration. PMID:27489833

  11. Age determination of soft tissue hematomas.

    PubMed

    Neumayer, Bernhard; Hassler, Eva; Petrovic, Andreas; Widek, Thomas; Ogris, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In clinical forensic medicine, the estimation of the age of injuries such as externally visible subcutaneous hematomas is important for the reconstruction of violent events, particularly to include or exclude potential suspects. Since the estimation of the time of origin based on external inspection is unreliable, the aim of this study was to use contrast in MRI to develop an easy-to-use model for hematoma age estimation. In a longitudinal study, artificially created subcutaneous hematomas were repetitively imaged using MRI over a period of two weeks. The hemorrhages were created by injecting autologous blood into the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh in 20 healthy volunteers. For MRI, standard commercially available sequences, namely proton-density-weighted, T2 -weighted and inversion recovery sequences, were used. The hematomas' MRI data were analyzed regarding their contrast behavior using the most suitable sequences to derive a model allowing an objective estimation of the age of soft tissue hematomas. The Michelson contrast between hematoma and muscle in the proton-density-weighted sequence showed an exponentially decreasing behavior with a dynamic range of 0.6 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.1. The contrast of the inversion recovery sequences showed increasing characteristics and was hypointense for TI = 200ms and hyperintense for TI =1000ms. These sequences were used to create a contrast model. The cross-validation of the model finally yielded limits of agreement for hematoma age determination (corresponding to ±1.96 SD) of ±38.7h during the first three days and ±54 h for the entire investigation period. The developed model provides lookup tables which allow for the estimation of a hematoma's age given a single contrast measurement applicable by a radiologist or a forensic physician. This is a first step towards an accurate and objective dating method for subcutaneous hematomas, which will be particularly useful in child abuse. PMID:25208978

  12. Biomechanical characterization of soft tissue injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnem, Andreas Meyer; Randeberg, Lise Lyngsnes; Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Lilledahl, Magnus B.; Haaverstad, Rune; Haugen, Olav A.; Skallerud, Bjørn; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2007-02-01

    Determining the cause of an injury and the force behind the impact may be of crucial importance in a court case. For non-penetrating soft tissue injuries there is a lack of information available in the literature. In this study controlled bruises were inflicted on an anesthetized pig by high speed, low-weight paintball projectiles (diameter 17.1 mm, weight 3.15 g). The speed of the object and the impact itself were monitored using a high speed camera. Punch biopsies (5 mm) were collected from the injury sites. A red and purple ring with a diameter of 1.5 cm appeared on the skin within 30 seconds after the paintball impact. The ring was visually fully established after 5-10 minutes. Numerical finite element simulations performed with ABAQUSExplicit showed a build up of shear stresses in the skin where the ring formed. Biopsies demonstrated severe dermal vessel damage in the same area. It is concluded that considerable shear stresses during the impact will create dermal vessel damage and thereby cause a visible bruise. Larger forces are required for compressive stresses to inflict equivalent vascular damage.

  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Casali, Paolo G

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is not standard treatment in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, when the risk of relapse is high, it is an option for shared decision making with the patient in conditions of uncertainty. This is because available evidence is conflicting, even if several randomized clinical trials have been performed for 4 decades and also have been pooled into meta-analyses. Indeed, available meta-analyses point to a benefit in the 5% to 10% range in terms of survival and distant relapse rate. Some local benefit also was suggested by some trials. Placing chemotherapy in the preoperative setting may help gain a local advantage in terms of the quality of surgical margins or decreased sequelae. This may be done within a personalized approach according to the clinical presentation. Attempts to personalize treatment on the basis of the variegated pathology and molecular biology of STS subgroups are ongoing as well, according to what is done in the medical treatment of advanced STS. Thus, decision making for adjuvant and neoadjuvant indications deserves personalization in clinical research and in clinical practice, taking profit from all multidisciplinary clinical skills available at a sarcoma reference center, though with a degree of subjectivity because of the limitations of available evidence. PMID:25993233

  14. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  16. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  17. Isolated Limb Perfusion of Melphalan With or Without Tumor Necrosis Factor in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Arm or Leg

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-14

    Stage IVB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIC Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IVA Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  18. Soft tissue invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is common and clinical presentation can vary from minimal to extensive locoregional involvement. Although PTC is generally considered the most benign among all thyroid carcinomas, it may present with local invasion with poor prognosis. Our retrospective study involved 3267 PTC patients undergoing regular follow-up at Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou, Taiwan. Among them, 269 were PTC cases with ETE, having tumors greater than 1 cm in size and treated with total or complete thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection for which the follow-up period was over 10 years. The mean age of 269 cases was 46.8 ± 15.1 (range 11-83 years) years. The number of females was 204 (75.8 %). Patients were categorized into minimal ETE (175 cases) and extensive ETE (94 cases) groups according to surgical findings and pathological reports. Mean follow-up period was 13.3 ± 5.5 (range 0.2-29.3) years, during which 28 (10.4 %) patients died of thyroid cancer; and 63 (23.4 %) of all-cause mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that age, gender, extensive ETE, and lymph node metastasis had a statistically significant effect on thyroid cancer mortality. Survival rates were significantly different between minimal ETE and extensive ETE groups (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, perithyroidal soft tissue involvement by PTC is an important factor that determines patient prognosis and a closer follow-up and more aggressive treatment is necessary for patients who are old, male, extensive ETE, and with lymph node involvement. PMID:27154220

  19. Optical-Based Analysis of Soft Tissue Structures.

    PubMed

    Goth, Will; Lesicko, John; Sacks, Michael S; Tunnell, James W

    2016-07-11

    Fibrous structures are an integral and dynamic feature of soft biological tissues that are directly related to the tissues' condition and function. A greater understanding of mechanical tissue behavior can be gained through quantitative analyses of structure alone, as well as its integration into computational models of soft tissue function. Histology and other nonoptical techniques have traditionally dominated the field of tissue imaging, but they are limited by their invasiveness, inability to provide resolution on the micrometer scale, and dynamic information. Recent advances in optical modalities can provide higher resolution, less invasive imaging capabilities, and more quantitative measurements. Here we describe contemporary optical imaging techniques with respect to their suitability in the imaging of tissue structure, with a focus on characterization and implementation into subsequent modeling efforts. We outline the applications and limitations of each modality and discuss the overall shortcomings and future directions for optical imaging of soft tissue structure. PMID:27420574

  20. Do We Know What Causes Soft Tissue Sarcomas?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that some of these risk factors affect the DNA of cells in the soft tissues. Researchers have ... great progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal cells to become cancerous. Our ...

  1. What Are the Risk Factors for Soft Tissue Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... soft tissue sarcoma. Exposure to dioxin and to herbicides that contain phenoxyacetic acid at high doses (such ... known for certain. There is no evidence that herbicides (weed killers) or insecticides, at levels encountered by ...

  2. Doxorubicin With Upfront Dexrazoxane for the Treatment of Advanced or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-11

    Sarcoma, Soft Tissue; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Leiomyosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Synovial Sarcoma; Myxofibrosarcoma; Angiosarcoma; Fibrosarcoma; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Epithelioid Sarcoma

  3. A case of Apophysomyces trapeziformis necrotizing soft tissue infection.

    PubMed

    Echaiz, Jose F; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Bailey, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare and devastating disease. Apophysomyces trapeziformis is an environmental mold that was recently implicated in several cases of cutaneous and soft tissue mucormycosis in victims of a tornado in Joplin, Missouri. Here, we report a case of Apophysomyces trapeziformis necrotizing soft tissue infection in a resident of Joplin 10 months after the disaster and without preceding trauma. Aspects of histological and microbiological diagnosis are also reviewed. PMID:23891642

  4. Management of soft tissue defects of the hand.

    PubMed

    Yannascoli, Sarah M; Thibaudeau, Stephanie; Levin, L Scott

    2015-06-01

    Soft tissue coverage of the hand remains a challenging problem to the hand surgeon, but advances in the field of microsurgery have provided improved thin, pliable, durable flaps that offer cosmetic reconstructive options. The reconstructive elevator is poised to replace the reconstructive ladder, thereby allowing early reconstruction by the best available option. This reviews focus on the variety of pedicled, free fasciocutaneous, and venous flaps available for successful soft tissue coverage of the hand. PMID:25936734

  5. Soft-tissue vessels and cellular preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Mary H; Wittmeyer, Jennifer L; Horner, John R; Toporski, Jan K

    2005-03-25

    Soft tissues are preserved within hindlimb elements of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen 1125). Removal of the mineral phase reveals transparent, flexible, hollow blood vessels containing small round microstructures that can be expressed from the vessels into solution. Some regions of the demineralized bone matrix are highly fibrous, and the matrix possesses elasticity and resilience. Three populations of microstructures have cell-like morphology. Thus, some dinosaurian soft tissues may retain some of their original flexibility, elasticity, and resilience. PMID:15790853

  6. Soft tissue tumors of the penis: a review.

    PubMed

    Katona, Terrence M; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; MacLennan, Gregory T; Cheng, Lirong; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang

    2006-08-01

    Penile soft tissue tumors comprise 5% of tumors at this site and most have been reported as isolated case reports. The purpose of this review is to aid the practicing surgical pathologist in distinguishing penile soft tissue tumors, such as sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma, from other prognostically and therapeutically important entities in the differential diagnosis. Clinical presentation, management, prognosis and factors influencing behavior are reviewed. The immunohistochemical profiles and salient morphologic clues that may help distinguish penile spindle cell tumors from sarcomatoid carcinomas are evaluated. Soft tissue tumors of the penis may be classified as benign or malignant, as superficial or deep and in terms of age at presentation. All are rare. The most common benign soft tissue tumors that affect the penis are vascular neoplasms, followed by tumors of neural, myoid and fibrous origin. Among reported cases, the most frequent malignant penile soft tissue tumors are Kaposi sarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. Correctly diagnosing penile soft tissue tumors is imperative, because the biologic behavior and the clinical management of these neoplasms vary considerably. Distinguishing sarcomas from sarcomatoid carcinoma and melanoma is particularly important. Accurate diagnosis is best facilitated by consideration of all available aspects of the case, including clinical information, histopathologic findings and immunohistochemical results. PMID:16927639

  7. Estimation of Soft Tissue Mechanical Parameters from Robotic Manipulation Data.

    PubMed

    Boonvisut, Pasu; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk

    2013-10-01

    Robotic motion planning algorithms used for task automation in robotic surgical systems rely on availability of accurate models of target soft tissue's deformation. Relying on generic tissue parameters in constructing the tissue deformation models is problematic because, biological tissues are known to have very large (inter- and intra-subject) variability. A priori mechanical characterization (e.g., uniaxial bench test) of the target tissues before a surgical procedure is also not usually practical. In this paper, a method for estimating mechanical parameters of soft tissue from sensory data collected during robotic surgical manipulation is presented. The method uses force data collected from a multiaxial force sensor mounted on the robotic manipulator, and tissue deformation data collected from a stereo camera system. The tissue parameters are then estimated using an inverse finite element method. The effects of measurement and modeling uncertainties on the proposed method are analyzed in simulation. The results of experimental evaluation of the method are also presented. PMID:24031160

  8. Spectrum of Radiological Manifestations in Lymphoproliferative Malignancies with Unusual Extra Nodal Soft Tissue Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kahila; Upreti, Lalendra; Garga, Umesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative malignancies constitute a wide spectrum of haematological malignancies and their prevalence is widely increasing. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin disease, frequently involve extranodal soft tissue structures in the head and neck, thorax and abdomen. These malignancies may involve virtually any type of soft tissues to any extent; hence many different imaging manifestations are possible which may mimic other disorders. The imaging characteristics of extranodal lymphomatous soft tissue involvement are described and classified here according to the site of involvement in 6 cases (primary diseases with orbital, muscle, extra testicular, scalp, sinonasal and pachymeningeal/dural involvement). In majority of these cases at presentation we found a predominantly homogeneous soft tissue mass with mildly high attenuation on CT and a T2 intermediate signal on MRI at these sites without any manifestation of disease elsewhere but on follow-up two out of these six cases developed systemic disease elsewhere. Few consistent patterns were noticed on CT and MRI which might help to include lymphomas as an important differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses. Though a definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy (bone marrow, lymph node, or mass), and other laboratory tests, imaging primarily aims at staging of the disease and identification of new or recurrent disease.

  9. What Is a Soft Tissue Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in between fibrosarcoma and benign tumors such as fibromas and superficial fibromatosis. They tend to grow slowly ... These include: Elastofibromas, benign tumor of fibrous tissue Fibromas, benign tumor of fibrous tissue Fibrous histiocytomas, benign ...

  10. Fluid-structure Interaction Simulations of Deformable Soft Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borazjani, Iman

    2011-11-01

    Soft tissue interacts with the surrounding fluid environment in many biological and biomedical applications. Simulating such an interaction is quite challenging due to the large non-linear deformations of tissue, flow pulsatility, transition to turbulence, and non-linear fluid-structure interaction. We have extended our previous three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) framework for rigid bodies (Borazjani, Ge, and Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational Physics, 2008) to deformable soft tissue by coupling our incompressible Navier-Stokes solver for fluids with a non-linear large deformation finite element method for soft tissue. We use Fung-type constitutive law for the soft tissue that can capture the stress-strain behavior of the tissue. The FSI solver adopts a strongly-coupled partitioned approach that is stabilized with under-relaxation and Aitken acceleration technique. We validate our solvers against the experimental data for tissue valves and elastic tubes. We show the capabilities of our solver by simulating the fluid-structure interaction of tissue valves implanted in the aortic positions and elastic collapsible tubes. This work was partly supported by the Center for Computational Research at the University at Buffalo.

  11. X-ray microscopy of soft and hard human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Stalder, Anja K.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Holme, Margaret N.; Weitkamp, Timm; Beckmann, Felix; Hieber, Simone E.

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous post mortem visualization of soft and hard tissues using absorption-based CT remains a challenge. If the photon energy is optimized for the visualization of hard tissue, the surrounding soft tissue components are almost X-ray transparent. Therefore, the combination with other modalities such as phase-contrast CT, magnetic resonance microscopy, and histology is essential to detect the anatomical features. The combination of the 2D and 3D data sets using sophisticated segmentation and registration tools allows for conclusions about otherwise inaccessible anatomical features essential for improved patient treatments.

  12. Management of facial soft tissue injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Vasconez, Henry C; Buseman, Jason L; Cunningham, Larry L

    2011-07-01

    Pediatric facial trauma can present a challenge to even the more experienced plastic surgeon. Injuries to the head and neck may involve bone and soft tissues with an assortment of specialized organs and tissue elements involved. Because of the active nature of children, facial soft tissue injuries can be diverse and extensive as well as some of the more common injuries a plastic surgeon is asked to treat. In 2007, approximately 800,000 patients younger than 15 years presented to emergency departments around the country with significant open wounds of the head that required treatment.In this review, we present the different types and regions of pediatric soft tissue facial trauma, as well as treatment options and goals of plastic surgery wound management. Special aspects, such as bite wounds, burns, pediatric analgesia, and antibiotic therapy, are also discussed. PMID:21772187

  13. Soft tissue coverage at the resource-challenged facility.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2008-10-01

    Covering soft tissue defects remains challenging for orthopaedic surgeons, especially those in resource-challenged facilities. Covering tissue defects follow a plan from simple to complex: primary closure, local flap, area flap, pedicle flap, and free flap. I will limit my discussion to the role of latter two. At the district-level hospital in Vietnam, pedicle flaps are generally more useful, so I will discuss free flaps only briefly. The choices of pedicle flaps include: kite flap, posterior interosseous flap, radial flap (Chinese flap), neurocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous flap, gastrocnemius flap, sural flap, posterior leg flaps; we typically use a free flap with the latissimus dorsi. Soft tissue coverage with pedicle flaps has many advantages: reliability, relatively easy harvest, and good blood supply. Free flaps with microanastomosis have an important place in covering difficult medium- or large-sized soft tissue defects but also require more instruments and more highly trained surgeons. PMID:18665433

  14. Electrosurgical management of soft tissues and restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Flocken, J E

    1980-04-01

    Proper use of oral electrosurgery permits rapid, full management of soft-tissue problems related to mouth preparation for fixed and removable prosthodontics. The ability to control precisely the zone of coagulation enables the dentist to carve, sculpture, or modify the soft-tissue contours with or without hemorrhage. Restorative dentists possess a high degree of artistic sculpturing skills that can be effectively utilized to harmonize restorative and soft-tissue contours. The life expectancy and function of all fixed and removable restorations depend upon optimal health of the supporting tissues for biomechanical compatibility. Modern electrosurgical techniques and equipment make it possible for the general practitioner, as well as the specialist, to deliver more timely and more comfortable improved fixed and removable appliance therapy to their patients. PMID:6928834

  15. A Temporal View of Soft Tissue Quantitative Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, William D.

    The objective of soft tissue quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is to improve diagnostic ultrasound imaging capabilities via quantitative outcomes. Over the past three or so decades, there have been an increasing number of QUS successes. A temporal view moves us back in history almost six decades when techniques and theoretical developments were in their earliest stages that impacted modern QUS successes. The earliest theoretical developments and techniques some six decades ago can be attributed to Lev Chernov, Philip Morse, Herman Feshbach, Uno Ingard, John Wild and Jack Reid. Later, Floyd Dunn developed important views as to how connective tissue affected the interaction between ultrasound and soft tissue. Then, as the theory of wave propagation in soft tissues with random inhomogeneities was extended and applied by Fred Lizzi, Jim Zagzebski and Mike Insana (and their colleagues), contemporary QUS successes started to emerge.

  16. Ultrasound of soft tissue masses of the hand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Most soft tissue mass lesions of the hand are benign. Ganglia are the commonest lesions encountered, followed by giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath. Malignant tumors are rare. Often a specific diagnosis can be achieved on imaging by considering the location and anatomical relations of the lesion within the hand or wrist, and assessing its morphology. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent modality for evaluating soft tissue tumors with its multiplanar capability and ability to characterize tissue. Ultrasound plays a complementary role to MRI. It is often the initial modality used for assessing masses as it is cheap and available, and allows reliable differentiation of cystic from solid lesions, along with a real time assessment of vascularity. This review describes the US appearances of the most frequently encountered soft tissue masses of the wrist and hand, correlating the findings with MRI where appropriate. PMID:26673615

  17. A microchannel flow model for soft tissue elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, K. J.

    2014-08-01

    A number of advances, including imaging of tissue displacements, have increased our ability to make measurements of tissue elastic properties of animal and human tissues. Accordingly, the question is increasingly asked, ‘should our data be fit to a viscoelastic model, and if so which one?’ In this paper we focus solely on soft tissues in a functional (non-pathological) state, and develop a model of elastic behavior that is based on the flow of viscous fluids through the extensive network of tissue microchannels in response to applied stress. This behavior can be captured in a 2-parameter model, and the model appears to predict the stress-relaxation behavior and the dispersive shear wave behavior of bovine liver specimens and other soft tissues and phantoms. The relationship of the microchannel flow model to more traditional models is also examined.

  18. Soft tissue cephalometric analysis applied to regional Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Jay S.; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Zahid, Syed Naved

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Importance of soft tissue consideration in establishing treatment goals for orthodontics and orthognathic surgery has been recognized and various cephalometric analysis incorporating soft tissue parameters have evolved. The great variance in soft tissue drape of the human face and perception of esthetics exists and normative data based on one population group cannot be applied to all. The study was conducted to compare the standard soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA) norms with norms derived for population of western Uttar Pradesh region of India. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position of 33 normal subjects (16 males, 17 females). The cephalograms were analyzed with soft tissue cephalometric analysis for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and the Student's t test was used to compare the difference in means between study population and standard STCA norms. Results: Compared with established STCA norms, females in our study had steeper maxillary occlusal plane, more proclined mandibular incisors, and less protrusive lips. Both males and females showed an overall decrease in facial lengths, less prominent midface and mandibular structures and more convex profile compared with established norms for the White population. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences were found in certain key parameters of STCA for western Uttar Pradesh population when compared with established norms. PMID:24665169

  19. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... called palliative treatment . Types of radiation therapy External beam radiation therapy: For this treatment, radiation delivered from ... impact on healthy tissue. In some centers, proton beam radiation is an option. This uses streams of ...

  20. Tumours of the soft (mesenchymal) tissues.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E

    1974-01-01

    This is a classification of tumours of fibrous tissue, fat, muscle, blood and lymph vessels, and mast cells, irrespective of the region of the body in which they arise. Tumours of fibrous tissue are divided into fibroma, fibrosarcoma (including "canine haemangiopericytoma"), other sarcomas, equine sarcoid, and various tumour-like lesions. The histological appearance of the tumours is described and illustrated with photographs. PMID:4371740

  1. Allografts in Soft Tissue Reconstructive Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Giedraitis, Andrius; Arnoczky, Steven P.; Bedi, Asheesh

    2014-01-01

    Context Allografts offer several important advantages over autografts in musculoskeletal reconstructive procedures, such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Despite growing widespread use of allograft tissue, serious concerns regarding safety and functionality remain. We discuss the latest knowledge of the potential benefits and risks of allograft use and offer a critical review of allograft tissue regulation, management, and sterilization to enable the surgeon to better inform athletes considering reconstructive surgery options. Evidence Acquisition A review of sources published in the past 10 years is the primary basis of this research. Study Design: Observational analysis (cohort study). Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results Comparable outcome data for autografts and allografts do not support universal standards for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and physician recommendation and bias appear to significantly influence patient preference and satisfaction. Sterilization by gamma and electron-beam irradiation diminishes the biomechanical integrity of allograft tissue, but radioprotective agents such as collagen cross-linking and free radical scavengers appear to have potential in mitigating the deleterious effects of irradiation and preserving tissue strength and stability. Conclusion Allografts offer greater graft availability and reduced morbidity in orthopaedic reconstructive procedures, but greater expansion of their use by surgeons is challenged by the need to maintain tissue sterility and biomechanical functionality. Advances in the radioprotection of irradiated tissue may lessen concerns regarding allograft safety and structural stability. PMID:24790696

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Oscar M

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. PMID:27229506

  3. Diode Laser Application in Soft Tissue Oral Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Azma, Ehsan; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diode laser with wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm in a continuous or pulsed mode was used as a possible instrument for soft tissue surgery in the oral cavity. Discussion: Diode laser is one of laser systems in which photons are produced by electric current with wavelengths of 810, 940 and 980nm. The application of diode laser in soft tissue oral surgery has been evaluated from a safety point of view, for facial pigmentation and vascular lesions and in oral surgery excision; for example frenectomy, epulis fissuratum and fibroma. The advantages of laser application are that it provides relatively bloodless surgical and post surgical courses with minimal swelling and scarring. We used diode laser for excisional biopsy of pyogenic granuloma and gingival pigmentation. Conclusion: The diode laser can be used as a modality for oral soft tissue surgery PMID:25606331

  4. Multiphase poroelastic finite element models for soft tissue structure

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, B.R.

    1992-06-01

    During the last two decades. biological structures with soft tissue components have been modeled using poroelastic or mixture-based constitutive laws, i.e., the material is viewed as a deformable (porous) solid matrix that is saturated by mobile tissue fluid. These structures exhibit a highly nonlinear, history-dependent material behavior; undergo finite strains-, and may swell or shrink when tissue ionic concentrations are altered. Given the geometric and material complexity of soft tissue structures and that they are subjected to complicated initial and boundary conditions, finite element models (FEMs) have been very useful for quantitative structural analyses. This paper surveys recent applications of poroelastic and mixture-based theories and the associated FEMs for the study of the biomechanics of soft tissues, and indicates future directions for research in this area. Equivalent finite-strain poroelastic and mixture continuum biomechanical models are presented. Special attention is given to the identification of material properties using a porohyperelastic constitutive law and a total Lagrangian view for the formulation. The associated FEMS are then formulated to include this porohyperelastic material response and finite strains. Extensions of the theory are suggested in order to include inherent viscoelasticity, transport phenomena, and swelling in soft tissue structures. A number of biomechanical research areas are identified, and possible applications of the porohyperelastic and mixture-based FEMs are suggested.

  5. Multiphase poroelastic finite element models for soft tissue structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, B.R.

    1992-12-01

    During the last two decades, biological structures with soft tissue components have been modeled using poroelastic or mixture-based constitutive laws, i.e., the material is viewed as a deformable (porous) solid matrix that is saturated by mobile tissue fluid. These structures exhibit a highly nonlinear, history-dependent material behavior; undergo finite strains; and may swell or shrink when tissue ionic concentrations are altered. Give the geometric and material complexity of soft tissue structures and that they are subjected to complicated initial and boundary conditions, finite element models (FEMs) have been very useful for quantitative structural analyses. This paper surveys recent applications of poroelastic and mixture-based theories and the associated FEMs for the study of the biomechanics of soft tissues, and indicates future directions for research in this area. Equivalent finite-strain poroelastic and mixture continuum biomechanical models are presented. Special attention is given to the identification of material properties using a porohyperelastic constitutive law ans a total Lagrangian view for the formulation. The associated FEMs are then formulated to include this porohyperelastic material response and finite strains. Extensions of the theory are suggested in order to include inherent viscoelasticity, transport phenomena, and swelling in soft tissue structures. A number of biomechanical research areas are identified, and possible applications of the porohyperelastic and mixture-based FEMs are suggested. 62 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Necrotizing soft-tissue infection: laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing soft tissue infections score.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri; Vijay Kumar, Gs; Sowmya, Gs; Madhu, Cp; Ramya, Sr

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) can be rapidly progressive and polymicrobial in etiology. Establishing the element of necrotizing infection poses a clinical challenge. A 64-year-old diabetic patient presented to our hospital with a gangrenous patch on anterior abdominal wall, which progressed to an extensive necrotizing lesion within 1 week. Successive laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing softtissue infections (LRINEC) scores confirmed the necrotizing element. Cultures yielded Enterococci, Acinetobacter species and Apophysomyces elegans and the latter being considered as an emerging agent of Zygomycosis in immunocompromised hosts. Patient was managed with antibiotics, antifungal treatment and surgical debridement despite which he succumbed to the infection. NSTI's require an early and aggressive management and LRINEC score can be applied to establish the element of necrotizing pathology. Isolation of multiple organisms becomes confusing to establish the etiological role. Apophysomyces elegans, which was isolated in our patient is being increasingly reported in cases of necrotizing infections and may be responsible for high morbidity and mortality. This scoring has been proposed as an adjunct tool to Microbiological diagnosis when NSTI's need to be diagnosed early and managed promptly to decrease mortality and morbidity, which however may not come in handy in an immunocompromised host with polymicrobial aggressive infection. PMID:24696561

  7. Is Three-Dimensional Soft Tissue Prediction by Software Accurate?

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Uk; Hong, Jongrak

    2015-11-01

    The authors assessed whether virtual surgery, performed with a soft tissue prediction program, could correctly simulate the actual surgical outcome, focusing on soft tissue movement. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) data for 29 patients, who had undergone orthognathic surgery, were obtained and analyzed using the Simplant Pro software. The program made a predicted soft tissue image (A) based on presurgical CT data. After the operation, we obtained actual postoperative CT data and an actual soft tissue image (B) was generated. Finally, the 2 images (A and B) were superimposed and analyzed differences between the A and B. Results were grouped in 2 classes: absolute values and vector values. In the absolute values, the left mouth corner was the most significant error point (2.36 mm). The right mouth corner (2.28 mm), labrale inferius (2.08 mm), and the pogonion (2.03 mm) also had significant errors. In vector values, prediction of the right-left side had a left-sided tendency, the superior-inferior had a superior tendency, and the anterior-posterior showed an anterior tendency. As a result, with this program, the position of points tended to be located more left, anterior, and superior than the "real" situation. There is a need to improve the prediction accuracy for soft tissue images. Such software is particularly valuable in predicting craniofacial soft tissues landmarks, such as the pronasale. With this software, landmark positions were most inaccurate in terms of anterior-posterior predictions. PMID:26594988

  8. Soft-tissue calcification after subcutaneus emphysema in a neonate

    SciTech Connect

    Naidech, H.J.; Chawla, H.S.

    1982-08-01

    Bilateral, almost symmetric, calcifications of the soft tissues after subcutaneous emphysema have not, to our knowledge, been described. Because of the close clinical and radiographic evaluation in our case, the finding of calcinosis was not a diagnostic problem. Several 1.5 mm computed tomographic (CT) sections of the thorax were scanned and they were confirmatory in showing the distribution of the calcifications. Since subcutaneous emphysema is commonplace, and calcification after it is apparently unknown, the literature was reviewed and an additional cause of soft-tissue calcinosis is presented.

  9. Age Changes of Jaws and Soft Tissue Profile

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Padmaja; Arora, Ankit; Valiathan, Ashima

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes of jaws and soft tissue profile are important both for orthodontists and general dentists. Mouth profile is the area which is manipulated during dental treatment. These changes should be planned in accordance with other components of facial profile to achieve ultimate aim of structural balance, functional efficacy, and esthetic harmony. Through this paper, the authors wish to discuss age changes of the hard and soft tissues of human face which would help not only the orthodontists but also oral surgeons, prosthodontists, pedodontists, and general dentists. PMID:25506064

  10. Soft and hard tissue management using lasers in esthetic restoration.

    PubMed

    Flax, Hugh D

    2011-04-01

    Laser technology has become preeminent in the evolution of appearance enhancements. Dentistry has seen a huge breakthrough with the introduction of a combination hard-soft tissue erbium wavelength. The conservative nature of this technique has created a firm footing in the antiaging trend that is spanning the globe. Among the many benefits of this technique are less invasive care and quicker healing responses. In this article, conservative laser and cosmetic modalities are discussed that allows a clinician to be more comfortable in buying a soft/hard tissue laser and also to more quickly become adept with implementing these techniques. PMID:21474000

  11. Radiologic Approach to Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Caracciolo, Jamie T; Letson, G Douglas

    2016-10-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in evaluation and treatment planning of patients with musculoskeletal tumors. This article discusses various imaging modalities available in the work-up, staging, and surveillance of patients with primary bone and soft tissue neoplasms. A systematic approach to initial evaluation of newly suspected bone lesions and soft tissue masses is presented. Reviewed are relevant imaging features of musculoskeletal neoplasms that help predict tumor biology and risk of malignancy and findings that define internal tumor composition and allow for accurate preoperative histopathologic diagnosis before intervention. Finally, the role of diagnostic imaging in tumor staging, evaluation of response to neoadjuvant therapy, and postoperative surveillance is discussed. PMID:27542636

  12. Soft Tissue Mineralization in Captive 2-Toed Sloths.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Garner, M M

    2016-05-01

    Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor. PMID:26333294

  13. Soft Tissue Phantoms for Realistic Needle Insertion: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Leibinger, Alexander; Forte, Antonio E; Tan, Zhengchu; Oldfield, Matthew J; Beyrau, Frank; Dini, Daniele; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2016-08-01

    Phantoms are common substitutes for soft tissues in biomechanical research and are usually tuned to match tissue properties using standard testing protocols at small strains. However, the response due to complex tool-tissue interactions can differ depending on the phantom and no comprehensive comparative study has been published to date, which could aid researchers to select suitable materials. In this work, gelatin, a common phantom in literature, and a composite hydrogel developed at Imperial College, were matched for mechanical stiffness to porcine brain, and the interactions during needle insertions within them were analyzed. Specifically, we examined insertion forces for brain and the phantoms; we also measured displacements and strains within the phantoms via a laser-based image correlation technique in combination with fluorescent beads. It is shown that the insertion forces for gelatin and brain agree closely, but that the composite hydrogel better mimics the viscous nature of soft tissue. Both materials match different characteristics of brain, but neither of them is a perfect substitute. Thus, when selecting a phantom material, both the soft tissue properties and the complex tool-tissue interactions arising during tissue manipulation should be taken into consideration. These conclusions are presented in tabular form to aid future selection. PMID:26666228

  14. Dinosaurian Soft Tissues Interpreted as Bacterial Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Thomas G.; Gaugler, Gary; Sawlowicz, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope survey was initiated to determine if the previously reported findings of “dinosaurian soft tissues” could be identified in situ within the bones. The results obtained allowed a reinterpretation of the formation and preservation of several types of these “tissues” and their content. Mineralized and non-mineralized coatings were found extensively in the porous trabecular bone of a variety of dinosaur and mammal species across time. They represent bacterial biofilms common throughout nature. Biofilms form endocasts and once dissolved out of the bone, mimic real blood vessels and osteocytes. Bridged trails observed in biofilms indicate that a previously viscous film was populated with swimming bacteria. Carbon dating of the film points to its relatively modern origin. A comparison of infrared spectra of modern biofilms with modern collagen and fossil bone coatings suggests that modern biofilms share a closer molecular make-up than modern collagen to the coatings from fossil bones. Blood cell size iron-oxygen spheres found in the vessels were identified as an oxidized form of formerly pyritic framboids. Our observations appeal to a more conservative explanation for the structures found preserved in fossil bone. PMID:18665236

  15. Soft Tissue Coverage of the Lower Limb following Oncological Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Christine; Panzica, Martin; Dastagir, Khaled; Krettek, Christian; Vogt, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of lower limb tumors has been shifted by advancements in adjuvant treatment protocols and microsurgical reconstruction from limb amputation to limb salvage. Standard approaches include oncological surgery by a multidisciplinary team in terms of limb sparing followed by soft tissue reconstruction and adjuvant therapy when indicated. For the development of a comprehensive surgical plan, the identity of the tumor should first be determined by histology after biopsy. Then the surgical goal and comprehensive treatment concept should be developed by a multidisciplinary tumor board and combined with soft tissue reconstruction. In this article, plastic surgical reconstruction options for soft coverage of the lower extremity following oncological surgery will be described along with the five clinical cases. PMID:26793620

  16. Soft tissue attenuation in middle ear on HRCT: Pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Anbarasu, Arangasamy; Chandrasekaran, Kiruthika; Balakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear disease is a common clinical entity; imaging, especially High resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), plays a crucial role in diagnosis and assessing the disease extent, helping to decide appropriate management. Temporal bone imaging is challenging and involves thorough understanding of the anatomy, especially in relation to HRCT imaging. Most of the middle ear pathologies appear as “soft tissue” on imaging. Careful analysis of the soft tissue on the HRCT is crucial in achieving the right diagnosis; clinical information is essential and the imaging findings need correlation with clinical presentation and otoscopic findings. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to enlist the pathologies that present as soft tissue in middle ear and to provide a structured and practical imaging approach that will serve as a guide for confident reporting in daily practice. PMID:23833422

  17. A novel treatment tool to address soft tissue dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jim; Olson, Kellye

    2015-01-01

    These authors describe how they use thermoplastic materials to augment home exercise programs for clients with chronic and post-surgical soft tissue dysfunction. They discuss how after thorough education is provided, this alternative tool may be given for patient use. -Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. PMID:25990441

  18. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Biren J.; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shafeeq Shajudeen, Peer; Nair, Sanjay P.; Weiner, Bradley K.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing.

  19. The effectiveness of distal soft tissue procedures in hallux valgus

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Hasan; Agus, Haluk; Altay, Taskin; Hancerli, Ozgur

    2008-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus is a common disorder affecting mostly women population. Distal soft tissue procedure in the treatment of hallux valgus is one of the main operative techniques described. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure in hallux valgus cases. Materials and methods This study includes 30 patients (27 women) having 31 hallux valgus, who were treated between 1999 and 2004. Modified McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure was carried out in all cases. Pain status of the cases was recorded by using VAS, clinical assessment described by Bonney and Macnab, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society’s (AOFAS) score at the last follow up. Results The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles decreased from 31.4° and 13.8° to 13.5° and 10.5°, respectively, with an average follow-up period of 54.4 months. AOFAS’s score displayed significant improvement from 57 to 87. The mean VAS showed a significant decrease from 8.75 preoperatively to 2.1 at the last follow-up. According to Bonney and Macnab criteria, only one case was accepted as poor result due to 5° hallux varus. Conclusions McBride’s distal soft tissue procedure yields high rate of satisfaction for mild to moderate hallux valgus with no bony complications related to osteotomy. PMID:19384606

  20. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  1. Dorsal finger joint soft tissue loss: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Bervar, M

    2003-01-01

    This article brings our experience, standpoints and management guidelines for early reconstruction of traumatic soft tissue loss on the dorsal aspect of the finger joints, with the aim of preserving acceptable late functional ability of the hand. Two interesting and unusual cases of reconstruction are presented. PMID:14989334

  2. Computer navigation of soft tissues in total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Yogeesh D; Aurakzai, Kamran M; Adhikari, Ajeya R

    2013-06-01

    Following the success of computer navigation in producing consistently accurate alignment, the focus has shifted to use of these techniques for soft tissue assessment during total knee replacement (TKR). We undertook a prospectively randomized clinical study to compare two methods of tissue balancing in TKR. One method, called bone referencing (BR) employed independent cutting of the femur and tibia followed by subjective assessment with trial prostheses and soft tissue release as deemed necessary. The other method, termed ligament balancing (LB), involved cutting the tibia first and titration of tissue balance and alignment parameters to guide femoral cuts. Our total sample comprised 77 subjects with 80% statistical power. To assess tissue balance we used (a) coronal laxity testing and (b) computer navigation generated passive knee range of movement graphs. The graphical assessment was validated with coronal laxity testing. There was no difference between the resultant tissue balances achieved. However, correlation with preoperative status revealed the LB technique to show better results in a smaller subgroup of knees with greater preoperative tissue imbalance. We advocate variation of tissue balancing technique to suit the individual knee, based on preoperative assessment, to achieve an optimal result in all TKR. PMID:23288758

  3. Rheology of blood cells as soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Skalak, R; Chien, S

    1982-01-01

    Erythrocytes are unusual in that the cell membrane plays a large and direct role in observed rheological properties. The cell membrane is not a three dimensional material or tissue in the usual sense but being only two molecules thick. It behaves like a liquid sheet of constant thickness and surface area with some elastic properties due in part to protein networks of spectrin and actin on the interior face of the cell membrane. Packed red cells form a viscoelastic fluid which can be sheared, but exhibits a considerable elastic response. The elastic component decreases as the hematocrit is reduced, but is present at all hematocrits. Leukocytes also exhibit viscoelasticity but the properties are primarily dependent on the cell cytoplasm. The cell membrane plays a role only when it is stretched taut. The normal white cell properties have been explored over a wide range of osmolarities, becoming much less viscous and less elastic as the fluid content of the cell increases. White cells also may show spontaneous deformation during which the rheological properties become much stiffer than in the normal passive state. PMID:7104483

  4. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Peter N. T.; Liang, Hai-Dong

    2011-01-01

    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques—low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)—are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool. PMID:21680780

  5. Dynamic finite element modeling of poroviscoelastic soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaochun; Smolinski, Patrick

    2006-02-01

    Clinical evidences relative to biomechanical factors have demonstrated their important contribution to the behaviour of soft tissues. Finite element (FE) analysis is used to study the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue because it can provide numerical solutions to problems that are intractable to analytic solutions. This study focuses on the development of a FE model of a poroelastic biological tissue, which incorporates the viscoelastic material behaviour, finite deformation and inertial effect. The FE formulation is based on the weak form derived from the governing equation, and Newmark-beta method as well as Newton's method is incorporated into the implicit non-linear solutions. One-dimensional analytical solutions were used to verify the theoretical formulation and the numerical implementation of the proposed model. This study was further extended to analyze two-dimensional biomechanical models and the results clearly demonstrate the importance of including finite deformation, viscoelasticity and inertial effects. PMID:16880152

  6. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    PubMed

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2011-12-01

    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a

  7. Soft tissue imaging with photon counting spectroscopic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was experimental investigation of photon counting spectroscopic CT (PCS-CT) imaging of anatomical soft tissue with clinically relevant size. The imaging experiments were performed using a spectroscopic CT system based on CdZnTe photon counting detector with two rows of pixels, 256 pixels in each row, 1  ×  1 mm2 pixel size, and 25.6 cm detector length. The detector could split the x-ray energy spectrum to 5 regions (energy bins), and acquire 5 multi-energy (spectroscopic) CT images in a single CT scan. A sample of round shaped anatomical soft tissue of 14 cm diameter including lean and fat was used for imaging. To avoid the negative effect of anatomical noise on quantitative analysis, a spectroscopic CT phantom with tissue equivalent solid materials was used. The images were acquired at 60, 90, and 120 kVp tube voltages, and spectroscopic image series were acquired with 3 and 5 energy bins. Spectroscopic CT numbers were introduced and used to evaluate an energy selective image series. The anatomical soft tissue with 14 cm diameter was visualized with good quality and without substantial artifacts by the photon counting spectroscopic CT system. The effects of the energy bin crosstalk on spectroscopic CT numbers were quantified and analyzed. The single and double slice PCS-CT images were acquired and compared. Several new findings were observed, including the effect of soft tissue non-uniformity on image artifacts, unique status of highest energy bin, and material dependent visualization in spectroscopic image series. Fat-lean decomposition was performed using dual energy subtraction and threshold segmentation methods, and compared. Using K-edge filtered x-rays improved fat-lean decomposition as compared to conventional x-rays. Several new and important aspects of the PCS-CT were investigated. These include imaging soft tissue with clinically relevant size, single- and double-slice PCS-CT imaging, using spectroscopic CT

  8. Soft tissue imaging with photon counting spectroscopic CT.

    PubMed

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2015-03-21

    The purpose of this work was experimental investigation of photon counting spectroscopic CT (PCS-CT) imaging of anatomical soft tissue with clinically relevant size. The imaging experiments were performed using a spectroscopic CT system based on CdZnTe photon counting detector with two rows of pixels, 256 pixels in each row, 1  ×  1 mm(2) pixel size, and 25.6 cm detector length. The detector could split the x-ray energy spectrum to 5 regions (energy bins), and acquire 5 multi-energy (spectroscopic) CT images in a single CT scan. A sample of round shaped anatomical soft tissue of 14 cm diameter including lean and fat was used for imaging. To avoid the negative effect of anatomical noise on quantitative analysis, a spectroscopic CT phantom with tissue equivalent solid materials was used. The images were acquired at 60, 90, and 120 kVp tube voltages, and spectroscopic image series were acquired with 3 and 5 energy bins. Spectroscopic CT numbers were introduced and used to evaluate an energy selective image series. The anatomical soft tissue with 14 cm diameter was visualized with good quality and without substantial artifacts by the photon counting spectroscopic CT system. The effects of the energy bin crosstalk on spectroscopic CT numbers were quantified and analyzed. The single and double slice PCS-CT images were acquired and compared. Several new findings were observed, including the effect of soft tissue non-uniformity on image artifacts, unique status of highest energy bin, and material dependent visualization in spectroscopic image series. Fat-lean decomposition was performed using dual energy subtraction and threshold segmentation methods, and compared. Using K-edge filtered x-rays improved fat-lean decomposition as compared to conventional x-rays. Several new and important aspects of the PCS-CT were investigated. These include imaging soft tissue with clinically relevant size, single- and double-slice PCS-CT imaging, using spectroscopic CT

  9. Injectable PolyMIPE Scaffolds for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moglia, Robert S.; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Muschenborn, Andrea D.; Touchet, Tyler J.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Injury caused by trauma, burns, surgery, or disease often results in soft tissue loss leading to impaired function and permanent disfiguration. Tissue engineering aims to overcome the lack of viable donor tissue by fabricating synthetic scaffolds with the requisite properties and bioactive cues to regenerate these tissues. Biomaterial scaffolds designed to match soft tissue modulus and strength should also retain the elastomeric and fatigue-resistant properties of the tissue. Of particular design importance is the interconnected porous structure of the scaffold needed to support tissue growth by facilitating mass transport. Adequate mass transport is especially true for newly implanted scaffolds that lack vasculature to provide nutrient flux. Common scaffold fabrication strategies often utilize toxic solvents and high temperatures or pressures to achieve the desired porosity. In this study, a polymerized medium internal phase emulsion (polyMIPE) is used to generate an injectable graft that cures to a porous foam at body temperature without toxic solvents. These poly(ester urethane urea) scaffolds possess elastomeric properties with tunable compressive moduli (20–200 kPa) and strengths (4–60 kPa) as well as high recovery after the first conditioning cycle (97–99%). The resultant pore architecture was highly interconnected with large voids (0.5–2 mm) from carbon dioxide generation surrounded by water-templated pores (50–300 μm). The ability to modulate both scaffold pore architecture and mechanical properties by altering emulsion chemistry was demonstrated. Permeability and form factor were experimentally measured to determine the effects of polyMIPE composition on pore interconnectivity. Finally, initial human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) cytocompatibility testing supported the use of these candidate scaffolds in regenerative applications. Overall, these injectable polyMIPE foams show strong promise as a biomaterial scaffold for soft tissue repair. PMID

  10. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas (Extremity Sarcoma Closed to Entry as of 5/30/07)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-01

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  11. [Research progress in peri-implant soft tissue engineering augmentation method].

    PubMed

    Pei, T T; Yu, H Q; Wen, C J; Guo, T Q; Zhou, Y M; Peng, H M

    2016-05-01

    The sufficiency of hard and soft tissue at the implant site is the guarantee of long-term function, health and the appearance of implant denture. Problem of soft tissue recession at the implant site has always been bothering dentists. Traditional methods for augmentation of soft tissue such as gingival transplantation have disadvantages of instability of the increased soft-tissue and more trauma. Lately the methods that base on tissue engineering to increase the soft tissue of peri-implant sites have drawn great attention. This review focuses on the current methods of peri-implant restoration through tissue engineering, seed cells, biological scaffolds and cytokines. PMID:27220393

  12. Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Riveiro, Paula; Smyth-Chamosa, Ernesto; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Suárez-Cunqueiro, Mercedes

    2003-08-01

    All medical specialties interested in improving facial appearance need to measure the face to quantify the desired facial changes. The purpose of this investigation was to obtain objective average measurements of the soft tissue facial profile to use them as a guide for aesthetic treatment goals. The analysis of the soft tissue facial profile from photographic records provides information on the morphology of the profile and its relationship with the underlying dentoskeletal tissues. In this investigation the soft tissue facial profile of a young adult European Caucasian population (212 individual, 50 males and 162 females, 18-20 years of age) was studied by means of standardized photographic records taken in the natural head position (NHP). Angular measurements were analysed digitally. Sexual dimorphism was found for several angles: nasofrontal (G-N-Prn: P < 0.01), vertical nasal (Cm-Sn/N-Prn: P < 0.01), nasal (N-Prn/TV: P < 0.01), nasal dorsum (N-Mn-Prn: P < 0.05), and mandibular contour (C-Me/G-Pg: P < 0.01). Wide individual variations in nasolabial and mentolabial angles were also observed. PMID:12938846

  13. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues: Part II: In-Plane Biaxial Experiments.

    PubMed

    Freed, Alan D; Einstein, Daniel R; Sacks, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  14. Method of testing very soft biological tissues in compression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karol

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical properties of very soft tissues, such as brain, liver, kidney and prostate have recently joined the mainstream research topics in biomechanics. This has happened in spite of the fact that these tissues do not bear mechanical loads. The interest in the biomechanics of very soft tissues has been motivated by the developments in computer-integrated and robot-aided surgery--in particular, the emergence of automatic surgical tools and robots-as well as advances in virtual reality techniques. Mechanical testing of very soft tissues provides a formidable challenge for an experimenter. Very soft tissues are usually tested in compression using an unconfined compression set-up, which requires ascertaining that friction between sample faces and stress-strain machine platens is close to zero. In this paper a more reliable method of testing is proposed. In the proposed method top and bottom faces of a cylindrical specimen with low aspect ratio are rigidly attached to the platens of the stress-strain machine (e.g. using surgical glue). This arrangement allows using a no-slip boundary condition in the analysis of the results. Even though the state of deformation in the sample cannot be treated as orthogonal the relationships between total change of height (measured) and strain are obtained. Two important results are derived: (i) deformed shape of a cylindrical sample subjected to uniaxial compression is independent on the form of constitutive law, (ii) vertical extension in the plane of symmetry lambda(z) is proportional to the total change of height for strains as large as 30%. The importance and relevance of these results to testing procedures in biomechanics are highlighted. PMID:15519351

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Tissue Simulants and Soft Tissues Under Extreme Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcioglu, Zeynep Ilke

    Recent developments in computer-integrated surgery and in tissue-engineered constructs necessitate advances in experimental and analytical techniques in characterizing properties of mechanically compliant materials such as gels and soft tissues, particularly for small sample volumes. One goal of such developments is to quantitatively predict and mimic tissue deformation due to high rate impact events typical of industrial accidents and ballistic insults. This aim requires advances in mechanical characterization to establish tools and design principles for tissue simulant materials that can recapitulate the mechanical responses of hydrated soft tissues under dynamic contact-loading conditions. Given this motivation, this thesis studies the mechanical properties of compliant synthetic materials developed for tissue scaffold applications and of soft tissues, via modifying an established contact based technique for accurate, small scale characterization under fully hydrated conditions, and addresses some of the challenges in the implementation of this method. Two different engineered material systems composed of physically associating block copolymer gels, and chemically crosslinked networks including a solvent are presented as potential tissue simulants for ballistic applications, and compared directly to soft tissues from murine heart and liver. In addition to conventional quasistatic and dynamic bulk mechanical techniques that study macroscale elastic and viscoelastic properties, new methodologies are developed to study the small scale mechanical response of the aforementioned material systems to concentrated impact loading. The resistance to penetration and the energy dissipative constants are quantified in order to compare the deformation of soft tissues and mechanically optimized simulants, and to identify the underlying mechanisms by which the mechanical response of these tissue simulant candidates are modulated. Finally, given that soft tissues are biphasic in

  16. Micromechanics and constitutive modeling of connective soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a micromechanical model for connective soft tissues based on the available histological evidences is developed. The proposed model constituents i.e. collagen fibers and ground matrix are considered as hyperelastic materials. The matrix material is assumed to be isotropic Neo-Hookean while the collagen fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic hyperelastic. In order to take into account the effects of tissue structure in lower scales on the macroscopic behavior of tissue, a strain energy density function (SEDF) is developed for collagen fibers based on tissue hierarchical structure. Macroscopic response and properties of tissue are obtained using the numerical homogenization method with the help of ABAQUS software. The periodic boundary conditions and the proposed constitutive models are implemented into ABAQUS using the DISP and the UMAT subroutines, respectively. The existence of the solution and stable material behavior of proposed constitutive model for collagen fibers are investigated based on the poly-convexity condition. Results of the presented micromechanics model for connective tissues are compared and validated with available experimental data. Effects of geometrical and material parameters variation at microscale on macroscopic mechanical behavior of tissues are investigated. The results show that decrease in collagen content of the connective tissues like the tendon due to diseases leads 20% more stretch than healthy tissue under the same load which can results in connective tissue malfunction and hypermobility in joints. PMID:26807767

  17. Functional Attachment of Soft Tissues to Bone: Development, Healing, and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Helen H.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissues such as tendons or ligaments attach to bone across a multitissue interface with spatial gradients in composition, structure, and mechanical properties. These gradients minimize stress concentrations and mediate load transfer between the soft and hard tissues. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries and the lack of integrative solutions for their repair, interface regeneration remains a significant clinical challenge. This review begins with a description of the developmental processes and the resultant structure-function relationships that translate into the functional grading necessary for stress transfer between soft tissue and bone. It then discusses the interface healing response, with a focus on the influence of mechanical loading and the role of cell-cell interactions. The review continues with a description of current efforts in interface tissue engineering, highlighting key strategies for the regeneration of the soft tissue–to-bone interface, and concludes with a summary of challenges and future directions. PMID:23642244

  18. Recurrent Soft Tissue Abscesses Caused by Legionella cincinnatiensis

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, Jacques G. H.; Schorr, Mirjam; Gaia, V.; Zbinden, R.; Altwegg, M.

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent soft tissue abscesses of the jaw, wrist, and arm developed in a 73-year-old housewife with nephrotic syndrome and immunoglobulin A(κ) gammopathy of unknown etiology. Conventional cultures remained negative, despite visible gram-negative rods on microscopy. Broad-spectrum PCR revealed Legionella cincinnatiensis, which was confirmed by isolation of the organism on special Legionella medium. Infections due to Legionella species outside the lungs are rare. L. cincinnatiensis has been implicated in only four cases of clinical infection; these involved the lungs in three patients and the central nervous system in one patient. We conclude that broad-spectrum PCR can be a valuable tool for the evaluation of culture-negative infections with a high probability of bacterial origin and that Legionella might be an underdiagnosed cause of pyogenic soft tissue infection. PMID:11724886

  19. Radiographic features of osseous metastases of soft-tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.S.; Kaiser, L.R.; Gold, R.H.; Fon, G.T.

    1982-04-01

    In contrast to most other neoplastic processes of bone, in our study osseous metastases from soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) were more reliably detected by radiography than by scintigraphy. The radiographic manifestations of 65 skeletal metastases in 23 patients with STS were reveiwed. Although most metastases (88%) were osteolytic, eight (12%) lesions were osteoblastic. The destructive patterns were geographic in 29%, moth-eaten in 55%, and permeative in 12% of the lesions. The axial skeleton was most commonly involved. In the long bones the diaphyses were the predominant sites of involvement. The bony cortex was frequently breached, with resultant soft-tissue swelling and pathologic fractures. Noteworthy features included subarticular location, involvement of the sarcoiliac joint, and an expansile appearance.

  20. Soft Tissue Coverage of the Mangled Upper Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Zhi Yang; Salgado, Christopher J.; Moran, Steven L.; Chim, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Mangled upper extremity injuries usually involve high-impact trauma with crushing and tearing of the limb and its associated soft tissue structures. Such trauma is particularly mutilating because of the nature of the injury and the involvement of structures vital for proper function. Although advancements in flap technique and improvements in bone fixation methods have enabled good functional and clinical outcomes in limb salvage reconstruction, this remains a challenging area. Attempts at limb preservation should be fully exhausted before consideration is given for amputation, which results in significantly decreased function. Here the authors focus on the various modalities of soft tissue coverage available including allogenic substitutes, the adjunctive use of negative pressure wound therapy, and the design and utilization of flaps to address various defect configurations for the goals of wound healing, aesthetics, and functional restoration in the mangled upper extremity. PMID:25685103

  1. Roentgen Examination of Soft Tissues of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Charles D.

    1964-01-01

    With meticulous preparation of the patient and with careful technique, the soft tissues of the pelvis are identifiable in most cases. Search should be made for the traces of abnormal pelvic structures on plain-film studies. Once the normal is recognized, any variations are easily identified. The fundamental differences between various radiologic densities—air, fat, fluid, muscle, calcium, bone and metal—should be observed. Special procedures can be used to enhance the contrasts after adequate evaluation of the simplest and, on many occasions, the invaluable, plain-film study of the soft tissues of the pelvis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14232160

  2. [Metastasis and progression mechanisms of soft tissue tumors].

    PubMed

    Steinestel, K; Wardelmann, E

    2015-11-01

    Invasion and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells defines prognosis not only in patients with epithelial, but also mesenchymal neoplasms. Early and clinically inapparent micrometastases occur in many patients, and the risk for metastasis correlates with the tumor subtype and histologic tumor grade. In recent years and analogous to the situation in epithelial tumors, mechanisms of tumor cell dissemination in soft tissue tumors have been increasingly understood, and it has been shown that reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in these processes. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of progression and metastasis of soft tissue tumors and points out possible targets for novel anti-invasive and anti-metastatic therapies. PMID:26324521

  3. Soft tissue malignant lymphoma at sites of previous surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Radhi, J M; Ibrahiem, K; al-Tweigeri, T

    1998-01-01

    Three diffuse centroblastic lymphomas developed at the site of previous surgery. Two were preceded by atypical lymphoid infiltrates. Clinical data, microscopic features, and immunophenotypic studies were reviewed. All three patients presented with soft tissue masses at the site of previous surgery and metallic implants, with no evidence of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, or bone marrow involvement. There was no history of immunosuppression or risk factors. In two cases the initial diagnosis was of atypical lymphoid infiltrate progressing to lymphoma. Pathological examination showed a diffuse centroblastic lymphoma with an angiocentric pattern in one case. Phenotypic studies confirmed B cell origin. Soft tissue malignant lymphoma, though uncommon, can occur at the site of previous orthopaedic surgery, in particular joint replacement. Atypical lymphoid infiltrate may signal such an event. Images PMID:9828826

  4. Photoacoustic imaging in both soft and hard biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J.

    2010-03-01

    To date, most Photoacoustic (PA) imaging results have been from soft biotissues. In this study, a PA imaging system with a near-infrared pulsed laser source has been applied to obtain 2-D and 3-D images from both soft tissue and post-mortem dental samples. Imaging results showed that the PA technique has the potential to image human oral disease, such as early-stage teeth decay. For non-invasive photoacoustic imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. Several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict initial temperature and pressure fields within a tooth sample. Predicted initial temperature and pressure rises are below corresponding safety limits.

  5. Delayed phlegmon with gallstone fragments masquerading as soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Laura F.; Bateni, Cyrus P.; Bishop, John W.; Canter, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Complications from lost gallstones after cholecystectomy are rare but varied from simple perihepatic abscess to empyema and expectoration of gallstones. Gallstone complications have been reported in nearly every organ system, although reports of malignant masquerade of retained gallstones are few. We present the case of an 87-year-old woman with a flank soft tissue tumor 4 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The initial clinical, radiographic and biopsy findings were consistent with soft tissue sarcoma (STS), but careful review of her case in multidisciplinary conference raised the suspicion for retained gallstones rather than STS. The patient was treated with incisional biopsy/drainage of the mass, and gallstones were retrieved. The patient recovered completely without an extensive resectional procedure, emphasizing the importance of multidisciplinary sarcoma care to optimize outcomes for potential sarcoma patients. PMID:27333918

  6. Polyacrylamide soft tissue filler nodule mimicking a mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karagozoglu, K H; van der Waal, I

    2008-06-01

    A 39-year-old woman is described in whom histopathologic examination of a nodule of the cheek mucosa was suggestive of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Only after the availability of a wider surgical specimen was a distinct foreign body reaction to polyacrylamide soft tissue filler observed. On inquiry, the patient admitted to having this filler injected into her nasolabial folds 3 years previously. PMID:18313268

  7. Injectable carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels for soft tissue filler applications.

    PubMed

    Varma, Devika M; Gold, Gittel T; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    Disease, trauma and aging all lead to deficits in soft tissue. As a result, there is a need to develop materials that safely and effectively restore areas of deficiency. While autogenous fat is the current gold standard, hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are commonly used. However, the animal and bacterial origin of HA-based materials can induce adverse reactions in patients. With the aim of developing a safer and more affordable alternative, this study characterized the properties of a plant-derived, injectable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) soft tissue filler. Specifically, methacrylated CMC was synthesized and crosslinked to form stable hydrogels at varying macromer concentrations (2-4% w/v) using an ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid redox initiation system. The equilibrium Young's modulus was shown to vary with macromer concentration (ranging from ∼2 to 9.25kPa), comparable to values of native soft tissue and current surgical fillers. The swelling properties were similarly affected by macromer concentration, with 4% gels exhibiting the lowest swelling ratio and mesh size, and highest crosslinking density. Rheological analysis was performed to determine gelation onset and completion, and was measured to be within the ISO standard for injectable materials. In addition, hydrolytic degradation of these gels was sensitive to macromer concentration, while selective removal using enzymatic treatment was also demonstrated. Moreover, favorable cytocompatibility of the CMC hydrogels was exhibited by co-culture with human dermal fibroblasts. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the tunability of redox-crosslinked CMC hydrogels by varying fabrication parameters, making them a versatile platform for soft tissue filler applications. PMID:25152355

  8. Realistic soft tissue deformation strategies for real time surgery simulation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunhe; Zhou, Xiangmin; Zhang, Nan; Tamma, Kumar; Sweet, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A volume-preserving deformation method (VPDM) is developed in complement with the mass-spring method (MSM) to improve the deformation quality of the MSM to model soft tissue in surgical simulation. This method can also be implemented as a stand-alone model. The proposed VPDM satisfies the Newton's laws of motion by obtaining the resultant vectors form an equilibrium condition. The proposed method has been tested in virtual surgery systems with haptic rendering demands. PMID:18391343

  9. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Caused by Spilled Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Narendra; Kumar, Hemanth; Verma, GR

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old woman who presented with a necrotizing soft tissue infection of the right anterior abdominal wall, 1 year after open cholecystectomy for gallbladder perforation. Surgical exploration revealed pigmented gallstones along with pus in the abdominal wall and gallbladder fossa. Intraoperative spillage of gallstones is common during both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but, in rare cases, can lead to serious complications including necrotizing infection of the abdominal wall. PMID:27144208

  10. Phase dispersion X-ray imaging of murine soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingal, V. N.; Ingal, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of phase-contrast (PC) images in the phase-dispersion introscopy (PDI) technique is the subject of this paper. Conditions for extreme sensitivity to murine soft-tissue anatomy are discussed. The unique information content and good contrast of the minutest details of anatomy, together with the high brilliance of X-ray optics, give the authors confidence that the PDI method can be successfully applied for medical diagnostics.

  11. Translational research in diagnosis and management of soft tissue tumours.

    PubMed

    Rimondi, Eugenio; Benassi, Maria Serena; Bazzocchi, Alberto; Balladelli, Alba; Facchini, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Taieb, Sophie; Vanel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Finding a soft tissue mass in the superficial regions is a common event in daily clinical practice. Correct management of the diagnostic process is crucial to avoid blunders. Diagnosis is posed by pathology, although both imaging and a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms play an important a role in the characterization, staging and follow-up of soft tissue masses. Cellular and molecular mechanisms can explain either the development of chemo-resistance and the underlying pre- and post-surgery metastasis formation. These are mandatory to improve prognosis and unveil novel parameters predicting therapeutic response. Imaging mainly involves ultrasound and MR and is fundamental not only in diagnosis but also in the first step of therapy: the biopsy. Novel imaging techniques like Ultrasound Elastosonography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR imaging (DCE), Diffusion Weighted MR imaging (DWI) and MR Spectroscopy (MRS) are discussed. This paper aims at reviewing and discussing pathological methods and imaging in the diagnosis of soft tissue masses underscoring that the most appropriate treatment depends on advanced molecular and radiological studies. PMID:27266712

  12. Soft Tissue Esthetic Norms for Mahabubnagar Population of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Sinojiya, Jay; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Pyata, Jaipal Reddy; Mallikarjun, Vankre; Reddy, C. Manjunatha

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The Aim of the study was to establish Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms for skeletal and dental relationships amongst the Mahabubnagar adult population. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (30 Males & 30 Females) subjects from different part of Mahabubnagar in the age group 18-25 Years (Mean age 21.3 Years) were selected at random for the study and lateral cephalograms were taken. All the cephalograms were traced by two operators using conventional hand tracing. The parameters used in the study were taken from Arnett and Bergman soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA). Overall 46 measurements including 40 linear, 6 angular parameters were used. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated. The difference between males and females were evaluated using student t-test. Results: The values obtained from the study showed significant difference in most of the parameters from that of Arnett et al., norms and between males and females within Mahabubnagar population. Conclusion: Males had thicker soft tissue structures, acute nasolabial angle, increased facial lengths and heights, increased midface deficiency, recessive lower face, more convex profile and less upright mandibular incisors than females within Mahabubnagar population. PMID:24596789

  13. Soft Tissue Surgical Procedures for Optimizing Anterior Implant Esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Andreas L.; Kotsakis, Georgios A.; McHale, Michelle G.; Lareau, Donald E.; Hinrichs, James E.; Romanos, Georgios E.

    2015-01-01

    Implant dentistry has been established as a predictable treatment with excellent clinical success to replace missing or nonrestorable teeth. A successful esthetic implant reconstruction is predicated on two fundamental components: the reproduction of the natural tooth characteristics on the implant crown and the establishment of soft tissue housing that will simulate a healthy periodontium. In order for an implant to optimally rehabilitate esthetics, the peri-implant soft tissues must be preserved and/or augmented by means of periodontal surgical procedures. Clinicians who practice implant dentistry should strive to achieve an esthetically successful outcome beyond just osseointegration. Knowledge of a variety of available techniques and proper treatment planning enables the clinician to meet the ever-increasing esthetic demands as requested by patients. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the implant surgeon's rationale and techniques beyond that of simply placing a functional restoration in an edentulous site to a level whereby an implant-supported restoration is placed in reconstructed soft tissue, so the site is indiscernible from a natural tooth. PMID:26124837

  14. Role of chemotherapy in patients with soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Maki, Robert G

    2004-04-01

    The management of soft tissue sarcomas has been highlighted in the last few years by the responsiveness of gastrointestinal stromal tumors to imatinib (Gleevec, Novartis). In this article, the use of chemotherapeutic agents in the management of this and some of the 50 or more subtypes of sarcomas are discussed, and a brief review of the use of chemotherapy in the adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting for people with large extremity sarcomas is provided. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide (Mitoxana, Bristol-Myers Squibb) remain the best individual drugs for sarcomas overall, although dacarbazine and gemcitabine (Gemzar, Eli Lilly) with or without a taxane has activity in at least a subset of sarcomas. The data regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcomas is still quite mixed, with little if any overall survival advantage found to support its incorporation into disease management. The finding of tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib with demonstrated activity in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, as well as the finding of new agents such as ecteinascidin-743 (Yondelis, PharmaMar) with at least some activity against soft tissue sarcomas, reinforces the idea that we should target individual subtypes of sarcoma, just as treatment varies by subtype for the hematological malignancies. PMID:15056053

  15. Pazopanib in the management of advanced soft tissue sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cranmer, Lee D; Loggers, Elizabeth T; Pollack, Seth M

    2016-01-01

    Therapy of soft tissue sarcomas represents an area of significant unmet need in oncology. Angiogenesis has been explored as a potential target both preclinically and clinically, with suggestions of activity. Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with prominent antiangiogenic effects. In a Phase II study, pazopanib demonstrated activity in strata enrolling patients with leiomyosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, or other sarcomas but not those enrolling adipocytic sarcomas. PALETTE, the pivotal Phase III trial, demonstrated improved progression-free survival versus placebo in pazopanib-treated patients previously treated for advanced soft tissue sarcomas. No survival benefit was observed, and adipocytic sarcomas were excluded. Health-related quality-of-life assessments indicated significant decrements in several areas affected by pazopanib toxicities, but no global deterioration. Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that pazopanib therapy may or may not be cost-effective in different geographic settings. Pazopanib provides important proof-of-concept for antiangiogenic therapy in soft tissue sarcomas. Its use can be improved by further biological studies of its activity profile in sarcomas, studies of biological rational combinations, and clinicopathologic/biological correlative studies of activity to allow better drug targeting. PMID:27354810

  16. Surface and interfacial creases in a bilayer tubular soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mir Jalil; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-08-01

    Surface and interfacial creases induced by biological growth are common types of instability in soft biological tissues. This study focuses on the criteria for the onset of surface and interfacial creases as well as their morphological evolution in a growing bilayer soft tube within a confined environment. Critical growth ratios for triggering surface and interfacial creases are investigated both analytically and numerically. Analytical interpretations provide preliminary insights into critical stretches and growth ratios for the onset of instability and formation of both surface and interfacial creases. However, the analytical approach cannot predict the evolution pattern of the model after instability; therefore nonlinear finite element simulations are carried out to replicate the poststability morphological patterns of the structure. Analytical and computational simulation results demonstrate that the initial geometry, growth ratio, and shear modulus ratio of the layers are the most influential factors to control surface and interfacial crease formation in this soft tubular bilayer. The competition between the stretch ratios in the free and interfacial surfaces is one of the key driving factors to determine the location of the first crease initiation. These findings may provide some fundamental understanding in the growth modeling of tubular biological tissues such as esophagi and airways as well as offering useful clues into normal and pathological functions of these tissues.

  17. Local Ablative Therapies to Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gronchi, Alessandro; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Erinjeri, Joseph Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The approach to metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is complex and depends upon several factors, such as the extent of the disease, the histologic subtype of the primary tumor, the disease-free interval, patient status and comorbidities, and previous treatments. The effect of systemic chemotherapy is suboptimal, therefore local ablative therapies are often considered when the disease is limited, especially if confined to a single site/organ. Historically, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice for isolated lung metastases. This approach also has been extended to metastases in the liver, although a formal demonstration of its benefit has never been provided. Radiation therapy instead has been mainly used to obtain pain control and to reduce the risk of bone fracture and cord compression. Advances in techniques, such as the development of more precise conformational modalities and the employment of particles, may change the role of this modality in the strategic approach to metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. Recently, the use of interventional radiology in this scenario has expanded. Ablative approaches, such as radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation, have shown durable eradication of tumors. Catheter-directed therapies, such as hepatic artery embolization, are potential techniques for treating the patient who has multiple unresectable liver metastases. Understanding the timing and role of these three different modalities in the multidisciplinary approach to metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is critical to provide better care and to personalize the approach to the single patient. PMID:27249769

  18. Sorafenib in advanced, heavily pretreated patients with soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Brämswig, Kira; Ploner, Ferdinand; Martel, Alexandra; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Kühr, Thomas; Leitgeb, Clemens; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Petzer, Andreas; Seebacher, Veronika; Stöger, Herbert; Girschikofsky, Michael; Hochreiner, Gerhard; Ressler, Sigrun; Romeder, Franz; Wöll, Ewald; Brodowicz, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Therapeutic options for patients with advanced pretreated soft tissue sarcomas are limited. However, in this setting, sorafenib has shown promising results. We reviewed the data of 33 patients with soft tissue sarcoma treated with sorafenib within a named patient program in Austria. Twelve physicians from eight different hospitals provided records for the analysis of data. Among the 33 patients, the predominant histological subtype of sarcoma was leiomyosarcoma (n=18, 55%). Other subtypes were represented by only one or two cases. Fifteen patients presented with metastases at the time of diagnosis. Another 17 patients developed metastases later in the course of the disease (data on one patient are missing). Most of the 33 patients had undergone resection of the primary (n=29, 88%) and half of the patients had received radiotherapy (n=17, 52%). Chemotherapy for metastatic disease had been administered to 30 patients (91%). The majority had received two or more regimens of chemotherapy (n=25, 76%) before sorafenib treatment. The use of sorafenib resulted in a median time to treatment failure of 92 days in patients with leiomyosarcoma and 45 days in patients with other histological subtypes. One-third of the patients derived benefits from treatment: four patients were documented with partial response and six with stabilized disease. In terms of treatment-related toxicity, skin problems of various degrees and gastrointestinal disturbances were frequently reported. In this retrospective analysis of heavily pretreated patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas, sorafenib was associated with some antitumor activity and an acceptable toxicity profile. PMID:24667659

  19. The pericyte antigen RGS5 in perivascular soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Scott, Michelle A; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M; James, Aaron W

    2016-01-01

    Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear lineage of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from or differentiate to pericytes or a modified perivascular cell. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation--although little bona fide evidence of pericytic differentiation exists. Likewise the perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) family shares a perivascular growth pattern, but with distinctive dual myoid-melanocytic differentiation. RGS5, regulator of G-protein signaling 5, is a novel pericyte antigen with increasing use in animal models. Here, we describe the immunohistochemical expression patterns of RGS5 across perivascular soft tissue tumors, including glomus tumor (n = 6), malignant glomus tumor (n = 4), myopericytoma (n = 3), angioleiomyoma (n = 9), myofibroma (n = 4), solitary fibrous tumor (n = 10), and PEComa (n = 19). Immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantification was performed, and compared to αSMA (smooth muscle actin) expression. Results showed that glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma shared a similar diffuse immunoreactivity for RGS5 and αSMA across all tumors examined. In contrast, myofibroma, solitary fibrous tumor and PEComa showed predominantly focal to absent RGS5 immunoreactivity. These findings further support a common pericytic lineage of differentiation in glomus tumors, myopericytoma and angioleiomyoma. The pericyte marker RGS5 may be of future clinical utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26558691

  20. Soft Tissue Masses of Hand: A Radio-Pathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Aditi; Prakash, Mahesh; Gupta, Pankaj; Tripathy, Satyaswarup; Kakkar, Nandita; Srinivasan, Radhika; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate soft tissue masses of the hand with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (USG) and to correlate imaging findings with pathological findings. Material and Methods. Thirty-five patients with soft tissue masses of the hand were evaluated with high resolution USG and contrast enhanced MRI of the hand, prospectively over a period of 2.5 years. The radiological diagnosis was then compared with cytology/histopathology. Results. There were a total of 19 (55%) females. The mean age was 27.45 ± 14.7 years. Majority (45%) of cases were heteroechoic. Four cases were predominantly hyperechoic. These were later diagnosed as lipomas. Four cases were anechoic (diagnosed as ganglions). Only four lesions showed hyperintense signal on T1-weighted images. Out of these, 3 were lipomas and one was cavernous haemangioma. Three lesions were hypointense on T2-weighted images. All these lesions were diagnosed as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. A correct diagnosis was possible on MRI in 80% of cases (n = 28). Conclusion. MRI provides specific findings for diagnosis of certain soft tissue lesions of the hand. Ultrasonography allows accurate diagnosis of hemangioma/vascular malformations. However, in most conditions, imaging findings are nonspecific and diagnosis rests on pathologic evaluation. PMID:26421187

  1. A viscoelastic model to simulate soft tissue materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza Ortiz, J. S.; Lagos, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    Continuum mechanic theories are frequently used to simulate the mechanical behavior of elastic and viscous materials, specifically soft tissues typically showing incompressibility, nonlinear deformation under stress, fading memory and insensitivity to the strain-rate. The time dependence of a viscoelastic material could be better understood by considering it as composed by an elastic solid and a viscous fluid. Different types of mechanical devices can be constructed provided a particular configuration of elastic springs and dashpots. In this work our aim is to probe many of the soft tissue mechanical behavior, by considering a Kelvin's device coupled to a set of in parallel Maxwell's devices. Then, the resulting model composed of a long series of modified Kelvin bodies must span a broad range of characteristic times resulting in a suitable model for soft tissue simulation. Under driving static and dynamic stress applied to a 2-Dim system, its time dependence strain response is computed. We obtain a set of coupled Volterra integral equations solved via the extended trapezoidal rule scheme, and the Newton-Raphson method to solve nonlinear coupled equations.

  2. Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Tailoring Resection to Histologic Subtype.

    PubMed

    Cable, Matthew G; Randall, R Lor

    2016-10-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. Histologic grade is integral to prognosis. Because sarcoma management is multimodal, histologic subtype should inform optimum treatment. Appropriate biopsy and communication between surgeon and pathologist can help ensure a correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves surgical excision with wide margins and adjuvant radiotherapy. There is no consensus on what constitutes an adequate margin for histologic subtypes. An appreciation of how histology corresponds with tumor biology and surgical anatomic constraints is needed for management of this disease. Even with the surgical goal of wide resection being obtained, many patients do not outlive their disease. PMID:27591492

  3. Transmission ultrasonography. [time delay spectrometry for soft tissue transmission imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.; Le Croissette, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of the application of an advanced signal-processing technique, called time delay spectrometry, in obtaining soft tissue transmission images by transmission ultrasonography, both in vivo and in vitro. The presented results include amplitude ultrasound pictures and phase ultrasound pictures obtained by this technique. While amplitude ultrasonographs of tissue are closely analogous to X-ray pictures in that differential absorption is imaged, phase ultrasonographs represent an entirely new source of information based on differential time of propagation. Thus, a new source of information is made available for detailed analysis.

  4. Gingival abscess removal using a soft-tissue laser.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A; Andreana, Sebastiano

    2011-02-01

    A case of acute inflammatory enlargement of gingival tissue in the form of a gingival abscess is presented in this paper. Its clinical features and histopathologic presentation are described. The etiology of this condition could be a variety of sources such as microbial plaque infection, trauma, and foreign body impaction. In this case, treatment included complete excision by the means of a 810-nm soft-tissue diode laser, which resulted in resolution of the abscess and clinical wound healing within approximately 2 to 3 weeks. Prognosis was excellent due to early diagnosis and immediate treatment. PMID:21400991

  5. Deep soft-tissue leiomyoma of the forearm mimicking a primary bone tumor of the ulna

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Rajoo; Rangaswami, Rajeswaran; Raja, Dorai Kumar; Shanmugasundaram, Gouthaman

    2015-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the soft tissues are rare in general, and extremely uncommon in the forearm. In general, leiomyomas are benign soft-tissue tumors that occur where smooth muscles are present. We present a case of soft-tissue leiomyoma of the forearm eroding the midshaft of the ulna, with emphasis on radiological diagnosis and histopathological correlation.

  6. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VIII. Soft Tissue Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on soft tissue injuries is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Six units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology of the skin; (2) patient assessment for soft-tissue injuries; (3) pathophysiology and management of soft tissue injuries;…

  7. A PROGRESSIVE RUPTURE MODEL OF SOFT TISSUE STRESS RELAXATION

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Ma, Baoshun

    2013-01-01

    A striking feature of stress relaxation in biological soft tissue is that it frequently follows a power law in time with an exponent that is independent of strain even when the elastic properties of the tissue are highly nonlinear. This kind of behavior is an example of quasi-linear viscoelasticity, and is usually modeled in a purely empirical fashion. The goal of the present study was to account for quasi-linear viscoelasticity in mechanistic terms based on our previously developed hypothesis that it arises as a result of isolated micro-yield events occurring in sequence throughout the tissue, each event passing the stress it was sustaining on to other regions of the tissue until they themselves yield. We modeled stress relaxation computationally in a collection of stress-bearing elements. Each element experiences a stochastic sequence of either increases in elastic equilibrium length or decreases in stiffness according to the stress imposed upon it. This successfully predicts quasi-linear viscoelastic behavior, and in addition predicts power-law stress relaxation that proceeds at the same slow rate as observed in real biological soft tissue. PMID:23508634

  8. Plantar soft tissue thickness during ground contact in walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is introduced for the measurement of plantar soft tissue thickness during barefoot walking. Subjects stepped into an adjustable Plexiglas frame which ensured that the required bony landmarks were appropriately positioned relative to a linear ultrasound probe connected to a conventional 7.5 MHz ultrasound scanner. Clear images of the metatarsal condyles or other foot bones were obtained throughout ground contact. Subsequent analysis of the video taped images using a motion analysis system allowed the tissue displacement to be calculated as a function of time. The tissue underneath the second metatarsal head was shown to undergo an average maximum compression of 45.7% during the late stages of ground contact during first step gait in a group of five normal subjects with a mean unloaded tissue thickness of 15.2 mm. The technique has a number of applications, including use in the validation of deformation predicted by finite element models of the soft tissue of the foot, and the study of alterations in the cushioning properties of the heel by devices which constrain the displacement of the heel pad.

  9. Photothermal lesions in soft tissue induced by optical fiber microheaters.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Moreno-Álvarez, Paola; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Photothermal therapy has shown to be a promising technique for local treatment of tumors. However, the main challenge for this technique is the availability of localized heat sources to minimize thermal damage in the surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber microheaters for inducing thermal lesions in soft tissue. The proposed devices incorporate carbon nanotubes or gold nanolayers on the tips of optical fibers for enhanced photothermal effects and heating of ex vivo biological tissues. We report preliminary results of small size photothermal lesions induced on mice liver tissues. The morphology of the resulting lesions shows that optical fiber microheaters may render useful for delivering highly localized heat for photothermal therapy. PMID:27446642

  10. Photothermal lesions in soft tissue induced by optical fiber microheaters

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Moreno-Álvarez, Paola; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Photothermal therapy has shown to be a promising technique for local treatment of tumors. However, the main challenge for this technique is the availability of localized heat sources to minimize thermal damage in the surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber microheaters for inducing thermal lesions in soft tissue. The proposed devices incorporate carbon nanotubes or gold nanolayers on the tips of optical fibers for enhanced photothermal effects and heating of ex vivo biological tissues. We report preliminary results of small size photothermal lesions induced on mice liver tissues. The morphology of the resulting lesions shows that optical fiber microheaters may render useful for delivering highly localized heat for photothermal therapy. PMID:27446642

  11. Characterisation of matrix vesicles in skeletal and soft tissue mineralisation.

    PubMed

    Cui, L; Houston, D A; Farquharson, C; MacRae, V E

    2016-06-01

    The importance of matrix vesicles (MVs) has been repeatedly highlighted in the formation of cartilage, bone, and dentin since their discovery in 1967. These nano-vesicular structures, which are found in the extracellular matrix, are believed to be one of the sites of mineral nucleation that occurs in the organic matrix of the skeletal tissues. In the more recent years, there have been numerous reports on the observation of MV-like particles in calcified vascular tissues that could be playing a similar role. Therefore, here, we review the characteristics MVs possess that enable them to participate in mineral deposition. Additionally, we outline the content of skeletal tissue- and soft tissue-derived MVs, and discuss their key mineralisation mediators that could be targeted for future therapeutic use. PMID:27072517

  12. An augmented reality framework for soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Mountney, Peter; Fallert, Johannes; Nicolau, Stephane; Soler, Luc; Mewes, Philip W

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality for soft tissue laparoscopic surgery is a growing topic of interest in the medical community and has potential application in intra-operative planning and image guidance. Delivery of such systems to the operating room remains complex with theoretical challenges related to tissue deformation and the practical limitations of imaging equipment. Current research in this area generally only solves part of the registration pipeline or relies on fiducials, manual model alignment or assumes that tissue is static. This paper proposes a novel augmented reality framework for intra-operative planning: the approach co-registers pre-operative CT with stereo laparoscopic images using cone beam CT and fluoroscopy as bridging modalities. It does not require fiducials or manual alignment and compensates for tissue deformation from insufflation and respiration while allowing the laparoscope to be navigated. The paper's theoretical and practical contributions are validated using simulated, phantom, ex vivo, in vivo and non medical data. PMID:25333146

  13. Navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery: perspectives and limitations.

    PubMed

    Baumhauer, Matthias; Feuerstein, Marco; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Rassweiler, J

    2008-04-01

    Despite rapid developments in the research areas of medical imaging, medical image processing, and robotics, the use of computer assistance in surgical routine is still limited to diagnostics, surgical planning, and interventions on mostly rigid structures. In order to establish a computer-aided workflow from diagnosis to surgical treatment and follow-up, several proposals for computer-assisted soft tissue interventions have been made in recent years. By means of different pre- and intraoperative information sources, such as surgical planning, intraoperative imaging, and tracking devices, surgical navigation systems aim to support surgeons in localizing anatomical targets, observing critical structures, and sparing healthy tissue. Current research in particular addresses the problem of organ shift and tissue deformation, and obstacles in communication between navigation system and surgeon. In this paper, we review computer-assisted navigation systems for soft tissue surgery. We concentrate on approaches that can be applied in endoscopic thoracic and abdominal surgery, because endoscopic surgery has special needs for image guidance due to limitations in perception. Furthermore, this paper informs the reader about new trends and technologies in the area of computer-assisted surgery. Finally, a balancing of the key challenges and possible benefits of endoscopic navigation refines the perspectives of this increasingly important discipline of computer-aided medical procedures. PMID:18366319

  14. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Soft Tissue with Ultrasound Vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadich, I.; Bernal, M.; Greenleaf, J. F.

    The cardiovascular diseases atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension and heart failure have been related to stiffening of vessels and myocardium. Noninvasive measurements of mechanical properties of cardiovascular tissue would facilitate detection and treatment of disease in early stages, thus reducing mortality and possibly reducing cost of treatment. While techniques capable of measuring tissue elasticity have been reported, the knowledge of both elasticity and viscosity is necessary to fully characterize mechanical properties of soft tissues. In this article, we summarize the Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) method developed by our group and report on advances made in characterizing stiffness of large vessels and myocardium. The method uses radiation forceFadiation force to excite shear waves in soft tissue and pulse echo ultrasound to measure the motion. The speed of propagation of shear waves at different frequencies is used to generate dispersions curves for excised porcine left-ventricular free-wall myocardium and carotid arteries. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the LV myocardium dispersion curves to obtain elasticity and viscosity moduli. The results suggest that the speed of shear wave propagation in four orthogonal directions on the surface of the excised myocardium is similar. These studies show that the SDUV method has potential for clinical application in noninvasive quantification of elasticity and viscosity of vessels and myocardium.

  15. Bayesian calibration of hyperelastic constitutive models of soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Madireddy, Sandeep; Sista, Bhargava; Vemaganti, Kumar

    2016-06-01

    There is inherent variability in the experimental response used to characterize the hyperelastic mechanical response of soft tissues. This has to be accounted for while estimating the parameters in the constitutive models to obtain reliable estimates of the quantities of interest. The traditional least squares method of parameter estimation does not give due importance to this variability. We use a Bayesian calibration framework based on nested Monte Carlo sampling to account for the variability in the experimental data and its effect on the estimated parameters through a systematic probability-based treatment. We consider three different constitutive models to represent the hyperelastic nature of soft tissue: Mooney-Rivlin model, exponential model, and Ogden model. Three stress-strain data sets corresponding to the deformation of agarose gel, bovine liver tissue, and porcine brain tissue are considered. Bayesian fits and parameter estimates are compared with the corresponding least squares values. Finally, we propagate the uncertainty in the parameters to a quantity of interest (QoI), namely the force-indentation response, to study the effect of model form on the values of the QoI. Our results show that the quality of the fit alone is insufficient to determine the adequacy of the model, and due importance has to be given to the maximum likelihood value, the landscape of the likelihood distribution, and model complexity. PMID:26751706

  16. Design and analysis of tissue engineering scaffolds that mimic soft tissue mechanical anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Todd; Sacks, Michael S; Stankus, John; Guan, Jianjun; Wagner, William R

    2006-07-01

    Tissue engineered constructs must exhibit tissue-like functional properties, including mechanical behavior comparable to the native tissues they are intended to replace. Moreover, the ability to reversibly undergo large strains can help to promote and guide tissue growth. Electrospun poly (ester urethane) ureas (ES-PEUU) are elastomeric and allow for the control of fiber diameter, porosity, and degradation rate. ES-PEUU scaffolds can be fabricated to have a well-aligned fiber network, which is important for applications involving mechanically anisotropic soft tissues. We have developed ES-PEUU scaffolds under variable speed conditions and modeled the effects of fiber orientation on the macro-mechanical properties of the scaffold. To illustrate the ability to simulate native tissue mechanical behavior, we demonstrated that the high velocity spun scaffolds exhibited highly anisotropic mechanical properties closely resembling the native pulmonary heart valve leaflet. Moreover, use of the present fiber-level structural constitutive model allows for the determination of electrospinning conditions to tailor ES-PEUU scaffolds for specific soft tissue applications. The results of this study will help to provide the basis for rationally designed mechanically anisotropic soft tissue engineered implants. PMID:16545867

  17. A Structural, Kinetic Model of Soft Tissue Thermomechanics☆

    PubMed Central

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Aksan, Alptekin; Barocas, Victor H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A structure-based kinetic model was developed to predict the thermomechanical response of collagenous soft tissues. The collagen fibril was represented as an ensemble of molecular arrays with cross-links connecting the collagen molecules within the same array. A two-state kinetic model for protein folding was employed to represent the native and the denatured states of the collagen molecule. The Monte Carlo method was used to determine the state of the collagen molecule when subjected to thermal and mechanical loads. The model predictions were compared to existing experimental data for New Zealand white rabbit patellar tendons. The model predictions for one-dimensional tissue shrinkage and the corresponding mechanical property degradation agreed well with the experimental data, showing that the gross tissue behavior is dictated by molecular-level phenomena. PMID:17890379

  18. Depsipeptide (Romidepsin) in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-26

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  19. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Malignant Adult Hemangiopericytoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  20. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: Insights into a Rare Soft Tissue Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Al Barwani, Aliya Sarhan; Taif, Sawsan; Al Mazrouai, Reem Ahmed; Al Muzahmi, Khamis Salim; Alrawi, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare soft tumor which originally represents a cutaneous sarcoma. It grows slowly and presents usually as nodular superficial lesion on the trunk or the extremities. Although these tumors are locally aggressive with high rate of recurrence following surgery; the prognosis is considered excellent when it is effectively treated. The radiological appearance of this tumor has rarely been studied and findings infrequently discussed in the literature probably because many lesions underwent resection before imaging. Although imaging is infrequently performed for this lesion; it can show characteristic features and demonstrate the full extent. Imaging may also play a role in the differentiation of this tumor from more serious soft tissue lesions such as more aggressive sarcomas and hemangioma. In this article, we discuss the imaging findings of DFSP that can aid in its diagnosis and its variable appearances. In addition; the clinical presentation and treatment options are also described with review of the previous literature. PMID:27195182

  1. Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2014-01-01

    Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

  2. Constitutive modeling of crimped collagen fibrils in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Grytz, Rafael; Meschke, Günther

    2009-10-01

    A microstructurally oriented constitutive formulation for the hyperelastic response of crimped collagen fibrils existing in soft connective tissues is proposed. The model is based on observations that collagen fibrils embedded in a soft matrix crimp into a smooth three-dimensional pattern when unloaded. Following ideas presented by Beskos and Jenkins [Beskos, D., Jenkins, J., 1975. A mechanical model for mammalian tendon. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 42, 755-758] and Freed and Doehring [Freed, A., Doehring, T., 2005. Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 127, 587-593] the collagen fibril crimp is approximated by a cylindrical helix to represent the constitutive behavior of the hierarchical organized substructure of biological tissues at the fibrillar level. The model is derived from the nonlinear axial force-stretch relationship of an extensible helical spring, including the full extension of the spring as a limit case. The geometrically nonlinear solution of the extensible helical spring is carried out by an iterative procedure. The model only requires one material parameter and two geometrical parameters to be determined from experiments. The ability of the proposed model to reproduce the biomechanical response of fibrous tissues is demonstrated for fascicles from rat tail tendons, for porcine cornea strips, and for bovine Achilles tendons. PMID:19627859

  3. Bacteremic skin and soft tissue infection caused by Prevotella loescheii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaerobes are a major component of gut flora. They play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections resulting from breaches in mucus membranes. Because of the difficulties in cultivating and identifying it, their role continues to be undermined. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of Prevotella loescheii bacteremic skin and soft tissue infection and review the literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man was admitted for an elective bariatric surgery. A lengthy intensive care unit stay and buttocks decubitus ulcers complicated his post-operative course. After being transferred to a long-term care facility, the decubitus ulcer became secondarily infected with multiple bacteria including P. loescheii; an anaerobe that grew in blood and wound cultures. The patient was treated successfully with aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics and subsequent wound care. Conclusion P. loescheii colonizes the gut and plays an important role in periodontal infections. In rare occasions and under suitable circumstances, it can infect skin and soft tissues as well as joints. Given the difficulties in isolating anaerobes in the microbiology lab, considering this bacterium alongside other anaerobes in infections of devitalized tissue is indicated even if cultures were reported negative. PMID:24661318

  4. Scalp Rotation Flap for Reconstruction of Complex Soft Tissue Defects.

    PubMed

    Costa, Dary J; Walen, Scott; Varvares, Mark; Walker, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Importance Scalp reconstructions may be required after tumor resection or trauma. The inherent anatomy of the scalp presents challenges and may limit reconstructive options. Objective To describe and investigate the scalp rotation flap as a reconstructive technique for complex soft tissue defects. Design Retrospective case series with a mean follow-up of 13 months. Setting Tertiary academic center. Participants A total of 22 patients with large scalp soft tissue defects undergoing scalp rotation flap reconstruction. Interventions The flap is designed adjacent to the defect and elevated in the subgaleal plane. The flap is rotated into the defect, and a split-thickness skin graft is placed over the donor site periosteum. Main Outcomes and Measure Data points collected included defect size, operative time, hospital stay, and patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome. Results Mean patient age was 71 years. Mean American Society of Anesthesiologist classification was 2.8. Mean defect size was 41 cm(2) (range: 7.8-120 cm(2)), and 19 of 22 defects resulted from a neoplasm resection. Mean operative time was 181 minutes, and mean hospital stay was 2.4 days. There were no intraoperative complications. Three patients with previous radiation therapy had distal flap necrosis. Twenty-one patients (95%) reported an acceptable cosmetic result. Conclusions and Relevance The scalp rotation flap is an efficient and reliable option for reconstructing complex soft tissue defects. This can be particularly important in patients with significant medical comorbidities who cannot tolerate a lengthy operative procedure. PMID:26949586

  5. Collateral soft tissue release in primary total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of collateral soft tissue release required in navigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to achieve an intra-operative coronal femoral tibial mechanical axis (FTMA) in extension of 0 ± 2°. The primary outcomes assessed were post-operative coronal plane alignment and rate of collateral soft tissue release. The secondary outcomes were range of motion, function, patient satisfaction, and complication rates at one-year follow-up. This is a prospective study of 224 knees. No exclusions were made on the basis of pathology or severity of deformity. Pre-operative FTMA ranged from 27° valgus to 25° varus (mean: −4.5° SD 7.6). Soft tissue release was carried out in 5 of 224 knees (2.2%). Post-operative weight-bearing radiological FTMA ranged from 7° valgus to 8° varus (mean: −0.4° SD 2.5°). Two hundred and ten knees (96%) were within 0 ± 5° of neutral. At one year, median maximum flexion was 100° (IQR 15°) and extension was 0°; mean post-operative Oxford Knee Score had improved from 42 to 23; and 91% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied, with only 2% being dissatisfied. We have found that in the vast majority of cases, including those with large pre-operative coronal deformity in extension, good outcomes in terms of coronal alignment, range of movement, function and patient satisfaction can be achieved. PMID:24720493

  6. Endotine Midface for Soft Tissue Suspension in Zygoma Fracture.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Seo, Bommie F; Rha, Eun-Young; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2015-09-01

    Treatment of zygomatic fractures necessitates dissection beneath the soft tissues of the cheek. Inadequate resuspension may lead to deformities, including cheek ptosis, lower lid ectropion, and lateral canthal dystopia. The authors present their experience using a biodegradable suspension device for cheek flap resuspension. Patients who received open reduction for unilateral zygomatic fracture between January, 2006 and December, 2013 at a single center were included in the study. Patients could choose whether or not to have Endotine midface inserted. Patients rated satisfaction on facial symmetry. Computed tomography (CT) at 15 months was assessed for soft tissue thickness at the level of the midpoint of the nasolabial fold on each side. Photographs at 15 months were viewed by 3 blinded plastic surgeons and rated for cheek drooping. The results for all 3 parameters were compared between the Endotine group and the control group. A total of 83 patients were included (43 in the Endotine group and 39 in the control group). Patient satisfaction scores were statistically higher (P = 0.03) in the Endotine group (3.70 ± 0.76) than the control group (2.85 ± 0.96). Computed tomography soft tissue thickness score ratio between affected and unaffected side was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the Endotine group than the ratio in the control group. Photography evaluation score difference between affected and unaffected side for the Endotine group (0.70 ± 0.77) was significantly (P = 0.041) smaller than the control group (1.92 ± 1.24). Endotine midface is easy to apply and effective in repositioning the elevated cheek flap in zygomatic fracture patients. PMID:26267573

  7. Denoised and texture enhanced MVCT to improve soft tissue conspicuity

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Ke Qi, Sharon X.; Gou, Shuiping; Wu, Jiaolong

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: MVCT images have been used in TomoTherapy treatment to align patients based on bony anatomies but its usefulness for soft tissue registration, delineation, and adaptive radiation therapy is limited due to insignificant photoelectric interaction components and the presence of noise resulting from low detector quantum efficiency of megavoltage x-rays. Algebraic reconstruction with sparsity regularizers as well as local denoising methods has not significantly improved the soft tissue conspicuity. The authors aim to utilize a nonlocal means denoising method and texture enhancement to recover the soft tissue information in MVCT (DeTECT). Methods: A block matching 3D (BM3D) algorithm was adapted to reduce the noise while keeping the texture information of the MVCT images. Following imaging denoising, a saliency map was created to further enhance visual conspicuity of low contrast structures. In this study, BM3D and saliency maps were applied to MVCT images of a CT imaging quality phantom, a head and neck, and four prostate patients. Following these steps, the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were quantified. Results: By applying BM3D denoising and saliency map, postprocessed MVCT images show remarkable improvements in imaging contrast without compromising resolution. For the head and neck patient, the difficult-to-see lymph nodes and vein in the carotid space in the original MVCT image became conspicuous in DeTECT. For the prostate patients, the ambiguous boundary between the bladder and the prostate in the original MVCT was clarified. The CNRs of phantom low contrast inserts were improved from 1.48 and 3.8 to 13.67 and 16.17, respectively. The CNRs of two regions-of-interest were improved from 1.5 and 3.17 to 3.14 and 15.76, respectively, for the head and neck patient. DeTECT also increased the CNR of prostate from 0.13 to 1.46 for the four prostate patients. The results are substantially better than a local denoising method using anisotropic diffusion

  8. Imaging of soft tissue lesions of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Laura W; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot can be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions can suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis. PMID:19038615

  9. Necrotizing Craniocervical Soft Tissue Infections: Clinical Experience and Personal Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Riccardo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Dallan, Iacopo

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing cervical soft tissue infections (NCSTIs) are devastating uncommon clinical entities that are often life threatening. We report two patients suffering from NCSTI and treated at our institution. Diagnosis of NCSTI has been confirmed histologically and surgically. Both patients were managed with very aggressive treatment (medical and surgical) and survived with minimal morbidity. Early diagnosis and aggressive, multimodality treatment can reduce mortality and morbidity rates. Thoracic and mediastinal involvement requires appropriate management. A strong clinical suspicion remains one of the most important aspects of the management of such shattering conditions. PMID:23304596

  10. Skin and soft tissue infections in the military.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Lucy; Morgan, M

    2013-09-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are common in military populations regularly living and training in close contact with each other. The majority of such infections are simple and can be easily treated with antibiotics and appropriate infection control practices. Some, however, can progress to become complex and even life threatening, such as Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-associated staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, or Streptococcus pyogenes necrotising fasciitis, which carry a mortality rate of up to 65% and 30%, respectively. This review focuses on the most important SSTIs and those more commonly affecting military personnel with advice on how they are best managed. PMID:24109144

  11. Soft tissue sarcomas in skin: presentations and management.

    PubMed

    Patt, Joshua C; Haines, Nikkole

    2016-06-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare but heterogeneous family of malignant tumors that are predominantly found deep to the integumentary layer. Only a small number of these primary mesenchymal tumors actually originate from the dermal layers. A systematic approach to the evaluation and workup of these neoplasms can prevent inappropriate management. After staging evaluation, most of these tumors are primarily managed with en-bloc surgical resection. Other adjuvant therapies routinely employed include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Proper treatment typically involves participation of a multidisciplinary care team for optimal outcome. General principles and treatment strategies will be discussed along with a review of the more common cutaneous manifestations of sarcoma. PMID:27178697

  12. Soft Tissue Tumours: Their Natural History and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Stanford

    1951-01-01

    A series of 153 patients, the largest yet recorded from a single source, suffering from soft tissue sarcoma is discussed. References to the literature show the rarity of such tumours, the vagueness of the nomenclature and the disappointing results of treatment. Of the 153 patients only 7 have no histological confirmation of the diagnosis. In 146, sections and histological reports are available. 148 patients have been followed up either to death or to date. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14808223

  13. Elastomeric biodegradable polyurethane blends for soft tissue applications.

    PubMed

    Fromstein, J D; Woodhouse, K A

    2002-01-01

    Four biodegradable polyurethane blends were made from segmented polyurethanes that contain amino acid-based chain extender and diisocyanate groups. The soft segments of these parent polyurethanes were either polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polycaprolactone (PCL) diols. The blends were developed to investigate the effect of varying soft segment compositions on the overall morphological, mechanical, and degradative properties of the materials, with a view to producing a family of materials with a wide range of properties. The highly hydrophilic PEO material was incorporated to increase the blend's susceptibility to degradation, while the PCL polyurethane was selected to provide higher moduli and percent elongations (strains) than the PEO parent materials can achieve. All four blends were determined to be semi-crystalline, elastomeric materials that possess similarly shaped stress-strain curves to that of the PCL-based parent polyurethane. As the percent composition of PEO polyurethane within the blend increased, the material became weaker and less extensible. The blends demonstrated rapid initial degradation in buffer followed by significantly slower, prolonged degradation, likely corresponding to an initial loss of primarily PEO-containing polymer, followed by the slower degradation of the PCL polyurethane. All four blends were successfully formed into three-dimensional porous scaffolds utilizing solvent casting/particulate leaching methods. Since these new blends possess a range of mechanical and degradation properties and can be shaped into three-dimensional objects, these materials may hold potential for use in soft tissue engineering scaffold applications. PMID:12160300

  14. Force modeling for needle insertion into soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Allison M; Simone, Christina; O'Leary, Mark D

    2004-10-01

    The modeling of forces during needle insertion into soft tissue is important for accurate surgical simulation, preoperative planning, and intelligent robotic assistance for percutaneous therapies. We present a force model for needle insertion and experimental procedures for acquiring data from ex vivo tissue to populate that model. Data were collected from bovine livers using a one-degree-of-freedom robot equipped with a load cell and needle attachment. computed tomography imaging was used to segment the needle insertion process into phases identifying different relative velocities between the needle and tissue. The data were measured and modeled in three parts: 1) capsule stiffness, a nonlinear spring model; 2) friction, a modified Karnopp model; and 3) cutting, a constant for a given tissue. In addition, we characterized the effects of needle diameter and tip type on insertion force using a silicone rubber phantom. In comparison to triangular and diamond tips, a bevel tip causes more needle bending and is more easily affected by tissue density variations. Forces for larger diameter needles are higher due to increased cutting and friction forces. PMID:15490818

  15. Stress-dependent finite growth in soft elastic tissues.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, E K; Hoger, A; McCulloch, A D

    1994-04-01

    Growth and remodeling in tissues may be modulated by mechanical factors such as stress. For example, in cardiac hypertrophy, alterations in wall stress arising from changes in mechanical loading lead to cardiac growth and remodeling. A general continuum formulation for finite volumetric growth in soft elastic tissues is therefore proposed. The shape change of an unloaded tissue during growth is described by a mapping analogous to the deformation gradient tensor. This mapping is decomposed into a transformation of the local zero-stress reference state and an accompanying elastic deformation that ensures the compatibility of the total growth deformation. Residual stress arises from this elastic deformation. Hence, a complete kinematic formulation for growth in general requires a knowledge of the constitutive law for stress in the tissue. Since growth may in turn be affected by stress in the tissue, a general form for the stress-dependent growth law is proposed as a relation between the symmetric growth-rate tensor and the stress tensor. With a thick-walled hollow cylinder of incompressible, isotropic hyperelastic material as an example, the mechanics of left ventricular hypertrophy are investigated. The results show that transmurally uniform pure circumferential growth, which may be similar to eccentric ventricular hypertrophy, changes the state of residual stress in the heart wall. A model of axially loaded bone is used to test a simple stress-dependent growth law in which growth rate depends on the difference between the stress due to loading and a predetermined growth equilibrium stress. PMID:8188726

  16. Therapeutic Ultrasound Enhancement of Drug Delivery to Soft Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, George; Wang, Peng; Lewis, George; Olbricht, William

    2009-04-01

    Effects of exposure to 1.58 MHz focused ultrasound on transport of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) in soft tissues are investigated when an external pressure gradient is applied to induce convective flow through the tissue. The magnitude of the external pressure gradient is chosen to simulate conditions in brain parenchyma during convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) to the brain. EBD uptake and transport are measured in equine brain, avian muscle and agarose brain-mimicking phantoms. Results show that ultrasound enhances EBD uptake and transport, and the greatest enhancement occurs when the external pressure gradient is applied. The results suggest that exposure of the brain parenchyma to ultrasound could enhance penetration of material infused into the brain during CED therapy.

  17. Computational model of soft tissues in the human upper airway.

    PubMed

    Pelteret, J-P V; Reddy, B D

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element model of the tongue and surrounding soft tissues with potential application to the study of sleep apnoea and of linguistics and speech therapy. The anatomical data was obtained from the Visible Human Project, and the underlying histological data was also extracted and incorporated into the model. Hyperelastic constitutive models were used to describe the material behaviour, and material incompressibility was accounted for. An active Hill three-element muscle model was used to represent the muscular tissue of the tongue. The neural stimulus for each muscle group was determined through the use of a genetic algorithm-based neural control model. The fundamental behaviour of the tongue under gravitational and breathing-induced loading is investigated. It is demonstrated that, when a time-dependent loading is applied to the tongue, the neural model is able to control the position of the tongue and produce a physiologically realistic response for the genioglossus. PMID:25830209

  18. Enhancing Aesthetic Outcomes of Soft Tissue Coverage of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Rehim, Shady A.; Kowalski, Evan; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Hand aesthetics in general and aesthetic refinements of soft-tissue coverage of the hand in particular have been increasingly considered over the past few years. Advancements of microsurgery together with the traditional methods of tissue transfer have expanded the armamentarium of the reconstructive surgeon, thus shifting the reconstructive paradigm from simply ‘filling the defect’ to reconstructive refinement to provide the best functional and aesthetic results. However, drawing the boundary between what does and what does not constitute ‘aesthetic’ reconstruction of the hand is not straightforward. The selection amongst the vast amount of currently available reconstructive methods and the difficulties in objectively measuring or quantifying aesthetics has made this task complex and rather arbitrary. In this article we divide the hand into several units and subunits to simplify our understanding of the basic functional and aesthetic requirements of these regions that may ultimately bring order to complexity. PMID:25626826

  19. Management of soft tissue wounds of the face

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, V.

    2012-01-01

    Since time, immemorial soft-tissue injuries to the face have been documented in literature and even depicted in sculptures, reflecting the image of society. In a polytrauma the face may be involved or there may be isolated injury to the face. The face consists of several organs and aesthetic units. The final outcome depends on initial wound care and primary repair. So one should know the “do's and don’ts”. Disfigurement following trauma, becomes a social stigma and has the gross detrimental effect on the personality and future of the victim. Therefore, such cases are most appropriately managed by Plastic Surgeons who have a thorough knowledge of applied anatomy, an aesthetic sense and meticulous atraumatic tissue handling expertise, coupled with surgical skill to repair all the composite structures simultaneously. PMID:23450264

  20. Massive soft tissue infections: necrotizing fasciitis and purpura fulminans.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Woodard, Charles R; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis and purpura fulminans are two destructive infections that involve both skin and soft tissue. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by widespread necrosis of subcutaneous tissue and the fascia. Historically, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus has been identified as a major cause of this infection. However, this monomicrobial infection is usually associated with some underlying cause, such as diabetes mellitus. During the last two decades, scientists have found that the pathogenesis of necrotizing fasciitis is polymicrobial. The diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis must be made as soon as possible by examining the skin inflammatory changes. Magnetic resonance imaging is strongly recommended to detect the presence of air within the tissues. Percutaneous aspiration of the soft tissue infection followed by prompt Gram staining should be conducted with the "finger-test" and rapid-frozen section biopsy examination. Intravenous antibiotic therapy is one of the cornerstones of managing this life-threatening skin infection. Surgery is the primary treatment for necrotizing fasciitis, with early surgical fasciotomy and debridement. Following debridement, skin coverage by either Integra Dermal Regeneration Template or AlloDerm should be undertaken. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy complemented by intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin are useful adjunctive therapies. Purpura fulminans is a rare syndrome of intravascular thrombosis and hemorrhagic infarction of the skin; it is rapidly progressive and accompanied by vascular collapse. There are three types of purpura fulminans: neonatal purpura fulminans, idiopathic or chronic purpura fulminans, and acute infectious purpura fulminans. Clinical presentation of purpura fulminans involves a premonitory illness followed by the rapid development of a septic syndrome with fever, shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The diagnosis and treatment of these conditions is best accomplished in a regional burn

  1. Observation, Radiation Therapy, Combination Chemotherapy, and/or Surgery in Treating Young Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-08

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  2. Adult Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindra P.; Grimer, Robert J.; Bhujel, Nabina; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.; Abudu, Adesegun

    2008-01-01

    We have retrospectively analysed the experience of a musculoskeletal oncological unit in the management of adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas from 1990 to 2005. Thirty-six patients were seen, of whom 24 were treated at this unit, the remainder only receiving advice. The median age of the patients was 46 years. Most of the sarcomas were deep and of high or intermediate grade with a median size of 5.5 cm. Eleven different histological subtypes were identified. Wide excision was possible only in 21% of the cases. 42% of the patients developed local recurrence and 42% developed metastatic disease usually in the lungs. Overall survival was 49% at 5 years. Tumour size was the most important prognostic factor. Adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas have a high mortality rate with a high risk of local recurrence and metastatic disease. The rarity of the disease would suggest that centralisation of care could lead to increased expertise and better outcomes. PMID:18382622

  3. Prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in Vidisha

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in patients and to assess their clinicopathological attributes. 3030 subjects belonging to a semi-urban district of Vidisha in Central India were screened. Patients were examined with an overhead examination light and those who were identified with a questionable lesion underwent further investigations. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software. Findings 8.4 percent of the population studied had one or more oral lesions, associated with prosthetic use, trauma and tobacco consumption. With reference to the habit of tobacco use, 635(21%) were smokers, 1272(42%) tobacco chewers, 341(11%) smokers and chewers, while 1464(48%) neither smoked nor chewed. 256 patients were found to have significant mucosal lesions. Of these, 216 cases agreed to undergo scalpel biopsy confirmation. 88 had leukoplakia, 21 had oral submucous fibrosis, 9 showed smoker's melanosis, 6 patients had lichen planus, 17 had dysplasia, 2 patients had squamous cell carcinoma while there was 1 patient each with lichenoid reaction, angina bullosa hemorrhagica, allergic stomatitis and nutritional stomatitis. Conclusions The findings in this population reveal a high prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions and a rampant misuse of variety of addictive substances in the community. Close follow up and systematic evaluation is required in this population. There is an urgent need for awareness programs involving the community health workers, dentists and allied medical professionals. PMID:20181008

  4. Changes in soft tissue profile following treatment with the bionator.

    PubMed

    Lange, D W; Kalra, V; Broadbent, B H; Powers, M; Nelson, S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the soft tissue profile in patients treated in the mixed dentition with a bionator. Two groups of 30 individuals, between 9 and 12 years old and with Class II, Division 1, malocclusion were matched for age, sex, observation time, and dentofacial characteristics. Patients in the first group were treated with a bionator for an average of 18.7 months, resulting in a Class I molar relationship and reduction of overjet. The second group acted as a control and individuals did not receive any form of orthodontic treatment. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms were analyzed and paired t-tests were used to compare the significance of changes between the two groups. Compared with the control group, the treated group demonstrated 1.97 degrees decrease in ANB, a 3.35 mm increase in anterior facial height, 2.22 degrees decrease in soft tissue profile convexity, and 17.4 degrees increase in mentolabial angle. PMID:8702068

  5. War wounds management--early reconstruction of soft tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Stanec, Z; Skrbić, S; Dzepina, I; Hulina, D; Ivrlac, R

    1994-01-01

    The authors emphasize that the knowledge of terminal ballistics is important for understanding the pathophysiology of war wounds. They present their own experiences in the treatment of war wounds in 504 casualties treated at the Institute of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Clinical Hospital Center in Zagreb. The locations of soft-tissue defects were: head and neck, 103; trunk, 90; and extremities, 903. War wounds were divided into four main categories with regard to the type of the injury and the extension of soft-tissue defect, thus showing the differences in primary excision and reconstruction of the wounds. About 30% of head and neck injuries were treated by primary or delayed primary reconstruction. All thoraco-abdominal wounds were type I or II, and most of them (53.3%) were reconstructed with split-thickness skin grafts. The greatest number of sophisticated reconstructions were performed on extremity injuries (63 wounds were reconstructed by local flaps, while free flaps were used in 40 cases). The authors emphasize the importance of proper primary treatment, which is the condition for early reconstruction. This results in significantly shorter hospitalization, so that 62% of the patients were cured in 20 days and then discharged to early rehabilitation. PMID:7532048

  6. Satisfying patient expectations with soft-tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Mandy, Stephen H

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of cosmetic procedures for rejuvenating the face has undergone enormous growth over the past few years, such that at least one in four cosmetic procedures involves the use of soft-tissue augmentation. Of note is the trend away from surgical interventions and toward noninvasive cosmetic procedures, which now account for the majority of all cosmetic procedures performed in the United States. Adult patients of all ages are selecting soft-tissue augmentation, either as a precursor to or a substitute for surgery; there is a trend toward the use of injectable devices in younger patients (aged 35 - 50 years). Patients in different age groups have diverse treatment needs ranging from the correction of fine lines and wrinkles in younger patients to volume restoration in older patients. Thus, the treatment needs will dictate the treatment approach, particularly with injectable filler treatments. The aesthetic physician needs to help the patient understand and select the most appropriate rejuvenating treatment based on a variety of factors, specifically, patient age, motivating factors, timing, cosmetic area to be addressed, and desired outcome. This article suggests a series of steps to help determine the most appropriate approach for volume restoration with injectable devices for satisfying patient treatment expectations. PMID:19903429

  7. Method for Fabricating Soft Tissue Implants with Microscopic Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating soft tissue implants using a mold. The cavity surface of an initially untextured mold. made of an organic material such as epoxy. is given a thin film coating of material that has pinholes and is resistant to atomic particle bombardment. The mold cavity surface is then subjected to atomic particle bombardment, such as when placed in an isotropic atomic oxygen environment. Microscopic depressions in the mold cavity surface are created at the pinhole sites on the thin film coating. The thin film coating is removed and the mold is then used to cast the soft tissue implant. The thin film coating having pinholes may be created by chilling the mold below the dew point such that water vapor condenses upon it; distributing particles, that can partially dissolve and become attached to the mold cavity surface, onto the mold cavity surface; removing the layer of condensate, such as by evaporation; applying the thin film coating over the entire mold surface; and, finally removing the particles, such as by dissolving or brushing it off. Pinholes are created in the thin film coating at the sites previously occupied by the particles.

  8. Updates on the cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetics of benign and intermediate soft tissue tumors

    PubMed Central

    NISHIO, JUN

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue tumors are classified according to their histological resemblance to normal adult tissues and can be grouped into the following categories based on metastatic potential: benign, intermediate (locally aggressive), intermediate (rarely metastasizing) and malignant. Over the past two decades, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic background of soft tissue tumors. Traditional laboratory techniques, such as cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), can be used for diagnostic purposes in soft tissue pathology practice. Moreover, cytogenetic and molecular studies are often necessary for prognostics and follow-up of soft tissue sarcoma patients. This review provides updated information on the applicability of laboratory genetic testing in the diagnosis of benign and intermediate soft tissue tumors. These tumors include nodular fasciitis, chondroid lipoma, collagenous fibroma (desmoplastic fibroblastoma), giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS)/pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), angiofibroma of soft tissue, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) and ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT). PMID:23255885

  9. Optimisation of the biology of soft tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Frank, C; Shrive, N; Hiraoka, H; Nakamura, N; Kaneda, Y; Hart, D

    1999-10-01

    As identified in this review, over the past twenty years there have been a number of very exciting new developments in the quest to optimise soft tissue repair. Comparing fetal soft tissue injuries, which heal by regeneration, to the adult processes of healing by inflammation-induced scar formation has led to a number of insights into how the latter may be improved. Seeding wounds with embryonic stem cells, bridging gaps with cell-derived "engineered tissues", addition of exogenous hyaluronic acid and modification of wounds to either enhance the growth factors which have been implicated in regeneration (e.g. TGF-B3) or block those implicated in scar formation (eg. TGF-B1) have all shown promise. Our group has quantified numerous cellular, molecular, biomechanical and matrix abnormalities of scar in a rabbit model of ligament healing. Based on these studies which we review here, three matrix deficiencies have been identified which appear to have specific implications to scar weakness: organisational "flaws", abnormal hydroxypyridinoline collagen cross-link densities and abnormally small, slow-maturing collagen fibrils. In tests aimed at finding therapeutic solutions in this model, the addition of a 7ug bolus of TGF-B1 at day 21 or 2.5ng/day of TGF-B1 being pumped into a wound x 21 days increased the size of ligament scars but did not improve their material strength. It also did not alter any of the above-noted matrix deficiencies. A liposome-mediated anti-sense gene therapy approach aimed at decreasing the expression of the proteoglycan decorin in 21-day scars, however, has significantly increased the size of scar collagen fibrils as well as improved these scars mechanically. Based on these positive results from a single dose of only one targeted molecule, we believe that this gene therapy approach has great potential for further scar improvement. If combined with some of the other biological strategies reviewed above, a repair which is closer to true regenerative

  10. Multiple-Image Radiography for Human Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Muehleman,C.; Li, J.; Zhong, Z.; Brankov, J.; Wernick, M.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional radiography only provides a measure of the X-ray attenuation caused by an object; thus, it is insensitive to other inherent informative effects, such as refraction. Furthermore, conventional radiographs are degraded by X-ray scatter that can obscure important details of the object being imaged. The novel X-ray technology diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) has recently allowed the visualization of nearly scatter-free images displaying both attenuation and refraction properties. A new method termed multiple-image radiography (MIR) is a significant improvement over DEI, corrects errors in DEI, is more robust to noise and produces an additional image that is entirely new to medical imaging. This new image, which portrays ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) conveys the presence of microstructure in the object, thus differentiating homogeneous tissues from tissues that are irregular on a scale of micrometers. The aim of this study was to examine the use of MIR for evaluation of soft tissue, and in particular to conduct a preliminary investigation of the USAXS image, which has not previously been used in tissue imaging.

  11. An Overview of Vascular Adverse Events Associated With Facial Soft Tissue Fillers: Recognition, Prevention, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferneini, Elie M; Ferneini, Antoine M

    2016-08-01

    Minimally invasive facial cosmetic surgery procedures have seen an exponential increase in numbers over the past decade. The most commonly performed procedures are neuromodulator and soft tissue filler procedures. Although soft tissue fillers have a high safety and predictability profile, these procedures recently have been associated with serious and dire adverse events. This article will discuss some of the vascular complications associated with facial soft tissue fillers. Management and prevention of these adverse events also will be discussed. PMID:27067061

  12. Papilla preserving modified roll technique for stage 2 soft tissue augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to describe a modification of the roll flap, performed at the implant second surgical stage, allowing the correction of small horizontal defects by enhancing the soft-tissue thickness and improving the buccal soft-tissue profile. The advantages for this modification lies in the fact to preserve the papilla morphology and enhancement of the soft-tissue esthetic results. PMID:25210270

  13. Large Osteoarthritic Cyst Presenting as Soft Tissue Tumour – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kosuge, DD; Park, DH; Cannon, SR; Briggs, TW; Pollock, RC; Skinner, JA

    2007-01-01

    Large osteoarthritic cysts can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from primary osseous and soft tissue tumours. We present such a case involving a cyst arising from the hip joint and eroding the acetabulum which presented as a soft tissue malignancy referred to a tertiary bone and soft tissue tumour centre. We discuss the diagnostic problems it may pose, and present a literature review of the subject. PMID:17535605

  14. Enamel matrix derivative, inflammation and soft tissue wound healing.

    PubMed

    Miron, R J; Dard, M; Weinreb, M

    2015-10-01

    Over 15 years have now passed since enamel matrix derivative (EMD) emerged as an agent capable of periodontal regeneration. Following thorough investigation, evidenced-based clinical application is now established for a multitude of clinical settings to promote regeneration of periodontal hard tissues. Despite the large number of studies and review articles written on this topic, no single review has compiled the influence of EMD on tissue inflammation, an area of research that merits substantial attention in periodontology. The aim of the present review was to gather all studies that deal with the effects of EMD on tissue inflammation with particular interest in the cellular mechanisms involved in inflammation and soft tissue wound healing/resolution. The effects of EMD on monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were investigated for changes in cell behavior as well as release of inflammatory markers, including interleukins, prostaglandins, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinases and members of the OPG-RANKL pathway. In summary, studies listed in this review have reported that EMD is able to significantly decrease interleukin-1b and RANKL expression, increase prostaglandin E2 and OPG expression, increase proliferation and migration of T lymphocytes, induce monocyte differentiation, increase bacterial and tissue debris clearance, as well as increase fibroplasias and angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like sprout formation. The outcomes from the present review article indicate that EMD is able to affect substantially the inflammatory and healing responses and lay the groundwork for future investigation in the field. PMID:25418917

  15. The control of bone induction in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Gray, D H; Speak, K S

    1979-09-01

    The induction of bone at the boundary of parenchymal organs has been studied using acid demineralized rib implants in rabbits. The induction of bone is usually confined to that portion of an implant protruding from such an organ though both scant cartilage induction and the induction of bone within the territory of parenchymal organs were seen on a few occasions. Neonatal splenectomy does not influence the inductive properties of bone matrix in muscle or other soft tissues. The inclusion of composite autografts of liver and acid demineralized bone in muscle results in a reduction in the induction rate. It is postulated that the parenchymal organs exclude osteoprogenitor cells and possibly blood-bone bone-marrow-derived osteoinductor releasing cells by some mechanism that is diffusable, thus preventing the initial inductive event. Composite grafts of matrix and muscle produce bone in these tissue, demonstrating that once bone cell differentiation by induction is initiated bone tissue develops even in spleen, liver and kidney parenchyma. PMID:389518

  16. Gelatin-Modified Polyurethanes for Soft Tissue Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Kucińska-Lipka, Justyna; Janik, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Recently, in the field of biomaterials for soft tissue scaffolds, the interest of their modification with natural polymersis growing. Synthetic polymers are often tough, and many of them do not possess fine biocompatibility. On the other hand, natural polymers are biocompatible but weak when used alone. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers gives the suitable properties for tissue engineering requirements. In our study, we modified gelatin synthetic polyurethanes prepared from polyester poly(ethylene-butylene adipate) (PEBA), aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and two different chain extenders 1,4-butanediol (BDO) or 1-ethoxy-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethanol (EHEE). From a chemical point of view, we replaced expensive components for building PU, such as 2,6-diisocyanato methyl caproate (LDI) and 1,4-diisocyanatobutane (BDI), with cost-effective HDI. The gelatin was added in situ (in the first step of synthesis) to polyurethane to increase biocompatibility and biodegradability of the obtained material. It appeared that the obtained gelatin-modified PU foams, in which chain extender was BDO, had enhanced interactions with media and their hydrolytic degradation profile was also improved for tissue engineering application. Furthermore, the gelatin introduction had positive impact on gelatin-modified PU foams by increasing their hemocompatibility. PMID:24363617

  17. The New Kids on the Block: Recently Characterized Soft Tissue Tumors.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Nicole N; Gardner, Jerad M

    2015-09-01

    Soft tissue pathology is a rapidly changing subspecialty. New entities are described relatively often, and new molecular findings for soft tissue tumors are reported in the literature almost every month. This article summarizes the major features and diagnostic approach to several recently characterized entities: superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor, fibrosarcoma-like lipomatous neoplasm, angiofibroma of soft tissue, low-grade sinonasal sarcoma with neural and myogenic features, malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor, hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, and epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma. Additionally, the article also provides a summary table of recent molecular findings in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26297066

  18. [Soft tissue tumors - the view of the molecular biologist].

    PubMed

    Krsková, Lenka; Mrhalová, Marcela; Kalinová, Markéta; Campr, Vít; Capková, Linda; Grega, Marek; Háček, Jaromír; Hornofová, Ludmila; Chadimová, Mária; Chmelová, Renata; Kodetová, Daniela; Zámečník, Josef; Kodet, Roman

    2014-07-01

    Soft tissue tumors (SSTs) constitute a broad spectrum of neoplasms with diverse biological properties. Rare or unusual types are often difficult to classify. Recent studies show, that a significant subset of SSTs including many types of sarcomas are associated with specific genetic changes such as chromosomal translocations producing chimeric genes, which play a role in the pathogenesis of SSTs. Because SSTs represent a diagnostically challenging group of tumors, molecular-genetic techniques (FISH or PCR) are useful as supplementary and/or confirmatory diagnostic tools. In the present paper we demonstrate the usefulness of a combined diagnostic approach using the tools of classical histopathology and immunohistochemistry together with the molecular diagnostic approach in selected nosologic entites. PMID:25186594

  19. [Pediatric soft tissue sarcomas: analysis of non rhabdomyosarcoma group].

    PubMed

    Farfalli, Germán Luis; Iriberry, Angeles; Albergó, José Ignacio; Ayerza, Miguel Ángel; Muscolo, Domingo Luis; Aponte-Tinao, Luis Alberto

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated 29 patients with non rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas treated with surgery between 2000 and 2010; we analyzed overall survival and which factors affect the prognosis. The mean age was 11.6 years (range 3 months-17 years); 16 patients were males and the median follow-up was 56 months (8 to 132 months). Eight different histological malignant tumors were identified, being synovial sarcoma the most prevalent one (14 patients). Twenty-eight patients were treated with limb salvage surgery and in 26 cases, adjuvant therapy was used. Five years overall survival was 72%. Nine of the 29 patients presented a local recurrence. The presence of metastases (p <0.0001) and local recurrence (p <0.007) were negative prognostic factors for overall survival. PMID:25362924

  20. Facial soft tissue thicknesses in the present Czech Population.

    PubMed

    Drgáčová, Anna; Dupej, Ján; Velemínská, Jana

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find any relation between soft facial tissue thickness (FSTT) and sex, age and asymmetry in the contemporary Czech population. The studied sample consisted of head CT scans of 102 adult Czech individuals between the ages of 21 and 83. Forty FSTTs were evaluated and analysed using PCA, Hotelling's T(2) test, LDA, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, MANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon's paired test. The greatest sexual dimorphism was detected in the lower part of the face, which had discriminant power almost the same as the entire faces (approximately 80%). On the other hand, a significant influence of aging was shown, mostly in the area of the upper face (In females, twice as many landmarks displayed a significant influence, compared with males). The influence of asymmetry was confirmed in seven bilateral landmarks, five of them favouring the right side. PMID:26860069

  1. Current utilities of imaging in grading musculoskeletal soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Stephen M; Joodi, Robert; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Öz, Orhan K; Sharma, Rohit; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-07-01

    The care of patients with musculoskeletal malignancies has increasingly become a multidisciplinary function. Radiologists play an important role in many areas of these patients' care including initial diagnosis, staging, in many cases guiding therapy, and monitoring treatment response. However, the gold standard for the final diagnosis of these diseases remains the histopathologic proof. Intense efforts have been made to develop non-invasive methods of determining the tumor grade, or a surrogate, in order to predict biologic behavior, aid early treatment decisions, and provide prognostic information. Multiple imaging modalities have been employed in this domain-including computed tomography (CT); anatomic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques; functional MR imaging sequences such as dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS); and positron emission tomography (PET). This article reviews current available literature in this realm and highlights future directions towards the potential of non-invasive imaging in grading of soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27235882

  2. Soft tissue tumors of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Katenkamp, D

    1987-01-01

    From the tumor register of the Institute of Pathology of Jena all soft tissue tumors of the head and neck collected between 1959 and 1984 were retrieved and reclassified. 562 out of 646 tumors (87%) were benign. Three quarter of these growths could be diagnosed as nerve sheath tumors (schwannomas and neurofibromas), hemangiomas, fibrohistiocytic tumors and lipomas. 84 tumors were malignant (13%). As the most frequent subtypes we found fibrohistiocytic sarcomas (malignant fibrous histiocytomas and atypical fibroxanthomas), muscularly differentiated sarcomas (rhabdo- and leiomyosarcomas) and unclassified sarcomas. The age and sex distribution as well as the localization and histologic peculiarities were analysed and compared with findings reported in the literature. The significance of knowing such data for diagnostic and differential diagnostic considerations is stressed and exemplified. PMID:3592924

  3. Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcomas Treated with Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vitzthum, Lucas K.; Brown, Lindsay C.; Rooney, Jessica W.; Foote, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck soft tissue sarcomas (HNSTSs) are rare and heterogeneous cancers in which radiation therapy (RT) has an important role in local tumor control (LC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes and patterns of treatment failure in patients with HNSTS treated with RT. A retrospective review was performed of adult patients with HNSTS treated with RT from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2012. LC, locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and predictors thereof were assessed. Forty-eight patients with HNSTS were evaluated. Five-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of LC, LRC, DFS, and OS were 87, 73, 63, and 83%, respectively. Angiosarcomas were found to be associated with worse LC, LRC, DFS, and OS. Patients over the age of 60 had lower rates of DFS. HNSTSs comprise a diverse group of tumors that can be managed with various treatment regimens involving RT. Angiosarcomas have higher recurrence and mortality rates. PMID:27441072

  4. [Treatments of Soft Tissue Sarcomas by Orthopaedic Surgeons in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) has been performed mainly by orthopaedic surgeons. The standard therapy for all cases of STS is surgical resection of the tumor. The prognosis of patients with unresectable tumors or distant metastases is poor despite treatment with intensive chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated for patients with resectable tumors. Round-cell STS, including extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, have high sensitivity to chemotherapy. The standard treatment for round-cell STS is multimodal therapy with surgery and chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy. On the other hand, non-round cell STS, including leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and liposarcoma, have low sensitivity to chemotherapy. Thus, the standard treatment for non-round cell STS is essentially, surgery. Large and high-grade non-round cell STS are also treated using adjuvant chemotherapy along with surgery. In this review, the standard therapies for STS and the future perspective in Japan are discussed. PMID:26809525

  5. Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries of the Feet and Ankle

    PubMed Central

    English, Edward

    1985-01-01

    An accurate clinical diagnosis of foot and ankle pain can be made by a history, physical examination and routine X-rays of the affected part. Each problem has a specific treatment; however, fractures and dislocations around the foot and ankle can be thought of in an organized fashion by proper physical examination and then the appropriate treatment. Fractures and soft tissue injuries can be treated rationally by understanding the mechanism of injury and the possibility of subsequent deformity. This article classifies specific injuries as a group and indicates a treatment program for each problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274230

  6. Lameness associated with coxofemoral soft tissue masses in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Layton, C E; Ferguson, H R

    1987-01-01

    Six cases of mechanical lameness involving the coxofemoral joint are presented. All dogs had a history of chronic rear leg pain and lameness, and decreased range of motion of the hip. On physical examination, ventral subluxation of the coxofemoral joint during extension was present in three dogs. A radiographic diagnosis of subluxation was made in five dogs. In each dog, surgical exploration of the area caudal to the coxofemoral joint revealed a fibrous mass between the lesser or third trochanters and the ischium, diagnosed as a nonneoplastic fibrous reaction by microscopic examination. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic signs were similar to previously described cases of myositis ossificans. Five dogs returned to normal function after excision of the soft tissue mass, and one dog was normal when lost to follow-up 4 weeks postoperatively. PMID:3507121

  7. Pseudotumoral form of soft-tissue tuberculosis of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Benzarti, Sofien; Msek, Hichem; Boussen, Monia; Khorbi, Adel

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. Hand and wrist is a rare localization for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, a pseudotumoral form of soft tissue tuberculosis of the wrist is exceptional. We report the case of a 45-year-old male presenting with a painful swelling of the dorsal aspect of the right wrist evolving for six months. Clinical study was evoking a ganglion cyst of the wrist. Intraoperatively a pseudotumoral mass with rice bodies was found, suggesting tuberculous tenosynovitis. The histopathological study revealed caseating giant cell granulomas with epithelioid cells. Cultures on Löwenstein-Jensen medium detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Synovectomy with removal of all the rice bodies followed by anti-tuberculous chemotherapy provided uneventful recovery. PMID:26927998

  8. Microbiology and management of soft tissue and muscle infections.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2008-08-01

    This review summarizes the microbiological aspects and management of soft tissue and muscle infections. The infections presented are: impetigo, folliculitis, furunculosis and carbuncles, cellulitis, erysipelas, infectious gangrene (includes necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal gangrene, gas gangrene or clostridium myonecrosis, anaerobic cellulites, progressive bacterial synergistic gangrene, synergistic necrotizing cellulitis or perineal phlegmon, gangrenous balanitis, and gangrenous cellulitis in the immunocompromised patient), secondary bacterial infections complication skin lesions, diabetic and other chronic superficial skin ulcers and subcutaneous abscesses and myositis. These infections often occur in body sites or in those that have been compromised or injured by foreign body, trauma, ischemia, malignancy or surgery. In addition to Group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, the indigenous aerobic and anaerobic cutaneous and mucous membranes local microflora usually is responsible for polymicrobial infections. These infections may occasionally lead to serious potentially life-threatening local and systemic complications. The infections can progress rapidly and early recognition and proper medical and surgical management is the cornerstone of therapy. PMID:17720643

  9. Muscle Articulations: Flexible Jaw Joints Made of Soft Tissues.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, T A; Clark, A J

    2015-08-01

    This study surveys animals that use soft tissues rather than rigid links to build jaw joints. Hard biting elements are useful; they are used in piercing or shearing during feeding and interactive behaviors and can directly impact survival and reproduction. The best understood biting systems include biting elements that are mounted on rigid jaw links that form a joint capable of transmitting the bite reaction forces. As such, jaws must incorporate joints that resist compression. Many jaw joints are "sliding joints", in which jaw links come into direct contact and the shape of the sliding contact surfaces dictates possible motions. There are, however, organisms that have biting elements on jaws that are made of flexible muscle and connective tissues. If arranged as a muscular hydrostat, in which multiple orientations of the muscle fibers may co-contract to provide turgid skeletal support, the multifunctional joint not only (a) provides the force to move the biting elements, but also (b) creates repositionable pivots and (c) transmits bite reaction forces. Such flexible joints, termed "muscle articulations", may be important to a number of soft-bodied animals. In this survey, we review the function of previously described muscle articulations: the joints found between inarticulate brachiopods' valves, cephalopods' beaks, the hooks of kalyptorhynch flatworms, and errant polychaetes' jaws. We also review the morphology, physiology, and feeding behaviors of the hagfish as a putative muscle articulation in an effort to understand how this jawless craniate is capable of biting with surprising force, seemingly without the benefit of any obvious method of opposing the force of the dental plate that is used to remove portions of food. Initial analysis suggests that a muscle articulation may be a key feature in coordinating head and body movements to provide the leverage needed for strong "bites". PMID:25912361

  10. Grading of soft tissue sarcomas: from histological to molecular assessment.

    PubMed

    Neuville, Agnes; Chibon, Frédéric; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    Several histological grading systems for soft tissue sarcomas have been described since the early 1980s. Their main objective is to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy. Two histological grading systems are used in daily practice, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group (FNCLCC) systems. They have been devised by combining histological parameters: number of mitoses per high-power field, the presence of necrosis, cellular and nuclear morphology and the degree of cellularity for the NCI grading; and tumour differentiation, mitotic index and extent of necrosis for the French system. Histological grading is far more appropriate to assess the risk of metastasis. However, several limitations prevent its use: grade cannot be applied to all histological types, its reproducibility is not perfect, a three-grade system generates an intermediate grade with undetermined prognosis, and finally the core needle biopsy, now widely used for the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, is not the best sample to assess the grade. The development of molecular grading in addition to histological grading probably represents the next step. Molecular signatures based on quantitative evaluation of chromosomal complexity such as CINSARC (complexity index in sarcomas) appear as a strong independent predictive factor for metastasis in several types of sarcoma, and even in several other types of cancer. When they can be instituted in daily practice on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded material, molecular signatures will not only provide information on risk of metastasis, but also better understanding of cancer development, response or resistance to evaluated drugs, and potential targets for future treatments. PMID:24378389

  11. Development of photocrosslinked methylcellulose hydrogels for soft tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stalling, Simone S; Akintoye, Sunday O; Nicoll, Steven B

    2009-07-01

    A variety of materials have been used as fillers for soft tissue augmentation. In this study, methylcellulose (MC), a water-soluble derivative of the polysaccharide cellulose, was modified with functional methacrylate groups and photocrosslinked to produce hydrogels for potential application in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Purified macromer (5% theoretical modification, 2.3% actual) was resuspended in 0.05wt.% of the photoinitiator, 2-methyl-1-[4-(hydroxyethoxy)phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone, cast into custom molds, and exposed to long-wavelength UV light for 10min to form gels. Photocrosslinked MC hydrogels at varying weight/volume percentages displayed equilibrium weight swelling ratios (wet weight/dry weight) and elastic moduli of 30+/-3 to 17+/-2 and 8.48+/-0.25kPa to 23.21+/-1.55kPa, respectively, demonstrating the formation of stable gels with tunable properties. Human dermal fibroblasts grown in the presence of MC hydrogels in vitro exhibited no significant changes in cell viability after 5days of co-culture, indicating that the materials are non-cytotoxic. Higher weight percentage MC hydrogels (6%) implanted subcutaneously in CD-1 mice maintained their integrity and original dimensions after 80days in vivo, eliciting a mild inflammatory response with no observed inflammatory exudate, minimal vascular infiltration and thin translucent fibrous capsule formation of approximately 50microm in thickness. Taken together, the material and biological properties of photocrosslinked MC hydrogels suggest that they may be of use in soft tissue reconstruction. PMID:19303378

  12. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of soft tissue lesions: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Henryk A

    2007-12-01

    Clinical and radiographic data provide important information in the evaluation of soft tissue lesions/neoplasms. Morphologic tissue and cytologic examination is considered to be a necessary part of the diagnostic work-up. The standard procedure for obtaining tumor tissue for morphologic evaluation has been incisional (open) or core needle biopsy. An increasing use of minimally invasive diagnostic procedures has resulted in better acceptance of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions. This article discusses challenges in FNAC of soft tissue lesions based on the experience at a multidisciplinary referral sarcoma center. Obtaining sufficient specimens from deeply seated small and necrotic/cystic lesions is technically a potential pitfall and misdiagnosis of cells from reactive zones surrounding the tumor as well as the correct evaluation of spindle cell lesions, rare soft tissue neoplasms, and "new entities" lacking reproducible cytological criteria are other important challenges in FNAC of soft tissues. The successful cytological evaluation of soft tissue lesions requires the application of strict, reproducible morphological criteria in the context of the clinical findings as well as ancillary techniques. The minimal criteria for diagnostic intervention in various clinical settings and the relative advantages and disadvantages of FNAC must be understood. FNAC of soft tissue lesions is facilitated when limited to specialized orthopedic-oncologic centers with a well-integrated multidisciplinary team and experience in the evaluation and therapy of soft tissue lesions. PMID:18008345

  13. CT-Based Assessment of Relative Soft-Tissue Alteration in Different Types of Ancient Mummies.

    PubMed

    Sydler, Christina; Öhrström, Lena; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Woitek, Ulrich; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Mummification leads to alteration of soft-tissue morphology. No research has focused specifically on differences in soft-tissue shrinkage depending on mummification type. This study evaluated whether soft-tissue alteration is dependent on type of mummification. A total of 17 human mummies have been investigated by computed tomography (CT). Samples included artificially embalmed ancient Egyptian mummies, naturally mummified South American corpses, ice mummies (including the Iceman, South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, Bolzano, Italy, ca. 3,300 BC), bog bodies and a desiccated mummy of possibly Asian provenance. The acquired data were compared to four contemporary bodies. The extent of soft-tissue shrinkage was evaluated using CT data. Shrinkage was defined as soft-tissue relative to area of bone (in number of voxels). Measurements were taken at 13 anatomically defined locations. Ice mummies show the highest degree of preservation. This finding is most likely explained due to frozen water within tissues. All other types of mummies show significantly (at P < 0.05) smaller relative area of preserved soft-tissue. Variation between different anatomical structures (e.g., upper lip vs. mid-femur) is significant, unlike variation within one compartment (e.g., proximal vs. distal humerus). Mummification type strongly affects the degree of soft-tissue alteration, surprisingly mostly independent of overall historical age. These results highlight the unique morphological impact of taphonomy on soft-tissue preservation and are of particular interest in tissue research as well as in forensics. PMID:25998649

  14. Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Wenger, Marco P.E.; Bean, Richard J.; Bozec, Laurent; Horton, Michael A.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2009-09-11

    Coherent X-ray diffraction has been applied in the imaging of inorganic materials with great success. However, its application to biological specimens has been limited to some notable exceptions, due to the induced radiation damage and the extended nature of biological samples, the last limiting the application of most part of the phasing algorithms. X-ray ptychography, still under development, is a good candidate to overcome such difficulties and become a powerful imaging method for biology. We describe herein the feasibility of applying ptychography to the imaging of biological specimens, in particular collagen rich samples. We report here speckles in diffraction patterns from soft animal tissue, obtained with an optimized small angle X-ray setup that exploits the natural coherence of the beam. By phasing these patterns, dark field images of collagen within tendon, skin, bone, or cornea will eventually be obtained with a resolution of 60-70 nm. We present simulations of the contrast mechanism in collagen based on atomic force microscope images of the samples. Simulations confirmed the 'speckled' nature of the obtained diffraction patterns. Once inverted, the patterns will show the disposition and orientation of the fibers within the tissue, by enhancing the phase contrast between protein and no protein regions of the sample. Our work affords the application of the most innovative coherent X-ray diffraction tools to the study of biological specimens, and this approach will have a significant impact in biology and medicine because it overcomes many of the limits of current microscopy techniques.

  15. Scaling model for laser-produced bubbles in soft tissue

    SciTech Connect

    London, R. A., LLNL

    1998-03-12

    The generation of vapor-driven bubbles is common in many emerging laser-medical therapies involving soft tissues. To successfully apply such bubbles to processes such as tissue break-up and removal, it is critical to understand their physical characteristics. To complement previous experimental and computational studies, an analytic mathematical model for bubble creation and evolution is presented. In this model, the bubble is assumed to be spherically symmetric, and the laser pulse length is taken to be either very short or very long compared to the bubble expansion timescale. The model is based on the Rayleigh cavitation bubble model. In this description, the exterior medium is assumed to be an infinite incompressible fluid, while the bubble interior consists of a mixed liquid-gas medium which is initially heated by the laser. The heated interior provides the driving pressure which expands the bubble. The interior region is assumed to be adiabatic and is described by the standard water equation-of-state, available in either tabular, or analytic forms. Specifically, we use adiabats from the equation-of-state to describe the evolution of the interior pressure with bubble volume. Analytic scaling laws are presented for the maximum size, the duration, and the energy of bubbles as functions of the laser energy and initially heated volume. Of particular interest, is the efficiency of converting laser energy into bubble motion.

  16. Laser surgery for selected small animal soft-tissue conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1991-05-01

    With the acquisition of a Nd:YAG and a CO2 laser in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Oklahoma State University in 1989, over 100 small animal clinical cases have been managed with these modern modalities for surgical excision and tissue vaporization. Most procedures have been for oncologic problems, but inflammatory, infectious, or congenital conditions including vaporization of acral lick 'granulomas,' excision/vaporization of foreign body induced, infected draining tracts, and resection of elongated soft palates have been successfully accomplished. Laser excision or vaporization of both benign and malignant neoplasms have effectively been performed and include feline nasal squamous cell carcinoma, mast cell tumors, and rectal/anal neoplasms. Results to date have been excellent with animals exhibiting little postoperative pain, swelling, and inflammation. Investigations involving application of laser energy for tissue welding of esophageal lacerations and hepatitic interstitial hyperthermia for metastatic colorectal cancer have also shown potential. A review of cases with an emphasis on survival time and postoperative morbidity suggests that carefully planned laser surgical procedures in clinical veterinary practice done with standardized protocols and techniques offer an acceptable means of treating conditions that were previously considered extremely difficult or virtually impossible to perform.

  17. Lasers in Esthetic Dentistry: Soft Tissue Photobiomodulation, Hard Tissue Decontamination, and Ceramics Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Karen Müller; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Correa-Aranha, Ana Cecília; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Lopes, Roberta Marques da Graça; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern and the search for conservative dental treatments have resulted in the development of several new technologies. Low and high power lasers can be cited as one of these new technologies. Low power lasers act at cellular level leading to pain reduction, modulation of inflammation, and improvement of tissue healing. High power lasers act by increasing temperature and have the potential to promote microbial reduction and ablation of hard and soft tissues. The clinical application of both low and high power lasers requires specific knowledge concerning laser interaction with biological tissues, so that the correct irradiation protocol can be established. The present case report describes the clinical steps of two metal-ceramic crowns development in a 60-year-old patient. Three different laser wavelengths were applied throughout the treatment with different purposes: Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm) for dentin decontamination, diode (660 nm) for soft tissue biomodulation, and Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm) for inner ceramic surface conditioning. Lasers were successfully applied in the present case report as coadjutant in the treatment. This coadjutant technology can be a potential tool to assist treatment to reach the final success. PMID:25147746

  18. Preoperative multidisciplinary treatment with hyperthermia for soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Makihata, E; Kuroda, M; Kawai, A; Ozaki, T; Sugihara, S; Inoue, H; Joja, I; Asaumi, J; Kawasaki, S; Hiraki, Y

    1997-04-01

    We report the results of phase I/II studies of preoperative multidisciplinary treatment of 14 patients with soft tissue sarcoma using hyperthermia from November 1990 to April 1995. The preoperative treatment was conducted with thermo-radio-chemotherapy in 11 cases of stage III, and with thermo-radiotherapy as well as thermo-chemotherapy in three cases of stages I and II. Hyperthermia was carried out twice a week with totals ranging from 4 to 14 times (average: 8.4 times); each session lasted 60 min. Radiotherapy was administered four or five times per week, and the dose was 1.8 2Gy/fraction, with a total of 30-40 Gy in a four week period. Chemotherapy was mainly in the form of MAID regimen (2-mercaptoethanesulphonic acid (mesna), adriamycin, ifosfamide and dacarbazine). The tumors were surgically resected in all patients after completing the preoperative treatment. The efficacy rate, as expressed by the percentage of either tumors in which reduction rate was 50% or more, or tumors for which post-treatment contrast enhanced CT image revealed low density volumes occupying 50% or more of the total mass, was 71% (ten of the 14 tumors). The mean tumor necrosis rate in the resected specimens was 78%. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly high (P < 0.05) in patients whose Time > or = 42 degrees C was of long duration. Postoperative complications were observed in six patients; among these, two patients developed wound infection that required surgical treatment as a complication of surgery performed in the early stage following the preoperative treatment. After a mean postoperative follow-up of 27 months, distant metastasis occurred in four patients resulting in three fatalities. The three-year cumulative survival rate was 64.3%. No local recurrence was observed in any patient during the follow-up, thus confirming our hypothesis that preoperative multidisciplinary treatment has an excellent local efficacy. We think that it would be valuable to conduct, at many

  19. Cixutumumab and Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Unresectable, Locally Advanced, or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Undifferentiated High Grade Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Bone; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Childhood Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma With Mixed Embryonal and Alveolar Features; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Malignant Adult Hemangiopericytoma; Malignant Childhood Hemangiopericytoma; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

  20. Children hospitalized with skin and soft tissue infections: a guide to antibacterial selection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Vayalumkal, Joseph V; Jadavji, Tajdin

    2006-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections in children are an important cause for hospitalization. A thorough history and physical examination can provide clues to the pathogens involved. Collection of purulent discharge from lesions should be completed prior to initiating antimicrobial therapy, and results of bacteriologic studies (Gram stain and culture) should guide therapeutic decisions. The main pathogens involved in these infections are Staphylococcus aureus and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, but enteric organisms also play a role especially in nosocomial infections. Increasing antibacterial resistance is becoming a major problem in the treatment of these infections worldwide. Specifically, the rise of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and glycopeptide-resistant S. aureus pose challenges for the future. Infections of the skin and soft tissues can be broadly classified based on the extent of tissue involvement. Superficial infections such as erysipelas, cellulitis, bullous impetigo, bite infections, and periorbital cellulitis may require hospitalization and parenteral antibacterials. Deeper infections such as orbital cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and pyomyositis require surgical intervention as well as parenteral antibacterial therapy. Surgery plays a key role in the treatment of abscesses and for the debridement of necrotic tissue in deep infections. Intravenous immunoglobulin, as an adjunctive therapy, can be helpful in treating necrotizing fasciitis. For most infections an antistaphylococcal beta-lactam antibacterial is first-line therapy. Third-generation cephalosporins and beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor antibacterials as well as clindamycin or metronidazole are often required to provide broad-spectrum coverage for polymicrobial infections.Special populations, such as immunocompromised children, those with an allergy to penicillins, and those that acquire infections in hospitals, require specific antibacterial strategies. These usually involve broader

  1. Spectroscopic measurements and characterization of soft tissue phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solarte, Efrain; Ipus, Erick

    2013-02-01

    Tissue phantoms are important tools to calibrate and validate light propagation effects, measurements and diagnostic test in real biological soft tissue. We produce low cost phantoms using standard commercial jelly, distillated water, glycerol and a 20% lipid emulsion (Oliclinomel N7-1000 ®) was used in place of the usual Intralipid®. In a previous work we designed a protocol to elaborate high purity phantoms which can be used over months. We produced three different types of phantoms regarding the lipid emulsion - glycerol - gelatin - water composition: Pure gelatin phantoms, lipid in glycerol, and lipid in gelatin phantoms were produced and different concentrations of the lipid emulsion were used to study optical propagation properties of diffusive mixtures. Besides, 1.09 μm poly latex spheres in distilled water were used to produce reference phantoms. In order to use all the phantom sides, the phantoms were produced in disposable spectrometer cuvettes, designed for fluorescence studies. Measurements were performed using an OceanOptics 4000 channels spectrophotometer and integrating spheres. For the scattering measurements a homemade goniometer with a high resolution angular scale was used and the scattering detector was a linear array of optical fibers, with an angular collimator, connected to the spectrophotometer. White LED was used as light source, and the 6328.8 nm HeNe Laser was used for calibration. In this work we present characterization measurements for gelatin and microspheres phantoms using spectral reflectance, diffuse and direct spectral transmittance, and angle scattering measurements. The results of these measurements and their comparison are presented.

  2. Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues

    PubMed Central

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Wenger, Marco P. E.; Bean, Richard J.; Bozec, Laurent; Horton, Michael A.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2009-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction has been applied in the imaging of inorganic materials with great success. However, its application to biological specimens has been limited to some notable exceptions, due to the induced radiation damage and the extended nature of biological samples, the last limiting the application of most part of the phasing algorithms. X-ray ptychography, still under development, is a good candidate to overcome such difficulties and become a powerful imaging method for biology. We describe herein the feasibility of applying ptychography to the imaging of biological specimens, in particular collagen rich samples. We report here speckles in diffraction patterns from soft animal tissue, obtained with an optimized small angle X-ray setup that exploits the natural coherence of the beam. By phasing these patterns, dark field images of collagen within tendon, skin, bone, or cornea will eventually be obtained with a resolution of 60–70 nm. We present simulations of the contrast mechanism in collagen based on atomic force microscope images of the samples. Simulations confirmed the ‘speckled’ nature of the obtained diffraction patterns. Once inverted, the patterns will show the disposition and orientation of the fibers within the tissue, by enhancing the phase contrast between protein and no protein regions of the sample. Our work affords the application of the most innovative coherent X-ray diffraction tools to the study of biological specimens, and this approach will have a significant impact in biology and medicine because it overcomes many of the limits of current microscopy techniques. PMID:19706395

  3. Combining Targeted Agents With Modern Radiotherapy in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Philip; Houghton, Peter; Kirsch, David G.; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Dicker, Adam P.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Teicher, Beverly A.; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Curran, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) biology has led to better distinction and subtyping of these diseases with the hope of exploiting the molecular characteristics of each subtype to develop appropriately targeted treatment regimens. In the care of patients with extremity STS, adjunctive radiation therapy (RT) is used to facilitate limb and function, preserving surgeries while maintaining five-year local control above 85%. In contrast, for STS originating from nonextremity anatomical sites, the rate of local recurrence is much higher (five-year local control is approximately 50%) and a major cause of death and morbidity in these patients. Incorporating novel technological advancements to administer accurate RT in combination with novel radiosensitizing agents could potentially improve local control and overall survival. RT efficacy in STS can be increased by modulating biological pathways such as angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, cell survival signaling, and cancer-host immune interactions. Previous experiences, advancements, ongoing research, and current clinical trials combining RT with agents modulating one or more of the above pathways are reviewed. The standard clinical management of patients with STS with pretreatment biopsy, neoadjuvant treatment, and primary surgery provides an opportune disease model for interrogating translational hypotheses. The purpose of this review is to outline a strategic vision for clinical translation of preclinical findings and to identify appropriate targeted agents to combine with radiotherapy in the treatment of STS from different sites and/or different histology subtypes. PMID:25326640

  4. Creating porous tubes by centrifugal forces for soft tissue application.

    PubMed

    Dalto, P D; Shoichet, M S

    2001-10-01

    Chemically crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) tubes were synthesized by applying centrifugal forces to propagating polymer chains in solution. Initiated monomer solutions, with a composition typical for PHEMA sponges, were placed into a cylindrical mold that was rotated about its long axis. As polymerization proceeded, phase separated PHEMA formed a sediment at the periphery under centrifugal action. The solvent remained in the center of the mold while the PHEMA phase gelled, resulting in a tube. By controlling the rotational speed and the formulation chemistry (i.e., monomer, initiator and crosslinking agent concentrations), the tube dimensions and wall morphology were manipulated. Tube manufacture was limited by a critical casting concentration [M]c, above which only rods formed. All tubes had an outer diameter of 2.4 mm, reflecting the internal diameter of the mold and a wall thickness of approximately 40-400 microm. Wall morphologies varied from interconnecting polymer and water phases to a closed cell, gel-like, structure. Concentric tubes were successfully prepared by using formulations that enhanced phase separation over gelation/network formation. This was achieved by using formulations with lower concentrations of monomer and crosslinking agent and higher concentrations of initiator. This technique offers a new approach to the synthesis of polymeric tubes for use in soft tissue applications, such as nerve guidance channels. PMID:11519786

  5. Non-ideal effects in indentation testing of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Finan, John D; Fox, Patrick M; Morrison, Barclay

    2014-06-01

    Indentation has several advantages as a loading mode for determining constitutive behavior of soft, biological tissues. However, indentation induces a complex, spatially heterogeneous deformation field that creates analytical challenges for the calculation of constitutive parameters. As a result, investigators commonly assume small indentation depths and large sample thicknesses to simplify analysis and then restrict indentation depth and sample geometry to satisfy these assumptions. These restrictions limit experimental resolution in some fields, such as brain biomechanics. However, recent experimental evidence suggests that conventionally applied limits are in fact excessively conservative. We conducted a parametric study of indentation loading with various indenter geometries, surface interface conditions, sample compressibility, sample geometry and indentation depth to quantitatively describe the deviation from previous treatments that results from violation of the assumptions of small indentation depth and large sample thickness. We found that the classical solution was surprisingly robust to violation of the assumption of small strain but highly sensitive to violation of the assumption of large sample thickness, particularly if the indenter was cylindrical. The ramifications of these findings for design of indentation experiments are discussed and correction factors are presented to allow future investigators to account for these effects without recreating our finite element models. PMID:23928858

  6. Combining targeted agents with modern radiotherapy in soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Wong, Philip; Houghton, Peter; Kirsch, David G; Finkelstein, Steven E; Monjazeb, Arta M; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Dicker, Adam P; Ahmed, Mansoor; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Teicher, Beverly A; Coleman, C Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Curran, Walter J; Wang, Dian

    2014-11-01

    Improved understanding of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) biology has led to better distinction and subtyping of these diseases with the hope of exploiting the molecular characteristics of each subtype to develop appropriately targeted treatment regimens. In the care of patients with extremity STS, adjunctive radiation therapy (RT) is used to facilitate limb and function, preserving surgeries while maintaining five-year local control above 85%. In contrast, for STS originating from nonextremity anatomical sites, the rate of local recurrence is much higher (five-year local control is approximately 50%) and a major cause of death and morbidity in these patients. Incorporating novel technological advancements to administer accurate RT in combination with novel radiosensitizing agents could potentially improve local control and overall survival. RT efficacy in STS can be increased by modulating biological pathways such as angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, cell survival signaling, and cancer-host immune interactions. Previous experiences, advancements, ongoing research, and current clinical trials combining RT with agents modulating one or more of the above pathways are reviewed. The standard clinical management of patients with STS with pretreatment biopsy, neoadjuvant treatment, and primary surgery provides an opportune disease model for interrogating translational hypotheses. The purpose of this review is to outline a strategic vision for clinical translation of preclinical findings and to identify appropriate targeted agents to combine with radiotherapy in the treatment of STS from different sites and/or different histology subtypes. PMID:25326640

  7. Perforator propeller flaps for sacral and ischial soft tissue reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Korambayil, Pradeoth M.; Allalasundaram, KV; Balakrishnan, TM

    2010-01-01

    The perforator-based flaps in the sacral and ischial region is designed according to the localization of perforators that penetrate the gluteus maximus muscle, reach the intra-fascial and supra-fascial planes with the overlying skin forming a rich vascular plexus. The perforator-based flaps described in this article are highly vascularized, have minimal donor site morbidity, and do not require the sacrifice of the gluteus maximus muscle. In a period between April 2008 and March 2009, six patients with sacral pressure sore were reconstructed with propeller flap method based on superior gluteal and parasacral artery perforators. One flap loss was noted. Three cases of ischial pressure sore were reconstructed with longitudinal propeller flap cover, based on inferior gluteal artery perforator. One flap suffered wound infection and dehiscence. Two cases of pilonidal sinus were reconstructed with propeller flap based on parasacral perforators. Both the flaps survived without any complications. Donor sites were closed primarily. In the light of this, they can be considered among the first surgical choices to re-surface soft tissue defects of the sacral and ischial regions. In the series of 11 patients, two patients (18%) suffered complications. PMID:21217972

  8. Soft-Tissue Loop for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Miswan, Mohd Fairudz Bin Mohd; Al-Fayyadh, Mohamed Zubair Mohamed; Seow Hui, Teo; Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Razif Bin; Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-04-01

    A patient with patellar instability frequently presents with anterior knee pain, patellar subluxation, or dislocation. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has a key role for normal patella tracking and stability. Reconstruction of the MPFL using a hamstring graft is a commonly used procedure for the treatment of chronic lateral subluxation of patella. Anchor sutures and bony tunnels are used for the patellar attachment of the graft. This can be associated with complications such as patella fracture; besides, it does not produce an anatomical reconstruction for the native MPFL that can alter the direction of tension applied on the patella. To overcome these problems, a soft-tissue loop technique is used for MPFL reconstruction. During this procedure, a semitendinosus graft was passed through the prepatellar extensor retinaculum and secured with sutures. The free ends of the graft were then passed between the second and third layers of the medial patellofemoral retinaculum and fixed to a femoral tunnel on the medial femoral condyle with an interference screw. The desired amount of tension on the graft is achieved under direct vision of patella tracking arthroscopically. We found this method to be relatively safe and fast. It is more anatomical and can avoid the complications during the conventional bony procedures. PMID:27354953

  9. Diagnosis and Percutaneous Treatment of Soft-Tissue Hydatid Cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Akhan, Okan Gumus, Burcak; Akinci, Devrim; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate and discuss the radiological features of four patients with muscular hydatid disease and to evaluate the results of percutaneous treatment in these patients. Four patients (three female and one male) with six muscular hydatid cysts underwent percutaneous treatment and were followed up. The mean age of patients was 35 years (range: 12-60 years). Type I (n = 2), type II (n = 1), and type III (n = 3) hydatid cysts were observed in the thigh (n = 3) and gluteal (n = 1) region on radiologic examination. All interventions were performed under sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. According to the type of the cyst, the procedure was carried out by either a 'catheterization technique with hypertonic saline and alcohol' or a 'modified catheterization technique.' The mean cathaterization time was 13.7 days, ranging from 1 to 54 days. The dimensions of the residual cavity were noted at every sonographic control, and an average of 96.1% volume reduction was obtained in six cysts of four patients. No sign of viability was observed during the follow-up period. Cavity infection and cellulitis were observed as complications, which resolved after medical therapy. Percutaneous treatment is a safe and effective procedure in patients with soft-tissue hydatid cysts and should be considered as a serious alternative to surgery.

  10. [Surgical management of war injuries involving soft tissue defects].

    PubMed

    Stanec, Z; Skrbić, S; Depina, I; Hulina, D; Ivrlac, R; Unusić, J; Montani, D; Prpić, I; Unusić, I

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the authors emphasize that the knowledge of terminal ballistics is important for understanding of the pathophysiology of war wounds. They present their own experiences in the treatment of war wounds in 126 casualties, treated in the Institute of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Clinical Hospital Center, Zagreb. About 96% of the wounded sustained extremity injuries, while head, neck and thoracoabdominal injuries appeared in a significantly smaller number of cases. War wound were divided into four main categories with regard to type of injury and extension of soft-tissue defect, thus showing the differences in primary excision and in reconstruction of the wounds; 78.6% of head and neck injuries were treated by primary or early primary reconstruction (within three to five days after the injuries have been sustained), while 45.4% of thoracoabdominal injuries were treated by a secondary closure. The greatest number of sophisticated reconstructions were used in extremity injuries (15 wound were reconstructed by local flaps, while free flaps were used in 8 cases). The authors emphasize the importance of proper primary treatment which enables an early reconstruction. This results in significantly shorter hospitalization, so that 87.5% of patients were treated within 20 days and then transferred to early rehabilitation. PMID:8170273

  11. Inflammatory granuloma caused by injectable soft tissue filler (Artecoll)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Chang; Kim, Jong-Bae; Chin, Byung-Rho; Kim, Jin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Artecoll (Artes Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) has recently been developed as a permanent synthetic cosmetic filler. We experienced an inflammatory granuloma resulting from a previous injection of Artecoll at the upper lip, which was regarded as a rare side effect of this filler. A 50-year-old female patient complained of swelling, dull pain, and heat in the right upper nasolabial fold area, which had started one week before her visit to Kyungpook National University Hospital. The patient received topical steroid therapy at a local clinic, which was not effective. At the injection site, a hard nodule was palpated and erythema was observed with mild tenderness. Antibiotic treatment and subsequent incision and drainage did not result in complete cure of the facial swelling, and the facial swelling and pain persisted. Computed tomography showed a lesion approximately 1-cm in size without clear boundaries and relatively increased nodular thickening. Finally, a subdermal lesion was removed via an intraoral vestibular approach. The lesion was diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by a permanent biopsy. The patient had healed at two months after the filler injection. Although the soft tissue filler is widely used for cosmetic purposes, there is potential for complication, such as the inflammatory granuloma should be considered before treatment. PMID:24471042

  12. Light ion irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, D.; Castro, J.R.; Phillips, T.L.; Petti, P.L.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.; Schoethaler, R.; Rayner, A.

    1990-09-01

    Between 1978 and 1989, 32 patients with unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma underwent light ion (helium, neon) irradiation with curative intent at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The tumors were located in the trunk in 22 patients and head and neck in 10. Macroscopic tumor was present in 22 at the time of irradiation. Two patients had tumors apparently induced by previous therapeutic irradiation. Follow-up times for surviving patients ranged from 4 to 121 months (median 27 months). The overall 3-year actuarial local control rate was 62%; the corresponding survival rate was 50%. The 3-year actuarial control rate for patients irradiated with macroscopic tumors was 48%, while none of the patients with microscopic disease developed local recurrence (100%). The corresponding 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40% (macroscopic) and 78% (microscopic). Patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma did notably well; the local control rate and survival rate were 64% and 62%, respectively. Complications were acceptable; there were no radiation related deaths, while two patients (6%) required operations to correct significant radiation-related injuries. These results appear promising compared to those achieved by low -LET irradiation, and suggest that this technique merits further investigation.

  13. Development of oral osteomucosal tissue constructs in vitro and localization of fluorescently-labeled bisphosphonates to hard and soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    BAE, SUSAN; SUN, SHUTING; AGHALOO, TARA; OH, JU-EUN; McKENNA, CHARLES E.; KANG, MO K.; SHIN, KI-HYUK; TETRADIS, SOTIRIOS; PARK, NO-HEE; KIM, REUBEN H.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are anti-resorptive agents commonly used to treat bone-related diseases; however, soft tissue-related side-effects are frequently reported in some BP users, such as oral or gastrointestinal (GI) ulcerations. BPs are stable analogs of pyrophosphate and have high affinity to hydroxyapatite, allowing them to bind to the bone surfaces and exert suppressive effects on osteoclast functions. However, the underlying mechanisms as to how bone-seeking BPs also exert cytotoxic effects on soft tissue remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the localization of nitrogen-containing BPs (N-BPs) in hard and soft tissue using fluorescently-labeled N-BPs in vitro. We developed osteomucosal tissue constructs in vitro to recapitulate the hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity. A histological examination of the osteomucosal tissue constructs revealed a differentiated epithelium over the bone containing osteocytes and the periosteum, similar to that observed in the rat palatal tissues. Following treatment with the fluorescently-labeled bisphosphonate, AF647-ZOL, the osteomucosal constructs exhibited fluorescent signals, not only in the bone, but also in the epithelium. No fluorescent signals were observed from the control- or ZOL-treated constructs, as expected. Collectively, the data from the present study suggest that N-BPs localize to epithelial tissue and that such a localization and subsequent toxicity of N-BPs may be associated, at least in part, with soft tissue-related side-effects. PMID:24920042

  14. Radiography of soft tissue of the foot and ankle with diffraction enhanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhong, Zhong; Lidtke, Roy; Kuettner, Klaus E; Peterfy, Charles; Aliyeva, Elmira; Muehleman, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Non-calcified tissues, including tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue and cartilage, are not visible, for any practical purposes, with conventional X-ray imaging. Therefore, any pathological changes in these tissues generally necessitate detection through magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound technology. Until recently the development of an X-ray imaging technique that could detect both bone and soft tissues seemed unrealistic. However, the introduction of diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging (DEI) which is capable of rendering images with absorption, refraction and scatter rejection qualities has allowed detection of specific soft tissues based on small differences in tissue densities. Here we show for the first time that DEI allows high contrast imaging of soft tissues, including ligaments, tendons and adipose tissue, of the human foot and ankle. PMID:15153594

  15. Radiography of soft tissue of the foot and ankle with diffraction enhanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhong, Zhong; Lidtke, Roy; Kuettner, Klaus E; Peterfy, Charles; Aliyeva, Elmira; Muehleman, Carol

    2003-05-01

    Non-calcified tissues, including tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue and cartilage, are not visible, for any practical purposes, with conventional X-ray imaging. Therefore, any pathological changes in these tissues generally necessitate detection through magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound technology. Until recently the development of an X-ray imaging technique that could detect both bone and soft tissues seemed unrealistic. However, the introduction of diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging (DEI) which is capable of rendering images with absorption, refraction and scatter rejection qualities has allowed detection of specific soft tissues based on small differences in tissue densities. Here we show for the first time that DEI allows high contrast imaging of soft tissues, including ligaments, tendons and adipose tissue, of the human foot and ankle. PMID:12739623

  16. Prediction of soft tissue deformations after CMF surgery with incremental kernel ridge regression.

    PubMed

    Pan, Binbin; Zhang, Guangming; Xia, James J; Yuan, Peng; Ip, Horace H S; He, Qizhen; Lee, Philip K M; Chow, Ben; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Facial soft tissue deformation following osteotomy is associated with the corresponding biomechanical characteristics of bone and soft tissues. However, none of the methods devised to predict soft tissue deformation after osteotomy incorporates population-based statistical data. The aim of this study is to establish a statistical model to describe the relationship between biomechanical characteristics and soft tissue deformation after osteotomy. We proposed an incremental kernel ridge regression (IKRR) model to accomplish this goal. The input of the model is the biomechanical information computed by the Finite Element Method (FEM). The output is the soft tissue deformation generated from the paired pre-operative and post-operative 3D images. The model is adjusted incrementally with each new patient's biomechanical information. Therefore, the IKRR model enables us to predict potential soft tissue deformations for new patient by using both biomechanical and statistical information. The integration of these two types of data is critically important for accurate simulations of soft-tissue changes after surgery. The proposed method was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation using data from 11 patients. The average prediction error of our model (0.9103mm) was lower than some state-of-the-art algorithms. This model is promising as a reliable way to prevent the risk of facial distortion after craniomaxillofacial surgery. PMID:27213920

  17. Fatal skin and soft tissue infection of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Aqsa; Botha, John; Tiruvoipati, Ravindranath

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acinetobacter baumannii is usually associated with respiratory tract, urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Recent reports suggest that it is increasingly causing skin and soft tissue infections. It is also evolving as a multidrug resistant organism that can be difficult to treat. We present a fatal case of multidrug resistant A. baumannii soft tissue infection and review of relevant literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 41 year old morbidly obese man, with history of alcoholic liver disease presented with left superficial pre-tibial abrasions and cellulitis caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii. In spite of early antibiotic administration he developed extensive myositis and fat necrosis requiring extensive and multiple surgical debridements. He deteriorated despite appropriate antibiotic therapy and multiple surgical interventions with development of multi-organ failure and died. DISCUSSION Managing Acinetobacter infections remains difficult due to the array of resistance and the pathogens ability to develop new and ongoing resistance. The early diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection may be challenging, but the key to successful management of patients with necrotizing soft tissue infection are early recognition and complete surgical debridement. CONCLUSION A. baumannii is emerging as an important cause of severe, life-threatening soft tissue infections. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii soft tissue infections may carry a high mortality in spite of early and aggressive treatment. Clinicians need to consider appropriate early empirical antibiotic coverage or the use of combination therapy to include MDR A. baumannii as a cause of skin and soft tissue infections. PMID:25016080

  18. Extranodal Rosai–Dorfman disease: a rare soft tissue neoplasm masquerading as a sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare proliferative histiocytic disorder of unknown etiology. RDD typically presents with generalized lymphadenopathy and polymorphic histiocytic infiltration of the lymph node sinuses; however, occurrences of extranodal soft tissue RDD may rarely occur when masquerading as a soft tissue sarcoma. Materials and methods A comprehensive search of all published cases of soft tissue RDD without associated lymphadenopathy was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar for the years 1988 to 2011. Ophthalmic RDD was excluded. Results Thirty-six cases of extranodal soft tissue RDD, including the current one, have been reported since 1988. Anatomical distribution varied among patients. Four (11.1%) patients presented with bilateral lesions in the same anatomic region. Pain was the most common symptom in six (16.8%) patients. Sixteen (41.6%) patients were managed surgically, of which one (2.8%) case experienced recurrence of disease. Conclusion RDD is a rare inflammatory non-neoplastic process that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue tumor. Thus, differentiation of extranodal RDD from more common soft tissue tumors such as soft tissue sarcoma or inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is often difficult and typically requires definitive surgical excision with histopathological examination. While the optimal treatment for extranodal RDD remains ill-defined and controversial, surgical excision is typically curative. PMID:23497062

  19. Meningeal hemangiopericytomas and hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumors of extracranial soft tissues: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini-Spaltro, Andrea; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2010-04-01

    The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors lists meningeal hemangiopericytomas (HPC) and meningeal solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) as separate entities. On the contrary, SFT and HPC of soft tissues are regarded in the WHO soft tissue fascicle as features of the same entity. The clinical data, histology, and immunohistochemistry of 18 cases of meningeal HPC and 12 cases of peripheral soft tissue HPC-SFT were compared. Both intracranial and soft tissue lesions had significant similarities that included staghorn vasculature, necrotic areas, cytologic atypia, and positivities for CD99, collagen IV, and reticulin. Nevertheless, intracranial tumors were more cellular than HPC-SFT of soft tissues and had fewer collagen bands. Meningeal HPC in addition had more mitoses, higher Ki67 index, stained less intensely for CD34 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) than HPC-SFT of soft tissues. Meningeal HPCs recurred in 13 out of 14 cases (92.9%). One of the patients died in the postoperative period for a recurrent lesion 5 years after the diagnosis, and another patient developed an extracranial metastasis 13 years after surgery. None of the six cases of HPC-SFT of soft tissues available for follow-up recurred. Both meningeal and soft tissue tumors appear to represent different features of the same entity. A more aggressive phenotype of the tumor together with incomplete surgical resection of intracranial lesions might explain the noticeable clinical difference between HPC of the meninges and HPC-SFT of soft tissues. PMID:20165866

  20. Ultrasound-guided joint and soft tissue interventions.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Berta

    2014-06-01

    Minor procedures with an injection needle are frequently performed in orthopedic clinics. They may be of a diagnostic, diagnostic and therapeutic or purely therapeutic nature. Ultrasound guidance while inserting the needle allows for a safe medicine administration and evacuation of fluid contents. It improves the efficacy of such procedures by ensuring accurate needle insertion in the target site. Ultrasound-guided procedures reduce the duration of treatment (e.g. medicines reach the target site directly; all fluid collections are removed, even multilocular ones) and minimize pain (by the selection of optimal access sites omitting tendons, vessels and peripheral nerves). This paper presents the principles of performing ultrasound-guided interventions. A detailed description of such a technique is provided and the most commonly injected medicines as well as their adverse reactions and contraindications are discussed. Attention is also paid to image optimization and the role of procedure site selection with the exclusion of other pathologies in the puncture site (such as tumors, foreign bodies and vascular or nerve pathologies). What is more, the author also discusses the principles of needle length and thickness selection as well as the manners of its insertion in relation to the transducer. Moreover, the principles of aseptics that are mandatory during such interventions are also presented and the way to protect transducers from the effects of chemical disinfectants is discussed. Furthermore, the paper contains numerous photographs of performed interventions. It is addressed to clinical practitioners and its aim is to facilitate and improve the efficacy of the procedures which are commonly performed in orthopedics. Ultrasound guidance of joint and soft tissue interventions should become a gold standard in all orthopedic clinics. PMID:26672495

  1. Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft Tissue Injury?

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Tricia J; Denegar, Craig R

    2004-09-01

    REFERENCE: Bleakley C, McDonough S, MacAuley D. The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Sport Med. 2004; 32:251-261. CLINICAL QUESTION: What is the clinical evidence base for cryotherapy use? DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases: MEDLINE, Proquest, ISI Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) on Ovid, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) on Ovid, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Central). This was supplemented with citation tracking of relevant primary and review articles. Search terms included surgery,orthopaedics,sports injury,soft tissue injury,sprains and strains,contusions,athletic injury,acute,compression, cryotherapy,ice,RICE, andcold. STUDY SELECTION: To be included in the review, each study had to fulfill the following conditions: be a randomized, controlled trial of human subjects; be published in English as a full paper; include patients recovering from acute soft tissue or orthopaedic surgical interventions who received cryotherapy in inpatient, outpatient, or home-based treatment, in isolation or in combination with placebo or other therapies; provide comparisons with no treatment, placebo, a different mode or protocol of cryotherapy, or other physiotherapeutic interventions; and have outcome measures that included function (subjective or objective), pain, swelling, or range of motion. DATA EXTRACTION: The study population, interventions, outcomes, follow-up, and reported results of the assessed trials were extracted and tabulated. The primary outcome measures were pain, swelling, and range of motion. Only 2 groups reported adequate data for return to normal function. All eligible articles were rated for methodologic quality using the PEDro scale. The

  2. Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft Tissue Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Denegar, Craig R.

    2004-01-01

    Reference: Bleakley C, McDonough S, MacAuley D. The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Sport Med. 2004; 32:251–261. Clinical Question: What is the clinical evidence base for cryotherapy use? Data Sources: Studies were identified by using a computer-based literature search on a total of 8 databases: MEDLINE, Proquest, ISI Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) on Ovid, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) on Ovid, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Central). This was supplemented with citation tracking of relevant primary and review articles. Search terms included surgery,orthopaedics,sports injury,soft tissue injury,sprains and strains,contusions,athletic injury,acute,compression, cryotherapy,ice,RICE, andcold. Study Selection: To be included in the review, each study had to fulfill the following conditions: be a randomized, controlled trial of human subjects; be published in English as a full paper; include patients recovering from acute soft tissue or orthopaedic surgical interventions who received cryotherapy in inpatient, outpatient, or home-based treatment, in isolation or in combination with placebo or other therapies; provide comparisons with no treatment, placebo, a different mode or protocol of cryotherapy, or other physiotherapeutic interventions; and have outcome measures that included function (subjective or objective), pain, swelling, or range of motion. Data Extraction: The study population, interventions, outcomes, follow-up, and reported results of the assessed trials were extracted and tabulated. The primary outcome measures were pain, swelling, and range of motion. Only 2 groups reported adequate data for return to normal function. All eligible articles were rated for methodologic quality using the PEDro scale. The

  3. Simultaneous reconstruction of cervical soft tissue and esophagus with a gastro-omental free flap

    SciTech Connect

    Mixter, R.C.; Rao, V.K.; Katsaros, J.; Noon, J.; Tan, E. )

    1990-11-01

    A microvascular transfer of gastric tube and omentum was used to simultaneously reconstruct cervical soft-tissue and esophageal defects in five patients. All patients had previous high-dose radiation and multiple flap reconstructions. The largest esophageal and soft-tissue defects were 10 cm and 160 cm2, respectively. All wounds healed primarily except for one orocutaneous fistula. There was one death from an intraoperative stroke. The gastro-omental flap is useful in cases where the reconstructive surgeon is faced with both esophageal and soft-tissue defects--particularly in heavily irradiated patients who have few reconstructive options.

  4. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Syunro; Tada, Kaoru; Ai, Hachinota; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty. PMID:25400974

  5. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle Flap for Soft Tissue Reconstruction after Total Elbow Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Syunro; Ai, Hachinota; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty. PMID:25400974

  6. Biomedical application of commercial polymers and novel polyisobutylene-based thermoplastic elastomers for soft tissue replacement.

    PubMed

    Puskas, Judit E; Chen, Yaohong

    2004-01-01

    Novel polyisobutylene-based thermoplastic elastomers are introduced as prospective implant materials for soft tissue replacement and reconstruction. In comparison, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), polypropylene (PP), polyurethanes (PU), and silicones are outlined from well-established implant history as being relatively inert and biocompatible biomaterials for soft tissue replacement, especially in vascular grafts and breast implants. Some general considerations for the design and development of polymers for soft tissue replacement are reviewed from the viewpoint of material science and engineering, with special attention to synthetic materials used in vascular grafts and breast implants. PMID:15244424

  7. Efficacy of intravenous clindamycin and methicillin in gram-positive soft tissue infections.

    PubMed Central

    Chessick, K C; Begley, L A; Curtis, L E; Hirsch, E F; Kaiser, C W; Burek, C A; Soroff, H S

    1975-01-01

    In a comparative study on a general surgical service, intravenous clindamycin phosphate or methicillin was used to treat a variety of soft tissue infections due to gram-positive organisms, chiefly staphylococci. The infections were rated according to severity, responsible organisms, and site of the infection. Excellent or good clinical and bacteriologic responses were obtained with both clindamycin and methicillin as adjuncts to basic surgical therapy in these soft tissue infections. The adverse effects of each drug were detailed, and were comparable. Clindamycin phosphate is a satisfactory substitute for methicillin in soft tissue infections secondary to gram-positive organisms. PMID:1111453

  8. EF5 to Evaluate Tumor Hypoxia in Patients With High-Grade Soft Tissue Sarcoma or Mouth Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  9. Emergency Soft Tissue Reconstruction Algorithm in Patients With Open Tibia Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, P.A.; Shibaev, E.U.; Nevedrov, A.V.; Vlasov, A.P.; Lasarev, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tactic of emergency closing of soft tissue defect allows to significantly improve the treatment results concerning patients with severe open fractures. However, a number of certain factors make the implementation of this tactic rather difficult. Injured people’s unstable conditions are mong these crucial factors which include, polytrauma in lots of cases, absence of exact recommendations for recovery terms, choice of definite tissue flaps and a type of circulation. The Aim of Study: is to develop exact, usable and in practice algorithm of emergency reconstruction of leg soft tissues in patients with severe open tibia fractures, based on the usage of the most foolproof and simple methods. Data (Patients) and Methods: 85 patients with open tibia fractures complicated by soft tissue defects were included in our study. Patients were divided into two groups. The control group consisted of 56 patients. Soft tissue reconstruction in this group was provided without an exact algorithm, after continuous attempts on local healing. After analyzing the treatment process and the treatment results we have developed the algorithm of emergency soft tissue reconstruction. It was used in 29 patients (the study group). This algorithm allows choosing optimal timing for tissue reconstruction and appropriate method to be applied, depending on the patient’s condition, the mechanism of soft tissue defect formation, and its square and localization. Results: We observed a statistical decrease in deep wound infection frequency, partial tibia necrosis frequency, chronic osteomyelitis frequency, duration of hospitalization in patients with severe open tibia fractures because of using our algorithm.

  10. Use of sol-gel-derived titania coating for direct soft tissue attachment.

    PubMed

    Areva, Sami; Paldan, Hannu; Peltola, Timo; Närhi, Timo; Jokinen, Mika; Lindén, Mika

    2004-08-01

    A firm bond between an implant and the surrounding soft tissue is important for the performance of many medical devices (e.g., stents, canyls, and dental implants). In this study, the performance of nonresorbable and reactive sol-gel-derived nano-porous titania (TiO(2)) coatings in a soft tissue environment was investigated. A direct attachment between the soft tissue and the sol-gel-derived titania coatings was found in vivo after 2 days of implantation, whereas the titanium control implants showed no evidence of soft tissue attachment. The coated implants were in immediate contact with the connective tissue, whereas the titanium controls formed a gap and a fibrous capsule on the implant-tissue interface. The good soft tissue attachment of titania coatings may result from their ability to initiate calcium phosphate nucleation and growth on their surfaces (although the formation of poorly crystalline bonelike apatite does not occur). Thus, the formation of a bonelike CaP layer is not crucial for their integration in soft tissue. The formation of bonelike apatite was hindered by the adsorption of proteins onto the initially formed amorphous calcium phosphate growth centers, thus preventing the dissolution/reprecipitation processes required for the formation of poorly crystalline bonelike apatite. These findings might open novel application areas for sol-gel-derived titania-based coatings. PMID:15227661

  11. [Soft tissues volumes changing in malar and cheek area after fat grafting].

    PubMed

    Nadtochiy, A G; Grischenko, S V; Malitskaya, O A

    2016-01-01

    To improve the predictability of facial soft tissues fat grafting results tissue thickness dynamics before and 1 year postoperatively was assessed by means of ultrasonic method in 58 patients under standardized position of the ultrasonic transducer, physical and technical scanning conditions. The study revealed direct correlation of soft tissues thickness increase after fat grafting with the initial thickness of recipient area tissues. One year after fat grafting 60-65% of additional thickness remained in the lower regions of malar-cheek area (with the greatest soft tissues thickness), and only 25-27% preserved in the upper regions with the minimal initial thickness of soft tissues. I.e. to achieve necessary correction volume in a zone with small initial soft tissues thickness it is necessary to increase the amount of fat grafting stages. As the rates of soft tissues thickness in correction area change during 3-4 months after fat grafting remaining stable after this period it is expedient to assess postoperative results and to carry out repeated fat grafting not earlier than 4 months after operation. PMID:26925567

  12. Development of a dynamic model for bevel-tip flexible needle insertion into soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Haddadi, Amir; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mechanics-based dynamic model for bevel-tip flexible needle insertion into soft tissues. We use Newton-Euler formulation to account for the effect of actuation, friction, tissue interactions, and bevel-tip forces on the needle. The soft tissue deformation is modeled by finite element analysis, whereas the mechanics-based model is used to predict needle deflections due to bevel-tip asymmetry. The proposed needle-tissue model is then experimentally evaluated by comparing the needle deflections for various insertion depths in a tissue phantom with those achieved from simulations. PMID:22256068

  13. Orbital expansion of the congenitally anophthalmic socket.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, S M; Sapp, N; Collin, R

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Congenital anophthalmos is a rare condition in which intervention at an early age can stimulate orbital expansion and maximise facial symmetry. Much is still unknown, however, regarding the degree of soft tissue and bony orbital growth achieved using the orbital expanders presently available. METHODS--A retrospective review of 59 congenitally anophthalmic orbits in 42 patients was carried out. RESULTS--The soft tissue and bony orbital expansion achieved using serial solid shapes is reported, and experience with hydrophilic expanders and inflatable silicone expanders is reviewed. CONCLUSION--Although serially fitted solid shapes in the orbit lead to increased expansion of orbital soft tissue and bone compared with no orbital implant, further orbital tissue enlargement is required. The inflatable silicone expander may allow more rapid and extensive orbital tissue expansion, but design changes are needed to achieve this. PMID:7662633

  14. Mechanical properties of orbital fat and its encapsulating connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kinon; Weiland, James D

    2011-06-01

    There is an increasing need to understand the mechanical properties of human orbital fat and its encapsulating connective tissue (OFCT), but such knowledge is not available in the current literature. The purpose of the present study is to examine the mechanical properties of the OFCT. From 5 pairs of 76- to 92-year-old Caucasian human eyes and 33 5- to 7-month-old porcine eyes, 5 human and 11 porcine OFCT samples were dissected at the posterior pole or adjacent to the pole in the vertical, horizontal, and radial directions. Sample dimensions were fixed or measured. Tensile tests were performed on the samples in body-temperature saline. The stress-strain relationship was first approximately linear and then became nonlinear. The linear, the neo-Hookean, and the Mooney-Rivlin constants are reported in Tables 1 and 2. No statistical difference was found among their properties in the different directions in either the human or the porcine samples. Statistical differences were found between the human and the porcine material constants in the horizontal and radial directions. Among our material models, only the Mooney-Rivlin model was able to capture the mechanical properties of the OFCT in large deformation properly. The Mooney-Rivlin model was especially adaptive to the human data. This is the first time the mechanical properties of the human and porcine OFCT have been examined in the literature. We believe our data will provide valuable information to others regarding designing implant biomaterials in orbital treatments and developing computer models to study orbital biomechanics. PMID:21744934

  15. Comparison of soft tissue profile changes in serial extraction and late premolar extraction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J R; Little, R M; Joondeph, D R; Doppel, D M

    1999-04-01

    To assess soft tissue profile changes through time, a comparison was made of patients treated by serial extraction without subsequent orthodontic treatment (n=28), patients treated with serial extraction and orthodontic treatment (n=30), and patients treated orthodontically with late extraction (n=30). Cephalometric radiographs were traced and digitized; linear and angular measurements were made with a custom computer program that allowed digitization of specific soft tissue points. Maxillary, mandibular, and overall cephalometric superimpositions and linear measurements of change from the superimpositions were done by hand. Statistical analyses were made to determine if significant differences existed within each group at each time period and between groups at each time period, as well as between males and females at each time period. Data were also analyzed to determine if significant correlations existed between any hard tissue variable and any soft tissue variable, or between any soft tissue variable and any other soft tissue variable. It was found that in those patients treated with late premolar extraction, the most labial point of the mandibular incisor was more posterior from pretreatment to posttreatment than in the serial extraction group. While a great number of associations existed between variables, no significant differences were found between the soft tissue profiles of these three groups of patients. The gender differences that were found to exist were most likely due to normal maturational changes, not the treatment itself. PMID:10227558

  16. Comparison of violet diode laser with CO II laser in surgical performance of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatayama, H.; Kato, J.; Inoue, A.; Akashi, G.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-02-01

    The violet diode laser (405nm) has recently begun to be studied for surgical use and authors reported the soft tissue could be effectively incised by irradiation power of even less than 1W. The wavelength of this laser is highly absorbed by hemoglobin, myoglobin or melanin pigment. Cutting or ablating soft tissues by lower irradiation power might be preferable for wound healing. The CO II laser is known to be preferable for low invasive treatment of soft tissues and widely used. The CO II laser light (10.6μm) is highly absorbed by water and proper for effective ablation of soft tissues. In this paper, we report the comparison of the violet diode laser with the CO II laser in surgical performance of soft tissues. Tuna tissue was used as an experimental sample. In the case of the violet diode laser, extensive vaporization of tissue was observed after the expansion of coagulation. Carbonization of tissue was observed after the explosion. On the other hand, consecutive vaporization and carbonization were observed immediately after irradiation in the case of CO II laser. The violet diode laser could ablate tissue equivalently with the CO II laser and coagulate larger area than the CO II laser. Therefore the violet diode laser might be expectable as a surgical tool which has excellent hemostatis.

  17. Modeling of interstitial fluid movement in soft tissue under negative pressure - relevance to treatment of tissue swelling.

    PubMed

    Iivarinen, Jarkko T; Korhonen, Rami K; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2016-08-01

    Exact physiological mechanisms behind the potential positive treatment effects of pathological tissue swelling (edema), such as increased interstitial fluid flow, are poorly understood. Finite-element model was created and the model response was matched with the deformation data from the negative pressure (suction) measurements in human (N = 11) forearm. Two experimental suction protocols were simulated to evaluate their impact on interstitial fluid flow in soft tissues. Simulated continuous suction was up to 27 times more efficient in fluid transportation compared to the cyclic suction. The continuous suction that transports the interstitial fluid effectively may help to decrease soft tissue edema. PMID:26499361

  18. Estimating soft tissue thickness from light-tissue interactions––a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Wissel, Tobias; Bruder, Ralf; Schweikard, Achim; Ernst, Floris

    2013-01-01

    Immobilization and marker-based motion tracking in radiation therapy often cause decreased patient comfort. However, the more comfortable alternative of optical surface tracking is highly inaccurate due to missing point-to-point correspondences between subsequent point clouds as well as elastic deformation of soft tissue. In this study, we present a proof of concept for measuring subcutaneous features with a laser scanner setup focusing on the skin thickness as additional input for high accuracy optical surface tracking. Using Monte-Carlo simulations for multi-layered tissue, we show that informative features can be extracted from the simulated tissue reflection by integrating intensities within concentric ROIs around the laser spot center. Training a regression model with a simulated data set identifies patterns that allow for predicting skin thickness with a root mean square error of down to 18 µm. Different approaches to compensate for varying observation angles were shown to yield errors still below 90 µm. Finally, this initial study provides a very promising proof of concept and encourages research towards a practical prototype. PMID:23847741

  19. Pseudo-aneurysm of anterior tibia artery simulating a soft tissue sarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barzi, Darioush M; Sami, Sam H; Fallah, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    A pseudo aneurysm results from leakage of blood from an artery after trauma or dehiscence or separation of a surgical anastomosis. The reported rate of pseudo aneurysm in access sites range from 0.88% to 8%. It has some cause like penetrating trauma, blunt trauma and endovascular procedure. The differential diagnoses of this lesion are hematoma, AV fistula, lymphadenopathy, lymphocele, DVT, compartment syndrome, soft tissue tumor. A 16 years old male was referred to our clinic with progressive swelling in his right leg for the past three month. In primary survey (MRI, CT, Bone Scan) patient was diagnosed with soft tissue tumor, but after biopsy and angiography he was diagnosed with pseudo aneurysm of anterior tibialis artery. Despite easy diagnosis of p aneurysm in most cases, the signs and symptoms are more likely to soft tissue mass in rare cases. So pseudo aneurysm should always be considered as one differential diagnosis for soft tissue tumors. PMID:24901729

  20. NIH scientists map gene changes driving tumors in common pediatric soft-tissue cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have mapped the genetic changes that drive tumors in rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric soft-tissue cancer, and found that the disease is characterized by two distinct genotypes. The genetic alterations identified in this malignancy could be useful

  1. Combined myoepithelial carcinoma and myoepithelioma in soft tissue: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma and myoepithelioma are rare entities, part of myoepithelial tumors. They were incorporated into the World Health Organization classification of soft tissue tumors in 2002. Here we present an exceptional case of myoepithelial carcinoma and myoepithelioma association. To the best of our knowledge, such an association has never been reported in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of myoepithelial carcinoma combined with myoepithelioma occurring in the soft tissue of the right forearm of an 84-year-old Arabian man. We describe the clinical, radiological and pathological features dominated by histological polymorphism. We will also describe the proposed histological criteria of malignancy and the major role of immunohistochemistry in positive and differential diagnosis. We finally mention the therapeutic arsenal available. Conclusion Through this work, we report that myoepithelioma of soft tissue can progress to malignant myoepithelioma. PMID:25253093

  2. Maintenance of soft tissue closure following guided bone regeneration: technical considerations and report of 723 cases.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present simple clinical techniques which have been utilized in a significant number of consecutive cases to maintain primary closure throughout the course of regeneration. The maintenance of soft tissue primary closure following guided bone regeneration (GBR) therapy, while considered a considerable challenge, is recognized as contributing to the maximization of therapeutic results. A retrospective analysis of the maintenance of such soft tissue primary closure following the utilization of specific mucoperiosteal flap designs during GBR surgery in 723 consecutively treated cases was carried out. Soft tissue closure was maintained over the membranes for the course of regeneration (a minimum of 6 months) in 695 cases (96.1%). The maintenance of soft tissue primary closure following GBR therapy may be predictably attained through proper surgical planning, technical care, and appropriate postoperative management. PMID:10505812

  3. Fluid-fluid level: a nonspecific finding in tumors of bone and soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J C; Dalinka, M K; Fallon, M D; Zlatkin, M B; Kressel, H Y

    1990-06-01

    Fluid-fluid levels have commonly been reported to occur in aneurysmal bone cysts but have also been seen in telangiectatic osteosarcoma, chondroblastoma, and giant cell tumor of bone. The authors reviewed their experience with nine bone and three soft-tissue tumors that showed fluid-fluid levels on computed tomographic or magnetic resonance images. The bone tumors included fibrous dysplasia, simple bone cyst, recurrent malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone, two classical osteosarcomas, and four aneurysmal bone cysts. The soft-tissue tumors included soft-tissue hemangioma and two synovial sarcomas. Except for aneurysmal bone cysts, these types of tumors have not been reported to be associated with fluid-fluid levels. Radiologic-pathologic correlation was available in seven patients; in all seven, the fluid-fluid levels indicated prior hemorrhage. The authors conclude that the presence of fluid-fluid levels in bone or soft-tissue tumors cannot be considered diagnostic of any particular tumor. PMID:2160676

  4. Vertical Ridge Augmentation and Soft Tissue Reconstruction of the Anterior Atrophic Maxillae: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Urban, Istvan A; Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    Severe vertical ridge deficiency in the anterior maxilla represents one of the most challenging clinical scenarios in the bone regeneration arena. As such, a combination of vertical bone augmentation using various biomaterials and soft tissue manipulation is needed to obtain successful outcomes. The present case series describes a novel approach to overcome vertical deficiencies in the anterior atrophied maxillae by using a mixture of autologous and anorganic bovine bone. Soft tissue manipulation including, but not limited to, free soft tissue graft was used to overcome the drawbacks of vertical bone augmentation (eg, loss of vestibular depth and keratinized mucosa). By combining soft and hard tissue grafts, optimum esthetic and long-term implant prosthesis stability can be achieved and sustained. PMID:26357691

  5. Scintigraphic findings in chronic actinomycosis osteomyelitis and associated soft tissue infection

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, F.M.; Ewing, S.L.; Shafer, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Scintigraphic findings are reported in a patient with actinomycosis osteomyelitis and soft tissue infection to illustrate the need to understand the mechanism of localization of the radiopharmaceutical to accurately assess the clinical pathology.

  6. [Chinese expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (Version 2015)].

    PubMed

    2016-04-23

    Soft tissue sarcoma is a group of malignancies of mesenchymal origin. It arises from almost every part of human body in all decades. Appropriate dagnosis and treatment of soft tissue sarcoma are always challenging to physicians and pathologists because of its extremely low incidence and variable biological behaviors among subtypes. Surgical resection remains the most important and only method to cure soft tissue sarcomas, while chemoradiation and target therapy are incorporated into multidisciplinary treatment model, but there is no generally accepted consensus on how to do multidisciplinary treatment properly and maximize the therapeutic effects. The aim of this article is to improve the understanding of multidisciplinary treatment of soft tissue sarcomas and to provide a guidance nationwide based on evidence-based medicine and expert's experience on related topics. PMID:27087380

  7. Analysis of Soft Tissue Changes after Genioplasty in Skeletal Class III Dentofacial Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to measure the anteroinferior changes and the degree of vertical changes to facilitate the prediction of treatment outcome in patients undergoing genioplasty only, genioplasty with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO), genioplasty, or BSSRO and Lefort I osteotomy. Materials and Methods Serial cephalometry was performed on 25 patients at 1-year follow-up after genioplasty, to assess skeletal changes and relapse. Surgery was performed using conventional techniques. Results The mean ratio was 0.9 : 1 of soft tissue to skeletal movement at pogonion, but the average difference between hard and soft tissue was large; thus, the prediction of anteroposterior soft tissue changes was quite inaccurate. Conclusion We observed a good correlation between the amount of hard versus soft tissue change with surgery in the horizontal direction, but a poor correlation in the vertical plane. PMID:20046423

  8. Cardiac dysfunction among soft tissue sarcoma patients in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Shantakumar, Sumitra; Olsen, Morten; Vo, Thao T; Nørgaard, Mette; Pedersen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients may experience post-treatment cardiotoxicity, yet no population-based data exist. We examined the incidence of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline, heart failure, and cardiac death following STS diagnosis among adults, using Danish patient registries and medical record review. Patients and methods LVEF decline was examined in a regional cohort of STS patients diagnosed during 1997–2011 in Western Denmark for whom cardiac imaging data were available. LVEF decline was defined as an absolute decline from baseline to follow-up of 10% or more, or, where baseline imaging was not available, a decline below the lower limit of normal (or 40%) for a follow-up LVEF. Heart failure and cardiac death were investigated in a national Danish cohort of all STS patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2009. We followed patients from STS diagnosis until heart failure, cardiac death, emigration or December 31, 2012 (whichever occurred first). Results The incidence rate of LVEF decline for the regional cohort with follow-up data (N=100, five events) or baseline and follow-up measurements (N=75, 19 events) was 16.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.0–40.3) and 108 (95% CI: 69–170), respectively, per 1,000 person-years. In the national cohort (N=1,187), the incidence of heart failure (40 events) and cardiac death (15 events) was 7.3 (95% CI: 5.4–10.0) and 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6–4.5), respectively, per 1,000 person-years. The strongest predictors of heart failure were doxorubicin treatment (hazard ratio [HR] =2.2, 95% CI: 0.5–10.2) and pre-existing cardiovascular disease (HR=6.3, 95% CI: 0.98–40.6). Conclusion LVEF decline occurred more frequently compared to heart failure or cardiac death in a nationally representative cohort of Danish STS patients. PMID:27186077

  9. Multisegment Kinematics of the Spinal Column: Soft Tissue Artifacts Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mahallati, Sara; Rouhani, Hossein; Preuss, Richard; Masani, Kei; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-07-01

    A major challenge in the assessment of intersegmental spinal column angles during trunk motion is the inherent error in recording the movement of bony anatomical landmarks caused by soft tissue artifacts (STAs). This study aims to perform an uncertainty analysis and estimate the typical errors induced by STA into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model during trunk bending in different directions by modeling the relative displacement between skin-mounted markers and actual bony landmarks during trunk bending. First, we modeled the maximum displacement of markers relative to the bony landmarks with a multivariate Gaussian distribution. In order to estimate the distribution parameters, we measured these relative displacements on five subjects at maximum trunk bending posture. Then, in order to model the error depending on trunk bending angle, we assumed that the error grows linearly as a function of the bending angle. Second, we applied our error model to the trunk motion measurement of 11 subjects to estimate the corrected trajectories of the bony landmarks and investigate the errors induced into the intersegmental angles of a multisegment spinal column model. For this purpose, the trunk was modeled as a seven-segment rigid-body system described using 23 reflective markers placed on various bony landmarks of the spinal column. Eleven seated subjects performed trunk bending in five directions and the three-dimensional (3D) intersegmental angles during trunk bending were calculated before and after error correction. While STA minimally affected the intersegmental angles in the sagittal plane (<16%), it considerably corrupted the intersegmental angles in the coronal (error ranged from 59% to 551%) and transverse (up to 161%) planes. Therefore, we recommend using the proposed error suppression technique for STA-induced error compensation as a tool to achieve more accurate spinal column kinematics measurements. Particularly, for intersegmental

  10. The Nanomechanics of Biomineralized Soft-Tissues and Organic Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezares-Chavez, Jiddu

    The research reported on in this dissertation is concerned with the macro-molecular constitution and geometrical organization of the soft-tissue comprising the matrix of the nacreous portion of the shell of Haliotis rufescens, the Red abalone. Nacre is one of literally legions of intricate biomineralized structures that exist in nature and has long served as a paradigm for elegant and optimized structural de-sign. Biomineralization involves, inter alia, the uptake and synthesis of elements and compounds from the environment and their incorporation into highly optimized functional structures. Nacre has a structure described as a brick wall like with a matrix of biopolymer layers that are preformed and serve as a template into which nanocrystalline tiles of CaCO3 precipitate. The matrix, or what are known as inter-lamellar layers, are of particular interest as they impart both toughness and strength to the composite ceramic nacre structure. The work first involved a histochemical mapping of the macromolecular structure of the interlamellar layers; this revealed the locations of proteins and functional molecular groups that serve as nucleation sites for the ceramic tiles. Parallel studies on the nacre of Nautilus pompilius, the Chambered Nautilus, revealed the generality of the findings. Of particular interest was determining both the content and layout of chitin within these layers. In fact it was determined that chitin was organized as mostly unidirectional architecture of fibrils, with a certain fraction of fibrils laying at cross directions. Most remarkably, it was found that the fibrils possessed a very long range connectivity that spanned many tiles. This was determined by systematic atomic force (afm) and analytical optical histochemical microscopy. These findings were further verified by a unique form of mechanical testing whereby tensile testing was conducted on groups of interlamellar layers extracted from nacre. Mechanical testing led to a quantitative

  11. Newer treatment options for skin and soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Murugan; Linden, Peter K

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by multidrug resistant pathogens have become more common. While the majority of SSTIs are caused by Staphylococcus aureus or beta-haemolytic streptococci that are methicillin/oxacillin susceptible, the emergence of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant community-acquired and nosocomial Gram-positive pathogens has created a need for different therapeutic agents, such as linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, and newer generation carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. This review focuses on agents presently in clinical development for the treatment of SSTIs caused by Gram-positive pathogens such as staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Newer-generation carbapenems, such as meropenem and ertapenem, are characterised by a broad-spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes, and are resistant to hydrolysis by many beta-lactamases. Current-generation fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, have demonstrated better eradication rates for S. aureus than conventional penicillin and cephalosporins. These antimicrobial agents can be used to treat methicillin-susceptible staphylococcal and streptococcal strains. Oxazolidinones, streptogramin combinations and cyclic lipopeptides have novel mechanisms of action and have been studied in several multinational phase III clinical trials in the treatment of complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. They possess a broad spectrum of activity against multidrug-resistant pathogens, including MRSA and VRE. Linezolid has been shown to be active against a wide variety of community-acquired and nosocomial antimicrobial-resistant pathogens with comparability to vancomycin, as well as resulting in reduced lengths of hospital stay. Cyclic lipopeptides such as daptomycin have a unique mechanism of action

  12. [Treatment of soft tissue trauma with BPAA gel. Results of an Italian multicenter study vs. placebo].

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, C

    1989-09-15

    A double-blind study vs placebo was carried out on 82 pts suffering from soft tissue trauma, to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a new anti-inflammatory, non-steroidal analgesic for topical use, 3% BPAA. Clinical results obtained by the group treated with BPAA gel were highly significant (p = 0.01) and positive, showing absence of local and systemic side-effects. Accordingly, BPAA gel can be recommended for treatment of soft tissue trauma. PMID:2530027

  13. Ultrasonographic measurement of the soft-tissue of the upper jaw.

    PubMed

    Traxler, M; Solar, P; Ulm, C; Gritzmann, N

    1991-01-01

    For preimplantation diagnoses, various mechanical methods for measuring the width of the soft tissue and thus measuring indirectly the osseous bed of the implant can be used. The ability to determine soft tissue thickness above the jaw by ultrasound was evaluated in 8 autopsy specimens. The data obtained were compared with findings from the needle measurement method which is usually employed in clinical practice. The ultrasound measurement method produced realistic data in all sectional planes chosen. PMID:2012725

  14. Modern surgical techniques for management of soft tissue sarcomas involving the spine: outcomes and complications.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A; Teles, Alisson R; Mendel, Ehud

    2015-04-01

    Several types of soft tissue sarcomas may locally extend to the spine. The best therapeutic strategy for such lesions strongly depends on the histological diagnosis. In this article the authors provide an up-to-date review of current guidelines regarding the management of soft tissue sarcomas involving the spine. Special attention is given to outcomes and complications of modern surgical series in order to highlight current challenges in the management of such lesions. PMID:25413665

  15. Bone and soft tissue sarcomas during pregnancy: A narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zarkavelis, George; Petrakis, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, George; Mitrou, Sotirios; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Bone or soft tissue sarcomas are rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Until today 137 well documented cases have been reported in the English literature between 1963 and 2014. Thirty-eight pregnant mothers were diagnosed with osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma or chondrosarcoma, whereas 95 other cases of soft tissue sarcomas of various types have been documented. We present the clinical picture and therapeutic management of this coexistence. PMID:27408761

  16. Ultrastructural characterization of soft tissues surrounding implanted hip prosthesis by complementary PIXE and TEM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallot, E.; Benhayoune, H.; Kilian, L.; Balossier, G.; Bonhomme, P.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    We study soft tissues surrounding hip prostheses from three different patients. We evaluate the elemental composition of different fragments. The tissues are examined by means of two complementary methods in such analysis: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled with X-ray microanalysis (Energy Dispersive X-ray, EDX). These methods allow to determine locally at `macro' and `micro' level the chemistry of soft tissues. The findings confirmed the presence of metal in soft tissue near the three different hips. The tissues' composition undergoes important modifications with a systematic elevation of trace metal in patients with failed implants. We observe a corrosion which causes the continual release of particles into the tissues. Corrosion alters the shape size and chemical composition of wear particles embedded in soft tissue around the failed hip. EDX analysis showed that the wear particles contained varying quantities of titanium and aluminium. This phenomenon may be related with the variation of time of contact with soft tissues for each particle and Ti solubility.

  17. A Computational Modeling Approach for Investigating Soft Tissue Balancing in Bicruciate Retaining Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Shahram; Wilson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Bicruciate retaining knee arthroplasty, although has shown improved functions and patient satisfaction compared to other designs of total knee replacement, remains a technically demanding option for treating severe cases of arthritic knees. One of the main challenges in bicruciate retaining arthroplasty is proper balancing of the soft tissue during the surgery. In this study biomechanics of soft tissue balancing was investigated using a validated computational model of the knee joint with high fidelity definitions of the soft tissue structures along with a Taguchi method for design of experiments. The model was used to simulate intraoperative balancing of soft tissue structures following the combinations suggested by an orthogonal array design. The results were used to quantify the corresponding effects on the laxity of the joint under anterior-posterior, internal-external, and varus-valgus loads. These effects were ranked for each ligament bundle to identify the components of laxity which were most sensitive to the corresponding surgical modifications. The resulting map of sensitivity for all the ligament bundles determined the components of laxity most suitable for examination during intraoperative balancing of the soft tissue. Ultimately, a sequence for intraoperative soft tissue balancing was suggested for a bicruciate retaining knee arthroplasty. PMID:23082090

  18. Use of synchrotron based diffraction enhanced imaging for visualization of soft tissues in invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, D.; Zhong, Z.; Swapna, M.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Akatsuka, T.; Yuasa, T.; Takeda, T.; Gigante, G.

    2010-04-04

    Images of terrestrial and marine invertebrates (snails and bivalves) have been obtained by using an X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, namely, synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging. Synchrotron X-rays of 20, 30 and 40 keV were used, which penetrate deep enough into animal soft tissues. The phase of X-ray photons shifts slightly as they traverse an object, such as animal soft tissue, and interact with its atoms. Biological features, such as shell morphology and animal physiology, have been visualized. The contrast of the images obtained at 40 keV is the best. This optimum energy provided a clear view of the internal structural organization of the soft tissue with better contrast. The contrast is higher at edges of internal soft-tissue structures. The image improvements achieved with the diffraction-enhanced imaging technique are due to extinction, i.e., elimination of ultra-small-angle scattering. They enabled us to identify a few embedded internal shell features, such as the origin of the apex, which is the firmly attached region of the soft tissue connecting the umbilicus to the external morphology. Diffraction-enhanced imaging can provide high-quality images of soft tissues valuable for biology.

  19. [Genetic Aberration and Pathological Diagnosis in Bone and Soft-Tissue Tumors].

    PubMed

    Iura, Kunio; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-03-01

    Bone and soft-tissue sarcomas comprise a rare, complex, and heterogeneous group of tumors for which it is difficult for even experienced pathologists to provide a conclusive diagnosis. The number of diagnoses made using genetic analysis has increased since the detection of fusion genes in several soft-tissue tumors in the 1990s. Moreover, other specific genetic aberrations have been reported in various bone and soft-tissue tumors. In addition, molecular therapeutic targets have been sought in advanced cases of soft-tissue and bone tumors similar to other organ malignancies. To enable the pathological diagnosis of bone and soft-tissue tumors, it is necessary to combine histological diagnosis with immunohistochemistry and gene analysis findings including fusion gene or other genetic aberrations. In this review, we describe the fusion genes recently reported in bone and soft-tissue tumors such as solitary fibrous tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst, nodular fasciitis, CIC-DUX4 fusion gene-positive small round cell tumors, or BCOR-CCNB3-positive sarcoma as well as other genetic aberrations in dedifferentiated liposarcoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor, cartilaginous tumor, Langerhans cell histiocytosis chondroblastoma, or giant cell tumor of the bone. We also demonstrate their association with pathological diagnosis. PMID:27067846

  20. A mummified duck-billed dinosaur with a soft-tissue cock's comb.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phil R; Fanti, Federico; Currie, Philip J; Arbour, Victoria M

    2014-01-01

    Among living vertebrates, soft tissues are responsible for labile appendages (combs, wattles, proboscides) that are critical for activities ranging from locomotion to sexual display [1]. However, soft tissues rarely fossilize, and such soft-tissue appendages are unknown for many extinct taxa, including dinosaurs. Here we report a remarkable "mummified" specimen of the hadrosaurid dinosaur Edmontosaurus regalis from the latest Cretaceous Wapiti Formation, Alberta, Canada, that preserves a three-dimensional cranial crest (or "comb") composed entirely of soft tissue. Previously, crest function has centered on the hypertrophied nasal passages of lambeosaurine hadrosaurids, which acted as resonance chambers during vocalization [2-4]. The fleshy comb in Edmontosaurus necessitates an alternative explanation most likely related to either social signaling or sexual selection [5-7]. This discovery provides the first view of bizarre, soft-tissue signaling structures in a dinosaur and provides additional evidence for social behavior. Crest evolution within Hadrosaurinae apparently culminated in the secondary loss of the bony crest at the terminal Cretaceous; however, the new specimen indicates that cranial ornamentation was in fact not lost but substituted in Edmontosaurus by a fleshy display structure. It also implies that visual display played a key role in the evolution of hadrosaurine crests and raises the possibility of similar soft-tissue structures among other dinosaurs. PMID:24332547

  1. Measurement of guided mode wavenumbers in soft tissue-bone mimicking phantoms using ultrasonic axial transmission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangang; Foiret, Josquin; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Su, Zhongqing; Cheng, Li; Laugier, Pascal

    2012-05-21

    Human soft tissue is an important factor that influences the assessment of human long bones using quantitative ultrasound techniques. To investigate such influence, a series of soft tissue-bone phantoms (a bone-mimicking plate coated with a layer of water, glycerol or silicon rubber) were ultrasonically investigated using a probe with multi-emitter and multi-receiver arrays in an axial transmission configuration. A singular value decomposition signal processing technique was applied to extract the frequency-dependent wavenumbers of several guided modes. The results indicate that the presence of a soft tissue-mimicking layer introduces additional guided modes predicted by a fluid waveguide model. The modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate covered by the soft-tissue phantom are only slightly modified compared to their counterparts in the free bone-mimicking plate, and they are still predicted by an elastic transverse isotropic two-dimensional waveguide. Altogether these observations suggest that the soft tissue-bone phantoms can be modeled as two independent waveguides. Even in the presence of the overlying soft tissue-mimicking layer, the modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate can still be extracted and identified. These results suggest that our approach can be applied for the purpose of the characterization of the material and structural properties of cortical bone. PMID:22538382

  2. Esthetic solution to malpositioned implants with remodeling of soft tissue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Valente, Mariana Lima da Costa; Marcantonio, Elcio; Faeda, Rafael Silveira; de Paula, Wagner Nunes; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a clinical case of gingival conditioning with provisional fixed prostheses to improve the esthetics of the soft tissues adjacent to fixed prostheses placed on malpositioned implants. Gradual application of pressure to the tissues is an easy, nontraumatic technique for inducing formation of papillae and reestablishing the appropriate shape and contour of the gingival tissues, thereby improving esthetics and phonetics. The proposed treatment proved to be effective in remodeling the surrounding soft tissues, providing suitable contours, and restoring esthetics and function lost due to surgical treatment with malpositioned implants. PMID:27599283

  3. Development of a Soft Tissue Elastography Robotic Arm (STiERA).

    PubMed

    Dargar, Saurabh; Akyildiz, Ali Cagdas; De, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    High fidelity surgical simulations must rely upon accurate soft tissue models to ensure realism of the simulations. Simulating multi-layer tissue becomes increasingly complex due to the specific mechanical properties of each individual layer. We have developed a Soft Tissue Elastography Robotic Arm (STiERA) system capable of identifying layer specific properties of multi-layer constructs while maintaining the integrity of each layer. The system was validated using tissue mimicking agar gel phantoms and showed great promise by identifying the layer specific properties with accuracy of greater than 80% when compared to known ground truth values from a commercial material testing system. PMID:27046557

  4. Use of the 810 nm diode laser: soft tissue management and orthodontic applications of innovative technology.

    PubMed

    Sarver, David M

    2006-10-01

    Innovative technologies such as the diode laser have provided considerable benefit to dental patients and professionals. Facilitating efficient cutting of tissue and subsequent coagulation, the soft tissue laser enhances tissue healing and can reduce postsurgical complications. Due to the conservative nature of treatment accomplished with the laser this technology is very useful in orthodontic procedures. The diode laser is utilized in both esthetic enhancement of the smile, and treatment management of soft tissue issues that impede efficient orthodontic treatment. Its clinical application will be illustrated in a series of orthodontic cases. PMID:17139948

  5. Tracheo-bronchial soft tissue and cartilage resonances in the subglottal acoustic input impedance.

    PubMed

    Lulich, Steven M; Arsikere, Harish

    2015-06-01

    This paper offers a re-evaluation of the mechanical properties of the tracheo-bronchial soft tissues and cartilage and uses a model to examine their effects on the subglottal acoustic input impedance. It is shown that the values for soft tissue elastance and cartilage viscosity typically used in models of subglottal acoustics during phonation are not accurate, and corrected values are proposed. The calculated subglottal acoustic input impedance using these corrected values reveals clusters of weak resonances due to soft tissues (SgT) and cartilage (SgC) lining the walls of the trachea and large bronchi, which can be observed empirically in subglottal acoustic spectra. The model predicts that individuals may exhibit SgT and SgC resonances to variable degrees, depending on a number of factors including tissue mechanical properties and the dimensions of the trachea and large bronchi. Potential implications for voice production and large pulmonary airway tissue diseases are also discussed. PMID:26093432

  6. Management of ocular, orbital, and adnexal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Spoor, T.C.; Nesi, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Ruptured Globe: Primary Care; Corneal Trauma, Endophthalmitis; Antibiotic Usage; Radiology of Orbital Trauma; Maxillofacial Fractures; Orbital Infections; and Basic Management of Soft Tissue Injury.

  7. Behavioral characteristics of manual palpation to localize hard nodules in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Jelizaveta; Li, Min; Mehra, Gautam; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2014-06-01

    Improving the effectiveness of artificial tactile sensors for soft-tissue examination and tumor localization is a pressing need in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Despite the availability of tactile probes, guidelines for optimal palpation behavior that best exploit soft-tissue properties are not available as yet. Simulations on soft-tissue palpation show that particular stress-velocity patterns during tissue probing lead to constructive dynamic interactions between the probe and the tissue, enhancing the detection and localization of hard nodules. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to methodically evaluate the hypothesis that specific human palpation behaviors (defined by the fingers' velocity, trajectory, and exerted force) directly influence the diagnosis of soft-tissue organs. Here, we use simulation studies involving human participants to establish open hypotheses on the interaction and influence of relevant behavioral palpation variables, such as finger trajectory, its velocity, and force exerted by fingers on the accuracy of detecting embedded nodules. We validate this hypothesis through finite element analysis and the investigation of palpation strategies used by humans during straight unidirectional examination to detect hard nodules inside silicone phantoms and ex-vivo porcine organs. Thus, we conclude that the palpation strategy plays an important role during soft-tissue examination. Our findings allow us, for the first time, to derive palpation behavior guidelines suitable for the design of controllers of palpation robots. PMID:24845274

  8. Facial soft tissue thickness in individuals with different occlusion patterns in adult Turkish subjects.

    PubMed

    Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Can; Ozener, Bariş; Zagyapan, Ragiba; Sahinoglu, Zahira; Yazici, Ayse Canan

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of variation in facial soft tissue thickness is important for forensic anthropologists, dentists, and plastic surgeons. Forensic anthropologists use such information as a guide in facial reconstruction and superimposition methods. The purpose of this study was to measure facial tissue thicknesses of adult males and females of Turkish origin across different types of occlusion, and to compare the results with each other and with values obtained for other populations. The study was conducted on 200 healthy individuals. The analysis of facial tissue thickness included 20 landmarks (10 dentoskeletal and 10 soft tissue) and 10 linear variables. Sex-based variation in facial tissue thickness was noted. The highest soft tissue thickness values were observed in the group with Class III occlusion type at Sn-A point for both the females (16.9, SD=2.4) and the males (17.8, SD=3.3). In the Class I group, the highest tissue depth was observed at Sn-A point (15.3, SD=2.1) in females, and at Li-Id point (17.1, SD=1.9) in males. In the Class II group, contrary to the findings for Class I, the highest soft tissue depth was at Li-Id point (16.0, SD=1.4) in females, and at Sn-A point (18.1, SD=2.6) in males. In conclusion, facial tissue thickness varied in adults depending on the sex and on the type of occlusion. PMID:21741647

  9. Influence of Microbial Biofilms on the Preservation of Primary Soft Tissue in Fossil and Extant Archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Scherer, Reed P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mineralized and permineralized bone is the most common form of fossilization in the vertebrate record. Preservation of gross soft tissues is extremely rare, but recent studies have suggested that primary soft tissues and biomolecules are more commonly preserved within preserved bones than had been presumed. Some of these claims have been challenged, with presentation of evidence suggesting that some of the structures are microbial artifacts, not primary soft tissues. The identification of biomolecules in fossil vertebrate extracts from a specimen of Brachylophosaurus canadensis has shown the interpretation of preserved organic remains as microbial biofilm to be highly unlikely. These discussions also propose a variety of potential mechanisms that would permit the preservation of soft-tissues in vertebrate fossils over geologic time. Methodology/Principal Findings This study experimentally examines the role of microbial biofilms in soft-tissue preservation in vertebrate fossils by quantitatively establishing the growth and morphology of biofilms on extant archosaur bone. These results are microscopically and morphologically compared with soft-tissue extracts from vertebrate fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of southeastern Montana (Latest Maastrichtian) in order to investigate the potential role of microbial biofilms on the preservation of fossil bone and bound organic matter in a variety of taphonomic settings. Based on these analyses, we highlight a mechanism whereby this bound organic matter may be preserved. Conclusions/Significance Results of the study indicate that the crystallization of microbial biofilms on decomposing organic matter within vertebrate bone in early taphonomic stages may contribute to the preservation of primary soft tissues deeper in the bone structure. PMID:20967227

  10. [Color Doppler controlled needle biopsy in diagnosis of soft tissue and bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Schulte, M; Heymer, B; Sarkar, M R; Negri, G; von Baer, A; Hartwig, E

    1998-10-01

    In a prospective study we investigated 168 patients with musculoskeletal tumors, including 71 sarcomas, by core needle biopsy using the high-speed device Autovac. Monitoring with colour-coded duplex sonography allowed a well-aimed puncture of smaller or deeply localized lesions and also permitted the discrimination of necrotic and viable parts of the tumor. Adequate material for histologic diagnosis including grading and determination of tumor subtype was obtained from soft tissue sarcomas, soft tissue metastases, malignant lymphomas, plasmacytomas, and osteolytic skeletal secondaries. In contrast, in benign soft tissue and bone tumors the diagnosis could be established in only 66% of cases. Although skeletal sarcomas were identified as malignant mesenchymal lesions, a complete histologic classification of tumor subtype frequently was not possible due to an insufficient tissue specimen. With an accuracy of 97% for the diagnosis of malignancy and of 94% for the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma the results of core needle biopsies were comparable to those of incisional biopsies, the reference standard in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors. Regarding the known disadvantages and the oncological risks of incisional biopsies, needle biopsy should replace the open procedure as the primary means of diagnosis in soft tissue and osteolytic bone tumors. PMID:9833186

  11. Simulation and experiment of soft-tissue deformation in prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xingji

    2016-06-01

    Soft-tissue deformation is one of the major reasons for the inaccurate positioning of percutaneous needle insertion process. In this article, simulations and experiments of the needle insertion soft-tissue process are both applied to study soft-tissue deformation. A needle deflection model based on the mechanics is used to calculate the needle deflection during the interaction process. The obtained needle deflection data are applied into finite element analysis process as the system input. The uniaxial tensile strength tests, compression tests, and static indentation experiments are used to obtain the soft-tissue parameters and choose the best strain-energy function to model in the simulation. Magnetic resonance imaging is used to reconstruct the prostate, establishing both prostate three-dimensional finite element model and artificial prostate model. The needle-soft tissue interaction simulation results are compared with those of the needle insertion experiment. The displacement data of the mark point in the experiment are comparable to the simulation results. It is concluded that, using this simulation method, the surgeon can predict the deformation of the tissue and the displacement of the target in advance. PMID:27129384

  12. 18F-FDG PET-CT in soft tissue sarcomas: staging, restaging, and prognostic value?

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Michael; Rubello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the current role of PET/computed tomography (CT) in soft tissue sarcomas with respect to staging, restaging, and prognostic value. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, for instance, can be very useful in differentiating recurrent disease from scar tissue during follow-up. Other indications of PET-CT are still evolving, especially in the light of new molecular drugs. Different aspects of PET/CT imaging in soft tissue sarcomas are overviewed including organ-specific merits, limitations, and potential pitfalls. Finally, methodological considerations on PET/MRI are also briefly discussed. PMID:26457597

  13. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of oral soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, Natalia; Karabut, Maria; Kiseleva, Elena; Robakidze, Natalia; Muraev, Alexander; Fomina, Julia

    2011-03-01

    We consider the capabilities of cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) focused on comparison of images resulting from cross-polarization and co-polarization scattering simultaneously for diagnosis of oral soft tissues. CP OCT was done for 35 patients with dental implants and 30 patients with inflammatory intestine diseases. Our study showed good diagnostic capabilities of CP OCT for detecting soft tissue pathology in the oral cavity. The cross-polarized images demonstrate the ability of tissue to depolarize. CP OCT demonstrates clinical capabilities for early diagnosis of inflammatory intestine diseases by the state of oral cavity mucosa and for early detection of gingivitis in patients above implant.

  14. In vivo soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre

    Remote laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback to operate layer by layer and preserve vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. The aim of this study is identification of soft tissue in vivo by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Various soft tissues can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent nerve damage during oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  15. Direct method of registering periimplant soft tissue forms for implant-supported fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Karl E

    2016-03-01

    This article describes a direct technique for communicating implant abutment and pontic intaglio surface forms with the dental laboratory. The technique uses a matrix and a screw-retained custom interim restoration. The matrix is used to transfer the interim restoration and periimplant tissue forms from the patient's mouth to an implant position-verified cast. After being connected to this cast, a silicone soft tissue replicating material is injected into the matrix. The result is a definitive cast with accurate implant position and soft tissue forms. PMID:26548881

  16. Accurate registration of peri-implant soft tissues to create an optimal emergence profile

    PubMed Central

    Alshiddi, Ibraheem Fahad; Dent, D. Clin

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges in restoring anterior space with implant restoration is maintaining the natural looking of peri-implant area. This case report presents a clinical procedure to create the soft tissue emergence profile for anterior maxillary teeth. A 49-year-old male presented with missing right maxillary lateral incisor. A provisional restoration was inserted 1 week after implant placement. Area of the provisional restoration related to the gingival tissue (transmucosal area) was adjusted to create an optimum emergence profile. Two months later, an indirect method was used to accurately transfer the soft peri-implant tissues to the master cast. This clinical technique minimizes surgical procedure and avoids the possibility of soft tissue collapsing that may occur during the impression procedure. PMID:25821365

  17. Endometriosis of Extra-Abdominal Soft Tissues: A Tertiary Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jayson; Strauss, Dirk C; Messiou, Christina; Thway, Khin

    2016-09-01

    While endometriosis, defined as the presence of endometrial tissue in extrauterine sites, is most frequently encountered within the peritoneal cavity, a small but significant proportion of cases occur at extra-abdominal soft tissue sites, particularly in relation to previous abdominal surgery. We reviewed the cases of endometriosis of soft tissue sites seen at a tertiary soft tissue center. All cases of extra-abdominal soft tissue endometriosis diagnosed at this institution over a 13-year period were reviewed, and clinical and pathologic findings were recorded. Forty-five patients had diagnoses of soft tissue endometriosis and there were 34 diagnostic biopsies and 26 surgical excision specimens. All but 1 case were abdominal wall lesions, with 1 located in the upper arm. A total of 33 patients presented with lesions in scars of previous operations (31 in Pfannenstiel incisions for Caesarean sections, presenting with a median interval of 6 years (range 1-16 years) following surgery). The lesions ranged in size from 1 to 8 cm (median 3.5 cm). One case showed decidualized stroma with trophoblast cells, while 2 had secondary adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis. Eighteen cases were tested for β-catenin expression immunohistochemically, of which 5 showed at least focal nuclear positivity in the surrounding fibrous tissue (although not within glands or stroma). Soft tissue endometriosis is seen most commonly in surgical scars, particularly following Caesarean sections. Spontaneous endometriosis also most commonly occurs in the abdominal wall, although can occur exceptionally at unusual sites, such as extremities. Secondary changes, including carcinomas, can arise from endometriosis. The differential diagnosis of these lesions includes fibromatosis, which may be erroneously diagnosed on small, nonrepresentative core biopsy specimens. PMID:27098587

  18. Long-term room temperature preservation of corpse soft tissue: an approach for tissue sample storage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disaster victim identification (DVI) represents one of the most difficult challenges in forensic sciences, and subsequent DNA typing is essential. Collected samples for DNA-based human identification are usually stored at low temperature to halt the degradation processes of human remains. We have developed a simple and reliable procedure for soft tissue storage and preservation for DNA extraction. It ensures high quality DNA suitable for PCR-based DNA typing after at least 1 year of room temperature storage. Methods Fragments of human psoas muscle were exposed to three different environmental conditions for diverse time periods at room temperature. Storage conditions included: (a) a preserving medium consisting of solid sodium chloride (salt), (b) no additional substances and (c) garden soil. DNA was extracted with proteinase K/SDS followed by organic solvent treatment and concentration by centrifugal filter devices. Quantification was carried out by real-time PCR using commercial kits. Short tandem repeat (STR) typing profiles were analysed with 'expert software'. Results DNA quantities recovered from samples stored in salt were similar up to the complete storage time and underscored the effectiveness of the preservation method. It was possible to reliably and accurately type different genetic systems including autosomal STRs and mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups. Autosomal STR typing quality was evaluated by expert software, denoting high quality profiles from DNA samples obtained from corpse tissue stored in salt for up to 365 days. Conclusions The procedure proposed herein is a cost efficient alternative for storage of human remains in challenging environmental areas, such as mass disaster locations, mass graves and exhumations. This technique should be considered as an additional method for sample storage when preservation of DNA integrity is required for PCR-based DNA typing. PMID:21846338

  19. Soft tissue attachment on sol-gel-treated titanium implants in vivo.

    PubMed

    Paldan, H; Areva, S; Tirri, T; Peltola, T; Lindholm, T C; Lassila, L; Pelliniemi, L J; Happonen, R-P; Närhi, T O

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the attachment and reactions of soft tissues to sol-gel-derived TiO2 coatings. In the first experiment, TiO2 coated and uncoated titanium cylinders were placed subcutaneously into the backs of rats for 3, 11 and 90 days. Tissue response and implant surfaces were characterized with routine light microscopy and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. In the second experiment, TiO2-coated and uncoated discs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of rats for 14 and 21 days. The discs were pulled out from the implantation sites with a mechanical testing device using a constant speed of 5 mm/min. Rupture force was registered, after which the discs were assigned for SEM and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. All the coated implants showed immediate contact with the surrounding soft tissues without a clear connective tissue capsule. Significantly better soft tissue response was measured for all the coated compared to the uncoated cylinders (p<0.01). Higher rupture forces were measured for all coated discs, although the differences were not statistically significant. An immediate and tight connection between connective tissue fibroblasts and coatings was noticed in TEM analysis. Our study indicates that TiO2 coatings improve soft tissue attachment on a titanium surface. PMID:17710511

  20. Computer-Aided Designed, 3-Dimensionally Printed Porous Tissue Bioscaffolds For Craniofacial Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zopf, David A.; Mitsak, Anna G.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Wheeler, Matthew; Green, Glenn E.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the potential of integrated image-based Computer Aided Design (CAD) and 3D printing approach to engineer scaffolds for head and neck cartilaginous reconstruction for auricular and nasal reconstruction. Study Design Proof of concept revealing novel methods for bioscaffold production with in vitro and in vivo animal data. Setting Multidisciplinary effort encompassing two academic institutions. Subjects and Methods DICOM CT images are segmented and utilized in image-based computer aided design to create porous, anatomic structures. Bioresorbable, polycaprolactone scaffolds with spherical and random porous architecture are produced using a laser-based 3D printing process. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds was performed in a porcine model. Auricular scaffolds were seeded with chondrogenic growth factors in a hyaluronic acid/collagen hydrogel and cultured in vitro over 2 months duration. Results Auricular and nasal constructs with several microporous architectures were rapidly manufactured with high fidelity to human patient anatomy. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds resulted in excellent appearance and complete soft tissue ingrowth. Histologic analysis of in vitro scaffolds demonstrated native appearing cartilaginous growth respecting the boundaries of the scaffold. Conclusions Integrated image-based computer-aided design (CAD) and 3D printing processes generated patient-specific nasal and auricular scaffolds that supported cartilage regeneration. PMID:25281749

  1. Palaeoneurological clues to the evolution of defining mammalian soft tissue traits.

    PubMed

    Benoit, J; Manger, P R; Rubidge, B S

    2016-01-01

    A rich fossil record chronicles the distant origins of mammals, but the evolution of defining soft tissue characters of extant mammals, such as mammary glands and hairs is difficult to interpret because soft tissue does not readily fossilize. As many soft tissue features are derived from dermic structures, their evolution is linked to that of the nervous syutem, and palaeoneurology offers opportunities to find bony correlates of these soft tissue features. Here, a CT scan study of 29 fossil skulls shows that non-mammaliaform Prozostrodontia display a retracted, fully ossified, and non-ramified infraorbital canal for the infraorbital nerve, unlike more basal therapsids. The presence of a true infraorbital canal in Prozostrodontia suggests that a motile rhinarium and maxillary vibrissae were present. Also the complete ossification of the parietal fontanelle (resulting in the loss of the parietal foramen) and the development of the cerebellum in Probainognathia may be pleiotropically linked to the appearance of mammary glands and having body hair coverage since these traits are all controlled by the same homeogene, Msx2, in mice. These suggest that defining soft tissue characters of mammals were already present in their forerunners some 240 to 246 mya. PMID:27157809

  2. X-Ray Scatter Correction on Soft Tissue Images for Portable Cone Beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Aootaphao, Sorapong; Thongvigitmanee, Saowapak S.; Rajruangrabin, Jartuwat; Thanasupsombat, Chalinee; Srivongsa, Tanapon; Thajchayapong, Pairash

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue images from portable cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners can be used for diagnosis and detection of tumor, cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, and so forth. Due to large field of view, X-ray scattering which is the main cause of artifacts degrades image quality, such as cupping artifacts, CT number inaccuracy, and low contrast, especially on soft tissue images. In this work, we propose the X-ray scatter correction method for improving soft tissue images. The X-ray scatter correction scheme to estimate X-ray scatter signals is based on the deconvolution technique using the maximum likelihood estimation maximization (MLEM) method. The scatter kernels are obtained by simulating the PMMA sheet on the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) software. In the experiment, we used the QRM phantom to quantitatively compare with fan-beam CT (FBCT) data in terms of CT number values, contrast to noise ratio, cupping artifacts, and low contrast detectability. Moreover, the PH3 angiography phantom was also used to mimic human soft tissues in the brain. The reconstructed images with our proposed scatter correction show significant improvement on image quality. Thus the proposed scatter correction technique has high potential to detect soft tissues in the brain. PMID:27022608

  3. Deformation of Soft Tissue and Force Feedback Using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Ruiyi; Li, Yunhua; Song, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    We study the deformation and haptic feedback of soft tissue in virtual surgery based on a liver model by using a force feedback device named PHANTOM OMNI developed by SensAble Company in USA. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviors of soft tissue and implementing force feedback, it is still a challenging problem. This paper introduces a kind of meshfree method for deformation simulation of soft tissue and force computation based on viscoelastic mechanical model and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Firstly, viscoelastic model can present the mechanical characteristics of soft tissue which greatly promotes the realism. Secondly, SPH has features of meshless technique and self-adaption, which supply higher precision than methods based on meshes for force feedback computation. Finally, a SPH method based on dynamic interaction area is proposed to improve the real time performance of simulation. The results reveal that SPH methodology is suitable for simulating soft tissue deformation and force feedback calculation, and SPH based on dynamic local interaction area has a higher computational efficiency significantly compared with usual SPH. Our algorithm has a bright prospect in the area of virtual surgery. PMID:26417380

  4. X-Ray Scatter Correction on Soft Tissue Images for Portable Cone Beam CT.

    PubMed

    Aootaphao, Sorapong; Thongvigitmanee, Saowapak S; Rajruangrabin, Jartuwat; Thanasupsombat, Chalinee; Srivongsa, Tanapon; Thajchayapong, Pairash

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue images from portable cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners can be used for diagnosis and detection of tumor, cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, and so forth. Due to large field of view, X-ray scattering which is the main cause of artifacts degrades image quality, such as cupping artifacts, CT number inaccuracy, and low contrast, especially on soft tissue images. In this work, we propose the X-ray scatter correction method for improving soft tissue images. The X-ray scatter correction scheme to estimate X-ray scatter signals is based on the deconvolution technique using the maximum likelihood estimation maximization (MLEM) method. The scatter kernels are obtained by simulating the PMMA sheet on the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) software. In the experiment, we used the QRM phantom to quantitatively compare with fan-beam CT (FBCT) data in terms of CT number values, contrast to noise ratio, cupping artifacts, and low contrast detectability. Moreover, the PH3 angiography phantom was also used to mimic human soft tissues in the brain. The reconstructed images with our proposed scatter correction show significant improvement on image quality. Thus the proposed scatter correction technique has high potential to detect soft tissues in the brain. PMID:27022608

  5. Deformation of Soft Tissue and Force Feedback Using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Ruiyi; Li, Yunhua; Song, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    We study the deformation and haptic feedback of soft tissue in virtual surgery based on a liver model by using a force feedback device named PHANTOM OMNI developed by SensAble Company in USA. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviors of soft tissue and implementing force feedback, it is still a challenging problem. This paper introduces a kind of meshfree method for deformation simulation of soft tissue and force computation based on viscoelastic mechanical model and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Firstly, viscoelastic model can present the mechanical characteristics of soft tissue which greatly promotes the realism. Secondly, SPH has features of meshless technique and self-adaption, which supply higher precision than methods based on meshes for force feedback computation. Finally, a SPH method based on dynamic interaction area is proposed to improve the real time performance of simulation. The results reveal that SPH methodology is suitable for simulating soft tissue deformation and force feedback calculation, and SPH based on dynamic local interaction area has a higher computational efficiency significantly compared with usual SPH. Our algorithm has a bright prospect in the area of virtual surgery. PMID:26417380

  6. Palaeoneurological clues to the evolution of defining mammalian soft tissue traits

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, J.; Manger, P. R.; Rubidge, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    A rich fossil record chronicles the distant origins of mammals, but the evolution of defining soft tissue characters of extant mammals, such as mammary glands and hairs is difficult to interpret because soft tissue does not readily fossilize. As many soft tissue features are derived from dermic structures, their evolution is linked to that of the nervous syutem, and palaeoneurology offers opportunities to find bony correlates of these soft tissue features. Here, a CT scan study of 29 fossil skulls shows that non-mammaliaform Prozostrodontia display a retracted, fully ossified, and non-ramified infraorbital canal for the infraorbital nerve, unlike more basal therapsids. The presence of a true infraorbital canal in Prozostrodontia suggests that a motile rhinarium and maxillary vibrissae were present. Also the complete ossification of the parietal fontanelle (resulting in the loss of the parietal foramen) and the development of the cerebellum in Probainognathia may be pleiotropically linked to the appearance of mammary glands and having body hair coverage since these traits are all controlled by the same homeogene, Msx2, in mice. These suggest that defining soft tissue characters of mammals were already present in their forerunners some 240 to 246 mya. PMID:27157809

  7. Micro Soft Tissues Visualization Based on X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Luo, Shuqian

    2011-01-01

    The current imaging methods have a limited ability to visualize microstructures of biological soft tissues. Small lesions cannot be detected at the early stage of the disease. Phase contrast imaging (PCI) is a novel non-invasive imaging technique that can provide high contrast images of soft tissues by the use of X-ray phase shift. It is a new choice in terms of non-invasively revealing soft tissue details. In this study, the lung and hepatic fibrosis models of mice and rats were used to investigate the ability of PCI in microstructures observation of soft tissues. Our results demonstrated that different liver fibrosis stages could be distinguished non-invasively by PCI. The three-dimensional morphology of a segment of blood vessel was constructed. Noteworthy, the blood clot inside the vessel was visualized in three dimensions which provided a precise description of vessel stenosis. Furthermore, the whole lung airways including the alveoli were obtained. We had specifically highlighted its use in the visualization and assessment of the alveoli. To our knowledge, this was the first time for non-invasive alveoli imaging using PCI. This finding may offer a new perspective on the diagnosis of respiratory disease. All the results confirmed that PCI will be a valuable tool in biological soft tissues imaging. PMID:21892370

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Telithromycin in Plasma and Soft Tissues after Single-Dose Administration to Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gattringer, Rainer; Urbauer, Eleonora; Traunmüller, Friederike; Zeitlinger, Markus; Dehghanyar, Pejman; Zeleny, Petra; Graninger, Wolfgang; Müller, Markus; Joukhadar, Christian

    2004-01-01

    By use of microdialysis we assessed the concentrations of telithromycin in muscle and adipose tissue to test its ability to penetrate soft tissues. The ratios of the area under the concentration-versus-time curve from 0 to 24 h to the MIC indicated that free concentrations of telithromycin in tissue and plasma might be effective against Streptococcus pyogenes but not against staphylococci and human and animal bite pathogens. PMID:15561839

  9. Strain elastography features of epidermoid tumours in superficial soft tissue: differences from other benign soft-tissue tumours and malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, S M; Kim, W T; Lee, S; Ahn, K S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated ultrasonographic features of superficial epidermoid tumour with a focus on strain elastography (SE) features that will help in the differential diagnosis of epidermoid tumour from other benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ultrasonographic and SE data of 103 surgically confirmed superficial soft-tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions: 29 cases of epidermoid tumour, 46 cases of other benign tumours and 28 cases of malignant tumour. SE and B-mode imaging were performed at the same time. SE characteristics were assigned into four grades (1–4) according to their elasticity. Interobserver agreement for the four SE scores between the two radiologists was analysed using kappa statistics. We classified each SE finding as a hard lesion (SE Score 3–4) or soft lesion (SE Score 1–2) and compared these findings using the χ2 test to identify whether a significant difference in mass hardness existed among epidermoid tumour, other benign tumour and malignant tumour. Results: Overall interobserver agreement according to the four SE scores was moderate (κ = 0.540), and overall agreement for the hardness [soft (Score 1–2) or hard (Score 3–4)] was almost perfect (κ = 0.825). Malignant tumours showed higher SE scores (3–4, hard nature) than did epidermoid tumour or other benign soft-tissue tumours. There were no differences in SE score between epidermoid tumour and other benign tumours. Conclusion: Superficial epidermoid tumour exhibits a softer nature than does malignant tumour but does not have a different SE pattern from other benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: SE features of epidermoid tumour might be helpful in differentiating from other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:25827206

  10. The biological seal of the implant–soft tissue interface evaluated in a tissue-engineered oral mucosal model

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wen L.; Brook, Ian M.; Palmquist, Anders; van Noort, Richard; Moharamzadeh, Keyvan

    2012-01-01

    For dental implants, it is vital that an initial soft tissue seal is achieved as this helps to stabilize and preserve the peri-implant tissues during the restorative stages following placement. The study of the implant–soft tissue interface is usually undertaken in animal models. We have developed an in vitro three-dimensional tissue-engineered oral mucosal model (3D OMM), which lends itself to the study of the implant–soft tissue interface as it has been shown that cells from the three-dimensional OMM attach onto titanium (Ti) surfaces forming a biological seal (BS). This study compares the quality of the BS achieved using the three-dimensional OMM for four types of Ti surfaces: polished, machined, sandblasted and anodized (TiUnite). The BS was evaluated quantitatively by permeability and cell attachment tests. Tritiated water (HTO) was used as the tracing agent for the permeability test. At the end of the permeability test, the Ti discs were removed from the three-dimensional OMM and an Alamar Blue assay was used for the measurement of residual cells attached to the Ti discs. The penetration of the HTO through the BS for the four types of Ti surfaces was not significantly different, and there was no significant difference in the viability of residual cells that attached to the Ti surfaces. The BS of the tissue-engineered oral mucosa around the four types of Ti surface topographies was not significantly different. PMID:22915635

  11. On-Orbit Performance and Calibration of the Soft X-Ray Telescope on Yohkoh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Loren W.

    2016-02-01

    This paper documents details of the on-orbit performance, data problem solving, and calibration of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) experiment on Yohkoh. This information is important to a full understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the SXT data set. The paper begins with summaries of SXT calibration issues and how they have been addressed, operational anomalies experienced during the mission, and a brief discussion of the SXT optical train. The following section on the accuracy of Yohkoh pointing determination provides information important for alignment of SXT images with each other and with other solar data. The remainder of the paper gives details of work by the experiment team to understand and ameliorate the many instrument anomalies and changes which impacted the scientific data.

  12. Soft tissue hemangioma with osseous extension: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Alexander; Olivieri, Brandon; Feinberg, Daniel; Betancourt, Michel; Bockelman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Soft tissue hemangiomas are commonly encountered lesions, accounting for 7-10 % of all benign soft tissue masses (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010). While the literature describes the great majority of hemangiomas as asymptomatic and discovered only as incidental findings, they do have the potential to induce reactive changes in neighboring structures (Pastushyn et al. Surg Neurol 50(6):535-47, 1998). When these variants occur in close proximity to bone, they may elicit a number of well-documented reactive changes in osseous tissue (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; DeFilippo et al. Skelet Radiol 25(2):174-7, 1996; Ly et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180(6):1695-700, 2003; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998). However, instances of direct extension into bone by soft tissue hemangiomas--that is, infiltration of the mass's vascular components into nearby osseous tissue--are currently undocumented in the literature. In these cases, imaging plays an important role in differentiating hemangiomas from malignant lesions (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998; Pourbagher, Br J Radiol 84(1008):1100-8, 2011). In this article, we present such a case that involved the sacral spine. Imaging revealed a soft tissue mass with direct extension of vascular components into osseous tissue of the adjacent sacral vertebrae. Biopsy and subsequent histopathologic examination led to definitive diagnosis of soft tissue hemangioma. While MRI is widely regarded as the gold standard imaging modality for evaluating hemangiomas, in this report we describe how CT can aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis when one encounters a vascular lesion with adjacent osseous changes. Furthermore, we review the literature as it pertains to the imaging of soft tissue hemangiomas that occur in proximity to osseous tissue, as well as correlate this case to current theories on the pathogenesis of hemangiomas

  13. Deregulation of the Hippo pathway in soft-tissue sarcoma promotes FOXM1 expression and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Eisinger-Mathason, T. S. Karin; Mucaj, Vera; Biju, Kevin M.; Nakazawa, Michael S.; Gohil, Mercy; Cash, Timothy P.; Yoon, Sam S.; Skuli, Nicolas; Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon; Simon, M. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Genetic aberrations responsible for soft-tissue sarcoma formation in adults are largely unknown, with targeted therapies sorely needed for this complex and heterogeneous family of diseases. Here we report that that the Hippo pathway is deregulated in many soft-tissue sarcomas, resulting in elevated expression of the effector molecule Yes-Associated Protein (YAP). Based on data gathered from human sarcoma patients, a novel autochthonous mouse model, and mechanistic analyses, we determined that YAP-dependent expression of the transcription factor forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is necessary for cell proliferation/tumorigenesis in a subset of soft-tissue sarcomas. Notably, FOXM1 directly interacts with the YAP transcriptional complex via TEAD1, resulting in coregulation of numerous critical pro-proliferation targets that enhance sarcoma progression. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of FOXM1 decreases tumor size in vivo, making FOXM1 an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of some sarcoma subtypes. PMID:26080399

  14. Conformal piezoelectric systems for clinical and experimental characterization of soft tissue biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Shi, Yan; Joe, Pauline; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Balooch, Guive; Usgaonkar, Karan; Gur, Onur; Tran, Phat L; Crosby, Jessi R; Meyer, Marcin; Su, Yewang; Chad Webb, R; Tedesco, Andrew S; Slepian, Marvin J; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical assessment of soft biological tissues and organs has broad relevance in clinical diagnosis and treatment of disease. Existing characterization methods are invasive, lack microscale spatial resolution, and are tailored only for specific regions of the body under quasi-static conditions. Here, we develop conformal and piezoelectric devices that enable in vivo measurements of soft tissue viscoelasticity in the near-surface regions of the epidermis. These systems achieve conformal contact with the underlying complex topography and texture of the targeted skin, as well as other organ surfaces, under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Experimental and theoretical characterization of the responses of piezoelectric actuator-sensor pairs laminated on a variety of soft biological tissues and organ systems in animal models provide information on the operation of the devices. Studies on human subjects establish the clinical significance of these devices for rapid and non-invasive characterization of skin mechanical properties. PMID:25985458

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Human soft tissue analysis using x-ray or gamma-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakou, C.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    This topical review is intended to describe the x-ray techniques used for human soft tissue analysis. X-ray techniques have been applied to human soft tissue characterization and interesting results have been presented over the last few decades. The motivation behind such studies is to provide improved patient outcome by using the data obtained to better understand a disease process and improve diagnosis. An overview of theoretical background as well as a complete set of references is presented. For each study, a brief summary of the methodology and results is given. The x-ray techniques include x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Compton scattering, Compton to coherent scattering ratio and attenuation measurements. The soft tissues that have been classified using x-rays or gamma rays include brain, breast, colon, fat, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, prostate, skin, thyroid and uterus.

  16. [Fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors demonstrated by MR imaging].

    PubMed

    Sone, M; Ehara, S; Sasaki, M; Nakasato, T; Tamakawa, Y; Shiraishi, H; Abe, M

    1992-08-25

    Fluid-fluid levels in bone tumors have been described in aneurysmal bone cysts and other cystic tumors of bones and soft tissue tumors. We experienced three bone tumors (simple bone cyst, bone metastasis, and osteosarcoma) and three soft tissue tumors (fibrosarcoma, two cases of cavernous hemangioma) that showed fluid-fluid levels on MR, and investigated their cause. Causes included blood in the cystic spaces, hemorrhage in the tumor, the telangiectatic component of the osteosarcoma, and the cavernous component of the hemangioma. No specific diagnosis could be made based on the finding of fluid-fluid levels. We conclude that fluid-fluid levels on MR are rather nonspecific findings in bone and soft tissue tumors and that the diagnosis should be made on the basis of other radiological and clinical findings. PMID:1408681

  17. Conformal piezoelectric systems for clinical and experimental characterization of soft tissue biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Shi, Yan; Joe, Pauline; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Balooch, Guive; Usgaonkar, Karan; Gur, Onur; Tran, Phat L.; Crosby, Jessi R.; Meyer, Marcin; Su, Yewang; Chad Webb, R.; Tedesco, Andrew S.; Slepian, Marvin J.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical assessment of soft biological tissues and organs has broad relevance in clinical diagnosis and treatment of disease. Existing characterization methods are invasive, lack microscale spatial resolution, and are tailored only for specific regions of the body under quasi-static conditions. Here, we develop conformal and piezoelectric devices that enable in vivo measurements of soft tissue viscoelasticity in the near-surface regions of the epidermis. These systems achieve conformal contact with the underlying complex topography and texture of the targeted skin, as well as other organ surfaces, under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Experimental and theoretical characterization of the responses of piezoelectric actuator-sensor pairs laminated on a variety of soft biological tissues and organ systems in animal models provide information on the operation of the devices. Studies on human subjects establish the clinical significance of these devices for rapid and non-invasive characterization of skin mechanical properties.

  18. Subcutaneous Rhinosporidiosis Masquerading as Soft Tissue Tumor: Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Kishan Prasad, HL; Rao, Chandrika; Girisha, BS; Shetty, Vikram; Permi, Harish S; Jayakumar, Meera; Kiran, HS

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous lesion caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It frequently involves nasopharynx and ocular region. Presenting as cutaneous and subcutaneous mass is extremely rare. This report describes the FNA cytology of rhinosporidiosis occurring as a soft tissue mass in the right mid thigh region. We present a rare case of a 71-year-old male, who presented with multiple subcutaneous soft tissue mass lesions in the posteromedial aspect of mid right thigh region since 2 weeks. Local examination revealed multiple firm to hard mass with skin over the swelling was unremarkable. CT of the right thigh showed a heterogeneous lesion with infiltrative margins in the thigh. Clinically soft tissue sarcoma was considered. Diagnostic FNAC was performed showing numerous mature and immature sporangias with giant cell reaction. Hence, an excision biopsy confirmed the rhinosporidiosis. To conclude, the FNAC diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis is specific. Preoperative diagnosis is possible even in cases with unusual clinical presentations. PMID:25814750

  19. Some retinoblastomas, osteosarcomas, and soft tissue sarcomas may share a common etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Beckett, M.; Diamond, A. )

    1988-04-01

    DNA and RNA were extracted from primary human osteosarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas obtained from patients without retinoblastoma and were analyzed by hybridization with a cDNA probe for RB mRNA; absence or alterations of the RB gene are associated with development of retinoblastoma. Most of the osteosarcomas or soft tissue sarcomas examined by the authors did not express detectable levels of RB mRNA, whereas normal cells and epithelial tumor cells did. One osteosarcoma expressed a 2.4-kilobase transcript in addition to a normal 4.7-kilobase species. The data suggest that transcriptional inactivation or post-transcriptional down-regulation of the RB gene may be important in the etiology of some osteosarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas as well as retinoblastomas.

  20. Estimating zero-strain states of very soft tissue under gravity loading using digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Desai, Jaydev P

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents several experimental techniques and concepts in the process of measuring mechanical properties of very soft tissue in an ex vivo tensile test. Gravitational body force on very soft tissue causes pre-compression and results in a non-uniform initial deformation. The global digital image correlation technique is used to measure the full-field deformation behavior of liver tissue in uniaxial tension testing. A maximum stretching band is observed in the incremental strain field when a region of tissue passes from compression and enters a state of tension. A new method for estimating the zero-strain state is proposed: the zero strain position is close to, but ahead of the position of the maximum stretching band, or in other words, the tangent of a nominal stress-stretch curve reaches minimum at lambda greater or similar 1. The approach, to identify zero strain by using maximum incremental strain, can be implemented in other types of image-based soft tissue analysis. The experimental results of 10 samples from seven porcine livers are presented and material parameters for the Ogden model fit are obtained. The finite element simulation based on the fitted model confirms the effect of gravity on the deformation of very soft tissue and validates our approach. PMID:20015676

  1. Logarithmic rate based elasto-viscoplastic cyclic constitutive model for soft biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yilin; Kang, Guozheng; Yu, Chao; Poh, Leong Hien

    2016-08-01

    Based on the logarithmic rate and piecewise linearization theory, a thermodynamically consistent elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is developed in the framework of finite deformations to describe the nonlinear time-dependent biomechanical performances of soft biological tissues, such as nonlinear anisotropic monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting. In the proposed model, the soft biological tissue is assumed as a typical composites consisting of an isotropic matrix and anisotropic fiber aggregation. Accordingly, the free energy function and stress tensor are divided into two parts related to the matrix and fiber aggregation, respectively. The nonlinear biomechanical responses of the tissues are described by the piecewise linearization theory with hypo-elastic relations of fiber aggregation. The evolution equations of viscoplasticity are formulated from the dissipation inequalities by the co-directionality hypotheses. The anisotropy is considered in the hypo-elastic relations and viscoplastic flow rules by introducing some material parameters dependent on the loading direction. Then the capability of the proposed model to describe the nonlinear time-dependent deformation of soft biological tissues is verified by comparing the predictions with the corresponding experimental results of three tissues. It is seen that the predicted monotonic stress-strain responses, stress relaxation, creep and ratchetting of soft biological tissues are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones. PMID:27108349

  2. Platform switching and abutment emergence profile modification on peri-implant soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Dornbush, Jeffrey R; Reiser, Gary M; Ho, Daniel K

    2014-01-01

    Although the peri-implant hard tissue advantages of platform switching abutments have been well documented by many authors, the peri-implant soft tissue advantages of platform switching abutments has had limited mention. This article illustrates how the amount of peri-implant soft tissue volume is influenced by the dimensional extent of platform switching and the degree that an abutment's sulcular emergence profile has been modified. This article also introduces the term "abutment sulcular emergence profile enhancement" (ASEPE) to describe the combined effect of platform switching and abutment emergence profile modification. Three unrecognized clinical advantages of ASEPE are described by different clinical cases. First, elimination of excessive abutment impingement on gingival tissue adjacent to implants is achieved. Second, allowance for sufficient interproximal space between implant and adjacent tooth/implant for the entry of interproximal toothbrush is made possible. Third, excessive soft tissue blanching during abutment seating at prosthesis delivery is eliminated. Together, the combined application of platform switching and abutment emergence profile modification represents the opening of a new realm for managing soft tissue around implants to resolve dimensional problems. PMID:25269220

  3. Congruence of Imaging Estimators and Mechanical Measurements of Viscoelastic Properties of Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Man; Castaneda, Benjamin; Wu, Zhe; Nigwekar, Priya; Joseph, Jean V.; Rubens, Deborah J.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of soft tissues are important for a wide range of medical applications, such as surgical simulation and planning and detection of lesions by elasticity imaging modalities. Currently, the data in the literature is limited and conflicting. Furthermore, to assess the biomechanical properties of living tissue in vivo, reliable imaging-based estimators must be developed and verified. For these reasons we developed and compared two independent quantitative methods – crawling wave estimator (CRE) and mechanical measurement (MM) for soft tissue characterization. The CRE method images shear wave interference patterns from which the shear wave velocity can be determined and hence the Young’s modulus can be obtained. The MM method provides the complex Young’s modulus of the soft tissue from which both elastic and viscous behavior can be extracted. This article presents the systematic comparison between these two techniques on the measurement of gelatin phantom, veal liver, thermal-treated veal liver, and human prostate. It was observed that the Young’s moduli of liver and prostate tissues slightly increase with frequency. The experimental results of the two methods are highly congruent, suggesting CRE and MM methods can be reliably used to investigate viscoelastic properties of other soft tissues, with CRE having the advantages of operating in nearly real time and in situ. PMID:17604902

  4. Hard and soft tissue correlations in facial profiles: a canonical correlation study

    PubMed Central

    Shamlan, Manal A; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between facial hard and soft tissues in normal Saudi individuals by studying the canonical correlation between specific hard tissue landmarks and their corresponding soft tissue landmarks. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was designed, with a sample size of 60 Saudi adults (30 males and 30 females) who had a class I skeletal and dental relationship and normal occlusion. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of the study sample were investigated using a series of 29 linear and angular measurements of hard and soft tissue features. The measurements were calculated electronically using Dolphin® software, and the data were analyzed using canonical correlation. Results Eighty-four percent of the variation in the soft tissue was explained by the variation in hard tissue. Conclusion The position of the upper and lower incisors and inclination of the lower incisors influence upper lip length and lower lip position. The inclination of the upper incisors is associated with lower lip length. PMID:25624772

  5. The IBIS Soft Gamma-Ray Sky after 1000 Integral Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, A. J.; Bazzano, A.; Malizia, A.; Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, V.; Bassani, L.; Hill, A. B.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.

    2016-03-01

    Here we report an all-sky soft gamma-ray source catalog based on IBIS observations performed during the first 1000 orbits of INTEGRAL. The database for the construction of the source list consists of all good-quality data available, from the launch in 2002, up to the end of 2010. This corresponds to ˜110 Ms of scientific public observations, with a concentrated coverage on the Galactic Plane and extragalactic deep exposures. This new catalog includes 939 sources above a 4.5σ significance threshold detected in the 17-100 keV energy band, of which 120 sources represent previously undiscovered soft gamma-ray emitters. The source positions are determined, mean fluxes are provided in two main energy bands, and these are both reported together with the overall source exposure. Indicative levels of variability are provided, and outburst times and durations are given for transient sources. A comparison is made with previous IBIS catalogs and catalogs from other similar missions. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and a science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  6. Mastication and the Postorbital Ligament: Dynamic Strain in Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Susan W.; Rafferty, Katherine L.; Liu, Zi Jun; Lemme, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although the FEED database focuses on muscle activity patterns, it is equally suitable for other physiological recording and especially for synthesizing different types of information. The present contribution addresses the interaction between muscle activity and ligamentary stretch during mastication. The postorbital ligament is the thickened edge of a septum dividing the orbital contents from the temporal fossa and is continuous with the temporal fascia. As a tensile element, this fascial complex could support the zygomatic arch against the pull of the masseter muscle. An ossified postorbital bar has evolved repeatedly in mammals, enabling resistance to compression and shear in addition to tension. Although such ossification clearly reinforces the skull against muscle pull, the most accepted explanation is that it helps isolate the orbital contents from contractions of the temporalis muscle. However, it has never been demonstrated that the contraction of jaw muscles deforms the unossified ligament. We examined linear deformation of the postorbital ligament in minipigs, Sus scrofa, along with electromyography of the jaw muscles and an assessment of changes in pressure and shape in the temporalis. During chewing, the ligament elongated (average 0.9%, maximum 2.8%) in synchrony with the contraction of the elevator muscles of the jaw. Although the temporalis bulged outward and created substantial pressure against the braincase, the superficial fibers usually retracted caudally, away from the postorbital ligament. In anesthetized animals, stimulating either the temporalis or the masseter muscle in isolation usually elongated the ligament (average 0.4–0.7%). These results confirm that contraction of the masticatory muscles can potentially distort the orbital contents and further suggest that the postorbital ligament does function as a tension member resisting the pull of the masseter on the zygomatic arch. PMID:21593142

  7. Long-term evaluation of porous PEGT/PBT implants for soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Lamme, Evert N; Druecke, Daniel; Pieper, Jeroen; May, Paul S; Kaim, Peter; Jacobsen, Frank; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Porous PEGT/PBT implants with different physico-chemical characteristics were evaluated to identify its potential as biodegradable and biofunctional soft tissue filler. Implants (50 x 10 x 5 mm3) were implanted subcutaneously in mini-pigs and tissue response, tissue volume generated and its consistency were assessed quantitatively with a 52 weeks follow-up. The absence of wound edema, skin irritation, and chronic inflammation demonstrated biocompatibility of all implants evaluated. The hydrophobic implants induced the mildest foreign body response, generated highest amount of connective tissue and demonstrated a decrease in copolymer MW of 34-37% compared to 90% decrease of the hydrophilic implants. The rate and extent of copolymer fragmentation seems to be the determining factor of success of soft tissue augmentation using porous PEGT/PBT copolymer implants. PMID:18089674

  8. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ~145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  9. Intrinsic Variability in Shell and Soft Tissue Growth of the Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    PubMed Central

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1–66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  10. Reliability of structure tensors in representing soft tissues structure.

    PubMed

    Lanir, Yoram; Namani, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Structure tensors have been applied as descriptors of tissue morphology for constitutive modeling. Here the reliability of these tensors in representing tissues structure is investigated by model simulations of a few examples of generated and measured planar fiber orientation distributions. Reliability was evaluated by comparing the data with the orientation density distribution recovered from the structure tensor representation, and with a orientation density recovered from an alternative representation by Fourier series of spherical harmonics. The results show that except for the case of uniform or close to uniform orientation distributions, the distributions recovered from the structure tensor fit the data poorly. On the other hand, orientation distributions recovered from Fourier series of spherical harmonics converge to the data distributions provided sufficient terms are included in the truncated series. These results suggest that the structure tensor is a reliable descriptor of tissue structure only under very limited cases. PMID:25828155

  11. Method for non-optical quantification of in situ local soft tissue biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Tarsi, Grant M; Gould, Russell A; Chung, Jaebum A; Xu, Andrew Z; Bozkurt, Alper; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2013-07-26

    Soft tissues exhibit significant biomechanical changes as they grow, adapt, and remodel under a variety of normal and pathogenic stimuli. Biomechanical measurement of intact soft tissues is challenging because of its large strain and nonlinear behavior. Tissue distention through applied vacuum pressure is an attractive method for acquiring local biomechanical information minimally invasive and non-destructive, but the current requirement for optical strain measurement limits its use. In this study, we implemented a novel flexible micro-electrode array placed within a cylindrical probe tip. We hypothesized that upon tissue distention, contact with each electrode would result in a precipitous voltage drop (from the resistive connection formed between input and output electrodes) across the array. Hence, tissue distention (strain) can be derived directly from the electrode array geometry. In pilot studies, we compared the electrode array measurements directly against optical deformation measurements in-situ of agar tissue phantoms and freshly isolated porcine tissue. Our results demonstrate that the probe derived stress-strain profiles and modulus measurements were statistically indistinguishable from optical measurement. We further show that electrode geometry can be scaled down to 50μm in size (length and width) and spaced 50μm apart without impairing measurement accuracy. These results establish a promising new method for minimally invasive local soft tissue biomechanical measurement, which may be useful for applications such as disease diagnosis and health monitoring. PMID:23791186

  12. Prediction of acute renal failure following soft-tissue injury using the venous bicarbonate concentration.

    PubMed

    Muckart, D J; Moodley, M; Naidu, A G; Reddy, A D; Meineke, K R

    1992-12-01

    Sixty-four patients with soft-tissue injuries were studied prospectively to determine whether an initial venous bicarbonate concentration (VBC) of less than 17 mmol/L would predict the development of myoglobin-induced acute renal failure. The VBC was > 17 mmol/L in 59 patients, seven of whom had myoglobinuria. All recovered without renal complications. The remaining five patients all had VBC < 17 mmol/L and four had myoglobinuria. Acute renal failure developed in four patients (p < 0.001). The VBC on hospital arrival was the most accurate predictor of these patients' risk for the development of acute renal failure following soft-tissue injury. PMID:1474620

  13. [Skin and soft tissue infections in children: consensus on diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are a common reason for consultation in primary health care centers. Data from the local epidemiology of these infections are rare, but Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are known to be the major etiologic agents. The appearance in recent years of community-originated strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and erythromycin-resistant pyogenes raises controversy in the choice of initial empirical treatment. This national consensus is for pediatricians, dermatologists, infectiologists and other health professionals. It is about clinical management, especially the diagnosis and treatment of community-originated skin and soft tissue infections in immunocompetent patients under the age of 19. PMID:24566790

  14. Computational Modeling for Enhancing Soft Tissue Image Guided Surgery: An Application in Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Miga, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent advances in computing, the opportunities to translate computational models to more integrated roles in patient treatment are expanding at an exciting rate. One area of considerable development has been directed towards correcting soft tissue deformation within image guided neurosurgery applications. This review captures the efforts that have been undertaken towards enhancing neuronavigation by the integration of soft tissue biomechanical models, imaging and sensing technologies, and algorithmic developments. In addition, the review speaks to the evolving role of modeling frameworks within surgery and concludes with some future directions beyond neurosurgical applications. PMID:26354118

  15. Soft Tissue Structure Modelling for Use in Orthopaedic Applications and Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audenaert, E. A.; Mahieu, P.; van Hoof, T.; Pattyn, C.

    2009-12-01

    We present our methodology for the three-dimensional anatomical and geometrical description of soft tissues, relevant for orthopaedic surgical applications and musculoskeletal biomechanics. The technique involves the segmentation and geometrical description of muscles and neurovascular structures from high-resolution computer tomography scanning for the reconstruction of generic anatomical models. These models can be used for quantitative interpretation of anatomical and biomechanical aspects of different soft tissue structures. This approach should allow the use of these data in other application fields, such as musculoskeletal modelling, simulations for radiation therapy, and databases for use in minimally invasive, navigated and robotic surgery.

  16. Advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and treatment options: critical appraisal of trabectedin

    PubMed Central

    Desar, Ingrid M E; Constantinidou, Anastasia; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Jones, Robin L; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2016-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare solid tumors of mesenchymal origin. This paper reviews the current status of systemic treatment in advanced and metastatic soft tissue sarcomas, with an emphasis on trabectedin. Trabectedin is a unique type of chemotherapeutic agent with multiple potential mechanisms of action. We discuss the putative mechanisms, as well as the toxicity and administration schedules of trabectedin, followed by its efficacy in first-line systemic therapy and beyond first-line systemic therapy. PMID:27574465

  17. Soft tissue infection caused by Legionella bozemanii in a patient with ongoing immunosuppressive treatment

    PubMed Central

    Neiderud, Carl-Johan; Vidh, Angela Lagerqvist; Salaneck, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The Legionellaceae family consists of approximately 50 species, of which the most commonly identified species is L. pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease. Other Legionella ssp. most often cause clinical infections in the immune-compromised patients, in which L. bozemanii has been known to cause both pneumonia and lung abscesses. In the presented case, a soft tissue infection in a patient with ongoing immunosuppression was determined to be due to L. bozemanii. Hence, in immune-deficient patients, L. bozemanii could be considered a possible agent in soft tissue infections when other common pathogens have been ruled out. PMID:24023988

  18. A new ChainMail approach for real-time soft tissue simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new ChainMail method for real-time soft tissue simulation. This method enables the use of different material properties for chain elements to accommodate various materials. Based on the ChainMail bounding region, a new time-saving scheme is developed to improve computational efficiency for isotropic materials. The proposed method also conserves volume and strain energy. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ChainMail method can not only accommodate isotropic, anisotropic and heterogeneous materials but also model incompressibility and relaxation behaviors of soft tissues. Further, the proposed method can achieve real-time computational performance. PMID:27282487

  19. Diagnostic Imaging of Fetal and Neonatal Abdominal and Soft Tissue Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Usha D; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and staging of prenatal and neonatal tumors, and is essential in treatment planning. Though obstetrical ultrasound is the first choice prenatally, fetal MRI continues to play an increasing role as experience with this imaging modality increases. In the neonate, in addition to ultrasound and MRI, CT and nuclear medicine studies can also play an important role. We describe the prenatal and neonatal imaging findings of some of the most common congenital abdominal and soft tissue neoplasms including neuroblastoma, renal, liver and soft tissue tumors. PMID:26168940

  20. [The accuracy of soft tissue profile prediction with the "Dentofacial Planner" in skeletal prognathism].

    PubMed

    Fischer-Brandies, E; Seeholzer, H; Fischer-Brandies, H; Wimmer, R

    1991-10-01

    30 pre- and postoperative lateral cephalograms of patients with mandibular prognathism are used to evaluate the soft tissue profile prognosis given by the "dentofacial planner". As a result, the horizontal displacement of SLS (sulcus labrale superius) and Pg' (soft tissue pogion) in patients with a normal vertical dimension and additional LMF (labiomental fold) in persons with a marked overbite are calculated well. The horizontal changes of the other points analyzed as well as all vertical changes are not predicted satisfactorily in the momentary version 4.22 A (febr. 1989), which will be improved by the company. PMID:1757020

  1. Arthroscopically Assisted Anatomic Coracoclavicular Ligament Reconstruction Technique Using Coracoclavicular Fixation and Soft-Tissue Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Peter J.; Warth, Ryan J.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Horan, Marilee P.

    2015-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are common and are often seen in contact athletes. Good to excellent clinical results have been reported using soft-tissue grafts to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligaments; however, complications remain. Some complications are unique to the surgical technique, particularly clavicle and coracoid fractures that are associated with drilling large or multiple bone tunnels. The described technique allows for an anatomic coracoclavicular reconstruction using a large soft-tissue graft while minimizing the risk of clavicle fracture by avoiding large bone tunnels. PMID:26900558

  2. Age-related changes in dynamic compressive properties of trochanteric soft tissues over the hip.

    PubMed

    Choi, W J; Russell, C M; Tsai, C M; Arzanpour, S; Robinovitch, S N

    2015-02-26

    Hip fracture risk increases dramatically with age, and 90% of fractures are due to falls. During a fall on the hip, the soft tissues overlying the hip region (skin, fat, and muscle) act as shock absorbers to absorb energy and reduce the peak force applied to the underlying bone. We conducted dynamic indentation experiments with young women (aged 19-30; n=17) and older women (aged 65-81; n=17) to test the hypothesis that changes occur with age in the stiffness and damping properties of these tissues. Tissue stiffness and damping were derived from experiments where subjects lay sideways on a bed with the greater trochanter contacting a 3.8cm diameter indenter, which applied sinusoidal compression between 5 to 30Hz with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 1mm. Soft tissue thickness was measured using ultrasound. On average, stiffness was 2.9-fold smaller in older than young women (5.7 versus 16.8kN/m, p=0.0005) and damping was 3.5-fold smaller in older than young women (81 versus 282Ns/m, p=0.001). Neither parameter associated with soft tissue thickness. Our results indicate substantial age-related reductions in the stiffness and damping of soft tissues over the hip region, which likely reduce their capacity to absorb and dissipate energy (before "bottoming out") during a fall. Strategies such as wearable hip protectors or compliant flooringmay compensate for age-related reductions in the shock-absorbing properties of soft tissues and decrease the injury potential of falls. PMID:25596629

  3. MRI manifestations of soft-tissue haemangiomas and accompanying reactive bone changes

    PubMed Central

    Pourbagher, A; Pourbagher, M A; Karan, B; Ozkoc, G

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Soft tissue haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions that can be accompanied by reactive changes in the adjacent bone structure. This study aimed to discuss the MRI features of soft-tissue haemangiomas with an emphasis on changes in bone. Methods The radiographic and MRI findings of 23 patients (9 males, 14 females; mean age 25 years; age range 2–46 years) with soft-tissue haemangiomas were analysed retrospectively. MR images were evaluated for location of the lesion, size, configuration, signal features, contrast patterns, proximity to adjacent bone and changes in the accompanying bone. Excisional biopsy was performed in 15 patients. Results Radiographs demonstrated phleboliths in 8 patients (34%) and reactive bone changes in 4 (19%). On MRI, T1 weighted images showed that most of the lesions were isointense or isohyperintense, as compared with muscle tissue; however, on T2 weighted images all lesions appeared as hyperintense. Following intravenous gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) administration, homogeneous enhancement was observed in 3 lesions and heterogeneous enhancement was seen in 19. No enhancement was observed in one patient. Bone atrophy adjacent to the lesion was observed in four patients. Conclusion MRI is the most valuable means of diagnosing deep soft-tissue haemangiomas. Bone changes can accompany deeply situated haemangiomas; in four of our patients, we found atrophy of the bone adjacent to the lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature regarding atrophy of the bone adjacent to a lesion. PMID:21123304

  4. Molecular characterization of Treponema denticola infection-induced bone and soft tissue transcriptional profiles

    PubMed Central

    Bakthavatchalu, V.; Meka, A.; Sathishkumar, S.; Lopez, M.C.; Verma, R.K.; Wallet, S.M.; Bhattacharyya, I.; Boyce, B.F.; Mans, J.; Lamont, R.J.; Baker, H.V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Kesavalu, L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Treponema denticola is associated with subgingival biofilms in adult periodontitis and with acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which T. denticola impacts periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone resorption remain unclear. Here, we examined changes in the host transcriptional profiles during a T. denticola infection using a murine calvarial model of inflammation and bone resorption. T. denticola was injected into the subcutaneous soft tissue over the calvaria of BALB/c mice for 3 days, after which the soft tissues and the calvarial bones were excised. RNA was isolated and analysed for transcript profiling using Murine GeneChip® arrays. Following T. denticola infection, 2905 and 1234 genes in the infected calvarial bones and soft tissues, respectively, were differentially expressed (p ≤ 0.05). Biological pathways significantly impacted by T. denticola infection in calvarial bone and calvarial tissue included leukocyte transendothelial migration, cell adhesion (immune system) molecules, cell cycle, extracellular matrix–receptor interaction, focal adhesion, B-cell receptor signaling and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways resulting in proinflammatory, chemotactic effects, and T-cell stimulation. In conclusion, localized T. denticola infection differentially induces transcription of a broad array of host genes, the profiles of which differed between inflamed calvarial bone and soft tissues. PMID:20618700

  5. ABO blood grouping from hard and soft tissues of teeth by modified absorption-elution technique

    PubMed Central

    Ramnarayan, BK; Manjunath, M; Joshi, Anagha Ananth

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teeth have always been known as stable tissue that can be preserved both physically and chemically for long periods of time. Blood group substances have been known to be present in both the hard and soft tissues of the teeth. Objectives: This study aimed at detection of ABO blood group substances from soft and hard tissues of teeth and also to evaluate the reliability of teeth stored for a relatively long period as a source of blood group substances by absorption–elution technique with some modifications. Results: Blood group obtained from the teeth was compared with those obtained from the blood sample. Pulp showed a very large correlation in both fresh and long-standing teeth though it decreased slightly in the latter. Hard tissue showed a large correlation in both the groups indicating that hard tissue is quite reliable to detect blood group and that there is no much difference in the reliability in both the groups. However, combining pulp and hard tissue, correlation is moderate. Correlation of blood grouping with the age, sex, and jaw distribution was carried out. Conclusion: Blood group identification from hard and soft tissues of teeth aids in the identification of an individual. PMID:23960412

  6. A homeostatic-driven turnover remodelling constitutive model for healing in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Comellas, Ester; Gasser, T Christian; Bellomo, Facundo J; Oller, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Remodelling of soft biological tissue is characterized by interacting biochemical and biomechanical events, which change the tissue's microstructure, and, consequently, its macroscopic mechanical properties. Remodelling is a well-defined stage of the healing process, and aims at recovering or repairing the injured extracellular matrix. Like other physiological processes, remodelling is thought to be driven by homeostasis, i.e. it tends to re-establish the properties of the uninjured tissue. However, homeostasis may never be reached, such that remodelling may also appear as a continuous pathological transformation of diseased tissues during aneurysm expansion, for example. A simple constitutive model for soft biological tissues that regards remodelling as homeostatic-driven turnover is developed. Specifically, the recoverable effective tissue damage, whose rate is the sum of a mechanical damage rate and a healing rate, serves as a scalar internal thermodynamic variable. In order to integrate the biochemical and biomechanical aspects of remodelling, the healing rate is, on the one hand, driven by mechanical stimuli, but, on the other hand, subjected to simple metabolic constraints. The proposed model is formulated in accordance with continuum damage mechanics within an open-system thermodynamics framework. The numerical implementation in an in-house finite-element code is described, particularized for Ogden hyperelasticity. Numerical examples illustrate the basic constitutive characteristics of the model and demonstrate its potential in representing aspects of remodelling of soft tissues. Simulation results are verified for their plausibility, but also validated against reported experimental data. PMID:27009177

  7. Comparison of soft and hard tissue ablation with sub-ps and ns pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, L.B.; Stuart, B.C.; Celliers, P.M.; Feit, M.D.; Glinsky, M.E.; Heredia, N.J.; Herman, S.; Lane, S.M.; London, R.A.; Matthews, D.L.; Perry, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Chang, T.D.; Neev, J.

    1996-05-01

    Tissue ablation with ultrashort laser pulses offers several unique advantages. The nonlinear energy deposition is insensitive to tissue type, allowing this tool to be used for soft and hard tissue ablation. The localized energy deposition lead to precise ablation depth and minimal collateral damage. This paper reports on efforts to study and demonstrate tissue ablation using an ultrashort pulse laser. Ablation efficiency and extent of collateral damage for 0.3 ps and 1000 ps duration laser pulses are compared. Temperature measurements of the rear surface of a tooth section is also presented.

  8. Development of Soft Nanocomposite Materials and Their Applications in Cell Culture and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, K

    2012-01-01

    Novel soft nanocomposite materials with unique organic/inorganic network structures have been developed by extending the strategy of “organic/inorganic nanocomposites” to the field of soft materials. The structures described here were synthesized by in-situ free-radical polymerization of various monomers in the presence of exfoliated clay (hectorite) in aqueous media. The nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) and soft nanocomposites (M-NCs) obtained were flexible and transparent soft materials, regardless of the clay content, that could be prepared in various shapes and surface forms, each consisting of individually different polymer/clay network structures. Owing to these unique network structures, both NC gels and M-NCs showed extraordinary mechanical properties such as ultrahigh elongation at break and widely controlled modulus and strength, which could overcome the problems (e.g., mechanical fragility, optical turbidity, poor processing ability) associated with conventional chemically crosslinked materials. In addition, the NC gels and M-NCs exhibited a number of new characteristics related to optical anisotropy, morphology, biocompatibility, stimulus sensitivity and cell culture. In the present review, we outline the novel features of these soft nanocomposites, and demonstrate their potential as soft culture substrates useful for tissue engineering as well as soft, transparent, absorbing, and mechanically tough biomaterials for many bio-applications. PMID:24693187

  9. Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents. PMID:26530842

  10. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Henry P; Holliday, Casey M

    2015-06-01

    Archosaurs evolved a wide diversity of locomotor postures, body sizes, and hip joint morphologies. The two extant archosaurs clades (birds and crocodylians) possess highly divergent hip joint morphologies, and the homologies and functions of their articular soft tissues, such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, are poorly understood. Reconstructing joint anatomy and function of extinct vertebrates is critical to understanding their posture, locomotor behavior, ecology, and evolution. However, the lack of soft tissues in fossil taxa makes accurate inferences of joint function difficult. Here, we describe the soft tissue anatomies and their osteological correlates in the hip joint of archosaurs and their sauropsid outgroups, and infer structural homology across the extant taxa. A comparative sample of 35 species of birds, crocodylians, lepidosaurs, and turtles ranging from hatchling to skeletally mature adult were studied using dissection, imaging, and histology. Birds and crocodylians possess topologically and histologically consistent articular soft tissues in their hip joints. Epiphyseal cartilages, fibrocartilages, and ligaments leave consistent osteological correlates. The archosaur acetabulum possesses distinct labrum and antitrochanter structures on the supraacetabulum. The ligamentum capitis femoris consists of distinct pubic- and ischial attachments, and is homologous with the ventral capsular ligament of lepidosaurs. The proximal femur has a hyaline cartilage core attached to the metaphysis via a fibrocartilaginous sleeve. This study provides new insight into soft tissue structures and their osteological correlates (e.g., the antitrochanter, the fovea capitis, and the metaphyseal collar) in the archosaur hip joint. The topological arrangement of fibro- and hyaline cartilage may provide mechanical support for the chondroepiphysis. The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and

  11. Effects of cannabis smoking on oral soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Arendorf, T M

    1993-04-01

    The oral effects of cigarette smoking have been well documented but the effects of cannabis smoke on the oral environment have been poorly documented. Three-hundred cannabis/tobacco/methaqualone smokers were examined. Two control groups consisting of 152 tobacco- and 189 non-smokers respectively were examined similarly. Health of the oral tissues and oral dryness was recorded. Lesions present included leukoedema, leukoplakia and numerous others. The only significant differences between lesions and conditions noted in cannabis users and controls occurred with respect to leukoedema, dry mouth and traumatic ulcer. PMID:8485974

  12. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato causing deep soft tissue mycosis following a penetrating injury

    PubMed Central

    Figtree, Melanie; Weeks, Kerry; Chan, Leonie; Leyton, Arda; Bowes, Andrew; Giuffre, Bruno; Sullivan, Martin; Hudson, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    Colletotrichum species have been rarely implicated in human disease. We describe a case of deep soft tissue mycosis following a penetrating injury with a lemon tree thorn. Direct Blankophor BA (Bayer) stain from intraoperative tissue showed fungal elements. Pure growth fungus was apparent at 2–4 days. Morphological features provisionally identified the isolate as a coelomycetous fungus, likely Colletotrichum species. This was confirmed with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) region. PMID:24432213

  13. Unified viscoelasticity: Applying discrete element models to soft tissues with two characteristic times.

    PubMed

    Anssari-Benam, Afshin; Bucchi, Andrea; Bader, Dan L

    2015-09-18

    Discrete element models have often been the primary tool in investigating and characterising the viscoelastic behaviour of soft tissues. However, studies have employed varied configurations of these models, based on the choice of the number of elements and the utilised formation, for different subject tissues. This approach has yielded a diverse array of viscoelastic models in the literature, each seemingly resulting in different descriptions of viscoelastic constitutive behaviour and/or stress-relaxation and creep functions. Moreover, most studies do not apply a single discrete element model to characterise both stress-relaxation and creep behaviours of tissues. The underlying assumption for this disparity is the implicit perception that the viscoelasticity of soft tissues cannot be described by a universal behaviour or law, resulting in the lack of a unified approach in the literature based on discrete element representations. This paper derives the constitutive equation for different viscoelastic models applicable to soft tissues with two characteristic times. It demonstrates that all possible configurations exhibit a unified and universal behaviour, captured by a single constitutive relationship between stress, strain and time as: σ+Aσ̇+Bσ¨=Pε̇+Qε¨. The ensuing stress-relaxation G(t) and creep J(t) functions are also unified and universal, derived as [Formula: see text] and J(t)=c2+(ε0-c2)e(-PQt)+σ0Pt, respectively. Application of these relationships to experimental data is illustrated for various tissues including the aortic valve, ligament and cerebral artery. The unified model presented in this paper may be applied to all tissues with two characteristic times, obviating the need for employing varied configurations of discrete element models in preliminary investigation of the viscoelastic behaviour of soft tissues. PMID:26232814

  14. Free cross leg flap as a method of reconstruction of soft tissues defects.

    PubMed

    Tvrdek, M; Pros, Z; Nejedlý, A; Kletenský, J; Stehlík, J

    1995-01-01

    Authors demonstrate on clinical cases the possibility of reconstruction of soft leg tissues by the use of the so called free cross flap. This method appears to be convenient in cases where there are no suitable recipient vessels within reach on the injured extremity and where the defect is of such an extent that the conventional cross flap does not provide sufficient amount of tissue. PMID:7653169

  15. Densely calculated facial soft tissue thickness for craniofacial reconstruction in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Mingquan; Deng, Qingqiong; Wu, Zhongke; Ji, Yuan; Li, Kang; He, Taiping; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) is used to recreate a likeness of original facial appearance for an unidentified skull; this technique has been applied in both forensics and archeology. Many CFR techniques rely on the average facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) of anatomical landmarks, related to ethnicity, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), etc. Previous studies typically employed FSTT at sparsely distributed anatomical landmarks, where different landmark definitions may affect the contrasting results. In the present study, a total of 90,198 one-to-one correspondence skull vertices are established on 171 head CT-scans and the FSTT of each corresponding vertex is calculated (hereafter referred to as densely calculated FSTT) for statistical analysis and CFR. Basic descriptive statistics (i.e., mean and standard deviation) for densely calculated FSTT are reported separately according to sex and age. Results show that 76.12% of overall vertices indicate that the FSTT is greater in males than females, with the exception of vertices around the zygoma, zygomatic arch and mid-lateral orbit. These sex-related significant differences are found at 55.12% of all vertices and the statistically age-related significant differences are depicted between the three age groups at a majority of all vertices (73.31% for males and 63.43% for females). Five non-overlapping categories are given and the descriptive statistics (i.e., mean, standard deviation, local standard deviation and percentage) are reported. Multiple appearances are produced using the densely calculated FSTT of various age and sex groups, and a quantitative assessment is provided to examine how relevant the choice of FSTT is to increasing the accuracy of CFR. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective in understanding the distribution of FSTT and the construction of a new densely calculated FSTT database for craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:27544400

  16. Viscoelastic properties of bovine orbital connective tissue and fat: constitutive models

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Lawrence; Gupta, Vijay; Lee, Choongyeop; Kavehpore, Pirouz

    2012-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of orbital connective tissue and fat have been too sparse to model strain–stress relationships underlying biomechanical interactions in strabismus. We performed rheological tests to develop a multi-mode upper convected Maxwell (UCM) model of these tissues under shear loading. From 20 fresh bovine orbits, 30 samples of connective tissue were taken from rectus pulley regions and 30 samples of fatty tissues from the posterior orbit. Additional samples were defatted to determine connective tissue weight proportion, which was verified histologically. Mechanical testing in shear employed a triborheometer to perform: strain sweeps at 0.5–2.0 Hz; shear stress relaxation with 1% strain; viscometry at 0.01–0.5 s−1 strain rate; and shear oscillation at 1% strain. Average connective tissue weight proportion was 98% for predominantly connective tissue and 76% for fatty tissue. Connective tissue specimens reached a long-term relaxation modulus of 668 Pa after 1,500 s, while corresponding values for fatty tissue specimens were 290 Pa and 1,100 s. Shear stress magnitude for connective tissue exceeded that of fatty tissue by five-fold. Based on these data, we developed a multimode UCM model with variable viscosities and time constants, and a damped hyperelastic response that accurately described measured properties of both connective and fatty tissues. Model parameters differed significantly between the two tissues. Viscoelastic properties of predominantly connective orbital tissues under shear loading differ markedly from properties of orbital fat, but both are accurately reflected using UCM models. These viscoelastic models will facilitate realistic global modeling of EOM behavior in binocular alignment and strabismus. PMID:21207094

  17. Microablation of collagen-based substrates for soft tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek A.; Martinez, Adam W.; Caves, Jeffrey M.; Naik, Nisarga; Haller, Carolyn A.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2015-01-01

    Noting the abundance and importance of collagen as a biomaterial, we have developed a facile method for the production of dense fibrillar extracellular matrix mimicking collagen-elastin hybrids with tunable mechanical properties. Through the use of excimer laser technology, we have optimized conditions for the ablation of collagen lamellae without denaturation of protein, maintenance of fibrillar ultrastructure and preservation of native D-periodicity. Strengths of collagen-elastin hybrids ranged from 0.6 - 13 MPa, elongation at break from 9 - 70 %, and stiffness from 2.9 - 94 MPa, allowing for the design of a wide variety of tissue specific scaffolds. Further, large (centimeter scale) lamellae can be fabricated and embedded with recombinant elastin to generate collagen-elastin hybrids. Exposed collagen in hybrids act as cell adhesive sites for rat mesenchymal stem cells that conform to ablate waveforms. The ability to modulate these features allows for the generation of a class of biopolymers that can architecturally and physiologically replicate native tissue. PMID:24457193

  18. Refinements in modeling the passive properties of laryngeal soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R

    2007-07-01

    The nonlinear viscoelastic passive properties of three canine intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA), the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA), and the interarytenoid (IA), were fit to the parameters of a modified Kelvin model. These properties were compared with those of the thyroarytenoid (TA) and cricothyroid (CT) muscles, as well as previously unpublished viscoelastic characteristics of the human vocal ligament. Passive parameters of the modified Kelvin model were summarized for the vocal ligament, mucosa, and all five laryngeal muscles. Results suggest that the LCA, PCA, and IA muscles are functionally different from the TA and CT muscles in their load-bearing capacity. Furthermore, the LCA, PCA, and IA have a much larger stress-strain hysteresis effect than has been previously reported for the TA and CT or the vocal ligament. The variation in this effect suggests that the connective tissue within the TA and CT muscles is somehow similar to the vocal ligament but different from the LCA, PCA, or IA muscles. Further demonstrating the potential significance of grouping tissues in the laryngeal system by functional groups in the laryngeal system was the unique finding that, over their working elongation range, the LCA and PCA were nearly as exponentially stiff as the vocal ligament. This paper was written in conjunction with an online technical report (http://www.ncvs.org/ncvs/library/tech) in which comprehensive muscle data and sensitivity analysis, as well as downloadable data files and computer scripts, are made available. PMID:17412782

  19. Benefits of low-power lasers on oral soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Cecchini, Silvia C.; Cecchini, Renata C.

    1996-04-01

    The last five years have represented a great advance in relation to laser development. Countries like Japan, United States, French, England, Israel and others, have been working on the association of researches and clinical applications, in the field of laser. Low power lasers like He-Ne laser, emitting at 632,8 nm and Ga-As-Al laser, at 790 nm, have been detached acting not only as a coadjutant but some times as an specific treatment. Low power lasers provide non thermal effect at wavelengths believed to stimulate circulation and cellular activity. These lasers have been used to promote wound healing and reduce inflammation edema and pain. This work presents a five year clinical study with good results related to oral tissue healing. Oral cavity lesions, like herpes and aphthous ulcers were irradiated with Ga-Al- As laser. In both cases, an excellent result was obtained. The low power laser application decrease the painful sintomatology immediately and increase the reparation process of these lesions. An excellent result was obtained with application of low power laser in herpetic lesions associated with a secondary infection situated at the lip commissure covering the internal tissue of the mouth. The healing occurred after one week. An association of Ga-Al-As laser and Nd:YAG laser have been also proven to be good therapy for these kind of lesions. This association of low and high power laser has been done since 1992 and it seems to be a complement of the conventional therapies.

  20. Cell-assisted lipotransfer in the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Wen, Huicai; Jian, Xueping; Liao, Huaiwei; Sui, Yunpeng; Liu, Yanping; Xu, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic surgeons have experimented with a variety of substances to improve soft tissue deformities of the face. Autologous fat grafting provides significant advantages over other modalities because it leaves no scar, is easy to use and is well tolerated by most patients. Autologous fat grafting has become one of the most popular techniques in the field of facial plastic surgery. Unfortunately, there are still two major problems affecting survival rate and development: revascularization after transplantion; and cell reservation proliferation and survival. Since Zuk and Yosra developed a technology based on adipose-derived stem cells and cell-assisted lipotrophy, researchers have hoped that this technology would promote the survival and reduce the absorption of grafted fat cells. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells may have great potential in skin repair applications, aged skin rejuvenation and other aging-related skin lesion treatments. Recently, the study of adipose-derived stem cells has gained increased attention. More researchers have started to adopt this technology in the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity. The present article reviews the history of facial soft tissue augmentation and the advent of adipose-derived stem cells in the area of the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity. PMID:26361629

  1. Passive elastography: shear-wave tomography from physiological-noise correlation in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Gallot, Thomas; Catheline, Stefan; Roux, Philippe; Brum, Javier; Benech, Nicolas; Negreira, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Inspired by seismic-noise correlation and time reversal, a shear-wave tomography of soft tissues using an ultrafast ultrasonic scanner is presented here. Free from the need for controlled shear-wave sources, this passive elastography is based on Green's function retrieval and takes advantage of the permanent physiological noise of the human body. PMID:21693392

  2. Staged Soft Tissue Reconstruction Following Sarcoma Excision with Anticipated Large Cutaneous Defects: An Oncologically Safe Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Geoffrey W; Kuzon, William M.; Hasen, Jill M; Biermann, J. Sybil

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that select patients undergoing planned soft tissue sarcoma (STS) excision with anticipated skin and soft tissue deficits could be treated with a two stage surgical procedure which would allow some flexibility in coverage options while not significantly increasing local recurrence rate or wound complication rate. Methods A retrospective review was undertaken in a series of consecutive patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up treated by a single orthopedic oncologist and a single reconstructive plastic surgeon who were managed with a staged approach STS excision and reconstruction. Results There were 73 patients identified over a ten-year period that underwent staged STS excision and soft tissue reconstruction. There were 12 (16%) initial positive margins resected to negative final margins, and a variety of coverage procedures performed. Wound complication rate was 21%. Local recurrence rate was 11%. Conclusion Staged STS excision and reconstruction is an acceptable tool in the armamentarium of the orthopedic oncologist for managing major soft tissue deficits without an increase in local recurrence rates. PMID:27528845

  3. Community-acquired soft-tissue infections caused by Flavimonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    Lam, S; Isenberg, H D; Edwards, B; Hilton, E

    1994-05-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans has rarely been implicated in human infections. Previously reported cases of infections caused by this bacterium were nosocomially acquired. We report two cases of community-acquired soft-tissue infections due to F. oryzihabitans. It remains unclear how the patients were exposed to the organism. PMID:8075277

  4. Phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols as risk factors for soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, J.; Polissar, L.; Severson, R.; Heuser, L.

    1986-09-01

    A population-based case-control study evaluated the relationship between soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and past exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols in western Washington state. A major purpose of the study was to determine if the risk of cancer was elevated in relation to chemicals potentially contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). A total of 160 men with soft tissue sarcoma and 581 men with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were group-matched with 694 randomly selected controls and were interviewed in person. Among the general population, no increased risks for either cancer were seen in relation to intensity or duration of past exposure to phenoxy herbicides or chlorophenols. Preliminary risk estimates for specific occupations that involve phenoxy herbicide or chlorophenol exposure included: farmer, herbicide formulator, applicator, forest sprayer, farmland sprayer, work in sprayed area, and work with or manufacture chlorophenyls. In addition, the risks of both soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were elevated among men with past exposure to various insecticides, organic solvents and metals, and among those with preexisting compromise of the immune system. Multivariate studies are in progress to ascertain the contribution of diverse factors to the risks of soft tissue sarcoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in association with phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and/or TCDD.

  5. Do we need keratinized mucosa for a healthy peri-implant soft tissue?

    PubMed

    Esfahanizadeh, Nasrin; Daneshparvar, Niloufar; Motallebi, Sara; Akhondi, Nasrin; Askarpour, Farinaz; Davaie, Sotudeh

    2016-01-01

    The presence of keratinized mucosa plays a fundamental role in peri-implant soft tissue health. This study assessed the impact of the width of keratinized mucosa (WKM) on peri-implant soft tissue parameters. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 bone-level implants in 36 patients. A minimum of 6 months had passed since the loading of implants, and the patients had at least 1 implant in 1 quadrant at the molar or premolar site restored with a single crown or fixed partial denture. The health of peri-implant soft tissue was assessed with a modified bleeding index (MBI), modified plaque index (MPI), and modified gingival index (MGI). Probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), and WKM were also measured. History of smoking and oral hygiene methods were recorded. A significant inverse correlation existed between WKM and the parameters MBI, MPI, MGI, and GR (P < 0.05). Values of MBI, MPI, MGI, and GR were significantly lower in areas with WKM ≥ 2 mm and higher in areas with WKM < 2 mm (P < 0.05). The WKM was greatest in subjects using the vibratory toothbrushing technique and narrowest in those using the horizontal toothbrushing technique (P < 0.05). The mean WKM was significantly greater in smokers than in nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Results of this study indicate that an association exists between WKM and peri-implant soft tissue health. A minimum of 2 mm of keratinized mucosa around implants is recommended. PMID:27367634

  6. NIH researchers use gene therapy to treat a soft tissue tumor

    Cancer.gov

    Results of an intermediate stage clinical trial of several dozen people provides evidence that a method that has worked for treating patients with metastatic melanoma can also work for patients with metastatic synovial cell sarcoma, one of the most common soft tissue tumors in adolescents and young adults.

  7. Photoactivated Composite Biomaterial for Soft Tissue Restoration in Rodents and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, Zayna; Reid, Branden; Coburn, Jeannine M.; Axelman, Joyce; Chae, Jemin J.; Guo, Qiongyu; Trow, Robert; Thomas, Andrew; Hou, Zhipeng; Lichtsteiner, Serge; Sutton, Damon; Matheson, Christine; Walker, Patricia; David, Nathaniel; Mori, Susumu; Taube, Janis M.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue reconstruction often requires multiple surgical procedures that can result in scars and disfiguration. Facial soft tissue reconstruction represents a clinical challenge because even subtle deformities can severely affect an individual’s social and psychological function. We therefore developed a biosynthetic soft tissue replacement composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) that can be injected and photocrosslinked in situ with transdermal light exposure. Modulating the ratio of synthetic to biological polymer allowed us to tune implant elasticity and volume persistence. In a small-animal model, implanted photocrosslinked PEG-HA showed a dose-dependent relationship between increasing PEG concentration and enhanced implant volume persistence. In direct comparison with commercial HA injections, the PEG-HA implants maintained significantly greater average volumes and heights. Reversibility of the implant volume was achieved with hyaluronidase injection. Pilot clinical testing in human patients confirmed the feasibility of the transdermal photocrosslinking approach for implantation in abdomen soft tissue, although an inflammatory response was observed surrounding some of the materials. PMID:21795587

  8. Classification and Subtype Prediction of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma by Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil H.; Pavlidis, Paul; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Maki, Robert G.; Noble, William S.; DeSantis, Diann; Woodruff, James M.; Lewis, Jonathan J.; Brennan, Murray F.; Houghton, Alan N.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Adult soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors, including well-described subtypes by histological and genotypic criteria, and pleomorphic tumors typically characterized by non-recurrent genetic aberrations and karyotypic heterogeneity. The latter pose a diagnostic challenge, even to experienced pathologists. We proposed that gene expression profiling in soft tissue sarcoma would identify a genomic-based classification scheme that is useful in diagnosis. RNA samples from 51 pathologically confirmed cases, representing nine different histological subtypes of adult soft tissue sarcoma, were examined using the Affymetrix U95A GeneChip. Statistical tests were performed on experimental groups identified by cluster analysis, to find discriminating genes that could subsequently be applied in a support vector machine algorithm. Synovial sarcomas, round-cell/myxoid liposarcomas, clear-cell sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors displayed remarkably distinct and homogenous gene expression profiles. Pleomorphic tumors were heterogeneous. Notably, a subset of malignant fibrous histiocytomas, a controversialhistological subtype, was identified as a distinct genomic group. The support vector machine algorithm supported a genomic basis for diagnosis, with both high sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, we showed gene expression profiling to be useful in classification and diagnosis, providing insights into pathogenesis and pointing to potential new therapeutic targets of soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:12875988

  9. Deep Soft Tissue Leiomyoma of Forearm: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gurram, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumours of smooth-muscle origin representing 4.4% of all benign soft-tissue neoplasms. They are classified as cutaneous, vascular and leiomyomas of deep soft tissues. Leiomyomas rarely occur in extremities and are more common in the lower limb than in the upper extremity. Deep soft tissue leiomyomas are even rare with a very few reported cases so far in the literature. A 25-year-old female presented to us with an atraumatic slowly enlarging mass in the right forearm from 6 months with mild erosion of cortex of radius. She was otherwise healthy, MRI revealed a soft tissue lesion involving the interosseous space, isointense on T1, slightly hyperintense on T2 and hyperintense on STIR images. The tumour was excised intoto. The case is presented due to its rarity and the risk of tumor misdiagnosis. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any solitary painful slow growing mass of the extremities. If adequate margins are obtained recurrence of this tumour is very rare. PMID:27504364

  10. Ultrasound screening of periarticular soft tissue abnormality around metal-on-metal bearings.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Takao, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Although metal hypersensitivity or pseudotumors are concerns for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings, detailed pathologies of patterns, severity, and incidence of periprosthetic soft tissue lesions are incompletely understood. We examined the potential of ultrasound for screening of periarticular soft tissue lesions around MoM bearings. Ultrasound examinations were conducted in 88 hips (79 patients) with MoM hip resurfacings or MoM total hip arthroplasties with a large femoral head. Four qualitative ultrasound patterns were shown, including normal pattern in 69 hips, joint-expansion pattern in 11 hips, cystic pattern in 5 hips, and mass pattern in 3 hips. Hips with the latter 3 abnormal patterns showed significantly higher frequency of clinical symptoms, without significant differences of sex, duration of implantation, head sizes, and cup abduction/anteversion angles, compared with hips with normal pattern. Ultrasound examination provides sensitive screening of soft tissue reactions around MoM bearings and may be useful in monitoring progression and defining treatment for periarticular soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:22047978

  11. Acute renal failure associated with cosmetic soft-tissue filler injections--North Carolina, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    Soft-tissue fillers are substances injected to augment or enhance the appearance of lips, breasts, buttocks, or other soft tissues. Previous reports have linked the administration of soft-tissue fillers, usually liquid silicone, by unlicensed practitioners to severe adverse events, including death. On December 27, 2007, the North Carolina Division of Public Health (NCDPH) was notified of three cases of renal failure occurring among women who had received cosmetic soft-tissue filler injections at a facility in North Carolina (facility A). This report summarizes the clinical findings for these cases and describes the subsequent public health investigation. All injections were administered by a practitioner with no medical training or supervision (practitioner A). Investigators were not able to identify the substances injected. Although records indicated that the injections contained liquid silicone, this substance has not been associated previously with renal failure. These findings underscore the risks posed by cosmetic injections administered by unlicensed practitioners. Public health officials should be alert for adverse events associated with these injections and take all necessary actions to prevent additional injuries. PMID:18451755

  12. Radiation as a therapeutic modality in sarcomas of the soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Suit, H; Spiro, I

    1995-08-01

    Management of the primary lesion in patients with soft tissue sarcomas is combined modality in the majority of instances. The modalities are surgery and irradiation. Radical surgery as currently practiced in major oncology centers does not achieve local control in an important proportion of patients. PMID:7490238

  13. Different effects of bleeding and soft-tissue trauma on pulmonary platelet trapping in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, S.; Thoerne, J.E.; Elmer, O.

    1989-06-01

    Immediate reactions to different types of trauma have been the object of several studies recently. It has been shown that pulmonary platelet trapping (PPT) occurs within minutes after both septic shock and soft-tissue trauma. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hypovolemia induced by hypoperfusion might trigger platelet trapping in the lungs in the same way as soft-tissue trauma. Platelets labelled with indium-oxine were reinfused in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs 4 hours before either induction of standardized hypovolemia caused by bleeding to the amount of 20% of the estimated blood volume (n = 6) or a standardized soft-tissue trauma to the hind limbs (n = 7). Platelet sequestration in the lungs was recorded dynamically by means of scintigraphy for 15 minutes before and 90 min after the start of the trauma and bleeding episodes. Central hemodynamics were recorded using a Swan-Ganz catheter. Soft-tissue trauma induced a marked PPT; in the animals subjected to bleeding alone there was no such effect despite a hemodynamic deterioration of greater magnitude than in the trauma group. The PPT was accompanied by a reduction in the number of platelets and leukocytes in peripheral blood. Our results indicate that immediate trapping of platelets in the lungs after trauma occurs as a response to factors other than those related to simple hypovolemic hypoperfusion.

  14. Deep Soft Tissue Leiomyoma of Forearm: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Bommireddy, Babulreddy; Gurram, Vijay

    2016-06-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumours of smooth-muscle origin representing 4.4% of all benign soft-tissue neoplasms. They are classified as cutaneous, vascular and leiomyomas of deep soft tissues. Leiomyomas rarely occur in extremities and are more common in the lower limb than in the upper extremity. Deep soft tissue leiomyomas are even rare with a very few reported cases so far in the literature. A 25-year-old female presented to us with an atraumatic slowly enlarging mass in the right forearm from 6 months with mild erosion of cortex of radius. She was otherwise healthy, MRI revealed a soft tissue lesion involving the interosseous space, isointense on T1, slightly hyperintense on T2 and hyperintense on STIR images. The tumour was excised intoto. The case is presented due to its rarity and the risk of tumor misdiagnosis. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any solitary painful slow growing mass of the extremities. If adequate margins are obtained recurrence of this tumour is very rare. PMID:27504364

  15. Radiotherapy for Management of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Why, When, and Where?

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Rick L.M.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Keus, Ronald B.; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Olmi, Patricia; Poulsen, Jan-Peter; Seddon, Beatrice; Wang, Dian

    2012-11-01

    This critical review will focus on published data on the indications for radiotherapy in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas and its role in local control, survival, and treatment complications. The differences between pre- and postoperative radiotherapy will be discussed and consensus recommendations on target volume delineation proposed.

  16. Ultrasonic characterization of soft tissue vibrations based on the two-dimensional Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Kim, Yongmin; Beach, Kirk W.

    2005-09-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that soft tissue vibrations in the body, traditionally associated with vascular bruits and cardiac murmurs, can potentially be used for the ultrasonic diagnosis of coronary artery disease and vascular trauma. In this paper, the ultrasonic spectrum of soft tissue vibrations is formulated using the two-dimensional Fourier transform, making full use of the information present in the backscattered ultrasound echoes from vibrating tissue. Parametric simulation studies show that vibrations with amplitude 1 μm may be detected even with tissue velocity of 20 cm/s and acceleration of 5 m/s2, e.g., during peak cardiac motion. Vibrations with amplitude as low as 0.1 μm may be detected when the tissue acceleration is negligible, e.g., during mid-diastole. Also, it was found that tissue vibrations in a direction transverse to the ultrasound beam can be detected. In vivo examples of cardiac wall vibrations in patients with coronary artery disease are presented. Tissue vibrations can provide improved sensitivity over conventional duplex ultrasound since the scattering strength from tissue is significantly higher than that from blood. In addition, detection of tissue vibrations has reduced angle dependency and does not require visualization of the vessel lumen, making the exam less dependent on operator skill.

  17. Histomorphological Evaluation of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Plantar Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yak-Nam; Lee, Kara; Ledoux, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulceration has a complex and multi-factorial etiology and can involve changes in the pathophysiology of the plantar soft tissue. In the current study, histomorphological analyses of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar tissue were performed. It was hypothesized that the diabetic tissue would have thicker skin (epidermis and dermis), less interdigitation between the dermis and epidermis, thicker elastic septa and decreased adipose cell size. Materials and Methods Two locations of the foot (the heel and the first metatarsal) were examined, both of which have been reported to be locations with a high incidence of ulceration. Stereological methods and quantitative morphological techniques were used to evaluate the skin thickness, interdigitation index, elastic septae thickness and adipocyte cell size. Results The diabetic donors had a greater body mass index (BMI) than the non-diabetic donors. The diabetic tissue had significantly thicker elastic septae and dermis. However, no significant difference was observed in the interdigitation index or adipocyte size. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that morphological changes can be evaluated histologically to give a better understanding of the pathological changes in the plantar soft tissue with diabetes. These evaluations can then be associated with biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes to provide new insight into how microstructural changes can alter macroscopic properties. Clinical Relevance An understanding of the histomorphological changes in the soft tissue in relationship to the location on the foot could help to explain the biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes and the subsequent increase in susceptibility to breakdown. PMID:22049867

  18. Carpal Tunnel Cross-Sectional Area Affected by Soft Tissues Abutting the Carpal Bones.

    PubMed

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The carpal tunnel accommodates free movement of its contents, and the tunnel's cross-sectional area is a useful morphological parameter for the evaluation of the space available for the carpal tunnel contents and of potential nerve compression in the tunnel. The osseous boundary of the carpal bones as the dorsal border of the carpal tunnel is commonly used to determine the tunnel area, but this boundary contains soft tissues such as numerous intercarpal ligaments and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. The aims of this study were to quantify the thickness of the soft tissues abutting the carpal bones and to investigate how this soft tissue influences the calculation of the carpal tunnel area. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for eight cadaveric specimens. A medical balloon with a physiological pressure was inserted into an evacuated tunnel to identify the carpal tunnel boundary. The balloon-based (i.e. true carpal tunnel) and osseous-based carpal tunnel boundaries were extracted and divided into regions corresponding to the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium, and transverse carpal ligament (TCL). From the two boundaries, the overall and regional soft tissue thicknesses and areas were calculated. The soft tissue thickness was significantly greater for the trapezoid (3.1±1.2mm) and trapezium (3.4±1.0mm) regions than for the hamate (0.7±0.3mm) and capitate (1.2±0.5mm) regions. The carpal tunnel area using the osseous boundary (243.0±40.4mm(2)) was significantly larger than the balloon-based area (183.9±29.7mm(2)) with a ratio of 1.32. In other words, the carpal tunnel area can be estimated as 76% (= 1/1.32) of the osseous-based area. The abundance of soft tissue in the trapezoid and trapezium regions can be attributed mainly to the capitate-trapezium ligament and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Inclusion of such soft tissue leads to overestimations of the carpal tunnel area. Correct quantification of the carpal tunnel area aids in examining carpal

  19. Carpal Tunnel Cross-Sectional Area Affected by Soft Tissues Abutting the Carpal Bones

    PubMed Central

    Gabra, Joseph N.; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The carpal tunnel accommodates free movement of its contents, and the tunnel's cross-sectional area is a useful morphological parameter for the evaluation of the space available for the carpal tunnel contents and of potential nerve compression in the tunnel. The osseous boundary of the carpal bones at the dorsal border of the carpal tunnel is commonly used to determine the tunnel area, but this boundary contains soft tissues such as numerous intercarpal ligaments and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. The aims of this study were to quantify the thickness of the soft tissues abutting the carpal bones and to investigate how this soft tissue influences the calculation of the carpal tunnel area. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for eight cadaveric specimens. A medical balloon with a physiological pressure was inserted into an evacuated tunnel to identify the carpal tunnel boundary. The balloon-based (i.e., true carpal tunnel) and osseous-based carpal tunnel boundaries were extracted and divided into regions corresponding to the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium, and transverse carpal ligament (TCL). From the two boundaries, the overall and regional soft tissue thicknesses and areas were calculated. The soft tissue thickness was significantly greater for the trapezoid (3.1 ± 1.2 mm) and trapezium (3.4 ± 1.0 mm) regions than for the hamate (0.7 ± 0.3 mm) and capitate (1.2 ± 0.5 mm) regions. The carpal tunnel area using the osseous boundary (243.0 ± 40.4 mm2) was significantly larger than the balloon-based area (183.9 ± 29.7 mm2) with a ratio of 1.32. In other words, the carpal tunnel area can be estimated as 76% (= 1/1.32) of the osseous-based area. The abundance of soft tissue in the trapezoid and trapezium regions can be attributed mainly to the capitotrapezial ligament and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Inclusion of such soft tissue leads to overestimations of the carpal tunnel area. Correct quantification of the carpal

  20. A soft-tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning. Part II.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, R A

    1984-04-01

    To summarize, the soft-tissue profile can vary in many ways and still be in balance and harmony. There is a wide range of acceptability regarding soft-tissue chin position in the profile. Both the lips and the chin should line up near the H line, but we need to look at the upper lip from a different perspective or in its relation to a line perpendicular to the Frankfort plane and tangent to the vermilion border to be certain that we are planning the best possible lip support for the case at hand. The H angle, allowing a few degrees for soft-tissue thickness variability, must increase as the basic skeletal convexity increases, and as the convexity increases, the lower incisors will need to be left farther forward than in a straight or concave skeletal profile. A thick integumental covering in the chin area can also effectively align the lower facial profile where lower incisors are farther forward than we are accustomed to seeing them. This principle can also be applied by surgically moving the bony chin forward until the three key soft-tissue points line up. Because there are wide variations in skeletal convexity, standardizing the position of the lower incisor to its apical base support as measured in the Frankfort mandibular incisor angle fails to recognize that upper incisors can be retracted too far, leaving a "streamlined" upper lip which is not esthetically pleasing. Locating the lower incisor in relation to the expected point A to pogonion line is somewhat better but still fails to recognize the wide range of variability in the thickness of the lips and soft-tissue chin. We must also guard against "dishing" those cases having good facial balance with quite normal skeletal convexity and only 5 mm or 6 mm of lower arch length discrepancy. Finally, it is completely practical as a treatment-planning procedure to approach the proposed orthodontic changes from a soft-tissue analysis perspective, making changes only to the point where the best possible soft-tissue

  1. A K-BKZ Formulation for Soft-Tissue Viscoelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.; Diethelm, Kai

    2005-01-01

    A viscoelastic model of the K-BKZ (Kaye 1962; Bernstein et al. 1963) type is developed for isotropic biological tissues, and applied to the fat pad of the human heel. To facilitate this pursuit, a class of elastic solids is introduced through a novel strain-energy function whose elements possess strong ellipticity, and therefore lead to stable material models. The standard fractional-order viscoelastic (FOV) solid is used to arrive at the overall elastic/viscoelastic structure of the model, while the elastic potential via the K-BKZ hypothesis is used to arrive at the tensorial structure of the model. Candidate sets of functions are proposed for the elastic and viscoelastic material functions present in the model, including a regularized fractional derivative that was determined to be the best. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) is advocated for performing multi-model inference, enabling an objective selection of the best material function from within a candidate set.

  2. A three-dimensional analysis of soft and hard tissue changes after a mandibular setback surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Kug; Lee, Cheol; Kang, Suk-Ho; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Myung-Jin; Chang, Young-Il

    2006-09-01

    This paper is concerned with a three-dimensional (3D) analysis on soft and hard tissue changes after mandibular setback surgery. For comparing with previous two-dimensional (2D) cephalometric data, we proposed a three-dimensional registration and analysis method based on the cephalometric knowledge. The 3D changes of bone, soft tissue and the ratio of soft tissue to bony movement were investigated in eight skeletal class III mandibular prognathism patients. CT scans of each patient were taken at pre- and post-operative states. Each scan was registered to a universal 3D coordinate system defined by cephalometric landmarks. A grid, parallel to the coronal plane, was also designed for the comparison of the changes. The bone and soft tissue was intersected by the projected line from each point on the grid. The coordinate values of intersected point were measured and compared between the pre- and post-operative models. In addition, the reproducibility of the universal coordinate system and the grid was evaluated. The facial surface changes after setback surgery occurred not only in the mandible but also in the mouth corner region. The soft tissue changes of the mandible were measured relatively by the proportional ratios to the bone changes. The ratios at the mid-sagittal plane were 77-102% (p<0.05). The ratios at all other sagittal planes had similar patterns to the mid-sagittal plane with decreased values. All the results conformed to the previous 2D based clinical knowledge and instinct of orthodontists. It is expected that the proposed approach would be applicable to other oral and maxillofacial surgeries as well as plastic surgeries. PMID:16919839

  3. Soft-tissue imaging with C-arm cone-beam CT using statistical reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Adam S; Stayman, J Webster; Otake, Yoshito; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Gallia, Gary L; Khanna, A Jay; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2014-02-21

    The potential for statistical image reconstruction methods such as penalized-likelihood (PL) to improve C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) soft-tissue visualization for intraoperative imaging over conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) is assessed in this work by making a fair comparison in relation to soft-tissue performance. A prototype mobile C-arm was used to scan anthropomorphic head and abdomen phantoms as well as a cadaveric torso at doses substantially lower than typical values in diagnostic CT, and the effects of dose reduction via tube current reduction and sparse sampling were also compared. Matched spatial resolution between PL and FBP was determined by the edge spread function of low-contrast (∼ 40-80 HU) spheres in the phantoms, which were representative of soft-tissue imaging tasks. PL using the non-quadratic Huber penalty was found to substantially reduce noise relative to FBP, especially at lower spatial resolution where PL provides a contrast-to-noise ratio increase up to 1.4-2.2 × over FBP at 50% dose reduction across all objects. Comparison of sampling strategies indicates that soft-tissue imaging benefits from fully sampled acquisitions at dose above ∼ 1.7 mGy and benefits from 50% sparsity at dose below ∼ 1.0 mGy. Therefore, an appropriate sampling strategy along with the improved low-contrast visualization offered by statistical reconstruction demonstrates the potential for extending intraoperative C-arm CBCT to applications in soft-tissue interventions in neurosurgery as well as thoracic and abdominal surgeries by overcoming conventional tradeoffs in noise, spatial resolution, and dose. PMID:24504126

  4. Soft-tissue imaging with C-arm cone-beam CT using statistical reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Adam S.; Webster Stayman, J.; Otake, Yoshito; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Gallia, Gary L.; Khanna, A. Jay; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2014-02-01

    The potential for statistical image reconstruction methods such as penalized-likelihood (PL) to improve C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) soft-tissue visualization for intraoperative imaging over conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) is assessed in this work by making a fair comparison in relation to soft-tissue performance. A prototype mobile C-arm was used to scan anthropomorphic head and abdomen phantoms as well as a cadaveric torso at doses substantially lower than typical values in diagnostic CT, and the effects of dose reduction via tube current reduction and sparse sampling were also compared. Matched spatial resolution between PL and FBP was determined by the edge spread function of low-contrast (˜40-80 HU) spheres in the phantoms, which were representative of soft-tissue imaging tasks. PL using the non-quadratic Huber penalty was found to substantially reduce noise relative to FBP, especially at lower spatial resolution where PL provides a contrast-to-noise ratio increase up to 1.4-2.2× over FBP at 50% dose reduction across all objects. Comparison of sampling strategies indicates that soft-tissue imaging benefits from fully sampled acquisitions at dose above ˜1.7 mGy and benefits from 50% sparsity at dose below ˜1.0 mGy. Therefore, an appropriate sampling strategy along with the improved low-contrast visualization offered by statistical reconstruction demonstrates the potential for extending intraoperative C-arm CBCT to applications in soft-tissue interventions in neurosurgery as well as thoracic and abdominal surgeries by overcoming conventional tradeoffs in noise, spatial resolution, and dose.

  5. Are all soft tissue calcifications detected by cone-beam computed tomography in the submandibular region sialoliths?

    PubMed

    Çağlayan, Fatma; Sümbüllü, Muhammed Akif; Miloğlu, Özkan; Akgül, Hayati Murat

    2014-08-01

    Heterotrophic soft tissue calcification occurs with the deposit of calcium salts in soft tissue rather than bone. The aim of this report is to describe cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) and ultrasonographic (US) findings of 2 cases of soft tissue calcifications that were initially diagnosed as submandibular or parotid sialolithiasis. Multiple soft tissue calcifications were evaluated by panoramic radiography, CBCT imaging, and US imaging in a 50-year-old male patient and a 30-year-old male patient. Calcifications were detected in the soft tissue of the submandibular area at axial, coronal, and multiplanar reformatted examinations and were prediagnosed as sialolithiasis. US examination was conducted to determine the complete relation between the soft tissues and the calcifications. In conclusion, high-resolution dental volumetric tomography with a low radiation dose is the optimal diagnostic tool to analyze the skeletal structure of the maxillofacial region in 3 dimensions. However, it is not sufficient to examine the soft tissues. US imaging is a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the relation between the soft tissues and the calcifications in the submandibular area. PMID:25037186

  6. Ultrasound and clinical evaluation of soft-tissue versus hardware biceps tenodesis: is hardware tenodesis worth the cost?

    PubMed

    Elkousy, Hussein; Romero, Jose A; Edwards, T Bradley; Gartsman, Gary M; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the failure rate of soft-tissue versus hardware fixation of biceps tenodesis by ultrasound to determine if the expense of a hardware tenodesis technique is warranted. Seventy-two patients that underwent arthroscopic biceps tenodesis over a 3-year period were evaluated using postoperative ultrasonography and clinical examination. The tenodesis technique employed was either a soft-tissue technique with sutures or an interference screw technique using hardware based on surgeon preference. Patient age was 57.9 years on average with ultrasound and clinical examination done at an average of 9.3 months postoperatively. Thirty-one patients had a hardware technique and 41 a soft-tissue technique. Overall, 67.7% of biceps tenodesis done with hardware were intact, compared with 75.6% for the soft-tissue technique by ultrasound (P = .46). Clinical evaluation indicated that 80.7% of hardware techniques and 78% of soft-tissue techniques were intact. Average material cost to the hospital for the hardware technique was $514.32, compared with $32.05 for the soft-tissue technique. Biceps tenodesis success, as determined by clinical deformity and ultrasound, was not improved using hardware as compared to soft-tissue techniques. Soft-tissue techniques are equally efficacious and more cost effective than hardware techniques. PMID:24551861

  7. Large-scale in-vivo Caucasian facial soft tissue thickness database for craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    De Greef, S; Claes, P; Vandermeulen, D; Mollemans, W; Suetens, P; Willems, G

    2006-05-15

    A large-scale study of facial soft tissue depths of Caucasian adults was conducted. Over a 2-years period, 967 Caucasian subjects of both sexes, varying age and varying body mass index (BMI) were studied. A user-friendly and mobile ultrasound-based system was used to measure, in about 20min per subject, the soft tissue thickness at 52 facial landmarks including most of the landmarks used in previous studies. This system was previously validated on repeatability and accuracy [S. De Greef, P. Claes, W. Mollemans, M. Loubele, D. Vandermeulen, P. Suetens, G. Willems, Semi-automated ultrasound facial soft tissue depth registration: method and validation. J. Forensic Sci. 50 (2005)]. The data of 510 women and 457 men were analyzed in order to update facial soft tissue depth charts of the contemporary Caucasian adult. Tables with the average thickness values for each landmark as well as the standard deviation and range, tabulated according to gender, age and BMI are reported. In addition, for each landmark and for both sexes separately, a multiple linear regression of thickness versus age and BMI is calculated. The lateral asymmetry of the face was analysed on an initial subset of 588 subjects showing negligible differences and thus warranting the unilateral measurements of the remaining subjects. The new dataset was statistically compared to three datasets for the Caucasian adults: the traditional datasets of Rhine and Moore [J.S. Rhine, C.E. Moore, Tables of facial tissue thickness of American Caucasoids in forensic anthropology. Maxwell Museum Technical series 1 (1984)] and Helmer [R. Helmer, Schädelidentifizierung durch elektronische bildmischung, Kriminalistik Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, 1984] together with the most recent in vivo study by Manhein et al. [M.H. Manhein, G.A. Listi, R.E. Barsley, R. Musselman, N.E. Barrow, D.H. Ubelbaker, In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for children and adults. J. Forensic Sci. 45 (2000) 48-60]. The large-scale database

  8. CT & CBCT imaging: assessment of the orbits.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, David C

    2012-11-01

    The orbits can be visualized easily on routine or customized protocols for computed tomography (CT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) scans. Detailed orbital investigations are best performed with 3-dimensional imaging methods. CT scans are preferred for visualizing the osseous orbital anatomy and fissures while magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating tumors and inflammation. CBCT provides high-resolution anatomic data of the sinonasal spaces, airway, soft tissue surfaces, and bones but does not provide much detail within the soft tissues. This article discusses CBCT imaging of the orbits, osseous anatomy of the orbits, and CBCT investigation of selected orbital pathosis. PMID:22981080

  9. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-huai; Fu, Jian-zhong

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods. PMID:25427880

  10. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Xue, Guang-Huai; Fu, Jian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used to polish the casting mold by removing the staircase effect and acquiring a smooth surface. Finally, the last step is to cast medical grade silicone into the mold. After the silicone is cured, the fine soft prostheses can be removed from the mold. Utilizing the SPPC method, soft prostheses with smooth surface and complicated structure can be fabricated at a low cost. Accordingly, the total cost of fabricating ear prosthesis is about $30, which is much lower than the current soft prostheses fabrication methods.

  11. Responses of the pulp, periradicular and soft tissues following trauma to the permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Yu, C Y; Abbott, P V

    2016-03-01

    Trauma to the permanent teeth involves not only the teeth but also the pulp, the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, gingiva and other associated structures. There are many variations in the types of injuries with varying severity and often a tooth may sustain more than one injury at the same time. In more severe trauma cases, there are many different cellular systems of mineralized hard and unmineralized soft tissues involved, each with varying potential for healing. Furthermore, the responses of the different tissues may be interrelated and dependent on each other. Hence, healing subsequent to dental trauma has long been known to be very complex. Because of this complexity, tissue responses and the consequences following dental trauma have been confusing and puzzling for many clinicians. In this review, the tissue responses are described under the tissue compartments typically involved following dental trauma: the pulp, periradicular and associated soft tissues. The factors involved in the mechanisms of trauma are analysed for their effects on the tissue responses. A thorough understanding of the possible tissue responses is imperative for clinicians to overcome the confusion and manage dental trauma adequately and conservatively in order to minimize the consequences following trauma. PMID:26923447

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of orthopedic interface repair using a tissue scaffold with a continuous hard tissue-soft tissue transition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tendon tears produce pain and decrease joint stability; each year, over 1.1 million rotator cuff tendon surgical procedures are performed worldwide. However, surgical success is highly variable, and the inability of the procedure to drive the regeneration of the normal tendon-bone interface has been identified as a key factor in surgical failure. This study focuses on the development, in vitro evaluation, and in vivo assessment of a tissue scaffold derived from bovine cancellous bone with the potential to direct regeneration of a bone-soft tissue interface. The scaffold is a highly porous scaffold with a continuous hard tissue-soft tissue transition that facilitates load transfer across the interface and contains all of the extracellular matrix components of the orthopedic interface. This study demonstrated the in vitro characterization of the mechanical properties and successful in vivo assessment using an ovine model. PMID:23782505

  13. Serious soft tissue infections of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, R.D.; Murdock, R.T.; Davis, R.K. )

    1991-09-01

    The head and neck contain a number of spaces that can be invaded by organisms of the mouth or by spread of cervical osteomyelitis. Infection in these spaces may progress from superficial infection to cellulitis to the formation of an abscess requiring immediate drainage. Spread of infection between spaces depends on anatomic location. Most patients require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotic therapy. Because a deep space infection may be occult, a high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis. Early recognition is necessary to avoid tissue damage, bacteremia or airway compromise. The possibility of deep space infection should be considered in any patient who does not respond to the usual treatment of an abscessed tooth or tonsillitis. This type of infection also should be considered in a toxic patient who has a fever of unknown origin, with or without blood cultures that show anaerobic organisms. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is usually necessary to locate the infection and to detect suppuration that will be amenable to surgical exploration and drainage. 25 references.

  14. Tungiasis presenting as a soft tissue oral lesion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The sand flea Tunga penetrans usually infects the feet and affects primary school-age children and elderly persons in rural Uganda. Tungiasis occurs nationwide but disease outbreaks have been reported in the Busoga sub-Region of eastern Uganda, associated with poor sanitation and proximity between humans and domestic animals. Ectopic tungiasis, usually seen with extensive infection and at weight-bearing body surfaces often follows exposure in highly infested environments. For patients who present abroad treatment may be surgical excision or amputation. Case presentation An adult female Musoga by tribe, resident in a Kampala City suburb presented at Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital’s Oral Surgery and Jaw Injuries Unit with a discoloured swollen tongue, facial cellulitis and submandibular lymphadenopathy. A swelling palpable in the body of her tongue was excised and sent for histology. Tungiasis of the tongue was diagnosed after microscopic examination of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded Haematoxylin and Eosin-stained tissue sections. Conclusion Lingual tungiasis is a rare diagnosis that was made on histological examination. Atypical presentation outside an endemic area predisposed the patient to partial glossectomy instead of the less invasive flea enucleation. Ectopic disease in a city-resident highlights the plight not only of visitors to infested areas but also of the communities and their domestic animals. PMID:25186303

  15. Validation of a Radiography-Based Quantification Designed to Longitudinally Monitor Soft Tissue Calcification in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stephanie N.; Hawley, Gregory D.; Smith, Emily N.; Mignemi, Nicholas A.; Ihejirika, Rivka C.; Yuasa, Masato; Cates, Justin M. M.; Liu, Xulei; Schoenecker, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Soft tissue calcification, including both dystrophic calcification and heterotopic ossification, may occur following injury. These lesions have variable fates as they are either resorbed or persist. Persistent soft tissue calcification may result in chronic inflammation and/or loss of function of that soft tissue. The molecular mechanisms that result in the development and maturation of calcifications are uncertain. As a result, directed therapies that prevent or resorb soft tissue calcifications remain largely unsuccessful. Animal models of post-traumatic soft tissue calcification that allow for cost-effective, serial analysis of an individual animal over time are necessary to derive and test novel therapies. We have determined that a cardiotoxin-induced injury of the muscles in the posterior compartment of the lower extremity represents a useful model in which soft tissue calcification develops remote from adjacent bones, thereby allowing for serial analysis by plain radiography. The purpose of the study was to design and validate a method for quantifying soft tissue calcifications in mice longitudinally using plain radiographic techniques and an ordinal scoring system. Methods Muscle injury was induced by injecting cardiotoxin into the posterior compartment of the lower extremity in mice susceptible to developing soft tissue calcification. Seven days following injury, radiographs were obtained under anesthesia. Multiple researchers applied methods designed to standardize post-image processing of digital radiographs (N = 4) and quantify soft tissue calcification (N = 6) in these images using an ordinal scoring system. Inter- and intra-observer agreement for both post-image processing and the scoring system used was assessed using weighted kappa statistics. Soft tissue calcification quantifications by the ordinal scale were compared to mineral volume measurements (threshold 450.7mgHA/cm3) determined by μCT. Finally, sample-size calculations necessary

  16. Rod-based Fabrication of Customizable Soft Robotic Pneumatic Gripper Devices for Delicate Tissue Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Low, Jin-Huat; Yeow, Chen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soft compliant gripping is essential in delicate surgical manipulation for minimizing the risk of tissue grip damage caused by high stress concentrations at the point of contact. It can be achieved by complementing traditional rigid grippers with soft robotic pneumatic gripper devices. This manuscript describes a rod-based approach that combined both 3D-printing and a modified soft lithography technique to fabricate the soft pneumatic gripper. In brief, the pneumatic featureless mold with chamber component is 3D-printed and the rods were used to create the pneumatic channels that connect to the chamber. This protocol eliminates the risk of channels occluding during the sealing process and the need for external air source or related control circuit. The soft gripper consists of a chamber filled with air, and one or more gripper arms with a pneumatic channel in each arm connected to the chamber. The pneumatic channel is positioned close to the outer wall to create different stiffness in the gripper arm. Upon compression of the chamber which generates pressure on the pneumatic channel, the gripper arm will bend inward to form a close grip posture because the outer wall area is more compliant. The soft gripper can be inserted into a 3D-printed handling tool with two different control modes for chamber compression: manual gripper mode with a movable piston, and robotic gripper mode with a linear actuator. The double-arm gripper with two actuatable arms was able to pick up objects of sizes up to 2 mm and yet generate lower compressive forces as compared to elastomer-coated and non-coated rigid grippers. The feasibility of having other designs, such as single-arm or hook gripper, was also demonstrated, which further highlighted the customizability of the soft gripper device, and it's potential to be used in delicate surgical manipulation to reduce the risk of tissue grip damage. PMID:27584722

  17. Maximizing Outcomes While Minimizing Morbidity: An Illustrated Case Review of Elbow Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Adrian; Ng, Jonathan; Chui, Christopher; Goh, Terence; Tan, Bien Keem

    2016-01-01

    Background. Injuries to the elbow have led to consequences varying from significant limitation in function to loss of the entire upper limb. Soft tissue reconstruction with durable and pliable coverage balanced with the ability to mobilize the joint early to optimize rehabilitation outcomes is paramount. Methods. Methods of flap reconstruction have evolved from local and pedicled flaps to perforator-based flaps and free tissue transfer. Here we performed a review of 20 patients who have undergone flap reconstruction of the elbow at our institution. Discussion. 20 consecutive patients were identified and included in this study. Flap types include local (n = 5), regional pedicled (n = 7), and free (n = 8) flaps. The average size of defect was 138 cm2 (range 36–420 cm2). There were no flap failures in our series, and, at follow-up, the average range of movement of elbow flexion was 100°. Results. While the pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is the workhorse for elbow soft tissue coverage, advancements in microvascular knowledge and surgery have brought about great benefit, with the use of perforator flaps and free tissue transfer for wound coverage. Conclusion. We present here our case series on elbow reconstruction and an abbreviated algorithm on flap choice, highlighting our decision making process in the selection of safe flap choice for soft tissue elbow reconstruction. PMID:27313886

  18. On modelling of anisotropic viscoelasticity for soft tissue simulation: numerical solution and GPU execution.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Z A; Comas, O; Cheng, M; Passenger, J; Hawkes, D J; Atkinson, D; Ourselin, S

    2009-04-01

    Efficient and accurate techniques for simulation of soft tissue deformation are an increasingly valuable tool in many areas of medical image computing, such as biomechanically-driven image registration and interactive surgical simulation. For reasons of efficiency most analyses are based on simplified linear formulations, and previously almost all have ignored well established features of tissue mechanical response such as anisotropy and time-dependence. We address these latter issues by firstly presenting a generalised anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive framework for soft tissues, particular cases of which have previously been used to model a wide range of tissues. We then develop an efficient solution procedure for the accompanying viscoelastic hereditary integrals which allows use of such models in explicit dynamic finite element algorithms. We show that the procedure allows incorporation of both anisotropy and viscoelasticity for as little as 5.1% additional cost compared with the usual isotropic elastic models. Finally we describe the implementation of a new GPU-based finite element scheme for soft tissue simulation using the CUDA API. Even with the inclusion of more elaborate constitutive models as described the new implementation affords speed improvements compared with our recent graphics API-based implementation, and compared with CPU execution a speed up of 56.3 x is achieved. The validity of the viscoelastic solution procedure and performance of the GPU implementation are demonstrated with a series of numerical examples. PMID:19019721

  19. Minimally Invasive Holographic Surface Scanning for Soft-Tissue Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Hackworth, Douglas M.; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in registration have extended intra-surgical image guidance from its origins in bone-based procedures to new applications in soft tissues, thus enabling visualization of spatial relationships between surgical instruments and subsurface structures before incisions begin. Preoperative images are generally registered to soft tissues through aligning segmented volumetric image data with an intraoperatively sensed cloud of organ surface points. However, there is currently no viable noncontact minimally invasive scanning technology that can collect these points through a single laparoscopic port, which limits wider adoption of soft-tissue image guidance. In this paper, we describe a system based on conoscopic holography that is capable of minimally invasive surface scanning. We present the results of several validation experiments scanning ex vivo biological and phantom tissues with a system consisting of a tracked, off-the-shelf, relatively inexpensive conoscopic holography unit. These experiments indicate that conoscopic holography is suitable for use with biological tissues, and can provide surface scans of comparable quality to existing clinically used laser range scanning systems that require open surgery. We demonstrate experimentally that conoscopic holography can be used to guide a surgical needle to desired subsurface targets with an average tip error of less than 3 mm. PMID:20659823

  20. Soft Tissue Augmentation Using Silk Gels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Olivier; Schneider, Aurore; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Claire; Polidori, Camille; Leisk, Gary G.; Kaplan, David L.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Egles, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Restoration of a three-dimensional shape with soft tissue augmentation is a challenge for surgical reconstruction and esthetic improvement of intraoral mucosa and perioral skin tissues. A connective tissue graft or free gingival graft, classically used for such indications, requires a donor site, which may lead to various clinical complications. Methods In this article, a new three-dimensional scaffold made of silk fibroin that could be of great interest for these indications was studied. Mechanical tests were conducted to characterize the physical properties of the materials. The biocompatibility of such scaffolds was positively assessed in vitro using a combination of immunostaining, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and histologic staining. Finally, the shaped material was grafted subcutaneously in nude mice for a long-time implantation study. Results Human fibroblasts embedded in this material had a survival rate up to 68.4% and were able to proliferate and synthesize proteins. One month after subcutaneous implantation, the three-dimensional soft tissue augmentation was stable, and histologic analysis revealed revascularization of the area through the biomaterial. A mild inflammatory reaction disappeared after 12 weeks. Conclusion The results indicate that silk-gel material was able to create a lasting three-dimensional soft tissue augmentation and is a promising biomaterial for periodontal and maxillofacial therapies, either as a scaffold for cells or alone as a biomaterial. PMID:19905955

  1. Soft Tissue Management and Prosthetic Rehabilitation in a Tongue Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Umberto; Laurito, Domenica; Cugnetto, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    One major challenge in treating head and neck oncologic patients is to achieve an acceptable recovery of physiologic functions compatible with the complete tumor excision. However, after tumor resection, some patients present a surgically altered anatomy incompatible with prosthetic rehabilitation, unless some soft tissue correction is carried out. The aim of the present study is to describe the overall mandibular prosthetic rehabilitation of a postoncologic patient focusing on the possibility of soft tissue correction as a part of the treatment. A 72-year-old woman, who undergone a hemiglossectomy for squamous cell carcinoma several years before, was referred to our department needing a new prosthesis. The patient presented partial mandibular edentulism, defects in tongue mobility, and a bridge of scar tissue connecting one side of the tongue to the alveolar ridge. A diode laser (980 nm) was used to remove the fibrous scar tissue. After reestablishing a proper vestibular depth and soft tissue morphology, two implants were placed in the interforaminal region of the mandible to support an overdenture. PMID:24319601

  2. Using robotic systems in order to determine biomechanical properties of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, M E; Moral, A; Westphal, R; Rode, D; Rilk, M; Wahl, F M

    2008-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of soft tissue are important not only during computer simulation for medical training but also for systems where tissue deformation must be estimated in real-time, for example, Robot Assisted Surgery. The purpose of this paper is to describe some biomechanical tests consisting in the measurement of contact forces and deformations in tissue phantoms and porcine soft tissues (liver, brain, stomach and intestine). During the measurements two different procedures were applied. First, we have used a 5DOF micromanipulator instrumented with a spherical probe and a 6-axis force/torque ATI sensor. In the second procedure instead of the micromanipulator a Stäubli RX60 robot was used to apply the force over the samples. During this last test a high noise-signal relationship was detected and in order to improve the accuracy of the experiments some results were obtained using a Stäubli TX40 robot. Major accuracy in research in the field of soft tissue could be reached using standard procedures. Robotic systems allow precise movements to carry on biomechanical tests, and also permit a wide range of tasks to be implemented. PMID:18376024

  3. Composition and mechanism of action of poly-L-lactic acid in soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Vleggaar, Danny; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Lorenc, Z Paul

    2014-04-01

    Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a synthetic, biocompatible, biodegradable polymer. For its use in soft tissue augmentation, it is supplied as a lyophilized powder containing PLLA microparticles, the size and chemical attributes of which are tightly controlled. As a biocompatible material, PLLA generates a desired subclinical inflammatory tissue response that leads to encapsulation of the microparticles, stimulation of host collagen production, and fibroplasia. Over time, the PLLA degrades, the inflammatory response wanes, and host collagen production increases. This response leads to the generation of new volume and structural support that occurs in a gradual, progressive manner, and which can last for years. Coupled with consistent, optimized injection methodology, the use of PLLA in soft tissue augmentation can result in a predictable cosmetic effect that is completely controlled by the treating clinician. PMID:24719074

  4. Toward soft-tissue elastography using digital holography to monitor surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiguang; Mohan, Karan D; Sanders, William W; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2011-11-01

    Measuring the elasticity distribution inside the human body is of great interest because elastic abnormalities can serve as indicators of several diseases. We present a method for mapping elasticity inside soft tissues by imaging surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with digital holographic interferometry. With this method, we show that SAWs are consistent with Rayleigh waves, with velocities proportional to the square root of the elastic modulus greater than 2-40 kPa in homogeneous tissue phantoms. In two-layer phantoms, the SAW velocity transitions approximately from that of the lower layer to that of the upper layer as frequency is increased in agreement with the theoretical relationship between SAW dispersion and the depth-dependent stiffness profile. We also observed deformation in the propagation direction of SAWs above a stiff inclusion placed 8 mm below the surface. These findings demonstrate the potential for quantitative digital holography-based elastography of soft tissues as a noninvasive method for disease detection. PMID:22112110

  5. Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Version 2.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

    PubMed

    von Mehren, Margaret; Randall, R Lor; Benjamin, Robert S; Boles, Sarah; Bui, Marilyn M; Conrad, Ernest U; Ganjoo, Kristen N; George, Suzanne; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Heslin, Martin J; Kane, John M; Koon, Henry; Mayerson, Joel; McCarter, Martin; McGarry, Sean V; Meyer, Christian; O'Donnell, Richard J; Pappo, Alberto S; Paz, I Benjamin; Petersen, Ivy A; Pfeifer, John D; Riedel, Richard F; Schuetze, Scott; Schupak, Karen D; Schwartz, Herbert S; Tap, William D; Wayne, Jeffrey D; Bergman, Mary Anne; Scavone, Jillian

    2016-06-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare solid tumors of mesenchymal cell origin that display a heterogenous mix of clinical and pathologic characteristics. STS can develop from fat, muscle, nerves, blood vessels, and other connective tissues. The evaluation and treatment of patients with STS requires a multidisciplinary team with demonstrated expertise in the management of these tumors. The complete NCCN Guidelines for Soft Tissue Sarcoma (available at NCCN.org) provide recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of extremity/superficial trunk/head and neck STS, as well as intra-abdominal/retroperitoneal STS, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, desmoid tumors, and rhabdomyosarcoma. This manuscript discusses guiding principles for the diagnosis and staging of STS and evidence for treatment modalities that include surgery, radiation, chemoradiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. PMID:27283169

  6. Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, Bill W.; Everett, Mathew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B. Otis, Linda L. Stroeve, Pieter Nathel, Howard

    1998-06-01

    We have developed a prototype optical coherent tomography (OCT) system for the imaging of hard and soft tissue in the oral cavity. High-resolution images of {ital in vitro} porcine periodontal tissues have been obtained with this system. The images clearly show the enamel{endash}cementum and the gingiva{endash}tooth interfaces, indicating OCT is a potentially useful technique for diagnosis of periodontal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first application of OCT for imaging biologic hard tissue. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  7. Human walking isn't all hard work: evidence of soft tissue contributions to energy dissipation and return

    PubMed Central

    Zelik, Karl E.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    The muscles and tendons of the lower extremity are generally considered the dominant producers of positive and negative work during gait. However, soft-tissue deformations not captured by joint rotations might also dissipate, store and even return substantial energy to the body. A key locomotion event is the collision of the leg with the ground, which deforms soft tissues appreciably in running. Significant deformation might also result from the impulsive ground collision in walking. In a study of normal human walking (N=10; 0.7–2.0 m s–1 speeds), we show indirect evidence for both negative and positive work performed by soft tissue, consistent with a damped elastic collision and rebound. We used the difference between measured joint work and another quantity – the work performed on the body center of mass – to indicate possible work performed by soft tissue. At 1.25 m s–1, we estimated that soft tissue performs approximately 7.5 J of negative work per collision. This constitutes approximately 60% of the total negative collision work and 31% of the total negative work per stride. The amount of soft tissue work during collision increases sharply with speed. Each collision is followed by 4 J of soft tissue rebound that is also not captured by joint work measures. Soft tissue deformation may save muscles the effort of actively dissipating energy, and soft tissue elastic rebound could save up to 14% of the total positive work per stride. Soft tissues not only cushion impacts but also appear to perform substantial work. PMID:21113007

  8. The effect of mechanical strains in soft tissues of the shoulder during load carriage.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Amir; Belzer, Noa; Shabshin, Nogah; Zeilig, Gabi; Gefen, Amit; Epstein, Yoram

    2015-11-26

    Soldiers and recreational backpackers are often required to carry heavy loads during military operations or hiking. Shoulder strain appears to be one of the limiting factors of load carriage due to skin and underlying soft tissue deformations, trapped nerves, or obstruction of blood vessels. The present study was aimed to determine relationships between backpack weights and the state of loads in the shoulder׳s inner tissues, with a special focus on the deformations in the brachial plexus. Open-MRI scans were used for developing and then verifying a three-dimensional, non-linear, large deformation, finite element model of the shoulder. Loads were applied at the strap-shoulder contact surfaces of the model by pulling the strap towards the shoulder until the desired load was reached. Increasing the strap tensile forces up to a load that represents 35kg backpack resulted in gradual increase in strains within the underlying soft tissues: the maximal tensile strain in the brachial plexus for a 25kg backpack was 12%, and while carrying 35kg, the maximal tensile strain increased to 16%. The lateral aspect of the brachial plexus was found to be more vulnerable to deformation-inflicted effects than the medial aspect. This is due to the anatomy of the clavicle that poorly shields the plexus from compressive loads applied during load carriage, while the neural tissue in the medial aspect of the shoulder is better protected by the clavicle. The newly developed model can serve as a tool to estimate soft tissue deformations in the brachial plexus for heavy backpack loads, up to 35kg. This method will allow further development of new strap structures and materials for alleviating the strains applied on the shoulder soft tissues. PMID:26542788

  9. Plantar soft tissue loading under the medial metatarsals in the standing diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Gefen, Amit

    2003-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (type 2) is the most frequent cause of non-traumatic lower-limb amputations. The major cause of impairment to the feet of diabetics is persistent hyperglycemia, potentially leading to peripheral neuropathy as well as to pathological changes in plantar soft tissue, which stiffen its structure and diminish its ability to effectively distribute foot-ground contact loads. In this study, a computational model of the foot structure in the standing position was utilized to evaluate stress distributions in plantar soft tissue under the medial metatarsal heads of simulated diabetic versus normal feet. The model comprises five anatomic planar cross-sections in the directions of the foot rays, which were solved for internal stresses under static ankle joint reaction (300 N) and triceps surae muscle forces (150 N) using the finite element method. Tissues were assumed to be homogenous, isotropic and elastic materials, with nonlinear stress-strain relations for the ligaments, fascia and plantar tissue. The model revealed significant tension stress concentrations (90-150 KPa) in the plantar pad of the simulated diabetic forefoot: they were four times the normal maximum stress under the first metatarsal head and almost eight times the normal maximum stress under the second metatarsal head. It was shown that with increased severity of stiffening of the plantar pad, as related to glucose-exposure, peak forefoot contact stresses may rise by 38 and 50% under the first and second metatarsal heads, respectively. The increase in averaged (von Mises) internal stresses within the plantar soft tissue is even more pronounced, and may rise by 82 and 307% for the tissue under the first and second metatarsal heads, respectively. These results, which conform to experimental data gathered over the last two decades, suggest that the process of injury in diabetic feet is very likely to initiate not on the skin surface, but in deeper tissue layers, and the tissues underlying the

  10. Phase-contrast Hounsfield units of fixated and non-fixated soft-tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia; Rozhkova, Elena A.

    2015-08-31

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. In addition, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.

  11. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  12. Localized Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoma Tissue Lymphoma Managed With Primary Radiation Therapy: Efficacy and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Jayant Sastri; Le, Lisa W.; Lapperriere, Normand J.; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Payne, David; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander; Simpson, Rand; Tsang, Richard W.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and late effects of radiation therapy (RT) in localized primary orbital mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma (POML). Methods and Materials: From 1989 to 2007, 89 patients with Stage IE POML received RT. The median age was 56 years old. Sites involved conjunctiva (59 patients [66%]), lacrimal gland (20 patients [23%]), and soft tissue (10 patients [11%]). Megavoltage beam(s) was used in 91%, electrons in 7%, and orthovoltage in 2% of cases. The dose given was 25 Gy in 97% and 30 Gy in 3% of patients. Lens shielding was possible in 57% of patients. Results: The median follow-up was 5.9 years. Complete response or unconfirmed complete response was seen in 88 patients (99%). Relapse occurred in 22 patients (25%). First relapse sites were local (2 patients [9%]), in the contralateral orbit (5 patients [23%]), and distant (15 patients [68%]). The 7-year overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and local control (LC) rates were 91%, 96%, 64%, and 97%, respectively. Radiation-related late sequelae were documented in 40 patients (45%). Cataracts were observed in 22 patients (Grade 1 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 20 patients). The incidence of Grade 3 cataract at 7 years was 25%. Other late sequelae (n = 28) were dry eye(s) (22 patients [Grade 1 in 14 patients; Grade 2 in 2 patients; Grade 3 in 2 patients; n/s in 4 patients), keratitis (3 patients), macular degeneration/cystoid edema (2 patients), and vitreous detachment (1 patient). Five patients developed Grade 3 noncataract late effects. Lens shielding reduced the incidence of Grade 3 cataract and all Grade {>=}2 late sequelae. Seventeen patients (16 with cataracts) underwent surgery; 23 patients were treated conservatively. The outcome for managing late effects was generally successful, with 30 patients completely improved, and 9 patients with persisting late sequelae (10%). Conclusions: POML responds favorably to moderate doses

  13. A Systematic Approach to the Application of Soft Tissue Histopathology in Paleopathology

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Christina; Peschel, Oliver; Nerlich, Andreas G.

    2015-01-01

    The application of histology to soft tissue remains offers an important technique to obtain diagnostically important information on various physiological and pathological conditions in paleopathology. In a series of 29 cases with mummified tissue ranging between 16 months and c. 5.200 years of postmortem time interval, we systematically investigated paleohistology and the preservation of various tissues. We established a reproducible histological ranking system for the evaluation of mummified tissue preservation. The application of this scheme to the series showed good tissue preservation of tissues with high connective tissue content but also fat tissue and connective tissue rich organs, such as lung tissue, while most other internal organs were less well preserved despite highly different postmortem time intervals. There are some organs with only poor conservation even in short term periods such as the kidneys and CNS. Artificial mummification does not provide better conservation than naturally mummified tissues; “cold” mummies may be much better conserved than those from desert areas. The identification of specific pathologies underlines the potential power of paleohistology. PMID:26346981

  14. Electrical resistance of human soft tissue sarcomas: an ex vivo study on surgical specimens.

    PubMed

    Campana, L G; Cesari, M; Dughiero, F; Forzan, M; Rastrelli, M; Rossi, C R; Sieni, E; Tosi, A L

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study about electrical resistance, which using fixed electrode geometry could be correlated to the tissue resistivity, of different histological types of human soft tissue sarcomas measured during electroporation. The same voltage pulse sequence was applied to the tumor mass shortly after surgical resection by means of a voltage pulse generator currently used in clinical practice for electrochemotherapy that uses reversible electroporation. The voltage pulses were applied by means of a standard hexagonal electrode composed by seven, 20-mm-long equispaced needles. Irrespective of tumor size, the electrode applies electric pulses to the same volume of tissue. The resistance value was computed from the voltage and current recorded by the pulse generator, and it was correlated with the histological characteristics of the tumor tissue which was assessed by a dedicated pathologist. Some differences in resistance values, which could be correlated to a difference in tissue resistivity, were noticed according to sarcoma histotype. Lipomatous tumors (i.e., those rich in adipose tissue) displayed the highest resistance values (up to 1700 Ω), whereas in the other soft tissue sarcomas, such as those originating from muscle, nerve sheath, or fibrous tissue, the electrical resistance measured was between 40 and 110 Ω. A variability in resistance was found also within the same histotype. Among lipomatous tumors, the presence of myxoid tissue between adipocytes reduced the electrical resistance (e.g., 50-100 Ω). This work represents the first step in order to explore the difference in tissue electrical properties of STS. These results may be used to verify whether tuning electric field intensity according to the specific STS histotype could improve tissue electroporation and ultimately treatment efficacy. PMID:26324245

  15. Tests of one Brazilian facial reconstruction method using three soft tissue depth sets and familiar assessors.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Clemente Maia S; Serra, Mônica da Costa; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Pereira, Frederico David Alencar de Sena; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2012-01-10

    Facial reconstruction is a method that seeks to recreate a person's facial appearance from his/her skull. This technique can be the last resource used in a forensic investigation, when identification techniques such as DNA analysis, dental records, fingerprints and radiographic comparison cannot be used to identify a body or skeletal remains. To perform facial reconstruction, the data of facial soft tissue thickness are necessary. Scientific literature has described differences in the thickness of facial soft tissue between ethnic groups. There are different databases of soft tissue thickness published in the scientific literature. There are no literature records of facial reconstruction works carried out with data of soft tissues obtained from samples of Brazilian subjects. There are also no reports of digital forensic facial reconstruction performed in Brazil. There are two databases of soft tissue thickness published for the Brazilian population: one obtained from measurements performed in fresh cadavers (fresh cadavers' pattern), and another from measurements using magnetic resonance imaging (Magnetic Resonance pattern). This study aims to perform three different characterized digital forensic facial reconstructions (with hair, eyelashes and eyebrows) of a Brazilian subject (based on an international pattern and two Brazilian patterns for soft facial tissue thickness), and evaluate the digital forensic facial reconstructions comparing them to photos of the individual and other nine subjects. The DICOM data of the Computed Tomography (CT) donated by a volunteer were converted into stereolitography (STL) files and used for the creation of the digital facial reconstructions. Once the three reconstructions were performed, they were compared to photographs of the subject who had the face reconstructed and nine other subjects. Thirty examiners participated in this recognition process. The target subject was recognized by 26.67% of the examiners in the reconstruction

  16. Accuracy of Intraoral Digital Impressions for Whole Upper Jaws, Including Full Dentitions and Palatal Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ning; Xiong, Yaoyang; Jiao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Intraoral digital impressions have been stated to meet the clinical requirements for some teeth-supported restorations, though fewer evidences were proposed for larger scanning range. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of intraoral digital impressions for whole upper jaws, including the full dentitions and palatal soft tissues, as well as to determine the effect of different palatal vault height or arch width on accuracy of intraoral digital impressions. Thirty-two volunteers were divided into three groups according to the palatal vault height or arch width. Each volunteer received three scans with TRIOS intraoral scanner and one conventional impression of whole upper jaw. Three-dimensional (3D) images digitized from conventional gypsum casts by a laboratory scanner were chose as the reference models. All datasets were imported to a specific software program for 3D analysis by "best fit alignment" and "3D compare" process. Color-coded deviation maps showed qualitative visualization of the deviations. For the digital impressions for palatal soft tissues, trueness was (130.54±33.95)μm and precision was (55.26±11.21)μm. For the digital impressions for upper full dentitions, trueness was (80.01±17.78)μm and precision was (59.52±11.29)μm. Larger deviations were found between intraoral digital impressions and conventional impressions in the areas of palatal soft tissues than that in the areas of full dentitions (p<0.001). Precision of digital impressions for palatal soft tissues was slightly better than that for full dentitions (p = 0.049). There was no significant effect of palatal vault height on accuracy of digital impressions for palatal soft tissues (p>0.05), but arch width was found to have a significant effect on precision of intraoral digital impressions for full dentitions (p = 0.016). A linear correlation was found between arch width and precision of digital impressions for whole upper jaws (r = 0.326, p = 0

  17. Surgical Removal of Neglected Soft Tissue Foreign Bodies by Needle-Guided Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Radmanesh, Mohammad; Rabiei, Sohrab; kavoussi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The phenomenon of neglected foreign bodies is a significant cause of morbidity in soft tissue injuries and may present to dermatologists as delayed wound healing, localized cellulitis and inflammation, abscess formation, or foreign body sensation. Localization and removal of neglected soft tissue foreign bodies (STFBs) is complex due to possible inflammation, indurations, granulated tissue, and fibrotic scar. This paper describes a simple method for the quick localization and (surgical) removal of neglected STFBs using two 23-gauge needles without ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic guidance. Materials and Methods: A technique based on the use of two 23-gauge needles was used in 41 neglected STFBs in order to achieve proper localization and fixation of foreign bodies during surgery. Results: Surgical removal was successful in 38 of 41 neglected STFBs (ranging from 2–13mm in diameter). Conclusion: The cross-needle-guided technique is an office-based procedure that allows the successful surgical removal of STFBs using minimal soft tissue exploration and dissection via proper localization, fixation, and propulsion of the foreign body toward the surface of the skin. PMID:24303416

  18. Gossypiboma of the Thigh Mimicking Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Malot, Rajat; Meena, Devi Sahai

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Foreign body granulomas due to surgical swab left after surgery (Gossypiboma) are rare. There are few cases of such lesion after orthopaedic procedure in thigh. Presentations vary from pathological fracture to painless mass. Gossipyboma with radiological appearance of soft tissue sarcoma are rare and we report one such case Case Report: 32 year old male laborer had fracture shaft femur 13 years back which went into malunion after conservative treatment. Osteoclasis, open reduction and K-nailing was done at 6 months. Fracture united and K nail was removed 3 years later. Patient was asymptomatic for 10 years after which he presented to us with swelling and pain in the medial aspect of thigh. Radiograph showed soft tissue mass with excavating lesion of the posteromedial aspect of femur resembling soft tissue sarcoma. Biopsy revealed cystic lesion with sterile fluid with no malignant cells. Explorations of the lesion lead to discovery of shredded surgical swab. Complete removal of all granulomatous tissue was done and patient was given hip spica for 3 months after which he was gradually mobilized and is currently walking full weight bearing at one year follow up. Conclusion: Cases with radiologically destructive lesions close to previous surgery scars should be assessed with gossypiboma as one of the differentials.

  19. Effects of overlying soft tissue on X-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Naseer; Fleming, David E. B.; Wilkie, David; O'Meara, Joanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of overlying soft tissue on the measurement uncertainty of the in vivo 109Cd K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique were investigated, as applied to the tibia bone site. Experimental measurements were performed on a set of nine leg phantoms of different soft tissue thickness, intended to model the lower leg at mid-tibia. A standard bone phantom made from plaster-of-Paris and having a nominal lead concentration of 25.6 μg Pb per gram was used in all trials. Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental set-up were also performed. Results indicate a strong relation between measurement uncertainty and overlying tissue thickness (OTT) for the XRF bone lead method. In increasing the OTT from 3.2 to 14.6 mm, an increase in average measurement uncertainty by a factor of 2.40 was observed experimentally. Monte Carlo simulations indicated an increase in minimum detectable limit (MDL) by a factor of 2.46 over the same interval. Experimental and Monte Carlo results were generally in strong agreement. For subject screening purposes, direct measurement of soft tissue overlying the tibia is recommended whenever practical.

  20. A stress driven growth model for soft tissue considering biological availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oller, S.; Bellomo, F. J.; Armero, F.; Nallim, L. G.

    2010-06-01

    Some of the key factors that regulate growth and remodeling of tissues are fundamentally mechanical. However, it is important to take into account the role of bioavailability together with the stresses and strains in the processes of normal or pathological growth. In this sense, the model presented in this work is oriented to describe the growth of soft biological tissue under "stress driven growth" and depending on the biological availability of the organism. The general theoretical framework is given by a kinematic formulation in large strain combined with the thermodynamic basis of open systems. The formulation uses a multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient, splitting it in a growth part and visco-elastic part. The strains due to growth are incompatible and are controlled by an unbalanced stresses related to a homeostatic state. Growth implies a volume change with an increase of mass maintaining constant the density. One of the most interesting features of the proposed model is the generation of new tissue taking into account the contribution of mass to the system controlled through biological availability. Because soft biological tissues in general have a hierarchical structure with several components (usually a soft matrix reinforced with collagen fibers), the developed growth model is suitable for the characterization of the growth of each component. This allows considering a different behavior for each of them in the context of a generalized theory of mixtures. Finally, we illustrate the response of the model in case of growth and atrophy with an application example.

  1. Automated segmentations of skin, soft-tissue, and skeleton, from torso CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kiryu, Takuji; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2004-05-01

    We have been developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for automatically recognizing human tissue and organ regions from high-resolution torso CT images. We show some initial results for extracting skin, soft-tissue and skeleton regions. 139 patient cases of torso CT images (male 92, female 47; age: 12-88) were used in this study. Each case was imaged with a common protocol (120kV/320mA) and covered the whole torso with isotopic spatial resolution of about 0.63 mm and density resolution of 12 bits. A gray-level thresholding based procedure was applied to separate the human body from background. The density and distance features to body surface were used to determine the skin, and separate soft-tissue from the others. A 3-D region growing based method was used to extract the skeleton. We applied this system to the 139 cases and found that the skin, soft-tissue and skeleton regions were recognized correctly for 93% of the patient cases. The accuracy of segmentation results was acceptable by evaluating the results slice by slice. This scheme will be included in CAD systems for detecting and diagnosing the abnormal lesions in multi-slice torso CT images.

  2. A Bayesian approach for characterization of soft tissue viscoelasticity in acoustic radiation force imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Pelegri, Assimina A

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical imaging techniques based on acoustic radiation force (ARF) have been developed to characterize the viscoelasticity of soft tissue by measuring the motion excited by ARF non-invasively. The unknown stress distribution in the region of excitation limits an accurate inverse characterization of soft tissue viscoelasticity, and single degree-of-freedom simplified models have been applied to solve the inverse problem approximately. In this study, the ARF-induced creep imaging is employed to estimate the time constant of a Voigt viscoelastic tissue model, and an inverse finite element (FE) characterization procedure based on a Bayesian formulation is presented. The Bayesian approach aims to estimate a reasonable quantification of the probability distributions of soft tissue mechanical properties in the presence of measurement noise and model parameter uncertainty. Gaussian process metamodeling is applied to provide a fast statistical approximation based on a small number of computationally expensive FE model runs. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the Bayesian approach provides an efficient and practical estimation of the probability distributions of time constant in the ARF-induced creep imaging. In a comparison study with the single degree of freedom models, the Bayesian approach with FE models improves the estimation results even in the presence of large uncertainty levels of the model parameters. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26255624

  3. Altering local soft-tissue circulation fails to halt venous drainage from the femur

    SciTech Connect

    Culbertson, M.C. III; Williams, C.D.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Janssen, H.F.

    1989-04-01

    It has been suggested that tourniquet application proximal to bone biopsy in an extremity can reduce the number of tumor cells spread through circulation. This study investigates the anatomical pathway through which rapid cell spread could occur. Radioactively labeled 15-mu microspheres were injected into the medullary canal of rat femurs. The ratio of injected particles found in the femur was compared among groups that received application of a tourniquet prior to injection, no tourniquet, or transection of all soft tissue proximal to the injection site. Obliteration of circulation in the soft tissue surrounding the femur with a tourniquet or tissue transection did not alter the spread of particles from the femur. The pulmonary circulation trapped approximately 95% of particles reaching the lungs, limiting their access to peripheral arterial circulation. If the number of particles injected into the femur was increased, the number of particles leaving the femur increased at an even greater rate. These data suggest that (1) a particle can exit the femur without traveling through the soft tissue surrounding the femur; (2) most particles that reach the lung are retained; and (3) the injected bone acts as a sponge, retaining some particles and permitting the rest to enter the venous drainage.

  4. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs. PMID:24319010

  5. Change in temperature of subjacent bone during soft tissue laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, P; Cobb, C M; Wieliczka, D M; Glaros, A G; Morris, P J

    1998-11-01

    In tissues that closely approximate bone, sufficient heat may be transferred to the bone during laser surgery to cause damage and/or necrosis. To date, there have been few studies examining the temperatures elicited at the bone surface as a result of laser application to the overlying soft tissues. The purpose of this investigation was to determine, under in vitro conditions, temperature changes at the bone/soft tissue interface during laser ablation with CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers used with and without (w/wo) air/water coolant. Experimental specimens consisted of 5 mandibles from freshly sacrificed hogs; laser treatment sites were the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the molars and the lingual keratinized mucosa of the incisor region. CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers were used w/wo coolant at power settings of 4 to 8 W and 5 to 9 W, respectively. Temperature changes were measured with a copper constant thermocouple contained within a 21 gauge hypodermic needle. In comparing the lasers at comparable energy densities w/wo coolant, temperature increases at the bone/soft tissue interface ranged from 8.0 to 11.1 degrees C with the Nd:YAG and 1.4 to 2.1 degrees C with the CO2. Similarly, in comparing the times required for the interface to return to baseline temperature following removal of the laser, values ranged from approximately 143 to 205 and approximately 119 to 139 seconds for the Nd:YAG and CO2, respectively. Results from this study suggest that, at energy densities equal or above those reported here, the increase in temperature at the bone surface as a result of periodontal soft tissue surgery with the Nd:YAG laser could be damaging, especially if the exposure is prolonged. PMID:9848538

  6. SOFT-MI: a novel microfabrication technique integrating soft-lithography and molecular imprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Vozzi, Giovanni; Morelli, Ilaria; Vozzi, Federico; Andreoni, Chiara; Salsedo, Elisabetta; Morachioli, Annagiulia; Giusti, Paolo; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2010-08-01

    An innovative approach has been employed for the realization of bioactive scaffolds able to mimic the in vivo cellular microenvironment for tissue engineering applications. This method is based on the combination of molecular imprinting and soft-lithography technology to enhance cellular adhesion and to guide cell growth and proliferation due to presence of highly specific recognition sites of selected biomolecules on a well-defined polymeric microstructure. In this article polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) scaffolds have been realized by using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microstructured molds imprinted with FITC-albumin and TRITC-lectin. In addition gelatin, an adhesion protein, was employed for the molecular imprinting of polymeric scaffolds for cellular tests. The most innovative aspect of this research was the molecular imprinting of whole cells for the development of substrates able to enhance the cell adhesion processes. PMID:20564617

  7. Development and characterization of a novel hydrogel adhesive for soft tissue applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Lindsey Kennedy

    With laparoscopic and robotic surgical techniques advancing, the need for an injectable surgical adhesive is growing. To be effective, surgical adhesives for internal organs require bulk strength and compliance to avoid rips and tears, and adhesive strength to avoid leakage at the application site, while not hindering the natural healing process. Although a number of tissue adhesives and sealants approved by the FDA for surgical use are currently available, attaining a useful balance in all of these qualities has proven difficult, particularly when considering applications involving highly expandable tissue, such as bladder and lung. The long-term goal of this project is to develop a hydrogel-based tissue adhesive that provides proper mechanical properties to eliminate the need for sutures in various soft tissue applications. Tetronic (BASF), a 4-arm poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PPO-PEO) block copolymer, has been selected as the base material for the adhesive hydrogel system. Solutions of Tetronic T1107 can support reverse thermal gelation at physiological temperatures, which can be combined with covalent crosslinking to achieve a "tandem gelation" process making it ideal for use as a tissue adhesive. The objective of this doctoral thesis research is to improve the performance of the hydrogel based tissue adhesive developed previously by Cho and co-workers by applying a multi-functionalization of Tetronic. Specifically, this research aimed to improve bonding strength of Tetronic tissue adhesive using bi-functional modification, incorporate hemostatic function to the bi-functional Tetronic hydrogel, and evaluate the safety of bi-functional Tetronic tissue adhesive both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, we have developed a fast-curing, mechanically strong hemostatic tissue adhesive that can control blood loss in wet conditions during wound treatment applications (bladder, liver and muscle). Specifically, the bi-functional Tetronic adhesive (TAS) with a

  8. SIMULATION OF PLANAR SOFT TISSUES USING A STRUCTURAL CONSTITUTIVE MODEL: FINITE ELEMENT IMPLEMENTATION AND VALIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Sacks, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Computational implementation of physical and physiologically realistic constitutive models is critical for numerical simulation of soft biological tissues in a variety of biomedical applications. It is well established that the highly nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical behaviors of soft tissues are an emergent behavior of the underlying tissue microstructure. In the present study, we have implemented a structural constitutive model into a finite element framework specialized for membrane tissues. We noted that starting with a single element subjected to uniaxial tension, the non-fibrous tissue matrix must be present to prevent unrealistic tissue deformations. Flexural simulations were used to set the non-fibrous matrix modulus because fibers have little effects on tissue deformation under three-point bending. Multiple deformation modes were simulated, including strip biaxial, planar biaxial with two attachment methods, and membrane inflation. Detailed comparisons with experimental data were undertaken to insure faithful simulations of both the macro-level stress-strain insights into adaptations of the fiber architecture under stress, such as fiber reorientation and fiber recruitment. Results indicated a high degree of fidelity and demonstrated interesting microstructural adaptions to stress and the important role of the underlying tissue matrix. Moreover, we apparently resolve a discrepancy in our 1997 study (J Biomech. 1997 Jul;30(7):753–6) where we observed that under strip biaxial stretch the simulated fiber splay responses were not in good agreement with the experimental results, suggesting non-affine deformations may have occurred. However, by correctly accounting for the isotropic phase of the measured fiber splay, good agreement was obtained. While not the final word, these simulations suggest that affine kinematics for planar collagenous tissues is a reasonable assumption at the macro level. Simulation tools such as these are imperative in the design

  9. Phase-contrast Hounsfield units of fixated and non-fixated soft-tissue samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; et al

    2015-08-31

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissuemore » specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. In addition, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.« less

  10. Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for performing dynamic elastography of soft tissue samples. By sensing nanoscale displacements with optical coherence tomography, a chirped, modulated force is applied to acquire the mechanical spectrum of a tissue sample within a few seconds. This modulated force is applied via magnetic nanoparticles, named ‘nanotransducers’, which are diffused into the tissue, and which contribute negligible inertia to the soft tissue mechanical system. Using this novel system, we observed that excised tissues exhibit mechanical resonance modes which are well described by a linear damped harmonic oscillator. Results are validated by using cylindrical tissue phantoms of agarose in which resonant frequencies (30–400 Hz) are consistent with longitudinal modes and the sample boundary conditions. We furthermore show that the Young’s modulus can be computed from their measured resonance frequencies, analogous to resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for stiff material analysis. Using this new technique, named magnetomotive resonant acoustic spectroscopy (MRAS), we monitored the relative stiffening of an excised rat liver during a chemical fixation process. PMID:20124653

  11. Soft tissue differentiation using multiband signatures of high resolution ultrasonic transmission tomography.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Kim, Tae-Seong; Shin, Dae C; Do, Synho; Singh, Manbir; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we are interested in soft tissue differentiation by multiband images obtained from the High-Resolution Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography (HUTT) system using a spectral target detection method based on constrained energy minimization (CEM). We have developed a new tissue differentiation method (called "CEM filter bank") consisting of multiple CEM filters specially designed for detecting multiple types of tissues. Statistical inference on the output of the CEM filter bank is used to make a decision based on the maximum statistical significance rather than the magnitude of each CEM filter output. We test and validate this method through three-dimensional interphantom/intraphantom soft tissue classification where target profiles obtained from an arbitrary single slice are used for differentiation over multiple other tomographic slices. The performance of the proposed classifier is assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. We also apply our method to classify tiny structures inside a bovine kidney and sheep kidneys. Using the proposed method we can detect physical objects and biological tissues such as styrofoam balls, chicken tissue, calyces, and vessel-duct successfully. PMID:15754990

  12. Prediction of treatment outcome in soft tissue sarcoma based on radiologically defined habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhidzadeh, Hamidreza; Chaudhury, Baishali; Zhou, Mu; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert J.; Raghavan, Meera

    2015-03-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant tumors which develop from tissues like fat, muscle, nerves, fibrous tissue or blood vessels. They are challenging to physicians because of their relative infrequency and diverse outcomes, which have hindered development of new therapeutic agents. Additionally, assessing imaging response of these tumors to therapy is also difficult because of their heterogeneous appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this paper, we assessed standard of care MRI sequences performed before and after treatment using 36 patients with soft tissue sarcoma. Tumor tissue was identified by manually drawing a mask on contrast enhanced images. The Otsu segmentation method was applied to segment tumor tissue into low and high signal intensity regions on both T1 post-contrast and T2 without contrast images. This resulted in four distinctive subregions or "habitats." The features used to predict metastatic tumors and necrosis included the ratio of habitat size to whole tumor size and components of 2D intensity histograms. Individual cases were correctly classified as metastatic or non-metastatic disease with 80.55% accuracy and for necrosis ≥ 90 or necrosis <90 with 75.75% accuracy by using meta-classifiers which contained feature selectors and classifiers.

  13. An efficient technique for adjusting and maintaining specific hydration levels in soft biological tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Hsieh, Adam H

    2010-09-01

    Elucidating how mechanics is affected by hydration in soft biological tissues is critical for understanding the potential effects of diseases where tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) is altered. The ability to control ECM water content is necessary for studying hydration-dependent tissue mechanics and for minimizing confounding effects caused by differences in tissue water content among specimens. In this paper, we describe an approach to adjust and maintain water content using a two-stage hydration technique, in order to overcome unique challenges faced in mechanical testing of biological tissues. Bovine aortic tissue was selected to demonstrate the approach. A liquid phase approach using PEG solutions allowed for efficient initial adjustment of tissue hydration. This was followed by a vapor phase approach using a humidity chamber for maintaining stable water content for a defined test duration of 45 min. Incubation in PEG solution brought bovine aortic tissue samples to equilibrium water content in approximately 6 h, much more efficiently than using a humidity chamber alone. Characteristic relationships between tissue water content and PEG concentration as well as relative humidity were obtained. It was found that PEG concentrations ranging from 0 to 40% had an inverse relationship with tissue water content ranging from 80 to 380%, which corresponded to relative humidities between 53 and 99%. PMID:20678998

  14. Functionalizable hydrogel microparticles of tunable size and stiffness for soft-tissue filler applications

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ka Man Carmen; Li, Randolph H.; Chapman, Joseph W.; Trac, Eric M.; Kobler, James B.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Langer, Robert; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Particle size, stiffness and surface functionality are important in determining the injection site, safety and efficacy of injectable soft-tissue fillers. Methods to produce soft injectable biomaterials with controlled particle characteristics are therefore desirable. Here we report a method based on suspension photopolymerization and semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) to synthesize soft, functionalizable, spherical hydrogel microparticles (MP) of independently tunable size and stiffness. MP were prepared using acrylated forms of polyethylene glycol (PEG), gelatin and hyaluronic acid. Semi-IPN MP of PEG-diacrylate and PEG were used to study the effect of process parameters on particle characteristics. The process parameters were systematically varied to produce MP with size ranging from 115 to 515 μm and stiffness ranging from 190 to 1600 Pa. In vitro studies showed that the MP thus prepared were cytocompatible. The ratio and identity of the polymers used to make the semi-IPN MP were varied to control their stiffness and to introduce amine groups for potential functionalization. Slow-release polymeric particles loaded with Rhodamine or dexamethasone were incorporated in the MP as a proof-of-principle of drug incorporation and release from the MP. This work has implications in preparing injectable biomaterials of natural or synthetic polymers for applications as soft-tissue fillers. PMID:24561708

  15. Relationship of articular soft tissue contour and shape to the underlying eminence and slope profile in young adult temporomandibular joints.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, A G; Bibb, C A; Ding, X; Baldioceda, F

    1993-11-01

    This study examined whether the overall shape of the articular soft tissue overlying the posterior slope and articular eminence of the temporal bone could be predicted by the underlying osseous contour in a histologic model of 51 central sagittal sections of young adult temporomandibular joints. Articular soft tissue and bone contours were traced, and osseous landmarks identified on the basis of joint geometry. Soft tissue thickness measurements were made under low power light microscopy. Seven categories of articular soft tissue pattern were identified. The soft tissue uniformly followed the osseous contour in only one (14%). A progressive increase in soft tissue thickness from the middle of the posterior slope to the articular crest was the most common pattern (35%) but did not describe most of the sample that was more asymmetric. Pattern was poorly predicted by the shape and slope of the temporal bone outline or by dental factors that describe anterior guidance and did not relate to disk displacement. The articular soft tissue compensated for flatter eminence slopes and osseous irregularities and maintained an intact surface. This study has clinical implications for radiographic interpretation of disk space, condyle translation pathways, and the integrity of the functional articular surface. PMID:8247507

  16. Soft tissue trauma: a randomised controlled trial of the topical application of felbinac, a new NSAID.

    PubMed

    McLatchie, G R; McDonald, M; Lawrence, G F; Rogmans, D; Lisai, P; Hibberd, M

    1989-08-01

    Two hundred and thirty-one patients with acute soft tissue injuries were treated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study of felbinac (biphenylacetic acid) gel applied three times daily to the injured site. Those treated with felbinac had significantly greater improvement at Day 4 (p less than 0.001) and Day 7 (p less than 0.02) than those who received placebo. Patients' self-assessment diary cards confirmed superiority of the active treatment as early as Day 2 of the study. Local skin reactions were few (three per cent), mild and recovered spontaneously. Felbinac is an effective management for acute soft tissue injuries and because of its topical application may be safer than oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of these conditions. PMID:2696550

  17. Satisfying patient expectations with poly-L-lactic acid soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Vleggaar, Danny; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Lorenc, Z Paul

    2014-04-01

    Patient interest and physician use of soft tissue augmentation have increased significantly in recent years, especially among younger patients. A recent consumer survey conducted on behalf of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons found that the majority of respondents would rather have a facial injectable treatment than a surgical treatment. In another recent survey, consumers gave the highest overall satisfaction ratings to injectable filler treatments (92%), including poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), and injectable wrinkle relaxers (92%), with injectable fillers receiving the highest "extremely satisfied" rating (45%). Long-lasting benefit is a desirable attribute in soft tissue augmentation, making PLLA a favorable alternative for many patients. When considering the use of PLLA, clinicians should ensure that their patients understand its benefit profile, and that these benefits are consistent with the patients' cosmetic goals. The implementation of the latest recommendations on methodological approaches in the use of PLLA will minimize the occurrence of adverse events, further enhancing patient satisfaction. PMID:24719077

  18. Liposomal Clodronate Treatment For Tumor Macrophage Depletion in Dogs with Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Guth, Amanda M.; Hafeman, Scott D.; Elmslie, Robyn E.; Dow, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased numbers of tumor-associated macrophages correlate with rapid tumor growth and metastasis in tumors. Thus, macrophage depletion has potential as a novel cancer therapy and positive responses have been reported in rodent tumor models. To investigate the effectiveness of this approach in dogs with cancer, we evaluated the effects of the macrophage depleting agent liposomal clodronate (LC) in dogs with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). To this end, we conducted a clinical trial of LC therapy in thirteen dogs with soft tissue sarcoma. Repeated LC administration was well tolerated clinically. Preliminary examination of tumor biopsy sets from 5 of the 13 dogs demonstrated that the density of CD11b+ macrophages was significantly decreased after LC treatment. Circulating concentrations of IL-8 were also significantly reduced. These preliminary studies are the first to suggest that LC can be used as a systemic macrophage-depleting agent in dogs to reduce numbers of tumor-associated macrophages. PMID:22540967

  19. Characterization of the pseudocapsule of soft-tissue sarcomas. An experimental study in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gitelis, S.; Thomas, R.; Templeton, A.; Schajowicz, F. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of preoperative radiation therapy on the pseudocapsule of experimental rat soft-tissue sarcomas has not been histologically evaluated in a controlled study. The irradiated animal showed marked thickening of the capsular structure surrounding the sarcoma. Everywhere morphologically distinct from the tumor, there was no evidence of tumor invasion into or through this capsular structure. The membrane was consistently thicker and more hyalinized than in the control animals. The nonirradiated animals showed a minimal pseudocapsular structure with a characteristic tumor penetration. Irradiation produced distinct histologic changes in the pseudocapsule. Although assumed on the basis of clinical observations alone, irradiation-induced pseudocapsule has not previously been demonstrated in an experimental model of soft-tissue sarcoma.

  20. S-100 protein in soft-tissue tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, K.; Wollmann, R.; Jerkovic, M.

    1982-01-01

    In soft tissues outside the central nervous system, S-100 protein is found normally only in Schwann cells. Using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical method S-100 was also found in tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes, including neurofibromas, neurilemomas, granular cell myoblastomas, cutaneous nevi, and malignant melanomas. S-100 was not detected in malignant Schwannomas, neuroblastomas, oat cell carcinomas, medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, paragangliomas, or meningiomas. S-100 was also absent from neoplasms of soft tissues not usually considered to arise from cells of neural crest origin. S-100 appears to be a useful marker for identifying neoplasms derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6278936

  1. Treatment of Calcaneal Fracture With Severe Soft Tissue Injury and Osteomyelitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Karns, Michael; Dailey, Steven K; Archdeacon, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in surgical technique have resulted in the ability to reconstruct lower extremity injuries that would have previously been treated by amputation. Currently, a paucity of data is available specifically addressing limb amputation versus reconstruction for calcaneal fractures with severe soft tissue compromise. Reconstruction leaves the patient with their native limb; however, multiple surgeries, infections, chronic pain, and a poor functional outcome are very real possibilities. We present the case of a complex calcaneal fracture complicated by soft tissue injury and osteomyelitis that highlights the importance of shared decision-making between patient and surgeon when considering reconstruction versus amputation. This case exemplifies the need for open communication concerning the risks and benefits of treatment modalities while simultaneously considering the patient's expectations and desired outcomes. PMID:25128313

  2. Soft-tissue facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men compared to normal men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Li, Junfang; He, Hong; Huang, Na; Tang, Youchao; Wang, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men with those of reference men. Materials and Methods: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks were collected in 40 healthy reference men and in 40 “attractive” men, soft tissue facial angles, distances, areas, and volumes were computed and compared using analysis of variance. Results: When compared with reference men, attractive men shared several similar facial characteristics: relatively large forehead, reduced mandible, and rounded face. They had a more acute soft tissue profile, an increased upper facial width and middle facial depth, larger mouth, and more voluminous lips than reference men. Conclusions: Attractive men had several facial characteristics suggesting babyness. Nonetheless, each group of men was characterized by a different development of these features. Esthetic reference values can be a useful tool for clinicians, but should always consider the characteristics of individual faces. PMID:26221357

  3. Avulsion fracture of the anterior inferior iliac spine with abundant reactive ossification in the soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Resnick, J M; Carrasco, C H; Edeiken, J; Yasko, A W; Ro, J Y; Ayala, A G

    1996-08-01

    Patients who have sustained an avulsion fracture and present clinically during the healing phase of the injury may manifest a mass that clinically and radiographically mimics a malignant neoplasm. A 15-year-old male soccer goalkeeper presented with a large ossified mass in the soft tissues overlying the right hip 6 months after experiencing a popping sensation in his hip joint during a game. Although an osteosarcoma was suspected clinically and radiographically, a Tru-Cut needle biopsy of the lesion revealed reactive bone formation. Correlation of the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings indicated an avulsion fracture of the anterior inferior iliac spine with abundant reactive ossification in the soft tissues. The healing phase of an avulsion fracture may clinically and radiographically be mistaken for neoplasia. In such cases, a Tru-Cut needle biopsy may reveal the reactive nature of the process. PMID:8865496

  4. Latissimus dorsi pedicle flap for coverage of soft tissue defects about the elbow.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, M; Sharpe, F; Thommen, V D; Itamura, J M; Schnall, S B

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen consecutive patients who were treated with a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap for complex soft tissue defects about the elbow were reviewed. The average defect size was 100 cm2. Thirteen of the 16 patients achieved stable wound healing with a single procedure. Three patients had partial necrosis of the latissimus and required additional coverage procedures. We recommend that the latissimus dorsi flap should not be routinely used to cover defects more than 8 cm distal to the olecranon. The flap should be closely monitored in the first 48 hours, drains should be routinely used at the recipient and donor sites, and the elbow should be maintained in an extended position for the first 5 days after the procedure. The latissimus dorsi flap may also have a prophylactic role in selected patients with compromised soft tissue coverage about the elbow. The pedicled latissimus flap can be performed under loupe magnification and requires no microsurgical skills or equipment. PMID:10633903

  5. Solitary fibrous tumour of the cheek: An unusual presentation of a rare soft tissue tumour

    PubMed Central

    Jones, JL; Jones, AV; Drage, NA; Bhatia, S; Hourihan, MD

    2014-01-01

    This case report discusses the unusual presentation and ultrasound features of a solitary fibrous tumour of the face. Solitary fibrous tumour is an uncommon form of soft tissue tumour which, although seen predominantly within the lung pleura, can occur throughout the body in sites such as the peritoneum, mediastinum and head and neck. Ultrasound is an excellent imaging modality in the assessment of soft tissue masses in the head and neck. The ultrasound features demonstrated by this example of solitary fibrous tumour are reviewed. This report also highlights that ultrasound alone is ultimately limited in reaching a definitive diagnosis. The roles of other investigations such as ultrasound-guided biopsy and cross-sectional imaging are discussed.

  6. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst in a 10-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    HAO, YONGQIANG; WANG, LEI; YAN, MENGNING; JIN, FANGCHUN; GE, SHENGFANG; DAI, KERONG

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with a soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst (STABC) located in the posterior aspect of the left shoulder. Conventional radiography revealed an oblong mass with a calcified rim. On the computed tomography scan, the lesion appeared to have a non-uniform intralesional density with an incomplete rim. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multi-cavity lesion with fluid-fluid levels. Following pathological examination, the lesion was diagnosed as a STABC. This may be only the twentieth reported case in the English literature of this extremely rare benign tumor occurring in soft tissue. Eight months after surgery the patient was assessed at our outpatient clinic and found to have excellent mobility of her left shoulder and no sign of recurrence. PMID:22740948

  7. Effect of surface texture by ion beam sputtering on implant biocompatibility and soft tissue attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives in this report were to use the ion beam sputtering technique to produce surface textures on polymers, metals, and ceramics. The morphology of the texture was altered by varying both the width and depth of the square pits which were formed by ion beam erosion. The width of the ribs separating the pits were defined by the mask used to produce the texture. The area of the surface containing pits varies as the width was changed. The biological parameters used to evaluate the biological response to the texture were: (1) fibrous capsule and inflammatory response in subcutaneous soft tissue; (2) strength of the mechanical attachment of the textured surface by the soft tissue; and (3) morphology of the epidermal layer interfacing the textured surface of percutaneous connectors. Because the sputter yield on teflon ribs was approximately an order of magnitude larger than any other material the majority of the measurements presented in the report were obtained with teflon.

  8. A Parapharyngeal Soft Tissue Chordoma Presenting with Synchronous Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis: An Unusual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Khurram, S A; Biswas, D; Fernando, M

    2016-09-01

    A 63 year old male presented with a three month history of dysphagia, neck swelling and an oropharyngeal swelling on examination. Initial fine needle aspiration cytology and magnetic resonance imaging (done at a peripheral hospital) suggested a salivary gland neoplasm with lymph node metastasis. An infra-temporal approach was employed to excise the tumour mass and a modified radical neck dissection undertaken to remove the cervical metastasis. Histopathological examination with immunohistochemistry confirmed this to be a soft tissue chordoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of an extra-axial soft tissue chordoma presenting with synchronous metastatic disease. Though rare, this adds to the list of differential diagnoses for complex parapharyngeal lesions. A multidisciplinary approach between head and neck surgery, histopathology, radiology and sarcoma teams is paramount for arriving at the correct diagnosis and to deliver optimal treatment. PMID:26984125

  9. Ultrasound-based transient elastography compared to magnetic resonance elastography in soft tissue-mimicking gels.

    PubMed

    Oudry, Jennifer; Vappou, Jonathan; Choquet, Philippe; Willinger, Rémy; Sandrin, Laurent; Constantinesco, André

    2009-11-21

    Ultrasound-based transient elastography (TE) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) are increasingly used methods for the clinical evaluation of soft tissue mechanical properties and their alteration under diseased conditions. This study proposes a comparison between magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and ultrasound-based transient elastography (TE). Both methods were tested on the same soft tissue-mimicking gels in a common frequency range in order to allow for direct quantitative comparison. For the four gels tested, relatively good agreement was found between the shear moduli measured by both methods, with an averaged relative difference of 23%. This study demonstrates that under the assumption of homogeneous media that are significantly more elastic than viscous, quantitative results obtained by both methods are comparable. PMID:19887718

  10. Soft tissue decomposition of submerged, dismembered pig limbs enclosed in plastic bags.

    PubMed

    Pakosh, Caitlin M; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    This study examines underwater soft tissue decomposition of dismembered pig limbs deposited in polyethylene plastic bags. The research evaluates the level of influence that disposal method has on underwater decomposition processes and details observations specific to this scenario. To our knowledge, no other study has yet investigated decomposing, dismembered, and enclosed remains in water environments. The total sample size consisted of 120 dismembered pig limbs, divided into a subsample of 30 pig limbs per recovery period (34 and 71 days) for each treatment. The two treatments simulated non-enclosed and plastic enclosed disposal methods in a water context. The remains were completely submerged in Lake Ontario for 34 and 71 days. In both recovery periods, the non-enclosed samples lost soft tissue to a significantly greater extent than their plastic enclosed counterparts. Disposal of remains in plastic bags therefore results in preservation, most likely caused by bacterial inhibition and reduced oxygen levels. PMID:19761471

  11. A Review of the Positive Influence of Crown Contours on Soft-Tissue Esthetics.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, Richard P; Pope, Bryan I; Capoferri, Daniele

    2015-05-01

    Successful crown restorations duplicate the natural tooth in hue, chroma, value, maverick colors, and surface texture. Equally important is the visual harmony of the facial and proximal soft-tissue contours, which requires the collaborative skills of the restorative dentist, periodontist, and dental technician. The treatment team must understand the biologic structures adjacent to natural dentition and dental implants. This report describes the potential for specifically designed restorative contours to dictate the optimal gingival profile for tooth-supported and implant-supported crowns. Showing several cases, the article explains how esthetic soft-tissue contours enhance the definitive crown restoration, highlights the importance of clinical evaluation of adjacent biologic structures, and discusses keys to predicting when the proximal papilla has the potential to return to a favorable height and shape. PMID:26053638

  12. Observation on 42 cases of inflammation of soft tissue treated by nitrogen molecular laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-mei; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Wen-yu

    1993-03-01

    This article reports a satisfactory result through the observation of 42 cases of soft tissue inflammation treated by nitrogen molecular laser including 22 cases that failed under treatment of antibiotic and ultraviolet ray. Of the 42 cases reviewed, 34 patients recovered. The average of recovery days was 13.8 days; 8 patients made obvious progress in recovering. Compared with the therapeutic results of ultraviolet ray, nitrogen molecular laser could get the same results with ultraviolet ray in an acute stage of inflammation, and it could shorten the course of disease and raise the cure rate for chronic soft tissue inflammation and delay in wound healing. The following is a brief introduction of the comparison between nitrogen molecular laser and the antibiotic and ultraviolet ray.

  13. Salvage of replanted upper extremities with major soft-tissue complications.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C

    2007-01-01

    Soft-tissue complications in the replantation wound, either septic or non-septic, are the main cause of failure in major extremity replantations. In the presence of necrosis or infection, vascular errosion or thrombosis readily develops and can lead to limb loss. Very aggressive surgical treatment has been recommended to salvage the replanted limb in these highly unstable clinical situations. Over a 10-year period, 423 amputated parts were replanted, 56 of which were replants proximal to the wrist. The experience of the author in treating 11 cases of critical soft-tissue necrosis (four septic and seven non-septic) after major replantation of the upper extremity with aggressive debridement and flap coverage, is reported. All flaps and limbs survived. PMID:17478136

  14. Primary extrahepatic hydatid cyst of the soft tissue: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hydatid disease of the soft tissue is an exceedingly uncommon site to be affected by the tapeworm Echinococcus. The presentation is often vague and misleading. The diagnostic armamentarium has to be supplemented by a meticulously taken history and clinical examination. Case presentation The present case report describes a 33-year-old Saudi male with a painless swelling in the right buttock which turned out to be a primary hydatid disease of the soft tissue. The lump was successfully excised surgically and the patient had an uneventful discharge. Conclusion Surgical excision of the extrahepatic hydatid disease remains the mainstay of treatment; although medical treatment is available for the recurrent and disseminated disease. PMID:23181425

  15. Benign soft-tissue lesions of the fingers: radiopathological correlation and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Oca Pernas, Roque; Prada González, Raquel; Santos Armentia, Eloísa; Hormaza Aguirre, Nerea; Tardáguila de la Fuente, Gonzalo; Trinidad López, Carmen; Delgado Sánchez-Gracián, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Soft-tissue lesions of the fingers are commonly found in daily clinical practice. A wide range of tumors and pseudotumors have been described in this location, and the majority of them are benign. Ganglion cysts are the most common entity, and the localized type of tenosynovial giant cell tumors are the most frequent solid condition. Both may be easily recognized owing to their typical clinical and radiological characteristics. However, categorization of the spectrum of soft-tissue lesions of the fingers remains limited, despite imaging development, and many patients undergo surgery before radiological or histological diagnosis. Clinical history, radiographic features, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance patterns may help in obtaining the correct diagnosis or reducing the list of differential diagnoses. Radiologists should be familiar with imaging findings so that they can determine the size, extension, and affected neighboring anatomical structures, and provide information that allows adequate presurgical counseling. PMID:25367671

  16. Bioplastique: a new textured copolymer microparticle promises permanence in soft-tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Ersek, R A; Beisang, A A

    1991-04-01

    Migration, absorption, or toxicity of prosthetic materials has always plagued the plastic surgeon attempting to ameliorate soft-tissue deficiencies and other contour abnormalities. Our previous work to develop textured-surface breast prostheses has led to the development of micronized, inert, biphasic copolymer particles that neither migrate nor become absorbed by the body. These particles are textured, of critical dimension, and, when mixed with a bioexcretable gel vehicle, can be implanted using a special blunt-tipped cannula. Our experimentation in rabbit ears has shown that the bioexcretable gel component is rapidly phagocytized and is replaced by fibrin-like matrix within 3 days. The fibrin is then replaced by host collagen that gradually converts into a fibrotic encasement around each texturized particle. Clinical use of the substance in a variety of soft-tissue deficiencies has been generally effective, with only a few complications, when followed for 1 year. PMID:2008467

  17. Motion Estimation Using the Firefly Algorithm in Ultrasonic Image Sequence of Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chih-Feng; Horng, Ming-Huwi; Chen, Yu-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic image sequence of the soft tissue is widely used in disease diagnosis; however, the speckle noises usually influenced the image quality. These images usually have a low signal-to-noise ratio presentation. The phenomenon gives rise to traditional motion estimation algorithms that are not suitable to measure the motion vectors. In this paper, a new motion estimation algorithm is developed for assessing the velocity field of soft tissue in a sequence of ultrasonic B-mode images. The proposed iterative firefly algorithm (IFA) searches for few candidate points to obtain the optimal motion vector, and then compares it to the traditional iterative full search algorithm (IFSA) via a series of experiments of in vivo ultrasonic image sequences. The experimental results show that the IFA can assess the vector with better efficiency and almost equal estimation quality compared to the traditional IFSA method. PMID:25873987

  18. Clinicopathological Profile of Benign Soft Tissue Tumours: A Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chandak, Shruti; Ranjan, Amar; Patel, Mehul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of soft tissue tumours, especially the frequency of benign tumours relative to malignant ones, is nearly impossible to determine accurately. Benign soft tissue tumours outnumber malignant tumours by a wide margin. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to look into the clinicopathological profile of benign soft tissue tumour in terms of hospital incidence of age, sex, site distribution and comparison of histological types of benign soft tissue tumours with other similar studies. Materials and Methods: The operated specimens or biopsy material of benign soft tissue tumours received from January, 2010 to July, 2010 in the Department of Histopathology of our hospital, were studied in detail. Age and sex incidence, site of lesion, clinical features, gross and microscopic appearance were carefully studied. Results: In our study, most common benign soft tissue tumour was lipoma (50.8%) followed by hemangioma (17.5%) which in turn was followed by neurofibroma, angiofibroma & schwannoma. Most common age group for benign soft tissue tumour were 31-40y (27.5%) followed by 21-30y (22.5%). Overall a male predominance was seen with 60.83% in males. The most common site of occurrence of benign soft tissue tumour overall was found to be trunk (25%), followed by upper extremities (21.7%), lower extremities (17.5%) and nose and nasopharynx (10.8%) in that order. Conclusion: With our study, we were able to reassess the clinical profile of soft tissue tumours and their different types with respect to age, sex, site distribution. PMID:25478344

  19. Characteristics of an actuator-driven pulsed water jet generator to dissecting soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Seto, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports characteristics of an actuator-driven pulsed water jet generator applied, in particular, to dissect soft tissues. Results of experiments, by making use of high speed recording of optical visualization and varying nozzle diameter, actuator time interval, and their effects on dissection performance are presented. Jet penetration characteristics are compared with continuous water jet and hence potential assessment of pulsed water jets to clinical applications is performed. PMID:21639536

  20. [Diagnostic imaging and visualization of radiation treatment effects in soft tissue sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Berger, F; Reiser, M F; Graser, A

    2012-03-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare malignant neoplasms accounting for only 1% of malignant tumors in adults. Complete surgical resection of tumors is the key to therapeutic success. Indications for adjuvant radiation therapy vary according to the lesion grade. Comprehensive diagnostic imaging significantly contributes to successful preoperative planning procedures. Besides morphological imaging, functional imaging strategies will have an increasing impact on individual risk assessment and contribute to optimized, non-invasive treatment response monitoring. PMID:22395900